Sample records for chamber ovens

  1. Study and Application of Sealing Material for Coke Oven Chamber

    GAN Feifang; TAI Li


    A kind of dry refractory sealing material has been developed to repair the fine cracks in coke oven chamber. With silica sand as the main raw material, the sealing material is blown into coke oven chamber by compressed air while being applied, and bonded to brick surface or filled in fine cracks of chamber under right pressure. The physical properties of the material are similar to those of silica bricks during its application. So it can be adapted to conditions of coke oven and has good service life. The study and application results of the sealing material are described in this paper.

  2. Damage Diagnosis for High Temperature Coke-oven Chamber Walls

    Sugiura, Masato; Sakaida, Michitaka; Fujikake, Yohichi; Irie, Keisuke

    Metallurgical coke is needed as reducing reagent and energy source in blast furnaces. Most of coke ovens in Japan have been working over 30 years and have become gradually decrepit. A coke oven consists of many coking chambers, and each chamber is 6 m high, 16 m long and 0.4m wide. Uneven damage at the chamber-wall surface such as brick erosion and carbon deposition disturbs production because the coke is pushed horizontally when discharged from the chamber. To diagnose the chamber wall which is constantly sustained at a high temperature, we have developed a water-cooling heat-resistance probe. Line scan cameras mounted in the probe obtain thermal images of the entire chamber-wall surfaces with high resolution. In addition, to measure topographical information of the wall, a laser light-section method combined with line-scan-camera imaging has been considered. It is emphasized that the diagnosis probe works under enormously severe conditions, such as at a temperature of over 1000°C and inside a width of only 0.4m. Clarifying the appearance of chamber-wall damages in operating aged coke ovens, we proposed the index relating unevenness of a chamber-wall surface to pushing load. The index is utilized for the guidance enabling effective repairs of damaged oven walls.

  3. Development of a simulation model of a coke oven combustion chamber

    Takashima, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Yabuki, K.; Kaburagi, K.


    A simulation model for calculating the vertical temperature distribution in a coke oven combustion chamber has been developed. The model is based on experiments using a model combustion chamber to establish the degree of progress of combustion. The results of these experiments indicated that the vertical extent of the combustion chamber should be subdivided and a heat balance equation drawn up for each subdivision. The authors have used the resulting model to study the effects of load factor, fuel heat release value, configuration of burner port, etc., on vertical temperature distribution in a combustion chamber.

  4. Measurement of coke oven combustion chamber temperature distribution and operational analysis

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Katayama, A.; Okui, N.; Takase, S.


    Measurements of temperature distribution at the walls of a coke oven combustion chamber have been made under a variety of operating conditions using specially developed apparatus incorporating a radiation thermometer. Analysis of the relation between the measured temperature distributions and the quality of the product coke has yielded the following conclusions. 1) Firstly, it was confirmed that the temperature sensing probe used is an extremely effective means of measuring combustion chamber wall temperatures. The probe comprises a water-cooled, triple tube into which the radiation thermometer is fitted. 2) A qualitative relation holds between operating conditions and wall temperature distribution in the vertical direction. In other words, a guide to the improvement of temperature distribution has been obtained. 3) The quality of coke in the upper part of the oven tends to be poorer in coke ovens with single-stage burners. It was shown that a basic level of coke quality can be guaranteed by controlling the temperature in the upper oven. 8 references.

  5. Apparatus for improving the flow of gases to a combustion chamber of a coke oven or the like

    Struck, C.H.; Schumacher, R.


    A heating flue for a coke oven includes a flow plate to replace the base in the heating flue. The thickness of the flow plate is greater than the thickness of the flue base and disposed above a chamber which is divided into two halves in a gas-tight manner by a central web of refractory material. Each chamber communicates with ducts that feed preheated air from regenerators during rich-gas firing and feed preheated air and lean gas during firing with lean gas. The height of the chamber to the thickness of the flow plate is a ratio within 0.3 to 0.7, preferably 0.5. The flow plate has a plurality of bores each with a cross-sectional area which, when compared with the cross-sectional area of the plate, forms a ratio of between 20 and 200, preferably 30 to 60. The diameter of a cylindrical bore is between 10 and 60 millimeters, preferably 20 and 50 millimeters.

  6. Mini-PROven. Reduced emissions from small and medium-size coke ovens thanks to single-chamber pressure control; Mini-PROven. Emissionsreduzierung an kleinen und mittleren Koksoefen mit einer Einzelkammerdruckregelung

    Huhn, Friedrich; Krebber, Frank; Kuehn-Gajdzik, Joanna; Ueberschaer, Kerstin [ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany). Coke Plant Technologies Div.


    For environment and occupational health reasons it is becoming increasingly important for coke plants to be operated with the lowest possible level of emissions. In the past, changing pressure conditions in each individual oven, with particularly high values at the beginning of the coking period, often resulted in considerable emissions at the oven closures. To prevent this happening on modern large-scale ovens, ThyssenKrupp Uhde developed the PROven trademark (Pressure Regulated Oven), a single-chamber pressure control system which regulates the pressure in the individual coke chambers down to a constantly low level. In the meantime, after many years of successful service, the system has been upgraded in both its design and process engineering. The result is Mini-PROven, which in future can also be retro-fitted to old small and medium-size coke oven batteries in the interest of better environmental protection. (orig.)

  7. Repair of the bottom bricks of 6 m coke oven coking chamber%6m焦炉炭化室底部砖的修补

    蒋忠平; 朱婷婷


    This paper introduces a method for overall repair of the bottom bricks of coking chamber, and proposes a control plan for temperature management during repairing. Practical production shows that the repaired coking chamber has similar indexes with other coking chambers, and from which coke can be pushed out easily. Therefore, the risk of high temperature radiation to human body is reduced and the service life of coke oven is prolonged.%介绍了对炭化室底部砖进行整体修补的方法,并对期间的温度管理提出了控制方案,生产实践表明,该炭化室推焦正常,各方面指标与其他炭化室无明显差异,降低了高温辐射对人体的伤害,延长了焦炉的使用寿命。

  8. System for improving the flow of gases to a combustion chamber of a coke oven or the like

    Struck, C.H.; Schumacher, R.


    A heating flue for a coke oven includes a wedge-shaped refractory brick having at least one oblique surface and vertical cylindrical bores when the brick is inserted into the vertical portion of a duct at the bottom of the heating flue. This part of the duct has an increased diameter to support the brick so that the vertical sides abut the inner duct walls and the bottom oblique surface extends toward the mouth of an obliquely-rising portion of the duct. The sum of the cross-sectional areas of the cylindrical bores in the brick is from 0.75 to 1.5 times the flow cross section of the obliquely-rising duct portion. The cross-sectional area of the top of a wedge-shaped brick which is coplanar with the flue base is in a range of between 20 and 200 with the cross section of the cylindrical bore in the brick. The diameter of the bore is between 10 and 60 millimeters. A ratio of 0.3 to 1.5 is formed between an acute angle between the oblique bottom surface and the horizontal and an angle between the obliquely-rising duct portion and the horizontal. The top surface of the brick may also be oblique and parallel with the bottom surface whereby the brick has the shape of a rhomboid.

  9. Coke Oven Facing New Century——Modularized Single Chamber System%面向新世纪的焦炉——模块化的单室焦炉



    模块化的单室炉系统能实现焦炉的超大型化和高效化并能实现预热煤炼焦,是一项值得关注的炼焦新技术。%Modularized Single Chamber System (SCS) is the new coking technology which makes the capacity of oven super- large and efficiency super-high and also realizes coking by using of preheated coal.

  10. Microwave Ovens

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Exporting Electronic Products More in Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Reducing Exposure: Hands-free ...

  11. Study of coke oven combustion control

    Nakagawa, F.; Ono, H.; Ariyoshi, K.; Kasaoka, H.; Ichinomiya, M.


    Gas flow and combustion in the flues of a Carl Still-type coke oven battery (employing natural draft) can be controlled by focussing on combustion control for a single oven and applying an equation for steady gas flow to all the gas passages in the combustion chambers. This effectively corrects the oven temperature distribution. The usefulness of this control technique has been confirmed, and a large reduction in coking heat consumption has been achieved. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  12. 淮钢套筒窑下烧嘴掺烧焦炉煤气改造%Modification of mixed combustion of coke oven gas for lower combustion chamber in the annular shaft kiln of Huaisteel



    The influence of lime calcinations effected by decreasing value converter gas was analyzed . A new scheme mixing coke oven gas in lower combustion chamber was proposed .And the feasibility of the scheme was analyzed .According to the design requirements , a new type of gas burner was de-signed.Finally the economical efficiency of this scheme was analyzed , which could be make sure the modification scheme was feasible .%分析了煤气热值下降对石灰煅烧造成的影响,提出下燃烧室掺烧焦炉煤气方案,并对该方案进行了可行性分析,根据方案要求设计了一种新型燃气烧嘴,最后对整个方案的经济性进行了分析,保证了该改造方案无论从技术上还是经济上都能够满足要求。

  13. Automated combustion control of individual coke oven

    Sumiso, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Yamate, Yoshitomo; Kawaguchi, Yasuhiro (Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan)


    NKK successfully developed an automated computerized combustion control system for coke oven for the first time in 1973. As the final stage of the development, an automated combustion control system for individual coke oven was completed and put to operation in July, 1988. The history of the development, method of combustion control and result of the operation are reported. In the earlier days, the automatic combustion control was made for a group of ovens, and 'combustion control of individual oven' was made by operators. Time series variation of flue temperatures of each oven is assumed to be the heat transfer from the combustion chamber to the carbonization chember which is treated as a function of assumed carbonization temperature, and expressed by a numerical model. The calculated target agreed well with the measured flue temperature. Temperature deviation for each flue is calculated every 2 hours, the degree of change is calculated, and the opening of the corresponding gas cock is automatically adjusted. The heat consumption showed a rapid decrease. The variation of coke strength decreased by 0.1 %, contributing very much for the reduction of coal cost for coke making. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of coke oven combustion control technology (II): analysis of coke oven operation

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Katayama, A.; Takase, S.


    Following on from an earlier report continuous measurements were carried out in an operating oven to establish when coking in the upper coke oven chamber was completed. The results of this operational analysis are reported. Accounts are also given of the measures adopted, on the basis of these results, to reduce the variations in coke quality. These measures, which constitute a combustion control system, include using a carbonization model to calculate the correct temperature distribution and then adjusting the burner ports accordingly. 1 reference.

  15. Simulation of transport phenomena in coke oven with staging combustion

    A three-dimensional transient mathematical model was developed for coupled coking chamber and staging combustion chamber in large-capacity coke ovens, to describe the flow–combustion–thermo behavior. The model was solved numerically using CFX CFD package and was validated by the central temperature evolution of coke bed. The fields of temperature, fluid flow and combustible gas concentration were analyzed, with special reference to the temperature difference of coke bed and NO concentration of exhaust. The results show that staging combustion plays an important role in improving temperature uniformity of the coke bed and reducing NO concentration of exhaust, especially for the large-capacity coke oven. It is beneficial for production optimization to decrease the gas mass flow rate at the bottom inlet while increase the rate at the upper inlet in the combustion chamber. In addition, it turns out that some measures such as coal preheating, adjustment of moisture content or/and coal densification may be used to improve the coke production efficiency. It is expected the developed model and relevant data in the present research will be beneficial to realize large-scale coke oven with a higher energy efficiency and lower emission. -- Highlights: • The application of staging combustion in coke ovens and its effects are analyzed. • A 3D model is proposed to describe flow–combustion–thermo behaviors in coke oven. • Optimizing operation parameters in full-scale coke oven are studied

  16. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.


    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  17. Development of a thermometer for coke oven combustion control

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Sakaguchi, Y.


    Regarding coke oven combustion control systems, explanations are given of the automatic control of an entire oven battery, and of the individual adjustments that can be made for each coking chamber. Secondly, various aspects of the development of a thermometer for use with such systems are reported, including the choice of oven temperature measuring method, the selection of a suitable metal protecting tube (based on the results of tests of thermocouple protecting tubes in an operating oven), the causes of the deterioration of platinum thermocouples, and the results of various improvements to conventional platinum thermocouples. Finally, an explanation is given of the final forms of the new thermometer, which has a triple protection tube construction. 6 references.


    S. H. Sengar


    Full Text Available Dual purpose solar oven (DPSO was designed and constructed. It observed that by using the new design of solar oven, both function of cooking and drying were possible for meeting the requirement of a family. The maximum stagnation temperature of 119°C and water temperature of 93.25°C were obtained in winter in DPSO while using as cooker. The calculated values of figure of merit F in DPSO was 0.119 and the time duration 1 for raising water temperature from 60 C to 90°C in hot box was 120 min. Cooking trials have also been conducted 0.5 kg of rice in 1 kg of water and 0.250 Kg of green gram split washed in one and half hrs in winter while it took about one hour in summer. The maximum temperature of 58 °C was recorded at 14:00 hrs of the day at level of tray no.2 when used as dryer. The time required to dry maize on different trays upto average moisture content 7.13 %( w.w. for winter and 5.43 %( w.w. for summer (w.w.was 420 minute and 360 minute respectively. The total cost of solar oven was worked out to be Rs(.2,715. Its pay back period varied between 1.3 to 1.86 years depending upon fuel it replaced.

  19. Development of coke oven combustion control technology (I): combustion characteristics of coke in the vertical direction

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Katayama, A.; Takase, S.; Okui, N.


    Measurements of the temperature distribution in a coking chamber and sampling plus analysis of the product coke have confirmed that temperature fluctuations in the upper coking chamber of a single-stage burner type oven (such as a Koppers oven) have a large effect on the variations of coke quality. Control of such temperature fluctuations is therefore essential. A possible computerized combustion control system for improving temperature control is described. 2 references.

  20. Discrete transistor measuring and matching using a solid core oven

    Inkinen, M.; Mäkelä, K.; Vuorela, T.; Palovuori, K.


    This paper presents transistor measurements done at a constant temperature. The aim in this research was to develop a reliable and repeatable method for measuring and searching transistor pairs with similar parameters, as in certain applications it is advantageous to use transistors from the same production batch due to the significant variability in batches from different manufacturers. Transistor manufacturing methods are well established, but due to the large variability in tolerance, not even transistors from the same manufacturing batch have identical properties. Transistors' electrical properties are also strongly temperature-dependent. Therefore, when measuring transistor properties, the temperature must be kept constant. For the measurement process, a solid-core oven providing stable temperature was implemented. In the oven, the base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) and DC-current gain (β) of 32 transistors could be measured simultaneously. The oven's temperature was controlled with a programmable thermostat, which allowed accurate constant temperature operation. The oven is formed by a large metal block with an individual chamber for each transistor to be measured. Isolation of individual transistors and the highly thermally conductive metal core structure prevent thermal coupling between transistors. The oven enables repeatable measurements, and thus measurements between different batches are comparable. In this research study, the properties of over 5000 transistors were measured and the variance of the aforementioned properties was analyzed.

  1. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang


    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  2. Silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Wang Jing


    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,specification,test method,quality appraisal procedure,labeling,packing,transportation,storage and quality certification of silica brick for coke oven.

  3. Bread's oven and baking bread

    Kastelic, Katja


    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  4. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  5. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microwave ovens. 1030.10 Section 1030.10 Food and... HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR MICROWAVE AND RADIO FREQUENCY EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1030.10 Microwave ovens. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this standard are applicable to microwave ovens...

  6. 6m焦炉炉门砖减薄技术研究%Research on the oven door brick thinning technology of 6m coke oven



    Experiment was carried out to study the methods of thinning the existing oven door brick and reducing heat loss on the surface of oven door. The result shows that if the oven door brick is thinned by 80mm and installed with an additional new type high temperature resistant insulating plate,maintenance of oven door is easier, heat loss on the surface of oven door is less, effective volume of coking chamber is increased and consequently coke output is increased. The thinned brick can meet the requirement of oven door.%试验研究了现有型式的炉门砖如何减薄及降低炉门表面散失的热量,试验可知,炉门砖减薄80mm,同时增加新型耐高温隔热板,维修方便,可降低炉门散热造成的热量损失,增加炭化室有效容积,增加焦炭产量,完全能够满足焦炉炉门的需要.

  7. Student concepts of microwave ovens

    Kassebaum, Thomas; May, David; Aubrecht, Gordon


    Previous surveys and student interviews have revealed that students believe microwave ovens can be a source of microwave radiation, x radiation, and gamma radiation. We have probed student ideas in recent detailed interviews and find that students believe that at least some form of what physicists call electromagnetic radiation is emitted and that x and gamma radiation can make a person radioactive. We will discuss details of these interviews, comparing the results to what we learned in previous surveys.

  8. Solar oven for intertropical zones: Optogeometrical design

    In this paper, a novel design of a solar oven for the intertropical zones is presented. The oven box has seven faces instead of the six faces of most common designs reported in the literature, two of them are alternatively used as bases. This oven has four fixed mirrors to concentrate solar energy.The main advantage of this novel design is that the oven needs only four simple movements in order to obtain an adequate solar concentration throughout the year. This feature has been possible due to the optogeometrical design that is presented. A simple theoretical model of the oven concentration is developed. According to the model, the concentration achieved by the oven at noon is greater than 1.95 for all days of the year. In order to analyze the optical performance of the solar cooker, an experimental evaluation was conducted by using a scale model of the solar cooker and a heliodon

  9. "Zolotoi Oven" ishtshet svojego obladatelja / Valeri Kuznetsov

    Kuznetsov, Valeri


    Parima filmi auhinnale "Zolotoi Oven" võistlevad Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri"), Gennadi Sidorovi "Vanaeided" ("Staruhhi") ja Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer"

  10. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens

    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm-1 with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm-2. Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm-2. The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm-2, and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 μWcm-1 recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age. (authors)

  11. Basic study of the rate of combustion of carbon deposited in a coke oven

    Nagata, S.; Nishioka, K.; Takase, S.; Yamamoto, B.


    Using experimental apparatus, the authors have quantified the effect of O/sub 2/ concentration, gas flow velocity, temperature, etc. on the rate of combustion of samples of the carbon deposited on the walls of a coke oven. Such carbon deposits are one cause of difficulty in pushing the coke. The results obtained have enabled an equation for combustion rate to be formulated. Carbon combustion tests carried out in an empty coke oven chamber immediately after pushing the coke have confirmed the validity of this rate equation. 1 reference.

  12. One temperature model for effective ovens

    Tapia, Saul


    Most of the thermodynamic analysis of ovens are focused on efficiency, but they need to behaves under real-life conditions, then the effectiveness of the ovens plays a crucial role in their design. In this paper we present a thermodynamical model able to describe the temperature evolution in ovens, furnaces or kilns to harden, burn or dry different products and which provides a methodology to design these heating devices. We use the required temperature evolution for each product and process as main ingredient in the methodology and procedure to design ovens and we place in the right role the efficiency criteria. We use global energy balance equation for the oven under transient situation as the thermodynamic starting point for developing the model. Our approach is able to consider different configurations for these heating devices, or recirculating or open situations, etc.

  13. Operating experience with a zinc oven

    Clayburn, Nathan; Brunkow, Evan; Gay, Timothy


    A zinc oven has been constructed and tested. Atomic zinc emitted from this resistively heated oven is subsequently excited by a polarized electron beam in crossed-beam geometry. Light emitted in the decay of the (4s5s)3 S1 state to the (4s4p)3 PJ final state, where J = 0, 1, 2, is then detected by a photomultiplier tube for polarization analysis. The zinc oven apparatus and operating experience with the oven are described in detail. Measures to assure that the oven produces a stable, localized beam which does not adhere to essential components of the apparatus are addressed. Estimates of the zinc density are made. The importance of magnetic field control in the apparatus will be discussed. Funded by NSF PHY-1505794.

  14. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy.

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken


    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance. PMID:24432587

  15. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    Redmond, C K


    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mort...

  16. Automatic combustion control in coke oven plants; Controle automatico de combustao em baterias de coque

    Torres, Afonso E.; Bissoli, Aluizio R.; Clemente, Jose M.; Oliveira, Jorge M. de; Alves, Marcelo T.; Silva, Mauro R. da [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST), Serra, ES (Brazil)


    The Automatic Combustion Control of the three Coke Ovens Plants of CST had its first stage started in january 1996, when the Visual Inspection of the Coking End Point was replaced by the Automatic Detection with a Process Computer and thermocouples in the ascension pipes of the 147 ovens. Monitoring is performed in the operations of charging, leveling, discharging, guiding and moving of the 12 movable machines (charging car, discharging car, guide car and locomotive), and safe integrated functioning among these machines is done, using one Plc in each one. The data from each oven are transmitted to the Process Computer by radio waves. Based on temperatures reached by thermocouples installed in the combustion chambers of 10 walls in each coke oven plant, and the automatic detection of weight and moisture of the coal, the Process Computer performs the calculation of the Set Point of the temperature for each coke oven plant. The mathematical model in the Process Computer is responsible for this result and the value is sent to the Plc, in the operation room, in order to control the rate of combustible gas, The cooking time is controlled by this method and the results of coke production are in the target range. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Coke oven automatic combustion control system

    Shihara, Y.


    This article describes and discusses the development and application of an automatic combustion control system for coke ovens that has been used at the Yawata Works of the Nippon Steel Corporation, Japan. (In Japanese)

  18. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.


    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  19. Bread ovens in Northern Oretania

    García Huerta, Rosario


    Full Text Available This paper intends to bring to light an unusual type of domestic structure in the northern Oretania, namely the ovens used for the production of bread. The study of their distribution, as well as their dimensions and constructive features, indicates they are more complex structures, with collective or communal characters. At the same time, it gives us some knowledge of the internal organization of the main oritanian oppidas.

    Este artículo pretende dar a conocer un tipo de estructura doméstica poco habitual en la Oretania septentrional, como son los hornos destinados a la producción de pan. El análisis de su distribución, así como sus dimensiones y características constructivas, revela que se trata de estructuras más complejas, de carácter colectivo o comunal, lo que permite aproximarnos al conocimiento de la articulación interna de los principales oppida oretanos.

  20. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall

    Landreau, M.; Isler, D.; Gasser, A.; Blond, E.; Daniel, J.-L.


    International audience This work deals with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven battery operating conditions compatible with a long service life in terms of thermal and mechanical stresses. For this purpose a 3D thermomechanical model of a heating wall taking into account the assembly of bricks and joints was developed with PRISME Laboratory. To build an efficient and complete model, different parameters must be ta...

  1. spark chamber

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  2. spark chamber

    A few cosmic rays pass through your body every second of every day, no matter where you are. Look at the spark chamber to your right – every flash is the track made by a cosmic ray from outer space. The spark chamber is filled with a special gas mixture. Cosmic rays knock electrons out of the atoms in the gas. These electrons accelerate towards high voltage metal strips layered throughout the chamber, creating sparks like little bolts of lightning.

  3. Analysis of coal charge drying in a coke oven

    Postrzednik, S. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Techniki Cieplnej)


    Analyzes drying of coal mixtures charged to a coke oven and factors that influence drying. A mathematical model of coal gasification is used. Coal charge in a coke oven is dried layer by layer starting from the layer adjacent to coke oven walls. Moisture evaporated from a layer close to coke oven walls condenses in a layer more distant from coke oven walls (i.e. in the coke oven center). Formulae that describe moisture migration in a coke oven are derived and formulae that describe coal drying are evaluated. The following factors that influence drying are considered: moisture content in coal, initial coal temperature, condensation temperature, heating wall thickness, coke oven dimensions, final temperature of coking, average temperature in flue channels. Analyses show that 62.8% of coking time falls on drying and condensation. 6 refs.

  4. Generic methods for coke oven gas desulphurisation

    Wilfried Seyfferth; Rainer Dittmer; Holger Thielert [ThyssenKrupp EnCoke GmbH, Bochum (Germany)


    The presentation gives an overview of the most common desulphurisation processes suitable for coke oven gas. Dry oxidative processes mentioned include the iron oxide and the zinc oxide process; wet oxidative processes outlined are the Stretford, Perox, Takahax, Thylox, Fumaks and LoCat; and neutralizaiton or absorption/stripping processes described are the Sulfiban, CYCLASULF, VACASULF and Soda Lye scrubbing processes. 22 figs.


    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, trachea, kidney, and prostate. An import...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.


    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1910.1029 Section 1910.1029 Labor... Coke oven emissions. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to the control of employee exposure to coke oven emissions, except that this section shall not apply to working conditions with...

  7. Ussing Chamber

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.


    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are increa

  8. Wire Chamber


    Two wire chambers made originally for the R807 Experiment at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings. In 1986 they were used for the PS 201 experiment (Obelix Experiment) at LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The group of researchers from Turin, using the chambers at that time, changed the acquisition system using for the first time 8 bit (10 bit non linear) analog to digital conversion for incoming signals from the chambers. The acquisition system was controlled by 54 CPU and 80 digital signal processors. The power required for all the electronics was 40 kW. For the period, this system was one of the most powerful on-line apparatus in the world. The Obelix Experiment was closed in 1996. To find more about how a wire chamber works, see the description for object CERN-OBJ-DE-038.

  9. Vacuum chamber

    A detailed description is given of the vacuum chamber of the so-called experimental equipment DEMAS (double-arm-time-of-flight spectrometer) at the heavy ion accelerator U-400 at the JINR-Dubna. (author)

  10. Mortality in retired coke oven plant workers.

    Chau, N.; Bertrand, J P; Mur, J M; Figueredo, A; Patris, A.; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T


    A previous study on 536 retired coke oven plant workers in Lorraine Collieries (France) reported an excess of deaths from lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 251) compared with the French male population. Occupational exposures during working life were retraced for each subject, but the number of deaths during the observation period (1963-82) was small, and smoking habits were known only for dead subjects. In 1988, the cohort was re-examined (182 deaths occurred between 1963 and...

  11. Pilote oven instrumentation for sponge cake baking

    Douiri, Imen


    Baking of cereal products create physicochemical reactions in the dough creating the structure, the texture, the shape, the coulour and taste of the final product. An air convective electrical pilot oven was instrumented to control on-line the baking of a sponge cake product (700g) in a special mould: weight loss, internal temperature profile and surface temperature, internal pressure; Through a glass window in the isolated lateral side of the mould, images were taken to follow the product he...

  12. Pressure Analysis for LAVA-OVEN

    Cendana, Donna Q.


    The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) and the Oxygen Volatiles Extraction Node (OVEN) are subsystems included in the Regolith Environment Science, and Oxygen Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) payload bound for the Moon in 2019. This Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) has the objective of landing on a shadowed region of the Moons South Pole to collect data and determine whether the resources could be effectively used for space exploration systems. The quantification of the resources will help understand if it can adequately minimize materials carried from Earth by: providing life support, propellants, construction materials or energy supply to the payload or crew. This paper outlines the procedures done for the pressure analysis of the LAVA-OVEN (LOVEN) Integration Testing. The pressure analysis quantifies how much gases and water are present in the sample tested during the Engineering Testing Unit (ETU) phase of instrument development. Ultimately the purpose of these tests is to improve the estimate of the amount of water in each Lunar sample and reduce the time necessary for this estimate. The governing principle that was used for the analysis is the Ideal Gas Law, PV=nRT where P stands for pressure, V for volume, n for number of moles, R being the gas constant and T for temperature. We also estimate the errors involved in these measured and derived quantities since a key objective of the mission is to estimate the quantity of volatiles present in the lunar samples introduced into OVEN.

  13. wire chamber

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in coke oven workers

    Wu, M T; Mao, I F; Ho, C.K.; Wypij, D; Lu, P. L.; Smith, T. J.; Chen, M. L.; Christiani, D C


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation of individual occupational exposure to total particulates benzene soluble fraction (BSF) of ambient air with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations among coke oven workers in Taiwan. METHODS: 80 coke oven workers and 50 referents were monitored individually for the BSF of breathing zone air over three consecutive days. Exposures were categorised as high, medium, or low among coke oven workers based on exposure situations. The high exposure...

  15. Robert Chambers

    K. Biekart (Kees); D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractProfessor Robert Chambers is a Research Associate at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex (Brighton, UK), where he has been based for the last 40 years, including as Professorial Research Fellow. He became involved in the field of development management in the

  16. Laureatõ premii "Zolotoi Oven"


    Parima filmi auhinna "Zolotoi Oven" võitis Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri") sai parima režissööri ja parima stsenaristi auhinna (Aleksandr Mindadze), Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer" sai vaid muusikaauhinna (Sergei Shnurov). Parim meesnäitleja oli Viktor Suhhorukov ("Vaene, vaene Paul") ja naisnäitleja Maria Zvonarjeva A. Proshkini "Trios". A. Sokurovi "Isa ja poeg" sai vaid kunstnikuauhinna (Natalja Kotshergina). Inna Tshurikova sai kõrvalosa auhinna ("S: Govoruhhini "Blagoslovite zhenshtshinu")

  17. Combustion characteristics of coke oven. Developments of combustion control for coke oven - I

    Tamura, Y.


    This short article is a synopsis of a paper presented to the 106th Meeting of the ISIJ in October 1983. It reports the results of an investigation which showed the effect of flue temperature distribution on coke strength. The results indicate the necessity for controlling the flue top temperature for a single-stage burner coke oven such as the Koppers type.

  18. Ionization chamber

    An ionization chamber X-ray detector is described. It comprises a flat cathode sheet parallel to an anode which has a perforated insulating layer on its surface. An open grid, a thin perforated metal sheet is disposed on the insulating layer - the perforations of the layer and sheet are aligned. There is a detector gas and means for maintaining the grid at an electric potential between that of the anode and cathode and for measuring the current flow from the anode to the cathode. The grid shields the anode from the electric field produced by the positive ions which flow towards the cathode and this permits an independent measurement of the electron current flowing to the anode; even when the X-ray pulse length is not much shorter than the ion drift time. The recovery time of the ionization chamber is thus decreased by several orders of magnitude over previous chambers. The grid will normally be fixed to the anode and by shielding the anode from the cathode electric field, tends to eliminate capacitive microphone currents which would otherwise flow in the anode circuit. (U.K.)

  19. 76 FR 77020 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven...


    ... Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven Emissions ACTION... Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coke Oven Emissions,'' to the...: The purpose of Coke Oven Emissions Standard and its information collection requirements, codified...

  20. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)


    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129 Coke oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  2. Improvements to a coke oven combustion control system

    Kajikawa, S.; Nakano, K.; Natori, Y.; Hasebe, S.; Matsumoto, K.


    A computerized combustion control system was introduced at Nippon Kokan's Fukuyama No.5 coke oven battery in 1973. A system for determining oven temperature distributions has now been developed so that temperature control can be carried out with greater precision. The new system makes use of thermometers set up in the guide car cage.

  3. Variable effect of steam injection level on beef muscles: semitendinosus and biceps femoris cooked in convection-steam oven

    Marzena Zając


    Full Text Available Background. Combi ovens are used very often in restaurants to heat up food. According to the producers the equipment allows to cook meat portions which are more tender and flavoursome comparing to conventional cooking techniques. Materials and methods. Beef steaks from muscles semitendinosus and biceps femoris were cooked in convection-steam oven at three humidity levels: 10, 60 and 100%. Chemical composition, including total and insoluble collagen content and cook losses were analysed along with the texture and colour parameters. Results. M. biceps femoris was the hardest and the most chewy at 100% steam saturation level and hardness measured for m. semitendinosus was the lowest at 10% of vapour injection. Changing the steam conditions in the oven chamber did not affect the detectable colour differences of m. biceps femoris, but it was significant for m. semitendinosus. Applying 100% steam saturation caused higher cook losses and the increase of insolu- ble collagen fractions in both analysed muscles. Conclusions. The results are beneficial for caterers using steam-convection ovens in terms of providing evidence that the heating conditions should be applied individually depending on the muscle used. The ten- derness of m. semitendinosus muscle cooked at 10% steam saturation level was comparable to the tender- ness obtained for the same muscle aged for 10 days and cooked with 100% steam saturation. Steaks from m. biceps femoris muscle should be cooked with maximum 60% saturation level to obtain higher tenderness.

  4. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Emissions Produced by Microwave Ovens

    Ivan D. Vergara-Fuentes


    Full Text Available Public concern about leakage from microwave ovens is present from the beginning of its use when many people believed that the leakage was similar to atomic radiation and could result in serious health problems, including cancer. This paper presents the results of the evaluation of electromagnetic emissions produced by microwave ovens that are in the area of meals of the ITM campus Fraternidad and are used by students, teachers and workers to heat food. First, measurements were made at 5 cm from the ovens to identify the maximum values of leakage generated by the ovens. Subsequently, it was evaluated the electric field level in the surrounding tables to the ovens to find the levels to which people to frequent the area were exposed. The results show that the highest level found does not exceed the limits set by international standards (5 mW/cm2 and does not even reach 1% of this value.

  5. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens

    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa. (paper)

  6. A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens

    Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

  7. Chamber transport



    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  8. Effusive atomic oven nozzle design using an aligned microcapillary array

    Senaratne, Ruwan, E-mail:; Rajagopal, Shankari V.; Geiger, Zachary A.; Fujiwara, Kurt M.; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Weld, David M. [Department of Physics and California Institute for Quantum Emulation, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)


    We present a simple and inexpensive design for a multichannel effusive oven nozzle which provides improved atomic beam collimation and thus extended oven lifetimes. Using this design, we demonstrate an atomic lithium source suitable for trapped-atom experiments. At a nozzle temperature of 525 °C, the collimated atomic beam flux directly after the nozzle is 1.2 × 10{sup 14} atoms/s with a peak beam intensity greater than 5.0 × 10{sup 16} atoms/s/sr. This suggests an oven lifetime of several decades of continuous operation.

  9. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike


    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  10. Effusive Atomic Oven Nozzle Design Using a Microcapillary Array

    Senaratne, Ruwan; Geiger, Zachary A; Fujiwara, Kurt M; Lebedev, Vyacheslav; Weld, David M


    We present a simple and inexpensive design for a multichannel effusive oven nozzle which provides improved atomic beam collimation and thus extended oven lifetimes. Using this design we demonstrate an atomic lithium source suitable for trapped-atom experiments. At a nozzle temperature of 525$^{\\circ}$C the total atomic beam flux directly after the nozzle is $1.2 \\times 10^{14}$ atoms per second with a peak beam intensity greater than $5.0 \\times 10^{16}$ atoms per second per steradian. This suggests an oven lifetime of several centuries of continuous operation.

  11. Definition of rational modes of operation of baking ovens

    Ковальов, Олександр Володимирович


    The flue gas temperature  is one of the main variables that are most sensitive to changes in load in industrial ovens. This temperature in turn is associated with the loss of heat from the flue gases. The last value determines the change in fuel consumption, not directly related to the load. Therefore, the problem of determining a rational oven load is reduced mainly to establish the exact or approximate relation tf1=f(G).The authors is studied the work at alternating mode of ovens with recir...

  12. Development of coke oven combustion control technology (III). Development of a control system for coke oven combustion

    Ono, M.; Yamamura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Miyake, M.; Itoh, Y.; Yamashita, H.


    A 41 gate combustion control system has been developed at Sumitomo Chemicals' Kashima II - D coke oven battery as a means of stabilizing coke quality and reducing the amount of heat required for coking. The system has been operating smoothly since January 1983. Low level stability of oven temperature has been obtained and the variation in coking times among the ovens has been reduced. The coking heat requirement has been decreased by approximately 20 kcal/kg-coal. The control functions of the system and the control model upon which it is based are indicated, and control results are given.

  13. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, single-piece composite structures for NASA launch vehicles are currently very expensive or impossible to fabricate partly because of the capital (ovens,...

  14. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

  15. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  16. Temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking

    Zhang Qing; Shao Jia-Cun; Zhao Hang; Zhang Kai; Su Zhong-Di


    Baking treatment is one of the most important processes of cigarette production, which can significantly enhance quality of tobacco. Theoretical and numerical investigation on temperature distribution in a cigarette oven during baking was carried out. The finite volume method was used to simulate the flow field. The relationship between the uniformity of temperature field and impeller’s speed was given finally, which is helpful to optimize cigarette oven wi...

  17. Pengeringan Lidah Buaya (AloVera) Menggunakan Oven Gelombang Mikro (Microwave Oven)

    Edy Hartulistiyoso; Rokhani Hasbullah; Eka Priyana


    Aloe vera (Aloe vera) is known as a useful plant, both as food, cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. Due its high water content, Aloe vera should be processed immediately after harvest. This paper will discuss the drying of aloe vera using microwave oven. The drying process of 50 gr Aloe vera gel and rind using 80 Watts microwave power completed in 140 minutes to reach the final moisture content of 7% wet basis. The drying process in microwave drying shows similar process to that of conventiona...

  18. Development of Hot Water Solar Oven for Low Temperature Thermal Processes

    Segun R. BELLO


    Full Text Available The most useful form of the Hottel-Whiller-Bliss generalized performance equations for flat plate collector utilizing heat removal factor and loss coefficients is used to model a solar oven- water heating system for low thermal process application. The water heating system was designed, tested and evaluated with a daily collector efficiency of 51.82%, an average daily solar radiation of 689.23 (w/ºc per day and a useful gain by collector of 563.85 (w/ºc. Loss in collector is 116.39 (w/ºc and total average daily heat gain by water in collector is 292.26 (w/ºc. Average Daily storage heat capacity of 582.83 (KJ and the daily convected heat delivered to test chamber is 147.07 (KJ. The overall System efficiency of 25.24% was obtained.

  19. Periodic temperature changes in heat exchangers of a coke oven battery

    Postrzednik, S.


    This paper analyzes temperature distribution and temperature fluctuations in a heat exchanger of a coke oven battery type with three elements taking part in heat exchange: flue gases in flue channels, walls of a coke chamber and coal being heated in a coke chamber. The analysis is based on the assumption that thermal and physical properties of the heating walls are constant and do not change during coal heating, heat sources are present in coal being heated due to chemical reactions and evaporation of water, temperature fluctuations in the heating walls and coal are of a linear character in relation to thickness of the coal layer and wall thickness. Effects of periodic character of coking, duration of a coking cycle and energy consumption on the range of temperature fluctuatons in the heating walls are analyzed. Equations for calculating range of temperature changes as well as the minumum time for increasing coal temperature to the optimum level are derived. Equations are used for optimizing coke chamber design as well as heating systems for coke batteries. (3 refs.)

  20. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  1. Combustion device for the combustion of gases generated by charging the chambers of a coke oven

    Gregor, K.


    Compared to other types of the device, the proposed combustion device is said to be constructed relatively simple and to be reliable in operation. The device is characterized essentially by the fact that the mixing tube ends in an end burner, i.e. the end burner is designed as a cut end (at about 45/sup 0/) of the mixing tube, that the fuel supply is also designed as fuel supply tube ending in the mixing tube at an acute angle and by the fact that the burner tube is designed as a separate flame feed tube, and that the lanciform mixing tube projects into the burner tube.


    Zhancheng Guo; Huiqing Tang


    A computational fluid dynamic model is established for a coking process analysis of a coke oven using PHOENICS CFD package. The model simultaneously calculates the transient composition, temperatures of the gas and the solid phases, velocity of the gas phase and porosity and density of the semi-coke phase. Numerical simulation is illustrated in predicting the evolution of volatile gases, gas flow paths, profiles of density, porosity of the coke oven charge,profiles of temperatures of the coke oven gas and the semi-coke bed. On the basis of above modeling, the flow of coke oven gas (COG) blown from the bottom of the coke oven into the porous semi-coke bed is simulated to reveal whether or not and when the blown COG can uniformly flow through the porous semi-coke bed for the purpose of desulfurizing the semi-coke by recycling the COG. The simulation results show that the blown COG can uniformly flow through the semi-coke bed only after the temperature at the center of the semi-coke bed has risen to above 900 ℃.

  3. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; González Suárez, Víctor M.; Martín, Felipe Mateos; Lopera Ronda, Juan M.; Álvarez Antón, Juan C.


    Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C) in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on. PMID:25120161

  4. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Ricardo Mayo Bayón


    Full Text Available Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on.

  5. Measurements of nonionizing radiation emitted from microwave oven

    There is an increase in the usage of microwave oven which is used electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which believed to be harmful to human health. The measurements were taken at distance of range(0-100) cm from the microwave oven. The study concluded that the risk possibility of the radiation increases at high mode. We measured the power density, magnetic field and signal strength of microwave oven using the SPECTRAN high frequency (HF-6080) detector. The experimental results of power density were found to be (3.78-208000) nW/m2 and magnetic field is (0.001-0.744) mA/m. These values are less than the exposure limits recommended. (author)

  6. Development of low NOx combustion structure in coke oven

    Yoshida, S.; Takase, S.; Uchida, M.; Saji, T.; Koyama, H.; Yamamoto, M. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)


    One of the targets of the SCOPE21 process was to improve the productivity. To achieve high productivity, the process was applied the following items: (1) ultra super dense brick, (2) thin wall (70 mm), (3) hot coal charging, (4) medium temperature carbonization. As the heat flux for carbonization was needed about 2 times as much as a conventional coke oven, the combustion technologies to achieve high productivity were investigated by using the actual scale combustion test oven. The combustion conditions to achieve low NOx in the waste gas and uniform heating for carbonization were clarified. The coke oven of the pilot plant was designed based on these results. The combustion targets of the low NOx and uniform heating were achieved in the test operation.

  7. Operational test of micro-oven for 48Ca beam

    Ozeki, K.; Kageyama, T.; Kidera, M.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.


    In order to supply a high-intensity and stable 48Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we are conducting operational tests of a micro-oven. A mixture of CaO and Al powders is placed into the crucible of the micro-oven and heated to produce metallic calcium by a reductive reaction. The successful production of a calcium beam was confirmed. In addition, we reduced the material consumption rate by using a so-called "hot liner," and we enhanced the beam intensity by applying a negative voltage bias to the micro-oven, the effect of which is similar to the effect of a "biased disk."

  8. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)


    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers

    Wu, M T; Ho, C.K.; Huang, S.L.; Yeh, Y. F.; C. L. Liu; Mao, I F; Christiani, D C


    OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideove...

  10. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen


    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulate...... few adjustments are still needed in the batch oven setup, it is clear that the batch oven, with its continuous data collection and high degree of process control will be a very valuable tool in the future work with modelling of baking process and products.......A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...

  11. A solar oven for intertropical zones: Evaluation of the cooking process

    Hernandez-Luna, G.; Huelsz, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Priv. Xochicalco S/N. Col. Centro. Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)


    The construction and the evaluation of the cooking process of a solar oven prototype are presented, the optogeometrical design of this oven was optimized for the intertropical zone. The cooking tests demonstrated that the oven prototype, which needs only four simple movements throughout the year, is suitable to cook three basic Mexican meals: beans, nixtamal, and corncobs. The potential quantity of wood savings per year if this oven would be used to cook meals in a rural zone of Mexico is estimated. (author)

  12. Construction of an Inexpensive Copper Heat-Pipe Oven

    Grove, T. T.; Hockensmith, W. A.; Cheviron, N.; Grieser, W.; Dill, R.; Masters, M. F.


    We present a new, low-cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven that increases the practicality of this device in advanced undergraduate instructional labs. The construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly techniques employed are simple and require no machining. (Contains 1 footnote, 3…


    Coke oven emissions are known human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient,". and the evidence rom human studies is "S...

  14. Numerical and experimental characterization of a batch bread baking oven

    This study deals with the thermal characterization of an electrical static oven used for bread baking. The heating is provided by natural convection, infrared radiation and conduction with a cement slab. The paper describes a methodology to apprehend the heat flux which is applied to the products during baking. The oven was experimentally investigated and a finite element numerical model is established. The monitoring of temperatures at various points in the installation and of electrical power is carried out. Then, to characterize thermal exchanges around the bread during curing, thermal responses of a cylindrical sample is also measured. The numerical model made it possible to calculate the heat flux exchanges with the product, while separating the contributions of convection and radiation. The comparison of simulated responses with experimental data shows the relevance of the model. - Highlights: ► This study concerns the thermal characterization of an electric static oven used for bread baking. ► An original, experimental and numerical approach of thermal problem is proposed. ► Contributions by radiation and convection are separated. ► The goal is to provide boundary conditions for numerical models of bread baking. ► Results are encouraging to optimize energy consumption in industrial oven.


    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, and trachea, kidney, and prostate. An im...

  16. Oven Evaporates Isopropyl Alcohol Without Risk Of Explosion

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.


    Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.

  17. Pengeringan Lidah Buaya (AloVera Menggunakan Oven Gelombang Mikro (Microwave Oven

    Edy Hartulistiyoso


    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Aloe vera is known as a useful plant, both as food, cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. Due its high water content, Aloe vera should be processed immediately after harvest. This paper will discuss the drying of aloe vera using microwave oven. The drying process of 50 gr Aloe vera gel and rind using 80 Watts microwave power completed in 140 minutes to reach the final moisture content of 7% wet basis. The drying process in microwave drying shows similar process to that of conventional drying. Dipolar rotation mechanism of water molecules at microwave drying does not affect the drying stage. It shows however shorter process time. The water removal of the drying material occurred in the early minutes until the 50th minute. This because of the high free water surface on the material, while from minute 50 to minute 140 slowed the drying process. Highest temperature of the material during the process is achieved at 57.6 oC in drying of gel and 70.7 oC in drying of Aloe vera rind. It is expected that there is no damage of nutritional content during drying in the this temperature range. Quality analysis of flour and tea of Aloe vera after drying by microwave showed that Aloe vera powder produced within the range of the standard, both visually and microbiologically, but indicated as low quality when viewed from acid content levels. Whether microwave heating mechanism affects the acidity, this needs further study.

  18. Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Using Oven-Dried Alum Sludge

    Wadood T. Mohammed


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the removal of phosphorus from wastewater by using oven-dried alum sludge (ODS as adsorbent that was collected from Al-Qadisiya treatment plant (Iraq; it was heated in an oven at 105∘C for 24 h and then cooled at room temperature. The sludge particles were then crushed to produce a particle size of 0.5–4.75 mm. Two modes of operation are used, batch mode and fixed bed mode, in batch experiment the effect of oven-dried alum sludge doses 10–50 g/L, pH of solution 5–8 with constant initial phosphorus concentration of 5 mg/L, and constant particle size of 0.5 mm were studied. The results showed that the percent removal of phosphorus increases with the increase of oven-dried alum sludge dose, but pH of solution has insignificant effect. Batch kinetics experiments showed that equilibrium time was about 6 days. Adsorption capacity was plotted against equilibrium concentration, and isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, and Freundlich-Langmuir were used to correlate these results. In the fixed bed isothermal adsorption column, the effect of initial phosphorus concentration ( 5 and 10 mg/L, particle size 2.36 and 4.75 mm, influent flow rate (Q 6 and 10 L/hr, and bed depth (H 0.15–0.415 m were studied. The results showed that the oven-dried alum sludge was effective in adsorbing phosphorus, and percent removal of phosphorus reaches 85% with increasing of contact time and adsorbent surface area (i.e., mass of adsorbent 50 g/L with different pH.

  19. Method to obtain sulphur from the hydrogen sulphide of coke oven gas with simultaneous combustion of the coke oven gas ammonia

    Wunderlich, G.; Weber, H.


    The invention deals with a method to obtain sulphur from coke oven gas hydrogen sulphide by partly combusting to sulphur dioxide and processing to sulphur with simultaneous combustion of the coke oven ammonia according to the Claus method. The method is thus characterized in that the ammonia combustion gases released from the heating boiler are after cooling freed from the aqueous condensate and then are added to the partly combusted hydrogen sulphide clouds before introducing into the Claus oven system.

  20. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Shuguang Ouyang; Jie Xu; Xiaoli Su; Zikan Wang


    Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inne...

  1. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Shuguang Ouyang


    Full Text Available Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inner structure of the oven components also can be displayed visually from several different orientations. Moreover, it is convenient to storage and carry, operation easily and fast. It can be displayed on an ordinary computer and occupies no space at the laboratory. Meanwhile, a large sum of money that used for purchasing a physical coke oven model can be saved.

  2. Lung function in retired coke oven plant workers.

    Chau, N.; Bertrand, J P; Guenzi, M.; Mayer, L; Téculescu, D; Mur, J M; Patris, A.; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T


    Lung function was studied in 354 coke oven plant workers in the Lorraine collieries (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine, France) who retired between 1963 and 1982 and were still alive on 1 January 1988. A spirometric examination was performed on 68.4% of them in the occupational health service. Occupational exposure to respiratory hazards throughout their career was retraced for each subject. No adverse effect of occupational exposure on ventilatory function was found. Ventilatory function was,...

  3. Assessment of PAH-exposure among coke oven workers

    Vahakangas, K. [and others] [Oulu University, Oulu (Finland)


    Levels of BaP diol epoxide - DNA adducts in urine and blood were monitored for workers at the Raahe coking plant, Finland, and other relevant information was collected. All adduct values were low, but oven battery workers had slightly higher values than matched controls. Antibodies to these adducts increased somewhat after work at the plant started, no differences between smokers and non-smokers were found.

  4. Optimal control structure of combustion in coke oven battery

    Big energetic aggregates require a complicated control system, which provide an effective running or production. Among these aggregates belongs the coke - oven battery. This article contains a proposal of the two - level control system. The basic control is realized by a direct digital control. The advanced control continuously optimizes regulator parameters of the basic control. The present control system has been verified in real conditions of a coking plant. (authors)

  5. Investigation on combustion of ammonia from coke-oven gas

    Gwiner, H.; Ulatowski, R.; Dziembala, F.; Wrobelska, K.; Bonk, M.


    Results are presented of research work performed on a pilot plant for combustion of ammonia from coke-oven gas. After being washed from gas and stripped in the stripping column, ammonia was burnt in a mixture with water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in a combustion furnace designed by the Research Institute of Chemical Coal Utilization in Zabrze (Poland). Satisfactory results were achieved.

  6. Conversion of unrefined coke oven gas by partial pulse combustion

    Wuennenberg, W.


    The possibility of using coke-oven gas again as a chemical feedstock has been examined. The application of a pulse tube to achieve partial oxidation yielding a hydrogen and CO synthesis gas has been examined at Bergbau Forschung's Prosper experimental coking plant. Industrial-scale trials were carried out with a pulse-tube installation having a throughput of 1000 m/SUP/3/h of crude gas. An account is given of these trials. (In German)

  7. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Alain Sommier; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Imen Douiri; Christophe Chipeau


    The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C) leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specific...

  8. Heating coke ovens with a mixture of blast furnace and coke-oven gases with increased combustion heat

    Borisov, V.I.; Shvetsov, V.I.; Tonchii, M.P.


    An experiment is described carried out in the Nizhnii Tagil Metallurgical Complex coke oven battery No. 4 with the aim of reducing graphite deposits without increasing pressure loss. Results showed that, over a period of 10 years, when the battery was heated with a mixture of blast furnace and coke-oven gases at 6300 KJ/m/sup 3/ combustion heat, the resulting pressure loss did not exceed normal values, the temperature in the below-the-roof space dropped to 30-40 C, the temperature between the levels at 2.1 and 0.6 m dropped to 50-60 C and the amount of graphite deposited on the walls, ceiling and gas outlets was reduced to such an extent that there was no need for manual removal.

  9. 关于开发薄炉墙焦炉的研讨%Study on development of coke oven with thin oven wall

    叶小虎; 鲁彦; 秦瑾; 周向


    This paper studies the influence of thin oven wall of 6m coke oven battery to coke oven proper strength, coking time, coke output and power consumption.For coke oven battery with thin oven wall,after careful calculation and with suitable measures adopted,coke output can be main-tained,and at the same time,gas consumption and environment pollution are reduced.%研究了6m焦炉炉墙减薄对焦炉炉体强度、结焦时间、焦炭产量以及炼焦能耗的影响。经详细计算及采用适当的调节措施,选用薄炉墙焦炉不但能够保持焦炭产量,还可以减少煤气耗量和环境污染等。

  10. Streamer chamber: pion decay


    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  11. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber


    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  12. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    Besnier, Philippe


    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  13. Investigation of different wall profiles on energy consumption and baking time in domestic ovens

    Onbasioglu S. U.


    Full Text Available This present study, has aimed to examine and improve the momentum and heat transport mechanism in a domestic oven. At the beginning, the experimental study has been carried out in the oven that analyzing heat transfer behavior of the oven. During the preparation and procedure of the energy consumption experiments, standards determined in EN 50304 had been used. In addition to experimental results, the numerical simulation has showed that increasing diffusion over the walls and advection in the center, the performance of the oven can be improved. Using this idea, two different models have been set up in the oven walls and have been experimentally and numerically studied. Finally, the results have been compared with the original case that validates the initial idea by improving the performance of the oven.

  14. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...... oven, with a butter cookie as the test product. The investigated quality parameters for the butter cookies were mass loss and surface browning, where the uniformity of browning was evaluated subjectively against a scale of standards and objectively by L* value measurements. Good reproducibility...... of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection...

  15. Thermal construction of hot coke oven%焦炉的热态施工



    Coke oven project quality influenced by various factors , the most important including ma-sonry, oven, hot production and production .The importance of construction quality of coke oven tem-perature is not inferior to coke oven masonry and oven .The construction of hot construction site and technical solutions were presented , and provide reference for the future construction of coke oven .%焦炉工程质量受到多方面因素的影响,最重要的包括砌筑、烘炉、热态施工和开工生产这几个因素。其中,焦炉热态施工质量的重要性不次于焦炉的砌筑和烘炉。介绍热态施工的施工点和技术方案,为今后焦炉的施工提供参考。

  16. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    P Navaneethakrishnan; P S S Srinivasan; S Dhandapani


    The CFD analysis of flow and temperature distribution in heating ovens used in bakery shop, to keep the foodstuffs warm, is attempted using finite element technique. The oven is modelled as a two-dimensional steady state natural convection heat transfer problem. Effects of heater location and total heat input on temperature uniformity of foodstuffs are studied. Placing the heater at the bottom of the oven improves the air circulation rate by 17 times and 10 times than that at the top and side of the oven. But the top location provides better uniformity in foodstuff temperature than the other cases. Side location is not preferable. In the present ovens, the heating elements are located at the top. The analysis shows that if heaters are located at the bottom along with additional flow guidance arrangements, energy efficient oven configuration can be obtained.

  17. BEBC bubble chamber


    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  18. High resolution drift chambers

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Entrepreneurial Skill Development: A Case Study Of The Design And Construction Of Charcoal Baking Oven

    Asibeluo I.S; Okeri P.E; Onwurah C; Adiogba M


    This research, concerns the design and construction of a charcoal baking oven using locally available materials as a case study for entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. The baking oven in this work has a rectangular box like shape with a total baking area of 315000mm2 . The oven is used for baking, drying and warming of food e.g cakes, bread, fish, meat etc. It is constructed with mild steel and angle bars. It comprises baking tray, housing frame, charcoal heating t...

  20. Optical Microscopy and SEM Study of Pyrolytic Carbon Deposits from Coke Ovens

    Barranco, Richelieu; Patrick, John W.; Snape, Colin E.; Wu, Tao; Poultney, Ruth M.; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia


    The presence of pyrolytic carbon deposits can cause a number of serious problems in the operation of a coke oven. The main objective of the investigation was to study the nature and characteristics of pyrolytic carbon deposits in industrial coke ovens, with particular emphasis on the nature of the carbon deposited adjacent to the oven walls. Study of the carbon deposits by optical microscopy and SEM showed a variable concentration of carbon entities as well as differences in packing density.

  1. Finite element modelling and simulation of free convection heat transfer in solar oven

    Sobamowo M.G., Ogunmola B.Y., Ayerin A. M.


    Full Text Available The use of solar energy for baking, heating or drying represents a sustainable way of solar energy applications with negligible negative effects. Solar oven is an alternative to conventional oven that rely heavily on coal and wood or Electric oven that uses the power from the National grid of which the end users have little or no control. Since the Solar oven uses no fuel and it costs nothing to run, it uses are widely promoted especially in situations where minimum fuel consumption or fire risks are considered highly important. As useful as the Solar Oven proved, it major setback in the area of applications has been its future sustainability. For the use of Solar Oven/Cookers to be sustained in the future, the design and development of solar oven must rely on sound analytical tools. Therefore, this work focused on the design and development of the solar oven. To test the performance of the Small Solar Oven a 5000cm3 beaker of water was put into the Oven and the temperature of the water was found to reach 810C after about 3hrs under an average ambient temperature of 300C. On no load test, the oven reached a maximum temperature of 112oC in 6hrs. In order to carry out the parametric studies and improve the performance of the Solar Oven, Mathematical models were developed and solved by using Characteristics-Based Split (CBS Finite Element Method. The Model results were compared with the Experimental results and a good agreement was found between the two results.

  2. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in European coke oven workers.

    Talaska, Glenn; Thoroman, Jeff; Schuman, Brenda; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo


    Biomonitoring is an excellent method for capturing the results of all exposures, regardless of route. Coke oven workers include certain groups that have the potential for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other materials. Biomarkers of exposure to these agents include PAH metabolites as markers of internal dose and carcinogen-DNA adducts as measure of effective dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of these biomarkers in persons with different job duties in a modern coke oven plant. We report that the mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) and carcinogen DNA adducts in the exfoliated urothelial cells of coke oven workers are increased the closer a group of workers is to the ovens and highest in the top oven workers with average 1HP level of 11.6 μg/l and 22 adducts per 10(9) unadducted nucleotides. Both 1HP and carcinogen DNA adduct levels increased in supervisors, area workers, side oven workers, top and side oven workers, and top oven workers, respectively. These data are the first to demonstrate an increase in target organ genotoxicity in coke oven workers and a relationship with other biomarkers. Future studies will determine the identity of the DNA adducts, their correlation with 1HP levels and the relationship between levels in individual workers. PMID:25445007

  3. Feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time for coke oven and its application

    Fang Huo; Zhi Wen; Dong Chen; Yueling Shen; Yongqin Zhang; Xiaoming Zhi


    Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within ±7°C and the finished carbonization time within ± 10 rain is more than 80%, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92%. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.

  4. Investigation about the thermal features of the ovens used for thermoluminescence

    The present paper reports the results of an investigation carried out by the PAS-FIBI-DOSIBIO laboratory (ENEA, Casaccia, Roma) about the thermal features of the ovens used for annealing treatments of TL dosemeters. A total number of 45 commercial ovens and muffle furnaces were studied. belonging to 24 Italian Health Physics laboratories. The investigation has shown that the majority of the ovens do not possess a degree of accuracy, stability, uniformity and reproducibility suitable for their use in the field of thermoluminescence dosimetry. Practical suggestions are also given in order to reduce the effects of some of the negative characteristics found in most ovens. (author)




    This paper presents the results obtained from a computational fluid dynamics simulation of the cooking process of a Malay delicacy called lemang inside a specially made oven. The normal way of cooking lemang is by putting it in open fire for more or less 2 hours. By using the lemang oven, the cooking time was reduced to about 1 hour and 20 minutes. A 2-dimesional CFD simulation was done to look at the hot air distribution inside the oven and how it affects the conditions inside the oven and t...

  6. Economics and alternatives for sulfur removal from coke oven gas

    Massey, M.J.; Dunlap, R.W.


    Two processes are currently being employed in North America for the desulfurization of coke oven gas, the Vacuum Carbonate System, and the Stretford System. A third, the Sulfiban Process, which was recently announced, now has several plants scheduled for construction. Overall operating requirements for each of these processes are considered in detail. Emphasis is placed on an identification of power and steam requirements, the types and amounts of solid and/or liquid waste streams produced together with methods for their treatment, and the net desulfurization efficiencies achieved by each process. Detailed estimates of capital and operating costs for desulfurization are considered, and equipment needs for environmental control requirements are discussed.

  7. Conversion of unrefined coke oven gas by partial pulse combustion

    Wuennenberg, W.; George, D.; Habermehl, D.; Rohde, W.


    To convert coke-oven gas to a chemical feedstock it is possible to use pulsating partial-oxidation in a pulse tube, a method which yields a hydrogen- and CO-based gas which can serve as a synthesis gas, for example in methanol synthesis. Alternatively, the pulse-tube gas can also be used as a reducer gas in the metallurgical industry. A particular process-related advantage of such a pulse-tube reactor, the so-called Schmid tube, lies in the fact that it gives about a tenfold higher space-time yield than the conventional partial-oxidation process.

  8. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  9. Programmed heating of coke ovens for increased coke size

    Jenkins, D.R.; Mahoney, M.R. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)


    Large, uniform sized coke is desirable for blast furnace use. It has previously been shown that the coke oven flue temperature in the first few hours of coking is a key determinant of coke size. In this paper, the authors present a new programmed heating approach, which is called pulsed heating, aiming to increase coke mean size at a given average flue temperature. The approach takes into account the charging sequence in coke oven batteries and the authors demonstrate how existing operating practice can be modified in batteries with suitable heating systems to achieve the desired heating programme. A mathematical model of fissure formation provides a prediction of the increase in coke mean size using pulsed heating, compared with standard heating. Pilot scale experiments have also been performed to validate the modelling approach. The results of the modelling indicate that the mean coke size can be increased by several millimetres in some cases, although results from the pilot scale show that pulsed heating increases coke size, but by a smaller amount than that predicted by the model. The potential advantages and limitations of pulsed heating are discussed, as well as opportunities for further investigation of the approach.

  10. Charging trolley for coke oven. Beskikingsvogn for koksovn

    Gregor, K.; Feldhaus, K.


    The patent application describes a charging trolley for coke ovens. The trolley has a cover raising device which may be moved along a vertical track in order to raise covers for the oven sharge openings. At the coking process considerable amounts of combustion and coke gases are liberated. They contain large amounts of pollutants such as dust, finely devided solids and various other components. The pollutants settle on the convers and at the openings which leads to less satisfactory stopping and a leak of gases containing such pollutants to the surroundings. In order to avoid or at least reduce considerably such leaks in a simple and reliable way and with little loss of time, a cover cleaning device is constructed. It has at least 2 cleaning segments equipped with cleaning devices wich may move between a position swung away from and one covering the motion track. By help of the cleaning device it is possible to clean the stopper sheets on the covers without disturbing the operation. As a result the opening stoppers are improved and undesired pollution is considerably reduced. The claims concern the design of the charge trolley and the covering and cleaning devices in particular. 4 drawings.

  11. Gridded ionization chamber

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  12. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    Lippmann, C


    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  13. Toxic Test Chambers

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  14. Calorimetry with flash chambers

    The flash chambers used in the Fermilab E594 neutrino experiment are described, and their use in a calorimeter discussed. Resolutions obtained with a calibration beam are presented, and comments made about the pattern recognition capabilities of the calorimeter

  15. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation


    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  16. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  17. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei


    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  18. 76 FR 65631 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens


    ... efficiency test procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). 75 FR... energy efficiency in active (cooking) mode. 75 FR 42611. DOE held the public meeting on September 16... standby mode and off mode energy use for microwave ovens (73 FR 62134), interested parties commented...

  19. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode)


    ... procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). 75 FR 42579. In the July... rule that addressed active mode energy use only. 62 FR 51976. On July 22, 2010, DOE published in the... provisions for measuring standby mode and off mode energy use for microwave ovens (73 FR 62134),...

  20. Automatic operation systems for the coke oven top; Cokes ro rojo sagyo no jidoka tachiage jokyo

    Saji, T.; Kitayama, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes an outline of automatic operation on the coke oven top, which has been conducted at the Kashima Steel Works, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. For the automatic operation on the oven top, unmanned operation of the charging car, mechanization of works on the oven top, centralized control, and simplification of the system were introduced. This automatic system consists of the charging car, central station, charging car station, and quenching car automation system. For the automatic travel motion control, braking by the electric regenerative brake and disk brake was adopted. The oven center standing control is carried out by using the position and distance information of interlock cable and the oven center sensor. Standing accuracy of the oven center of charging car was designed to be up to {plus_minus}10 mm. High detection accuracy can be obtained through the optical cutting image processing. The carbon removing apparatus for inlet port, oven top cleaner dust treatment apparatus, and charging level measurement apparatus were added to the charging car, which were required for the automatic operation on the oven top. As a result, the automatic ratio more than 99% could be achieved. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Application of extrusion technology to prepare bread crumb, a comparison with oven method

    The current research project was designed to conclude the upshot of extrusion cooking temperature on the properties and acceptability of bread crumb. Bread crumbs were obtained by drying the bread, maintaining moisture up to 3-8% and then broken down using hammer mill or crusher which breaks the bread into bread crumbs. Significantly highest moisture contents 7.26% was observed in oven baked bread crumb as compared to 6.25% in bread crumb prepared by extrusion cooking method. The highest bulk density (28.13 g/100 L) was observed in extruded bread crumb whereas, the oven baked bread crumbs showed lower bulk density (7.03 g/100 L). The fat uptake of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs were found 0.516 mg/g and 0.493 mg/g, respectively. The extruded bread crumb showed higher water binding capacity as 34.76 g H/sub 2/O/kg as compared to oven baked bread crumb which showed 27.92 g H/sub 2/O/kg. Sensory evaluation of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs depicted that bread crumbs prepared from extrusion cooking methods got significantly higher scores for taste, flavour and over all acceptability as compared to those prepared by oven baked method. As far as crispiness is concerned oven baked bread crumbs got comparatively higher scores. Moreover, it was concluded that the treatment T2 of extruded bread crumbs got more sensory scores than oven baked bread crumbs. (author)

  2. A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments

    Schioppo, Marco; Prevedelli, Marco; Falke, Stephan; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe; Tino, Guglielmo Maria


    Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

  3. On-site raw gas cut-off during the shut down of Baosteel phase I coke ovens

    ZHOU Haizhong


    The preparation and implementation of raw coke oven gas cut-off,which was the key process involved with shutting down the Baosteel phase I coke ovens,were investigated,and the main technical points and countermeasures are presented.

  4. Products cooked in preheated versus non-preheated ovens. Baking times, calculated energy consumption, and product quality compared.

    Odland, D; Davis, C


    Plain muffins, yellow cake, baked custard, apple pie, tuna casserole, frozen tuna casserole, cheese soufflé, and meat loaf were baked in preheated and non-preheated standard gas, continuous-clean gas, standard electric, and self-cleaning electric ovens. Products generally required 5 min. or less extra baking time when cooked in non-preheated rather than in preheated ovens. The variability in baking times often was less between preheated and non-preheated ovens than among oven types. Calculated energy consumption values showed that usually less energy was required to bake products in non-preheated than in preheated ovens; savings averaged about 10 percent. Few significant differences were found in physical measurements or eating quality either between preheated and non-preheated ovens or among oven types. Overall, for the products tested, findings confirmed that preheating the oven is not essential for good product quality and, therefore, is an unnecessary use of energy. PMID:7108076

  5. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew


    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  6. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...


    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Coke Oven Emissions (29... requirements in the Coke Oven Emissions Standard provide protection for workers from the adverse health...

  7. The KLOE drift chamber

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; Lucia, E. De; Robertis, G. De; Sangro, R. De; Simone, P. De; Zorzi, G. De; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Domenico, A. Di; Donato, C. Di; Falco, S. Di; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U.V.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P. E-mail:; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y


    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy K{sub L} produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm{sup 2} in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm{sup 2} in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented.

  8. The KLOE drift chamber

    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy KL produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm2 in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm2 in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented

  9. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri


    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  10. Process analysis of syngas production by non-catalytic POX of oven gas

    Fuchen WANG; Xinwen ZHOU; Wenyuan GUO; Zhenghua DAI; Xin GONG; Haifeng LIU; Guangsuo YU; Zunhong YU


    A non-catalytic POX of oven gas is proposed to solve the problem of secondary pollution due to solid wastes produced from the great amount of organic sulfur contained in oven gas in the traditional catalytic partial oxidation (POX) process. A study of the measurement of flow field and a thermodynamic analysis of the process characteristics were conducted. Results show that there exist a jet-flow region, a recirculation-flow region, a tube-flow region, and three corresponding reaction zones in the non-catalytic POX reformer. The combustion of oven gas occurs mainly in the jet-flow region, while the reformation of oven gas occurs mainly in the other two regions. Soot would not be formed by CH4 cracking at above 1200℃. Since there are very little C2+ hydrocarbons in oven gas, the soot produced would be very tiny, even if they underwent cracking reaction. The integrated model for entrained bed gasification process was applied to simulate a non-catalytic POX reformer. It indicated that the proper oxygen-to-oven gas ratio is 0.22-0.28 at differ-ent pressures in the oven gas reformation process.

  11. Wire chamber conference

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  12. Scanning bubble chamber pictures


    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  13. LEP Vacuum Chamber


    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  14. Drift chamber detectors

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  15. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype


    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  16. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.


    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Quality Comparison of Vegetables Dehydrated in Solar Drier and Electrical Oven

    H. C. Joshi


    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid, sugars, dehydration ratio and moisture were determined in the vegetables dehydrated separately in solar drier and in electrical oven under similar conditions by standard methods. Vegetables examined were cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, radish, turnip, lahi, methi and palak. It was revealed that in each case, contents of ascorbic acid were higher in solar-dried vegetables in comparison to oven-dried stuffs. This finding indicated superiority of solar driers over electrical ovens, both in reference to quality of the dehydrated vegetables and its overall cost of operation.

  18. Three chamber negative ion source

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential

  19. Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation

    Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A.; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F.


    Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area.

  20. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China


    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  1. Candlestick oven with a silica wick provides an intense collimated cesium atomic beam

    Pailloux, A.; Alpettaz, T.; Lizon, E.


    This article shows that readily available glass and silica fibers and braids are suitable capillary structure for recirculating ovens, such as candlestick ovens, becoming then an alternative wick material to conventional metal based capillary structures. In order to study wettability and capillarity of metallic liquid cesium on borosilicate and silica microstructures, samples were selected, prepared, and tested experimentally. The contact angle of cesium on silica glass was roughly measured: θ =35°±10°. A commercially available silica braid was then introduced inside a candlestick oven to transfer the metallic liquid cesium from the cold reservoir to the hot emission point of the candlestick. A collimated cesium atomic beam of intensity of 2×1016at./ssr was obtained, stable and reproducible. Furthermore, this modified oven is easy to handle daily.

  2. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water ... Microwave Oven Safely More in Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Reducing Exposure: Hands-free ...

  3. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus;


    , if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. The accelerated stability studies performed in the microwave oven using......, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating...... leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after...

  4. Effects of Thermo technical Characteristics of Tunnel oven Cars on Production Process and Heat Energy Consumption

    This paper presents a mathematical and physical model on the basic of which a unique calculation program has been made for the thermodynamic analysis of production process in the tunnel oven. In this model, the tunnel oven has been divided in 100 balance areas for which macroscopic balances of mass and energy have been established. Using a baking curve given in advance, i. e. the distribution of solid matter temperatures in function of time, a known flows of mass and energy outside the oven limits, it is possible to calculate the temperature of gas along the entire oven using the series of the balance areas. By varying individual members of the balance, without altering the remaining dependent values, it is possible to investigate the effects of different parameters on the consumption of energy and production process quality. In this way the effects of energy losses with the cars, but also the losses with the waste gas. 3 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Scintillations in ionization chambers

    High purity Ar and mixtures of Ar with 1% CH4, 3% CH4, CO2 and N2, respectively, have been applied for fission fragment detection in a gridded ionization chamber. Gas scintillation has been observed simultaneously with a photomultiplier VALVO-XP 2041. Whereas all mixtures work equally well as an ionization gas, only Ar + 3% N2 shows a primary scintillation yield sufficient for fas timing. (orig.)

  6. Kinetic model on coke oven gas with steam reforming

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min; YAN Hong-jie


    The effects of factors such as the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 (n(H2O)/n(CH4)), methane conversion temperature and time on methane conversion rate were investigated to build kinetic model for reforming of coke-oven gas with steam. The results of experiments show that the optimal conditions for methane conversion are that the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 varies from 1.1 to 1.3and the conversion temperature varies from 1 223 to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is more than 95% when the molar ratio ofH2O to CH4 is 1.2, the conversion temperature is above 1 223 K and the conversion time is longer than 0.75 s. Kinetic model of methane conversion was proposed. All results demonstrate that the calculated values by the kinetic model accord with the experimental data well, and the error is less than 1.5%.

  7. Development of dynamic combustion control system for individual coke oven

    Niwa, Yasuo; Konishi, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Kuwada, Fukio; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Inaba, Mamoru; Kawaguchi, Yasuhiro (Nippon Kokan K.K., Tokyo (Japan))


    Automatic dynamic combustion control system for individual coke oven was presented. The system was composed of such 216 electrically operated valves as fuel gas flow regulating valves and exhaust valves, a process controller to control or monitor the system, and a process computer to calculate the control variables for the valves according to combustion conditions. Supply quantity of heat was first corrected with the deviations between the measured value of flue temperature and that desired value at coal charging. Supply fuel gas flow rate and draft variables of the exhaust valves were then corrected considering fuel gas calorie, and the corrected valve opening variables were finally transmitted to the valves. As the operation results, the deviation between the desired and measured value was reduced to 7{degree}C at the control cycle of two hours, accompanying the favorable control of an air ratio. The reduction effect of heat consumption was estimated to be nearly 8Mcal/T from the reduction effect of flue temperature dispersion. 2 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Alain Sommier


    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  9. Double chambered right ventricle

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.




    An oven for baking bread in field conditions is assigned to units that are by their nature relatively stationary and whose size does not require a movable bakery. It is intended for baking bread in our units located in international missions with supply difficulties, since our units have a habit of consuming bread instead of biscuits. The oven is of a prefabricated type, adapted for use in all types of terrains, simple design which makes it possible to be, dismantled and easily transported.

  11. Using Lymphocyte and Plasma Hsp70 as Biomarkers for Assessing Coke Oven Exposure among Steel Workers

    Yang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Jinping; Bai, Yun; Tian, Fengjie; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Jianya; Liang, Huashan; Guo, Liang; Tan, Hao; Chen, Weihong; Tanguay, Robert M.; Wu, Tangchun


    Background Hsp70, an early-response protein induced when organisms are confronted with simple or complicated environmental stresses, can act as either a cellular protector or a danger signal. Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate levels of lymphocyte and/or plasma Hsp70 as biomarkers for assessing exposure response to complex coke oven emissions (COEs). Methods We recruited 101 coke oven workers and determined levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, urinary 1-hyd...

  12. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Wang Jing


    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  13. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    Miller, Brian G.; Doust, Emma; Cherrie, John W.; Hurley, J Fintan


    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class I...


    CARDOSO, Claudia Cristina; CARVALHO, Marcela Albino; COSTA, Joicy Bianca de Souza; AMORIM, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; SILVA, Ricardo Oliveira; CAMPOS, Angela Fernandes


    We propose in this study the use of household appliances, microwave oven and household blender without adaptation, in fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis from the transesterification of waste frying oil for use in chemistry lessons at different levels of education. The advantage in using the microwave oven, in particular, is in reducing reaction time by almost 10 times compared to traditional experiments. Furthermore, the use of such appliances without adjustments, both of the ov...

  15. A device for removing gases during unloading of coke ovens

    Yatsura, V.A.; Matsegora, N.T.; Mikhaylenko, V.Ya.; Nayman, A.M.; Stepko, G.V.


    In the device for outlet of gases during unloading of coking furnaces, which includes a dust trapping hood, a collector for outlet of the gases with valves, a gas collecting chamber with openings on the side wall, which is located above the collector and has drives for vertical movement of the collector channels and a connecting branch pipe, attached to the dust trapping hood, in order to increase the operational reliability, the gas collecting chamber is fixed above the collector and is equipped with vertical partitions which divide it into sections, whose number is equal to the number of furnaces being serviced, the connecting branch pipe is equipped with runners mounted on its exterior surface (Pv) and interacting with the side wall of the gas collection chamber and the connecting branch pipe is attached to the dust trapping hood by means of shock absorbers. The device provides for continuous abutment between the dust trapping hood and the gas collector, which makes it possible to perform dust trapping throughout the entire cycle of coal outlet, including the time for fulfillment of auxiliary operations. The device is operationally reliable, since the shifting of the hood and the unevennesses of the solid wall along which the abutting device moves are eliminated by the compensators, which prevents failures.

  16. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections


    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  17. Wire chambers revisited

    Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. A gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of ''gas only'' photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera.The only clinical detector have been developed for positron emission tomography, where thin lead or lead-glass can provide an acceptable convertor for 511 keV photons. Two MWPC positron cameras have been evaluated clinically and one is now routine use in clinical oncology. The problems of detection efficiency have not been solved by these detectors although reliability and large-area PET imaging have been proven. (orig./HSI)

  18. Review of wire chamber aging

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Bulletin


    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  20. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG)

  1. Partial Replacement of the 6 m Coke oven Column%6米焦炉焦侧炉柱局部更换实践



    结合山钢股份莱芜分公司焦化厂5#、6#焦炉104#焦侧炉柱变形情况的测量分析,介绍了6米焦炉焦侧炉柱局部更换过程,为类似作业提供经验。%According to the measurement analysis of deformation of the coke column of NO .104 coking chamber of NO .5/NO.6 coke oven in coking plant of Shandong Iron and Steel Ltd .Laiwu Branch, we introduce how to replace the part of the 6m coke oven’s column.This thesis provides valuable experience for the future similar works .

  2. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke oven emissions and reproductive toxicity in nonsmoking workers.

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Lin, Wen-Yi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Taylor, Steven; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Guodong; Diawara, Norou


    The objective of the cross-sectional study was to assess whether exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke oven emissions contributed to alteration of semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in nonsmoking workers. Nonsmoking coke oven workers from a steel plant in Taiwan served as the exposure groups (topside-oven workers for the high exposure group and side-oven workers for the low exposure group), and administrators and security personnel in the plant served as the control. An exposure assessment was conducted to determine both particulate and gaseous phase of PAH levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Semen quality was analyzed according to WHO guidelines. DNA fragmentation and bulky DNA adducts were measured to assess sperm DNA integrity. There was no significant difference in sperm concentrations, vitality, and DNA fragmentation between the exposed group and the control. The high exposure group experienced significantly lower percentages of normal morphology as compared with the control (p=0.0001). Bulky DNA adducts were detected in the exposed group that were significant higher than the control (p=0.04). Exposure to PAHs from coke-oven emissions could contribute to increased levels of bulky DNA adducts in sperm. PMID:23314003




    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from a computational fluid dynamics simulation of the cooking process of a Malay delicacy called lemang inside a specially made oven. The normal way of cooking lemang is by putting it in open fire for more or less 2 hours. By using the lemang oven, the cooking time was reduced to about 1 hour and 20 minutes. A 2-dimesional CFD simulation was done to look at the hot air distribution inside the oven and how it affects the conditions inside the oven and the lemang during cooking. Results for velocityprofile, as well as turbulence kinetic energy were obtained. It was found that the turbulence which carries with it energy was highest at the bottom of the lemang which would mean that that part of lemang would cook the fastest as it receives greater amount of energy compared to other parts of the lemang. This was why the lemang was overcooked at that part as evident from the experimental results. These results would be used to further improve on the existing lemang oven.

  4. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li


    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  5. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Marsh, B. D.


    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  6. Experiments with a spark chamber

    The authors constructed an experimental spark chamber with a useable volume of 7 x 7 x 5 cm having six parallel 2-mm thick stainless steel plates. The distance between each plate is 8 mm. The chamber is filled with neon under a pressure of one atmosphere. On applying a pulse of about 10 keV on the plates immediately after the passage of a charged particle through the chamber, sparks form along the trajectory of the particle and may easily be photographed. The chamber was first used with cosmic ray μ mesons and then put into the π-meson beam of the SATURN synchrocyclotron. The efficiency of the chamber as a function of voltage and retardation of the applied electric pulse and the dead time are given. The first results obtained with a chamber of 10-litre volume are also presented. (author)

  7. Multi-chamber ionization detector

    For the detector a single beta ionization source and a double- or three-chamber set-up is used, the chambers being designed in the shape of a truncated cone and facing each other with their bases. The source can be positioned with respect to the common center or modal electrode, the adjustment of the ionization in each chamber this becoming easier. The center or modal electrode also can be adjusted with respect to the source. (DG)

  8. A spark-chamber spectrometer

    A programme of developing techniques for the construction and use of spark chambers in high-energy physics experiments has been undertaken. Several methods of construction have been tested and found satisfactory. One method is to cement aluminium plates to frames made from glass or Plexiglas strips. Another is to place the aluminium plates in grooves machined in Plexiglas, forming a ''shelf'' design. A chamber made of rows of wires was successfully operated with a He-alcohol mixture. These chambers can either be filled with gas and sealed, or gas can be passed through them continuously. Chambers have been constructed with plates of various thicknesses ranging from 0.032 in downwards. The operation of the chambers with various spacings between the plates was also investigated. The performance of these chambers, when filled with several different gases (Ne, He, A) and with gas-alcohol mixtures, has been investigated. Several methods of applying high-voltage pulses to the chambers have been attempted. The results of these investigations are presented. Spark chambers placed in a magnetic field can be used in principle to determine the momentum of charged particles and if lead converter-plates are incorporated with them, the resulting system should serve as a gamma-ray spectrometer of high resolution and high efficiency. A magnet with an 18-in useful diameter and a 13000-G field is being fitted with spark chambers, whose performance will be tested with cosmic rays and with an accelerator beam. Results from such tests are presented. (author)

  9. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group Icoke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure. PMID:24040626


    CARDOSO, Claudia Cristina


    Full Text Available We propose in this study the use of household appliances, microwave oven and household blender without adaptation, in fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis from the transesterification of waste frying oil for use in chemistry lessons at different levels of education. The advantage in using the microwave oven, in particular, is in reducing reaction time by almost 10 times compared to traditional experiments. Furthermore, the use of such appliances without adjustments, both of the oven as the blender, eliminates the need for sophisticated equipment and glassware high cost. The success of the reaction, even in these conditions, can be noticed by CCD analysis and 1H NMR spectrum. The realization of biodiesel synthesis in the classroom with the aforementioned tools allows relating chemical concepts such as transesterification reactions, saponification, combustion, stoichiometry and catalysis with environmental issues surrounding sustainable development, recycling and biofuel.

  11. Chemical profile and sensory properties of different foods cooked by a new radiofrequency oven.

    Fiore, Alberto; Di Monaco, Rossella; Cavella, Silvana; Visconti, Attilio; Karneili, Ohad; Bernhardt, Sam; Fogliano, Vincenzo


    Radio frequency (RF) heating has been used for numerous applications in the food industry such as baking, thawing or pasteurisation. It reduces cooking time, and it helps to retain acceptable food colour and texture. In this paper, chemical and sensory data obtained from broccoli, potatoes, salmon and cocoa cakes cooked using an innovative RF oven were reported. The oven has an algorithm able to monitor the energy feedback from the cavity and to adjust the energy output accordingly. The different foods were cooked to the same end point and the concentration of phytochemicals, vitamins and acrylamide were assessed. Results demonstrated that RF oven preserved ascorbic acid and increased glucosinolates concentration in broccoli and it decreased the formation of acrylamide in roasted potatoes more than 50%. The total amount of vitamins B was 30% and 50% higher in RF cooked salmon than conventionally cooked salmon prepared at 55 and 75°C, respectively. PMID:23561139

  12. Cooked yields, color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef roasts cooked in an oven with steam generation versus a commercial convection oven to different endpoint temperatures.

    Bowers, L J; Dikeman, M E; Murray, L; Stroda, S L


    A CVap steam generation oven was compared with a Blodgett convection oven to examine effects on yields, cooked color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef Longissimus lumborum (LL), Deep pectoralis (DP), and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles cooked to 1 of 3 temperatures (65.6, 71.1, or 76.7°C). Four roasts were cooked in the CVap for a constant time, and 2 roasts were cooked in the Blodgett until they reached target temperatures (3 replications). Cooking yields were higher (P0.05) was found for LL roasts. Sensory tenderness for BF roasts in the CVap was higher (Ptenderization (BF) and cooking yield advantages (BF and DP) over forced-air convection cooking. PMID:22607816

  13. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil


    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes. PMID:27570282

  14. Compacting of coal for heat recovery ovens, Illawarra Coke Company Pty Ltd., Coalcliffe, NSW, Australia

    Wright, R.; Schuecker, F.; Kim, R. [Illawara Coke Company, NSW (Australia)


    This paper described a simple method of compacting coal for heat-recovery coke making. Coal carbonization tests in commercial non-recovery coke ovens have shown that coal densities greater than 1100 kg/m{sup 3} were obtained in a simple manner by means of hydraulically actuated compression plates. The tests and the results have significantly increased the level of knowledge regarding compacting technology. The coke produced from the compacted cakes is comparable to well-known qualities from non-recovery coke ovens using top charging technology. The quality of stamp charged heat recovery coke will provide a positive impact on blast furnace performance. 2 refs., 5 figs., 11 photos.

  15. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies


    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  16. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in coke oven workers relative to exposure, alcohol consumption, and metabolic enzymes

    Zhang, J; Ichiba, M.; Hara, K.; S. Zhang; Hanaoka, T.; Pan, G.; Yamano, Y.; K. Takahashi; Tomokuni, K


    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the influence of personal lifestyle—such as smoking and alcohol consumption—on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the association of 1-OHP concentrations with the genetic polymorphism of several metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs).
METHODS—The study population contained 162 coke oven workers and 58 controls employ...

  17. Microwave sintering of sol–gel composite films using a domestic microwave oven

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Matsumoto, Makoto


    Feasibility study of sol–gel composite microwave sintering using a domestic microwave oven was carried out. Two kinds of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders were mixed with PZT sol–gel solution and the mixture was sprayed onto 3-mm-thick titanium substrate. The films were sintered by 700 W domestic oven for 10 min. Ultrasonic measurement was carried out in pulse–echo mode and clear multiple echoes were confirmed. It would be suitable method to fabricate high frequency broadband focused ultrasonic transducers. Further research is required to improve sintering degree.

  18. Development of a combustion control system for Fukuyama No. 4A coke oven battery

    Ohnishi, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Inaba, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Hasebe, S.; Matsumoto, K.


    The simplification and improvement are reported for the combustion control system in use at the No. 5 battery and its application to the No. 4A oven battery at Nippon Kokan's Fukuyama Works. The improved control system includes the following features: new step-type control of O/sub 2/; enhanced temperature control in each oven; the use of CRTs as a man-machine interface (in place of conventional control and indicator boards); monitoring of termination of coking period and of coke pushing; and the preparation of temperature charts and gas component distribution diagrams.

  19. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J


    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  20. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  1. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F


    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  2. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company


    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of air flow and temperature distribution in a small scale bread-baking oven

    Experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the thermal air flow distribution in a 3-zone small scale forced convection bread-baking oven are undertaken. Following industrial bread-making practise, the oven is controlled at different (constant) temperatures within each zone and a CFD model is developed and validated against experimental data collected within the oven. The CFD results demonstrate that careful selection of the flow model, together with implementation of realistic boundary conditions, give accurate temperature predictions throughout the oven. The CFD model is used to predict the flow and thermal fields within the oven and to show how key features, such as regions of recirculating flow, depend on the speeds of the impinging jets.

  4. Optimisation of the energy efficiency of bread-baking ovens using a combined experimental and computational approach

    Highlights: ► A scientific framework for optimising oven operating conditions is presented. ► Experiments measuring local convective heat transfer coefficient are undertaken. ► An energy efficiency model is developed with experimentally calibrated CFD analysis. ► Designing ovens with optimum heat transfer coefficients reduces energy use. ► Results demonstrate a strong case to design and manufacture energy optimised ovens. - Abstract: Changing legislation and rising energy costs are bringing the need for efficient baking processes into much sharper focus. High-speed air impingement bread-baking ovens are complex systems using air flow to transfer heat to the product. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is combined with experimental analysis to develop a rigorous scientific framework for the rapid generation of forced convection oven designs. A design parameterisation of a three-dimensional generic oven model is carried out for a wide range of oven sizes and flow conditions to optimise desirable features such as temperature uniformity throughout the oven, energy efficiency and manufacturability. Coupled with the computational model, a series of experiments measuring the local convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) are undertaken. The facility used for the heat transfer experiments is representative of a scaled-down production oven where the air temperature and velocity as well as important physical constraints such as nozzle dimensions and nozzle-to-surface distance can be varied. An efficient energy model is developed using a CFD analysis calibrated using experimentally determined inputs. Results from a range of oven designs are presented together with ensuing energy usage and savings

  5. Elevated Levels of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, Lymphocytic Micronuclei, and Serum Glutathione S-Transferase in Workers Exposed to Coke Oven Emissions

    Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hong; Lu, Wen-Hong; Yuan, Jing; Nan, Pei-Hong; Sun, Jian-Ya; Zou, Ya-Lin; Zhou, Li-Hong; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Tang-chun


    To investigate associations among occupational exposure to coke oven emissions (COEs), oxidative stress, cytogenotoxic effects, change in the metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST), and internal levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coke oven workers, we recruited 47 male coke oven workers and 31 male control subjects from a coke oven plant in northern China. We measured the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine, micron...

  6. 75 FR 42611 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens


    ... published on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 16040), DOE tested 32 microwave ovens, and the Association of Home... to produce test results which measure energy efficiency, energy use, or estimated annual operating... procedures for other cooking products to measure their efficiency and energy use more ] accurately. 62...

  7. A hybrid optimization algorithm for the thermal design of radiant paint cure ovens

    Continuous paint cure ovens have many important industrial applications. In particular, convection ovens are extensively used in auto industries. Radiation paint cure ovens have attractive features as well and attempts have been made to design the oven and the radiation panels such that the moving loads experience desirable, nearly uniform, heating process. Due to the motion of the load and the variation of the radiation exchange factors during the curing process, the solution of this design problem corresponds to the solution of a dynamic optimization problem. This is computationally demanding in a realistic three-dimensional case and the computational cost needs to be minimized. Two-dimensional test problems provide opportunities for algorithm development and quick evaluation. This paper focuses on the convergence acceleration of this thermal optimization algorithm for a 2D test problem. By combining the features of an optimization algorithm with the capabilities of the neural network method, a hybrid design algorithm is obtained which is considerably faster than the original algorithm. It is shown that by employing a neural network trained by a simplified physical model, the computational cost can be reduced close to an order of magnitude without significant loss of accuracy.

  8. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke...

  9. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke...

  10. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. 63.305 Section 63.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  11. 78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens


    ... addressed active mode energy use only. 62 FR 51976. To address standby mode and off mode energy use, DOE... RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office!docketDetail ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO%252BSR;rpp=25;po=0;D=EERE- 2008-BT-TP-0011. This...

  12. Automation techniques of coke oven moving machines; Kokusuro ido kikai no jidoka gijutsu

    Inayama, A.; Noguchi, H.; Shibata, T. [Kawasaki Steel Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Chiba Works


    In a coke oven plant, four associated moving machines are used for coal charging, coke pushing, coke guiding and transportation. Except quenching cars, which are easy for automation, pusher cars, coal charging cars and coke guide cars had been driven by boarded operators respectively. Since 1994, Kawasaki Steel has been tried to realize the automatic no-man operation of the moving cars, including the pusher car that was considered to be difficult, at Chiba Works No. 6 and No. 7 coke oven plants. Consideration to the oven bodies deteriorated through the respective usage of 19 and 26 years, and preventive function to manual interruption during the detected light fault of equipment, are the key issues to achieve this goal in order to modify and improve the existing equipment. For automation techniques of the moving cars developed at Chiba Works No. 6 and No. 7 coke oven plants, the feature of the automation system and the current operating condition are described in this paper. (author)

  13. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Gernaey, Krist


    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations...

  14. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens


    ... covered product for the DOE microwave oven test procedure. 76 FR 72332, 72336 (Nov. 23, 2011). DOE... cooking product. 76 FR 72332, 72336 (Nov. 23, 2011). \\4\\ In previous stages of this rulemaking, DOE... consumption, or other energy descriptor for each covered product, unless the Secretary determines that--...

  15. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    McFarlane, Ian


    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  16. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)


    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  17. Cyclically controlled welding purge chamber

    Gallagher, Robert L. (Inventor)


    An arrangement for butt-welding cylindrical sections of large, thin-wall tanks includes a rotatable mandrel with side-by-side sets of radial position adjusters. Each set of adjusters bears on one of the tank sections adjacent the seam, to prevent the sections from sagging out-of-round. The mandrel rotates relative to the welder, so that a continuous seam is formed. A purge chamber is fixed in position behind the seam at the weld head, and is flushed with inert gas. The purge chamber includes a two-sided structure which is contiguous with the cylindrical sections and a circumferential vane to form an open-ended tube-like structure, through which the radial position adjusters pass as the mandrel and cylindrical workpiece sections rotate. The tube-like structure is formed into a chamber by a plurality of movable gates which are controlled to maintain a seal while allowing adjusters to progress through the purge chamber.

  18. The HERMES Back Drift Chambers

    al, S. Bernreuther et


    The tracking system of the HERMES spectrometer behind the bending magnet consists of two pairs of large planar 6-plane drift chambers. The design and performance of these chambers is described. This description comprises details on the mechanical and electronical design, information about the gas mixture used and its properties, results on alignment, calibration, resolution, and efficiencies, and a discussion of the experience gained through the first three years of operation.

  19. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber


    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  20. Single Hole Bottom of Coking Chamber Brick Replacement Process%单孔炭化室底砖更换的工艺过程



    Coke oven is composed of a variety of refractory bricks of complex structure of industrial furnace.Coke oven in the production process for many reasons,will make the coke oven refractory brick erosion or damage occurs,in order to ensure continuous production of the coke oven,furnace body of the repair is generally in the hot repair under.The paper briefly introduces the single hole bottom of coking chamber brick replacing the whole process,for reference.%焦炉是由各种耐火砖砌筑而成结构复杂的工业窑炉。焦炉在生产过程中由于很多原因,会使焦炉耐火砖出现剥蚀或损坏,为了保证焦炉的连续生产,炉体的各项维修一般都在热态修补下进行。文章简要介绍了单孔炭化室底砖整体更换的工艺过程,供同行参考。

  1. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Gracitelli CPB


    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  2. Air ionization wire plane chamber

    Radiation Measurement for protection level instrumentation requires large number of detectors. Since the number is large, the detector should be cost effective and yet should have good sensitivity. Gas detectors with presently available microelectronics and signal processing capabilities opened a new era in radiation monitoring. Present paper describes the use of air filled multi anode grid planes as detector for alpha detection. Due to multiple anode wire planes, the charge collection efficiency of the air ionization chamber is higher as compared to conventional ionization chamber. The signal from this Wire Plane Chamber (WPC) has a faster and narrower pulse shape as compared to conventional two-electrode chamber of similar dimensions. The reduction in capacitance also improves the signal to noise ratio so that air can be used as the ionization medium without any special cleaning procedure etc and it may be possible to use even engineering plastic as the structural material for the chamber. The paper gives the results obtained so far with this air ionization chamber. (author)

  3. Enhancement of energy efficiency in a paint curing oven via CFD approach: Case study in an air-conditioning plant

    Highlights: • We use CFD model to simulate air temperature in an industrial-scale paint curing oven. • Comparison of temperature is made for two proposed options to achieve energy saving. • Both proposed options provide the increase in average air temperature for the oven. - Abstract: An oven has been commonly employed to cure powder painted on metal parts for an air-conditioning production. There are many options to improve efficiency in fuel use for the paint curing oven; however some options need deep understanding to prove the possibility of thermal performance. In this work, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling and simulation have been applied to study the temperature distribution and the flow pattern in the paint curing oven on a large scale. The CFD model has been validated against real data. The validated CFD model is used to investigate the temperature distribution and the flow pattern for two proposed options: eliminating stored heat and rearranging airflow. Results demonstrate that both cases provide temperature increase of 1.9 and 1.3 °C for air compared to the present paint curing oven. It can be concluded that the two proposed options are applicable for further implementation to the present paint curing oven

  4. [Aerosol size distribution of organic carbon and elemental carbon on the top of coke oven and in the plant area].

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Peng, Lin; Bai, Hui-Ling; Mu, Ling; Song, Chong-Fang


    In order to investigate the characteristic of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particles on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, the particle matter samples of five size fraction including or = 10.2 microm were collected using Staplex234 cascade impactor, and OC and EC were analyzed by Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH vario EL cube. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with TSP on the top of coke oven were 291.6 microg x m(-3) and 255.1 microg x m(-3), while those in the plant area were 377.8 microg x m(-3) and 151.7 microg x m(-3). The mass concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in particles with size of coke oven. The mass concentration of EC in TSP in the plant area was lower than that on the top of coke oven, while the mass concentration of OC in the plant area was significantly higher than that on the top of coke oven. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with particles less than 10.2 microm in the plant area were far higher than those in the atmosphere of area where the coke plant is located. The OC and EC in particles, which were collected both on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, were mainly enriched in fine particles. The size distribution of OC showed a clear distinction between the coke oven top and the plant area, which revealed that OC in the plant area was more preferably enriched in fine particles than that on the top of coke oven, and the same size distribution of EC was found on the top of coke oven and in the plant area. In the plant area, the mass concentration of SOC and the contribution of SOC to OC increased with the decreasing diameter in particles with diameter of less than 10.2 microm. PMID:24191535

  5. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)


    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by ...

  6. Utilizing results of temperature measurements of gas combustion products in automatic systems for control of coke oven heating

    Balanov, V.G.; Zbykovskii, I.I.; Korneev, Yu.A.; Reznik, M.G.; Goryushkin, V.F. (Donetskii Koksokhimicheskii Zavod (USSR))


    Discusses methods for control of gas temperature in heating systems for coke oven batteries. A mathematical model of temperature distribution in a heating system (flue channels) of a coke oven battery is described. The density of heat flux is used as a complex coefficient characterizing thermal conditions in a heating system. The coefficient is calculated on the basis of analyses of curves that describe temperature fluctuations of flue gases leaving flue channels. Design of a measuring system (thermocouples and thermal converters, site selection for measuring instruments etc.) is discussed. Practical use of the control system for optimization of heat distribution in the heating systems for coke oven batteries is discussed. 10 refs.

  7. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  8. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki


    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  9. Baking Process in Oven and Microwave-oven in Sourdough Enriched with Chickpeas and Dietary Fiber of Prickly pear and Oats

    Héctor Flores-Chávez


    Full Text Available The bread is a basic article dating from the Neolithic era, where it was baked in ovens outside. The first bread was prepared around the year 10.000 b. C. or what is 12.000 years in the past, where should be discovered by experiment with water and flour grains. This first bread was prepared on the basis of toasted seeds and water. The dough was formed and then warmed up on rocks. It was a kind of cake that, without a doubt, was welcomed by the first settlers of the land. The sample added whit oat an increase of crust in 21.25 to 49.25 % compared to the base. On the other hand, samples added whit prickle pear increase relative was 32.25 %. The combined treatment (Microwave (MW –convection oven, the best result is the samples with fiber oats, increased more than the negative control (51 to 63 % of difference; besides the employment of mucilage of prickle pear provides a green color to the final product.

  10. Effect of oven residence time on mechanical properties in rotomoulding of LLDPE



    In rotational moulding of plastics, improving the mechanical properties without sacrificing the processibility is a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of oven residence time on the mechanical properties of the rotationally moulded products made using linear low densitypolyethylene. Simulation studies were conducted using ROTOSIM software to analyze thermal transitions and phase changes during the process. Degree of curing of the polymers was also assessed and correlated with mechanical properties. Experiments were further conducted to obtain favourable oven residence time to obtain highest mechanical properties. Experimental investigation revealed that there exist regions where the part was ‘under-cured’ and mechanical properties were found to be inferior. It was also found that when parts were ‘overcured’, the mechanical properties were severely affected. A regime of favourable processing window was identified where the highest tensile, flexural and impact properties were noticed.

  11. Exposure assessment of microwave ovens and impact on total exposure in WLANs.

    Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Van Den Bossche, Matthias; Tanghe, Emmeric; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc


    In situ exposure of electric fields of 11 microwave ovens is assessed in an occupational environment and in an office. Measurements as a function of distance without load and with a load of 275 ml of tap water were performed at distances of Radiation Protection reference level for occupational exposure and general public exposure, respectively. For exposure at distances of >1 m, a model of the electric field in a realistic environment is proposed. In an office scenario, switching on a microwave oven increases the median field strength from 91 to 145 mV m(-1) (+91 %) in a traditional Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) deployment and from 44 to 92 mV m(-1) (+109 %) in an exposure-optimised WLAN deployment. PMID:25956787

  12. Model Predictive Control with Feedforward Strategy for Gas Collectors of Coke Ovens

    Kai Li; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi; Debin Yin


    In coking process, the production quality, equipment life, energy consumption, and process safety are all influenced by the pressure in gas collector pipe of coke oven, which is frequently influenced by disturbances. The main control objectives for the gas collector pressure system are keeping the pressures in collector pipes at appropriate operating point. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategy is introduced to control the collector pressure system due to its ability to handle constraint and good control performance. Based on a method proposed to simplify the system model, an extended state space model predictive control is designed, which combines the feedforward strategy to eliminate the disturbance. The simulation results in a system with two coke ovens show the feasibility and effectiveness of the control scheme.

  13. Use of vanadium in the production of cryostats and ovens for neutro-crystallographic experiments

    The scattering of neutrons by vanadium is incoherent, and thus this metal is of great interest in the construction of cryostats and ovens. As no diffusion peak is expected at finite angles, the use of vanadium prevents the difference techniques to be used with other materials. Thin vanadium tubes have been manufactured at Saclay which can be soldered or brazed on other metals or alloys. Several techniques of soldering, brazing, etc..., are registered, with which we have obtained non brittle and leak free joints. Description of a cryostat designed to operate at 4 deg. K and of an oven operating between 50 deg. C and 1000 deg. C with very low thermal gradient is given at full length. (authors)

  14. Development and Application of High Quality Silica Brick for Coke Ovens

    WANGHongmei; XIAOChangyu


    As coke oven becoming larger,silica brick for coke oven is required to be of high uqality,Luoyang Refractories(Grop)Co.Ltd.(LRCO) has re-searched the mineralizer which contains Ca2+,R+,Al3+,F-,emphatically and proposed the principle of composite mineralizer basd on the properties of raw materials used .High performance silia brick which is characterized by low thermal expansion rate,good high temperature properties,residual quartz<0.5%,true density 2.31,and high bulk density silica brick for carbonization room with apparent porosity 13% ,bulk density l.96 g/cm3 have been developed and produced successfully by LR-CO.The quality of the bricks has reached the inter-national advenced level.

  15. The CLAS drift chamber system

    Mestayer, M D; Asavapibhop, B; Barbosa, F J; Bonneau, P; Christo, S B; Dodge, G E; Dooling, T; Duncan, W S; Dytman, S A; Feuerbach, R; Gilfoyle, G P; Gyurjyan, V; Hicks, K H; Hicks, R S; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jacobs, G; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kossov, M; Kuhn, S E; Magahiz, R A; Major, R W; Martin, C; McGuckin, T; McNabb, J; Miskimen, R A; Müller, J A; Niczyporuk, B B; O'Meara, J E; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Robb, J; Roudot, F; Schumacher, R A; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R A; Tilles, D; Tuzel, W; Vansyoc, K; Vineyard, M F; Weinstein, L B; Wilkin, G R; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J


    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on the toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  16. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber


    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  17. Particle detection with drift chambers

    Blum, Walter; Rolandi, Luigi


    This volume presents a thorough introduction to the theory and operation of drift chambers, one of the most important modern methods of elementary particle detection. The topics, presented in a text-book style with many illustrations, include the basics of gas ionization, by particles and by lasers, drift of electrons and ions in gases and signal creation and discuss in depth the fundamental limits of accuracy and the issue of particle identification. The book also surveys all types of drift chambers and the various drift-chamber gases in use. The calculation of the device parameters and physical processes are presented in some detail, as is all necessary background material. Thus the treatment, well beyond addressing the specialist in the field, is well suited to graduate physics students and nuclear engineers seeking a both thorough and pedagogical introduction to the field. The second edition presents a completely revised, updated and expanded version of this classic text. In particular, significantly more...

  18. Tohoku one meter bubble chamber

    At the request of Tohoku University and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, IHI has developed a complete freon bubble chamber system successfully, which is used for photo analysis of elementary particles physics. This system will be delivered to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois (U.S.A.) and will be coupled with the superconducting accelerator (TEVATRON) for the study of elementary particles. The total system of the freon bubble chamber is composed of a stainless steel casting spherical bubble chamber with a diameter of about one meter, an expansion system for freon pressure control, hydraulic system for driving an expansion piston, a freon feed system, a temperature control system, an overall control system as well as camera and flashlight for photograph. (author)

  19. The CLAS drift chamber system

    Mestayer, M.D.; Carman, D.S.; Asavaphibhop, B. [and others


    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on a toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  20. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab


    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  1. General purpose nuclear irradiation chamber

    Nuclear technology has found a great need for use in medicine, industry, and research. Smoke detectors in our homes, medical treatments and new varieties of plants by irradiating its seeds are just a few examples of the benefits of nuclear technology. Portable neutron source such as Californium-252, available at Industrial Technology Division (BTI/ PAT), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, has a 2.645 year half-life. However, 252Cf is known to emit gamma radiation from the source. Thus, this chamber aims to provide a proper gamma shielding for samples to distinguish the use of mixed neutron with gamma-rays or pure neutron radiation. The chamber is compatible to be used with other portable neutron sources such as 241Am-Be as well as the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI for higher neutron dose. This chamber was designed through a collaborative effort of Kulliyyah Engineering, IIUM with the Industrial Technology Division (BTI) team, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (Author)

  2. The CLAS drift chamber system

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on the toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements

  3. Evaluation of thermal treatment markers in wheat flour-derived products cooked in conventional and in low-emissivity ovens.

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Corradini, Claudio; Massini, Roberto


    Different markers for the assessment of thermal treatment entity of food products were investigated on a model bread prepared from wheat flour. Samples were submitted to different cooking procedures by combining three different times and temperatures, and employing two different ovens: a low-emissivity oven and a conventional one. The cook value index was calculated for each sample to evaluate the entity of the thermal treatment. Furosine, maltose:maltulose ratio, colour indexes (L, a, b) have been evaluated in all samples. Furosine has been quantified by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, maltose:maltulose ratio was determined by HPAEC-PAD, colour indexes were measured by spectrophotometer method. Values for weight loss during cooking and surface temperature have also been monitored. A statistical analysis showed good correlation between the cook value index and all the parameters evaluated. Low emissivity oven shown higher performances and lower energy consumption than conventional oven. PMID:23692762

  4. Performance evaluation of a full-scale coke oven wastewater treatment plant in an integrated steel plant.

    Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N; Shivaraman, N; Bal, A S


    Wastewater generated during coke-oven gas cleaning operations in the integrated steel plant contains phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate, and also oil and grease. Although the activated sludge process is widely practiced for biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater, it was observed during the evaluation of performance of full scale coke-oven wastewater treatment plant that oil contamination and poor sludge settleability had resulted in poor maintenance of the activated sludge process. Keeping these aspects in view, treatability studies were conducted and an alternative treatment process is proposed. With these corrective measures the coke-oven wastewater treatment plant will give desired performance. In this paper we present results of the performance evaluation, data on treatability studies and alternative treatment process scheme. PMID:14723281

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Distribution for the Pan in a Baking Oven

    Yuanhua Li


    Full Text Available In this study, we give mathematical models to give the heat distribution around the pan’s exterior edges. By applying Fourier's law, the mathematical models of heat distribution are designed. Models of instantaneous heat flux density on the pans in the baking oven are then constructed for pans with different shapes from rectangular to circular. Finally, simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of our methods.

  6. Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology

    Lynch, P.A.


    Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

  7. Genetic damage induced by organic extract of coke oven emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Duan, Huawei; Wang, Yadong; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qingjun; Chen, Wen; Ma, Junxiang; Zheng, Yuxin


    Coke oven emissions are known as human carcinogen, which is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of coke oven emissions induced carcinogenesis and to identify biomarkers of early biological effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line with CYP1A1 activity (HBE-CYP1A1). Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by alkaline and endonucleases (FPG, hOGG1 and ENDO III)-modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The cells were treated with organic extract of coke oven emissions (OE-COE) representing 5, 10, 20, 40μg/mL extract for 24h. We found that there was a dose-effect relationship between the OE-COE and the direct DNA damage presented by tail length, tail intensity and Olive tail moment in the comet assay. The presence of lesion-specific endonucleases in the assays increased DNA migration after OE-COE treatment when compared to those without enzymes, which indicated that OE-COE produced oxidative damage at the level of pyrimidine and purine bases. The dose-dependent increase of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in exposed cells was significant, indicating chromosomal and genomic damage induced by OE-COE. Based on the cytotoxic biomarkers in CBMN-Cyt assay, OE-COE may inhibit nuclear division, interfere with apoptosis, or induce cell necrosis. This study indicates that OE-COE exposure can induce DNA breaks/oxidative damage and genomic instability in HBE-CYP1A1 cells. The FPG-comet assay appears more specific for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of genotoxic substances. PMID:22522113

  8. CO2 recycling by means of reforming of coke oven gas for methanol production

    J. M. Bermúdez


    Full Text Available The steelmaking industry is the largest energyconsuming manufacturing sector. As a consequence of this, the CO2 emissions from this sector account for about 5-7 % of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. For this reason, increasing efforts are being made to find solutions that might help diminish these emissions and increase energy efficiency. A better management of the coke oven gas (COG surplus is one of the proposed solutions...

  9. Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers

    Siwinska, E; Mielzynska, D; Kapka, L


    Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected immediately after a shift at the end of a working week from 50 coke oven workers and 50 control workers not exposed to PAHs. Methods included: (1) biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HpU), urinary mutagenicity by the plate Salmonella test with strains TA98 and YG1024 after metabolic activation, expressed as mutagenic rate (MR98 and MR1024, respectively), urinary cotinine; and (2) biomarkers of biological effects in peripheral blood ...

  10. CO2 recycling by means of reforming of coke oven gas for methanol production

    J. M. Bermúdez


    The steelmaking industry is the largest energyconsuming manufacturing sector. As a consequence of this, the CO2 emissions from this sector account for about 5-7 % of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. For this reason, increasing efforts are being made to find solutions that might help diminish these emissions and increase energy efficiency. A better management of the coke oven gas (COG) surplus is one of the proposed solutions...