WorldWideScience

Sample records for challenges facing rural

  1. Challenges Facing Rural Schools: Implications for Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Rhodes, Megan; Beall, Jimmie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implications for gifted students of challenges facing rural schools. We explore 4 challenges with particular relevance to rural schools: (a) declining population, (b) persistent poverty, (c) changing demographics, and (d) ongoing accountability requirements. Recommendations positioned to address these challenges

  2. Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations

  3. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pholoho, Morojele.

    Full Text Available This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive anal [...] ysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

  4. Priesthood Satisfaction and the Challenges Priests Face: A Case Study of a Rural Diocese in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Jayeel Serrano Cornelio

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from the experience of Catholic priests based in a rural diocese in the Philippines. It will be argued that their satisfaction as diocesan priests is best understood as a religious emotion in spite of the challenges they face on a daily basis. Their challenges revolve around economic limitation, problems with their bishop and leaders, and relational isolation brought about by social and geographic distance. In spite of these challenges, priest-respondents have asserted that...

  5. Common Challenges Faced by Rural Principals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.; Jakubiec, Brittany A. E.; Kooymans, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Within this article, we thematically present common challenges associated with the role of the rural principal. In this literature review, we delimit our search to work published from 2003-2013. A limitation of this study is that it represents data predominantly from American, Canadian, and Australian rural settings, restricting a global…

  6. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  7. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN h...

  8. Health problems facing rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdegbe, A

    1985-01-01

    This discussion identifies some of the health problems experienced by rural women in Africa. The first of these health problems is malaria, which is not exclusively reserved for rural women. Yet, it is they who are most exposed to bites by the mosquitoes which abound more particularly in that country. So involved are they in their daily tasks, they often do not even feel these bites, and negligence and/or lack of information prevents them from taking antimalarial drugs. Only when fever or tenacious headaches occur do they decide to take a few nivaquine pills. Often they simply drink medicinal herb teas said to be "diuretic." Next on the list is malnutrition, with anemia as its corollary. It is caused by ignorance, or lack of information on what food should be eaten; dietary customs and taboos deeply anchored in some families and which deprive women of the nutrients required by their bodies, especially after childbirth; lack of time; and financial difficulties. The problems of malaria and malnutrition affect men and children as well as women, but others are specific to women. Closely spaced pregnancies, which used to be rare in villages, are now increasingly frequent in rural areas. Since planned parenthood is "unknown" in rural areas, most women bear a great many children -- 8-10 or more. Placenta previa is a frequent condition in such women, and often results in the mother's death, sinc the delivery was done in a poorly equipped center and the diagnosis was only made at the beginning of labor. Since women are constantly concerned with doing the most for their family and satisfying all of their needs, they never rest during the day, are excessively tired, and only sleep 5-6 hours a night. In addition to their own specific health problems, mothers often are obliged to spend their nights watching, alone, over 1 or more sick children. In sum, these are some of the everyday problems encountered in rural areas: the lack of information on health matters; the distance from health centers; limited financial resources in the rural population; and the precariousness of means of transportation, and the absence of an emergency transferral system. PMID:12340716

  9. The Challenges Women Whistleblowers Face

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Hunt

    2010-01-01

    Women Whistleblowers face unique challenges in the workplace.The headline news of ethical concerns in business is transforming the workplace culture and the workforce. More women are beginning to step forward when ethical concerns arise. However they experience gender differences within the corporate culture when they come forward. Women often approach ethical concerns in a different manner than men. This article will bring research to this issue and uncover the unique challenges that women e...

  10. El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pacheco Contreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal.An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

  11. El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* / Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Pacheco Contreras; Gonzalo, Gómez Vásquez; Gabriel, Barrero Tapias.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivam [...] ente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal. Abstract in english An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challeng [...] es of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

  12. Challenges facing European Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lachman, Desmond; de Grauwe, Paul; Kösters, Wim; Mabbett, Deborah; Schelkle, Waltraud; Matthes, Jürgen; Pisani-Ferry, Jean; Sapir, André; Häde, Ulrich; Gros, Daniel; Mayer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    While past discussions on EMU tended to emphasise its role in limiting the impact of the global financial crisis on the euro area countries, the focus has now shifted to the destabilising effects threatening the entire euro zone as a consequence of the dire fiscal situation in some weaker member countries, notably Greece. Will the EMU be able to pass the first serious challenge it faces or is it a fair-weather construction with basic design flaws? What options are available to policymakers?

  13. Challenges faced by the state- funded rural women’s co-operatives in reducing poverty in the Mbhashe area, Eastern Cape Province

    OpenAIRE

    Bambeni, Ntobeko

    2013-01-01

    Co-operatives are seen as one of the appropriate strategies for intervention in eradicating poverty in rural communities. During the financial year 2007-2008 the Department of Social Development and Special Programmes pronounced on the availability of funds in its budget for the establishment of women’s co-operatives and other livelihood community projects. The initiative of funding rural women’s cooperatives was one of the interventions to address high poverty and unemployment...

  14. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Of the approximately ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  15. EU REGIONS FACING OLD AND NEW CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA MIKLÓSNÉ ZAKAR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available EU regions have to face a lot of social, environmental and economic challenges. In addition the economic turbulence has been causing a lot of changes in the world, affecting the regions of the community, too. This study focuses on these challenges and tries to present the EU’s answers formulated as a response to these issues.

  16. Exploring the challenges faced by polytechnic students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.

  17. Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas...

  18. Challenges Facing Techinical Training in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharia K. Mbugua; George M. Muthaa; Antony K. Sang

    2012-01-01

    Technical education is necessary if Kenya is to industrialize by the year 2030. Relevant skills have to be given in Technical training institutions. The training in T.T.Is should therefore be market driven. The current study was designed to investigate on challenges facing skill training in T.T.Is. This study focused on the adequacy of training facilities, relevance of facilities, relevance of curriculum and the trainers’ level of qualifications. Descriptive survey research design was used fo...

  19. Challenges and opportunities facing contractors in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Laryea, Samuel Amartei

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to ascertain and discuss the current challenges and opportunities facing construction contractors in Ghana. This involved a review of the economic, legal and political environments in which contractors in Ghana operate; a review of published studies on construction in developing countries generally and Ghana specifically; and in-depth interviews and discussions with seven building and civil engineering contractors in Ghana in 2009 and 2010. Six road contractors ...

  20. RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu Apostol; Florin-Constantin Mihai

    2012-01-01

      Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems in compliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural pop...

  1. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Luiza DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.

  2. Plasma facing components: Challenges for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current fusion devices, the components located in front of plasma, the so-called plasma facing components (PFCs), sustain severe constraints such as high thermal flux (several MW/m2), erosion, flux of particles. The management of this first material interface is critical from a plasma performance point of view. ITER, as nuclear facility, is initiating a new era for fusion, which will be reinforced for a future fusion power plant which will add specific requirements (sufficient lifetime, a cooling system to produce energy, use of low activation material) while increasing nuclear constraints. The talk will recall in a first part the main requirements of an actively plasma facing components and the main results obtained with low-Z carbon based PFCs (mainly CFC). Experimental feedback from these challenging components is an essential step for the success of the next generation of components, in particular in term of manufacturing or handling intense heat loads. Nuclear safety requirements mainly drive the need of new materials for the nuclear phase of ITER. The tritium retention in carbon based PFCs and the strong erosion are expected to be too high in the Deuterium-Tritium phase with CFC targets, justifying the use of high-Z materials. The evolution toward high-Z materials, with tungsten the most promising, becomes a major challenge for fusion research. Large scale experiences with W have only been obtained recently with the operation of ASDEX-upgrade and JET tokamaks but with non-actively cooled PFCs. ASDEX-upgraded is equipped with W coated carbon PFCs while JET includes W coated carbon PFC and inertially cooled solid W, using in all cases a technology not relevant for ITER. Extensive R and D programmes have been performed in Europe to develop reliable actively PFCs for ITER [1-5]. The state of the art will be presented including specific devices needed to fully qualify, at laboratory scale, designs foreseen for ITER. In order to reduce the risks and anticipate any difficulties ITER may face in terms of manufacturing or operation, it is proposed to update Tore Supra with a full W first wall and divertor, benefiting from the unique long pulse capabilities of the Tore Supra platform, the high installed power and the long history of operation with actively cooled high heat flux components [6]. The main goals of the 'WEST' project (W - for tungsten -Environment in Steady-state Tokamak, figure 1) will be presented. The talk will also address acknowledged gaps in PFCs developments for DEMO, which require extensive studies in different topics, from plasma-surface interaction to engineering including material sciences. Further challenges address simultaneously the higher power density, high-temperature wall, bulk (neutron) and surface (charged particle) accumulated damage. The high neutron fluence expected in a fusion reactor (more than 10 dpa/year) will affect erosion and tritium retention properties of materials. Near-surface material properties will be for instance altered by the neutron damage. Such synergistic effects are expected to be important in the DEMO environment and are difficult to be addressed experimentally. A more robust coupling of materials development, including fundamentally studies, with advanced design is required. If tungsten is the most promising material for the plasma-facing, tungsten also offers less favorable properties (recrystallization, which influences the mechanical properties, embrittlement as a result of neutron-induced damages, He-induced sputtering..) that have to be resolved. Only a global approach, including fundamental science, material development, joining/welding techniques, design innovation and a close link with plasma physics is able to reach the necessary level of credibility for operating such components in a fusion environment in an economically reasonable way. (authors)

  3. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  4. Major Challenges of Iranian Rural Communities for Achieving Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kalantari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural population in Iran live in an unstable environment and geographically, villages are extremely diverse and more than 65% of them have population less than 250 persons, which do not provide sufficient population threshold for most of services and sustainable economic and job creation activities. Only 7.5% of rural areas have population more than 1000 persons. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out major challenges of Iranian rural communities for achieving sustainable development. Approach: To fulfill this objective, 60 rural development experts who are engaged in government organizations relevant to rural development, were randomly selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbachs alpha of 0.83. To arrive to consensus of experts opinion, factor analysis was used to achieve data reduction and extract factors. Results: In total, 5 factors, including "economic", "management and planning", "environmental", "social" and "physical challenges" were identified. These factors explained 65.52% of challenges to achieving sustainable development in rural areas in Iran. Conclusion: Diversification of rural economy, supporting job creation activities, promoting sustainable rural tourism, business and industrial activities, establishing a stable urban-rural network are among important agenda which can create an appropriate condition for sustainable development in Iranian rural communities.

  5. Droughts and water scarcity: facing challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luis S.

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity characterizes large portions of the world, particularly the Mediterranean area. It is due to natural causes - climate aridity, which is permanent, and droughts, that are temporary - and to human causes - long term desertification and short term water shortages. Droughts aggravate water scarcity. Knowledge has well developed relative to all processes but management tools still are insufficient as well as the tools required to support appropriate planning and management. Particularly, new approaches on tools for assessing related impacts in agriculture and other economic and social activities are required. Droughts occur in all climates but their characteristics largely differ among regions both in terms frequency, duration and intensity. Research has already produced a large number of tools that allow appropriate monitoring of droughts occurrence and intensity, including dynamics of drought occurrence and time evolution. Advances in drought prediction already are available but we still are far from knowing when a drought will start, how it will evolve and when it dissipates. New developments using teleconnections and GCM are being considered. Climate change is a fact. Are droughts occurrence and severity changing with global change? Opinions are divided about this subject since driving factors and processes are varied and tools for the corresponding analysis are also various. Particularly, weather data series are often too short for obtaining appropriate answers. In a domain where research is producing improved knowledge and innovative approaches, research faces however a variety of challenges. The main ones, dealt in this keynote, refer to concepts and definitions, use of monitoring indices, prediction of drought initiation and evolution, improved assessment of drought impacts, and possible influence of climate change on drought occurrence and severity.

  6. Sustaining the Rural Workforce: Nursing Perspectives on Worklife Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Mabel; Baumann, Andrea; Blythe, Jennifer; Crea, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Context: Concerns have been raised about the sustainability of health care workforces in rural settings. According to the literature, rural nurses' work satisfaction varies with the resources and supports available to respond to specific challenges. Given the probable effects of stressors on retention, it is essential to understand the unique…

  7. Summer Programming in Rural Communities: Unique Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan

    2007-01-01

    During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional loss, and…

  8. What are the challenges facing our industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  9. What are the challenges facing our industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  10. RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Apostol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems incompliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural population access to waste collection services in 2008 which reflects the geographical distribution of rural dumpsites in 2009. It examines on one hand , the role of waste management services to reduce illegal dumping and on the other hand, the dysfunctions of traditional waste management system from ruralareas and their implications on local environment.

  11. Challenges and Opportunities of Indian Rural Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pardeep Kumar1

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior to globalisation of Indi...

  12. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

  13. Disadvantaged Rural Health ? Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ?upside-down? perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location?allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  14. Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

    2014-01-01

    Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE) generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentral...

  15. Nurse educator's competencies: facing the challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Dury, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    This symposium proposes presentations related to nurse educators competencies and the challenges links to their new roles. The evolution of the nurses training at the European level asks the teacher to develop high-level disciplinary skills but also educational skills. There are lots of challenges to develop nurse educator competencies. The role of the teachers is not any more to transmit disciplinary knowledge but to become experts in group management, colleagues teamwork, reflective practic...

  16. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  17. Developing IT Infrastructure for Rural Hospitals: A Case Study of Benefits and Challenges of Hospital-to-Hospital Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Madhu C.; Purao, Sandeep; Kelly, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study identifying benefits and challenges of a novel hospital-to-hospital information technology (IT) outsourcing partnership (HHP). The partnership is an innovative response to the problem that many smaller, rural hospitals face: to modernize their IT infrastructure in spite of a severe shortage of resources. The investigators studied three rural hospitals that outsourced their IT infrastructure, through an HHP, to a larger, more technologically advanced hospital in t...

  18. Challenges facing holographic models of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    This paper, written in memory of Manoj Banerjee, takes a critical look at holographic models of QCD focusing on ``practical'' models in which the five dimensional theory is treated classically. A number of theoretical and phenomenological challenges to the approach are discussed.

  19. Early sex -- early motherhood: facing the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the causes and consequences of adolescent sex behavior and adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. The article opens by noting that adolescents give birth to 15 million babies annually despite their increased risk resulting from biological and social vulnerability. Risky sex behavior is seen to result from gender power imbalances and from "clustering" of high-risk behaviors. Lack of contraceptives, particularly condoms, increases risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease or HIV infection as well as the risk of pregnancy. Adolescent sexual activity also doubles the lifetime risk of acquiring cervical cancer. Pregnant adolescents are more likely than mature women to have eclampsia or obstructed labor with its attendant complication of obstetric fistula. Adolescents are also less likely to seek prenatal care and face a higher risk of death during delivery. Adolescents also account for a large proportion of abortion complications because they undergo illegal or late procedures. Babies born to adolescents risk low birth weight, prematurity, and a higher rate of perinatal mortality. Adolescent mother also face social ostracism and reduced ability to acquire a job or education. Research into adolescent sexuality is best undertaken with the input of adolescents themselves (an example is the World Health Organization's narrative research method). Adolescent health can be promoted by creation of a safe and supportive environment and by provision of 1) information, 2) opportunities for adolescents to develop skills to negotiate sexual encounters, 3) counseling, and 4) youth-friendly adolescent health services. PMID:12292434

  20. Heart Transplantation: Challenges Facing the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsho, Makoto; Michel, Sebastian; Ahmed, Zain; Alessandrini, Alessandro; Madsen, Joren C

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the field of heart transplantation over the last 45 years. The 1-yr survival rates following heart transplantation have improved from 30% in the 1970s to almost 90% in the 2000s. However, there has been little change in long-term outcomes. This is mainly due to chronic rejection, malignancy, and the detrimental side effects of chronic immunosuppression. In addition, over the last decade, new challenges have arisen such as increasingly complicated recipie...

  1. Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M.

    2001-11-01

    Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems.

  2. Theoretical Economics Faces a Serious Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Da?hel, Jaroslav; Duchá?ková, Eva; Radová, Jarmila

    2010-01-01

    The authors of the article point out that the theory of economics has failed to yield a solid theoretical background in such critical situations as the transformational period of post-communist economies and the period of the current financial and economic crisis. While classical liberal or Keynesian concepts are failing, theorists cannot look to mathematical modeling for help. The challenge for today’s theoretical economists is to find a new concept for today’s global era.

  3. Rural trauma and emergency medical service challenges in a sample of Western States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Jolene R; Werner, Susan; Wilson, Susan; Sanddal, Nels; Conditt, Vicki; Sale, Peggy; Mann, Clay; Nemec, Jennie; Jones, Johnathan J; Sandeno, Grace; Hartford, Diane

    2010-01-01

    State trauma system managers from the western region meet annually to identify and address health care issues, particularly those related to trauma care access and delivery. In each of these states, policy makers face a host of convergent problems: declining populations, rapid growth, low incomes, and high poverty rates. Challenges of providing emergency medical services to largely rural states include geographic barriers of vast expanses of unpopulated landmass, provision of services across mountain ranges, volcanoes, and extreme weather conditions, communication challenges due to lack of cell or radio coverage in some areas, and difficulty recruiting and retaining trained personnel. PMID:20838164

  4. Innovation in the face of future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chairman of the Senate Commission for Industry. Tourism and Commerce emphasises the legitimate ambition felt by the citizens of all democratic States with respect to safety and underlines his trust in the regulatory body. He analyses the interesting example of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, true reflection of the democracy achieved in the country, from the standpoint of its history, the functions that have been added to its realm of competence in recent years environmental radiological surveillance, intervention in emergencies and activities at non-regulated facilities- and the need for it to adapt, within a framework of overall consensus, to improve its response to future challenges and to the goal of promoting credibility and forging a closer relationship with the public. (Author)

  5. Heart transplantation: challenges facing the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsho, Makoto; Michel, Sebastian; Ahmed, Zain; Alessandrini, Alessandro; Madsen, Joren C

    2014-05-01

    There has been significant progress in the field of heart transplantation over the last 45 years. The 1-yr survival rates following heart transplantation have improved from 30% in the 1970s to almost 90% in the 2000s. However, there has been little change in long-term outcomes. This is mainly due to chronic rejection, malignancy, and the detrimental side effects of chronic immunosuppression. In addition, over the last decade, new challenges have arisen such as increasingly complicated recipients and antibody-mediated rejection. Most, if not all, of these obstacles to long-term survival could be prevented or ameliorated by the induction of transplant tolerance wherein the recipient's immune system is persuaded not to mount a damaging immune response against donor antigens, thus eliminating the need for chronic immunosuppression. However, the heart, as opposed to other allografts like kidneys, appears to be a tolerance-resistant organ. Understanding why organs like kidneys and livers are prone to tolerance induction, whereas others like hearts and lungs are tolerance-resistant, could aid in our attempts to achieve long-term, immunosuppression-free survival in human heart transplant recipients. It could also advance the field of pig-to-human xenotransplantation, which, if successful, would eliminate the organ shortage problem. Of course, there are alternative futures to the field of heart transplantation that may include the application of total mechanical support, stem cells, or bioengineered whole organs. Which modality will be the first to reach the ultimate goal of achieving unlimited, long-term, circulatory support with minimal risk to longevity or lifestyle is unknown, but significant progress in being made in each of these areas. PMID:24789875

  6. NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBE Claudia-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  7. What challenges do foundation phase teachers experience when teaching writing in rural multigrade classes?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janet, Condy; Bernita, Blease.

    Full Text Available A one-size-fits-all curriculum cannot address the issues faced by rural multigrade teachers and learners. In South Africa, despite government efforts to relieve adversity, poverty in rural areas is still rife and poor education still fails to lift people out of it (Joubert 2010). Equality is essenti [...] al in ensuring that all South African children have access to quality education where they can learn in an environment free from bias and discrimination (Asmal 2001). Bronfenbrenner's social ecological systems theory underpinned this study. The purpose of this research was to identify the challenges experienced by two foundation phase teachers in teaching writing. This research was a qualitative study embedded within an interpretive case study. The following factors became evident: poor socio-economic backgrounds, transport, parental illiteracy, and teacher challenges that include the following subthemes: reading problems, differentiated teaching, resources, the language of teaching and learning, and writing support from the Western Cape Education Department (WCED).

  8. Computerization of Rural Banks in Ghana-Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses issues and challenges encountered in a computerization project being carried out by the ARB Apex Bank to connect rural and community banks in Ghana. Computerization of banking has been going on in the country for some time now. Unlike the commercial banks, the rural banks lag behind with regards to computer and networking technologies. The ARB Apex Bank therefore embarked on the project to make the benefits of such technologies available to member rural banks. The study selected some rural banks engaged in the first phase of the project. Fifty respondents sampled from staff of the selected banks and experts involved in the project, were interviewed. The study concluded that, on the whole, the project was well designed and implemented; envisaged challenges were adequately specified and catered for and that the first phase progressed successfully. Staff beneficiaries were found to be actively involved in the project and majority of them agreed that the project was within time and budget. The study identified that, on completion, the project will enable the rural banks compete favourably with the commercial banks in the financial market. This will lead to improved service delivery to customers and greater customer satisfaction. In addition, complete computerization and networking will lead to improved monitoring of rural banks in order to reduce financial malpractices. The project will also promote intra/inter bank transactions, peer interaction and peer monitoring among the networked members. The aggregate returns will bring greater efficiency, lower cost of operation and increased profitability and sustainability to the Ghanaian rural banks.

  9. Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Jin-zhao WANG

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key tren...

  10. The challenges of implementing quality improvement in small rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busteed, S; Barwick, S; Grubb, L

    1994-01-01

    In the five years since launching its QI initiative, Mason General Hospital has dealt with many of the challenges that commonly arise in healthcare organizations during TQM implementation, including involving physicians and training staff. It also had to address a host of issues common to small rural organizations. At first glance, one might suspect that the move toward QI would be easier in a small organization because there are fewer leaders to orient, fewer people involved in work processes, and fewer levels of management. In fact, the small organization presents special challenges, including limited staff and financial resources, high turnover rates in key medical staff leadership positions, and small sample sizes. The strategies used by Mason General Hospital to respond to these and other challenges provide a model for small rural healthcare organizations. PMID:10136743

  11. Developing IT Infrastructure for Rural Hospitals: A Case Study of Benefits and Challenges of Hospital-to-Hospital Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Madhu C; Purao, Sandeep; Kelly, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study identifying benefits and challenges of a novel hospital-to-hospital information technology (IT) outsourcing partnership (HHP). The partnership is an innovative response to the problem that many smaller, rural hospitals face: to modernize their IT infrastructure in spite of a severe shortage of resources. The investigators studied three rural hospitals that outsourced their IT infrastructure, through an HHP, to a larger, more technologically advanced hospital in the region. The study design was based on purposive sampling and interviews of senior managers from the four hospitals. The results highlight the HHP's benefits and challenges from both the rural hospitals' and vendor hospital's perspectives. The HHP was considered a success: a key outcome was that it has improved the rural hospitals' IT infrastructure at an affordable cost. The investigators discuss key elements for creating a successful HHP and offer preliminary answers to the question of what it takes for an HHP to be successful. PMID:18436901

  12. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  13. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya : Outstanding challenges and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals participating in school computerization programs often have not carefully considered the contextual questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might there be better avenues for implementing access to the benefits of the digital age? These questions and the issue of school computerization are considered via results from a survey of thirtyseven rural Kenyan primary public schools. Results indicate that, while all schools had low ICT status making them primary targets for computerization, only eleven percent had at least one ICT compliant teacher, of which all were considered to require further training. In addition we found inadequate infrastructural preparedness - lack of access to electricity, internet; no classroom computer space, few desks, secure walls and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome many of the technical challenges found.

  14. Boom or Bust: Opportunities and Challenges of Aging in Rural Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bolender

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Population aging is gaining a great deal of attention as we move toward the retirement of the Baby Boom generation. However, few studies have examined the processes and consequences of these aging trends in rural Kansas-and by extension, the Great Plains-at the community level. To that end, this project examines the community level impacts of population aging in rural Kansas. Primary methods included statistical community profile comparisons, site visits, and key informant interviews with local area leaders. The research team examined three non-metropolitan Kansas counties, two that were aging in place and one that is the single officially defined retirement migration destination in Kansas. Results indicate that areas that are aging in place also face significant challenges sustaining their population and economic structure. The retirement destination, on the other hand, has managed to slow population loss and economic decline through a certain combination of economic structure, family relations, local culture, and appropriate services.

  15. Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

  16. On outsourcing and offshoring : Challenges facing management and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying ...

  17. European Food Regulation After Enlargement: Facing the challenges of diversity

    OpenAIRE

    ZUREK, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a critical legal perspective on the current direction of EU food regulation. Analysing three regulatory mechanisms - mutual recognition, scientific risk regulation and standardisation - in the evolution of food legislation in the EU, the book shows the inadequacy of the current framework in facing the challenges of enlargement. Using the particular experience of a new member state, Poland, the book argues that enlarged Europe must not disregard diverse socio-economic implic...

  18. Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Maybery

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

  19. Scenario of Rural Electrification in India- Challenges and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the present scenario of rural electrification in India is taken into account. Basically, the electrification in this country is facing a lot of problem and is a growing matter of concern for all. The development in production is not reaching the one who need them. Also taking into picture the present sources of energy it is difficult to make the electricity available to the people belonging to rural areas who don’t have much source of income. To overcome this drawback we can utilise renewable sources of energy which is easily available and accessible. Also harvesting this will not cost much except the initial cost of setting up the device to utilise this type of energy. Many projects have been initiated by the government of India to provide subsidy and equipments like solar lantern and solar cooker etc. to the rural population but this didn’t turn out to be effective as the follow could not be done by the people to maintain the devices. This can be overcome by implementing off-grid projects which can be initiated at small levels so that people don’t have burden to maintain them and it even don’t have any adverse effect to environment or society.

  20. Environmental Sustainability: The Challenge for the Rural Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluko, T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given our settlement pattern as evident in Nigeria, it is expedient to note that the country's population spread has shown considerably that we have older women and children dwelling within the rural areas of the country and doing subsistence job on their respective farms so as to keep them going. Given this trend, their quest for survival at the face of the eminent economic pressures has sent many into pursuing vigorously the best option in survival strategy with utmost aim of making life bearable for them within the changing society of ours by their subsisting on nature. The consequences of such effort demonstrated the government's total neglect of women's need. Therefore, this study looked at these issues from the feminist perspective as they relate to women's need. Also, the plight of the rural dwelling women, their survival strategy, the poverty syndrome and the planned action of the government in the effect to salvage the impending problems which women's quest for survival in the rural areas will cause the Nation as a whole have been studied. Our submission is arrived at as a result of our observations in villages such as Eye-Korin, Gambari, Lasoju, Gbede and Ote among others in Asa Local Government are of Kwara State in Nigeria. Consequently, this study proposes a premise for the re-awakening of all parties to the needs of not just women alone, but the environment that all must collectively preserve lest the consequential effects which such neglect will cause will be enormous.

  1. Challenges faced by e-healthcare comparative data warehouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, V

    2001-01-01

    More and more healthcare facilities are equipping themselves with DSS systems and looking at their own data in a benchmarking manner. Some are considering accessing data from other healthcare facilities to decrease costs while improving quality of care. Many vendors claim to have that information. Some redistribute publicly available data; others actively seek information from a multitude of facilities. Those vendors are faced with many challenges as they try to provide information that is meaningful and usable for their clients. This article explores some of these challenges, particularly the data and technical challenges. It addresses the issues of standardizing data, as well as the technology to manage and secure that information, and provides examples that illustrate solutions that some vendors have implemented. PMID:11452580

  2. Challenges Faced by Expatriate Workers in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Naithani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last six decades, reliance of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries’ economy on expatriate workforce has increased incessantly. Majority of private sector workforce in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries are expatriates. Recent attempts by governments in GCC countries to localise the workforce, through their workforce nationalisation programmes, have offered limited results. Thus dependence on expatriate workforce will continue in near future and GCC countries, short of professionally and technically qualified local workers will need to employee a large number of expatriates to support their economic and social developments plans. This calls for a systematic approach to understand the specific challenges faced by expatriates of different nationalities in GCC countries, so that these challenges can be addressed to enable GCC countries to become a preferred destination for technically and professionally qualified expatriate workers. This paper presents an overview of GCC countries; reasons for their dependence on expatriate workforce; key current challenges faced by expatriates in GCC countries and suggestions for facilitating adjustment of expatriate workers in GCC countries.

  3. Surveying Education : Facing the Challenges of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a relevant discipline to surveying. But it does imply that the focus of the surveying profession is changing from being very much related to doing measurements´to now being increasingly related to management of the measurement processes, the geospatial data, and the property and land-use regimes. In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.

  4. Regulatory challenges faced first Indonesia NPPs by independent TSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)

  5. Console to council: challenges facing new radiologic managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2008-01-01

    Succession planning is a critical component to ensuring the continual, smooth operation of an organization. An aim of this article is to help current managers inspire staff, like the radiologic technologist, to begin training for a position in radiology management today. This paper discusses the assumptions made when a technically competent radiographer is promoted to the role of manager. It highlights some specific challenges she will face, such as the acquisition and modifications of skill sets, relationships with former peers, communicating with new colleagues, and the emotional uncertainty of new stressors during the assimilation process. This article offers guidance for a successful management career by breaking down these key foundational skills. PMID:18953981

  6. Agente comunitário de saúde: desafios do trabalho na zona rural / Community health agents: the challenges of working in the rural area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renan Almeida, Baptistini; Tulio Alberto Martins de, Figueiredo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de abordagem qualitativa objetivando conhecer os desafios do trabalho dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde na zona rural de Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar se estes ACS, no atendimento das demandas dos usuários rurais, além de suas atividades instituídas, buscam formas diferenciadas de prod [...] uzir a sua prática. A produção do material do estudo se deu através de entrevistas e da observação. A Análise Institucional norteou a análise deste estudo. O extenso território de abrangência das USF, a grande dispersão demográfica, os acessos distantes e difíceis aos domicílios, as formas de locomoção, os animais e as visitas domiciliares no período da colheita do café foram os principais desafios do cotidiano laboral do ACS rural. Diante destes desafios e na obrigação de cumprir as ações instituídas, os ACS rurais de Jerônimo Monteiro inovam e buscam formas diferenciadas de produzir a sua prática. Abstract in spanish Este estudio cualitativo busca identificar los retos de la labor de los trabajadores de salud comunitarios en las zonas rurales Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar si estos ACS, para satisfacer las demandas de los usuarios rurales y sus actividades instituyó, buscando diferentes maneras de producir [...] su práctica. La producción del material de estudio se recogió a través de entrevistas y observación. El Análisis Institucional guiado el análisis de este estudio. La amplia cobertura de la USF territorio, la gran dispersión demográfica, la distante y difícil de acceder a viviendas, formas de locomoción, los animales y las visitas domiciliarias durante la cosecha de café fueron los principales desafíos de la labor diaria de la campo ACS. Ante estos retos y la obligación de cumplir con las medidas impuestas, la ACS rural Jerônimo Monteiro innovar y buscar diferentes maneras de producir su práctica. Abstract in english The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify the challenges Community Health Workers (CHW) face in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro - ES and assess whether in the course of meeting the demands of rural health service users, CHWs seek different ways of carrying out their activities, over [...] and above institutionalized practice. The study material was collected through interviews and observation, following an Institutional Analysis perspective. The extension of the Family Health Unit (FHU), its large demographic dispersion, the fact that homes are distant and difficult to access, forms of locomotion, animals, and home visits during the coffee harvest constituted the main challenges of the daily work of CHWs in rural areas. Given these challenges and the need to fulfil with their assigned activities, CHWs working in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro innovate and seek different ways to develop their practice.

  7. Challenges Faced by Refugee New Parents from Africa in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M; Dennis, C L; Kariwo, M; Kushner, K E; Letourneau, N; Makumbe, K; Makwarimba, E; Shizha, E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines challenges faced by refugee new parents from Africa in Canada. Refugee new parents from Zimbabwe (n = 36) and Sudan (n = 36) were interviewed individually about challenges of coping concurrently with migration and new parenthood and completed loneliness and trauma/stress measures. Four group interviews with refugee new parents (n = 30) were subsequently conducted. Participants reported isolation, loneliness, and stress linked to migration and new parenthood. New gender roles evoked marital discord. Barriers to health-related services included language. Compounding challenges included discrimination, time restrictions for financial support, prolonged immigration and family reunification processes, uncoordinated government services, and culturally insensitive policies. The results reinforce the need for research on influences of refugees' stressful experiences on parenting and potential role of social support in mitigating effects of stress among refugee new parents. Language services should be integrated within health systems to facilitate provision of information, affirmation, and emotional support to refugee new parents. Our study reinforces the need for culturally appropriate services that mobilize and sustain support in health and health related (e.g., education, employment, immigration) policies. PMID:24989494

  8. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  9. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  10. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  11. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  12. Facing up to the challenges of advancing Craniofacial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Paul A; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of craniofacial disorders has led to tremendous advances in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial anomalies. However, the genetic, environmental, and developmental sources of many craniofacial disorders remain unknown. To overcome this problem and further advance craniofacial research, we must recognize current challenges in the field and establish priority areas for study. We still need (i) a deeper understanding of variation during normal development and within the context of any disorder, (ii) improved genotyping and phenotyping and understanding of the impact of epigenetics, (iii) continued development of animal models and functional analyses of genes and variants, and (iv) integration of patient derived cells and tissues together with 3D printing and quantitative assessment of surgical outcomes for improved practice. Only with fundamental advances in each of these areas will we be able to meet the challenge of translating potential therapeutic and preventative approaches into clinical solutions and reduce the financial and emotional burden of craniofacial anomalies. PMID:25820983

  13. Policy Choices and Challenges in Expanding Access to Finance for Growth in Rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E. Akinlo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian financial system has witnessed significant growth over the years. Thephenomenal growth and high financial depth can be attributed in part to the country’s vastnetwork of financial institutions, including rural finance.Improvements in rural finance notwithstanding, the supply of formal finance appears tobe biased against the rural population. Rural communities remain centre of deprivationsinspite of the various efforts at increasing financial services to them by the Governmentand the CBN. This therefore raises the following questions: what are the constraints andchallenges of providing financial services in the rural areas? What are the policy initiativesthat can be introduced to improve rural financial services in Nigeria? Hence the mainobjective of the paper is to examine the challenges and ways to improve rural financialservices in Nigeria.Keywords: rural finance, growth, infrastructure, microfinance institutions.

  14. Study of Different Face Recognition Algorithms and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Shankar Kurmi; Dheeraj Agrawal; R. K. Baghel

    2014-01-01

    At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA) or Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face...

  15. Urban and rural dimensions in post-disaster adjustment challenges in selected communities in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Usman Adebimpe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human populations are exposed to climate change directly through changing weather patterns as manifested in the more frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in ecosystem functions. Rainstorm disasters are common events associated with environmental change and settlements in Kwara state, Nigeria were ravaged by rainstorm events between 2003 and 2006. More than 1000 households were displaced from their habitual homes with consequences for human health and other adjustment challenges. This paper examines the variations in the post-disaster adjustment challenges of rural and urban households so as to identify location specific intervention strategies in the domains of environ- ment and health of the victims. A sample of 200 households was drawn from all households affected by rainstorm disaster as reflected in the FEMA records during the period. A structured questionnaire was administered in addition to the secondary data and analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The  findings include that most households required support before replacing the roofs and/or walls of their homes. Sources of support however vary. Urban households received more institutional support but lower than the amount required for the renovation. A signifficant proportion of urban households moved to poorer homes where they faced challenges relating to the quality of environmental services. Many urban respondents also reported increases in the occurrence of water-borne and weather-related diseases and ailments. Rural households indicated no signi$cant ecological differences between their former homes and the areas to which they relocated. The paper concludes that signi$cant variations exist in the adjustment challenges faced by rural and urban dwellers after a disaster. Community efforts hold promise for emergency response particularly during disasters in rural areas.

  16. A Feasible Rural Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincy Meera Mathews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

  17. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  18. "If Only Someone Had Told Me ...": Lessons from Rural Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipp, Cody; Dewane, Sarah; Brems, Christiane; Johnson, Mark E.; Warner, Teddy D.; Roberts, Laura W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Health care providers face challenges in rural service delivery due to the unique circumstances of rural living. The intersection of rural living and health care challenges can create barriers to care that providers may not be trained to navigate, resulting in burnout and high turnover. Through the exploration of experienced rural

  19. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  1. Material Challenges For Plasma Facing Components in Future Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions. Here a considerable fraction of the plasma energy is deposited on a localized surface area in the divertor strike zone; the time scale of these events is typically in the order of 1 ms. As a consequence, thermal shock induced crack formation, vaporization, surface melting and droplet ejection as well as particle emission induced by brittle destruction processes will limit the lifetime of the components. This is also valid for instabilities in the plasma positioning (vertical displacement events) which cause irreversible damage to plasma facing components, particularly to the metallic wall armour. Moreover, dust particles (neutron activated or toxic metals or tritium enriched carbon) are a serious concern form a safety point of view. In order to investigate the thermally induced plasma wall interaction under fusion specific thermal loads, high heat flux simulation tests are performed routinely in electron or ion beam test facilities as well as in quasi stationary plasma devices. These experiments cover thermal fatigue loads and/or thermal shock tests with relevant operational loading conditions. Furthermore, the wall bombardment with 14 MeV neutrons in D-T-burning plasma devices and the resulting material damage are another critical issue, both, from a safety point of view, but also under the aspect of the component lifetime. While the integrated neutron fluence in ITER will be only in the order of 1 dpa (displacements per atom), future devices such as DEMO or commercial fusion reactors will experience integrated neutron wall loads of 80 to 150 dpa. Therefore the development of new radiation resistant materials and their testing under realistic conditions is required. Due to the lack of an intense 14 MeV neutron source, complex neutron irradiation experiments are performed in material test reactors to quantify the neutron-induced material damage. These tests provide a valuable data base on the degradation of thermal and mechanical parameters. (author)

  2. On outsourcing and offshoring : Challenges facing management and engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying the research area, (2) Illustrating the current situation and the desired situation, and the gap between these (the descriptive study), (3) Illustrating how to close this gap (the prescriptive study I) and (4) Validating these results (the prescriptive study II). Two descriptive studies were carried out as case studies with seven Danish multinational corporations. A total of 57 semi-structured interviews were conducted with top managers, daily managers and expatriates. In study 1 four areas were investigated: (1) the global product development process in the investigated case companies, (2) the challenges they experienced, (3) the solutions they implemented, and (4) the impact of these solutions. In the descriptive study 2 the use of expatriates were investigated in relation to their role in the organisation when globalising the product development process. Through investigating seven Danish multinationals it became clear that global product development had an impact on both management and engineering projects within the companies. The globalisation of the product development process started with manufacturing activities and later more high value adding activities like product design and R&D were added until some companies had globalised the whole product development process. The globalisation of the product development process seems to consist of four phases: 1. Motivation to move abroad. 2. Preparation phase. 3. Implementation phase. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. 4. Managing the relationship. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. Only top management was involved in these first two phases. In implementation and managing the new global projects and relationships, the daily managers and expatriates were responsible. In these phases the companies faced organisational problems and complications with the technical and managerial aspects of the engineering projects. The problems within management were similar to those previously reported in literature, mainly related to culture, knowledge sharing and coordination but also change management and organisational structures and processes. The problems within engineering were related to product and process modularity as well as the ii knowledge properties of the product. These problems resulted in delays, misunderstandings and quality issues. The novel aspect of the empirical investigation was the in-depth understanding of how these challenges were addressed in the company to try and maximise the perceived benefits from globalising the product development process. The daily managers implemented a series of initiatives to address these; mainly codification of knowledge, streamlined communication, training, bringing more tasks out to ensure contact between vital elements, make the product development process less complex, make the product less complex and detailed work descriptions. There was, in other words, a focus on control and minimizing risk. The result of these solutions impacted on the product, the product development process and the organisation. Some of these impacts were positive and some were negative. The positive impacts of the solutions were related to a better understanding of work processes and the supply chain whereas globalisation itself provided the possibility for an increased product portfolio and products which were better suited to local markets. The negative impacts were for example, that the product development process became slower and less integrated whereas the organisation became more focused on codified knowledge and writte

  3. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND LABOUR SUPPLY CHALLENGES IN THE UK: THE ROLE OF NON-UK MIGRANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Anne E.; Hoyos, Maria de; Owen, David; Jones, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Characteristic features of the demographic structure of rural areas in the UK include net out-migration of young adults and an older than average age profile. These features pose a labour supply challenge for rural areas. However, many rural areas are experiencing in-migration (from other parts of the UK and overseas) and there has been considerable policy emphasis on capturing the skills of migrants to enhance local economic development. To date, the role of non-UK mig...

  4. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  5. Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of the introduction of the nuclear power plants is under investigation taking into account various important changes due to new realities. Therefore, the safety and fuel cycle aspects, especially the long term program on the back-end fuel cycle, utilizing the existing facilities is also maintained. The construction of a laboratory for carrying out research and development on radio-ecology and marine environmental studies is being planned to support the radioactive waste management for the future nuclear power plants. Considering the need to maintain the energy related research and development and the need for clean water, the study on the utilization of a high power research reactor for generating process heat, hot vapour, and producing clean water as well as electricity is being carried out. The possibility of the construction of this research reactor is being studied. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to co-operate with other countries to support her nuclear research and development programme in various fields due to the fact that she has to overcome her chronic challenges that are perhaps also faced by other countries, i.e. to have a better understanding, perception, appreciation, and support from decision makers, social leaders, scholars, and the whole community nationally and internationally on the importance of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. (author)

  6. Logistic support in rural areas – the idea and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.

  7. Challenges in responding to the ebola epidemic - four rural counties, Liberia, August-November 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Aimee; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Montgomery, Joel M; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; T, Nyenswah; M, Fahnbulleh; M, Massaquoi

    2014-12-19

    The first cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa were identified in Guinea on March 22, 2014. On March 30, the first Liberian case was identified in Foya Town, Lofa County, near the Guinean border. Because the majority of early cases occurred in Lofa and Montserrado counties, resources were concentrated in these counties during the first several months of the response, and these counties have seen signs of successful disease control. By October 2014, the epidemic had reached all 15 counties of Liberia. During August 27-September 10, 2014, CDC in collaboration with the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare assessed county Ebola response plans in four rural counties (Grand Cape Mount, Grand Bassa, Rivercess, and Sinoe, to identify county-specific challenges in executing their Ebola response plans, and to provide recommendations and training to enhance control efforts. Assessments were conducted through interviews with county health teams and health care providers and visits to health care facilities. At the time of assessment, county health teams reported lacking adequate training in core Ebola response strategies and reported facing many challenges because of poor transportation and communication networks. Development of communication and transportation network strategies for communities with limited access to roads and limited means of communication in addition to adequate training in Ebola response strategies is critical for successful management of Ebola in remote areas. PMID:25522089

  8. The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Scott J; Newbronner Elizabeth V; Pedler Mike J; Sheldon Trevor A

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; asses...

  9. The present-day rural family: a challenge for nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer, Eda Schwartz, Teila Ceolin, Rita Maria Heck

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to think over the rural family, relating it with health and Nursing in a contemporary context. Methodology: to develop the test, a bibliographical research was done conducted with authors from different areas (political, economic, social and health in books and articles, as well as the experience of the authors to make the reflexive analysis on rural households. Results: the increasing transformations in family structure dynamics and functionality, both in urban and rural environments, it is necessary to get to know family peculiarities such as culture, beliefs and health habits in order to care for these families. This set of values varies from one group to another. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to reflect on the family dimension in this context, as the rural environment occupies an unfavorable rank as to public service access, and this favors social inequalities and poverty.

  10. Lessons on rural development, challenges and approaches / Lecciones del desarrollo rural, desafíos y enfoques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Absalón, Machado.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia manejó una política de desarrollo rural durante 25 años bajo los modelos impuestos en América Latina desde los años setenta. Esta política tuvo un avance progresivo hacia un desarrollo descentralizado y más participativo dirigiéndose hacia un concept de desarrollo territorial rural. Sin emb [...] argo, por múltiples las causas el Programa DRI, convertido en Fondo de Cofinanciamiento, se dio por terminado cuando empezaba el segundo quinquenio de los años noventa. El cambio de las políticas proteccionistas hacia una desregulación, la cooptación del programa por los políticos, así como la poca capacidad y decisión del Estado para sustituirlo con otras alternativas que estabilizaran las sociedades rurales, ayudaron a la desaparición de esta política. Abstract in english For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, t [...] he Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist policies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.

  11. Standing by Their Principles: Two Librarians Who Faced Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen; Leu, DaNae; Venuto, Dee Ann

    2015-01-01

    What do school librarians fear most? Hands down, their biggest fear is a formal challenge to a resource in the school library. There are no accurate statistics about the number of challenges to school library resources. The staff of ALA's Office for Intellectual Freedom estimates that only about 20 percent are reported to ALA annually. For the…

  12. Facing Today's Exploration Challenges in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detomo, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico today, their challenge is to "safely, responsibly and profitably find and produce reduced accumulations in increasingly hostile settings." The GoM serves as the sportsman's playground for a significant population located in and around its waters, and therefore, operating safely and responsibly are unassailable moral and operational standards by which we sustain future development, and maintain our license to operate. With that as a backdrop, today's challenges are driven by the nature of where the business is looking for new reserves in this extremely mature basin. These "Opportunities" encompass the following: 1) large, under-explored, sub-salt areas, characterized by poor seismic imaging, uncertain geologic regimes and potentially dangerous overpressures, 2) deep true-vertical-depth opportunities in older rocks that challenge our understanding of reservoir quality prediction and hydrocarbon systems, and are at the edge of today's drilling technologies, 3) access to sensitive areas including the eastern GoM-Florida shelf, coastal areas and international borders, 4) challenging "small accumulation" discoveries that cannot support expensive appraisal or development options, are remote to infrastructure or inefficiently produce the reservoir, and finally 5) new play development, which is challenged by long maturation cycles, small acreage blocks, intense international competition, and rapid lease rolls. This talk will consider what Shell and the Oil & Gas Industry does today to succeed in this arena, and specifically will show examples of the role of technology in meeting these challenges. I will briefly discuss likely future challenges and emerging and upcoming technologies that might help to meet these challenges.

  13. Challenges Faced by Financial Accounting and Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui HOU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Benefiting from economic globalization, China has stepped up its economy, which is especially shown by the continuous development of internet technology in the 20 century. The trend of informatization has seeped into every aspect of life, including financial accounting. It has broken the limitation of traditional accounting, bringing financial accounting new opportunities and challenges. This paper analyzesthe situation of financial accounting in China, explains the challenges from economic environment, production and business operation, organizational structures, and information processing and transferring, and provided suggested solutions accordingly. Key words: Financial accounting; Informatization; Corporate management; Challenges

  14. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal elimination of HIV/AIDS.

  15. Sexuality Education in Rural Lesotho Schools: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khau, Mathabo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a "vaccine" against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of the fight…

  16. Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students’ presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative content analysis was employed to examine the challenges faced by international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral acade...

  17. Challenges that face Kiswahili Usage in ICT in NEPAD Secondary Schools in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jagero Juliet Akinyi; Peter Maina Matu

    2011-01-01

    Despite the various efforts to enable Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), users of Kiswahili language in ICT have continued to face various challenges. This paper discusses the various challenges that face Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software’s: Chavakali and Maranda Boy’s secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two theori...

  18. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration), and employment. The paper concludes wi...

  19. Facing up to the Challenges of Advancing Craniofacial Research

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Trainor; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of cranio...

  20. The opportunities and challenges for shared decision-making in the rural United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William A; Barr, Paul J; Castaldo, Mary G

    2015-06-01

    The ethical standard for informed consent is fostered within a shared decision-making (SDM) process. SDM has become a recognized and needed approach in health care decision-making. Based on an ethical foundation, the approach fosters the active engagement of patients, where the clinician presents evidence-based treatment information and options and openly elicits the patient's values and preferences. The SDM process is affected by the context in which the information exchange occurs. Rural settings are one context that impacts the delivery of health care and SDM. Rural health care is significantly influenced by economic, geographical and social characteristics. Several specific distinctive features influence rural health care decision-making-poverty, access to health care, isolation, over-lapping relationships, and a shared culture. The rural context creates challenges as well as fosters opportunities for the application of SDM as a natural dynamic within the rural provider-patient relationship. To fulfill the ethical requirements of informed consent through SDM, it is necessary to understand its inherent challenges and opportunities. Therefore, rural clinicians and ethicists need to be cognizant of the impact of the rural setting on SDM and use the insights as an opportunity to achieve SDM. PMID:26013844

  1. Horizontal drilling for onshore gas faces many challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that even though cost-effective in oil fields and some prolific offshore gas fields, horizontal well technology has not yet been successfully transferred to onshore gas fields. The major technical challenges are accurate reservoir characterization, proper well design and placement, and stimulation. The first two of these challenges can be met with the state-of-the-art technologies but the third requires emerging knowledge, tools, and techniques. To determine the application of horizontal wells to typical gas reservoirs in the continental U.S., the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated an applied research and development project in late 1990

  2. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  3. Facing and Overcoming Sensitivity Challenges in Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Boebinger, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    In the Spring of 2013, NMR spectroscopists convened at the Weizmann Institute in Israel to brainstorm on approaches to improve the sensitivity of NMR experiments, particularly when applied in biomolecular settings. This multi?author interdisciplinary Review presents a state?of?the?art description of the primary approaches that were considered. Topics discussed included the future of ultrahigh?field NMR systems, emerging NMR detection technologies, new approaches to nuclear hyperpolarization, and progress in sample preparation. All of these are orthogonal efforts, whose gains could multiply and thereby enhance the sensitivity of solid? and liquid?state experiments. While substantial advances have been made in all these areas, numerous challenges remain in the quest of endowing NMR spectroscopy with the sensitivity that has characterized forms of spectroscopies based on electrical or optical measurements. These challenges, and the ways by which scientists and engineers are striving to solve them, are also addressed.

  4. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real c...

  5. AlgaePARC: facing the challenges of microalgae mass production

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, M.J.; Bosma, R.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Algal production needs to develop from a craft to a major industrial process. Major challenges are to reduce production costs and energy requirements and increase production scale. Although microalgae are not yet produced at large-scale for bulk applications, recent advances – particularly in the methods of systems biology, genetic engineering, process control, and biorefinery – present opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable and economical way within the next 10 to 15 years. A...

  6. The United Nations in the Face of Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Villar

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the 50th anniversary of the birth of the United Nations Organization (UN, this article takes a look at the role which this international organization has played on the international stage and sets out the great challenges which this has to confront today, especially since the transformation of the international system from 1988 onwards and the beginning of (what has been called the end of the Cold War. These challenges are the following: peace-keeping and international security in an increasingly complex and unstable world, the promotion and protection of Human Rights throughout the world and the challenge of development.At the same time, the process of institutional reform taken up by the UN in order to make its various organs more efficient and the obtaining of the necessary financial resources and their putting to more efficent use are also discussed. In this context, the reform of the Security Council as well as in the economic and social sector, the financial problem and the changes made in the organization of the Secretariat are also analysed.The article concludes with the positive evaluation that whatever the imperfections of the UN, the world today would be much less safer and just if it did not exist.

  7. Problemas enfrentados por extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural / Problems faced by Brazilian rural extensionists and their relationship with their conception of rural extension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Pablo, Landini.

    Full Text Available Tanto na América Latina como no Brasil assistimos a um retorno e fortalecimento do interesse público pela extensão rural. Neste trabalho, são analisados os problemas enfrentados na sua prática por uma amostra de extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural. C [...] inquenta e dois extensionistas rurais de diferentes estados responderam a uma enquete enviada por e-mail. Concluiu-se que (1) as dificuldades associadas com o trabalho grupal ou em parceria entre agricultores são o problema mais mencionado, (2) nos técnicos, tende a persistir uma perspectiva difusionista da extensão rural, mesmo contra as diretrizes participativas e dialógicas estabelecidas pela política pública e (3) existe um olhar autocrítico limitado dos extensionistas, os quais tendem a ver os produtores como problema. Abstract in english In both, Latin America and Brazil, rural extension is recovering acknowledgment in the context of public policy. In this paper, the problems faced in their practice by a sample of Brazilian rural extensionists are described and how they relate to their conception of rural extension is analyzed. 52 r [...] ural extensionists of different Brazilian states were surveyed via email. It is concluded that (1) difficulties related to group or associate work among farmers are the most mentioned, (2) a diffusionist conception of rural extension tend to persist, even against the participatory and dialogical principles established by public policy and (3) rural extensionists have a limited self-critical attitude and tend to perceive the farmers as a problem.

  8. Problemas enfrentados por extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural / Problems faced by Brazilian rural extensionists and their relationship with their conception of rural extension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Pablo, Landini.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanto na América Latina como no Brasil assistimos a um retorno e fortalecimento do interesse público pela extensão rural. Neste trabalho, são analisados os problemas enfrentados na sua prática por uma amostra de extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural. C [...] inquenta e dois extensionistas rurais de diferentes estados responderam a uma enquete enviada por e-mail. Concluiu-se que (1) as dificuldades associadas com o trabalho grupal ou em parceria entre agricultores são o problema mais mencionado, (2) nos técnicos, tende a persistir uma perspectiva difusionista da extensão rural, mesmo contra as diretrizes participativas e dialógicas estabelecidas pela política pública e (3) existe um olhar autocrítico limitado dos extensionistas, os quais tendem a ver os produtores como problema. Abstract in english In both, Latin America and Brazil, rural extension is recovering acknowledgment in the context of public policy. In this paper, the problems faced in their practice by a sample of Brazilian rural extensionists are described and how they relate to their conception of rural extension is analyzed. 52 r [...] ural extensionists of different Brazilian states were surveyed via email. It is concluded that (1) difficulties related to group or associate work among farmers are the most mentioned, (2) a diffusionist conception of rural extension tend to persist, even against the participatory and dialogical principles established by public policy and (3) rural extensionists have a limited self-critical attitude and tend to perceive the farmers as a problem.

  9. Quality of Life of Family Caregivers: Challenges Faced in Care of the Lung Cancer Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Fujinami, Rebecca; Otis-Green, Shirley; Klein, Linda; Sidhu, Rupinder; Ferrell, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Family caregivers (FCGs) of lung cancer patients face multiple challenges which impact their quality of life and well-being. Whether challenged physically, emotionally, socially or spiritually, distress in one area may compound challenges in other areas. In order to maintain function and health of FCGs as they provide valuable care for the health and well-being of the patient, attention must be given to the needs of FCGs for support and education. The purpose of this article is to describe th...

  10. Power distribution faced with the challenges posed by competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of liberalization, the increasing share of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, ambitious generation objectives and technological evolution are the key drivers that require substantial investments in the distribution grid. The most urgent challenges are to adapt the network architecture and operation, modernize and improve metering equipment, renovate existing facilities. The Energy Regulatory Commission sets the price to be paid by users of the distribution grid; this price is set rather low, in order to encourage the system operator to make productivity gains. But resultant low income may deprive the operator of the financial resources needed to adapt the system to the new conditions. (authors)

  11. Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Tomkinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ?wicked? problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students? attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ?wicked problems?.

  12. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  13. KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Kanungo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, more than ever before in human history, Tthe Growth of nations depends on the quality of higher education. Those with a larger collection of skills and a greater capacity for learning can look forward to lifetimes of unmatched economic fulfillment. But in the coming decades the poorly educated face little better than the tedious prospects of lives of quiet desperation. There are no great ideological battles or debates that are confronting the world anymore. The doctrine of liberal democracy has emerged as the most suitable and acceptable form of governance. 20th century broadly redefined the role of the state to provide education, healthcare, rule of law, and infrastructure development to enable every citizen to fulfill their potential, irrespective of their social position. In today’s knowledge economy, it is an indisputable fact that quality education is mandatory to fulfilling one’s potential and is the key for vertical mobility and economic growth, and an educated population is the precondition for economic prosperity of any nation. The main purpose of a higher education system is to add real value to human resources, and produce wealth creators and leaders in all fields – business, professions, politics, administration, and creative pursuits.

  14. Imaging Challenges for the ITER Plasma Facing Components Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ITER actively cooled tokamak is the next-generation fusion device which will allow studying the burning plasma during hundreds of seconds. ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) real-time protection will be mandatory to minimize operational risks as critical heat flux leading to degradation of PFCs and eventually to water leak. Thanks to Tore Supra expertise in actively cooled tokamak and long pulse operation, urgent research and development actions are presented and discussed addressing the feasibility and the performances of the PFCs protection function foreseen in ITER using a network of wide angle visible and IR imaging systems (VIS/IR WAVS). Three major steps addressing PFCs protection have been reached. First, the contribution of reflected light that could disturb the measurement of surface temperature has been taken into account through an industrial physic-based Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Secondly, an integrated software and hardware framework validated on existing fusion devices has been proposed. In addition, extended functionalities to analyze and understand in real-time the huge volume of images produced by the VIS/IR WAVS have also been developed. Finally prototypes of ITER first mirrors have been built and tested with successful first results. These results demonstrate that a more precise definition of the functional specifications of the entire imaging system can be obtained addressing both machine protection and plasma performance. (author)

  15. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  16. Acute Stroke Care at Rural Hospitals in Idaho: Challenges in Expediting Stroke Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, James G.; Norris, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Thrombolytics are currently the most effective treatment for stroke. However, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for initiation of thrombolytic therapy, most notably the 3-hour time limit from symptom onset, have proven challenging for many rural hospitals to achieve. Purpose: To provide a snapshot of…

  17. The Diverse Educational Needs and Challenges of Information Technology Teachers in Two Black Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Elsa; Bailey, Roxanne; Havenga, Marietjie; Breed, Betty; Govender, Desmond; Govender, Irene; Dignum, Frank; Dignum, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the first phase of a research project aimed at the empowerment of Information Technology (IT) teachers in black rural schools in the North-West province of South Africa. In order to empower these IT teachers, the first phase aimed at understanding their unique challenges and needs. Qualitative research methodology was used…

  18. Mars can wait: facing the challenges of our civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoffrey; Gershwin, M Eric; Bercovich, Dani

    2014-12-01

    We are overwhelmed by warnings about inevitable geophysical and human problems. Earth is beset by escalating, manmade, environmental crises and our exploding population will eventually lack water, food and vital materials. This suggests, together with increasing poverty, deepening social unrest and advanced techniques for mass killing, that civilization will break down long before atmospheric CO2 or resistant microbes become catastrophic. Despite intensive searching, life has not been found in space, even though thousands of planets have been found and life there may be as problematic and unpredictable as on Earth. The human brain is already a 'universe', with 85 billion neurons and a hundred trillion synapses, more than the stars in our galaxy. Understanding consciousness, the brain, its aging and pathologies, and eliminating the propensity for human aggression are urgent challenges. During 1958-2012, NASA spent $800 billion. In contrast, the annual cost of brain disease in the U.S. is $600 billion, more than cardiovascular disease and cancer combined. We suggest that a massive switching of financial and human resources is required to explore the full potential of the human brain. Visiting Mars can wait. We further propose a novel Two-Brain Hypothesis: the animal 'brain' evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs: one electroionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access)--a relatively independent, stable, structured and functional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting EM fields. PMID:25630201

  19. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavone ME

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ellen Pavone,1 Brianna M Lyttle2 1Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition characterized by specific histological, molecular, and clinical findings. It affects 5%–10% of premenopausal women, is a cause of infertility, and has been implicated as a precursor for certain types of ovarian cancer. Advances in technology, primarily the ability for whole genome sequencing, have led to the discovery of new mutations and a better understanding of the function of previously identified genes and pathways associated with endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs that include PTEN, CTNNB1 (?-catenin, KRAS, microsatellite instability, ARID1A, and the unique role of inflammation in the development of EAOC. Clinically, EAOCs are associated with a younger age at diagnosis, lower stage and grade of tumor, and are more likely to occur in premenopausal women when compared with other ovarian cancers. A shift from screening strategies adopted to prevent EAOCs has resulted in new recommendations for clinical practice by national and international governing bodies. In this paper, we review the common histologic and molecular characteristics of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, risks associated with EAOCs, clinical challenges and give recommendations for providers. Keywords: clinical, molecular, pathways, inflammation, premenopausal

  20. Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villafuerte-Castrejón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry.

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannaga AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anxiety

  2. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."

  3. Evaluation of the unique challenges facing family farms in South Africa / Jeanette Robberts

    OpenAIRE

    Robberts, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    The economic landscape of most nations remains dominated by family businesses. Therefore, it is fitting that academia has begun to recognise the importance of family business studies. Family businesses are here to stay. Families who work together and live together face certain unique challenges that other families do not face. They have more opportunity for closeness and, at the same time, there is more opportunity for disagreement. Paradoxically, many of their outstanding strengths are also ...

  4. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    OpenAIRE

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Automated person recognition (APR) based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry), or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement). The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as ...

  5. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.

  6. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr SM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole system and together improve service user outcomes.Keywords: strategic aims, planning processes, productive working, reducing waste, primary care, service user outcomes.

  7. The Enormous Challenge faced by China to Reduce Earthquake Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Mooney, W. D.; Wang, B.

    2014-12-01

    In past six years, several big earthquakes occurred in Chinese continent that have caused enormous economic loss and casualties. These earthquakes include the following: 2008 Mw=7.9 Wenchuan; 2010 Mw=6.9 Yushu; 2013 Mw=6.6 Lushan; and 2013 Mw=5.9 Minxian events. On August 4, 2014 the Mw=6.1 earthquake struck Ludian in Yunnan province. Althought it was a moderate size earthquake, the casualties have reached at least 589 people. In fact, more than 50% of Chinese cities and more than 70% of large to medium size cities are located in the areas where the seismic intensity may reach ? or higher. Collapsing buildings are the main cause of Chinese earthquake casualties; the secondary causes are induced geological disasters such as landslide and barrier lakes. Several enormous challenges must be overcome to reduce hazards from earthquakes and secondary disasters.?1?Much of the infrastructure in China cannot meet the engineering standard for adequate seismic protection. In particular, some buildings are not strong enough to survive the potential strong ground shaking, and some of them did do not keep away from the active fault with a safe distance. It will be very costly to reinforce or rebuild such buildings. (2) There is lack of the rigorous legislation on earthquake disaster protection. (3) It appears that both government and citizen rely too much on earthquake prediction to avoid earthquake casualties. (4) Geologic conditions is very complicate and in need of additional studies, especially in southwest of China. There still lack of detail survey on potential geologic disasters, such as landslides. Although we still cannot predict earthquakes, it is possible to greatly reduce earthquake hazards. For example, some Chinese scientists have begun studies with the aim of identifying active faults under large cities and to propose higher building standards. It will be a very difficult work to improve the quality and scope of earthquake disaster protection dramatically in the coming years due to the factors mentioned above. Nevertheless, a broadly based program of earthquake hazard reduction in urban areas has begun.

  8. Progress and challenges of the rural cooperative medical scheme in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyue Meng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem During China’s transition to a market economy in the 1980s and 1990s, the rural population faced substantial barriers to accessing health care and encountered heavier financial burdens than urban residents in paying for necessary health services. Approach In 2003, China started to implement a rural cooperative medical scheme (RCMS, mainly through government subsidies. The scheme operates at the county level and offers a modest benefit package. Local setting In spite of rapid economic growth since the early 1980s, income disparities in China have increased, particularly between rural and urban populations. In response, the government has put greater emphasis on social development, including health system development. Examples are the prioritization of improved access to health services and the reduction of the burden of payment for necessary services. Relevant changes After 10 years of implementation, the RCMS now provides coverage to the entire rural population and has substantially improved access to health care. Yet despite a drop in out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure, paying for necessary services continues to cause financial hardship for many rural residents. Lessons learnt In its first decade, the RCMS made progress through political mobilization, government subsidies, the readiness of the health-care delivery system, and the availability of a monitoring and evaluation system. Further improving the RCMS will require a focus on cost containment, quality improvement and making the scheme portable.

  9. POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES FOR RURAL FOOD INDUSTRY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Kadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food processing industry is of enormous significance for India’s development because of the vital linkages and synergies that it promotes between the two pillars of the economy; namely, ‘industry’ and ‘agriculture’. India is the second largest producer of food in the world and has the potential to become a leading producer of food. Food-processing industry is facing constraints like non-availability of adequate infrastructural facilities, lack of adequate quality control & testing infrastructure, inefficient supply chain, seasonality of raw material, high inventory carrying cost, high taxation, high packaging cost, affordability and cultural preference of fresh food. Unprocessed foods are prone to spoilage by biochemical processes, microbial attack and infestation. Good processing techniques, packaging, transportation and storage can play an important role in reducing spoilage and extending shelf life.

  10. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    OpenAIRE

    Bell Jennifer; MacRae Susan K; Breslin Jonathan M; Singer Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto...

  11. Innovations to meet the challenges faced by EDF power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current challenges facing all electricity suppliers essentially result from market requirements, market liberalisation and the requirements for environmental and climate protection. EDF is accordingly focussing its activities on innovative areas in terms of individual generation options - such as nuclear energy, fossil-fired power plants and hydroelectric power generation. The challenges require both technical and organisational solutions, as shown by the grid instability in western Europe on November 4th 2006, for example. (orig.)

  12. The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) pl...

  13. An Analysis of Business Challenges Faced by Foreign Multinationals Operating the Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jianlian Wu

    2009-01-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has presented numerous opportunities and challenges for foreign firms there. Many large corporations have established a China centre to coordinate and control their operations in the country. As firms have increased their presence in China, their concerns are increasingly focused on implementing successful management practices and strategies. This article describes the challenges and difficulties that multinational companies faced in Chinese market. It analyses r...

  14. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi-structured interviews with successful rural school administrators who serve campuses currently rated recognized or higher on the Texas Education Agency accountability system. The qualitative data analysis employed the coding of interviews and observations that allowed for and sought emergent themes and alternative rural perspectives.

  15. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  16. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    JOVANOVIC Verka; MANIC Emilija

    2012-01-01

    Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The...

  17. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…

  18. BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence AROKIASAMY

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.

  19. Opportunities to Meet Challenges in Rural Prevention Research: Findings From an Evolving Community-University Partnership Model

    OpenAIRE

    Spoth, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Various rural prevention research challenges have been articulated through a series of sessions convened since the mid 1990s by the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Salient in this articulation was the need for effective collaboration among rural practitioners and scientists, with special consideration of accommodating the diversity of rural areas and surmounting barriers to implementation of evidence-based interventions. This paper summarizes ...

  20. Faces of Change. Five Rural Societies in Transition: Bolivia, Kenya, Afghanistan, Taiwan, China Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman N., Ed.; Spitzer, Manon L., Ed.

    The multidisciplinary film project focuses attention on what is happening to rural populations of the world, particularly among developing countries. The roles of women, education, social and economic systems, and the effects of modernization on values are themes explored in each of five rural settings--Bolivian highlands, northern Kenya, northern…

  1. Personal and professional challenges in the management of deliberate self-poisoning patients in rural Sri Lanka: a qualitative study of rural hospital doctors' experiences and perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley Nick A; de Silva Dhammika; Adams Jon; Senarathna Lalith; Dawson Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncoopera...

  2. From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazil to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

  3. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  4. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural

  5. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpoolin...

  6. Minor rural road networks: values, challenges, and opportunities for biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Spooner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Roads corridors are a conspicuous part of most landscapes, which are gaining greater recognition for their role in nature conservation. However roads cause wildlife mortality, alter water and nutrient flows, change local microclimatic conditions, act as vectors for weeds and pest animals, and have other far-reaching effects. Not surprisingly, there is much attention from both road and conservation managers to lessen these impacts, with an emphasis on developing solutions to mitigate the barrier effects of major roads to wildlife movements. However in many anthropogenic landscapes, road corridors can also provide key habitat and connectivity for local biodiversity. In particular, where traffic volumes are low, minor roads often provide critical habitat and refuge for many native species. Knowledge of the ecology and biodiversity conservation values of minor rural road verges has been underpinned by studies in various contexts, such as sunken roads, field margins and hedgerow networks in Europe, to stock routes in Spain and Australia. Despite their different histories and management constructs, important commonalties have been highlighted in terms of their biodiversity values, and the factors which influence these values. As such, minor rural road networks can be vital in providing connected, functioning ecosystems within rural landscapes. The importance of vegetated minor rural road networks will only become more pressing with future climate change. In Australia, road management authorities are tasked with the dual roles of maintaining road transport needs (i.e. priorities for road maintenance and safety concerns, whilst maintaining the environmental values of roads. This paper reviews the biodiversity values of minor rural roads, discusses the challenges and constraints in managing these values, and describes the case of identifying historic roads as an example of enhancing conservation management of these important habitats in rural landscapes.

  7. A New World for Museum Marketing? Facing the Old Dilemmas while Challenging New Market Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Komarac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it into a link between museums and visitors. This article attempts to give current insights into museum marketing as part of the arts marketing field. Its aim is also to identify and explain some of the major challenges and opportunities facing everyday museum business, in order to provide insight into the complex world of museum marketing. Former findings about the development of museum marketing and its biggest changes and challenges are presented, summarized and analyzed.

  8. Addressing mental health challenges facing the "Next America": A call for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Melton, Gary B

    2015-09-01

    Provides an editorial addressing future mental health challenges. The articles in this issue highlight the need to create environments conducive to promoting the well-being of future generations. The articles build on symposia held by the American Orthopsychiatric Association in 2015, which focused on the effects on well-being of changing sociodemographics and labor market trends. Included in these pages are articles that lay out some of the challenges young people today face and strategies for helping them transition to adulthood successfully. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460709

  9. Management Innovation in Brazilian Technology Companies: The Challenges Faced by Managers in the Practice of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Luan Carlos Santos Silva; João Luiz Kovaleski; Silvia Gaia; Pedro Paulo de Andrade Júnior

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to analyze the process of innovation management in technology companies in an Informatics Nucleus in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was qualitative and by the point of view of its nature was applied. It was also characterized as a descriptive research. In order to face challenges in the market, managers of companies from Informatics Nucleus must continually innovate in their processes by acquiring new organizational knowledge and showing an ent...

  10. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    OpenAIRE

    Viáfara John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their ...

  11. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to...

  12. Facing new challenges: a proposal of information services organization in hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Olívia

    2013-01-01

    When facing the new challenges launched by the present financial cenarios, health information services in the context of hospitals can transform health information management in a way that facilitates not only progress in services, but also organizational success. We present a model of the (re) organization of information services in hospitals, having as its theoretical-epistemological reference, the post-custodial and informational paradigm of Information Science, which conveys a holistic vi...

  13. Challenges Facing Sustainable Real Estate Marketing and Practice in Emerging Economy: Case Study of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayotunde Olawande Oni; Michael Adedayo Adebayo

    2012-01-01

    The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtained...

  14. Techno-politics, Internet Governance and some Challenges Facing the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    RASMUSSEN, Terje

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the Internet as a terrain of techno-political controversies between various cultures with their interests and values, which have influenced the development of the Internet since the start. I describe what I call techno-political cultures of the Internet and then examine the dynamics of the RFC/IETF/ISOC and the recent Internet Governance Forum (IGF) as regulatory instances that are expected to handle the challenges of the Internet. It is argued that the Internet faces som...

  15. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Julie O'Connor; Martha Geiger

    2009-01-01

    We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and exp...

  16. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVANOVIC Verka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

  17. Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii

    2012-01-01

    This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, ...

  18. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  19. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougang Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

  20. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  1. Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Rivkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

  2. Identity Issues and Challenges Faced by Russian Immigrants in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maydell

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the processes cosmopolitan societies undergo at the present moment, is the unprecedented increase in mass migration across cultures. What challenges are faced by both immigrants, who have to settle in novel socio-cultural environments, and by the host populations accepting them? The current qualitative study investigates the nature of identity construction among Russian-speaking immigrants in New Zealand, applying thematic analysis for the interpretation of the data collected via 23 in-depth interviews. Among the most common themes articulated by the participants was the feeling of identity loss. A taken-for-granted sense of identity, brought by the participants from their culture of origin, was not validated by their new society of residence, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cultural resources. The participants were faced with a challenge of re-constructing their old identity, or constructing a new one, utilising the available resources in the community around them. At the same time, there was a sub-group for whom this challenge brought the realisation that the nature of their identity is cosmopolitan, rather than located within any particular culture or geographical space.

  3. Child Development in the Face of Rural-to-Urban Migration in China: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lamei; Mesman, Judi

    2015-11-01

    In the last 30 years, China has undergone one of the largest rural-to-urban migrations in human history, with many children left behind because of parental migration. We present a meta-analytic review of empirical studies on Chinese children's rural-to-urban migration and on rural children left behind because of parental migration. We examine how these events relate to children's emotional, social, and academic developmental outcomes. We include publications in English and in Chinese to uncover and quantify a part of the research literature that has been inaccessible to most Western scholars in the field of child and family studies. Overall, both migrant children and children left behind by migrant parents in China show significantly less favorable functioning across domains than other Chinese children. It appears that, similar to processes found in other parts of the world, the experience of economic and acculturation stress as well as disrupted parent-child relations constitute a risk for nonoptimal child functioning in the Chinese context. Further, we found evidence for publication bias against studies showing less favorable development for migrant children and children left behind. We discuss the results in terms of challenges to Chinese society and to future empirical research on Chinese family life. PMID:26581737

  4. The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Anderson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal industry as a whole. Veterinary colleges have changed in response to the increased number of students who are interested in companion animal medicine. These changes have resulted in diminished large animal content in the professional curricula, attrition of the number of faculty teaching food animal medicine, increases in the number of faculty dedicated to small animal curriculum, and an overwhelming sense that the veterinary program is centered around training in preparation for a career in companion animal practice. A multitude of factors likely contribute to the continued gravitation of veterinary students toward small animal practice. Veterinary colleges must strive to maintain a balanced, open-minded view of the profession so that students have an equal opportunity to choose a path that best suits their desires and interests.

  5. Personal and professional challenges in the management of deliberate self-poisoning patients in rural Sri Lanka: a qualitative study of rural hospital doctors' experiences and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley Nick A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncooperative and aggressive, intoxicated with alcohol or suffering mental illness. Previous research in developed countries has examined self-poisoning patients and their treatment but little is know about self-poisoning patient care in the context of rural health provision in developing countries. This study provides the first focused exploration of the experiences and perceptions of primary care rural hospital doctors in Sri Lanka toward the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen doctors from rural hospitals in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Participating doctors did perceive that treating self-poisoning patients in a primary care rural hospital as potentially confidence-building. However, resource issues such as the lack of medication, equipment and staffing were seen as important challenges to treating self-poisoning patients. Other challenges identified included disparity with community and other staff members regarding expectations of care, a sense of professional isolation and a lack of continuing education programs. Conclusion Addressing professional isolation through educational and trainee programs for doctors and reducing the variance in expectations between professional groups and the community has the potential to improve delivery of care for self-poisoning patients.

  6. China: facing a long-term care challenge on an unprecedented scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Anne P; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jing

    2013-07-01

    Population ageing is occurring in China at a breathtaking pace and rapidly becoming a major public health issue. Due to the one-child policy, rural/urban migration and other societal changes, the family-dependent long-term care (LTC) of the past will no longer suffice. Barely existent now, both institutional and community-based services will need to expand to meet the growing need. China is still at an earlier stage in economic development and will be challenged to build these services and train staff. Furthermore, many elders are not yet covered by financial and insurance support. This massive demographic transition requires political efforts to develop integrated and sustainable national LTC systems. PMID:23600434

  7. [Political challenges facing the consolidation of the Sistema Único de Saúde: a historical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the circumstances in which Brazil’s sanitation reform was conceived and the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) was constructed. A brief analysis is conducted of Brazil’s political transition to democracy, focusing on three political challenges facing the consolidation of SUS: its weak support base amongst workers, competition with the private sector, and the fragmentation of its administration caused by its municipalization. Finally, the changes in the scenario caused by the weakening of neoliberalism since the 2008 crisis, the reemergence of a multipolar political scenario internationally, and the financing conditions of the Brazilian State are described. PMID:24789485

  8. IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSHIP : Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city

    OpenAIRE

    Enow, Manyi

    2010-01-01

    Title: Immigrant Entrepreneurship - Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city. Purpose: The purpose is to investigate if the challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden differ between large and small cities. Method: Eight case studies, four in Jönköping and four in Stockholm of seven Asian and one Eastern Europe immigrant entrepreneurs in the restaurant business. Results: The typical Jönköping case and the typical Stockholm case ar...

  9. Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

  10. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  11. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julie, O' Connor; Martha, Geiger.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area w [...] ho were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

  12. Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Michael R.; Cindy J. Price

    2010-01-01

    Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about ...

  13. Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, at least 35% of Merino lambs born will be u

  14. Challenges, Opportunities and Options for the Development of Rural Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Why does IFAD need rural finance guidelines? With its exclusive emphasis on rural poverty alleviation, IFAD enjoys a competitive advantage over other development agencies, and should strengthen its role by providing support for the development of rural finance as an important instrument. The goal of IFAD?s support for rural finance is the sustainable improvement of the livelihood of the rural poor. This paper offers guiding principles to IFAD?s staff and partner institutions to stimulate inno...

  15. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczynski Julie C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the context of greater perceived workload. Conclusions Older health workers are managing a range of issues, on top of the general challenges of rural practice. Personal health, wellbeing and other realms of life appear to take on increasing importance for older health workers when faced with increasing difficulties at work. Solutions need to address difficulties at personal, workplace and system wide levels.

  16. Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

  17. Wide-Open Opportunities: Teacher Leaders Can Help Rural Schools Make the Most of Meager Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Melia

    2012-01-01

    Rural schools face challenges that are very different from their urban or suburban counterparts. Fewer resources supporting rural schools mean smaller staffs and larger responsibilities for everyone. At the same time, rural schools and districts must meet the same standards as their larger, better-funded counterparts. One key to making the most of…

  18. THE BACKGROUND AND CHALLENGES FACED BY THE SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISES A HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Palanivelu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, variety of rising problems square measure sitting serious challenges to the little and medium sized enterprises (SME’s in Asian country. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun like establishing new enterprises, economic process, monetary constraints, high turnover, low motivation among workers, lack of human capital building, and additional challenges ahead. Therefore understanding the issues and challenges square measure basic solutions to expand and strategize SME’s to future progress and grows. so this text examines the background and challenges face by SME’s that play a significant role within the nation growth.

  19. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  20. Issues and challenges facing school libraries in selected primary schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margie, Paton-Ash; Di, Wilmot.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no national policy for school libraries which compels school governing bodies and principals to have a library in their schools. It is thus not surprising that in 2011, only 21% of state schools had libraries, only 7% had stocked libraries and 79% of schools had no library at all (Departmen [...] t of Basic Education (DBE) Republic of South Africa, 2011a:23). This article forms part of a broader qualitative study which investigated 10 primary schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa that had libraries, or were in the process of setting up a library, with the intention of providing a rich description of the issues and challenges facing these schools. The 10 schools used in this study were chosen on the basis of their location and fee structures. They represented the full continuum of fees within the state structure. In this article, we discuss three core categories of predicaments faced by primary school libraries. These were resourcing the library, operating the library and the role of the library. Our main contention is that school libraries are not playing an effective role in supporting and enabling quality education for all South African children. This needs to be addressed by government as a matter of urgency.

  1. The Informatics Challenges Facing Biobanks: A Perspective from a United Kingdom Biobanking Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Philip R; Groves, Martin; Jordan, Lee B; Stobart, Hilary; Purdie, Colin A; Thompson, Alastair M

    2015-10-01

    The challenges facing biobanks are changing from simple collections of materials to quality-assured fit-for-purpose clinically annotated samples. As a result, informatics awareness and capabilities of a biobank are now intrinsically related to quality. A biobank may be considered a data repository, in the form of raw data (the unprocessed samples), data surrounding the samples (processing and storage conditions), supplementary data (such as clinical annotations), and an increasing ethical requirement for biobanks to have a mechanism for researchers to return their data. The informatics capabilities of a biobank are no longer simply knowing sample locations; instead the capabilities will become a distinguishing factor in the ability of a biobank to provide appropriate samples. There is an increasing requirement for biobanking systems (whether in-house or commercially sourced) to ensure the informatics systems stay apace with the changes being experienced by the biobanking community. In turn, there is a requirement for the biobanks to have a clear informatics policy and directive that is embedded into the wider decision making process. As an example, the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank in the UK was a collaboration between four individual and diverse biobanks in the UK, and an informatics platform has been developed to address the challenges of running a distributed network. From developing such a system there are key observations about what can or cannot be achieved by informatics in isolation. This article will highlight some of the lessons learned during this development process. PMID:26418270

  2. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  3. Some imminent but overlooked preanalytical and analytical challenges currently facing biomarkers and companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Abdel-Baset

    2015-06-01

    An incredibly high failure rate in the pharmaceutical industry has positioned personalized medicine with its prerequisite drug-diagnostic codevelopment, commonly known as companion diagnostics (CDx), in the frontline as an potential rescuer. This hopefulness is potentiated by the recent major advances and competitiveness in molecular diagnostics, making laboratory tests widely accessible at affordable prices. If executed correctly, biomarkers and CDx can potentially help the drug industry by enhancing the probability of success and possibly accelerating time to market; help the diagnostics industry develop tests utilizing precious, clinically annotated human samples; and, more importantly, benefit patients by supporting accurate diagnosis and selection of the most efficacious and least toxic therapies. However, this spectacular road is not yet paved, and it faces an enormous number of challenges. This paper will list these challenges and highlight some critical problems with representative examples of imminent but still overlooked preanalytical and analytical variables that can defeat the whole purpose of biomarkers and CDx and mislead drug developers and clinicians. The paper will provide some suggestions for mitigation. PMID:25758153

  4. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These events illustrate some of the challenges facing the world of insurance following the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime: - Will the insurance industry be able to find funds corresponding to the new amounts that have been set? - Do the additional damages covered by the revised conventions provide adequate cover for existing risks and will private insurance be able and willing to cover such risks? Nevertheless, the insurance world has changed a great deal since 2004 and there are many additional issues that have arisen since that time. For example, the economic crisis and the introduction of the European Solvency II Directive require insurers to take a more stringent line with their commitments. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a number of questions have resurfaced: are the new insurance amounts sufficient? The age of 'nuclear renaissance' has long gone and some countries are distancing themselves from nuclear power in light of its questionable costs; are operators paying a fair price in light of the risks incurred? Finally, Europe is keen to play its part and impose its own rules; what will be the consequences of this development? This article reconsiders these challenges in light of the 2004 Protocol (which has not entered into force), by focusing in particular on the situation in Europe. Section I looks back at the history behind the conventions and the key principles they set down. Section II highlights the changes made to the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol and the problems facing the insurance industry. Section III provides an overview of the various actors involved in the insurance industry and redefines the necessary insurance foundations to cover the challenges described in Section IV. Finally, Section IV covers all the challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime. (author)

  5. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  6. Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangi Jyoti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

  7. Motivation for Math in Rural Schools: Student and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning…

  8. Designing Rural School Improvement Networks: Aspirations and Actualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Parsley, Danette; Cox, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Rural school educators are often isolated and have few opportunities to learn from neighboring schools or colleagues. This is an especially daunting challenge for low-performing rural schools faced with implementing significant reform efforts (e.g., turnaround approaches, educator effectiveness systems, college- and career-ready standards and…

  9. Study on China's Sustainable Development of Rural Micro-credit

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Tang

    2009-01-01

    Rural micro-credit, which has been passed for 15 years in our China, gained great social and economic benefits, while its sustainability is still facing the challenges. This passage reviews the development course of rural micro-credit, points out the problems that existed and puts forward the corresponding suggests.

  10. Promoting Rural Education: The Role of the Society of the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the role of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and the challenges it has faced as the primary voice for Australian rural educators. The paper charts the origins of SPERA, and the contributions of key people involved in its foundation. The paper then examines the advocacy and impact of SPERA…

  11. Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Brown

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about how they are managing their resources, how they are using new media, and how they envision their future. The results show that most media are struggling, but also find that local media are in a good position to make their new media content viable for their local audiences.

  12. Challenging pathways to safe water access in rural Uganda: From supply to demand-driven water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resty Naiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uganda has experienced a major policy shift from a supply-driven to a demand-driven approach in rural water provision since 1990. The article sheds light on the rural population’s access to safe water within the changing institutional frameworks. We analysed individual and group interviews with key informants from national to community levels and relevant official documents with the ‘Social-Ecological Systems’ framework. Since the implementation of the demand-driven approach, rural safe water coverage has slightly improved but operation and maintenance of water sources pose a great challenge hampering, long-term access to safe water. The abrupt and top-down imposed policy shift has resulted in competing signals from old and new policies creating uncertainty and ambiguity about responsibilities, rules and incentives. The analysis shows the importance of taking into account the implications of national institutional disturbances on local collective action for long-term access to safe water.

  13. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  14. Knowledge Production and Transmission in a Changing Society: Challenges Facing Law Lecturers in a Distance Education Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in different occupational fields as a professional person. I indicate that the law itself cannot effect change. For this we need properly trained lawyers. For an effective transformation…

  15. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena

    2006-07-01

    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing. PMID:16863105

  16. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  17. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viáfara John Jairo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history as learners, their teaching context and preparation influenced their decisions. Moreover, it was possible to identify the strategies they implemented to interact in English with their students.

    En mi labor como tutor de estudiantes practicantes del inglés como lengua extranjera, he percibido constantemente que, para ellos, la utilización del inglés como medio de comunicación con sus estudiantes dentro de la clase es un reto. Por esta razón, me interesé por investigar cómo trece estudiantes practicantes en colegios públicos de Tunja afrontaban esta circunstancia. Mientras los participantes se involucraban en un modelo reflexivo de preparación docente, utilicé notas de campo, entrevistas y sus portafolios para explorar sus actitudes y estrategias. Los hallazgos revelan que sus decisiones fueron influenciadas por su trayectoria como estudiantes, su contexto de enseñanza y su preparación. Además, se pudieron identificar las estrategias que utilizaron para interactuar por medio del inglés con sus estudiantes.

  18. Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

  19. Challenges faced by the pharmaceutical industry: training graduates for employment in pharmaceutical R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, K G

    2001-02-01

    There is a shortfall between output from universities and demand by the pharmaceutical and health care industries for science and engineering graduates able to rapidly contribute to success in the business environment. Against a changing infrastructure of pharmaceutical research, the development of new chemical entities by major companies accounts for a high proportion of R&D expenditure. Allocation of staff is divided fairly evenly between discovery, non-clinical and clinical research activities and in all categories the new sciences are likely to be used extensively. In dealing with the shortfall the challenge comes from balancing education in basic science with training in the emerging areas of science and technology. There is a need for a 'partnership' that includes not only industry and academia but also government, since these three bodies have both synergistic and diverging interests in scientific education. On the education-training continuum, industry should recognise what it most values from academia and provide as much input and support as possible. At the same time universities must question their ability to fulfil their traditional educational role in the face of current rates of adoption of new sciences and technology. While disciplinary excellence remains vital for PhD students, multi-disciplinary programmes are becoming increasingly important to enable graduates to function effectively in the modern, globalised pharmaceutical industry. PMID:11231101

  20. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Depczynski Julie C; Fragar Lyn J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects...

  1. Barriers of Referral System to Health Care Provision in Rural Societies in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Eskandari; Abbas Abbaszadeh; Fariba Borhani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Health care delivery systems in rural areas face numerous challenges in meeting the community's needs. This study aimed to describe barriers of health care process in rural societies in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, 26 participants (21 rural health care providers and five rural patients) were selected through purposive sampling. The data was collected via semi-structured individual interviews and small focus group discussions. Data was analyzed with qualitative conte...

  2. Prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges faced by HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    CHOI, P; Kavasery, R; Desai, M. M.; Govindasamy, S; Kamarulzaman, A.; Altice, F L

    2010-01-01

    HIV-infected prisoners face an inordinate number of community re-entry challenges. In 2007, 102 HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia were surveyed anonymously within six months prior to release to assess the prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges. Staying out of prison (60.8%), remaining off drugs (39.2%), finding employment (35.3%) and obtaining HIV care (32.4%) were the re-entry challenges reported most frequently. Global stigma, negative self-image and public attitudes-re...

  3. Challenge of reducing perinatal mortality in rural Congo: findings of a prospective, population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Matendo, R. M.; Engmann, C. M.; Ditekemena, J. D.; Gado, J.; Tshefu, A.; McClure, E. M.; MOORE, J; Boelaert, M.; Carlo, W. A.; Wright, L. L.; Bose, C L

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an estimated six million perinatal deaths occur worldwide, and 98% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. These estimates are based on surveys in both urban and rural areas, and they may underrepresent the problem in rural areas. This study was conducted to quantify perinatal mortality, to identify the associated risk factors, and to determine the most common causes of early neonatal death in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were ...

  4. Challenges faced in e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada

    2014-05-01

    The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period. Storage also poses one of our main challenges. The institution lacks sufficient storage and at present some data are stored externally. Similarly, the back-up storage is limited and outdated, as in some instances storage tapes are used. The Ministry plans to acquire a new storage capacity to enable it to locally host all the data. Subsequently this new storage facility will include back-up storage hosted off-site. The acquisition is in progress and the implementation of the new system is envisaged within the near future. The Ministry is trying its utmost to upgrade its e-infrastructure to support the business of the organisation.

  5. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Bermès

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This paper aims at presenting the organizational and human resources challenges that have been faced by the library in this context, and those that are still awaiting us.The library has been facing these challenges through a variety of actions at different levels: organizational changes, training sessions, dedicated working group and task forces, analysis of skills and processes, etc. The results of these actions provide insights on how a national library is going digital, and what is needed to reach this longstanding goal.

  6. Rural health research and rural health in the 21st century: the future of rural health and the future of rural health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    Rural health research is a unique field. It is neither a nested subcategory under general health services research nor a separate field of policy analysis or advocacy. Rural health research faces three potential crises: of content, of applicability, and of credibility. The content of the field is driven often by funds, its applicability is thus limited by its purview as well as its special constituency, and its credibility is challenged by its findings, sometimes contrary to accepted positions in the larger health services field. Rural health research can strengthen its position by accepting the paradoxes it presents, especially the paradox of continuing disparity in the face of substantial investment to eliminate differences, and by seeking to answer why this occurs across the rural-urban spectrum. Rural health research can answer questions about why the distribution of resources is unfair without depending solely on pure definitions PMID:12061509

  7. The Social Ecological Challenges of Rural Victim Advocacy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Shelly A.; Johnson, Melencia; Miller, Michelle Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This article re-centers an ecological model traditionally used to understand the experiences of interpersonal violence victims around the perceptions and experiences of victim advocates. We suggest that the development of such a model might shed light on rural-urban differences in the accessibility and availability of support services in rural

  8. Implementing RTI in Two Rural Elementary Schools: Encouraging Beginnings and Challenges for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gretchen G.; Bursuck, William D.; Sinclair, Kristin D.

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) models are currently being implemented in many school districts nationwide. However, at a time when interest in RTI is high, the extent to which it is being implemented effectively in rural schools is largely unknown. Teachers and administrators in two rural elementary schools in the Southeastern United States who…

  9. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Doris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Key words: ESL writing, academic writing, academic voice, disciplinary writing Con base en teorías críticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías más efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de género, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Palabras clave: escritura de inglés como segunda lengua, escritura académica, voz académica, escritura disciplinaria

  10. Rural water supply corruption in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Calow, Roger; MacDonald, Alan; Cross, Piers

    2012-01-01

    In Ethiopia, investment in rural water supply underpins the government’s poverty reduction efforts. The challenge is huge: roughly 50 percent of the (mainly rural) population still have no access to safe water, and the country has the highest number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa without access to improved water supply and sanitation. The consequences are dire: every year, roughly 250,000 children die from diseases related to poor water and sanitation, and many others face ...

  11. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)…

  12. Progress and challenges of the rural cooperative medical scheme in China / ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? / Progrès et défis du plan médical coopératif rural en Chine / ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? / ???????????????? / Avances y desafíos del sistema médico cooperativo rural en China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Qingyue, Meng; Ke, Xu.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Situación Durante la transición de China hacia una economía de mercado en las décadas de 1980 y 1990, la población rural se enfrentó a importantes barreras para acceder a la atención sanitaria y tuvo que hacer frente a cargas financieras mayores que los residentes urbanos para pagar los ser [...] vicios de salud necesarios. Enfoque En 2003, China comenzó a poner en práctica un sistema médico cooperativo rural (RCMS, en sus siglas en inglés) a través, principalmente, de subsidios del gobierno. El esquema funciona a nivel de condado y ofrece un paquete modesto de beneficios. Marco regional A pesar del rápido crecimiento económico desde comienzos de la década de 1980, las disparidades en los ingresos han aumentado en China, en particular entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas. En respuesta, el gobierno ha puesto un mayor énfasis en el desarrollo social, incluido el desarrollo del sistema de salud. Ejemplos de ello son la priorización de un mejor acceso a los servicios sanitarios y la reducción de la carga de pago por los servicios necesarios. Cambios importantes Tras 10 años de implementación, el RCMS proporciona en la actualidad cobertura para toda la población rural y ha mejorado sustancialmente el acceso a la atención médica. A pesar de una reducción de los pagos directos del gasto total en salud, el pago por servicios necesarios sigue provocando dificultades financieras para muchos residentes rurales. Lecciones aprendidas En su primera década, el RCMS ha logrado avances por medio de la movilización política, los subsidios gubernamentales, la buena disposición del sistema de atención sanitaria y la disponibilidad de un sistema de supervisión y evaluación. Con objeto de seguir mejorando el RCMS, será necesario centrarse en reducir los costes, mejorar la calidad y lograr un sistema móvil. Abstract in english Problem During China’s transition to a market economy in the 1980s and 1990s, the rural population faced substantial barriers to accessing health care and encountered heavier financial burdens than urban residents in paying for necessary health services. Approach In 2003, China started to impleme [...] nt a rural cooperative medical scheme (RCMS), mainly through government subsidies. The scheme operates at the county level and offers a modest benefit package. Local setting In spite of rapid economic growth since the early 1980s, income disparities in China have increased, particularly between rural and urban populations. In response, the government has put greater emphasis on social development, including health system development. Examples are the prioritization of improved access to health services and the reduction of the burden of payment for necessary services. Relevant changes After 10 years of implementation, the RCMS now provides coverage to the entire rural population and has substantially improved access to health care. Yet despite a drop in out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure, paying for necessary services continues to cause financial hardship for many rural residents. Lessons learnt In its first decade, the RCMS made progress through political mobilization, government subsidies, the readiness of the health-care delivery system, and the availability of a monitoring and evaluation system. Further improving the RCMS will require a focus on cost containment, quality improvement and making the scheme portable.

  13. Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era :  A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenveld, Marc; Heinonen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Date: June 7th of 2013 Level: Master thesis in marketing, 15 ECTS Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Authors: Tapio Heinonen & Marc Rozenveld 18 thof November 1988 & 16th of June 1990 Title: Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era. Subtitle: A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies. Tutor: Peter Selegård Keywords: media logic, advertising industry, advertising agencies, advertising and digital ma...

  14. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke Fisher Liu; Abbey Blake Levenshus

    2010-01-01

    This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S.) when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007), the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and el...

  16. Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    VIGANO', LAURA; BONOMO, LUCIANO

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ prot...

  17. Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of communication. When designing 'Mail-Info' strategy, it was decided that senior experienced staff with both technical and communicational skills should run this service, together with junior apprentices, to guarantee prompt and efficient feedback in the present and in the future. This paper is focused on describing the experience acquired in implementing this tool and the lessons learned up to date. (authors)

  18. The Background and Challenges Faced by the Small Medium Enterprises. A Human Resource Development Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Sarah bt. Omar; Lawrence Arokiasamy; Maimunah Ismail

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s) in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME’s...

  19. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2013-04-01

    Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

  20. The Challenge of Bottom-Up Paradigm and Popular Participation in Sustainable Rural Development of Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEFILA J. O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformation inspite of the attendant difficulties. It examined popular participation as a concept relating to gaining political accessibility through democratic process, mobilizing and educating the masses to support government programmes and policies as in the case of present removal of fuel subsidy which generated hot debate and resulted in industrial action by labour unions with a view to changing government decision. But popular participation is being confronted with serious challenge of control in Nigeria. There is corruption in the high places, armed robbery attacks, religious intolerance, political violence, tribal discrimination and insecurity of life and properties thereby threatening corporate existence of the country. The paper advocates for the strengthening of a bottom-up strategy instead of top-down through decentralization of sufficient powers, functions and resources in favour of rural majority at the grassroot and by doing so, it will foster a balanced development between the centre and the subordinate local administrative units. Moreover, democratic governance must be allowed to reign supreme not only to attain the national goals of 2020 but also enable Nigeria to assume her rightful position in the world. One concludes that if the local communities are given the opportunities to get involved in the decision-making process that often affect their condition of living, engage in productive ventures, self-help communal projects, and harnessing the creative potentials, talents, skills combined with physical and human resources, it would go a long way to reduce not only the over-dependence of the people on the government to provide everything they need but also help to improve socio-economic well-being in the backward, under-privileged and disadvantaged rural areas.

  1. Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

  2. SMART GROWTH LAND USE PLANNING FOR A COMMUNITY AT THE RURAL URBAN INTERFACE UTILIZING STRUCTURED PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Simpson County, KY is facing suburban growth pressure like many communities across the country at the rural urban interface. This presents opportunities and challenges to maintain community identity, build economic diversity, protect environmental resources, and imp...

  3. SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

  4. Transformation processes of rural areas in Latin America: the challenges of interdisciplinarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Llambí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the main empirical research about Latin-American rurality in the early twenty-first century, show us at least four different ways of transformation at Latin American Rural Territories: agribusiness headed process, family farming headed process, several diversification of activities and incomes linked by the new quality of relations between country and urban places, the kind of pro­cesses experienced by those territories where peasants or ethnical minorities prevail (native american or afro descendents as an example.The main objective is to identify the theoretical background’s that may help us explaining such processes, while implies a re-construction booth of the rural sociologist space dimension’s and the interdisciplinary focus. 

  5. Convergence in France facing Big Data era and Exascale challenges for Climate Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, Sébastien; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Salas, David; Meurdesoif, Yann; Valcke, Sophie; Caubel, Arnaud; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Servonnat, Jérôme; Sénési, Stéphane; Derouillat, Julien; Voury, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    The presentation will introduce a french national project : CONVERGENCE that has been funded for four years. This project will tackle big data and computational challenges faced by climate modeling community in HPC context. Model simulations are central to the study of complex mechanisms and feedbacks in the climate system and to provide estimates of future and past climate changes. Recent trends in climate modelling are to add more physical components in the modelled system, increasing the resolution of each individual component and the more systematic use of large suites of simulations to address many scientific questions. Climate simulations may therefore differ in their initial state, parameter values, representation of physical processes, spatial resolution, model complexity, and degree of realism or degree of idealisation. In addition, there is a strong need for evaluating, improving and monitoring the performance of climate models using a large ensemble of diagnostics and better integration of model outputs and observational data. High performance computing is currently reaching the exascale and has the potential to produce this exponential increase of size and numbers of simulations. However, post-processing, analysis, and exploration of the generated data have stalled and there is a strong need for new tools to cope with the growing size and complexity of the underlying simulations and datasets. Exascale simulations require new scalable software tools to generate, manage and mine those simulations ,and data to extract the relevant information and to take the correct decision. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a platform capable of running large ensembles of simulations with a suite of models, to handle the complex and voluminous datasets generated, to facilitate the evaluation and validation of the models and the use of higher resolution models. We propose to gather interdisciplinary skills to design, using a component-based approach, a specific programming environment for scalable scientific simulations and analytics, integrating new and efficient ways of deploying and analysing the applications on High Performance Computing (HPC) system. CONVERGENCE, gathering HPC and informatics expertise that cuts across the individual partners and the broader HPC community, will allow the national climate community to leverage information technology (IT) innovations to address its specific needs. Our methodology consists in developing an ensemble of generic elements needed to run the French climate models with different grids and different resolution, ensuring efficient and reliable execution of these models, managing large volume and number of data and allowing analysis of the results and precise evaluation of the models. These elements include data structure definition and input-output (IO), code coupling and interpolation, as well as runtime and pre/post-processing environments. A common data and metadata structure will allow transferring consistent information between the various elements. All these generic elements will be open source and publicly available. The IPSL-CM and CNRM-CM climate models will make use of these elements that will constitute a national platform for climate modelling. This platform will be used, in its entirety, to optimise and tune the next version of the IPSL-CM model and to develop a global coupled climate model with a regional grid refinement. It will also be used, at least partially, to run ensembles of the CNRM-CM model at relatively high resolution and to run a very-high resolution prototype of this model. The climate models we developed are already involved in many international projects. For instance we participate to the CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) project that is very demanding but has a high visibility: its results are widely used and are in particular synthesised in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment reports. The CONVERGENCE project will constitute an invaluable step for the French climate community to prepare and better c

  6. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals p...

  7. Challenges and recognizable patterns in the en-face OCT of the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Lydon, Chris; Dunne, Shane; Dobre, George M.; Cucu, Radu G.; Jackson, David A.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Rosenthal, Jeanne L.; Muldoon, Thomas; Walsh, Joseph B.; Orlock, Dennis A.; Fisher, Yale; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2004-07-01

    Using an advanced prototype of en-face OCT/cSLO instrument, an extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. Uniquely specific and reoccurring patterns could be characterized for macular hole ("Chrysanthemum flower"), CME ("Swiss cheese wheel"), Macular Pucker ("Star"), CSR ("Target") and RPE Detachment ("Ring of Light"). Other entities such as polypoidal choroidopathy and diabetic edema residues had easily recognizable features but were variable enough to defy specific descriptive comparison. To facilitate the interpretation of the en-face OCT images, a three dimensional interactive simulation was designed which allows the demonstration of characteristic features and artifacts encountered in the acquisition of transverse images.

  8. Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nadeem Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0% were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%. Down’s syndrome (17.23% was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%. In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes were found in 29.31% children. For mentally challenged children better quality of life should be provided by disability limitation and suitable rehabilitation.

  9. Challenges Facing Chinese Academic Staff in a UK University in Terms of Language, Relationships and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-hua

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…

  10. Rural Electrification Now and Then: Comparing Contemporary Challenges in Developing Countries to the USA's Experience in Retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    Tasciotti, L.; Pellegrini, L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its widely recognized importance, electricity is not yet available everywhere, and there are many areas of the globe which still depend on alternative sources of energy such as wood, charcoal and kerosene. In contrast, the USA was the first country to be fully electrified. This article explores the current challenges faced by developing countries, presents the historical evidence from the USA and compares these experiences discussing the policy relevance of the comparis...

  11. Place, Survivance, and White Remembrance: A Decolonizing Challenge to Rural Education in Mobile Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Michael Corbett's writing on the irony of schooling in rural places inspires the author to reconsider how place shapes his commitments and his learning as a White, educated class, land- and place-attached American male. In a time of climate change, economic collapse, and other related cultural and ecological crises, people's assumptions about…

  12. Conducting Program Evaluation with Hispanics in Rural Settings: Ethical Issues and Evaluation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many…

  13. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  14. Behind before They Begin: The Challenge of Early Childhood Education in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Zhao, Qiran; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse factors (accessibility, attendance rates and quality of preschools) that may be affecting the educational readiness of China's rural children before they enter the formal school system. Using data from a survey of 82 preschools and 492 households in six counties in three provinces of China, this paper…

  15. History, Hollywood, and the Hood: Challenging Racial Assumptions in Rural Central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John

    2007-01-01

    In light of research on diversity learning and teaching, this article describes how an introductory course on cinematic depictions of African Americans taught at a predominately white, rural university campus leads students to see the impact of history and Hollywood on their own local and statewide communities. Like others who teach courses on…

  16. Improvement Efforts in Rural Schools: Experiences of Nine Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Christianson, Megan Davis; Hague Angus, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Low-performing schools in rural settings can face challenges common to all struggling schools, such as low student motivation and maintaining a qualified teaching staff. However, aspects of rural schools' settings, such as the distance from urban areas and the commute between the schools and the students' and teachers' homes, can exacerbate the…

  17. Digital Revolution or Digital Divide: Will Rural Teachers Get a Piece of the Professional Development Pie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Tania

    2010-01-01

    In order to sustain the rural education community, access to high quality professional development opportunities must become a priority. Teachers in rural areas face many challenges in order to access professional learning equitable to their city counterparts. In the current climate, the Federal government of Australia is committed to initiatives…

  18. Issues in Vocational Education for Special Populations in Rural Areas. TASPP Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1990-01-01

    Students with special needs living in rural areas face a difficult challenge as they prepare for employment and adult life. Access to vocational education in rural areas may be limited by isolation, problems in teacher recruitment and retention, curriculum and instructional deficiencies, and weak financial support. In addition, program relevance…

  19. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  20. The Challenges facing Professional Education and Practice of Academic Librarianship in the HE Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilce Sandra Rees

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the challenges facing professional education and practice of academic librarianship in a changing Higher Education world. Librarians in the UK, like all the professionals in the academic sector, are faced with changes in organisational mission within the university, and the changing role of information within society. Inter alia, they have to be accountable inside and outside the university and are in competition for resource allocation and funding. Against this socio-political background, the following eight challenges have been isolated: 1. recognition of librarianship as a profession (and the accreditation of library and information studies; 2. ethical professional responsibilities in a changing organisational world, and how they can be weaved into the librarian’s professional education; 3. the librarian in a changing (HE world; 4. the “assault” on professionalism; 5. the user’s centrality: fact or fiction?; 6. the librarian in an era of global challenge: is resistance futile?; 7. Potemkin villages: fabrication and performance in the academy, and 8. feminisation of the HE professions and patterns of employment. 9. Lastly, I’ll examine future scenarios for librarians and the implications of present practices, which affect all sectors.

  1. Effective nuclear regulatory systems: Facing safety and security challenges. Proceedings of an international conference. Contributed papers and presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 16 years, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety, for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. This series was initiated in 1991 with the International Conference on the Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future. The conference marked the beginning of a global safety regime based on international conventions and legal instruments that was supported by a set of nuclear and radiation safety standards and related review services. The very successful Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) resulted from this effort and now has 56 Contracting Parties. Currently, regulatory authorities and the nuclear industry are facing significant new challenges, which require new strategies and oversight. The key challenges are the result of the following factors: Renewed global interest in the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation and, consequently, its likely expansion; - Increased threats to the security of nuclear installations and the need to link closely security and safety issues and response capabilities; - Increased global use of radioactive materials and the need to ensure their safety and security, similar to the issues faced with the use of nuclear energy; - New safety and security challenges from existing nuclear facilities associated with ageing and extensions of their operating lifetimes. To address these challenges, the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Facing Safety and Security Challenges, was held in Moscow, Russian Federation, from 27 February to 3 March 2006. The IAEA invited global leaders to this conference, including both government regulators and industry representatives, to share their perspectives and experience in addressing these challenges that transcend national boundaries. Participants were asked to make their contributions in the context of global safety and security standards and methods by which a common vision can be achieved. The aim of this conference was to enhance the global vision and commitments among the senior regulators to promote experience sharing and international cooperation, thereby continuously improving nuclear safety and security worldwide. On the basis of the presentations and subsequent discussions, the President of the Conference developed issues for consideration by governments and regulatory bodies, issues for future international cooperation and conference conclusions. This CD-ROM, which is attached to the back of the printed publication, contains the unedited contributed papers to the conference and the slides that were submitted with some of the invited papers. Each paper has been indexed separately

  2. Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Fisher Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S. when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007, the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and elsewhere, practitioners in other sectors who collaborate with government communicators, and academics developing communication theory for the under-researched public sector.

  3. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  4. Key challenges in the governance of rural water supply: lessons learnt from tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    El primer objetivo de esta tesis es la identificación y análisis de aspectos clave para la gobernanza de los servicios de agua rural en países que adolecen de bajos niveles de cobertura, altos índices de pobreza, se encuentran en procesos de descentralización, reciben un importante apoyo de donantes internacionales. Esta situación es común para muchos países de África Sub-sahariana. Por ello, se eligió Tanzania como objeto de estudio. El segundo objetivo de esta tesis ha sido el e...

  5. Young women face gender-specific challenges that limit their political participation

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    Young women aged 18-24 are likely less to take part in elections than their male counterparts. As part of our new series on youth participation, Jacqui Briggs explores the reasons for this, showing how women face specific barriers because of their gender and are under-represented throughout the system. She argues that politicians need to address issues that affect women’s lives such as the gender pay gap and domestic violence to show young women that politics is relevant to them.

  6. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  7. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.

  8. Facing challenges in differential classical conditioning research: Benefits of a hybrid design for simultaneous electrodermal and electroencephalographic recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Pastor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG and electrodermal activity (EDA recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+ were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (UCS during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS- remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368 to 600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral psychophysiological measures.

  9. Survivorship in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Challenges Faced and Steps Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvergia, Namrata; Shah, Prashant C; Denlinger, Crystal S

    2015-09-01

    Improvements in curative therapies and the advent of screening have led to increased numbers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) survivors. Most survivors have undergone invasive treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy) and carry a higher comorbidity burden than survivors of other cancers. Overall quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) suffer during the treatment phase, with the potential for long-term decline, and both clinical characteristics and treatment impact these measures. Physical and mental components of HRQOL seem to be most at risk for decline. The issues faced by survivors include physical symptoms such as respiratory issues, fatigue, hearing loss, neuropathy, and postsurgical pain; psychological distress leading to depression, financial issues, and poor compliance with recommended guidelines; and fear or risk of recurrence and secondary malignancies. This article summarizes the major issues faced by NSCLC survivors and suggests appropriate management. Future collaborative efforts are needed to further elucidate the complex issues that affect overall QOL and HRQOL in NSCLC survivors and to develop appropriate interventions in this large and diverse survivor population. PMID:26358799

  10. Los desafíos para el minuto de dios (A The challenges facing minuto de dios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es el caso de la Corporación Minuto de Dios, MD, organización sin ánimo de lucro creada en 1958 para con el fin de tratar de dar solución integral a los problemas sociales de sus afiliados?1. La corporación pertenece a la Organización Minuto de Dios, entidad comprometida con el desarrollo integral de la persona y las comunidades marginadas, tanto urbanas como rurales, a la luz del evangelio cristiano. Su principal línea de trabajo es vivienda de interés social ?ha construido cerca de 60.000 soluciones? y además ofrece servicios en atención de desastres, microempresa, atención a la tercera edad, contacto espiritual y desarrollo juvenil. La corporación ha establecido, desde su origen, alianzas con empresas como Manuelita S.A., uno de los ingenios azucareros más grandes de Colombia. En la década del 90 consolidó colaboraciones con Servibanca, entidad colombiana sin ánimo de lucro cuya misión es promover la automatización de la banca colombiana a través de una red de banca electrónica; el banco Davivienda2 y la red de supermercados Carulla Vivero. En estas tres alianzas las empresas privadas ponían al servicio del MD su infraestructura para recaudar donaciones del público que hacía uso de sus servicios.

  11. Practical reality of media freedom: an examination of challenges facing the Namibian media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Mwilima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.
    Namibia is vast but sparsely populated, with an estimated population of about 1.9 million which is expected to reach 2.3 million by 2025 and 3.75 million by 2050. It is bordered by Angola and Zambia (north, the Atlantic Ocean (west, South Africa (south and southeast and Botswana (east. Walvis Bay, which covers 434 square miles, is Namibia's main port for imports and exports.
    Social challenges in Namibia range from development and health-related issues to the media which has been heavily controlled by government, as is the case elsewhere in Africa.

  12. Challenges Faced by Ontology Matching Techniques: Case Study of the OAEI Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yasser Chuttur

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review some of the most successful recent techniques in ontology matching and to lay down pending challenges that need to be addressed in this area. Ontologies are essential for the realization of the semantic web, which in turn relies on the ability of systems to identify and exploit relationships that exist between and within ontologies. As ontologies can be used to represent different domains, there is a high need for efficient ontology matching techniques that ...

  13. Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by a Breast Cancer Patient Navigator in an Urban Underserved Community

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, Jeanne M; Wu, Justine; Dicicco-Bloom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Patient navigation has been widely implemented by cancer care programs across the United States. While activities of navigators have been described elsewhere, little has been documented regarding specific strategies used or challenges experienced by navigators from their own perspectives. We describe the experience of an African American patient navigator who promoted breast cancer screening and facilitated diagnosis and treatment among inner-city mostly African American women in Newark, New ...

  14. Managing parental groups during early childhood: New challenges faced by Swedish child health-care nurses.

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child health centre (CHC) nurses' views of managing parental groups during early childhood. All 311 CHC nurses working within the Swedish CHC system in one county were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire. Findings showed that although the CHC nurses were experienced, several found group leadership challenging and difficult. The need for specialized groups for young parents, single parents and parents whose first language was not Swedish wa...

  15. Challenges Facing the Administration of Educational Assessment Measures at the Secondary School Level in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Onasanya; O.E. Abdullahi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined some of the challenges posed to the authentic assessment and measurement procedures as a policy tool in the Nigerian education system, particularly, the acceptability and universality of common assessment of secondary school students. Considering fit diversified educational backgrounds of these students, it appears that our current educational assessment processes do not tally with, the practicability of the test end results. It was therefore, suggested that educational pe...

  16. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shougang Wei; Lirong Ju; Man Li; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinis...

  17. The need for cultural innovation to face the environmental challenge in business

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Øyvind; Larssæther, Stig

    2000-01-01

    Commercial organisations are the foundation walls of our modern economy. More than 200 years of industrial activity and the recent trend of globalisation have made them the most powerful institutions when it comes to resources, knowledge and ability to influence their surroundings. In spite of their strong position, business is not doing enough to meet the environmental challenge. The suggested ‘solution’ of eco-efficiency initiatives is a product of the same thinking that has created the pro...

  18. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Tryland

    2013-01-01

    A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time b...

  19. Tourism and new governance structures, a relation with potential to develop depressed rural areas: the example of the municipality of Almeida (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fernando Pereira da; Ramos, Rui A. R., ed. lit.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in Portugal some rural areas are facing the challenges resulting from the reform of traditional economic activities and new markets’ characteristics. These challenges promote new local development policies that result in mobilising local resources and in expanding rural activities. In this context, tourism is considered, in many cases, a key sector for the economic growth of these territories. In rural areas tourism can include different types of tourist activiti...

  20. Facing the challenges of the One-Tablet-Per-Child policy in Thai primary school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchada Viriyapong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Thailand is currently distributing tablets to all first year primary (Prathom 1 school children across the country as part of the government’s “One Tablet Per Child” (OTPC project to improve education. Early indications suggest that there are many unexplored issues in designing and implementing tablet activities for such a large and varied group of students and so far there is a lack of evaluation on the effectiveness of the tablet activities. In this article, the authors propose four challenges for the improving Thailand’s OTPC project, consisting of: developing contextualised content, ensuring usability, providing teacher support, and assessing learning outcomes. A case study on developing science activities for first year primary school children on the OTPC devices is the basis for presenting possible solutions to the four challenges. In presenting a solution to the challenge of providing teacher support, an architecture is described for collecting data from student interactions with the tablet in order to analysis the current progress of students while in a live classroom setting. From tests in three local Thai schools, the authors evaluate the case study from both student and teacher perspectives. In concluding the paper, a framework for guiding mobile learning innovation is utilised to review the qualities and shortcomings of the case study.

  1. Challenges faced by genetics service providers' practicing in a culturally and linguistically diverse population: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mona; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Meiser, Bettina; Muchamore, Ian

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores the perceived challenges facing clinical genetics practitioners in multicultural Australia. Focus groups conducted with 53 practitioners explored: 1) participants' experiences and definitions of cultural diversity; 2) their use of educational resources with clients; 3) their experiences with culturally diverse groups/individuals in practice; 4) their experiences working with interpreters; and 5) the impact culturally specific educational training and/or experiential learning had on their confidence or practice when dealing with culturally diverse clients. Participants viewed culture as extending beyond traditional definitions such as ethnicity, language and religion. Most respondents had experienced positive results working with health care interpreters, although at times, this was a challenge for the family as they preferred privacy and the use of family members as interpreters. Another commonly reported challenge was the limited availability of reliable, culturally appropriate translated resources. Some participants expressed concern that learning theories about specific cultures may lead to stereotypes and that opportunities for formal cultural competence training were limited. Recommendations for practice include the targeting of educational resources to meet the needs of a diverse community and placing cultural competence on the agenda for ongoing training and maintenance of professional standards for clinical genetics practitioners to avoid the current ad hoc approach. PMID:19697111

  2. Practical reality of media freedom: an examination of challenges facing the Namibian media

    OpenAIRE

    Fred J. Mwilima

    2011-01-01

    Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.
    Namibia is vast but sparsely populated, with an estimated population of about 1.9 million which is expected to reach 2.3 million by 2025 and 3.75 million by 2050....

  3. Opportunities and Challenges Faced by the Trade Cooperation of China and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin TANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the new normal background that the early days macroeconomic stimulation lead to the waste of manufacturability and hasted to find a new trade market, So we use the RCA Index proposed by Balassa in 1965 to compute the RCA Index and RMA Index of the mainly ten products of the export and import trade between China and Africa, Then specifies the competitive industries and the disadvantage industries in two countries, furthermore affirms the high growth potential trading products among the China and Africa. At the end of the paper, several opportunities and challenges are proposed according to the empirical results?

  4. Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.

    2010-01-01

    Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

  5. Experience of developing rural surgical care in a remote mountainous region of Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. AKMCS was established in 1992 to provide emergency and common elective surgical care. It has strengthened the primary health service through training, education and referral mechanism. It also provided an opportunity for family physicians to be trained in common surgical operations with special emphasis on emergency obstetric care. In addition it offers elective rotations for the residents and medical students to see the spectrum of diseases and to understand the concept of optimal care with limited resources. Methods and Results: The clinical data was collected prospectively using international classification of diseases ICD -9 coding and the database was developed on a desktop computer. Information about the operative procedures and outcome was separately collected on an Excel worksheet. The data from January 1998 to December 2001 were retrieved and descriptive analysis was done on epi info-6. Thirty-one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two patients were seen during this period, 53% were medical, 24% surgical, 16% obstetric and 7% with psychiatric illness. Out of 1990 surgical operations 32% were general surgery, 31% orthopedic, 21% pediatric, 12% obstetric and 4% urological cases; 42% of operations were done under general anesthesia, 22% spinal, 9% intravenous (IV ketamine, 6% IV sedation and 21% under local anesthesia. Six hundred and sixty-two were done in the main operation room including general surgery 337, obstetric 132, urological 67, pediatric 66 and orthopedic 66 cases; 64% of cases in the main operation room were done under general and 22% under spinal anesthesia. The commonest surgeries were exploratory laparotomy, caesarian sections, open prostatectomy, urological stone surgeries, appendectomy, hernia repairs and surgery for osteomyelitis. There were 21 surgical mortalities including six operative deaths, 15 non-operative deaths and 89% of the mortalities were unavoidable. The crude in-hospital mortality decreased significantly from 5.5% in 1992 to 1.1% in 2001 and the contributing factors were improved structure and process of care. Conclusion: The impact of a secondary care rural medical centre (AKMC is very obvious from the clinical audit including accessibility, sustainability and quality of care. This could be a model of care in rural Pakistan where accessibility, affordability and quality of care is lacking.

  6. Foreign Faces in Kuwaiti Places: The Challenges of Human Capital Utilization in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas A. Abdalla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to shed light on the challenges of human capital utilization in Kuwait and the labor marketreform approaches used to address them. Using secondary data and interviews with 28 subject matter experts, thefindings revealed that the most salient challenges were the acute underutilization of the scarce native workforceaccruing from absence of coherent and consistent workforce policies particularly impaired by overgenerouswages and working conditions. These policies led to concentration and underemployment of nationals in thepublic sector and heavy reliance on non-nationals in the private sector, deficit in the labor budget and a risk ofun-sustainability of the present extravagant approach. Among the more effective labor market reform approachesare strict restriction of employment in the public sector and establishment of an agency to oversee several reforminitiatives such as, enforcing quotas of natives in the private sector and directing natives - through incentives,training and employment support - towards the private sector. However, the approaches are still piecemeal and amore comprehensive reform system in which, among other things, the private sector transformation from rentseeking to economic leader is yet to be seen. The findings are discussed within the economic and socio-politicalcontexts.

  7. Facing the Challenges : ASEAN’s Institutional Responses to China’s Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from the previous ones. ASEAN can potentially make a great contribution to a peaceful transformation of the international system. How to resolve the South China Sea disputes peacefully will be a critical task for both the ASEAN and Chinese leaders in the next decade or two.

  8. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau : the benefits of international research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; HØnge, Bo Langhoff

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. APPROACH: Clinicians and researchers at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. LOCAL SETTING: The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international HIV researchers. Patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the country's main hospital in the capital Bissau. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between 2005 and 2013, 5514 HIV-positive patients were treated at the clinic. Working together, local health-care workers and international researchers identified the main problems affecting ART delivery: inadequate drug supply; loss of patients to follow-up; and inadequate laboratory services. Solutions to these problems were devised. The collaborations encouraged local physicians to start their own research projects to find possible solutions to problems at the clinic. LESSONS LEARNT: The HIV clinic in Bissau faced numerous obstacles in delivering ART at a sufficiently high quality and patients' lives were put in jeopardy. The effectiveness of ART could be enhanced by delivering it as part of an international research collaboration since such collaborations can help identify problems, find solutions and increase the capacity of the health-care system.

  9. National metric challenges facing the Costa Rican goal of achieving carbon - neutrality by 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes weaknesses faced by the carbon neutrality initiative proposed by the Costa Rican government due to metrics and highlights some of the technical improvements that will be required in order to achieve greater comparability, applicability and confidence from the results obtained. Technical gaps are found not only in the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions but when accounting for biogenic carbon capture and storage, where global reference values, usually those reported by the IPCC, are commonly used. We then make reference to problems associated with their use, mainly related to the uncertainty (accuracy and precision that results from any estimate. At the national level there is a lack of information for biomass and carbon for some ecosystems as well as few complete studies that consider all carbon pools at the ecosystem level. We give examples for some of the most studied species. Finally, we compare results using global reference values against those developed from local studies a the national level.

  10. Perception Challenges Faced by Al-Qaeda on the Battlefield of Influence Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J.F. Forest

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges

  11. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  12. Managing parental groups during early childhood: New challenges faced by Swedish child health-care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Pia, Lundqvist; Eva, Drevenhorn; Inger, Hallström

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child health centre (CHC) nurses' views of managing parental groups during early childhood. All 311 CHC nurses working within the Swedish CHC system in one county were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire. Findings showed that although the CHC nurses were experienced, several found group leadership challenging and difficult. The need for specialized groups for young parents, single parents and parents whose first language was not Swedish was identified by 57% of the nurses. The CHC nurses found the participation of fathers in their parental groups to be low (an estimate of 10-20%), and 30% of the nurses made special efforts to make the fathers participate. Education in group dynamics and group leadership can strengthen CHC nurses in managing parental groups. It is recommended that specialized parental groups are organized by a few family centres so CHC nurses can develop their skill in managing such groups. PMID:24298189

  13. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

  14. The challenges facing block copolymer micelles for cancer therapy: In vivo barriers and clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eetezadi, Sina; Ekdawi, Sandra N; Allen, Christine

    2015-08-30

    The application of block copolymer micelles (BCMs) in oncology has benefitted from advances in polymer chemistry, drug formulation and delivery as well as in vitro and in vivo biological models. While great strides have been made in each of these individual areas, there remains some disappointment overall, citing, in particular, the absence of more BCM formulations in clinical evaluation and practice. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the challenges presented by in vivo systems to the effective design and development of BCMs. In particular, the barriers posed by systemic administration and tumor properties are examined. The impact of critical features, such as the size, stability and functionalization of BCMs is discussed, while key pre-clinical endpoints and models are critiqued. Given clinical considerations, we present this work as a means to stimulate a renewed focus on the unique chemical versatility bestowed by BCMs and a measured grasp of representative in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:25308250

  15. The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kathrin, Knüppe.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it i [...] s expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.

  16. Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: Challenges facing new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi-slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

  17. Challenges in recruitment of African Americans with type 2 diabetes in rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Dana; Garth, Katy; Byers, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment of African Americans to participate in research studies is challenging, however creativity in study design and attention to the community can overcome many barriers. Community based partnerships to assist African Americans in managing their disease and preventing complications. PMID:23101356

  18. Benefits and challenges of the use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term retention of the radioactive tritium fuel in co-deposited carbon layers may be unacceptable for reasons of fuel supply and safety. Moreover, the erosion yield of low-Z materials will be far too high and their lifetime and their radiation hardness will not be sufficient in a future reactor. These serious concerns caused the reconsideration of high-Z based plasma facing components (PFCs), which show strongly reduced erosion yield especially for the high density, low temperature divertor operation necessary in an ITER-like device or a reactor. Concurrently the T retention is expected to be quite small. Operation with Mo and W is extensively explored in the high field tokamaks FT-U and Alcator C-mod and in the mid-sized devices TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. JT-60 U started investigations installing a divertor segment with W coatings and JET will have a W divertor during its ITER-like Wall project from 2010 on. Since the influxes of high-Z elements are very small and their allowed concentrations in the central plasma are very low (-4), new spectroscopic tools are being developed. Surface analysis techniques are used to support the spectroscopic erosion measurements and to investigate the H retention properties. The W-experiments in the divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade show that most of the relevant discharge scenarios are not hampered and the tungsten concentration remains below some 10-5. Comparison of limiter and divertor operation clearly demonstrates the advantage of the lower plasma temperature at the plasma wall interaction zone in the case of the divertor plasma. There are also regimes not suited for high-Z operation: discharges with very low central anomalous transport favour neoclassical accumulation, discharges with suppressed edge transport show largely increased impurity concentrations. However, the former can be cured by applying central heating, the latter can be overcome by externally controlling the frequency of the instabilities. Nevertheless, the experience with W PFCs obtained so far, leads to a fairly optimistic view for their use in a future reactor. This document is made of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)

  19. Benefits and Challenges of the Use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of high-Z plasma facing components requires intensive research in all areas, i.e. in plasma wall-interaction, in the physics of the confined plasma, diagnostic, and in material development. Only a few present day divertor tokamaks - mainly Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade - gained experience with the refractory metals molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. ASDEX Upgrade was stepwise converted from graphite to tungsten PFCs and in parallel a reduction of the deuterium retention by almost a factor of ten has been observed due to the strong suppression of D co-deposition with carbon. The deuterium retained in W is in line with laboratory results. In order to diagnose W sources and the W content in the main plasma adequate spectroscopic methods had to be developed. As expected from the sputtering threshold of Mo and W, negligible erosion by the thermal divertor background plasma is found in ASDEX Upgrade and Alcator C-Mod under low temperature divertor conditions. However, erosion by fast particles and intrinsic impurities, which additionally might be accelerated in rectified electrical fields observed during ion cyclotron frequency heating, plays an important role. The Mo and W concentrations in the plasma centre are strongly affected by plasma transport and variations up to a factor of 50 are observed for similar influxes. However, it could be demonstrated that sawteeth and turbulent transport driven by central heating can suppress central accumulation. The inward transport of high-Z ions at the edge can be efficiently reduced by 'flushing' the pedestal region caused by frequent edge instabilities. Since with metal walls the edge radiation by low-Z impurities is reduced, it has to be substituted in a pure high-Z device by artificially injected low-Z impurities in order to keep the power load at an acceptable level. Experiments at ASDEX Upgrade suggest that a regime with benign erosion and favourable confinement can be achieved. Extrapolations to ITER and DEMO are difficult since the physics of plasma transport is not yet completely understood, the particle and energy fluxes are orders of magnitude higher and the technical boundary conditions in DEMO strongly differ from those of present day devices.

  20. Potential challenges facing distributed leadership in health care: evidence from the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Beech, Nic; MacIntosh, Robert; Bushfield, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of leaderism in health care has been a subject of much academic and practical debate. Recently, distributed leadership (DL) has been adopted as a key strand of policy in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, there is some confusion over the meaning of DL and uncertainty over its application to clinical and non-clinical staff. This article examines the potential for DL in the NHS by drawing on qualitative data from three co-located health-care organisations that embraced DL as part of their organisational strategy. Recent theorising positions DL as a hybrid model combining focused and dispersed leadership; however, our data raise important challenges for policymakers and senior managers who are implementing such a leadership policy. We show that there are three distinct forms of disconnect and that these pose a significant problem for DL. However, we argue that instead of these disconnects posing a significant problem for the discourse of leaderism, they enable a fantasy of leadership that draws on and supports the discourse. PMID:25529349

  1. Frontier of therapeutic antibody discovery: The challenges and how to face them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines. The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies, phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far, and many incremental improvements are being made constantly. These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets. A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention. The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation. Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets. The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on. The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity; however, one needs contingency plans for emergence of anti-product antibody response for clinical trials.

  2. Desafios do Serviço Social na atualidade em Portugal / Challenges faced by Social Work in Portugal nowadays

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Irene, Carvalho; Carla, Pinto.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este texto pretendemos contribuir para a compreensão do Serviço Social e da profissão de assistente social em Portugal, desde a sua emergência até a atualidade, destacando os desafios em contexto de globalização e do risco social. Para efetuar esta análise situamo-nos na inter-relação Estado-soc [...] iedade, em que o Serviço Social, enquanto corpo de saber específico, se destaca entre o mundo da vida e mundo dos sistemas. Tivemos em conta o contexto social, político e econômico e os valores, assim como as influências teóricas, as organizações e as orientações das políticas públicas e sociais que determinam o modelo de profissão e o modelo de formação prosseguido em Portugal. Abstract in english We intended to contribute to the understanding the social work profession in Portugal since its emergence to the present day, highlighting the challenges in the context of globalization and social risk. To perform this analysis are situating in the interrelationship State-society, where the Social W [...] ork, as a body of specific knowledge stands between the world of the living and the world of systems. We consider the social, political and economic context and values ??as well as the theoretical influences, organizations and guidelines of social and public policies that determine the model of profession and training model being pursued in Portugal.

  3. Challenges, uncertainties, and issues facing gas production from gas-hydrate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  4. International Cooperation and Internal displacement in Colombia: facing the challenges of the largest humanitarian crisis in South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuela Trindade, Viana.

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to understand the interaction between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Colombian government in their attempts to mitigate forced internal displacement, as well as the main challenges faced in addressing this problem. This article focu [...] ses on the interpretation adopted by the forementioned actors, who link this displacement to the armed conflict the country that has endured for more than forty years. Although this issue has been discussed for decades, the formulation of national policies intended to mitigate its effects came late, in the mid-1990s. Similarly, the UNHCR began paying more attention only in the late 1990s. The article concludes that there is a significant disparity between the development of norms regarding the internally displaced and the execution of such norms. For example, there needs to be greater coordination between national and local organizations, and national and international organizations. With respect to the prevention of internal displacement and the evaluation of the impact of these policies, the challenge is even greater; as such efforts are in the beginning stages. The UNHCR has used the same criteria as the Colombian government in executing its tasks; these criteria should be rethought and redefined in light of the High Commissioner's experience.

  5. Confronting the climate change challenge: discussing the role of rural India under cumulative emission budget approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO2) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.

  6. Expansão das licenciaturas em Educação do Campo: desafios e potencialidades / Expansion of the degree in rural education: challenges and potentialities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monica Castagna, Molina.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo integra a Pesquisa realizada a partir do Observatório da Educação da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), intitulada "Políticas da Expansão da Educação Superior no Brasil". Uma das frentes da expansão da Educação Superior tem se dado no âmbito da formação [...] de educadores do campo, com a implementação de 42 cursos de uma nova modalidade de graduação, intitulada "Licenciatura em Educação do Campo". Se considerados os aspectos relativos à ampliação concreta da oferta de formação de educadores e a conquista dos fundos públicos do Estado para manutenção destas graduações esta expansão destes cursos permanentes pode ser tomada como vitória dos movimentos sociais. Porém, esta expansão também impõe uma série de desafios à manutenção dos princípios originais do Movimento da Educação do Campo. Quais os riscos e potencialidades desta ampliação? Com a perspectiva de apresentar elementos de reflexão sobre estas questões, este artigo elenca os riscos da descaracterização de aspectos estruturantes desta política e as potencialidades que se julgam conter neste processo de ampliação, que estão sendo analisadas na pesquisa "Políticas de Expansão da Educação Superior no Brasil". Abstract in english This article is part of the research conducted from the Centre for Education of CAPES, entitled "Expansion of Higher Education Policies in Brazil". One of the important development in the expansion of higher education, has been the training of rural educators, with the implementation of 42 courses o [...] f a new type of degree, entitled "Degree in Rural Education." If we consider the aspects relating to the concrete enlargement of places for teacher training and the achievement of gaining public funds from the State to fund these courses, this expansion of these permanent courses can be taken as a victory for the social movements. However, this expansion also imposes a number of challenges to maintain the original principles of the Rural Education Movement. What are the risks and potentialities of this expansion? With the prospect of presenting thoughts on these issues, this article lists the risks of disfiguration of fundamental aspects of this policy and potentialities that are deemed to be contained within this expansion process, which are being analysed in the research "Political Expansion of Higher Education in Brazil".

  7. The Challenges of Youth Empowerment through Access to Credit in the Rural Areas of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Mohammed Aliero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment and poverty are endemic among Nigerian youth in spite of numerousapproaches to curtail the menace Access to credit is critical to enable the poor totransform their production systems and thus exit poverty. It is a well known fact that anefficient financial sector that responds to the needs of the private sector increasesinvestment, enhances economic growth, and creates job opportunities which is one of themajor challenges for developing economies. This paper examines the role of creditdeepening on youth empowerment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The approach of thepaper is qualitative and uses content analysis; literature was reviewed and thereafterconclusion was drawn based on the literature weight. It is however important to note thateconomic empowerment through accessibility to credit could be achieved if and only iffactors like collateral, interest rate, transaction cost and financial literacy, among othersthat pose challenges in accessing credit are remedied Specifically we recommend Indianmodel (Bharatia Yuva Shakti.

  8. MAKING TIME FOR STORYTELLING; THE CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY BUILDING AND ACTIVISM IN A RURAL LOCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Copeland, Clodagh Miskelly

    2010-01-01

    The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn ...

  9. Small-scale farming in rural areas :logistical challenges with direct distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsveen, Roar; Solvoll, Gisle

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews Norwegian farmers’ and companies’ strategies and experience with the use of direct distribution and e-commerce when selling agriculture products. Based on the opportunities and pitfalls resulting from the use of Internet and e-commerce in consumer marketing, the article discusses the commercial possibilities emerging from direct distribution of agricultural products to end-consumers. The focus on direct distribution is brought up to date through studying the challenges fa...

  10. Challenges for Ecosystem Services Provided by Coral Reefs In the Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R. K.; Elliff, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs provide many ecosystem services of which coastal populations are especially dependent upon, both in cases of extreme events and in daily life. However, adaptation to climate change is still relatively unknown territory regarding the ecosystem services provided by coastal environments, such as coral reefs. Management strategies usually consider climate change as a distant issue and rarely include ecosystem services in decision-making. Coral reefs are among the most vulnerable environments to climate change, considering the impact that increased ocean temperature and acidity have on the organisms that compose this ecosystem. If no actions are taken, the most likely scenario to occur will be of extreme decline in the ecosystem services provided by coral reefs. Loss of biodiversity due to the pressures of ocean warming and acidification will lead to increased price of seafood products, negative impact on food security, and ecological imbalances. Also, sea-level rise and fragile structures due to carbonate dissolution will increase vulnerability to storms, which can lead to shoreline erosion and ultimately threaten coastal communities. Both these conditions will undoubtedly affect recreation and tourism, which are often the most important use values in the case of coral reef systems. Adaptation strategies to climate change must take on an ecosystem-based approach with continuous monitoring programs, so that multiple ecosystem services are considered and not only retrospective trends are analyzed. Brazilian coral reefs have been monitored on a regular basis since 2000 and, considering that these marginal coral reefs of the eastern Atlantic are naturally under stressful conditions (e.g. high sedimentation rates), inshore reefs of Brazil, such as those in Tinharé-Boipeba, have shown lower vitality rates due to greater impacts from the proximity to the coastal area (e.g. pollution, overfishing, sediment run-off). This chronic negative impact must be addressed to increase resilience and guarantee the adaptation of this ecosystem to climate change. Thus, considering that the majority of the marine ecosystem services we benefit from are provided from coastal habitats, of which coral reefs play an important role, the challenge at hand is in fact the interaction between local factors and climate change

  11. O museu de arte perante o desafio da memória / The art museum facing the memory challenge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Isabel Rocha, Roque.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os museus surgiram como síntese representativa de uma realidade, impondo questões sobre a preservação das memórias inerentes à função e à simbologia dos objetos. No caso dos museus de arte, o objetivo era constituir um repositório patrimonial que contribuísse para a criação de uma identidade cultura [...] l, pelo que os objetos eram avaliados sobretudo em função da excelência dos seus parâmetros estéticos, em detrimento de outras significações; também a historiografia da arte privilegiava os aspectos formais, estabelecendo atribuições e estilos. Essas circunstâncias determinaram a descontextualização do objeto no espaço museológico. Porém, a partir de meados do século XX, os estudos sobre o público, enquanto entidade plural e diversificada, e os debates teóricos em torno da significação do objeto contribuíram para uma redefinição do discurso museológico. O museu passou a compensar as perdas inerentes ao processo de musealização por meio de um conjunto de procedimentos e ferramentas que recontextualizam os significados do objeto nas suas múltiplas valências. Entre ambos os vetores, de descontextualização e de recontextualização, o museu desafia a nossa memória pessoal e coletiva. Abstract in english Museums have emerged as a representative synthesis of a reality, so a question rises about the preservation of the memories inherent to the functional and symbolic objects. In the particular case of art museums, the goal was to build a heritage repository which would contribute to the creation of a [...] cultural identity. So, the objects were mainly evaluated in terms of aesthetic excellence of its parameters, to the detriment of other meanings. On the other hand, also the historiography of art favored formal aspects, establishing authorities and styles. These circumstances determined the decontextualization of the object in the museum. In return, from mid-twentieth century onwards, the studies of the public, as a plural and diversified entity, and the theoretical debates around the meaning of the object, contributed to a redefinition of the museological speech. The museum had to offset losses due to the musealisation through a set of procedures and tools that recontextualize the meanings of the object in their multiple valences. Between the two vectors, decontextualization and recontextualization, the museum challenges our personal and collective memory.

  12. THE MODERNIZATION OF RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER THE MEASURE 322 OF THE NATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius MIHALACHE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context in which rural areas represent 92% of the EU territory and gather over 50% of the EU population, and many rural areas face significant challenges such as migration and aging, reduced access to services, poor infrastructure or reduced employment opportunities, the concerns for rural development and improved quality of life in these areas have increased. Rural development is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union, which is pointed out by the consistent financial allocations: over a third of the total available funds at EU level between 2007 and 2013, and an estimated 38% for 2014-2020. The main institutional mechanism to support the development of rural areas in Romania was represented by the implementation of the National Rural Development Programme 2007-2013 (NRDP financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development. In the absence of other major government initiatives for rural development, the absorption of EU funds has been the main funding opportunity after 2007, for the initiatives of modernizing the Romanian rural areas. Based on a mix of secondary data analysis and the analysis of official documents provided by The Agency for Financing Rural Investment, the article aims to examine how the public investments program was carried out under the measure 322 of the NRDP, to identify its strong and weak points and its impact on rural infrastructure.

  13. Leadership Strategies for Maintaining Success in a Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Greta G.; Randolph, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Success in a PK-12 educational environment begins at the top with school leadership. Due to economic problems, poverty and added responsibilities, leaders in rural communities throughout the United States face sensitive and distinctive challenges. Based on research and years of administrative experience as school and school system leaders, the…

  14. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  15. Career Changers as First-Year Teachers in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Anderson, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The challenges novice teachers face as they adjust to inservice teaching are well documented. However, relatively little attention has been given to beginning teachers in rural schools who have had previous careers in other professions. We used qualitative methods to examine the professional experiences and perceptions of four career-changing…

  16. Developing Leaders: The Role of Competencies in Rural Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…

  17. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  18. Advancing Rural Family Resiliency Research, Education, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Families face trials, tribulations, transitions, and tragedies over time. Some families are better able to get through these challenges than others. Understanding why and how is central to the scientific inquiry known as family resiliency research. This article reports on multiple studies that together advance a rural family risk and resiliency…

  19. Teacher Training and Transitions in Rural Indonesian Schools: A Case Study of Bogor, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…

  20. How Waldorf School graduates cope with the challenges they face during military service: a ten-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Goldshmidt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews part of a study that dealt with how graduates of the Waldorf School integrate into Israeli society, as seen from their perspective. The purpose of the study was to explore how Waldorf School graduates integrate into society on completing high school, and examine the nature and quality of life readiness that the Waldorf educational method provides its graduates. Three main areas of life were reviewed in the study: graduates in the one-year volunteer framework, in the regular military framework, and in academic studies. Of these, the current study reviews only the area of military service. The study applied qualitative methodology, including semi-structured interviews with 46 graduates of the Waldorf School in Harduf, Israel, following twelve full years of study. This is the first study of Waldorf-educated graduates ever conducted worldwide relying solely qualitative methodology, and the only study conducted in Israel thus far. The study’s main conclusion is that the Waldorf School, as an education system emphasizing artistic and creative manifestation, hands-on work, a connection with nature, warm personal relationships, and an absence of exams and grades, can produce graduates who see themselves as successfully cope with the challenges they face following completion of school, and in this particular case, the challenges of coping with military service in the IDF. One of the questions surfacing from the study is whether it is possible to implement Waldorf School methods and approaches fully or partially also in the framework of other governmental education systems.

  1. Construction and Validation of a Survey Instrument to Determine the Gender-Related Challenges Faced by Pre-Service Male Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Vaughan; Pedersen, Scott; Hill, Allen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The gender-related challenges facing males entering the primary-school teaching profession have been well documented in the academic literature over recent decades. The majority of these data have come about through qualitative reports. Whilst qualitative methods provide important perspectives into these issues, the use of valid and reliable…

  2. "It's Intense, to an Extent": A Qualitative Study of the Emotional Challenges Faced by Staff Working on a Treatment Programme for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…

  3. Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment plants: challenges facing small water treatment plants in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MNB, Momba; CL, Obi; P, Thompson.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered inc [...] luded ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (

  4. MAKING TIME FOR STORYTELLING; THE CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY BUILDING AND ACTIVISM IN A RURAL LOCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Copeland, Clodagh Miskelly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn to involvement in social action through group workshops without prior personal engagement. This paper considers which other participatory media techniques can be employed to encourage involvement in community digital storytelling workshops to inspire activism, and examines barriers to participation, with emphasis on the necessity of mandate, for project success. To help answer these issues, one particular workshop in a case study in North Yorkshire, UK will be used to identify the importance of place and incorporation of methods when undertaking community digital storytelling.

  5. Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P Henz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF, assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relatadas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1 incidência de pragas e doenças; (2 aquisição de mudas; (3 custo de embalagens; (4 necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5 custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo.In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF, Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1 incidence of pests and diseases; (2 strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3 packing costs; (4 need of intensive labor; and (5 high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

  6. Challenges faced by NRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) played an important role in setting up of nuclear power plants (two) and development of fuel technology. However, with no current plans for expansion of this programme, the Institute is looking mainly into multi-cycle fuel management and life extension issues. The Institute focuses on programmes related to radioisotope and radiation applications and on the use of nuclear technologies for non-nuclear applications. The ININ is the major provider of radioisotopes for medical uses. It also promotes and uses nuclear analytical techniques for addressing a variety of problems. In non-nuclear areas some R and D examples include: the use of thermal plasma for hazardous waste incineration, biodegradation of polymers and development of separation techniques for treating industrial effluents. For preservation of knowledge, the Institute has instituted PhD. programmes in materials science, medical physics and nuclear science in collaboration with a university. (author)

  7. Challenges facing young astrophysicists

    OpenAIRE

    Zakamska, N. L.; Schulz, A. E.; Heng, K; Juric, M.; Kocsis, B.; Kuhlen, M.; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J. L.; Pan, M.; Rudd, D. H.; Ven, G., van der; Zheng, Z

    2009-01-01

    In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shor...

  8. Challenges facing young astrophysicists

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, N L; Heng, K; Juric, M; Kocsis, B; Kuhlen, M; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J L; Pan, M; Rudd, D H; van de Ven, G; Zheng, Z

    2009-01-01

    In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shortage of child care options and design reasonable profession-wide parental leave policies. (4) Streamline the job application and hiring process. We summarize our reasons for bringing these areas to the attention of the committee, and we suggest several practical steps that can be taken to address them.

  9. Applying knowledge, facing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Greg

    2015-05-16

    After qualifying from Cambridge, Greg Dickens looked for a job that could support him while he tried to break into international sport. He became an innovation consultant, inventing or modifying new technologies, for which, he says, the skills developed during the veterinary degree are ideal. PMID:25977498

  10. Challenges Facing Guitar Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The guitar is an extremely versatile instrument. It can produce complex chords and arpeggiated textures as readily as single-note melodies. In the twentieth century alone, it has appeared in a wide range of genres; classical, jazz, blues, rock, and bossa nova compose a partial list. The guitar is also a difficult instrument. Inconsistencies across…

  11. Addressing Rural Library Technology Budgets with Single Board Computers: Testing the APC 8950 Rock Circuit Board Computer for Patron Access

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Wells

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, libraries have faced enormous budgetary challenges when it comes to implementing new technologies. These challenges are very pronounced in rural areas where libraries struggle to develop and define a path for purchasing and replacing systems that have become outdated. The author attempted to create a unit to replace aging OPAC terminals and to provide a low cost computing option for budget constrained rural libraries. The initial attempt detailed in this paper involved p...

  12. Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

  13. The prospects and challenges in rural marketing with references to two wheelers - A study of Karad Taluka of Satara District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H G Abhyankar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available India’s geo-demographic identity underscores as “India lives in her villages”. Even the economy is progressing day by day very fast but the division between rural and urban has no signs of receding. As for the Indian context where more than three forth of population lives in rural India & the national income generated in rural India is one third of its total. Now it becomes compulsory for researchers to study in-depth the needs and wants of ruler population therefore most of the industries are investing their money for rural marketing. The researcher has taken two wheeler industries for studying the rural marketing. This research paper focuses the objectives, review of literature, scope, research methodology, hypothesis testing, and suggestions.

  14. Fragmentation and Unity of Rural Public Governance: A Case Study on Lin’an City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong ZENG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The township, as the most basic political system in China, a head of which is connected to a city, and the another head connected with the countryside, is the foundation of national economic and social development. In the face of strong intervention of economic globalization, the gradually weakening of local township government, and the increasingly tense of national finance, agricultural and rural development policy, which is presently ubiquitous in the rural area of China, stressed from top to bottom, expert guidance, government-dominated promoting, will face the serious challenges of rural governance under the background of globalization. The rural governance is that the national institutions and other authorities based on the village government provides public service activities to the village society, in order to maintain rural order, promote rural development, according to the laws, regulations, customs and traditions. And rural governance is the process of multi subjects’ collaborative management of rural village. Rural governance quality reflects the ability of government’s rural social mobilization and management, and relates to the stable development and prosperity of rural society. The current problems of township governance, mainly are not the “township”problems of its own, but the “institutions and mechanisms of government”problem. This article takes the Lin’an city of Zhejiang province as the research object, through the development of villages and towns work rules in the process of tracking, puts forward a good example of rural governance in china.

  15. Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on the themes of the 2007 conference held in Aix-en-Provence. These topical issues were: the roles, functions and values that guide TSOs in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety; technical and scientific support for nuclear safety infrastructure development and capacity building; the emerging need for nuclear security technical and scientific support; and nuclear safety and nuclear security networking and centres of excellence. The President's report on the conference, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, is included in these proceedings and provides an overview of all the issues addressed. In the presentations and subsequent discussions, the conference highlighted positive outcomes, confronted areas of continuing concern and explored avenues to address those concerns. Among the more salient findings was the determination that a means for continuous dialogue among TSOs was necessary. The need to support the review process for a future IAEA safety publication on external expert support on safety issues was also identified. Finally, consideration of a TSO forum along the lines of the Regulatory Cooperation Forum to develop best practices and promote common values was recommended. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a foreword, a summary, the opening addresses and invited papers, and the conclusions, recommendations and a conference summary by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers, the list of participants and the presentations that were submitted with the invited papers.

  16. The prospects and challenges in rural marketing with references to two wheelers - A study of Karad Taluka of Satara District

    OpenAIRE

    H G Abhyankar; Sandeep N Jagadale

    2013-01-01

    India’s geo-demographic identity underscores as “India lives in her villages”. Even the economy is progressing day by day very fast but the division between rural and urban has no signs of receding. As for the Indian context where more than three forth of population lives in rural India & the national income generated in rural India is one third of its total. Now it becomes compulsory for researchers to study in-depth the needs and wants of ruler population therefore most of the industri...

  17. Adapting to new challenges: extension theory and practice for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Garforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Twenty first century challenges facing agriculture include climate change, threats to food security for a growing population and downward economic pressures on rural livelihoods. Addressing these challenges will require innovation in extension theory, policy and education, at a time when the dominance of the state in the provision of knowledge and information services to farmers and rural entrepreneurs continues to decline. This paper suggests that extension theory is catching up with and hel...

  18. Advantages and Challenges of A Village Doctor-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Late-Life Depression in Rural China: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tan; Yang, Xuemei; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Xiaohua; Ji, Li; Xiao, Yun; Ma, Kun; Wang, Ying; Kong, Xianglei; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Jun; Xu, Qian; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The delivery of mental health services in rural China has been notably limited due to lack of qualified mental health professionals among other impeding factors. A village doctor-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention may be one way of improving accessibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the advantages and challenges of implementing this intervention, as delivered by trained village doctors, to treat late-life depression in rural China. Methods We conducted one focus group discussion with 10 village doctors, 10 individual interviews with each of the village doctors, and individual interviews with 19 older adults. The topic guides were advantages and challenges of the intervention program from the perspective of the village doctors and older adults. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded using NVivo 8, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The village doctors stressed the importance of role-playing and using instructive manuals in the training. Proper supervision was also a key component of the program. The benefits received from the intervention for the village doctors and the elders were positive such that both the doctors and the older adults were willing to implement/receive this intervention. Cultural and political factors (renqing and perceived policy consideration) facilitated the elders’ access to mental health services. Challenges included a lack of real therapy (in contrast to role-playing) demonstrated in the training and lack of a step-by-step manual based on different types of problems encountered. Other impediments to the successful implementation of the intervention included the time constraints of village doctors and the presence of other people when conducting the intervention. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that the intervention program is likely to be an acceptable geriatric depression intervention in rural China if several challenges are appropriately addressed. PMID:26371473

  19. Illuminating the Potential for a Rural Energy Service Company - Meeting the off-grid electrification challenge in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndrup, Morten; Jensen, Thomas Young Hwan Westring

    2012-01-01

    The access to modern energy services are deeply embedded in most aspects of the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of human development. In Mozambique, just a small fraction of the rural population has access to electricity, as the electrification process so far has relied on a leastcost approach, only inciting the development and extension of the national grid. As the population of rural off-grid communities are often highly dispersed, having low purchasing power, low...

  20. New challenges in rural development: A multi-scale inquiry into emerging issues, posed by the global land rush

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidel, Arnim

    2013-01-01

    En los últimos años están surgiendo nuevos retos asociados al desarrollo rural, catalizados por una fiebre mundial por la adquisición de tierras a gran escala. Este fenómeno, conocido como ‘acaparamiento de tierras', está generando controversia en cuanto a si el interés creciente en estas adquisiciones podría beneficiar a las comunidades rurales empobrecidas del campesinado mundial, o al contrario, incidirá en su marginalización. Esta tesis doctoral presenta una recopilación de cuatro artícul...

  1. Challenges faced by women of reproductive age (15-49) in accessing family planning services in a post-conflict setting : case of northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nandudu, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family planning service is a public health problem in Uganda faces numerous challenges; however, the experience of war had made it more challenging for women in Northern Uganda to use and access FP services. Civil unrest has caused a state of poverty, rape, health care disruption, high maternal death and child mortality in the region. Unmet need for family planning is high (12%) in the North, twice the national average of 23% (UDHS, 2006). Women in war-torn zones are susceptible t...

  2. The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed J. F. Hosseini; Zahra Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questio...

  3. Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development

    OpenAIRE

    Marunda, E.; Sai, J.P.; Muchenje, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources i...

  4. International Relations and Cooperation facing the evolution of societies and challenges of living processes : Open Strategies for action : the added-value of patrimonial strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    de HARTINGH, François-Vadim

    2008-01-01

    Facing challenges of a planetary dimension especially regarding the living systems and the man in the biosphere, the system of international relations and cooperation is being put in question. The international organizations and their mode of cooperation are being questioned as far as their methods and their fundamentals are concerned. If the universal values are recognized by all, the complexity of the problems in the biosphere and the urgency they reach now do not appear to be dealt with in...

  5. Effective at the Margins: Outmigration and Economic Development in Rural North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Jolley; Aaron Nousaine; Carolyn Huang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the economic and social challenges faced by Enfield, a small town in rural northeastern North Carolina, and the efforts by the Center for Competitive Economies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to assist the community in a strategic economic development plan to address these challenges. In particular, the paper outlines the challenges and tensions between place-based versus people-based economic development approaches and how these tensions are generalize...

  6. There exists a disjunction between Tory preoccupations in Birmingham and the more fundamental challenges the party actually faces

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Tim Bale describes the typical party conference atmosphere and argues the Conservatives’ obsession with issues like Europe, visa restrictions and Boris only distract from far greater and more pressing concerns facing the party.

  7. Examining health systems challenges and possible mitigation strategies in the face of an economic crisis in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Mndzebele, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that growth in a country’s Gross National Products does improve life expectancy only when substantial funds are directed towards healthcare and poverty eradication in society. The economic crisis currently faced by Swaziland has a potential of impacting negatively on her healthcare system, hence the need for drawing-up mitigation strategies. Purpose: To examine the healthcare system in the face of the economic crisis in Swaziland with the aim of drawing-...

  8. Future Issues in Rural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Many rural schools today are faced with problems of inadequate facilities and instructional materials, limited course offerings, inadequate funding, poor teaching, and limited job opportunities for students. Rural young people, particularly women, have bleak prospects for post-secondary education or non-traditional employment. Because rural youth…

  9. Preparing Rural Community College Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mitchell R.; Pennington, Kevin L.; Couch, Gene; Dougherty, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of universities offer graduate programs that focus specifically on preparing rural community college leaders. At the same time, community colleges are facing projections of unprecedented turnover in both administrative and instructional leadership. The rural community college is a unique educational institution which faces

  10. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  11. Information and Communications Technology Development Products Towards Strengthening Rural Communities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the extent of development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT ability to empower rural communities and enhance their economic productivity. ICT is a core catalyst for the development of a country to achieve developed nation status. However, rural communities are still exposed to the challenges and constraints in order to promote ICT development in rural areas. To address this issue, the government has established various objectives to ensure that rural communities are not marginalized. In an effort to take advantage of ICT development in rural areas, governments and agencies have developed various ICT-based products in rural areas. Programs such as Center of Telecenter, Rural Internet Centre (PID, Medan Info Desa, e-Village/e-Community, K-TRAK, PKIT and others are among the products introduced to the rural community. The purpose of the introduction of this product is to focus on the government’s efforts in ensuring the development of balanced urban and rural areas from different angles. Through ICT products, a rural community not just only follows the development of the ICT revolution, but to create a knowledgeable society and helps to boost the quality of life of rural communities. Thus, this paper will discuss ICT products developed in the rural areas of Malaysia, the purpose and prospects of the product development and the challenges faced during its implementation. Hopefully, the discussion and recommendations given could trigger the opportunity and space in making ICT as a driving force to economic development in rural areas.Key words: ICT products; Rural communities; The use of ICT; Economic catalyst

  12. Challenges Students' Face in Their Transition from Primary to Secondary School and the Interventions Schools Take to Ease the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarekegne, Wudu Melese

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the major challenges that affect students' enrollment and participation and the key measures schools take to mitigate the challenge and help students continue their education. The data were collected from 23 secondary school grade nine students in Amahara Regional State in Ethiopia using the structured questionnaires from…

  13. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  14. Leveraging the Unique Features of Small, Rural Schools for Improvement. Lessons Learned. Volume 1, Issue 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Much of the Northwest Region (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) is rural in nature. A characteristic of the extractive economies such as timber, agriculture, mining, and fisheries is that they are generally located in small communities isolated by distances. While schools in these communities face the same challenges as those in…

  15. Fast Track, Bush Track: Late Career Female Rural School Leaders Taking the Slow Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Al-Awiwe, Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Previous research related to this study explored early career female leaders' experiences in rural school settings, and probed the personal and professional challenges they faced and their motivations to accept formal and informal leadership roles ahead of the usual timeframes (e.g., Graham, Miller & Paterson, 2009). This study set out to…

  16. Emergent Teacher-Researchers: A Reflection on the Challenges Faced when Conducting Research in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The following narrative reflects on the dilemmas and problems faced by inexperienced researchers working within the field of education. Focusing on a research project completed in fulfilment of an MA in Teaching and Learning, the article recounts the decisions made by one emergent researcher and evaluates how far the chosen methods may have helped…

  17. O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola / The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Maria, Rigotto; Fernando Ferreira, Carneiro; Alice Maria Correia Pequeno, Marinho; Mayara Melo, Rocha; Marcelo José Monteiro, Ferreira; Vanira Matos, Pessoa; Ana Cláudia de Araújo, Teixeira; Maria de Lourdes Vicente da, Silva; Lara de Queiroz Viana, Braga; Maiana Maia, Teixeira.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compar [...] tilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido. Abstract in english In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) [...] in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  18. O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compartilhadas: (1 para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2 é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3 o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4 setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5 é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6 se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7 comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido.In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1 in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2 it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3 the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4 sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5 studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6 we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7 rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  19. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  20. An investigation into the challenges facing the future provision of continuing professional development for allied health professionals in a changing healthcare environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.

  1. Challenging the economic reform paradigm: policy and politics in the early 1980s collapse of the rural cooperative medical system

    OpenAIRE

    Duckett, J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades an economic reform paradigm has dominated social security and health research: economic reform policies have defined its parameters, established its premises, generated its questions and even furnished its answers. This paradigm has been particularly influential in accounts of the early 1980s collapse of China’s rural cooperative medical system (CMS), which is depicted almost exclusively as the outcome of the post-Mao economic policies that decollectivized agricul...

  2. Disseminating research in rural Yup'ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Rivkin; Joseph Trimble; Ellen D.S. Lopez; Samuel Johnson; Eliza Orr; James Allen

    2013-01-01

    Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify co...

  3. How to Set Up a Research Framework to Analyze Social–Ecological Interactive Processes in a Rural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Sarthou; Annie Ouin; Claude Monteil; Sylvie Ladet; Jean-Paul Lacombe; André Gavaland; Eric Garine; Mark Hewison; Gaétan du Bus de Warnaffe; Alain Cabanettes; Annick Gibon; Marc Deconchat; Anne Sourdril; Gérard Balent

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research frameworks can be useful in providing answers to the environmental challenges facing rural environments, but concrete implementation of them remains empirical and requires better control. We present our practical experience of an interdisciplinary research project dealing with non-industrial private forestry in rural landscapes. The theoretical background, management, and methodological aspects, as well as results of the project, are presented in order to identify p...

  4. Slammed by government cuts and sidelined by the occupy movements, women face an uphill battle to challenge patriarchy in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Women have borne the brunt of the coalition government’s cut programme, facing reduced public services and diminished employment opportunities. And while the Occupy and other protests movements have highlighted inequality in the UK, they continue to be dominated by white men. Amanda Conroy argues that feminists should take a cue from the OccupyPatriarchy movement and turn their attention toward the values underpinning maledominated capitalism.

  5. Do patients bypass rural hospitals? Determinants of inpatient hospital choice in rural California

    OpenAIRE

    Escarce, José J.; Kapur, Kanika

    2009-01-01

    Rural hospitals play a crucial role in providing healthcare to rural Americans, a vulnerable and underserved population; however, rural hospitals have faced threats to their financial viability and many have closed as a result. This paper examines the hospital characteristics that are associated with patients choosing rural hospitals, and sheds light on the types of patients who depend on rural hospitals for care and, hence, may be the most impaired by the closure of rural hospitals. Using da...

  6. Barriers to and supports of family participation in a rural system of care for children with serious emotional problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullmann, Michael D; VanHooser, Sarah; Hoffman, Cheri; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2010-06-01

    Researchers have not adequately addressed the unique characteristics of rural areas that influence the accessibility of services for families with children who have serious emotional problems. Understanding rurality is particularly important to "systems of care" grant sites because these grants are intended to restructure mental health service delivery by building upon the strengths of a community and addressing the community's needs. This qualitative study examines the barriers to and supports for participation in services within a rural system of care site through the reported experiences of eight caregivers and nine staff. Findings indicate families face many challenges related to rurality, including stigma, transportation, isolation, poverty, and service availability. In addition to these challenges, however, participants reported many meaningful supports such as the religious community and the close-knit community of families and service providers. We present implications for planning, implementing, and evaluating systems of care in rural areas. PMID:19551506

  7. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  8. Younger Native Americans Face High Suicide Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bullying, both face-to-face and via the Internet, Gray said. In addition, "there's a lack of ... Gray, Ph.D., associate director and research associate professor, University of North Dakota Center for Rural Health, ...

  9. Face Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Through five cases from high-end fashion brands, this article explores the use of models in contemporary fashion marketing. The models represent subversive beauty ideals, and the aim of the analysis is to determine whether these ‘faces’ are intended to challenge stereotypes concerning age, gender, body and sexuality or whether they are examples of marketing absorbing consumer behaviour to appeal to contemporary consumers. The research is based on fashion campaigns and runway shows in mainly luxu...

  10. Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Companies in Sustaining Conformance to ISO9001:2008 in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of a Textiles Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. William Msekiwa Goriwondo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS has seen many companies willing to implement it and get certification so as to improve quality delivery. Due to the globalization phenomenon, certification to ISO9001 becomes a prerequisite. Many manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe have been certified in a quest to improve their quality delivery. The main certification body in Zimbabwe is the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ. This paper is based on a case study research for KT Textiles and it assesses the challenges that one certified manufacturing company is facing in a bid to sustain conformance to the ISO 9001: 2008QMS. Questionnaires and Interviews were the main research instruments used in the study. There was also reference to archival records and minutes of important meetings from the organization. Using stratified random sampling, questionnaires were administered to both managers and employees drawn from different departments. Employees were also interviewed to provide further information to compliment the questionnaire data. The data was analyzed using statistical graphs and charts. This research identified how the organization applies the 8 principles of ISO 9001:2008 QMS. The research findings revealed that the main challenges faced by the firm in maintaining the QMS are lack of top management involvement and support, lack of employee creativity and innovation, lack of focused internal audits, preventive maintenance schedule and data analysis lack priority.

  11. Changing Preservice Teachers' Attitudes for Teaching in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Hudson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Australia continues to face teaching shortages in rural schools. Indeed, preservice teachers may be reluctant to apply for rural teaching positions, particularly as most have had no rural teaching experiences. What may motivate non-rural preservice teachers to seek employment in rural schools? This study investigates 17 preservice teachers' first…

  12. Rural Schools and Communities: How Globalization Influences Rural School and Community Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how a rural school district and the communities in which the district belonged collaborated on a community development initiative. This dissertation examined the opportunities and constraints rural communities are facing and the role that a rural school system could play in increasing social and economic sustainability of rural

  13. Separation of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital: Perioperative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurita Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing anaesthesia for the separation surgery of conjoined twins presents unique challenges to the managing anaesthesiologists. The low incidence of such surgeries and anatomical variations in each type of conjoined twins makes each separation surgery a unique experience. This report features the anaesthetic plan and challenges faced in performing the separation surgery of a set of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital in a remote location in India.

  14. The rural pipeline: building a strong nursing workforce through academic and service partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maureen Fitzgerald; Havener, Jeanne-Marie; Davis, Patricia S; Jastremski, Connie; Twichell, Martha L

    2011-03-01

    Nurse recruitment and the retention of a high-quality workforce are challenging issues facing rural hospitals and health centers. The Bassett Healthcare Network has met these challenges by building a supportive framework to develop and support nurses at every level of their professional careers. The organization has partnered with local colleges to help staff nurses further their education. These and other partnership endeavors, such as the organization's clinical ladder and collaborative continuing nursing education opportunities, are helping Bassett sustain and grow the nursing workforce across 8 counties in rural upstate New York and develop stronger ties with academic partners. PMID:21320665

  15. Face Recognition Methods & Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Divyarajsinh N.; Mehta, Brijesh B.

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. The security of information is becoming very significant and difficult. Security cameras are presently common in airports, Offices, University, ATM, Bank and in any locations with a security system. Face recognition is a biometric system used to identify or verify a person from a digital image. Face Recognition system is used in security. Face recognition system should be able...

  16. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…

  17. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas : Opportunities and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; MØller, JØrgen

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the carpooling in sufficient time (2-24 hours before). Another factor that has to be fulfilled is a high level of cohesion in the local area, i.e. a high level of knowledge of any participants in the scheme. Despite of these requirements being met, it is still a challenge to change car owners’ habit in order to make carpooling work.

  18. Overseas territories facing the challenge of climate change - Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies the social-environmental challenges associated with climate change for French overseas territories, proposes an analysis of the impact of activities of the different economic sectors on the environment, and proposes some principles for action. After an introduction which outlines the importance of addressing climate change and adaptation, and describes the situation of French overseas territories in front of climate change, a first part identifies and discusses the main social-environmental challenges associated with climate change (climate evolution, role of climate change in a context of economic development, the territory as a resource system, climate change considered as an impact chain, the relative weight of climatic uncertainties). Then, the report analyses the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity, on tourism, on fishing and aquaculture, on agriculture and breeding, on forestry, on health, and on the energy sector. For each of them, the economic weight is indicated and commented, expected impacts are discussed, and adaptation possibilities and implementation modalities are commented. The issue of coastal planning and risks related to climate change is also addressed

  19. Facing the challenge of Arctic fisheries management within a context of spatially differentiated ecological-economic externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    Abrupt and rapid climate change in combination with increased human disturbance in Arctic marine ecosystems is of significant and growing concern to the scientific community, particularly regarding non-native species introductions and the threats they are posing to the overall marine habitat and its economic productivity. The challenging environmental conditions have so far created barriers that prevented extended introduction and establishment of most non-native species. Climate change is working to reduce these barriers, thus the same characteristics that have previously made the Arctic less open to the spread of invasive species are now responsible for the expansiveness of the problem. At stake are unique species and co-evolved systems that have taken millennia to develop. Even small-scale disturbances in the pristine Arctic ecosystems are likely to have outsized impacts both on an ecological and on an economic level. This work discusses optimal management approaches regarding threats from invasive specieson an international scale in order to delineate international policy characteristics that may reduce overall damages and costs. The purposeful introduction of the Red King Crab (RKC), together with the appearance of the Snow Crab (SC) in the Barents Sea and the RKC’s identification in Icelandic waters, are used as a basis for the discussion of the local, regional and international governance opportunities and failures as well as intervention possibilities to address the tradeoffs inherent in these species’ introductions. The challenges of effectively managing these species are particularly high, mainly due to their twofold role as invasive species and market commodities. Part of the balancing act needed for a solution to the spread of the RKC has been directed at spatial containment, where the containment procedure depends on economic incentives of open access fisheries. Such solutions are examined regarding whether they would be feasible for the newer but more rapidly expanding SC invasion.

  20. Comparison of primary health care services between urban and rural settings after the introduction of the first urban health centre in Vyronas, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Papathanasiou Marek; Marayiannis Konstantinos; Mariolis-Sapsakos Theodoros; Alevizos Alevizos; Mihas Constantinos; Mariolis Anargiros; Gizlis Vassilios; Karanasios Dimitris; Merkouris Bodossakis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Discrepancies in primary health care (PHC) services between urban and rural settings have already been studied in many countries; however, limited information exists regarding countries, such as Greece, where public Health Centres dedicated to primary care have not been in existence in major cities. The objective of this study was to evaluate points of divergence or convergence between an urban and a rural health centre, in an attempt to underline challenges faced by the i...

  1. Efficient scarf detection prior to face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Rui; D'Angelo, Angela; Dugelay, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Face occlusion is a very challenging problem in face recognition. The performance of face recognition system can decrease drastically due to the presence of partial occlusion on the face. One approach to overcome this problem is to first pre-classify faces into two classes: the clean face and the occluded face; then faces in different classes are treated by different recognition systems. In this case an algorithm which is able to automatically detect the presence of occlusions on the face wil...

  2. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Kristian [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Arter, Calvin A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Lee, Dr. Kyuho [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Schroder, Prof. Elsebeth [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Hyldgaard, Per [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those groundstate properties that can be described by density functional theory (DFT). One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B, in print] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromaticmolecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  3. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  4. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Kristian [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Arter, Calvin A.; Thonhauser, T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Cooper, Valentino R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States); Lee, Kyuho [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lundqvist, Bengt I. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-05-14

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO{sub 3}, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  5. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  6. Rural-Urban Migration and Its Consequences on Rural Children: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Imran Ali Meerza

    2010-01-01

    Rural-urban adult migration, mainly adult male migration makes heavy demand on all family members, but especially on children who are left behind in rural area to shoulder the responsibility of agriculture production and food security. Labor shortage due to rural-urban adult migration may mean that children in rural area often have to face tighter time schedules and patterns of time use and human energy inputs required in agriculture production.  The study revealed the impact of rural-urban m...

  7. The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guang WU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available
    More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs, particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the innovative ability of the Internet itself. More generally, it creates tension for China’s successful engagement with the international community, decreases the international competitiveness of the Chinese ICT enterprises and stifles the development of global ICTs. China needs to adopt a more sophisticated approach to regulate Internet content and overcome these challenges in the near future. Failure to do so will widen the gap between China and the world’s developed countries in the Information Age.
    Key words: the Internet; the regulation of the Internet; content regulation; China
    Résumé: Plus d’une dizaine de départements différents en Chine assument les responsabilités variées du contrôle du contenu des publications sur Internet. Cette structure régulatrice séparée a causé beaucoup de défis en face de la convergence des informations, des technologies de communication et surtout de l’Internet. Tous ces défis contiennent un coût de conformité élevé pour les entreprises ICT?Information and communication technologies en anglais?, qui découragent effectivement les startups high-tech et qui sont défavorables pour la capacité innovatrice d’Internet lui-même.Plus généralement, il crée de la tension pour l’engagement de la Chine avec la communauté internationale, diminue la compétitivité internationales des entreprises ICT chinoises et ralentit le développement de l’ICT. La Chine a besoin d’adopter une approche plus sophistiquée pour régulariser le contenu d’Internet et surmonter tous ces défis dans le proche futur. Si l’on faillit faire cela, la distance entre la Chine et les pays développés s’agrandira dans l’Age d’Information.
    Mots-Clés: Internet; régularisation d’Internet; contrôle du contenu; la Chine

  8. Topical problems of rural labor market development

    OpenAIRE

    Komiljon Homitov

    2009-01-01

    Rural labor market of the country requires further development of infrastructure that would contribute tobalancing labor demand and supply. Particular challenge for the reforms in rural labor market is the qualification leveland structure of the local workers.

  9. As mulheres perante o desafio de uma carreira internacional / Les femmes face au défi d’une carrière internationale / Women facing the challenge of an international career / Las mujeres ante el desafio de una carrera internacional

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Rita, Nunes; Sara Falcão, Casaca.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resulta de uma investigação que procurou compreender as motivações, as experiências e os desafios enfrentados pelas mulheres envolvidas em processos de mobilidade internacional, tentando simultaneamente apreender o efeito do género nas respetivas experiências. Com este intuito, foram rea [...] lizadas 20 entrevistas a gestoras que, durante o seu percurso profissional, participaram em experiências internacionais. A persistência de estereótipos de género e a escassez de mulheres em posições de liderança destacam-se enquanto referências aos obstáculos enfrentados, tanto antes como durante as experiências em análise. Além disso, em alguns contextos registaram-se situações de isolamento e também de maior exposição e visibilidade. Por fim, é possível destacar a centralidade assumida pela dimensão familiar enquanto condicionante das decisões de mobilidade e do desenvolvimento de uma carreira no plano internacional. Abstract in spanish Este artículo resulta de una investigación que procuró comprender las motivaciones, las experiencias y los desafios enfrentados por las mujeres involucradas en procesos de movilidad internacional, intentando simultáneamente apropiarse del efecto de género en las respectivas experiencias. Con este pr [...] opósito, fueron realizadas veinte entrevistas a administradoras que, durante su trayecto profesional, participaron en experiencias internacionales. Predominan la persistencia de estereótipos de género y la escasez de mujeres en posiciones de liderazgo como referencias a los obstáculos enfrentados, tanto antes como durante las experiencias en análisis. Además de eso, en algunos contextos se registraron situaciones de aislamiento y también de mayor exposición y visibilidad. Finalmente, es posible destacar la importancia central asumida por la dimensión familiar como condicionante de las decisiones de movilidad y del desarrollo de una carrera en el plan internacional Abstract in english This article resulted from a study designed to understand the motivations and experiences of women involved in international mobility processes and the challenges they face, while simultaneously seeking to gauge the gender effect in their experiences. Twenty female managers with international elemen [...] ts in their career paths were interviewed. The persistence of gender stereotypes and the small number of women in leadership positions stand out as references among the obstacles they faced, both before and during the experiences analysed during the project. In addition, in some contexts the women found themselves both isolated and more exposed and visible. Finally, the authors note the centrality the family dimension assumes as a factor that conditions both the mobility decisions taken during a career at international level and its development.

  10. Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal / Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar P, Henz.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

  11. Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges / ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????-?????: ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????? / Retenir les médecins dans les zones rurales du Timor-Leste: une évaluation critique des opportunités et des défis / ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????- ????: ????? ???? ????? ????????? / ????????????????????? / Cómo conservar a los médicos en las zonas rurales de Timor-Leste: una valoración crítica de las oportunidades y desafíos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augustine D, Asante; Nelson, Martins; Michael E, Otim; John, Dewdney.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Timor-Leste se encuentra en proceso de abordar una cuestión clave para el sector sanitario del país: un personal médico demasiado escaso para proporcionar una atención adecuada. En teoría, un programa bilateral de cooperación médica con Cuba, creado en el año 2003, podría solucionar este pro [...] blema. A finales de 2013, casi 700 médicos nuevos formados en Cuba se unieron al personal médico de Timor-Leste, y se espera que profesionales de la salud nacionales y cubanos formen a otros 328 médicos en el país hasta 2017. En Indonesia y otros lugares han recibido formación algunos médicos más, que se sumarán pronto a este personal. Se espera que el número de médicos en Timor-Leste triplique en el año 2017 el número de médicos existentes en el país en 2003. La mayoría de estos médicos nuevos trabajarán en comunidades rurales y respaldarán el objetivo del gobierno nacional de mejorar los resultados sanitarios de la mayoría rural. Aunque el incremento masivo del personal médico podría cambiar el modo de proporcionar la atención sanitaria y mejorar notablemente los resultados sanitarios en todo el país, hay desafíos que es necesario superar si Timor-Leste pretende obtener el máximo beneficio de dicho crecimiento. Parece fundamental que la mayor parte de los nuevos médicos se despliegue en comunidades rurales y se gestione con gran atención para optimizar su permanencia en dichas zonas. Abstract in english Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doct [...] ors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.

  12. 78 FR 64926 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...Request: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants...Collection: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants...school transformation model. Rural schools and districts often face...

  13. What Can a Woman Do with a Camera? Turning the Female Gaze on Poverty and HIV and AIDS in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene; Stuart, Jean; Buthelezi, Thabisile; Taylor, Myra

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the use of participatory video in finding solutions to challenges faced by schools and communities in the contexts of poverty and the AIDS pandemic in one rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Locating the analysis within the study of feminist visual culture and the notion of the female gaze, the article focuses on…

  14. Heart Failure in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreccio, Catterina; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) living in rural areas face an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Even in countries with universal access to health care, rural areas are characteristically underserved, with reduced health care providers supply, greater distance to health care centers, decreased physician density with higher reliance on generalists, and high health care staff turnover. On the other hand, patient-related characteristics vary widely among published data. This review describes the epidemiology of CHF in rural or remote settings, organizational and patient-related factors involved in cardiovascular outcomes, and the role of interventions to improve rural health care. PMID:26462091

  15. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  16. Face To Face

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, Lea Holst; Eilertzen, Freja Nissen; Repsdorph, Helene Reck; Gerelsaikhan, Gerelmaa; Otkjær, Mia Jo; Søndergaard, Ditte Klerens

    2008-01-01

    The face-to-face (F2F) strategy is a method which entails groups of so-called ‘facers’ standing in a public space trying to recruit people to the organisation and informing about the organisation’s work. In combination with the possibility of reaching large numbers of people, this technique provides a steady and ongoing flow of money, something which is vital for the NGO’s when planning future activities. In spite of ethical regulations the use of facers is a very controversial strat...

  17. Fuel poverty is facing a data challenge - Which strategies to struggle against fuel poverty? Propositions for an ecologic and social transition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address three main questions: how are structured the network of actors and the tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, what are the specific data challenges faced by the actors and the possible responses, and which lessons can be learned for the governance of energy transition in its whole. After a presentation of the context of fuel poverty (analysis of tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, the use of social-energetic data), this study, based on about forty interviews of various actors and on a workshop, proposes an analysis framework which distinguishes six steps in the definition and implementation of policies of struggle against fuel poverty. After a description of the current status and an identification of required improvements for each step, the authors propose a set of recommendations, draw lessons for urban policies aimed at an ecologic transformation and a modernisation of the social protection system in terms of level of intervention, scope of actions, and ownership and access to data bases. These recommendations more particularly address the definition of fuel poverty, its diagnosis at the national and at the territorial level, a better identification of concerned households, and an assessment of existing arrangements

  18. The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

  19. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

  20. Who is rural? or, how to be rural: towards a sociology of the rural.

    OpenAIRE

    Mormont, Marc

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis is put forward that a specific concept or category of 'the rural' has evolved. This occurred in the 1920s and 1930s in a manner specific to each country, although in all cases there was an attempt to reformulate both the relationship between town and country and the definition of agriculture, as a result of the changes facing the countryside and its inhabitants. The concept of the rural evolved by distinguishing the rural and the agricultural, and by defining the rural in relat...

  1. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

  2. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

  3. An Approach: Modality Reduction and Face-Sketch Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, Sourav; Bhattacharjee, Dr. Debotosh

    2013-01-01

    To recognize face sketch through face photo database is a challenging task for todays researchers. Because face photo images in training set and face sketch images in testing set have different modality. Difference between two face photos of difference person is smaller than the difference between same person in a face photo and face sketched. In this paper, for reduction of the modality between face photo and face sketch we first bring face photo and face sketch images in a...

  4. Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  5. Challenges of Implementing HIV and AIDS Education in Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lungo,Tatu Sultan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine challenges teachers face in delivering HIV and AIDS education in secondary schools. Both rural and urban schools were sampled to gain understanding of the possible differences in respondent views depending on their geographical location. Methods: Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observations, focus group discussions and review of documents. Key informants included teachers, students, parents, educational of...

  6. The innovativeness of rural Europe: A contribution to the concept of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Gilda; Lukesch, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Rural Europe faces new challenges in an increasingly globalized economy. There are problems of cost competition, outmigration, an ageing population, dispersed settlements, lack of proximity services and employment opportunities. On the other hand opportunities emerge from new demands of the information society, like a healthy environment and typical products of high quality, or space for creative leisure and learning activities, or like a new look to cultural traditions in agriculture and cra...

  7. A Study on Application of Spatial Data Mining Techniques for Rural Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagavalli, V. R.; Raja, K

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of Spatial Data mining Techniques to efficiently manage the challenges faced by peripheral rural areas in analyzing and predicting market scenario and better manage their economy. Spatial data mining is the task of unfolding the implicit knowledge hidden in the spatial databases. The spatial Databases contain both spatial and non-spatial attributes of the areas under study. Finding implicit regularities, rules or patterns hidden in spati...

  8. Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Ehrami; Hassan Houshyar

    2013-01-01

    Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnair...

  9. Problems Facing Disabled People in Malawi : A Critical Reflection on My Encounter with a Disabled Woman in a Rural Area in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memory J. Tembo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This critical reflection is based on my encounter with a disabled woman in a district in Malawi, and how I have reflected and analyzed the encounter using social work theories. The essay reflects on the story of the disabled woman and my own perception at that time, in addition to my analysis of these perceptions using different perspectives in social work based on my current understanding of these perspectives. In line with Fook’s (2002; 68 critical reflection techniques, social work theories will be applied to deconstruct and reconstruct the critical incident. The essay highlights the challenges and dilemmas I encountered in attempting to make meaning out of this encounter, which left me helpless and powerless, as I could not offer her any sustainable help at the time.

  10. Challenges facing effective implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa,1 Vicky Manyanga21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented.Aim: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants' PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV register books for the past 2 years were reviewed to obtain information regarding the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. One hundred and twenty-six health care workers were interviewed to identify success stories and challenges in the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children. In addition, 321 parents and guardians of children born to HIV-infected mothers were interviewed in the health facilities.Results: Approximately 80% of children were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis within 2 months after birth. Two hundred and ninety-one (58.4% children started using co-trimoxazole within 4 weeks after birth. Majority (n=458, 91.8% of the children were prescribed 120 mg of co-trimoxazole per day, whereas 39 (7.8% received 240 mg per day. Only a small proportion (n=1, 0.2% of children received 480 mg/day. Dose determination was based on the child's age rather than body weight. Parents and guardians reported that 42 (13.1% children had missed one or more doses of co-trimoxazole during the course of prophylaxis. The majority of health care workers (89.7% reported that co-trimoxazole is very effective for the prevention of opportunistic infections among children, but frequent shortage of co-trimoxazole in the health facilities was the main challenge.Conclusion: Most children who were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis did not experience significant opportunistic infections, and the drug was well tolerated. The major barrier for co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was due to frequent out-of-stocks of pediatric co-trimoxazole formulations in the health facilities. Dose determination was based on the age rather than the weight of children, thus creating potential for under- or over-dosing of children.Keywords: health facilities, opportunistic infections, CD4, parents, guardians

  11. Un bosquejo del feminismo/s peruano/s: los múltiples desafíos / A outline on peruvian feminism/s: facing multiple challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Violeta, Barrientos Silva; Fanni, Muñoz Cabrejo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra las apuestas del feminismo en el Perú desde sus inicios, a partir de la lucha por el sufragio femenino, y más adelante, en la posguerra, la puesta en escena del cuerpo femenino como núcleo de una nueva forma de pensar lo político. Se muestra que es un movimiento de mujeres de sec [...] tores medios que se gesta bajo iniciativa gubernamental y con poca presencia de las corrientes de pensamiento teórico feminista europeas. Por el contrario, fue un movimiento vinculado a ideologías de izquierda aunque, paradójicamente, sus propuestas no fueron acogidas por los partidos de izquierda. En el actual contexto de cambios que se operan en el Perú, a partir de la democratización del país y con una baja institucionalidad del Estado, los feminismos - sin una aparente organicidad - se enfrentan con varios desafíos, siendo el de la capacidad de responder a la heterogeneidad de los actores emergentes el más relevante. Abstract in english This paper is about the developments of feminism in Peru since the struggle for women's suffrage as the starting point till the post-war, with the positioning of the female body as the center of a new manner of thinking the political. Feminism is shown to be a middle-class women's movement, which st [...] emmed from governmental initiatives and with not much presence of European schools of feminist theoretical thought. On the contrary, it was a movement bound with leftist ideologies whose proposals were paradoxically never considered by leftist parties. In the current changing context, which began with Peru's democratization and its lack of state institutionality, feminism/s - lacking an evident organizational capacity - faces different demands, being the ability to meet diverse emerging actors the most relevant challenge.

  12. Changing Rural Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØst, Jeppe Engset

    This paper discusses the foundations and interplay of different rural development paradigms. The ‘New Rural Paradigm’ is commonly presented as the successor to an “old” rural development paradigm centered narrowly on sectors, production and propelled by subsidies. However, this dichotomy hides a more complex picture and understanding of rural development. The paper therefore tracks the evolution and origin of development paradigms, methods and objectives. Beginning in the 1950s is an “industrial” paradigm promoting industrial development and linked closely to the welfare state institutions. Alongside this were agricultural policies and reforms that have been central in promoting large-scale production and “competitive” units. Where earlier policies were centered on national equality in and between regions and by redistribution and subsidies, this overarching aim and methodology was abandoned somewhere in the 1980s in order to improve the competitive power of Danish rural areas one for one. What is new then, is the international, or perhaps post-national, reasoning of rural policies, a tendency influencing not only the “new” rural paradigm, but also the still-going “old” agricultural and industrial development policies, the latter now reoriented and reformed in regional clusters and focusing on the major challenges for future “sustainable” industries.

  13. Perceived Gender Classification from Face Images

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

    2012-01-01

    Perceiving human faces and modeling the distinctive features of human faces that contribute most towards face recognition are some of the challenges faced by computer vision and psychophysics researchers. There are many methods have been proposed in the literature for the facial features and gender classification. However, all of them have still disadvantage such as not complete reflection about face structure, face texture. The features set is applied to three different applications: face re...

  14. Critical reflections on the New Rurality and the rural territorial development approaches in Latin America / Visión crítica sobre los enfoques de la Nueva Ruralidad y el desarrollo territorial rural en América Latina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Ramírez-Miranda.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una aproximación crítica a las nociones de la Nueva Ruralidad y el Desarrollo Territorial Rural (DTR) que actualmente son hegemónicas en el ámbito de las instituciones gubernamentales y ganan espacio en la academia latinoamericana. Con base en una consideración de los principales desafío [...] s que enfrentan los espacios rurales latinoamericanos, se pasa revista crítica a las prescripciones centrales del DTR, mismas que resultan funcionales al encuadre neoliberal de políticas que han propiciado la pérdida de la soberanía alimentaria, el predominio del agronegocio transnacional y la emigración, como principales expresiones del debilitamiento de la agricultura campesina. Consecuentemente se argumenta que las principales transformaciones de dichos espacios, más que a una pretendida nueva ruralidad corresponden a una ruralidad neoliberal. Al resaltar la necesidad de una visión histórica mundial que recupere la tradición del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano, se postula la urgencia de políticas públicas que rompan con las prescripciones neoliberales y se orienten al fortalecimiento de la agricultura campesina e indígena para impulsar un desarrollo rural con soberanía alimentaria, democracia, equidad y sustentabilidad. Abstract in english This paper presents a critical approach to the New Rurality and the Rural Territorial Development (RTD) perspectives, which nowadays are hegemonic for governmental organizations and Latin American academies. RTD's core requirements, which are functional for neoliberal policies resulting in the loss [...] of food sovereignty, the globalization of agribusinesses, and migration as a consequence of peasant agricultural weakening, were critically reviewed on the basis of the principal challenges faced by Latin American rural areas. In light of the above consequences, it is thought that changes in such areas are based on neoliberal rurality rather than on the purported New Rurality. By stressing the need for a global historical view that reintroduces the Latin American critical thinking tradition, the urgency for public policies that stop neoliberal prescriptions and seek to strengthen peasant and indigenous agriculture in order to encourage rural development based on food sovereignty, democracy, equity and sustainability were established.

  15. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

  16. Desarrollo territorial rural y cooperativas: un análisis desde las políticas públicas / Développement territorial rural et les Coopératives: une anafyse dès les politiques publiques / Territorial Rural Development and Cooperatives: an Analysis from Public Policies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inmaculada, Buendía-Martínez; Alain, Côté.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas rurales enfrentan un conjunto de desafíos globales como resultado de las actuales transformaciones económicas y sociales. La contribución de las cooperativas, en tanto que empresas de estructura colectiva con una fuerte adscripción territorial, ha originado que sean consideradas en algunos [...] países como un pilar de las políticas rurales. Este trabajo analiza una exitosa iniciativa pública de casi treinta años: las cooperativas de desarrollo regional. Su función como promotoras del movimiento cooperativo de Quebec es fundamental para la diversidad empresarial y el empleo de las regiones rurales. Abstract in english Rural areas face a range of global challenges as a result of current economic and social transformations. The contribution of cooperatives, as collective companies with a strong territorial affiliation, has led them to be considered in some countries as a pillar of rural policies. This paper analyze [...] s a successful public initiative released almost ???y years ago: cooperatives for regional development. Their function as promoters of the cooperative movement in Quebec is critical for corporate diversity and employment in rural areas.

  17. Submission to the Australian Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee Inquiry into economic and security challenges facing Papua New Guinea and the island states of the Southwest Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Lee, Karen

    This submission highlights the benefits of labour mobility, remittances and microfinance for the South Pacific region. We make a number of recommendations on the basis of our research findings, our experience with industry partners and studies done elsewhere that we believe are relevant and can assist the Committee in finding solutions to the challenges facing our neighbours. The scope of our submission is therefore set by our expertise in the above mentioned fields.

  18. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Correa

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to...

  19. Regional development - rural employment opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-01-01

    The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate...

  20. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LisaRBetts

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  1. Facing the Challenges of Accessing, Managing, and Integrating Large Observational Datasets in Ecology: Enabling and Enriching the Use of NEON's Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.

  2. Keeping Rural Schools up to Full Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Rural schools are long accustomed to meeting challenges in innovative ways. For them, the challenge is not so much a lack of technology as it is adequate internet access, which affects both teachers and students. In this article, the author discusses how to keep rural schools up to full speed. The author suggests that the best approach when…

  3. Face to Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.

  4. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  5. Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Conning, Jonathan; Udry, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This review examines portions of the vast literature on rural financial markets and household behavior in the face of risk and uncertainty. We place particular emphasis on studying the important role of financial intermediaries, competition and regulation in shaping the changing structure and organization of rural markets, rather than on household strategies and bilateral contracting. Our goal is to provide a framework within which the evolution of financial intermediation in rural economies ...

  6. Rural Schools Grow Leaders to Suit Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulken, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Faced with state and federal mandates to reverse the course of failing rural schools--in some cases, by replacing teachers and principals--districts and researchers say just finding bodies for empty spots is no longer enough. Increasingly, money and attention are turning toward programs that hand-pick promising rural teaching candidates and school…

  7. Robust & Accurate Face Recognition using Histograms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh; Meenakshi Sharma; N.Suresh Rao

    2012-01-01

    A large number of face recognition algorithms have been developed from decades. Face recognition systems have been grabbing high attention from commercial market point of view as well as pattern recognition field. It also stands high in researchers community. Face recognition have been fast growing, challenging and interesting area in real-time applications. This face recognition system detects the faces in a picture taken by webcam or a digital camera, and these face images are then checked ...

  8. Beyond urban places: responding to intimate partner violence in rural and remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Karen S; Hammatt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a recognized public health problem impacting the lives of women, families, and communities. Women in rural and more remote areas who experience IPV face unique barriers and challenges to accessing healthcare services to support healthy outcomes. Resources, access to services, presence of compassionate and informed healthcare providers, and environmental circumstances influence effective responses to this issue in rural and more remote areas. In a public health approach to this problem, prevention efforts, victim-centered responses, and the support of safety are imperative to improve outcomes for women. Forensic nurses play an important role in effective response by building linkages across health, human, and social systems through collaboration, partnership, activism, advocacy, and sensitivity to the issue across the rural landscape. PMID:25996433

  9. The death of the communal handpump? Rural water and sanitation household costs in lower-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta de Castro Fonseca, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Rural water supply and sanitation in low and middle income countries face the same challenges now as in the 1970s. Despite massive efforts in providing communal “borehole with handpump” and “improved latrines” to improve the lives of millions of people, this traditional approach to development is failing to deliver long lasting improved services - even if for the last 40 years many attempts have been made to solve problems in the approach. The main research question is “Can ...

  10. Preparing Principals for High-Need Rural Schools: A Central Office Perspective about Collaborative Efforts to Transform School Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Browne-Ferrigno, T.; Allen, L. W.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents district administrators’ reflections about (a) the contextual challenges they face in leading a high-need rural school system in Central Appalachia and (b) the change initiatives they implemented to transform the principalship from school management to instructional leadership. After several years of reform efforts, the district superintendent sought external support to deliver intensive professional development to further the district’s efforts. A land-grant research un...

  11. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  12. Summary and conclusions of the conference [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation are currently experiencing a period of unprecedented change. The nature and pace of this change is affected by many factors - technological, economic, environmental, political and social. These factors not only influence the governmental and business environment in which the nuclear industry operates, but they also impact other stakeholders, the media, the public and international organizations. These developments have already resulted in significant changes to how nuclear enterprises are organized and operated. They can be expected to continue and even accelerate as new projects and designs for reactors and other facilities and new approaches to nuclear safety emerge. It is essential that high levels of nuclear and radiation safety be maintained worldwide throughout this period of change and for the lifetime of nuclear facilities, including site and waste management legacies. Effective, efficient and independent regulatory bodies must be established and maintained in all countries utilizing nuclear energy to ensure that nuclear activities are conducted safely and securely, consistent with national standards and international good practices. In this respect, it is of the utmost importance that all countries and expert organizations involved in nuclear related activities participate as active partners in the Global Nuclear Safety Regime [The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of nuclear safety]. This participation includes uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture and the safe management of radioactive waste and transport of radioactive material. Nuclear and radiation safety are based on technical, managerial, administrative, economic and organizational requirements. In this respect, the role and quality of technical and scientific expertise in the nuclear industry and of regulatory systems are of fundamental importance. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), whether part of a regulatory body or a separate organization, are gaining increased importance in providing the technical and scientific bases for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety. International organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) also rely on the active contribution of TSOs. In the light of the important role played by TSOs, it is essential that these organizations conduct their work consistent with the highest levels of technical competence and transparency, and with the observance of ethical principles. To enhance their capabilities in these areas, TSOs need to foster cooperative activities among themselves and other relevant organizations, whether on an ad hoc basis or in the framework of regional or multilateral arrangements and institutions. Recognizing the need for TSOs to broaden their cooperation, the IAEA has sponsored this first international conference specifically addressing the role TSOs can play and the challenges they face in enhancing nuclear safety. It is hoped that the conference provided a platform for further promoting and strengthening international nuclear and radiation safety cooperation to enhance the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

  13. Face Recognition from Face Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafi, Marsyita

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents techniques for detecting and recognizing faces under various imaging conditions. In particular, it presents a system that combines several methods for face detection and recognition. Initially, the faces in the images are located using the Viola-Jones method and each detected face is represented by a subimage. Then, an eye and mouth detection method is used to identify the coordinates of the eyes and mouth, which are then used to update the subimages so ...

  14. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. Important challenges remain with implementation

  15. School Consolidation in Nebraska: Economic Efficiency vs. Rural Community Life

    OpenAIRE

    John Anderson; Peter J. Longo; Joan M. Blauwkamp

    2011-01-01

    We examine the factors driving rural school consolidations, focusing our analysis on Nebraska. We consider statutory and case law, the school financing formulas that drive consolidation and the efforts by rural citizens to challenge those financing formulas in courts. We analyze how rural school consolidations have been framed in newspaper coverage, in order to see the dominant understandings of the cost-benefit tradeoffs in consolidating rural schools. Finally, we study three cases of rural ...

  16. Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dube

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPROACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.

  17. Accessing rural finance, The rural financial market in Northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dufhues, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    During the transition of the Vietnamese economy, adaptation of the financial system was one of the most challenging reforms. A major task of this reform was to expand the financial systems outreach to the emerging private sector and household (HH) economies, especially in rural areas. Therefore, state-owned financial intermediaries such as the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD) and the Vietnam Bank for the Poor (VBP) have been established. Despite general successes in ...

  18. From Farm to Rural Hostel: New Opportunities and Challenges Associated with Tourism Expansion in Daxi, a Village in Anji County, Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaosheng Yang; Geriletu; Manuel Ruiz Perez; Lucas Gutierrez Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    China has become one of the leading international tourism destinations, ranking third at a world level. A fast expanding domestic tourism offers new development opportunities to rural areas. Our results from Daxi Village of Anji County, a popular tourist destination in East China, show that farmers are seizing this opportunity that currently represents 27% of total household income. The better educated young generation is benefitting most, being particularly relevant for women that can develo...

  19. A rural perspective: four stories

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jenny, Nash; Alwyn, Rapatsa; Steve, Reid; Ben, Gaunt.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available These brief reflections from 4 University of Cape Town (UCT) medical graduates who chose to make their careers in rural practice are written in narrative style to try to capture something of the lived experience of working in rural areas. Although still the career choice of a minority of UCT graduat [...] es, those who have chosen to practise in rural areas have found a solid base of competence and confidence in their clinical skills, that has enabled them to tackle challenges in areas beyond anything that they or their teachers might have anticipated.

  20. Robust Face Detection in Airports

    OpenAIRE

    Jimmy Liu Jiang; Hong Jiang Zhang; Kia-Fock Loe

    2004-01-01

    Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO). In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividing tool...

  1. A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Vinodini, R.; Dr. M. Karnan

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recogni...

  2. Challenges and Community Development: A Case Study of Homestay in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Kamisan Pusiran; Honggen Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Homestay programme, which was introduced in 1988, has become the iconic rural tourism product highlighting Malaysian cultural and traditional ways of life. The concept of Homestay is whereby a tourist stays together with the host family and interacts with the local community for a reasonable charge. This paper presents a review of community development through the Homestay programme in Malaysia as well as to review challenges facing the Homestay operators and community. Due to the potential o...

  3. Ditlhohlo tše Malutere a Borwa bja Afrika a lebanego natšo / The challenges facing Lutherans in South(ern) Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elelwani B., Farisani.

    Full Text Available This article seeks to discuss what the future appears to hold for Lutheranism in South Africa. In order to do this, it is important to look at the past through the history and involvement of Lutheranism in South Africa. This will show the strengths, weaknesses, challenges, and opportunities for Luth [...] eran theology and the Lutheran churches in South Africa in relation to Lutheranism in its global context. Accordingly the article starts off by providing a brief history of Lutheranism in South Africa, examining the role of missionaries from Germany, Norway and Sweden in establishing Lutheranism in South Africa. The article also looks at how apartheid divided the faithful along racial lines, thereby pointing to the challenges, weaknesses, as well as the strengths of the mission of Lutheran churches in this part of Africa. It then moves on to discuss some challenges before Lutheranism in South Africa today. Some of the challenges discussed in this article are as follows: (1) efforts to unite the Black and White Lutherans have so far not succeeded, (2) the role of Lutheran theological education in equipping ministers to address current societal challenges, (3) financial sustainability, (4) African Religious Pluralism, (5) the promotion of gender sensitivity and equality amongst Lutheran congregants, (6) ethnicity and (7) the role and status of self-supporting ministry. And, finally, the article highlights few issues about the changing world of Lutheranism globally.

  4. De lo urbano a lo rural y viceversa / From urban to rural and back again

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Hugo, Molina.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El posicionamiento de la categoría “originario indígena campesino” desde el Estado ha marcado una etapa de recuperación de territorios y valores que mantuvieron su identidad, ignorada por la fuerza de una ideología urbana. Luego de esta etapa necesaria, y a la luz de los datos del Censo 2012, reapar [...] ece lo urbano como categoría universal. Queda en evidencia la debilidad institucional y conceptual en torno a las ciudades y el reto que deben enfrentar por la migración y el crecimiento. Abstract in english The positioning of the “rural indigenous aboriginal” category by the state coincided with a period of recovery of territories and values which had maintained an identity that was ignored by the powerful urban ideology. After this necessary stage, and in light of the results of the 2012 census, the u [...] rban is reappearing as a universal category. The institutional and conceptual weakness around cities is evident, as is the challenge they face due to migration and growth.

  5. Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Ayson

    2008-01-01

    This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s) in music therapy sessions? Three ho...

  6. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the primary challenge for agriculture after World War II was improving food security by increasing productivity, the challenges faced by today’s agriculture are more complex and diverse. In this context it is interesting to investigate Danish agricultural extension. Firstly, the more complex and diverse a situation that farmers have to deal with, the more support farmers may need. Secondly, agricultural extension is important to Danish farmers, pointing to a significant arena for learnin...

  7. A proposed rural healthcare ethics agenda

    OpenAIRE

    NELSON, W; Pomerantz, A; Howard, K; Bushy, A

    2007-01-01

    The unique context of the rural setting provides special challenges to furnishing ethical healthcare to its approximately 62 million inhabitants. Although rural communities are widely diverse, most have the following common features: limited economic resources, shared values, reduced health status, limited availability of and accessibility to healthcare services, overlapping professional–patient relationships and care giver stress. These rural features shape common healthcare ethical issues, ...

  8. Marketing strategy determinants in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H L; Haley, D; Piland, N F

    1993-01-01

    Rural hospitals confront an inauspicious environment due to changes in patient reimbursement and medical practice. Facing a situation of declining revenues, marketing presents an option for rural hospitals to adapt to the growing constraints. This paper analyzes the determinants of marketing strategy emphasis in rural hospitals. The conceptual model adopted in this study predicts that prior performance and contextual variables explain marketing strategy emphasis. The relationships are examined in a case study of rural New Mexico hospitals. Results suggest that prior performance and several contextual variables explain variations in marketing strategy emphasis. In particular, higher gross patient revenues are associated with more emphasis on television and radio advertising. Furthermore, rural New Mexico hospitals with high numbers of licensed beds and medical staff members, or that are affiliated with a chain organization, place greater emphasis on market research and market planning. The implications for marketing practice in rural hospitals are discussed. PMID:10135505

  9. Examining the Roles of the Facilitator in Online and Face-to-Face PD Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Vath, Richard; Kubitskey, Beth; Fishman, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Online teacher professional development has become an alternative to face-to-face professional development. Such a shift from face-to-face to online professional development, however, brings new challenges for professional development facilitators, whose roles are crucial in orchestrating teacher learning. This paper is motivated by the need to…

  10. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not go away, call your primary health care provider or dentist. ... is throbbing, worse on one side of the face, and aggravated by ... unexplained symptoms. Call your primary health care provider.

  11. A Smart Teaching System for Autistic Children in Rural Area using MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available These The most challenging and stressful issue faced by schools and parents in efforts to provide appropriate education for autistic children .The purpose of this research work was to contribute to the knowledge and implementation of best practices for children with autism and normal children in rural area using manet. Autism is development disability that affects the normal functioning of brain. It means that children with autism think differently because brains work differently. They may have different talking, learning or playing ability. Many software systems are good enough for a class for normal children, but the autistic fail to understand the teaching methodology. Hence the autistic children face various challenges in combining with normal children in the same class. We implement the novel web based teaching system which takes care of the field of interest and taste among the autistic children of a class and helps the teacher to teach in a class in a effective way to understand the concept for normal and autistic children in rural area using manet .Every village will be connected to mobile access point, were MAP will connect the rural area with the central database server which is located in urban area to provide e-learning.

  12. Effectiveness of using group visit model to support diabetes patient self-management in rural communities of Shanghai: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shengsheng; Bi Anhua; Fu Dongbo; Fu Hua; Luo Wei; Ma Xiaoying; Zhuang Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes has become a major public health problem in China. Support of patient self-management is a key component of effective diabetes care and improved patient outcomes. A series of peer-led community-based disease-specific self-management programs including diabetes have been widely disseminated in urban communities of Shanghai since 1999. However, the strategy of using trained lay leaders to support patient self-management faces challenges in rural communities in Shang...

  13. Training for Rural Radiology and Imaging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing the Mismatch Between Services and Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kawooya, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR) training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, la...

  14. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  15. A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.VINODINI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recognition all having their respective pros and cons. In this paper, we presented an overview of face recognition techniques and its applications.

  16. Rural and Urban Teaching Experiences: Narrative Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative exploration of rural and urban teaching experiences encapsulates the experiences of 8 Western Canadian teachers. A literature review outlines the benefits and challenges of rural and urban education. Stemming from narrative inquiry data, I present the study's results in the form of two composite stories, which depict the lived…

  17. Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambézia Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Baptista

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. Methods: VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. Results: Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n=380 of the women (9% if age ?30 years (n=3154 and 7% if age <30 years (n=1497; p=0.02. Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% (n=16 had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88% of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58% either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21% were HIV positive. Conclusions: Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV investments, chronic disease screening and management for cervical cancer is feasible even in severely resource-constrained rural Africa.

  18. TSOs: A bright idea to help meet nuclear safety challenges in a fast changing international environment [Opening address: International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are four key challenges that will have to be met in the coming years. To meet these four challenges, the use of TSOs may prove to be a flexible and sustainable concept that could provide support on some points to the public, authorities and the industry, at both the national and international levels. The TSOs can, in effect, be a bridge between safety authorities and operators and licensees, from the concept development stage to the licensing process itself. Technical and scientific support organizations maintain the experts and scientific resources that allow the pre-licensing dialogue to take place between the TSOs in an open environment

  19. RESEARCH CHALLENGES IN SCHOOLS TRAINING OF TEACHERS OF TLAXCALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darney Mendoza-Morales

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of keeping the status of educational research Forming Schools teachers in Tlaxcala, has initiated an diagnosis to define the challenges facing these institutions, mainly the Rural Normal School Lic Benito Juarez. This research is documentary, quantitative and qualitative, is still in process. area systematized information. Statistics of the Educational Services Unit of the State of Tlaxcala, the PEFEN 2011-2012 and Curriculum 2012 and also various policy documents, research data at national level and normal schools were reviewed. The first approach suggests that teacher training institutions face major challenges, which they can no longer delay therefore involves a reorganization of the activities developed by teachers and institutions.

  20. Prospective analysis agriculture energy 2030. Agriculture and the challenges of energy - Synthesis; Prospective Agriculture Energie 2030. L'agricuLture face aux defis energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vert, Julien; Portet, Fabienne; Even, Marie-Aude; Herault, Bruno; Laisney, Celine; Mahe, Thuriane

    2010-07-01

    The present overview document contains the main results of the Agriculture Energy 2030 prospective study, based on the work of the group led by the CEP [Centre d'etudes et de prospective/Centre for studies and strategic foresight] at the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fisheries, Rural Affairs and Spatial Planning. Energy in agriculture is all too often seen as a purely cyclical problem whereas it is a major issue for the future due to its economic consequences for agricultural holdings, its links with environmental and climatic issues, and its influence on food supply chains and spatial planning. Based on the scenario method, this analysis initially involved describing the whole range of links between agriculture and energy in France and organising them into a system of variables before going on to draw up an inventory of the knowledge available. Starting out from this diagnostic approach, the group constructed four scenarios over the period to 2030: 'Regionalization and sobriety to confront the crisis', 'Twin track agriculture and energy realism', 'Health Agriculture with no major energy constraints' and 'Ecological agriculture and energy savings'. These scenarios do not form an exhaustive panorama of all possible developments of the agriculture-energy system - they are rather formalised images of what the future might hold. However, quantification and comparison of the scenarios has led to the identification of major room for progress in energy efficiency in French farming. By helping gain greater awareness of future difficulties and issues or, conversely, opportunities to be grasped, these scenarios provided input for the strategic analysis phase, the concluding stage of this exercise, and the identification of general objectives and levers for public action. (authors)

  1. Challenges of basic public health services provided by village doctors in Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Minxing; Shi, Xiu-Quan

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken to uncover the challenges faced by village doctors in providing basic public health services (BPHS) in western rural areas of China. This field research for BPHS, with 12 managers and 82 village doctors of county Y in Guizhou province, was conducted in July 2012 using a combination of random and purposive sampling methods. Quantitative and qualitative methods were applied for data collection. EpiData 3.1, SPSS 15.0, and NVivo 10.0 were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the main challenges in delivering BPHS include heavy workload, poor working conditions, low income, lack of social security, and insufficient cooperation from rural residents. The Chinese government officials and policy makers can consider these challenges and focus on improving the quality and equity of BPHS by developing relevant strategies. PMID:25673280

  2. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Prytherch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective: To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design: Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion: This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated.

  3. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova; Rostrup, Egill; Iversen, Helle; Starrfelt, Randi

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive t...

  4. Adecuarse al nuevo entorno empresarial o asumir el desafío de modelarlo / Adapting to the New Context of Companies or Facing the Challenge of Shaping it?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Italo, Pizzolante Negrón.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el entorno competitivo actual, se hace una invitación a las organizaciones a ir más allá buscando no sólo adaptarse al entorno, sino intervenir en él y modelarlo. De ahí la necesidad de un nuevo modelo de gestión basado en la construcción de confianza y reputación: “El desafío de modelar” [...] Abstract in english In the present milieu characterized by strong competitiveness, companies and organizations are invited to move ahead not only to adapt to the context but also to participate in and to shape it. Therefore, a new management model based on confidence building and a good reputation becomes necessary; th [...] at is, “The Challenge of Shaping”

  5. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most important challenges that can be pointed out are: lack of access to capital and facilities, problems in supplying goods and services, emphasis on an industry or particular business, low possibility risk in villages and lack of supporting organizations. Review and analysis of rural entrepreneurship in order to achieve sustainability. This research in implementation process is qualitative and in objective is descriptive and then analytic. The results indicate that comprehensive development can never be obtained without rural development and in order to achieve this goal the best investment is creating a context for sustainable entrepreneurship and its promotion in rural area since the entrepreneurship has this ability to identify resources, opportunities and problems available in the context while devising new solutions to move toward developing of different aspects of village and environment.

  6. Prospects of Rural Transformation Centre (RTC of Malaysia from the Perspective of Inclusive Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawon Muhammad Shahriar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary discourse, it is argued that the ultimate objective of rural development is to improve the quality of life for rural people. This makes it essential to go beyond the income-related factors of rural development. Inclusive Rural Development, a more specific concept than the concept of conventional rural development, accommodates the variables for the quality of life in rural development. This concept covers three different but interrelated dimensions: economic dimension, social dimension and political dimension. Rural Transformation Centre (RTC, implemented by the government of Malaysia, is among the third generation of the rural development programmes in the country. RTC is a site to implement some integrated initiatives for the rural communities within 100 kilometre radius of the sites. There are eight major initiatives under the RTC implementation programmes, which are: training of rural population; setting up of 1 Malaysia information kiosks; high-value agriculture initiatives; agro-food products processing; agricultural produce supply chain management; university cooperation; food safety and pharmaceuticals services; and rural population financial facilities. RTC brings a unique opportunity for members of the rural communities to benefit from a myriad of initiatives and activities related to their livelihood and well being within the same premises. Despite some challenges, this programme has enormous potentials to address many important aspects of rural development. Based on review of relevant literature and field visits, this paper attempts to examine the prospects of the RTC concept of Malaysia in light of the theory of Inclusive Rural Development. The findings of this paper will help relevant governmental and non-governmental bodies and researchers gain an insight about the potentials and challenges of RTC for further improving the quality of life for the rural communities.

  7. Why medical students do not like to join rural health service? An exploratory study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nallala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate, inequitable distribution of the medical workforce remains a challenge across the globe, and India is no exception. Odisha, a state in India faces a major shortage of doctors particularly in rural and remote areas. In order to address this challenge, it is essential to understand medical students? career plans, specialization preferences, choices of job location and sector, and views on working in rural and remote areas. This study explored the immediate and long-term career plans of final year medical students, their intended practice locations and underlying reasons for the choices. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the medical colleges (three government and three private in the state of Odisha. Through the systematic sampling method, data were gathered from 390 final year students. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the students and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Of the 390 students, 290 (74.35% were from a government college. The most preferred immediate career goal was postgraduation studies (45.9% of students in government medical schools and 54% in private. About 17% of government students and 9% of private students showed willingness to work in rural areas, in the long run. Nearly 44.5% mentioned opportunities for career growth, followed by the possibilities for higher education (26.8% as major the factors for preferring an urban posting. Similarly, higher pay scales, better working conditions were major factors for preferring the private sector. Most of the students maintained that good housing, better salaries, and adequate facilities at the workplace would attract more students toward rural service. Conclusion: Since public funded medical students are not motivated to serve in rural settings, increasing the number of places or establishing new medical institutions may not be an effective solution to the issue. Approaches such as extended clinical apprenticeship in rural health facilities, long-term community engagement during medical studentship could be considered.

  8. Facing warm temperatures during migration: cardiac mRNA responses of two adult Oncorhynchus nerka populations to warming and swimming challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, K; Eliason, E J; Kaukinen, K H; Miller, K M; Farrell, A P

    2014-05-01

    The main findings of the current study were that exposing adult sockeye salmon Onchorhynchus nerka to a warm temperature that they regularly encounter during their river migration induced a heat shock response at an mRNA level, and this response was exacerbated with forced swimming. Similar to the heat shock response, increased immune defence-related responses were also observed after warm temperature treatment and with a swimming challenge in two different populations (Chilko and Nechako), but with some important differences. Microarray analyses revealed that 347 genes were differentially expressed between the cold (12-13° C) and warm (18-19° C) treated fish, with stress response (GO:0006950) and response to fungus (GO:0009620) elevated with warm treatment, while expression for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (GO:0006119) and electron transport chain (GO:0022900) elevated for cold-treated fish. Analysis of single genes with real-time quantitative PCR revealed that temperature had the most significant effect on mRNA expression levels, with swimming and population having secondary influences. Warm temperature treatment for the Chilko population induced expression of heat shock protein (hsp) 90?, hsp90? and hsp30 as well as interferon-inducible protein. The Nechako population, which is known to have a narrower thermal tolerance window than the Chilko population, showed even more pronounced stress responses to the warm treatment and there was significant interaction between population and temperature treatment for hsp90? expression. Moreover, significant interactions were noted between temperature treatment and swimming challenge for hsp90? and hsp30, and while swimming challenge alone increased expression of these hsps, the expression levels were significantly elevated in warm-treated fish swum to exhaustion. In conclusion, it seems that adult O. nerka currently encounter conditions that induce several cellular defence mechanisms during their once-in-the-lifetime migration. As river temperatures continue to increase, it remains to be seen whether or not these cellular defences provide sufficient protection for all O. nerka populations. PMID:24684400

  9. Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Ayson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents

  10. Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Ayson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF RURAL CREDIT SCHEMES: INITIATIVES OF FINANCIAL INCLUSION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raja Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian economy agriculture sector plays a vital role and majority of the people depends on agriculture. Developing countries like India 70% of the people are living in rural areas. Rural credit is very important for the development of rural economyand alleviation of poverty by providing credit facility to the poor and weaker section of the society. It is also helpful to meet their needs improving their standard of life and greater access to financial activities. There are many agencies providing rural credit. In India the delivery structure such as Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks (RRBs, Co-operative Banks and District Rural Credit Development Agency (DRDA etc. These Institutions are having more than 1, 53,000 outlets have been serving rural people. One for every outlet is serving 4,100 populations to deliver credit for poverty alleviation. The main objective of this study is to identify the reasons for financial exclusion in rural areas and to estimate the factors influencing informal borrowings of rural households. At present, the main challenges before rural credit institutions are poverty alleviation, flow of rural credit and build-up the strength of co-operatives and regional rural banks.

  12. Rural School Psychology: Re-Opening the Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Clopton, K. L.; Knesting, K.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of school psychology in rural areas is a topic that has been fairly absent from the literature since the 1980s. A needs assessment of school psychologists practicing in rural counties in a midwestern state was conducted to explore current issues for rural school psychologists. The response rate for usable surveys was 72% (N = 106). Respondents answered questions regarding travel, supervision, professional development, practice, and the rewards and challenges of working in rural c...

  13. Prescriptions for Rural Mathematics Instruction: Analysis of the Rhetorical Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, D. S.; Howley, A. A.; Howley, C. B.

    2005-01-01

    Very little empirical research has examined mathematics education in rural schools and communities. A modest nonresearch literature does exist, however, and this study analyzed this literature. We found 3 themes describing the prescriptions given to rural educators: (a) mathematics education in rural schools needs to be fixed; (b) good things happen in some rural schools; and (c) fixing mathematics instruction requires certain practices. These practices include providing challenging curriculu...

  14. Research on Rural Financing in China with Reference to Village and Township Banks: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Ram Duwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of rural financing is one of the major challenges to the emerging China. It is challenging forgovernment authorities to provide adequate financial resources and access to financial institutions in ruralagricultural areas to farmer households. The development of Village and Township Banks (VTBs hasremarkably increased since 2008 but the deposit collection of VTBs is comparatively weaker than the loandisbursement. Despite of facing numerous challenges, establishing within the framework of new-type financialinstitutions is playing a significant role for the development of agricultural sector. For the sustainabledevelopment of VTBs, VTBs should set up staff and member incentive system, introduce innovative financialproducts; and strengthen the agricultural insurance system. The cooperation between VTBs and the other ruralfinancial institutions should be developed to meet short-term rural financing gap and to strengthen theinstitutional capacity of VTBs. The government’s support in policy formulation and financial assistance isessential and the local government intervention should be discouraged. An autonomously functioning financialinstitution can enhance the sustainable development of rural households’ income, in particular, and theagricultural sector, in general.

  15. How can “gender planning” contribute to tackle the challenges of demographic change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankiewicz Heidrun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.

  16. Innovating for Rural Development : The case of Danish Agricultural Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the primary challenge for agriculture after World War II was improving food security by increasing productivity, the challenges faced by today’s agriculture are more complex and diverse. In this context it is interesting to investigate Danish agricultural extension. Firstly, the more complex and diverse a situation that farmers have to deal with, the more support farmers may need. Secondly, agricultural extension is important to Danish farmers, pointing to a significant arena for learning and change. Thirdly, privatizing agricultural extension (in Denmark since 1994) should not be seen as a permanent panacea, but be reconsidered in the light of new agricultural and societal challenges. The overall objective of this PhD thesis is to explore the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs so as to point to critical aspects of concern to research and policy makers, and to Danish agricultural extension. In total three papers deal with the overall objective, each from a different perspective. The papers examine the capacity of agricultural extension at consultant level, project level and management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural extension agencies in Denmark. All papers show that financial structural aspects critically affect the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs. The most significant conclusion from this PhD thesis is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal conformity with new tendencies. Supportive financial structures in extension agencies extend the range of innovation intermediary roles taken by individual extension agents, and the overall performance of such agents. However, strong professional identity as innovation intermediary also plays a role in that. Finally, ‘urban impact’ positively affects extension capacity.

  17. Chacal ou Cordeiro? O Brasil frente aos desafios e oportunidades do Sistema Internacional / Jackal or Lamb? Brazil in face of the challenges and opportunities of the International System

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Júlio César Cossio, Rodriguez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das catego [...] rias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China), e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar. Abstract in english This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categor [...] ies proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China), and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.

  18. O ensino médio no Brasil: desafios à matrícula e ao trabalho docente / Secondary education in Brazil: challenges facing student enrollment and teacher work

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilvan Luiz Machado, Costa.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problematiza questões relacionadas à natureza da matrícula do ensino médio e ao trabalho docente. Recorre, sobretudo, às informações estatísticas disponibilizadas pelo Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (Inep) para discutir a composição da matrícula, os indicadore [...] s educacionais e o trabalho docente no ensino médio. Destaca as metas relacionadas ao ensino médio regular e ao trabalho docente contidas no Projeto de Lei nº 8.035, de 2010. Os dados empíricos expressam os desafios relativos a matrícula, formação, infraestrutura, remuneração, jornada de trabalho e carreiras docentes e podem contribuir para a discussão sobre a definição de políticas regulares que oportunizem uma formação na escola média para que todos os jovens brasileiros sejam dirigentes. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to discuss issues related to the teacher work and secondary school enrollment. For that purpose, the statistical information provided by the National Institute of Anisio Teixeira Educational Studies (Inep) is used to discuss enrollment issues, educational indicators and the [...] teacher work at high school. Based on discussions held, it highlights the goals related to the regular secondary school and teaching contained in the Draft Law Nº 8035, as of 2010. Empirical data express the challenges relating to enrollment, teacher training, infrastructure, remuneration, work load and teaching careers, and may contribute to the discussion on the definition of policies for secondary school education so that all young Brazilians become managers.

  19. Automatic Face Detection in Frontal Face Color Images

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Tiwari, N. K. Mittal, S. G. Kerhalker

    2013-01-01

    Automatic detection of facial features of image is an important stage of various image interpretation works, such as facial expression recognition, face recognition, facial features tracking and 3D face modeling etc. Detection of facial features like eye, mouth, nose, nostrils, lip corners etc., with different facial expression is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a method for automatic detection of facial features. A novel technique using the conce...

  20. Fast Multi-Scale Face Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Fasel, B.

    1998-01-01

    Computerized human face processing (detection, recognition, synthesis) has known an intense research activity during the last few years. Applications involving human face recognition are very broad with an important commercial impacts. Human face processing is a difficult and challenging task: the space of different facial patterns is huge. The variability of human faces as well as their similarity and the influence of other features like beard, glasses, hair, illumination, background etc., m...

  1. Context-Based Algorithm for Face Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Face detection has been a research area for more than ten years. It is a complex problem due to the high variability in faces and amongst faces; therefore it is not possible to extract a general pattern to be used for detection. This is what makes the face detection problem a challenge. This thesis gives the reader a background to the face detection problem, where the two main approaches of the problem are described. A face detection algorithm is implemented using a context-based method in co...

  2. Desafios da divulgação científica em cobertura jornalística de desastre ambiental / Challenges faced by the dissemination of science in press media coverage of an environmental disaster

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Fernando, Dal Pian; Daniel Durante Pereira, Alves.

    Full Text Available A atual crise ambiental planetária sinaliza a tendência de que a humanidade deverá conviver, cada vez mais, com as catástrofes ecológicas. Assim como as diversas esferas da sociedade precisam estar preparadas para lidar com essas situações, a mídia deve estar pronta para contribuir na ampliação do d [...] ebate público e na busca por soluções. Nessas circunstâncias, o grande desafio dos meios de comunicação de massa tem sido abordar os conceitos ligados à ciência ambiental, por se tratar de uma área de conhecimento nova e complexa. Para contribuir com o tema, a pesquisa estudou a cobertura jornalística, realizada pela mídia impressa, de um evento que envolveu a mortandade de peixes num estuário de Natal-RN. A análise de conteúdo jornalístico identificou o tratamento um tanto precário dos conceitos científicos capazes de fundamentar os reais motivos relacionados à mortandade de toneladas de fauna aquática, contribuindo pouco para a formação e educação ambiental dos leitores. Abstract in english The current global environmental crisis indicates that humanity will live, increasingly, with ecological catastrophes. Different spheres of society must be prepared to cope with these situations. Particularly, media must be ready to contribute to the expansion of public debate and to search for solu [...] tions. In these circumstances, the main challenge of mass media is to broach concepts related to environmental sciences, because it is a new and complex knowledge area. To contribute to the subject, this research studied press media coverage of a large fish kill along an estuary of Natal, in Brazil. Thematic content analysis of newspaper reports identified a somewhat precarious treatment of scientific concepts that could substantiate the actual causes of mortality of tons of aquatic fauna, signaling a poor contribution to environmental education and to the scientific understanding of readers.

  3. Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes. PMID:21726264

  4. Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

  5. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh D. Parmar,; Vaishali J. Kalariya

    2014-01-01

    Face Recognition (FR) under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of clas...

  6. El reto de la gestión humana frente a la complejidad y pluralidad cultural / The Challenge of Human Management in the Face of Cultural Complexity and Plurality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Candelaria, Rodríguez Pérez.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad se traduce en la diferenciación que parte de la condición de género, etnicidad, religión, clase social, habilidad física, orientación sexual y edad. Estas orientaciones emanan producto de los cambios que se ha dado a partir de la globalización e impacto de las tecnologías de la informa [...] ción y comunicación. En consecuencia se asume, que la fuerza laboral tiene carácter diferenciado y plural, que requiere de mecanismos que permitan lograr administrar la diversidad y la cultura como un elemento condicionante y de impacto en las nuevas relaciones laborales y en la gestión de lo humano bajo esquemas de complejidad. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo indagar sobre la complejidad, diversidad, pluralidad y cultura, para establecer algunos de los retos que emergen en las formas de gestionar lo humano. La metodología que se utilizó, fue el análisis documental a través de la triangulación de información sobre las categorías asumidas, para lograr la construcción de una reflexión en relación al tema. La conclusión se enmarcó en la necesidad de lograr fomentar una gestión humana con actitud pluralista, abierta, flexible y de gran sensibilidad transcultural, orientada a la búsqueda de la igualdad de oportunidades y el trato digno del ser humano. Abstract in english Diversity translates into differentiation that begins with conditions of gender, ethnicity, religion, social class, physical ability, sexual orientation and age. These orientations have come out as a product of the changes that have occurred with globalization and the impact of information and commu [...] nication technologies. As a consequence, it is assumed that the labor force has a differentiated and plural character which requires mechanisms that permit administering diversity and culture as a conditioning element that impacts new labor relations and human management under perceptions of complexity. The objective of this article is to investigate complexity, diversity, plurality and culture, to establish some of the challenges that emerge in ways of managing human beings. The methodology used was documentary through triangulation of the information about assumed categories, to construct a reflection related to the theme. The conclusion was framed by the need to foment human management with a pluralist, open, flexible attitude that has great transcultural sensitivity, oriented toward a search for the equality of opportunities and treatment worthy of the human being.

  7. Retos del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo: Colombia Bilingüe / The Challenges Facing the National Program for Bilingualism: Bilingual Colombia / Desafios do Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo: Colômbia Bilíngue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yamith José, Fandiño-Parra; Jenny Raquel, Bermúdez-Jiménez; Víctor Elías, Lugo-Vásquez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, o Ministério da Educação da Colômbia desenhou o Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo (PNB) e estipulou os lineamentos e objetivos para seu desenvolvimento em todo o país. O presente artigo faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa sobre bilinguismo financiado pela Universidade La Salle e seu objetivo [...] é analisar os prós e contras do Programa para apresentar os dois desafios principais que se devem enfrentar: a formação bilíngue dos estudantes colombianos e a educação bilíngue de crianças. Nesta análise teórica, foram utilizados princípios da pesquisa documental e se apresentam algumas reflexões que a comunidade colombiana de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira deveria considerar para desenvolvimentos futuros. Abstract in spanish En 2004 el Ministerio de Educación de Colombia diseñó el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) y estipuló los lineamientos y objetivos para su desarrollo en todo el país. El presente artículo hace parte de un proyecto investigativo sobre bilingüismo financiado por la Universidad de La Salle y su ob [...] jetivo es analizar los pro y los contra del Programa para presentar los dos retos principales que se deben enfrentar: la formación bilingüe de los estudiantes colombianos y la educación bilingüe de niños. En este análisis teórico fueron utilizados principios de la investigación documental y se presentan algunas reflexiones que la comunidad colombiana de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera debería tener en cuenta para desarrollos futuros. Abstract in english In 2004, the Colombian Ministry of Education designed the National Program for Bilingual Education (GNP) and specified the guidelines and objectives for its implementation throughout the country. This article is part of a research project on bilingual education funded by La Salle University, the pri [...] mary objective of which is to analyze the pros and cons of the program in light of its two main challenges: bilingual education for Colombian students and bilingual education for children. Documentary research principles were used in this theoretical analysis and several considerations for teachers of English as foreign language in Colombia are raised in the interest of future developments.

  8. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and “space” from human geography are applied to develop a nuanced understanding of rural entrepreneurship as a spatial phenomenon. Space consists of processes of movement and mobility, while places consist o...

  9. Rural Residents Who Are Hospitalized in Rural and Urban Hospitals: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Area Resource File (ARF). 2012. Moscovice I, Stensland J. Rural hospitals: Trends, challenges, and a future research and policy analysis agenda. ...

  10. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Ba?ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average rural household in Ba?ka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Ba?ka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Ba?ka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  11. Telerehabilitation Clinical and Vocational Applications for Assistive Technology: Research, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Schmeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telepractice

  12. 77 FR 42185 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...FCC 12-74] Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal...HealthNet and Colorado Health Care Connections state that ``the...certain Pilot projects have to face the significant difficulties...until a permanent rural health care program is established and...

  13. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  14. School Consolidation in Nebraska: Economic Efficiency vs. Rural Community Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Anderson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine the factors driving rural school consolidations, focusing our analysis on Nebraska. We consider statutory and case law, the school financing formulas that drive consolidation and the efforts by rural citizens to challenge those financing formulas in courts. We analyze how rural school consolidations have been framed in newspaper coverage, in order to see the dominant understandings of the cost-benefit tradeoffs in consolidating rural schools. Finally, we study three cases of rural Nebraska school districts for the insights these cases provide as to the challenges of sustaining rural community schools and the effects of consolidation on the students and the communities. Our conclusion is that schools play a vital role in sustaining rural community life, although the costs to the community when schools are consolidated are more difficult to quantify than the economies of scale that motivate those consolidations.

  15. Configurações curriculares mediante o enfoque CTS: desafios a serem enfrentados na educação de jovens e adultos / Curricular configurations through the CTS approach: challenges to be faced in EJA (the education of youths and adults)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane, Muenchen; Décio, Auler.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são analisados desafios a serem enfrentados no âmbito de intervenções curriculares que buscam enfocar interações entre Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade (CTS), mediante a abordagem de temáticas contemporâneas, marcadas pela componente científico-tecnológica. Tais encaminhamentos estão bal [...] izados por uma aproximação entre pressupostos do educador brasileiro Freire (1987) e referenciais ligados ao denominado movimento CTS. No âmbito destas intervenções situa-se o problema investigado: Quais os possíveis desafios a serem enfrentados/investigados quando se buscam configurações curriculares que contemplem o enfoque CTS por meio da abordagem de problemas de relevância social junto à Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)? Os objetivos da pesquisa são: identificar e discutir posicionamentos de professores da EJA quanto à utilização de temas/problemas de relevância social em suas aulas, e identificar e discutir estrangulamentos a serem enfrentados nas instituições escolares. Esta pesquisa é de cunho qualitativo e os instrumentos utilizados foram: registros escritos, sob a forma de diários; questionário e entrevista. Como síntese dos resultados da investigação, foram definidas quatro categorias, as quais constituem desafios a serem enfrentados: a) superação do reducionismo metodológico, ou seja, ao professor atribui-se o papel de "vencer programas"; b) o trabalho interdisciplinar; c) suposta resistência dos alunos à abordagem temática, e d) desenvolvimento de temas polêmicos que envolvem conflitos/contradições locais. No presente trabalho, são discutidas as categorias "a" e "d". Abstract in english In this work, challenges are analyzed to be faced with the range of curricular interventions which aim to approach the interaction between Science, Technology and Society (CTS) through the setting down of contemporary themes, notably science and technology. Such curricular routings are marked by the [...] approximation of the presuppositions of the Brazilian pedagogue Freire (1987) and references to the movement known as CTS. In the context of such curricular interventions, is raised the problem of investigation: What are the possible challenges to be faced / investigated in the search for curricular configurations which look at the CTS approach through the laying out of socially relevant problems together with EJA? The objectives of the research are: to identify and discuss the position of EJA teachers in relation to the use, in class, of themes/problems of social relevance and to identify and discuss complications to be confronted in schools. This project is of a qualitative nature and the instruments used were: written registers in the form of diaries; questionnaires and interviews. As a synthesis of the results of the investigation, four categories are defined and discussed which constitute challenges to be faced: a) the excess of methodological reductionism, this being the teacher giving himself the role of "program beater"; b) interdisciplinary work; c) the supposed student resistance to the themed approach and d) the development of polemic themes which involve local conflicts/contradictions. In the present work, the categories are argued "a" and "d".

  16. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Rural Communities: Current Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon; Lui, Chi-Wai; Adams, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Contexts: The consumption of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in rural areas is a significant contemporary health care issue. An understanding of CAM use in rural health can provide a new perspective on health beliefs and practice as well as on some of the core service delivery issues facing rural health care generally. Purpose: This…

  17. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. PMID:24691394

  18. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. M. Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

  19. Collaborative innovations with rural and regional secondary teachers: enhancing student learning in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

    2011-06-01

    When questioned, secondary mathematics teachers in rural and regional schools in Australia refer to their limited opportunities to engage and share experiences with peers in other schools as an under-utilised and cost-effective mechanism to support their professional learning and enhance their students' learning. The paper reports on the creation and evaluation of a network of learning communities of rural secondary mathematics teachers around a common purpose—enhancement and increased engagement of student learning in mathematics. To achieve this goal, teams of teachers from six rural schools identified an issue hindering improved student learning of mathematics in their school. Working collaboratively with support from university personnel with expertise in curriculum, assessment and quality pedagogy, teachers developed and implemented strategies to address an identified issue in ways that were relevant to their teaching contexts. The research study identifies issues in mathematics of major concern to rural teachers of mathematics, the successes and challenges the teachers faced in working in learning communities on the issue they identified, and the efficacy of the professional learning model.

  20. DCT Based Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Anand Najan; Prof. Mrs. A. C. Phadke

    2012-01-01

    A typical automatic face recognition system is composed of three parts: face detection, face alignment and face recognition. Conventionally, these three parts are processed in a bottom-up manner: face detection is performed first, then the results are passed to face alignment, and finally to face recognition. In this paper we will see the face recognition using DCT. The face recognition algorithm is based on appearances of Local facial regions that are represented with discrete cosine transfo...

  1. Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-04-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

  2. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools / Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josefina, Quintero Corzo; Odilia, Ramírez Contreras.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razon [...] es que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación. Abstract in english Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discip [...] line problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

  3. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition. PMID:25811985

  4. Hot Spots and Not Spots: Addressing Infrastructure and Service Provision through Combined Approaches in Rural Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Skerratt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread acceptance that the absence or presence of infrastructure and services in rural areas can lead to cycles of decline or resilience in these localities. It is also accepted that in remoter areas, population sparsity leads to a higher unit cost for delivery of services and infrastructure, and that private sector providers do not find such areas attractive for investment. At the same time, there is a reduction in spending capability within the public sector due to the significant impact of economic crisis on their resource base, affecting provision of services. How are these seemingly intractable challenges being addressed? Using an interpretive policy analysis approach [1] and narrative tools, the storyline of policy statements, approaches and policies in Scotland is presented and discussed, within a wider European setting. This is complemented by a brief presentation of public-private and third sector initiatives in response to service and infrastructure challenges in rural Scotland. The paper concludes with the argument that we are facing two alternatives—the current “hot spots” and “not spots” pattern of provision, where the fittest survive, or further shifts towards strategic, cross-sectoral investment which gives scope for more cohesive development for rural communities.

  5. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors / Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Doris, Correa.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en teorías criticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al constr [...] uir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías mas efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de genero, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Abstract in english Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic lit [...] eracy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training.

  6. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Correa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training.Con base en teorías criticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías mas efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de genero, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado.

  7. A formação profissional frente aos desafios da intervenção e das atuais configurações do ensino público, privado e a distância / The professional background facing the challenges of both intervention and configurations of public, private and distance education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda, Guerra.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crise atual do capital, com suas novas e antigas determinações, impõe metamorfoses ao mundo do trabalho, o que exige um perfil de profissional funcional a essa etapa do capitalismo. Parto da hipótese de que as atuais configurações do ensino respondem às exigências da atual fase do capitalismo e se [...] orienta pelas demandas do mercado de trabalho. Nesta direção, a formação profissional tem um duplo desafio: desvelar e enfrentar a crise do capital e nela as diversas formas de precarização das relações e condições de trabalho, flexibilização dos direitos e focalização das políticas sociais, que, como parte da mesma racionalidade, se expressam e condicionam exercício e formação profissionais. Abstract in english The current crisis of the capital, together with its new and old determinations, demands metamorphoses from the world of work, which requires a professional profile that serves to this phase of capitalism. My hypothesis is that the current configurations of education are adequate to the demands of t [...] he present phase of capitalism, and that such education is guided by the requirements of the labor market. So, the professional background has a double challenge: to unveil and to face the crisis of the capital, as well as the several ways making the working relations and conditions precarious, the flexibility of rights and the emphasis of the social policies that, as a part of the same reasoning, express and influence the professional activity and background.

  8. A formação profissional frente aos desafios da intervenção e das atuais configurações do ensino público, privado e a distância The professional background facing the challenges of both intervention and configurations of public, private and distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Guerra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crise atual do capital, com suas novas e antigas determinações, impõe metamorfoses ao mundo do trabalho, o que exige um perfil de profissional funcional a essa etapa do capitalismo. Parto da hipótese de que as atuais configurações do ensino respondem às exigências da atual fase do capitalismo e se orienta pelas demandas do mercado de trabalho. Nesta direção, a formação profissional tem um duplo desafio: desvelar e enfrentar a crise do capital e nela as diversas formas de precarização das relações e condições de trabalho, flexibilização dos direitos e focalização das políticas sociais, que, como parte da mesma racionalidade, se expressam e condicionam exercício e formação profissionais.The current crisis of the capital, together with its new and old determinations, demands metamorphoses from the world of work, which requires a professional profile that serves to this phase of capitalism. My hypothesis is that the current configurations of education are adequate to the demands of the present phase of capitalism, and that such education is guided by the requirements of the labor market. So, the professional background has a double challenge: to unveil and to face the crisis of the capital, as well as the several ways making the working relations and conditions precarious, the flexibility of rights and the emphasis of the social policies that, as a part of the same reasoning, express and influence the professional activity and background.

  9. Using the Internet to Recruit Rural MSM for HIV Risk Assessment: Sampling Issues

    OpenAIRE

    BOWEN, ANNE; WILLIAMS, MARK; Horvath, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is an emerging research tool that may be useful for contacting and working with rural men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about HIV risks for rural men and Internet methodological issues are only beginning to be examined. Internet versus conventionally recruited samples have shown both similarities and differences in their demographic characteristics. In this study, rural MSM from three sizes of town were recruited by two methods: conventional (e.g. face-to-face/snow...

  10. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  11. Organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas de atenção à saúde: desafios do Sistema Único de Saúde (Brasil The organization of regional and integrated healthcare delivery systems: challenges facing Brazil's Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Fernandes da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo refere-se às causas da segmentação/fragmentação na atenção à saúde e aos benefícios da integração e constituição de redes para racionalizar gastos, otimizar recursos e promover uma atenção condizente com as necessidades dos usuários. Tem como principal objetivo analisar os desafios presentes no Sistema Único de Saúde para promover uma melhor integração entre os serviços e organizar redes. Entre os desafios abordados, destacam-se os relacionados à insuficiência de recursos decorrentes do baixo financiamento público, aos processos de formação e educação e seus reflexos na disponibilização dos profissionais para o sistema público e às dificuldades inerentes à descentralização de ações e serviços de saúde no contexto do pacto federativo brasileiro. O artigo conclui que, além de esforços para enfrentar esses desafios, a organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas no SUS depende de aperfeiçoamento na gestão intergovernamental nas regiões de saúde para qualificar a pactuação de responsabilidades entre as esferas de governo e de qualificação da atenção primária à saúde para coordenar o cuidado e ordenar sua continuidade nos outros níveis do sistema.This article examines the causes of the segmentation/fragmentation in the healthcare process and the benefits of the constitution of networks set up to rationalize expenditures, optimize resources and ensure care tailored to the needs of the users. Its main purpose is to analyze the current challenges facing Brazil's Unified Health System, in order to promote improved integration between services. Among the challenges, those related to the insufficiency of resources due to low public funding, the training and education processes and their effects on the availability of health professionals to work in the public health system and the difficulties in the decentralization of health services and actions in the context of the Brazilian Federation Pact should be stressed. The paper concludes that, besides the efforts to tackle these challenges, the organization of regionalized networks integrated with the Unified Health System also depends on the improvement of intergovernmental management in the health regions to bolster the agreement on responsibilities among the government areas and the qualification of primary healthcare to coordinate care and ensure its continuity at other levels of the system.

  12. Organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas de atenção à saúde: desafios do Sistema Único de Saúde (Brasil) / The organization of regional and integrated healthcare delivery systems: challenges facing Brazil's Unified Health System

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Fernandes da, Silva.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo refere-se às causas da segmentação/fragmentação na atenção à saúde e aos benefícios da integração e constituição de redes para racionalizar gastos, otimizar recursos e promover uma atenção condizente com as necessidades dos usuários. Tem como principal objetivo analisar os desafios presente [...] s no Sistema Único de Saúde para promover uma melhor integração entre os serviços e organizar redes. Entre os desafios abordados, destacam-se os relacionados à insuficiência de recursos decorrentes do baixo financiamento público, aos processos de formação e educação e seus reflexos na disponibilização dos profissionais para o sistema público e às dificuldades inerentes à descentralização de ações e serviços de saúde no contexto do pacto federativo brasileiro. O artigo conclui que, além de esforços para enfrentar esses desafios, a organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas no SUS depende de aperfeiçoamento na gestão intergovernamental nas regiões de saúde para qualificar a pactuação de responsabilidades entre as esferas de governo e de qualificação da atenção primária à saúde para coordenar o cuidado e ordenar sua continuidade nos outros níveis do sistema. Abstract in english This article examines the causes of the segmentation/fragmentation in the healthcare process and the benefits of the constitution of networks set up to rationalize expenditures, optimize resources and ensure care tailored to the needs of the users. Its main purpose is to analyze the current challeng [...] es facing Brazil's Unified Health System, in order to promote improved integration between services. Among the challenges, those related to the insufficiency of resources due to low public funding, the training and education processes and their effects on the availability of health professionals to work in the public health system and the difficulties in the decentralization of health services and actions in the context of the Brazilian Federation Pact should be stressed. The paper concludes that, besides the efforts to tackle these challenges, the organization of regionalized networks integrated with the Unified Health System also depends on the improvement of intergovernmental management in the health regions to bolster the agreement on responsibilities among the government areas and the qualification of primary healthcare to coordinate care and ensure its continuity at other levels of the system.

  13. Time to face the healthcare challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Edward

    2012-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is upon us. The success, extent, and quality of the resulting care is not fully under our control. That is surely an understatement. Healthcare is one-fifth of the United States' Gross National Product, and it is no longer ours to control. Nonetheless, we have all taken an oath, the Hippocratic Oath, and in 2012, that oath includes being advocates for our patients and helping insure that we, as a nation, "do no harm." PMID:22900244

  14. Facing CLIL Challenges at University Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Granados Beltrán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in Content Language Integrated Learning have been carried out most of the time at primary and secondary education. However, not much is known about what higher education institutions are doing in this respect. This article aims to present an experience that occurred in the Languages Department at Universidad Central (Bogotá, Colombia in relation to the inclusion of content in language classes bymeans of project work. The way project work was organised as well as how it was evaluated in the different levels will be explained. Finally, a discussion of some surveys applied to both students and teachers to evaluate the experience will be presented, taking into consideration the advantages and limitations of this kind of work for university contexts.

  15. Facing the challenges of the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the present status of the nuclear renaissance. The economical aspect stays an important point for nuclear energy. The competitiveness of nuclear energy implies the harmonization of safety rules and of the legal framework for all the types of reactors and for all countries. It is also important to put the same constraints on the different energy sources particularly concerning the protection of the environment. Nuclear industry needs adequate products: the development of intermediate-size reactors could better meet the demand than the ever-bigger standard reactor. (A.C.)

  16. Facing the challenges of the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Renaissance is stumbling at the very same time it should speed up in order to help control the climate change and meet a fast growing energy need in a large part of the world. Rising costs of projects, uncertainties about their completion, rocketing safety requirements, and financial constraints are key factors which slow down the Nuclear Renaissance. Furthermore, the legal infrastructure required from any country to enter a commercial nuclear programme (safety authorities, fuel cycle, and waste disposal) is a major hurdle s which impedes consideration for small to mid size reactors, well suited for many countries. The paper prepared and presented by Alain Bugat (Chairman of NucAdvisor and former Head of the French Atomic Energy Commission), Dominique Vignon (CEO of NucAdvisor and former President and CEO of AREVA NP) and Michel Lecomte (Co-founder NucAdvisor) reviews the present status of the Nuclear Renaissance. Based on an analysis of initial versus actual plans for all projects announced during the last three years, it scrutinizes some key factors behind the postponements of start-up dates of construction, and cost increases. On each of the issues which jeopardize new projects, the paper will propose an adequate course of actions, to be taken by vendors, operators, governments and safety authorities as well as investors, financial institutions and banks. - Recommendations are developed with respect to: - A needed coordination between the Kyoto and post Kyoto mechanisms, and the nuclear industry; a financial assessment of the potential of such coordination will be presented; - A transformation of the national licensing processes, under a common International framework; it will take into consideration the experience of the Airspace industry, and a systematic mutual acceptance of licensing certificates; - An easier access for nuclear projects to the financial markets, based on the support of major Financial institutions (World Bank; BEI; etc..). (authors)

  17. Facing online challenges using learning classifier systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho Asensio, Andreu

    2014-01-01

    Els grans avenços en el camp de l’aprenentatge automàtic han resultat en el disseny de màquines competents que són capaces d’aprendre i d’extreure informació útil i original de l’experiència. Recentment, algunes d’aquestes tècniques d’aprenentatge s’han aplicat amb èxit per resoldre problemes del món real en àmbits tecnològics, mèdics, científics i industrials, els quals no es podien tractar amb tècniques convencionals d’anàlisi ja sigui per la seva complexitat o pel gran volum de dades a pro...

  18. [Nursing school facing new educational challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna Torres, Blanca Herlinda; Gonzáles Rendón, M C Cristina

    2013-06-01

    The current avatars situate education schools and colleges in training students for competitions so that they be able to: perform successfully in the labor market, develop in a globalized world and deliver "human sense" services these can offer. The pillars of education [1] or the four ways to acquire significant knowledge for life are the basic premises on which is built the new educational dynamics in the context of globalization and global village, prepare students for internationalizaition is now imperative. In a globalized world in which we now live, acquire an ecological awareness, sense of solidarity, responsibility, social justice, peace, harmony, democracy, equity and learn to know, are actions that are thought together and as indispensable for complex life on the planet. The socio-cultural, economic, technological and political demand new ways of understanding the world and require fundamental changes in lifestyles for sustainable development. PMID:23909222

  19. The environmental challenge facing the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special characteristics of the global warming problem are briefly reviewed and the role of the petroleum industry discussed. A number of countermeasures and proposals are made. These include: the promotion of scientific studies and research into global warming; international cooperation, the creation of urban and local infrastructures and transport systems that generate minimal carbon dioxide emissions; the realization of environmentally conscious life styles; the development of technologies to limit carbon dioxide emissions. The petroleum industry should establish goals that are reasonable, rational and not influenced by government pressure. (UK)

  20. Trends in rural water supply: Towards a service delivery approach

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Moriarty; Stef Smits; John Butterworth; Richard Franceys

    2013-01-01

    Behind headline successes in providing first-time access to water lie a number of pressing challenges to the dominant approach to rural water supply in developing countries, namely community management following a demand-responsive approach. These challenges manifest themselves in poor performance of service providers, high rates of hardware failure, and very low levels of service.The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water...