WorldWideScience

Sample records for challenges facing rural

  1. Challenges Facing Rural Schools: Implications for Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Rhodes, Megan; Beall, Jimmie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implications for gifted students of challenges facing rural schools. We explore 4 challenges with particular relevance to rural schools: (a) declining population, (b) persistent poverty, (c) changing demographics, and (d) ongoing accountability requirements. Recommendations positioned to address these challenges…

  2. Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations

  3. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pholoho, Morojele.

    Full Text Available This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive anal [...] ysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

  4. Priesthood Satisfaction and the Challenges Priests Face: A Case Study of a Rural Diocese in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Jayeel Serrano Cornelio

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from the experience of Catholic priests based in a rural diocese in the Philippines. It will be argued that their satisfaction as diocesan priests is best understood as a religious emotion in spite of the challenges they face on a daily basis. Their challenges revolve around economic limitation, problems with their bishop and leaders, and relational isolation brought about by social and geographic distance. In spite of these challenges, priest-respondents have asserted that...

  5. Common Challenges Faced by Rural Principals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.; Jakubiec, Brittany A. E.; Kooymans, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Within this article, we thematically present common challenges associated with the role of the rural principal. In this literature review, we delimit our search to work published from 2003-2013. A limitation of this study is that it represents data predominantly from American, Canadian, and Australian rural settings, restricting a global…

  6. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  7. Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina

    2013-01-01

    According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuniti...

  8. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN h...

  9. Building virtual bridges: how rural micro-enterprises develop social capital in online and face-to-face settings

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Leanne; Wallace, Claire; Smart, Alison; Norman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    In rural UK, businesses are often isolated and have much to gain from healthy networks, yet studies show that many rural business owners fail to network effectively. Information communications technologies offer new ways to network that might benefit rural businesses by expanding their reach. This study looked at online and face-to-face networking behaviour among rural micro-enterprises in Scotland in relation to the development of bonding and bridging social capital. Given the challenges of ...

  10. The Challenges Women Whistleblowers Face

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Hunt

    2010-01-01

    Women Whistleblowers face unique challenges in the workplace.The headline news of ethical concerns in business is transforming the workplace culture and the workforce. More women are beginning to step forward when ethical concerns arise. However they experience gender differences within the corporate culture when they come forward. Women often approach ethical concerns in a different manner than men. This article will bring research to this issue and uncover the unique challenges that women e...

  11. Challenges Facing Entrepreneurship in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onyeka Uche Ofili

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is critical to the development of societies. Entrepreneurs however, cannot work in isolation; they need the right environment to thrive. The judicial system, the educational system, the financial system and generalgovernment policies should be such that encourage and promote entrepreneurship. Basic infrastructures such aspower, water, and transport systems are necessary to boost entrepreneurship. This paper looks at the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria and recomm...

  12. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-01-01

    The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that ...

  13. El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pacheco Contreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal.An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

  14. El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* / Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Pacheco Contreras; Gonzalo, Gómez Vásquez; Gabriel, Barrero Tapias.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivam [...] ente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal. Abstract in english An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challeng [...] es of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

  15. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  16. Challenges faced by the state- funded rural women’s co-operatives in reducing poverty in the Mbhashe area, Eastern Cape Province

    OpenAIRE

    Bambeni, Ntobeko

    2013-01-01

    Co-operatives are seen as one of the appropriate strategies for intervention in eradicating poverty in rural communities. During the financial year 2007-2008 the Department of Social Development and Special Programmes pronounced on the availability of funds in its budget for the establishment of women’s co-operatives and other livelihood community projects. The initiative of funding rural women’s cooperatives was one of the interventions to address high poverty and unemployment...

  17. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Of the approximately ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  18. Facing the challenge of multimorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Azaïs, Boris; Bowis, John; Wismar, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Multimorbidity is a major public health challenge that is rising up the political and health agenda at an accelerated rate. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity increases with age, more than half of the population with multimorbidity are under the age of 65 years [1], with social deprivation a key determinant of multimorbidity in young and middle-aged adults [2,3].From an individual’s perspective, multimorbidity reduces life expectancy [4–6], decreases physical functioning and quality of...

  19. Medical physics and challenges faced in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual medical physicists have presented many challenges which have greatly inhibited their input in patient care and management. To improve the role and recognition of medical physicists in Africa, FAMPO was established. This is the Federation of African Medical Physics Organisations. Its main role is to bridge the gap between individual medical physicists, existing medical physicist bodies and the International Organisation of Medical Physics (IOMP). It is a non profit making organisation. A qualified medical physicist is an individual who is competent to practice independently one or more of the sub fields of medical physics. i.e. therapeutic radiological, diagnostic radiological, medical nuclear and medical health. Their time should on average be distributed equally among three areas, clinical service and consultation, research and development, and teaching. All diagnostic and radiotherapy centres should have a well established comprehensive quality assurance programme in place, which should involve machine installation and calibration, source delivery and safety, operational procedures, clinical dosimetry and the whole treatment planning process. This should be followed according to national and international recommendations. A study was carried out to identify the challenges faced by medical physicists in Africa and the objectives of the study were; To identify the number of qualified medical physicists and their working experience in hospitals in African countries. To identify the level of involvement of medical physicists in the three areas of Nuclear medicine, Radiology and Radiotherapy in hospitals in African countries.To identify countries with recognised professional bodies governing medical physicists in African countries.To identify the challenges faced by medical physicists in African countries Methods and materials The study was conducted on thirteen medical physicists from seven African countries. i.e. Nigeria, Kenya, Libya, Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda and Ghana. A questionnaire was used to collect data inline with the objectives. The data collected was analysed to identify the correlation between the challenges identified and the objectives of FAMPO. Results and discussions Challenges faced by medical physicists in African countries There is shortage of qualified skilled medical physicists to man all the activities the three areas of Radiotherapy, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 5 The cost involved to obtain clinical training from the recognized training centres is high and there no local training centres. Training of qualified medical physicists has been done by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as little or no support is given to training medical physicists by individual governments. Lack of recognized bodies governing medical physicists, hence lack of coordination among medical physicists in a particular country and between countries in Africa. The law governing the use ionizing radiation is still weak in some African countries. Ignorance about the role of a medical physicist from the hospital managers and health ministries, hence limitation of their participation in research and publication. Lack of equipment has inhibited execution of their duties especially in areas of dosimetry, dose assessment and radiation monitoring. Hospitals have no budget for continuous education to fund conferences or congress attendance. Most of these conferences are commonly supported by international organizations like IAEA, WHO. Aims and Functions of FAMPO To promote improved quality service to patients and the community in the region. To promote the co-operation and communication between medical physics organization in the region, and where such organizations do not exist between individual medical physicists. To promote the profession and practice of medical physics and related activities in the region. To promote the advancement in status and standard of practice of medical physics profession. To promote and improve the training of medical physicists. To promote research and development in the field of medical physics. To promote appropriate use of technology to the benefit of rural populations. To organize and / or sponsor international conferences, regional and other meetings or courses. To collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations according to article 8 of the constitution. Conclusion a. The challenges identified in the study can be solved by effective execution of FAMPO.s objectives. b. Governments of African countries should support, train, employ and recognize more medical physicists to handle all radiation dose safety issues pertaining to all departments using ionizing radiation in medicine. There is need for training more qualified medical physicists in Africa and their role should not be ignored. d. Effective communication among the family of medical physicists in Africa should improve to solve the challenges faced in our countries. With the establishment of FAMPO, which is a virile regional chapter, the pride of all medical physicists in Africa, support and hard work of all FAMPO members will make medical physics in Africa shine and many lives of Africans saved

  20. Exploring the challenges faced by polytechnic students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.

  1. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  2. Facing the challenges of a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is one of the world's largest nuclear generating companies. This paper describes the business environment in which the company competes, its strategic responses to the challenges it faces, and gives some conclusions regarding the priorities for the nuclear generation industry if it is to thrive as a mainstream source of energy. (author)

  3. Challenges Facing Techinical Training in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharia K. Mbugua; George M. Muthaa; Antony K. Sang

    2012-01-01

    Technical education is necessary if Kenya is to industrialize by the year 2030. Relevant skills have to be given in Technical training institutions. The training in T.T.Is should therefore be market driven. The current study was designed to investigate on challenges facing skill training in T.T.Is. This study focused on the adequacy of training facilities, relevance of facilities, relevance of curriculum and the trainers’ level of qualifications. Descriptive survey research design was used fo...

  4. Challenges Facing Early Career Academic Cardiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Carl W.; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T. Jared; Damp, Julie B.; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A.; Hilliard, Anthony A.; Houser, Steven R.; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M.; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Early-career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology (ACC) completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: (1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists, (2) gene...

  5. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitriu, Diana-Luiza

    2015-01-01

    While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one r...

  6. Challenges facing early career academic cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Carl W; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T Jared; Damp, Julie B; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A; Hilliard, Anthony A; Houser, Steven R; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J; Rzeszut, Anne K; Sivaram, Chittur A; Valente, Anne Marie; Freeman, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Early career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: 1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists; 2) general challenges to all categories and specific challenges to each category; 3) obstacles as identified by a survey of current early career members of the American College of Cardiology; 4) major reasons for the failure of physician-scientists to receive funding from National Institute of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute career development grants; 5) potential solutions; and 6) a call to action with specific recommendations. PMID:24703919

  7. Challenges facing water management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of water per person in northern China is less than half of that in Egypt, a country with very scarce water resources. Clearly, then, China is one of the regions on our planet that is going to have to face severe problems of water supply in the future. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation growing agricultural output, environmental degradation, climatic instability, a large population density and worsening regional disparities are all factors that will challenge the management and utilisation of China's water resources in the years to come. (orig.)

  8. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Luiza DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.

  9. Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas...

  10. Plasma facing components: Challenges for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current fusion devices, the components located in front of plasma, the so-called plasma facing components (PFCs), sustain severe constraints such as high thermal flux (several MW/m2), erosion, flux of particles. The management of this first material interface is critical from a plasma performance point of view. ITER, as nuclear facility, is initiating a new era for fusion, which will be reinforced for a future fusion power plant which will add specific requirements (sufficient lifetime, a cooling system to produce energy, use of low activation material) while increasing nuclear constraints. The talk will recall in a first part the main requirements of an actively plasma facing components and the main results obtained with low-Z carbon based PFCs (mainly CFC). Experimental feedback from these challenging components is an essential step for the success of the next generation of components, in particular in term of manufacturing or handling intense heat loads. Nuclear safety requirements mainly drive the need of new materials for the nuclear phase of ITER. The tritium retention in carbon based PFCs and the strong erosion are expected to be too high in the Deuterium-Tritium phase with CFC targets, justifying the use of high-Z materials. The evolution toward high-Z materials, with tungsten the most promising, becomes a major challenge for fusion research. Large scale experiences with W have only been obtained recently with the operation of ASDEX-upgrade and JET tokamaks but with non-actively cooled PFCs. ASDEX-upgraded is equipped with W coated carbon PFCs while JET includes W coated carbon PFC and inertially cooled solid W, using in all cases a technology not relevant for ITER. Extensive R and D programmes have been performed in Europe to develop reliable actively PFCs for ITER [1-5]. The state of the art will be presented including specific devices needed to fully qualify, at laboratory scale, designs foreseen for ITER. In order to reduce the risks and anticipate any difficulties ITER may face in terms of manufacturing or operation, it is proposed to update Tore Supra with a full W first wall and divertor, benefiting from the unique long pulse capabilities of the Tore Supra platform, the high installed power and the long history of operation with actively cooled high heat flux components [6]. The main goals of the 'WEST' project (W - for tungsten -Environment in Steady-state Tokamak, figure 1) will be presented. The talk will also address acknowledged gaps in PFCs developments for DEMO, which require extensive studies in different topics, from plasma-surface interaction to engineering including material sciences. Further challenges address simultaneously the higher power density, high-temperature wall, bulk (neutron) and surface (charged particle) accumulated damage. The high neutron fluence expected in a fusion reactor (more than 10 dpa/year) will affect erosion and tritium retention properties of materials. Near-surface material properties will be for instance altered by the neutron damage. Such synergistic effects are expected to be important in the DEMO environment and are difficult to be addressed experimentally. A more robust coupling of materials development, including fundamentally studies, with advanced design is required. If tungsten is the most promising material for the plasma-facing, tungsten also offers less favorable properties (recrystallization, which influences the mechanical properties, embrittlement as a result of neutron-induced damages, He-induced sputtering..) that have to be resolved. Only a global approach, including fundamental science, material development, joining/welding techniques, design innovation and a close link with plasma physics is able to reach the necessary level of credibility for operating such components in a fusion environment in an economically reasonable way. (authors)

  11. RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu Apostol; Florin-Constantin Mihai

    2012-01-01

      Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems in compliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural pop...

  12. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  13. What are the challenges facing our industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  14. Rapid Urbanization and the Aspiration and Challenge of Second-Generation Urban-Rural Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialing, Han

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the features of second-generation rural migrants and the challenges facing them in terms of schooling and employment. There is a gap that is hard for them to step over: barriers against social inclusion. The article concludes that poverty tends to pass on to the next generation and fossilize. Therefore, it is vital to…

  15. Nurse educator's competencies: facing the challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Dury, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    This symposium proposes presentations related to nurse educators competencies and the challenges links to their new roles. The evolution of the nurses training at the European level asks the teacher to develop high-level disciplinary skills but also educational skills. There are lots of challenges to develop nurse educator competencies. The role of the teachers is not any more to transmit disciplinary knowledge but to become experts in group management, colleagues teamwork, reflective practic...

  16. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

  17. Facing the challenges in exporting in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Tulinen, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the specific and concrete logistical problems that small- and medium sized enterprises face as they export their manufactures to Russia. Another aim is to name some of the benefits achieved from Russia’s future membership to WTO that might ease exporting to Russia. The theoretical part of the thesis discusses the topics of international trade and exporting. The international trade part explains the fundamentals of the international business environment...

  18. Major Challenges of Iranian Rural Communities for Achieving Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kalantari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural population in Iran live in an unstable environment and geographically, villages are extremely diverse and more than 65% of them have population less than 250 persons, which do not provide sufficient population threshold for most of services and sustainable economic and job creation activities. Only 7.5% of rural areas have population more than 1000 persons. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out major challenges of Iranian rural communities for achieving sustainable development. Approach: To fulfill this objective, 60 rural development experts who are engaged in government organizations relevant to rural development, were randomly selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbachs alpha of 0.83. To arrive to consensus of experts opinion, factor analysis was used to achieve data reduction and extract factors. Results: In total, 5 factors, including "economic", "management and planning", "environmental", "social" and "physical challenges" were identified. These factors explained 65.52% of challenges to achieving sustainable development in rural areas in Iran. Conclusion: Diversification of rural economy, supporting job creation activities, promoting sustainable rural tourism, business and industrial activities, establishing a stable urban-rural network are among important agenda which can create an appropriate condition for sustainable development in Iranian rural communities.

  19. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  20. Challenges facing holographic models of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    This paper, written in memory of Manoj Banerjee, takes a critical look at holographic models of QCD focusing on ``practical'' models in which the five dimensional theory is treated classically. A number of theoretical and phenomenological challenges to the approach are discussed.

  1. Early sex -- early motherhood: facing the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the causes and consequences of adolescent sex behavior and adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. The article opens by noting that adolescents give birth to 15 million babies annually despite their increased risk resulting from biological and social vulnerability. Risky sex behavior is seen to result from gender power imbalances and from "clustering" of high-risk behaviors. Lack of contraceptives, particularly condoms, increases risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease or HIV infection as well as the risk of pregnancy. Adolescent sexual activity also doubles the lifetime risk of acquiring cervical cancer. Pregnant adolescents are more likely than mature women to have eclampsia or obstructed labor with its attendant complication of obstetric fistula. Adolescents are also less likely to seek prenatal care and face a higher risk of death during delivery. Adolescents also account for a large proportion of abortion complications because they undergo illegal or late procedures. Babies born to adolescents risk low birth weight, prematurity, and a higher rate of perinatal mortality. Adolescent mother also face social ostracism and reduced ability to acquire a job or education. Research into adolescent sexuality is best undertaken with the input of adolescents themselves (an example is the World Health Organization's narrative research method). Adolescent health can be promoted by creation of a safe and supportive environment and by provision of 1) information, 2) opportunities for adolescents to develop skills to negotiate sexual encounters, 3) counseling, and 4) youth-friendly adolescent health services. PMID:12292434

  2. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  3. Facing the LISA data analysis challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By being the first observatory to survey the source rich low frequency region of the gravitational wave spectrum, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. For the first time we will be able to detect the gravitational radiation from millions of galactic binaries, the coalescence of two massive black holes, and the inspirals of compact objects into massive black holes. The signals from multiple sources in each class, and possibly others as well, will be simultaneously present in the data. To achieve the enormous scientific return possible with LISA, sophisticated data analysis techniques must be developed which can mine the complex data in an effort to isolate and characterize individual signals. This proceedings paper very briefly summarizes the challenges associated with analyzing the LISA data, the current state of affairs, and the necessary next steps to move forward in addressing the imminent challenges

  4. Lessons on rural development, challenges and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absalón Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, the Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist policies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.

  5. Theoretical Economics Faces a Serious Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Da?hel, Jaroslav; Duchá?ková, Eva; Radová, Jarmila

    2010-01-01

    The authors of the article point out that the theory of economics has failed to yield a solid theoretical background in such critical situations as the transformational period of post-communist economies and the period of the current financial and economic crisis. While classical liberal or Keynesian concepts are failing, theorists cannot look to mathematical modeling for help. The challenge for today’s theoretical economists is to find a new concept for today’s global era.

  6. Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are increasing in their importance to both the nuclear safety regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry. In the changing technological, economic and social environment surrounding TSOs, the scope of their role has also been changing. In particular, TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of nuclear installations over the plant life cycle; at the same time, they are facing managerial challenges such as maintaining technical competence and improving performance. The paper gives an overview of the current challenges faced by TSOs and the future challenges that could be expected, as well as some approaches to or remedies for these identified problems, focusing on safety regulation of nuclear installations. TSOs providing support to nuclear regulators must have strategic plans to cope with these challenges effectively and efficiently, and to provide adequate technical assistance to the regulators for their regulatory decision making and administrative measures. (author)

  7. Sustaining the Rural Workforce: Nursing Perspectives on Worklife Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Mabel; Baumann, Andrea; Blythe, Jennifer; Crea, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Context: Concerns have been raised about the sustainability of health care workforces in rural settings. According to the literature, rural nurses' work satisfaction varies with the resources and supports available to respond to specific challenges. Given the probable effects of stressors on retention, it is essential to understand the unique…

  8. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  9. Innovation in the face of future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chairman of the Senate Commission for Industry. Tourism and Commerce emphasises the legitimate ambition felt by the citizens of all democratic States with respect to safety and underlines his trust in the regulatory body. He analyses the interesting example of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, true reflection of the democracy achieved in the country, from the standpoint of its history, the functions that have been added to its realm of competence in recent years environmental radiological surveillance, intervention in emergencies and activities at non-regulated facilities- and the need for it to adapt, within a framework of overall consensus, to improve its response to future challenges and to the goal of promoting credibility and forging a closer relationship with the public. (Author)

  10. S. Africa's metallurgists face great challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium could pose one of the greatest challenges to South African metallurgy in the coming years. South Africa has the advantage of a good supply of uranium which occur as a by-product of gold mining. Looking at ore reserves, in the case of most metals and minerals it is unlikely that many spectacular new large high-grade deposits will be found. What metallurgists would have to do is to concentrate on the development of techniques related to existing processes and others completely different, which would enable the treatment of low-grade mineral deposits. Southern Africa's mineral resources will continue to be exploited and in the absence of complete change throughout the area there will be an important place for South Africans properly trained and prepared to give all they can do to this continued development

  11. Environmental challenges facing military base closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerleau, N.M.; Cunanan, P.P.; Lingo, R. [U.S. Army Material Command, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental remediation activities at military bases mandated for closure or realignment pose unique technical and managerial challenges to meet statutory requirements and community interests. Past industrial activities at Department of Army installations involving weapons development, testing, and repairs present extremely diverse problems for cleanup. The combination of environmental and defense statutory requirements present even greater challenges to assure that remediation activities are accelerated to render bases available for early re-use. The inclusion of bases on the National Priorities List and the need to consider socio-economic factors in identifying alternative uses of military bases and public involvement become significant factors in environment decisionmaking. Specific statutory authorities enable military facilities to identify uncontaminated parcels and allow property to be deeded, upon demonstration that an approved remedy is operating properly and successfully, while long-term cleanup of the entire installation continues. Successful cleanup strategies also require effective communication with public and disparate community interest groups. To speed the economic recovery of communities with closing military bases, the Clinton Administration has pledged to reduce the delays normally associated with environmental remediation activities. This article examines four core issues in the decontamination process: complexities associated with accelerating remediation activities at Army installations; managing the process within the constraints of limited resources; the public`s early involvement in shaping environmental contamination. The complexities presented by closing military bases and assuring environmental compliance have resulted in the development and implementation of several innovative methods that may prove useful to non-defense environmental situations. Examples of these methods and a discussion of strategies will be presented.

  12. RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Apostol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems incompliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural population access to waste collection services in 2008 which reflects the geographical distribution of rural dumpsites in 2009. It examines on one hand , the role of waste management services to reduce illegal dumping and on the other hand, the dysfunctions of traditional waste management system from ruralareas and their implications on local environment.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities of Indian Rural Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pardeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior to globalisation of Indi...

  14. NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBE Claudia-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  15. Disadvantaged Rural Health – Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ‘upside-down’ perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location–allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  16. Rural Recreation: Concepts, Concerns and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.; Long, Patrick T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses seven factors that impact upon the establishment/support of recreation/leisure services in rural environments: scale, recreation economics, community customs/traditions, work cycle, program delivery, focus on family, attitudinal variances. Examines how each factor has been used to justify limiting recreational opportunities and provides…

  17. Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Jin-zhao WANG

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key tren...

  18. Challenges of urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing and child rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanaara Razick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was earned out to explore the challenges faced by urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing & child rearing. Arandom sample 200 working women from urban (100 & rural (100 area of (Chennai, Kundrathur, Gudiyatham were selected. A questionnaire was formulated by the investigator consisting of fifty questions with five domains, having 10 questions, in each domain, which was administered to the subjects and responses were collected. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis and the results were interpreted. The results revealed that both urban and rural pregnant working women experienced the discomforts of pregnancy alike. The support services available to urban pregnant women were less compared to the rural pregnant working women. Urban pregnant women enjoyed the privilege of availing 6 months maternity leave, whereas the rural working women, resorts to work after a month or 40 days after delivery. It is interesting to note that rural women get the opportunity to breast feed their babies till 2 or 2-1/2 years, than the urban working ladies. With regard to stress experienced at work accompanied by feeling of guilt in child rearing, rural women were at ease at their work place than the urban women, who work in shifts and are away from home, spending less time with the growing child.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  20. Rural trauma and emergency medical service challenges in a sample of Western States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Jolene R; Werner, Susan; Wilson, Susan; Sanddal, Nels; Conditt, Vicki; Sale, Peggy; Mann, Clay; Nemec, Jennie; Jones, Johnathan J; Sandeno, Grace; Hartford, Diane

    2010-01-01

    State trauma system managers from the western region meet annually to identify and address health care issues, particularly those related to trauma care access and delivery. In each of these states, policy makers face a host of convergent problems: declining populations, rapid growth, low incomes, and high poverty rates. Challenges of providing emergency medical services to largely rural states include geographic barriers of vast expanses of unpopulated landmass, provision of services across mountain ranges, volcanoes, and extreme weather conditions, communication challenges due to lack of cell or radio coverage in some areas, and difficulty recruiting and retaining trained personnel. PMID:20838164

  1. On outsourcing and offshoring : Challenges facing management and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying ...

  2. Computerization of Rural Banks in Ghana-Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses issues and challenges encountered in a computerization project being carried out by the ARB Apex Bank to connect rural and community banks in Ghana. Computerization of banking has been going on in the country for some time now. Unlike the commercial banks, the rural banks lag behind with regards to computer and networking technologies. The ARB Apex Bank therefore embarked on the project to make the benefits of such technologies available to member rural banks. The study selected some rural banks engaged in the first phase of the project. Fifty respondents sampled from staff of the selected banks and experts involved in the project, were interviewed. The study concluded that, on the whole, the project was well designed and implemented; envisaged challenges were adequately specified and catered for and that the first phase progressed successfully. Staff beneficiaries were found to be actively involved in the project and majority of them agreed that the project was within time and budget. The study identified that, on completion, the project will enable the rural banks compete favourably with the commercial banks in the financial market. This will lead to improved service delivery to customers and greater customer satisfaction. In addition, complete computerization and networking will lead to improved monitoring of rural banks in order to reduce financial malpractices. The project will also promote intra/inter bank transactions, peer interaction and peer monitoring among the networked members. The aggregate returns will bring greater efficiency, lower cost of operation and increased profitability and sustainability to the Ghanaian rural banks.

  3. What challenges do foundation phase teachers experience when teaching writing in rural multigrade classes?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janet, Condy; Bernita, Blease.

    Full Text Available A one-size-fits-all curriculum cannot address the issues faced by rural multigrade teachers and learners. In South Africa, despite government efforts to relieve adversity, poverty in rural areas is still rife and poor education still fails to lift people out of it (Joubert 2010). Equality is essenti [...] al in ensuring that all South African children have access to quality education where they can learn in an environment free from bias and discrimination (Asmal 2001). Bronfenbrenner's social ecological systems theory underpinned this study. The purpose of this research was to identify the challenges experienced by two foundation phase teachers in teaching writing. This research was a qualitative study embedded within an interpretive case study. The following factors became evident: poor socio-economic backgrounds, transport, parental illiteracy, and teacher challenges that include the following subthemes: reading problems, differentiated teaching, resources, the language of teaching and learning, and writing support from the Western Cape Education Department (WCED).

  4. Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Maybery

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

  5. Solutions to challenges facing a university digital library and press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, M P; Galvin, J R; Colbert, S I; D'Alessandro, D M; Choi, T A; Aker, B D; Carlson, W S; Pelzer, G D

    2000-01-01

    During the creation of a university digital library and press intended to serve as a medical reference and education tool for health care providers and their patients, six distinct and complex digital publishing challenges were encountered. Over nine years, through a multidisciplinary approach, solutions were devised to the challenges of digital content ownership, management, mirroring, translation, interactions with users, and archiving. The result is a unique, author-owned, internationally mirrored, university digital library and press that serves as an authoritative medical reference and education tool for users around the world. The purpose of this paper is to share the valuable digital publishing lessons learned and outline the challenges facing university digital libraries and presses. PMID:10833161

  6. Challenges Faced by Expatriate Workers in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Naithani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last six decades, reliance of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries’ economy on expatriate workforce has increased incessantly. Majority of private sector workforce in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries are expatriates. Recent attempts by governments in GCC countries to localise the workforce, through their workforce nationalisation programmes, have offered limited results. Thus dependence on expatriate workforce will continue in near future and GCC countries, short of professionally and technically qualified local workers will need to employee a large number of expatriates to support their economic and social developments plans. This calls for a systematic approach to understand the specific challenges faced by expatriates of different nationalities in GCC countries, so that these challenges can be addressed to enable GCC countries to become a preferred destination for technically and professionally qualified expatriate workers. This paper presents an overview of GCC countries; reasons for their dependence on expatriate workforce; key current challenges faced by expatriates in GCC countries and suggestions for facilitating adjustment of expatriate workers in GCC countries.

  7. Surveying Education : Facing the Challenges of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a relevant discipline to surveying. But it does imply that the focus of the surveying profession is changing from being very much related to doing measurements´to now being increasingly related to management of the measurement processes, the geospatial data, and the property and land-use regimes. In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.

  8. Challenges faced by developing countries in nuclear power deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Analysis of future domestic electricity demand and supply conducted by official UAE entities has concluded that increasing demand for electricity is fast outstripping the growth in supply. Total electricity demand in the UAE is expected to rise from approximately 15,000 megawatts to 42,000 megawatts by 2020. Significant new generation capacity must be constructed and brought on-line. It was concluded that peaceful nuclear power-generation represents an environmentally promising and commercially competitive option which could make a significant contribution to the UAE's economy and future energy security. To make clear its intentions with regard to nuclear power, the Government of the UAE has prepared and formally endorsed its 'Policy on the Evaluation and Potential Implementation o Peaceful Nuclear Energy' as a reflection of its views on the potential establishment of a peaceful civilian nuclear energy program. The policy defines the framework under which the program will be developed and is based on principles of transparency, highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation , and working directly with the IAEA and responsible nations of expertise. Many challenges face developing countries embarking on the development of a civil nuclear energy program. Challenges include initial questions such as where and when a nation should start planning. Other challenges are related to the development of required infrastructure in legislation, regulatory, human resources, and institutional structure. Further challenges are faced at the time of transforming guidance and recommendations into an implementation plan and the execution of such plan in an effective manner. The UAE has addressed many of these challenges by conventional and sometimes innovative ways in developing the required infrastructure and moving into the implementation phase of the program. Starting from almost no nuclear energy infrastructure, these plans are being conducted today in the UAE with an expanding number of domestic and international stakeholders. (author)

  9. Objective 3D face recognition: Evolution, approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Clement, John Gerald

    2010-09-10

    Face recognition is a natural human ability and a widely accepted identification and authentication method. In modern legal settings, a lot of credence is placed on identifications made by eyewitnesses. Consequently these are based on human perception which is often flawed and can lead to situations where identity is disputed. Therefore, there is a clear need to secure identifications in an objective way based on anthropometric measures. Anthropometry has existed for many years and has evolved with each advent of new technology and computing power. As a result of this, face recognition methodology has shifted from a purely 2D image-based approach to the use of 3D facial shape. However, one of the main challenges still remaining is the non-rigid structure of the face, which can change permanently over varying time-scales and briefly with facial expressions. The majority of face recognition methods have been developed by scientists with a very technical background such as biometry, pattern recognition and computer vision. This article strives to bridge the gap between these communities and the forensic science end-users. A concise review of face recognition using 3D shape is given. Methods using 3D shape applied to data embodying facial expressions are tabulated for reference. From this list a categorization of different strategies to deal with expressions is presented. The underlying concepts and practical issues relating to the application of each strategy are given, without going into technical details. The discussion clearly articulates the justification to establish archival, reference databases to compare and evaluate different strategies. PMID:20395086

  10. Regulatory challenges faced first Indonesia NPPs by independent TSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)

  11. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya : Outstanding challenges and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals participating in school computerization programs often have not carefully considered the contextual questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might there be better avenues for implementing access to the benefits of the digital age? These questions and the issue of school computerization are considered via results from a survey of thirtyseven rural Kenyan primary public schools. Results indicate that, while all schools had low ICT status making them primary targets for computerization, only eleven percent had at least one ICT compliant teacher, of which all were considered to require further training. In addition we found inadequate infrastructural preparedness - lack of access to electricity, internet; no classroom computer space, few desks, secure walls and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome many of the technical challenges found.

  12. Facing the challenges. New structures in the energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility sector is facing big challenges over the short, mid and long term. All utilities have to meet three challenges, a so-called trilemma: They must optimise between security of supply, profitability and the environment while dealing with the liberalisation and the parallel integration of energy markets as well as the huge need for modernisation and investment in the asset base. The role of the utility sector in climate protection is evident. The same applies to the European-wide need for modernisation of grid and generation assets. The possible answer for integrated utilities could be a structural change with a turn to cross-regional focussing along the whole value chain. (orig.)

  13. Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

  14. Challenges Faced by Refugee New Parents from Africa in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M; Dennis, C L; Kariwo, M; Kushner, K E; Letourneau, N; Makumbe, K; Makwarimba, E; Shizha, E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines challenges faced by refugee new parents from Africa in Canada. Refugee new parents from Zimbabwe (n = 36) and Sudan (n = 36) were interviewed individually about challenges of coping concurrently with migration and new parenthood and completed loneliness and trauma/stress measures. Four group interviews with refugee new parents (n = 30) were subsequently conducted. Participants reported isolation, loneliness, and stress linked to migration and new parenthood. New gender roles evoked marital discord. Barriers to health-related services included language. Compounding challenges included discrimination, time restrictions for financial support, prolonged immigration and family reunification processes, uncoordinated government services, and culturally insensitive policies. The results reinforce the need for research on influences of refugees' stressful experiences on parenting and potential role of social support in mitigating effects of stress among refugee new parents. Language services should be integrated within health systems to facilitate provision of information, affirmation, and emotional support to refugee new parents. Our study reinforces the need for culturally appropriate services that mobilize and sustain support in health and health related (e.g., education, employment, immigration) policies. PMID:24989494

  15. Scenario of Rural Electrification in India- Challenges and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the present scenario of rural electrification in India is taken into account. Basically, the electrification in this country is facing a lot of problem and is a growing matter of concern for all. The development in production is not reaching the one who need them. Also taking into picture the present sources of energy it is difficult to make the electricity available to the people belonging to rural areas who don’t have much source of income. To overcome this drawback we can utilise renewable sources of energy which is easily available and accessible. Also harvesting this will not cost much except the initial cost of setting up the device to utilise this type of energy. Many projects have been initiated by the government of India to provide subsidy and equipments like solar lantern and solar cooker etc. to the rural population but this didn’t turn out to be effective as the follow could not be done by the people to maintain the devices. This can be overcome by implementing off-grid projects which can be initiated at small levels so that people don’t have burden to maintain them and it even don’t have any adverse effect to environment or society.

  16. Environmental Sustainability: The Challenge for the Rural Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluko, T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given our settlement pattern as evident in Nigeria, it is expedient to note that the country's population spread has shown considerably that we have older women and children dwelling within the rural areas of the country and doing subsistence job on their respective farms so as to keep them going. Given this trend, their quest for survival at the face of the eminent economic pressures has sent many into pursuing vigorously the best option in survival strategy with utmost aim of making life bearable for them within the changing society of ours by their subsisting on nature. The consequences of such effort demonstrated the government's total neglect of women's need. Therefore, this study looked at these issues from the feminist perspective as they relate to women's need. Also, the plight of the rural dwelling women, their survival strategy, the poverty syndrome and the planned action of the government in the effect to salvage the impending problems which women's quest for survival in the rural areas will cause the Nation as a whole have been studied. Our submission is arrived at as a result of our observations in villages such as Eye-Korin, Gambari, Lasoju, Gbede and Ote among others in Asa Local Government are of Kwara State in Nigeria. Consequently, this study proposes a premise for the re-awakening of all parties to the needs of not just women alone, but the environment that all must collectively preserve lest the consequential effects which such neglect will cause will be enormous.

  17. Survive or thrive?: Challenges facing the minerals industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Pasminco Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    Challenges facing the Australian minerals industry include the passage of Native Title legislation, increasing pressure to adopt a Code of Practice, declining profitability, the changing nature of employment, and community demands for greater disclosure and accountability. For the industry to thrive, expectations of the major stakeholders, customers, shareholders, communities and employees must be balanced. The relationship with the community includes local communities, indigenous communities and the broader community, particularly in relation to environmental performance. Pressure to adopt a Code of Practice has arisen as a result of media coverage of environmental incidents at mining operations in Australia and overseas. By seeking a greater level of communication and debate, and responding to changing expectations, the minerals industry will ensure a secure future in Australia. (author). 4 figs.

  18. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  19. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  20. Facing the challenges of nuclear power at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power represents a major portion of Ontario Power Generation's generation mix and it will be the bedrock upon which we build a successful, competitive company. Our nuclear units offer many environmental and economic benefits, the one most relevant to this meeting is their significant contribution to the relatively low carbon intensity of Ontario's and Canada's electricity supply. In recent weeks, we have listened with great interest to the endorsement by our federal Minister of the Environment of nuclear technology as a means of reducing global warming. But endorsements of this type alone are not sufficient to ensure that nuclear remains an acceptable option for managing greenhouse gas emissions. Without public acceptance and support, the entire nuclear investment is endangered. At OPG we face three challenges to building this public support: we must continue to improve our safety margins and operating performance; we must continue to improve the environmental performance at our stations; and we must increase our community outreach. Today I would like to focus on the last two challenges and the actions that we are taking to maintain our social and environmental 'licence to operate.' But before I describe these initiatives, I will tell you about: the new company - Ontario Power Generation; the changes in store for Ontario's electricity sector; and our greenhouse gas emissions - the legacy from Ontario Hydro. (author)

  1. Study of Different Face Recognition Algorithms and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Shankar Kurmi; Dheeraj Agrawal; R. K. Baghel

    2014-01-01

    At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA) or Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face...

  2. Stroke care challenges in rural India: Awareness of causes, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke among the rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaga Lakshmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.

  3. Study of Different Face Recognition Algorithms and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Kurmi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA or Principal Components Analysis (PCA is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face model developed by PCA technique. Principal Components Analysis method uses eigenface approach to describe face image variation. A face recognition technique that is robust to all situations is not available. Some techniques are better in case of illumination, some for pose problem and some for occlusion problem. This paper presents some algorithms for face recognition.

  4. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  6. Material Challenges For Plasma Facing Components in Future Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions. Here a considerable fraction of the plasma energy is deposited on a localized surface area in the divertor strike zone; the time scale of these events is typically in the order of 1 ms. As a consequence, thermal shock induced crack formation, vaporization, surface melting and droplet ejection as well as particle emission induced by brittle destruction processes will limit the lifetime of the components. This is also valid for instabilities in the plasma positioning (vertical displacement events) which cause irreversible damage to plasma facing components, particularly to the metallic wall armour. Moreover, dust particles (neutron activated or toxic metals or tritium enriched carbon) are a serious concern form a safety point of view. In order to investigate the thermally induced plasma wall interaction under fusion specific thermal loads, high heat flux simulation tests are performed routinely in electron or ion beam test facilities as well as in quasi stationary plasma devices. These experiments cover thermal fatigue loads and/or thermal shock tests with relevant operational loading conditions. Furthermore, the wall bombardment with 14 MeV neutrons in D-T-burning plasma devices and the resulting material damage are another critical issue, both, from a safety point of view, but also under the aspect of the component lifetime. While the integrated neutron fluence in ITER will be only in the order of 1 dpa (displacements per atom), future devices such as DEMO or commercial fusion reactors will experience integrated neutron wall loads of 80 to 150 dpa. Therefore the development of new radiation resistant materials and their testing under realistic conditions is required. Due to the lack of an intense 14 MeV neutron source, complex neutron irradiation experiments are performed in material test reactors to quantify the neutron-induced material damage. These tests provide a valuable data base on the degradation of thermal and mechanical parameters. (author)

  7. Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhakpe Ighodalo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact of local government on community and rural development in Nigeria, challenges and the way forward. To scientifically and analytically interrogate the issues raised, the paper traversed conceptualizations and theoretical terrain; utilizing system and rural development theories. Yet, because of the dearth of data, it did content analysis of 466 newspapers and magazines in Nigeria published between 2007 and 2011, to determine people’s feelings about the local governments’ development efforts in communities. It is the position of this paper that the creation of local government in most cases were not based on viability and developmental purposes as required by the constitution but on administrative conveniences to score cheap political goals and legitimacy especially by the military rulers. The paper concludes that while the basic rationale behind the creation of local government is to meet the peculiar needs of the people at the grassroots, it is however pathetic to note that local government has demonstrated incompetence in this regard. Given the catalogue of challenges facing local government, it recommends among other measures, that while local government should remain as a third tier of government, it should be given more powers, resources and enabling environment for the development of localities.

  8. On outsourcing and offshoring : Challenges facing management and engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying the research area, (2) Illustrating the current situation and the desired situation, and the gap between these (the descriptive study), (3) Illustrating how to close this gap (the prescriptive study I) and (4) Validating these results (the prescriptive study II). Two descriptive studies were carried out as case studies with seven Danish multinational corporations. A total of 57 semi-structured interviews were conducted with top managers, daily managers and expatriates. In study 1 four areas were investigated: (1) the global product development process in the investigated case companies, (2) the challenges they experienced, (3) the solutions they implemented, and (4) the impact of these solutions. In the descriptive study 2 the use of expatriates were investigated in relation to their role in the organisation when globalising the product development process. Through investigating seven Danish multinationals it became clear that global product development had an impact on both management and engineering projects within the companies. The globalisation of the product development process started with manufacturing activities and later more high value adding activities like product design and R&D were added until some companies had globalised the whole product development process. The globalisation of the product development process seems to consist of four phases: 1. Motivation to move abroad. 2. Preparation phase. 3. Implementation phase. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. 4. Managing the relationship. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. Only top management was involved in these first two phases. In implementation and managing the new global projects and relationships, the daily managers and expatriates were responsible. In these phases the companies faced organisational problems and complications with the technical and managerial aspects of the engineering projects. The problems within management were similar to those previously reported in literature, mainly related to culture, knowledge sharing and coordination but also change management and organisational structures and processes. The problems within engineering were related to product and process modularity as well as the ii knowledge properties of the product. These problems resulted in delays, misunderstandings and quality issues. The novel aspect of the empirical investigation was the in-depth understanding of how these challenges were addressed in the company to try and maximise the perceived benefits from globalising the product development process. The daily managers implemented a series of initiatives to address these; mainly codification of knowledge, streamlined communication, training, bringing more tasks out to ensure contact between vital elements, make the product development process less complex, make the product less complex and detailed work descriptions. There was, in other words, a focus on control and minimizing risk. The result of these solutions impacted on the product, the product development process and the organisation. Some of these impacts were positive and some were negative. The positive impacts of the solutions were related to a better understanding of work processes and the supply chain whereas globalisation itself provided the possibility for an increased product portfolio and products which were better suited to local markets. The negative impacts were for example, that the product development process became slower and less integrated whereas the organisation became more focused on codified knowledge and writte

  9. Agente comunitário de saúde: desafios do trabalho na zona rural / Community health agents: the challenges of working in the rural area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renan Almeida, Baptistini; Tulio Alberto Martins de, Figueiredo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de abordagem qualitativa objetivando conhecer os desafios do trabalho dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde na zona rural de Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar se estes ACS, no atendimento das demandas dos usuários rurais, além de suas atividades instituídas, buscam formas diferenciadas de prod [...] uzir a sua prática. A produção do material do estudo se deu através de entrevistas e da observação. A Análise Institucional norteou a análise deste estudo. O extenso território de abrangência das USF, a grande dispersão demográfica, os acessos distantes e difíceis aos domicílios, as formas de locomoção, os animais e as visitas domiciliares no período da colheita do café foram os principais desafios do cotidiano laboral do ACS rural. Diante destes desafios e na obrigação de cumprir as ações instituídas, os ACS rurais de Jerônimo Monteiro inovam e buscam formas diferenciadas de produzir a sua prática. Abstract in spanish Este estudio cualitativo busca identificar los retos de la labor de los trabajadores de salud comunitarios en las zonas rurales Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar si estos ACS, para satisfacer las demandas de los usuarios rurales y sus actividades instituyó, buscando diferentes maneras de producir [...] su práctica. La producción del material de estudio se recogió a través de entrevistas y observación. El Análisis Institucional guiado el análisis de este estudio. La amplia cobertura de la USF territorio, la gran dispersión demográfica, la distante y difícil de acceder a viviendas, formas de locomoción, los animales y las visitas domiciliarias durante la cosecha de café fueron los principales desafíos de la labor diaria de la campo ACS. Ante estos retos y la obligación de cumplir con las medidas impuestas, la ACS rural Jerônimo Monteiro innovar y buscar diferentes maneras de producir su práctica. Abstract in english The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify the challenges Community Health Workers (CHW) face in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro - ES and assess whether in the course of meeting the demands of rural health service users, CHWs seek different ways of carrying out their activities, over [...] and above institutionalized practice. The study material was collected through interviews and observation, following an Institutional Analysis perspective. The extension of the Family Health Unit (FHU), its large demographic dispersion, the fact that homes are distant and difficult to access, forms of locomotion, animals, and home visits during the coffee harvest constituted the main challenges of the daily work of CHWs in rural areas. Given these challenges and the need to fulfil with their assigned activities, CHWs working in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro innovate and seek different ways to develop their practice.

  10. Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of the introduction of the nuclear power plants is under investigation taking into account various important changes due to new realities. Therefore, the safety and fuel cycle aspects, especially the long term program on the back-end fuel cycle, utilizing the existing facilities is also maintained. The construction of a laboratory for carrying out research and development on radio-ecology and marine environmental studies is being planned to support the radioactive waste management for the future nuclear power plants. Considering the need to maintain the energy related research and development and the need for clean water, the study on the utilization of a high power research reactor for generating process heat, hot vapour, and producing clean water as well as electricity is being carried out. The possibility of the construction of this research reactor is being studied. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to co-operate with other countries to support her nuclear research and development programme in various fields due to the fact that she has to overcome her chronic challenges that are perhaps also faced by other countries, i.e. to have a better understanding, perception, appreciation, and support from decision makers, social leaders, scholars, and the whole community nationally and internationally on the importance of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. (author)

  11. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  12. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  13. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  14. Rural Marketing Strategies for Selling Products & Services: Issues & Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Dr. Ashfaque

    2013-01-01

    Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities. Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Improvement in infrastructure and reach promise a bright future for those intending to go rural....

  15. Policy Choices and Challenges in Expanding Access to Finance for Growth in Rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E. Akinlo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian financial system has witnessed significant growth over the years. Thephenomenal growth and high financial depth can be attributed in part to the country’s vastnetwork of financial institutions, including rural finance.Improvements in rural finance notwithstanding, the supply of formal finance appears tobe biased against the rural population. Rural communities remain centre of deprivationsinspite of the various efforts at increasing financial services to them by the Governmentand the CBN. This therefore raises the following questions: what are the constraints andchallenges of providing financial services in the rural areas? What are the policy initiativesthat can be introduced to improve rural financial services in Nigeria? Hence the mainobjective of the paper is to examine the challenges and ways to improve rural financialservices in Nigeria.Keywords: rural finance, growth, infrastructure, microfinance institutions.

  16. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. PMID:24853629

  17. Standing by Their Principles: Two Librarians Who Faced Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen; Leu, DaNae; Venuto, Dee Ann

    2015-01-01

    What do school librarians fear most? Hands down, their biggest fear is a formal challenge to a resource in the school library. There are no accurate statistics about the number of challenges to school library resources. The staff of ALA's Office for Intellectual Freedom estimates that only about 20 percent are reported to ALA annually. For the…

  18. Challenges when electricity markets face the investment phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of electricity industry in Europe has tended to start with a grace period of energy surplus inherited from the previously expansive coordinated economies and further amplified by better resource utilisation from extended international trade. The regulatory challenge has therefore primarily been to allocate existing generation to consumers in an efficient way. However, as energy demand increases, due to economic growth, the challenge of providing new capacity surfaces. The Nordic region, which has been a pioneer in internationalising and deregulating electricity, is now approaching this stage, ahead of most of the rest of Europe. While the Nordic case is characterised by specificities related to hydropower it also raises the more general challenge of capacity expansion under a deregulated market economy. The article therefore discusses how the Nordic investment challenges of today shed light on more generic challenges that may become more general European challenges of tomorrow. In a final section, the article discusses policy options available to address the investment/price-hike challenge. The argument is put forward that recursion to some degree of coordinated governance might seem necessary if solutions are confined within large-scale technical systems. However, within the context of a small-scale decentralised technological development, one may be more confident of competitive solutions. (Author)

  19. Facing Today's Exploration Challenges in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detomo, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico today, their challenge is to "safely, responsibly and profitably find and produce reduced accumulations in increasingly hostile settings." The GoM serves as the sportsman's playground for a significant population located in and around its waters, and therefore, operating safely and responsibly are unassailable moral and operational standards by which we sustain future development, and maintain our license to operate. With that as a backdrop, today's challenges are driven by the nature of where the business is looking for new reserves in this extremely mature basin. These "Opportunities" encompass the following: 1) large, under-explored, sub-salt areas, characterized by poor seismic imaging, uncertain geologic regimes and potentially dangerous overpressures, 2) deep true-vertical-depth opportunities in older rocks that challenge our understanding of reservoir quality prediction and hydrocarbon systems, and are at the edge of today's drilling technologies, 3) access to sensitive areas including the eastern GoM-Florida shelf, coastal areas and international borders, 4) challenging "small accumulation" discoveries that cannot support expensive appraisal or development options, are remote to infrastructure or inefficiently produce the reservoir, and finally 5) new play development, which is challenged by long maturation cycles, small acreage blocks, intense international competition, and rapid lease rolls. This talk will consider what Shell and the Oil & Gas Industry does today to succeed in this arena, and specifically will show examples of the role of technology in meeting these challenges. I will briefly discuss likely future challenges and emerging and upcoming technologies that might help to meet these challenges.

  20. A Feasible Rural Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincy Meera Mathews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

  1. Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…

  2. Challenges Faced by Financial Accounting and Suggested Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Benefiting from economic globalization, China has stepped up its economy, which is especially shown by the continuous development of internet technology in the 20 century. The trend of informatization has seeped into every aspect of life, including financial accounting. It has broken the limitation of traditional accounting, bringing financial accounting new opportunities and challenges. This paper analyzesthe situation of financial accounting in China, explains the challenges from economic e...

  3. Facing up to the Challenges of Advancing Craniofacial Research

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Trainor; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of cranio...

  4. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration), and employment. The paper concludes wi...

  5. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND LABOUR SUPPLY CHALLENGES IN THE UK: THE ROLE OF NON-UK MIGRANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Anne E Green; DE HOYOS Maria; OWEN David; Jones, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Characteristic features of the demographic structure of rural areas in the UK include net out-migration of young adults and an older than average age profile. These features pose a labour supply challenge for rural areas. However, many rural areas are experiencing in-migration (from other parts of the UK and overseas) and there has been considerable policy emphasis on capturing the skills of migrants to enhance local economic development. To date, the role of non-UK mig...

  6. "If Only Someone Had Told Me ...": Lessons from Rural Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipp, Cody; Dewane, Sarah; Brems, Christiane; Johnson, Mark E.; Warner, Teddy D.; Roberts, Laura W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Health care providers face challenges in rural service delivery due to the unique circumstances of rural living. The intersection of rural living and health care challenges can create barriers to care that providers may not be trained to navigate, resulting in burnout and high turnover. Through the exploration of experienced rural…

  7. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  8. Why Rural Matters 2009: State and Regional Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Strange, Marty

    2009-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of biennial reports analyzing the contexts and conditions of rural education in each of the 50 states and calling attention to the need for policymakers to address rural education issues in their respective states. While it is the fifth in a series, this report is not simply an updating of data from earlier…

  9. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  10. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED BY ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY. SOME LESSONS FROM ROMANIA AND LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grundey Dainora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the challenges and opportunities that entrepreneurial university faced in the present context, focusing on some characteristics of Romania and Lithuania. Emerged as a concept that is designated to enhance the university’s competitiv

  11. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal elimination of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Challenges that face Kiswahili Usage in ICT in NEPAD Secondary Schools in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jagero Juliet Akinyi; Peter Maina Matu

    2011-01-01

    Despite the various efforts to enable Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), users of Kiswahili language in ICT have continued to face various challenges. This paper discusses the various challenges that face Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software’s: Chavakali and Maranda Boy’s secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two theori...

  13. Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students’ presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative content analysis was employed to examine the challenges faced by international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral acade...

  14. Facing and Overcoming Sensitivity Challenges in Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Boebinger, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    In the Spring of 2013, NMR spectroscopists convened at the Weizmann Institute in Israel to brainstorm on approaches to improve the sensitivity of NMR experiments, particularly when applied in biomolecular settings. This multi?author interdisciplinary Review presents a state?of?the?art description of the primary approaches that were considered. Topics discussed included the future of ultrahigh?field NMR systems, emerging NMR detection technologies, new approaches to nuclear hyperpolarization, and progress in sample preparation. All of these are orthogonal efforts, whose gains could multiply and thereby enhance the sensitivity of solid? and liquid?state experiments. While substantial advances have been made in all these areas, numerous challenges remain in the quest of endowing NMR spectroscopy with the sensitivity that has characterized forms of spectroscopies based on electrical or optical measurements. These challenges, and the ways by which scientists and engineers are striving to solve them, are also addressed.

  15. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Carr SM; Pearson P; Young-Murphy L; Cleghorn B

    2012-01-01

    Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiti...

  16. Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Viljoen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

  17. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real c...

  18. AlgaePARC: facing the challenges of microalgae mass production

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, M.J.; Bosma, R.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Algal production needs to develop from a craft to a major industrial process. Major challenges are to reduce production costs and energy requirements and increase production scale. Although microalgae are not yet produced at large-scale for bulk applications, recent advances – particularly in the methods of systems biology, genetic engineering, process control, and biorefinery – present opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable and economical way within the next 10 to 15 years. A...

  19. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correia, Faustino Gomes; da Silva, Zacarias José; Erikstrup, Christian; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Laursen, Alex Lund; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. APPROACH: Clinicians and researchers at an...... clinic. LESSONS LEARNT: The HIV clinic in Bissau faced numerous obstacles in delivering ART at a sufficiently high quality and patients' lives were put in jeopardy. The effectiveness of ART could be enhanced by delivering it as part of an international research collaboration since such collaborations can...... HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. LOCAL SETTING: The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international...

  20. The United Nations in the Face of Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Villar

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the 50th anniversary of the birth of the United Nations Organization (UN, this article takes a look at the role which this international organization has played on the international stage and sets out the great challenges which this has to confront today, especially since the transformation of the international system from 1988 onwards and the beginning of (what has been called the end of the Cold War. These challenges are the following: peace-keeping and international security in an increasingly complex and unstable world, the promotion and protection of Human Rights throughout the world and the challenge of development.At the same time, the process of institutional reform taken up by the UN in order to make its various organs more efficient and the obtaining of the necessary financial resources and their putting to more efficent use are also discussed. In this context, the reform of the Security Council as well as in the economic and social sector, the financial problem and the changes made in the organization of the Secretariat are also analysed.The article concludes with the positive evaluation that whatever the imperfections of the UN, the world today would be much less safer and just if it did not exist.

  1. Power distribution faced with the challenges posed by competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of liberalization, the increasing share of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, ambitious generation objectives and technological evolution are the key drivers that require substantial investments in the distribution grid. The most urgent challenges are to adapt the network architecture and operation, modernize and improve metering equipment, renovate existing facilities. The Energy Regulatory Commission sets the price to be paid by users of the distribution grid; this price is set rather low, in order to encourage the system operator to make productivity gains. But resultant low income may deprive the operator of the financial resources needed to adapt the system to the new conditions. (authors)

  2. The present-day rural family: a challenge for nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer, Eda Schwartz, Teila Ceolin, Rita Maria Heck

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to think over the rural family, relating it with health and Nursing in a contemporary context. Methodology: to develop the test, a bibliographical research was done conducted with authors from different areas (political, economic, social and health in books and articles, as well as the experience of the authors to make the reflexive analysis on rural households. Results: the increasing transformations in family structure dynamics and functionality, both in urban and rural environments, it is necessary to get to know family peculiarities such as culture, beliefs and health habits in order to care for these families. This set of values varies from one group to another. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to reflect on the family dimension in this context, as the rural environment occupies an unfavorable rank as to public service access, and this favors social inequalities and poverty.

  3. Challenges in responding to the ebola epidemic - four rural counties, Liberia, August-November 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Aimee; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Montgomery, Joel M; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; T, Nyenswah; M, Fahnbulleh; M, Massaquoi

    2014-12-19

    The first cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa were identified in Guinea on March 22, 2014. On March 30, the first Liberian case was identified in Foya Town, Lofa County, near the Guinean border. Because the majority of early cases occurred in Lofa and Montserrado counties, resources were concentrated in these counties during the first several months of the response, and these counties have seen signs of successful disease control. By October 2014, the epidemic had reached all 15 counties of Liberia. During August 27-September 10, 2014, CDC in collaboration with the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare assessed county Ebola response plans in four rural counties (Grand Cape Mount, Grand Bassa, Rivercess, and Sinoe, to identify county-specific challenges in executing their Ebola response plans, and to provide recommendations and training to enhance control efforts. Assessments were conducted through interviews with county health teams and health care providers and visits to health care facilities. At the time of assessment, county health teams reported lacking adequate training in core Ebola response strategies and reported facing many challenges because of poor transportation and communication networks. Development of communication and transportation network strategies for communities with limited access to roads and limited means of communication in addition to adequate training in Ebola response strategies is critical for successful management of Ebola in remote areas. PMID:25522089

  4. Landscape planning for Ukrainian rural communities: challenges, outputs, prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of economic, social and environmental problems have accumulated in all areas of Ukraine and pose a serious obstacle to sustainable development. Those problems are particularly acute in the rural areas. The local rural communities in Ukraine have the lowest indicators of economic development, significant social problems, including particularly acute demographic and employment problems, and an unfavorable ecological situation caused by poor municipal infrastructure, land degradation, etc. The vast majority of the rural communities in Ukraine have no plans for their own territories’ development. In such circumstances, the introduction of landscape planning tools is an effective means of identifying the existing development problems and environmental management issues, as well as of defining the best ways for the integrated development of the local rural communities. A number of reasons prevents introduction of such planning in Ukraine, including the flaws in the legislation, lack of interest among managers of rural communities and low activity of local people on the issues which determine the future of their settlements. However, there are examples of successful implementation of landscape planning tools in designing of the plans of rural communities’ development. The authors were a part of the team which, for the first time in Ukraine, undertook this research in the Stepanetsky rural council in Cherkassy region. The results of the research have been welcomed by the management, the residence and the members of the village council and they are being practically implemented. The foregoing demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of landscape planning tools implementation in Ukraine directed at addressing and resolving the problems of the rural communities.

  5. Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Tomkinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ?wicked? problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students? attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ?wicked problems?.

  6. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  7. KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Kanungo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, more than ever before in human history, Tthe Growth of nations depends on the quality of higher education. Those with a larger collection of skills and a greater capacity for learning can look forward to lifetimes of unmatched economic fulfillment. But in the coming decades the poorly educated face little better than the tedious prospects of lives of quiet desperation. There are no great ideological battles or debates that are confronting the world anymore. The doctrine of liberal democracy has emerged as the most suitable and acceptable form of governance. 20th century broadly redefined the role of the state to provide education, healthcare, rule of law, and infrastructure development to enable every citizen to fulfill their potential, irrespective of their social position. In today’s knowledge economy, it is an indisputable fact that quality education is mandatory to fulfilling one’s potential and is the key for vertical mobility and economic growth, and an educated population is the precondition for economic prosperity of any nation. The main purpose of a higher education system is to add real value to human resources, and produce wealth creators and leaders in all fields – business, professions, politics, administration, and creative pursuits.

  8. Imaging Challenges for the ITER Plasma Facing Components Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ITER actively cooled tokamak is the next-generation fusion device which will allow studying the burning plasma during hundreds of seconds. ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) real-time protection will be mandatory to minimize operational risks as critical heat flux leading to degradation of PFCs and eventually to water leak. Thanks to Tore Supra expertise in actively cooled tokamak and long pulse operation, urgent research and development actions are presented and discussed addressing the feasibility and the performances of the PFCs protection function foreseen in ITER using a network of wide angle visible and IR imaging systems (VIS/IR WAVS). Three major steps addressing PFCs protection have been reached. First, the contribution of reflected light that could disturb the measurement of surface temperature has been taken into account through an industrial physic-based Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Secondly, an integrated software and hardware framework validated on existing fusion devices has been proposed. In addition, extended functionalities to analyze and understand in real-time the huge volume of images produced by the VIS/IR WAVS have also been developed. Finally prototypes of ITER first mirrors have been built and tested with successful first results. These results demonstrate that a more precise definition of the functional specifications of the entire imaging system can be obtained addressing both machine protection and plasma performance. (author)

  9. Challenges to ethics and professionalism facing the contemporary neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2014-09-30

    Challenges to ethics and professionalism that can harm neurologists and their patients include the commercialization of medicine, poorly designed Medicare regulations, conflicts of interest, physician employment by hospitals, faulty measurement of medical quality care, electronic health records, electronic communications with patients, and the demotion of the role of physician beneficence. These threats can lead to inaccurate medical record-keeping, unnecessary medical care, a decline in the primacy of patients' interests, and damage to the sanctity of the patient-physician relationship. The increasing frequency of physician burnout can be attributed at least partially to unmitigated stresses on practicing physicians, particularly the growing time pressures for patient visits, the mounting daily requirements of documentation, and the increasing burden of time-consuming but unproductive tasks. Recommended correctives include reforming billing documentation regulations, improving electronic health records, designing proper quality indicators integrating physician wellness, and incorporating reasonable physician workflows in the design of accountable care organizations. PMID:25171931

  10. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  11. Challenges facing NATO in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi? Jasminka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the entire post Cold-War era numerous security challenges were pushing NATO in search of a new mission. Although redefined several times in the past, NATO's mission is still not steady and in its final shape. NATO's framework is not final yet for several reasons: lack of internal balance; NATO is moving towards rather 'loose' formula of Trans-Atlantic relations, through a 'Coalition of the Willing', in which countries accept the level and scope of military engagement in war missions (Afghanistan and Iraq according to their own interests. This certainly has influenced the character of NATO mission in the 21st Century. Therefore, NATO countries do not speak with 'one voice' and they do not equally participate in military missions. Instead, specific countries are engaged in specific issues, in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. NATO deepening and widening process is continuing in the 21st Century. .

  12. Mars can wait: facing the challenges of our civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoffrey; Gershwin, M Eric; Bercovich, Dani

    2014-12-01

    We are overwhelmed by warnings about inevitable geophysical and human problems. Earth is beset by escalating, manmade, environmental crises and our exploding population will eventually lack water, food and vital materials. This suggests, together with increasing poverty, deepening social unrest and advanced techniques for mass killing, that civilization will break down long before atmospheric CO2 or resistant microbes become catastrophic. Despite intensive searching, life has not been found in space, even though thousands of planets have been found and life there may be as problematic and unpredictable as on Earth. The human brain is already a 'universe', with 85 billion neurons and a hundred trillion synapses, more than the stars in our galaxy. Understanding consciousness, the brain, its aging and pathologies, and eliminating the propensity for human aggression are urgent challenges. During 1958-2012, NASA spent $800 billion. In contrast, the annual cost of brain disease in the U.S. is $600 billion, more than cardiovascular disease and cancer combined. We suggest that a massive switching of financial and human resources is required to explore the full potential of the human brain. Visiting Mars can wait. We further propose a novel Two-Brain Hypothesis: the animal 'brain' evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs: one electroionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access)--a relatively independent, stable, structured and functional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting EM fields. PMID:25630201

  13. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."

  14. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  15. Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villafuerte-Castrejón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry.

  16. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavone ME

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ellen Pavone,1 Brianna M Lyttle2 1Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition characterized by specific histological, molecular, and clinical findings. It affects 5%–10% of premenopausal women, is a cause of infertility, and has been implicated as a precursor for certain types of ovarian cancer. Advances in technology, primarily the ability for whole genome sequencing, have led to the discovery of new mutations and a better understanding of the function of previously identified genes and pathways associated with endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs that include PTEN, CTNNB1 (?-catenin, KRAS, microsatellite instability, ARID1A, and the unique role of inflammation in the development of EAOC. Clinically, EAOCs are associated with a younger age at diagnosis, lower stage and grade of tumor, and are more likely to occur in premenopausal women when compared with other ovarian cancers. A shift from screening strategies adopted to prevent EAOCs has resulted in new recommendations for clinical practice by national and international governing bodies. In this paper, we review the common histologic and molecular characteristics of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, risks associated with EAOCs, clinical challenges and give recommendations for providers. Keywords: clinical, molecular, pathways, inflammation, premenopausal

  17. U.S. drilling contractors could face stiff challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the outlook for most segments of the contract drilling business is now more optimistic than in the past decade, the increased activity has brought several problems: the availability of fully trained crews, the need for new capital, and the limited number of quality drillstrings. These problems will grow in importance if natural gas deliverability begins to decline visibly and once the scramble to correct this decline begins. As the drilling recovery unfolds, the most important lesson to remember, based on worldwide activity in the past year, is how rapidly conditions can change and how quickly excess capacity can turn into chronic shortages. The various segments of the world wide contract drilling industry's prospects have changed dramatically during the past 12 months, and oddly, some market sectors have improved while others have become worse. These quick changes highlight the unpredictable and volatile nature of the markets for contract drilling and other services needed to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The paper describes the business of well drilling onshore and offshore in the US, drilling activities in Canada, international markets, capacity, the supplies of natural gas, Gulf of Mexico activities, drill pipe shortages, manpower shortages, and challenges offshore

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannaga AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anxiety

  19. Challenges to Born Global SMEs : A study on overcoming the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, Aziz; Zulfiqar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs and how they overcome these challenges. Method: For literature review and secondary research, data and information has been gathered from disciplines of international entrepreneurship. Primary research has been done on four born global firms; two from Sweden and two from Pakistan. Qualitative research and analysis has been used in the study. Originality: This study contributes to literature by co...

  20. Challenges Facing Trade Unions in the Modern Society: “THE CURRENT EXODUS”

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiritu, Grace

    2015-01-01

    It’s not a secret that trade unions have been experiencing insurmountable challenges related to globalisation. Although the levels of impact differ greatly, the challenges faced by trade unions in Nordic and Western European countries show similarities; high unemployment rates, economic crisis, diverse workforce, escalated immigration, among others. Studies show that trade unions are trying to combat these challenges by adopting organising model elements which involves social unionism movemen...

  1. Quality of Life of Family Caregivers: Challenges Faced in Care of the Lung Cancer Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Fujinami, Rebecca; Otis-Green, Shirley; Klein, Linda; Sidhu, Rupinder; Ferrell, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Family caregivers (FCGs) of lung cancer patients face multiple challenges which impact their quality of life and well-being. Whether challenged physically, emotionally, socially or spiritually, distress in one area may compound challenges in other areas. In order to maintain function and health of FCGs as they provide valuable care for the health and well-being of the patient, attention must be given to the needs of FCGs for support and education. The purpose of this article is to describe th...

  2. Lessons on rural development, challenges and approaches / Lecciones del desarrollo rural, desafíos y enfoques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Absalón, Machado.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia manejó una política de desarrollo rural durante 25 años bajo los modelos impuestos en América Latina desde los años setenta. Esta política tuvo un avance progresivo hacia un desarrollo descentralizado y más participativo dirigiéndose hacia un concept de desarrollo territorial rural. Sin emb [...] argo, por múltiples las causas el Programa DRI, convertido en Fondo de Cofinanciamiento, se dio por terminado cuando empezaba el segundo quinquenio de los años noventa. El cambio de las políticas proteccionistas hacia una desregulación, la cooptación del programa por los políticos, así como la poca capacidad y decisión del Estado para sustituirlo con otras alternativas que estabilizaran las sociedades rurales, ayudaron a la desaparición de esta política. Abstract in english For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, t [...] he Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist policies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.

  3. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  4. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr SM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole system and together improve service user outcomes.Keywords: strategic aims, planning processes, productive working, reducing waste, primary care, service user outcomes.

  5. The Enormous Challenge faced by China to Reduce Earthquake Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Mooney, W. D.; Wang, B.

    2014-12-01

    In past six years, several big earthquakes occurred in Chinese continent that have caused enormous economic loss and casualties. These earthquakes include the following: 2008 Mw=7.9 Wenchuan; 2010 Mw=6.9 Yushu; 2013 Mw=6.6 Lushan; and 2013 Mw=5.9 Minxian events. On August 4, 2014 the Mw=6.1 earthquake struck Ludian in Yunnan province. Althought it was a moderate size earthquake, the casualties have reached at least 589 people. In fact, more than 50% of Chinese cities and more than 70% of large to medium size cities are located in the areas where the seismic intensity may reach ? or higher. Collapsing buildings are the main cause of Chinese earthquake casualties; the secondary causes are induced geological disasters such as landslide and barrier lakes. Several enormous challenges must be overcome to reduce hazards from earthquakes and secondary disasters.?1?Much of the infrastructure in China cannot meet the engineering standard for adequate seismic protection. In particular, some buildings are not strong enough to survive the potential strong ground shaking, and some of them did do not keep away from the active fault with a safe distance. It will be very costly to reinforce or rebuild such buildings. (2) There is lack of the rigorous legislation on earthquake disaster protection. (3) It appears that both government and citizen rely too much on earthquake prediction to avoid earthquake casualties. (4) Geologic conditions is very complicate and in need of additional studies, especially in southwest of China. There still lack of detail survey on potential geologic disasters, such as landslides. Although we still cannot predict earthquakes, it is possible to greatly reduce earthquake hazards. For example, some Chinese scientists have begun studies with the aim of identifying active faults under large cities and to propose higher building standards. It will be a very difficult work to improve the quality and scope of earthquake disaster protection dramatically in the coming years due to the factors mentioned above. Nevertheless, a broadly based program of earthquake hazard reduction in urban areas has begun.

  6. AIDS in Rural Areas: Challenges to Providing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Kathleen A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined the development and provision of social services to persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and their families in rural areas and barriers to the delivery of care. Subjects (N=15) were persons who coordinated or provided services to AIDS victims. Found structural factors, confidentiality, fear of contagion, and homophobia…

  7. A Region Apart: A Look at Challenges and Strategies for Rural K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Rural Policy and Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    When this research report was first conceived, the current economic crisis was only just on the verge of revealing its full extent. Economic crisis or no economic crisis, over the years funding for PK-12 education has been a constant struggle. While all schools continue to face difficulties, for various reasons rural schools have different and…

  8. Evaluation of the unique challenges facing family farms in South Africa / Jeanette Robberts

    OpenAIRE

    Robberts, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    The economic landscape of most nations remains dominated by family businesses. Therefore, it is fitting that academia has begun to recognise the importance of family business studies. Family businesses are here to stay. Families who work together and live together face certain unique challenges that other families do not face. They have more opportunity for closeness and, at the same time, there is more opportunity for disagreement. Paradoxically, many of their outstanding strengths are also ...

  9. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt BUCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will also make a short review of the competition on the market of the pastry food products and we will present the marketing strategy and policies the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  10. Mutually Dependent Relationships between Rural Community Colleges and Their Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The population of rural America has faced changes as the manufacturing industries that once assured jobs for those living in rural areas have moved or closed. Small towns have become smaller as younger residents move away for employment or educational opportunities. As these changes take place rural citizens face increased challenges in the wake…

  11. The opportunities and challenges for shared decision-making in the rural United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William A; Barr, Paul J; Castaldo, Mary G

    2015-06-01

    The ethical standard for informed consent is fostered within a shared decision-making (SDM) process. SDM has become a recognized and needed approach in health care decision-making. Based on an ethical foundation, the approach fosters the active engagement of patients, where the clinician presents evidence-based treatment information and options and openly elicits the patient's values and preferences. The SDM process is affected by the context in which the information exchange occurs. Rural settings are one context that impacts the delivery of health care and SDM. Rural health care is significantly influenced by economic, geographical and social characteristics. Several specific distinctive features influence rural health care decision-making-poverty, access to health care, isolation, over-lapping relationships, and a shared culture. The rural context creates challenges as well as fosters opportunities for the application of SDM as a natural dynamic within the rural provider-patient relationship. To fulfill the ethical requirements of informed consent through SDM, it is necessary to understand its inherent challenges and opportunities. Therefore, rural clinicians and ethicists need to be cognizant of the impact of the rural setting on SDM and use the insights as an opportunity to achieve SDM. PMID:26013844

  12. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.

  13. Problemas enfrentados por extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural / Problems faced by Brazilian rural extensionists and their relationship with their conception of rural extension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Pablo, Landini.

    Full Text Available Tanto na América Latina como no Brasil assistimos a um retorno e fortalecimento do interesse público pela extensão rural. Neste trabalho, são analisados os problemas enfrentados na sua prática por uma amostra de extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural. C [...] inquenta e dois extensionistas rurais de diferentes estados responderam a uma enquete enviada por e-mail. Concluiu-se que (1) as dificuldades associadas com o trabalho grupal ou em parceria entre agricultores são o problema mais mencionado, (2) nos técnicos, tende a persistir uma perspectiva difusionista da extensão rural, mesmo contra as diretrizes participativas e dialógicas estabelecidas pela política pública e (3) existe um olhar autocrítico limitado dos extensionistas, os quais tendem a ver os produtores como problema. Abstract in english In both, Latin America and Brazil, rural extension is recovering acknowledgment in the context of public policy. In this paper, the problems faced in their practice by a sample of Brazilian rural extensionists are described and how they relate to their conception of rural extension is analyzed. 52 r [...] ural extensionists of different Brazilian states were surveyed via email. It is concluded that (1) difficulties related to group or associate work among farmers are the most mentioned, (2) a diffusionist conception of rural extension tend to persist, even against the participatory and dialogical principles established by public policy and (3) rural extensionists have a limited self-critical attitude and tend to perceive the farmers as a problem.

  14. Problemas enfrentados por extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural / Problems faced by Brazilian rural extensionists and their relationship with their conception of rural extension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Pablo, Landini.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanto na América Latina como no Brasil assistimos a um retorno e fortalecimento do interesse público pela extensão rural. Neste trabalho, são analisados os problemas enfrentados na sua prática por uma amostra de extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural. C [...] inquenta e dois extensionistas rurais de diferentes estados responderam a uma enquete enviada por e-mail. Concluiu-se que (1) as dificuldades associadas com o trabalho grupal ou em parceria entre agricultores são o problema mais mencionado, (2) nos técnicos, tende a persistir uma perspectiva difusionista da extensão rural, mesmo contra as diretrizes participativas e dialógicas estabelecidas pela política pública e (3) existe um olhar autocrítico limitado dos extensionistas, os quais tendem a ver os produtores como problema. Abstract in english In both, Latin America and Brazil, rural extension is recovering acknowledgment in the context of public policy. In this paper, the problems faced in their practice by a sample of Brazilian rural extensionists are described and how they relate to their conception of rural extension is analyzed. 52 r [...] ural extensionists of different Brazilian states were surveyed via email. It is concluded that (1) difficulties related to group or associate work among farmers are the most mentioned, (2) a diffusionist conception of rural extension tend to persist, even against the participatory and dialogical principles established by public policy and (3) rural extensionists have a limited self-critical attitude and tend to perceive the farmers as a problem.

  15. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt BUCS; Evelina GRĂDINARU; Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2015-01-01

    This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will ...

  16. Assessment of Institutional and Personnel-Related Challenges Facing Educational Programme for the Mentally Challenged Persons at Kaimosi Special School, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmbwanga, Daniel M.; Matemba, Collins K.; Bota, Kennedy N.

    2015-01-01

    The mentally challenged child (MC) can achieve a lot if the right environment and curriculum are designed for him/her. However, the realization of the desirable outcomes faces many challenges. The objective of the study was to examine institutional and personnel-related challenges facing education programs for the MC persons at Kaimosi Special…

  17. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    OpenAIRE

    Bell Jennifer; MacRae Susan K; Breslin Jonathan M; Singer Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto...

  18. The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) pl...

  19. Innovations to meet the challenges faced by EDF power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current challenges facing all electricity suppliers essentially result from market requirements, market liberalisation and the requirements for environmental and climate protection. EDF is accordingly focussing its activities on innovative areas in terms of individual generation options - such as nuclear energy, fossil-fired power plants and hydroelectric power generation. The challenges require both technical and organisational solutions, as shown by the grid instability in western Europe on November 4th 2006, for example. (orig.)

  20. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…

  1. A Short Twenty Years: Meeting the Challenges Facing Teachers Who Bring Rwanda into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudgel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    As the twentieth anniversary of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda approaches, Mark Gudgel argues that we should face the challenges posed by teaching about Rwanda. Drawing on his experience as a history teacher in the US, his experience researching and supporting others' classrooms in the US and UK, his training in Holocaust education and his…

  2. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  3. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

  4. 300 Faces in-the-Wild Challenge: the first facial landmark localization challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Sagonas, Christos; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Automatic facial point detection plays arguably the most important role in face analysis. Several methods have been proposed which reported their results on databases of both constrained and unconstrained conditions. Most of these databases provide annotations with different mark-ups and in some cases the are problems related to the accuracy of the fiducial points. The aforementioned issues as well as the lack of a evaluation protocol makes it difficult to compare performance between differen...

  5. Journalism Education and Rural Newspaper Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Suggests recruits to the rural press face particular challenges that might inhibit their capacity to work to the professional standards of their metropolitan counterparts. Considers four ways to lift the standards of the rural press through education and training in universities to prepare students for the rural workplace. (RS)

  6. BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence AROKIASAMY

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.

  7. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of...

  8. Faces of Change. Five Rural Societies in Transition: Bolivia, Kenya, Afghanistan, Taiwan, China Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman N., Ed.; Spitzer, Manon L., Ed.

    The multidisciplinary film project focuses attention on what is happening to rural populations of the world, particularly among developing countries. The roles of women, education, social and economic systems, and the effects of modernization on values are themes explored in each of five rural settings--Bolivian highlands, northern Kenya, northern…

  9. Acute Stroke Care at Rural Hospitals in Idaho: Challenges in Expediting Stroke Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, James G.; Norris, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Thrombolytics are currently the most effective treatment for stroke. However, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for initiation of thrombolytic therapy, most notably the 3-hour time limit from symptom onset, have proven challenging for many rural hospitals to achieve. Purpose: To provide a snapshot of…

  10. The Diverse Educational Needs and Challenges of Information Technology Teachers in Two Black Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Elsa; Bailey, Roxanne; Havenga, Marietjie; Breed, Betty; Govender, Desmond; Govender, Irene; Dignum, Frank; Dignum, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the first phase of a research project aimed at the empowerment of Information Technology (IT) teachers in black rural schools in the North-West province of South Africa. In order to empower these IT teachers, the first phase aimed at understanding their unique challenges and needs. Qualitative research methodology was used…

  11. From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazil to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

  12. Challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies: Unlocking value through professional international purchasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tukuta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, procurement was seen as a necessity only. In fact, in many developing economies the profession is still being treated as a ‘back-office’ function. However, not much has been done to explore and address challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies.Objectives: The purpose of this article was to examine the critical role played by the procurement function in business and to reveal the challenges faced by procurement professionals in developing economies as well as to suggest solutions to these challenges.Method: A sequential literary analysis was used, complemented by cross-country qualitative data gathered from one hundred diverse procurement practitioners from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. These were primarily participants in a series of procurement workshops run by the researchers from January to June 2014.Results: Findings suggested that limited recognition, increasing unethical behaviour, poor supplier service delivery, poor regulatory environment, varying supplier standards and poor corporate governance are the main challenges faced by the procurement profession in these countries.Conclusion: The study’s findings imply that there is limited understanding regarding the role procurement plays in both government and non-government institutions in developing economies. The article suggests solutions which procurement professionals and organisations can implement in order to unlock the potential value in the procurement function.

  13. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  14. POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES FOR RURAL FOOD INDUSTRY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Kadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food processing industry is of enormous significance for India’s development because of the vital linkages and synergies that it promotes between the two pillars of the economy; namely, ‘industry’ and ‘agriculture’. India is the second largest producer of food in the world and has the potential to become a leading producer of food. Food-processing industry is facing constraints like non-availability of adequate infrastructural facilities, lack of adequate quality control & testing infrastructure, inefficient supply chain, seasonality of raw material, high inventory carrying cost, high taxation, high packaging cost, affordability and cultural preference of fresh food. Unprocessed foods are prone to spoilage by biochemical processes, microbial attack and infestation. Good processing techniques, packaging, transportation and storage can play an important role in reducing spoilage and extending shelf life.

  15. A New World for Museum Marketing? Facing the Old Dilemmas while Challenging New Market Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Komarac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it into a link between museums and visitors. This article attempts to give current insights into museum marketing as part of the arts marketing field. Its aim is also to identify and explain some of the major challenges and opportunities facing everyday museum business, in order to provide insight into the complex world of museum marketing. Former findings about the development of museum marketing and its biggest changes and challenges are presented, summarized and analyzed.

  16. Addressing mental health challenges facing the "Next America": A call for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Melton, Gary B

    2015-09-01

    Provides an editorial addressing future mental health challenges. The articles in this issue highlight the need to create environments conducive to promoting the well-being of future generations. The articles build on symposia held by the American Orthopsychiatric Association in 2015, which focused on the effects on well-being of changing sociodemographics and labor market trends. Included in these pages are articles that lay out some of the challenges young people today face and strategies for helping them transition to adulthood successfully. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460709

  17. Challenges faced by grandparents caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phetlhu, Deliwe; Watson, Mada

    2014-01-01

    Caring for orphans who have lost their parents due to AIDS, and some of whom are infected, is an enormous challenge. This immense responsibility often resides with the grandparents, who are in most cases sickly and not financially capable to undertake the task. The objectives of this study were to explore and describe challenges faced by such grandparents and their needs while caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West province, South Africa. Maslow’s theory of human needs was used as a th...

  18. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  19. Facing new challenges: a proposal of information services organization in hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Olívia

    2013-01-01

    When facing the new challenges launched by the present financial cenarios, health information services in the context of hospitals can transform health information management in a way that facilitates not only progress in services, but also organizational success. We present a model of the (re) organization of information services in hospitals, having as its theoretical-epistemological reference, the post-custodial and informational paradigm of Information Science, which conveys a holistic vi...

  20. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to...

  1. WILIP make a difference? Practitioner perspectives of the challenges facing libraries and information services

    OpenAIRE

    Howley, Sue; Ede, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Resource commissioned the Wider Information and Library Issues Project (WILIP) to discover what challenges are facing the library and information domain, what needs to be done to tackle them, and what role Resource should take in helping to develop and promote strategies for action. In the initial consultation phase of WILIP practitioners identified a number of generic themes. Improved access for users was the primary goal with better advocacy, more effective funding – especially to sustain i...

  2. A Double-Faced Medium? The challenges and opportunities of the Internet for social movements

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCA, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    While most of the literature focusing on the Internet and politics tends to assess the positive contribution of Computer-Mediated Communication to political processes, this paper stresses both positive and negative consequences of the Internet for social movements, with special attention paid to the Italian Global Justice Movement. The Internet is presented as a double-faced Janus creating opportunities but also posing new challenges to resource poor actors. This paper is built on data tha...

  3. How do efl student teachers face the challenge of using l2 in public school classrooms?

    OpenAIRE

    Viáfara, John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history a...

  4. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    OpenAIRE

    Viáfara John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their ...

  5. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Goel; Sartaj Ahmad; Rahul Bansal; Pawan Parashar; Bhawna Pant; Parul Goel

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environm...

  6. Sustainable agriculture: a review of challenges facing the South African agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    S.L. Middelberg

    2013-01-01

    This review paper considers the various challenges facing the South African agricultural sector against the background that agricultural sectors globally are pressurised to provide food security for the estimated nine billion people in 2050, while simultaneously addressing climate change. The use of agricultural land to produce crops for the production of biofuels and the impact of land redistribution in South Africa on food security are contemplated. It is recommended that the So...

  7. An analysis of the language challenges faced by Myanmar refugee students in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Munthe, Myat

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to increase understanding the level of language proficiency and educational achievement for the first-generation immigrant students. The research provides an obligating account of the lives, dreams, and frustrations of Myanmar refugee students who arrive here at a later stage of their schooling. The intention with this study is to collect information from this particular group in order to understand the challenges they faced in their schooling. Thus, I counted not only on thei...

  8. Challenges facing the distribution of an artificial-intelligence-based system for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S

    1985-04-01

    The marketing and successful distribution of artificial-intelligence-based decision-support systems for nursing face special barriers and challenges. Issues that must be confronted arise particularly from the present culture of the nursing profession as well as the typical organizational structures in which nurses predominantly work. Generalizations in the literature based on the limited experience of physician-oriented artificial intelligence applications (predominantly in diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment) must be modified for applicability to other health professions. PMID:3839837

  9. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Aliza Alias

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special needs students in gaining work experiences during their internships. Two students were selected and trained to acquire work-related skills as prepar...

  10. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Julie O'Connor; Martha Geiger

    2009-01-01

    We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and exp...

  11. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi-structured interviews with successful rural school administrators who serve campuses currently rated recognized or higher on the Texas Education Agency accountability system. The qualitative data analysis employed the coding of interviews and observations that allowed for and sought emergent themes and alternative rural perspectives.

  12. Nuclear medicine department activity facing major public health challenges in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health

  13. Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii

    2012-01-01

    This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, ...

  14. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougang Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

  15. Agriculture and rural development challenges in South-Eastern Europe and Turkey with the view to European Union integration process

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Junior

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the overall challenges for agriculture and rural development in South Eastern Europe (SEE) and Turkey, and to assess the concept, importance and policy measures tailored towards improving agricultural competitiveness, rural income diversification and environmental sustainability for overall rural development. The South East Europe region refers to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,...

  16. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    JOVANOVIC Verka; MANIC Emilija

    2012-01-01

    Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The...

  17. The small goat holders to face food security, poverty and environmental challenges: conditions for experiencing successful projects : Lessons from a comparative analysis in different regions of the world (governance, markets, production systems)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubeuf, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Farming and agri-food systems have to face urgent social and environmental issues linked between them within the Millennium Development Goals firmed by the International Community. Poverty reduction and food safety is considered as a major challenge as at least 800 million people are suffering hunger and extreme poverty particularly in rural areas. The development of livestock for small holders is often seen as a solution to reduce poverty To explore and document the operational articulation ...

  18. The Social Organization of Diversity: The Changing Faces in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunn, Michael

    Changes in the social organization and context of education were studied in a rural Illinois school district experiencing a rapid influx of Hispanic students. The local meatpacking plant closed, then reopened under a new name and began an aggressive campaign to recruit immigrant and migrant workers who would work for lower wages. In the next 3…

  19. Identity Issues and Challenges Faced by Russian Immigrants in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maydell

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the processes cosmopolitan societies undergo at the present moment, is the unprecedented increase in mass migration across cultures. What challenges are faced by both immigrants, who have to settle in novel socio-cultural environments, and by the host populations accepting them? The current qualitative study investigates the nature of identity construction among Russian-speaking immigrants in New Zealand, applying thematic analysis for the interpretation of the data collected via 23 in-depth interviews. Among the most common themes articulated by the participants was the feeling of identity loss. A taken-for-granted sense of identity, brought by the participants from their culture of origin, was not validated by their new society of residence, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cultural resources. The participants were faced with a challenge of re-constructing their old identity, or constructing a new one, utilising the available resources in the community around them. At the same time, there was a sub-group for whom this challenge brought the realisation that the nature of their identity is cosmopolitan, rather than located within any particular culture or geographical space.

  20. Personal and professional challenges in the management of deliberate self-poisoning patients in rural Sri Lanka: a qualitative study of rural hospital doctors' experiences and perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley Nick A; de Silva Dhammika; Adams Jon; Senarathna Lalith; Dawson Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncoopera...

  1. Minor rural road networks: values, challenges, and opportunities for biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Spooner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Roads corridors are a conspicuous part of most landscapes, which are gaining greater recognition for their role in nature conservation. However roads cause wildlife mortality, alter water and nutrient flows, change local microclimatic conditions, act as vectors for weeds and pest animals, and have other far-reaching effects. Not surprisingly, there is much attention from both road and conservation managers to lessen these impacts, with an emphasis on developing solutions to mitigate the barrier effects of major roads to wildlife movements. However in many anthropogenic landscapes, road corridors can also provide key habitat and connectivity for local biodiversity. In particular, where traffic volumes are low, minor roads often provide critical habitat and refuge for many native species. Knowledge of the ecology and biodiversity conservation values of minor rural road verges has been underpinned by studies in various contexts, such as sunken roads, field margins and hedgerow networks in Europe, to stock routes in Spain and Australia. Despite their different histories and management constructs, important commonalties have been highlighted in terms of their biodiversity values, and the factors which influence these values. As such, minor rural road networks can be vital in providing connected, functioning ecosystems within rural landscapes. The importance of vegetated minor rural road networks will only become more pressing with future climate change. In Australia, road management authorities are tasked with the dual roles of maintaining road transport needs (i.e. priorities for road maintenance and safety concerns, whilst maintaining the environmental values of roads. This paper reviews the biodiversity values of minor rural roads, discusses the challenges and constraints in managing these values, and describes the case of identifying historic roads as an example of enhancing conservation management of these important habitats in rural landscapes.

  2. China: facing a long-term care challenge on an unprecedented scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Anne P; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jing

    2013-07-01

    Population ageing is occurring in China at a breathtaking pace and rapidly becoming a major public health issue. Due to the one-child policy, rural/urban migration and other societal changes, the family-dependent long-term care (LTC) of the past will no longer suffice. Barely existent now, both institutional and community-based services will need to expand to meet the growing need. China is still at an earlier stage in economic development and will be challenged to build these services and train staff. Furthermore, many elders are not yet covered by financial and insurance support. This massive demographic transition requires political efforts to develop integrated and sustainable national LTC systems. PMID:23600434

  3. [Political challenges facing the consolidation of the Sistema Único de Saúde: a historical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the circumstances in which Brazil’s sanitation reform was conceived and the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) was constructed. A brief analysis is conducted of Brazil’s political transition to democracy, focusing on three political challenges facing the consolidation of SUS: its weak support base amongst workers, competition with the private sector, and the fragmentation of its administration caused by its municipalization. Finally, the changes in the scenario caused by the weakening of neoliberalism since the 2008 crisis, the reemergence of a multipolar political scenario internationally, and the financing conditions of the Brazilian State are described. PMID:24789485

  4. Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

  5. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  6. The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Anderson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal industry as a whole. Veterinary colleges have changed in response to the increased number of students who are interested in companion animal medicine. These changes have resulted in diminished large animal content in the professional curricula, attrition of the number of faculty teaching food animal medicine, increases in the number of faculty dedicated to small animal curriculum, and an overwhelming sense that the veterinary program is centered around training in preparation for a career in companion animal practice. A multitude of factors likely contribute to the continued gravitation of veterinary students toward small animal practice. Veterinary colleges must strive to maintain a balanced, open-minded view of the profession so that students have an equal opportunity to choose a path that best suits their desires and interests.

  7. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  8. Teacher Motivation : issues and challenges facing School Management Teams (STMs) in motivationg teachers / T.S Tseke

    OpenAIRE

    Tseke, T S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher motivation and the issues and challenges facing school management teams in motivating teachers. The study was guided by research questions, namely: What is the nature and scope of teacher motivation'? What is the relationship between leadership and teacher motivation? What are the challenges that the SMT members face when motivating teachers? How could teachers be assisted to regain their passion regarding their educational w...

  9. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julie, O' Connor; Martha, Geiger.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area w [...] ho were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

  10. Child Development in the Face of Rural-to-Urban Migration in China: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lamei; Mesman, Judi

    2015-11-01

    In the last 30 years, China has undergone one of the largest rural-to-urban migrations in human history, with many children left behind because of parental migration. We present a meta-analytic review of empirical studies on Chinese children's rural-to-urban migration and on rural children left behind because of parental migration. We examine how these events relate to children's emotional, social, and academic developmental outcomes. We include publications in English and in Chinese to uncover and quantify a part of the research literature that has been inaccessible to most Western scholars in the field of child and family studies. Overall, both migrant children and children left behind by migrant parents in China show significantly less favorable functioning across domains than other Chinese children. It appears that, similar to processes found in other parts of the world, the experience of economic and acculturation stress as well as disrupted parent-child relations constitute a risk for nonoptimal child functioning in the Chinese context. Further, we found evidence for publication bias against studies showing less favorable development for migrant children and children left behind. We discuss the results in terms of challenges to Chinese society and to future empirical research on Chinese family life. PMID:26581737

  11. Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, at least 35% of Merino lambs born will be unmulesed. Even with this dramatic change in practice well before the agreed deadline, retailers such as Hugo Boss, Pierre Cardin and H and M have publicly stated that they will no longer source any Australian wool. This response indicates that even when the product is of high quality, markets will still be affected by the perception of the product in terms of how it is produced. Australia's experience shows that developed, or developing, countries intending to market animal products are not immune from global consumer perception. For this reason, livestock producers must consider issues such as animal welfare, and its impact on their potential customers, as well as biophysical limitations to production

  12. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVANOVIC Verka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

  13. Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colloquium organised by the Association of Energy Economists dealing with the theme 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' takes place against a backdrop of ever-increasing initiatives in this field, for example at the World Energy Council or the International Energy Agency Faith in technical progress is widespread but should be supported by studies without any preconceived ideas. Research and development efforts must be fully supported, and in a climate of opening markets and liberalization the public authorities have a major role to pay. Historically, the markets have always been able to meet new needs thanks to technology, but the ambitious targets that the international community has set itself regarding the emission of greenhouse gases imply technical improvements and major investments. (authors)

  14. Issues and challenges facing school libraries in selected primary schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margie, Paton-Ash; Di, Wilmot.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no national policy for school libraries which compels school governing bodies and principals to have a library in their schools. It is thus not surprising that in 2011, only 21% of state schools had libraries, only 7% had stocked libraries and 79% of schools had no library at all (Departmen [...] t of Basic Education (DBE) Republic of South Africa, 2011a:23). This article forms part of a broader qualitative study which investigated 10 primary schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa that had libraries, or were in the process of setting up a library, with the intention of providing a rich description of the issues and challenges facing these schools. The 10 schools used in this study were chosen on the basis of their location and fee structures. They represented the full continuum of fees within the state structure. In this article, we discuss three core categories of predicaments faced by primary school libraries. These were resourcing the library, operating the library and the role of the library. Our main contention is that school libraries are not playing an effective role in supporting and enabling quality education for all South African children. This needs to be addressed by government as a matter of urgency.

  15. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  16. Teaching in Rural Saskatchewan: First Year Teachers Identify Challenges and Make Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; McIntyre, Laureen J.; Prytula, Michelle P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the existing research on rural education, rural teaching, and pre-service rural practicum placements, there is little research on the experiences of beginning teachers in rural schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saskatchewan beginning teachers who obtain employment in rural or northern schools. Eight…

  17. Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Rivkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

  18. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  19. Some imminent but overlooked preanalytical and analytical challenges currently facing biomarkers and companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Abdel-Baset

    2015-06-01

    An incredibly high failure rate in the pharmaceutical industry has positioned personalized medicine with its prerequisite drug-diagnostic codevelopment, commonly known as companion diagnostics (CDx), in the frontline as an potential rescuer. This hopefulness is potentiated by the recent major advances and competitiveness in molecular diagnostics, making laboratory tests widely accessible at affordable prices. If executed correctly, biomarkers and CDx can potentially help the drug industry by enhancing the probability of success and possibly accelerating time to market; help the diagnostics industry develop tests utilizing precious, clinically annotated human samples; and, more importantly, benefit patients by supporting accurate diagnosis and selection of the most efficacious and least toxic therapies. However, this spectacular road is not yet paved, and it faces an enormous number of challenges. This paper will list these challenges and highlight some critical problems with representative examples of imminent but still overlooked preanalytical and analytical variables that can defeat the whole purpose of biomarkers and CDx and mislead drug developers and clinicians. The paper will provide some suggestions for mitigation. PMID:25758153

  20. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  1. Personal and professional challenges in the management of deliberate self-poisoning patients in rural Sri Lanka: a qualitative study of rural hospital doctors' experiences and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley Nick A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncooperative and aggressive, intoxicated with alcohol or suffering mental illness. Previous research in developed countries has examined self-poisoning patients and their treatment but little is know about self-poisoning patient care in the context of rural health provision in developing countries. This study provides the first focused exploration of the experiences and perceptions of primary care rural hospital doctors in Sri Lanka toward the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen doctors from rural hospitals in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Participating doctors did perceive that treating self-poisoning patients in a primary care rural hospital as potentially confidence-building. However, resource issues such as the lack of medication, equipment and staffing were seen as important challenges to treating self-poisoning patients. Other challenges identified included disparity with community and other staff members regarding expectations of care, a sense of professional isolation and a lack of continuing education programs. Conclusion Addressing professional isolation through educational and trainee programs for doctors and reducing the variance in expectations between professional groups and the community has the potential to improve delivery of care for self-poisoning patients.

  2. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These events illustrate some of the challenges facing the world of insurance following the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime: - Will the insurance industry be able to find funds corresponding to the new amounts that have been set? - Do the additional damages covered by the revised conventions provide adequate cover for existing risks and will private insurance be able and willing to cover such risks? Nevertheless, the insurance world has changed a great deal since 2004 and there are many additional issues that have arisen since that time. For example, the economic crisis and the introduction of the European Solvency II Directive require insurers to take a more stringent line with their commitments. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a number of questions have resurfaced: are the new insurance amounts sufficient? The age of 'nuclear renaissance' has long gone and some countries are distancing themselves from nuclear power in light of its questionable costs; are operators paying a fair price in light of the risks incurred? Finally, Europe is keen to play its part and impose its own rules; what will be the consequences of this development? This article reconsiders these challenges in light of the 2004 Protocol (which has not entered into force), by focusing in particular on the situation in Europe. Section I looks back at the history behind the conventions and the key principles they set down. Section II highlights the changes made to the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol and the problems facing the insurance industry. Section III provides an overview of the various actors involved in the insurance industry and redefines the necessary insurance foundations to cover the challenges described in Section IV. Finally, Section IV covers all the challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime. (author)

  3. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  4. Teachers Facing the Challenges of Curriculum Change in the Small Rural School in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonen, Eija; Nevalainen, Raimo

    Over half of Finnish elementary schools are small schools employing 1-3 teachers. This paper examines the implementation of new national curriculum policies in two small elementary schools. The new policies, adopted in 1994, stress autonomous control of learning and encourage each individual school, in collaboration with the community, to draw up…

  5. Motivation for math in rural schools: student and teacher perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2011-06-01

    Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning and motivation from the fields of educational psychology, human neuroscience and rural education, to present an integrated systemic view of motivation for learning math in rural schools.

  6. Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Michael R.; Cindy J. Price

    2010-01-01

    Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about ...

  7. Challenges, Opportunities and Options for the Development of Rural Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Why does IFAD need rural finance guidelines? With its exclusive emphasis on rural poverty alleviation, IFAD enjoys a competitive advantage over other development agencies, and should strengthen its role by providing support for the development of rural finance as an important instrument. The goal of IFAD?s support for rural finance is the sustainable improvement of the livelihood of the rural poor. This paper offers guiding principles to IFAD?s staff and partner institutions to stimulate inno...

  8. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viáfara John Jairo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history as learners, their teaching context and preparation influenced their decisions. Moreover, it was possible to identify the strategies they implemented to interact in English with their students.

    En mi labor como tutor de estudiantes practicantes del inglés como lengua extranjera, he percibido constantemente que, para ellos, la utilización del inglés como medio de comunicación con sus estudiantes dentro de la clase es un reto. Por esta razón, me interesé por investigar cómo trece estudiantes practicantes en colegios públicos de Tunja afrontaban esta circunstancia. Mientras los participantes se involucraban en un modelo reflexivo de preparación docente, utilicé notas de campo, entrevistas y sus portafolios para explorar sus actitudes y estrategias. Los hallazgos revelan que sus decisiones fueron influenciadas por su trayectoria como estudiantes, su contexto de enseñanza y su preparación. Además, se pudieron identificar las estrategias que utilizaron para interactuar por medio del inglés con sus estudiantes.

  9. Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

  10. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena

    2006-07-01

    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing. PMID:16863105

  11. The Greek-Catholic Church In Romania Facing The Challenges Of The Post-Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ghisa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting mostly with the second half of the 20th century, the churches and the religious communities are facing the challenges raised by the process of secularization, which is considered by some sociologists of religion as irreversible. The most affected ones were / are the traditional churches and the most obvious area where this phenomenon has become very visible is the Western Europe. This study aims to analyze the situation of the traditional churches in Romania, with a special focus on the Greek-Catholic Church, from the same perspective: the impact of post-modernity over a church which is very much orientated towards the West, which is becoming more and more urban and is still passing through a complicated process of structuring and transition. The study underlines the fact that one of the answers to the problems raised by the process of secularization is based on the way in which the ecclesiastical community is built and on how deep is the consciousness of the confessional identity rooted in the mind and the soul of the believers.  

  12. Reflecting on some of the challenges facing postgraduate nursing education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ilhaam

    2011-04-01

    Considering the dearth of professional nurses in South Africa today, and the fact that postgraduate nursing education can contribute towards enhancing the competences of those in the profession, I shall examine some of the challenges faced by a group of previously enrolled postgraduate nursing students which resulted in their non-completion of a formal qualification. The focus of this investigation was a 2008 cohort of students that did not complete their non-clinical postgraduate diplomas at the institution where I work. Of the 29 students who did not complete their studies, I have selected a group of 8 students through a purposive non-random sample with the objective to ascertain some of the reasons for them not completing their diploma. My aim was to examine some of the reasons as to why postgraduate nursing students do not complete their qualification and to suggest ways as to how the curriculum can be reconstructed as to counteract some of students' pitfalls. Based on my qualitative interpretive analysis, I shall argue that these students did not complete their diplomas on the grounds of, having experienced a lack of institutional and social support; their inability to cope with the demands of academic rigour; their experiences of isolation and exclusion; and, the inability to cope with unimagined realities. My contention is that if postgraduate nursing is not adequately attended to, the possibility that nursing education would not contribute to the transformation of the profession, is highly possible. PMID:21126811

  13. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

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    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cell research: a revolutionary approach to face the challenges in drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minjung; Paul, Saswati; Lim, Hyejin; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2012-02-01

    Discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 provided a new path for cell transplantation and drug screening. The iPS cells are stem cells derived from somatic cells that have been genetically reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, iPS cells are capable of differentiating into three germ layers, eliminating some of the hurdles in ES cell technology. Further progress and advances in iPS cell technology, from viral to non-viral systems and from integrating to non-integrating approaches of foreign genes into the host genome, have enhanced the existing technology, making it more feasible for clinical applications. In particular, advances in iPS cell technology should enable autologous transplantation and more efficient drug discovery. Cell transplantation may lead to improved treatments for various diseases, including neurological, endocrine, and hepatic diseases. In studies on drug discovery, iPS cells generated from patient-derived somatic cells could be differentiated into specific cells expressing specific phenotypes, which could then be used as disease models. Thus, iPS cells can be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of disease progression and in cell-based efficient drug screening. Here, we summarize the history and progress of iPS cell technology, provide support for the growing interest in iPS cell applications with emphasis on practical uses in cell-based drug screening, and discuss some challenges faced in the use of this technology. PMID:22370779

  15. Challenges faced in e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada

    2014-05-01

    The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period. Storage also poses one of our main challenges. The institution lacks sufficient storage and at present some data are stored externally. Similarly, the back-up storage is limited and outdated, as in some instances storage tapes are used. The Ministry plans to acquire a new storage capacity to enable it to locally host all the data. Subsequently this new storage facility will include back-up storage hosted off-site. The acquisition is in progress and the implementation of the new system is envisaged within the near future. The Ministry is trying its utmost to upgrade its e-infrastructure to support the business of the organisation.

  16. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczynski Julie C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the context of greater perceived workload. Conclusions Older health workers are managing a range of issues, on top of the general challenges of rural practice. Personal health, wellbeing and other realms of life appear to take on increasing importance for older health workers when faced with increasing difficulties at work. Solutions need to address difficulties at personal, workplace and system wide levels.

  17. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  18. A Reflective Perspective on the Challenges Facing Research-Led Teaching in the Performing and Creative Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a reflective perspective on the role that research-led teaching plays in the development of future arts workers in higher education. It explores the challenges faced by lecturers developing curricula in the performing and creative arts and argues that the increasing focus on employability can conflict with universities'…

  19. Knowledge Production and Transmission in a Changing Society: Challenges Facing Law Lecturers in a Distance Education Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in different occupational fields as a professional person. I indicate that the law itself cannot effect change. For this we need properly trained lawyers. For an effective transformation…

  20. Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

  1. Wide-Open Opportunities: Teacher Leaders Can Help Rural Schools Make the Most of Meager Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Melia

    2012-01-01

    Rural schools face challenges that are very different from their urban or suburban counterparts. Fewer resources supporting rural schools mean smaller staffs and larger responsibilities for everyone. At the same time, rural schools and districts must meet the same standards as their larger, better-funded counterparts. One key to making the most of…

  2. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Doris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Key words: ESL writing, academic writing, academic voice, disciplinary writing Con base en teorías críticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías más efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de género, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Palabras clave: escritura de inglés como segunda lengua, escritura académica, voz académica, escritura disciplinaria

  3. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Goel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

  4. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)…

  5. Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangi Jyoti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

  6. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contribut...

  7. HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blystad Astrid

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on nurses in their role as infant feeding counsellors in pMTCT programmes and the urgent need to provide the training and support structure necessary to promote professional confidence and skills. The organisation of counselling services must to a larger extent take into account the local realities in which nurses construct their role as counsellors to HIV-positive childbearing women.

  8. Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of communication. When designing 'Mail-Info' strategy, it was decided that senior experienced staff with both technical and communicational skills should run this service, together with junior apprentices, to guarantee prompt and efficient feedback in the present and in the future. This paper is focused on describing the experience acquired in implementing this tool and the lessons learned up to date. (authors)

  9. An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study and the expected investment cost of these projects, and the environmental impacts of the renewable energy.

  10. Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Brown

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about how they are managing their resources, how they are using new media, and how they envision their future. The results show that most media are struggling, but also find that local media are in a good position to make their new media content viable for their local audiences.

  11. IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSHIP : Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city

    OpenAIRE

    Enow, Manyi

    2010-01-01

    Title: Immigrant Entrepreneurship - Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city. Purpose: The purpose is to investigate if the challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden differ between large and small cities. Method: Eight case studies, four in Jönköping and four in Stockholm of seven Asian and one Eastern Europe immigrant entrepreneurs in the restaurant business. Results: The typical Jönköping case and the typical Stockholm case ar...

  12. Challenging pathways to safe water access in rural Uganda: From supply to demand-driven water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resty Naiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uganda has experienced a major policy shift from a supply-driven to a demand-driven approach in rural water provision since 1990. The article sheds light on the rural population’s access to safe water within the changing institutional frameworks. We analysed individual and group interviews with key informants from national to community levels and relevant official documents with the ‘Social-Ecological Systems’ framework. Since the implementation of the demand-driven approach, rural safe water coverage has slightly improved but operation and maintenance of water sources pose a great challenge hampering, long-term access to safe water. The abrupt and top-down imposed policy shift has resulted in competing signals from old and new policies creating uncertainty and ambiguity about responsibilities, rules and incentives. The analysis shows the importance of taking into account the implications of national institutional disturbances on local collective action for long-term access to safe water.

  13. Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era :  A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenveld, Marc; Heinonen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Date: June 7th of 2013 Level: Master thesis in marketing, 15 ECTS Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Authors: Tapio Heinonen & Marc Rozenveld 18 thof November 1988 & 16th of June 1990 Title: Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era. Subtitle: A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies. Tutor: Peter Selegård Keywords: media logic, advertising industry, advertising agencies, advertising and digital ma...

  14. Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke Fisher Liu; Abbey Blake Levenshus

    2010-01-01

    This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S.) when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007), the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and el...

  15. Challenges Faced by People Living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa: Issues for Group Risk Reduction Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Ayanda Nqeketo; Nomvo Henda; Brian van Wyk; Anna Strebel; Leickness Simbayi; Allanise Cloete

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study to investigate the challenges faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The primary goal of the study was to gather data to inform the adaptation of a group risk reduction intervention to the South African context. Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences of PLWHA. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 83 HIV-positive participants and 14 key informants (KIs...

  16. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...... interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural......Whereas the primary challenge for agriculture after World War II was improving food security by increasing productivity, the challenges faced by today’s agriculture are more complex and diverse. In this context it is interesting to investigate Danish agricultural extension. Firstly, the more...

  18. Motivation for Math in Rural Schools: Student and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning…

  19. Designing Rural School Improvement Networks: Aspirations and Actualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Parsley, Danette; Cox, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Rural school educators are often isolated and have few opportunities to learn from neighboring schools or colleagues. This is an especially daunting challenge for low-performing rural schools faced with implementing significant reform efforts (e.g., turnaround approaches, educator effectiveness systems, college- and career-ready standards and…

  20. The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural…

  1. Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

  2. Challenge of reducing perinatal mortality in rural Congo: findings of a prospective, population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Matendo, R. M.; Engmann, C. M.; Ditekemena, J. D.; Gado, J.; Tshefu, A.; McClure, E. M.; MOORE, J; Boelaert, M.; Carlo, W. A.; Wright, L. L.; Bose, C L

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an estimated six million perinatal deaths occur worldwide, and 98% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. These estimates are based on surveys in both urban and rural areas, and they may underrepresent the problem in rural areas. This study was conducted to quantify perinatal mortality, to identify the associated risk factors, and to determine the most common causes of early neonatal death in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were ...

  3. Promoting Rural Education: The Role of the Society of the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the role of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and the challenges it has faced as the primary voice for Australian rural educators. The paper charts the origins of SPERA, and the contributions of key people involved in its foundation. The paper then examines the advocacy and impact of SPERA…

  4. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Depczynski Julie C; Fragar Lyn J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects...

  5. Challenges and recognizable patterns in the en-face OCT of the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Lydon, Chris; Dunne, Shane; Dobre, George M.; Cucu, Radu G.; Jackson, David A.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Rosenthal, Jeanne L.; Muldoon, Thomas; Walsh, Joseph B.; Orlock, Dennis A.; Fisher, Yale; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2004-07-01

    Using an advanced prototype of en-face OCT/cSLO instrument, an extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. Uniquely specific and reoccurring patterns could be characterized for macular hole ("Chrysanthemum flower"), CME ("Swiss cheese wheel"), Macular Pucker ("Star"), CSR ("Target") and RPE Detachment ("Ring of Light"). Other entities such as polypoidal choroidopathy and diabetic edema residues had easily recognizable features but were variable enough to defy specific descriptive comparison. To facilitate the interpretation of the en-face OCT images, a three dimensional interactive simulation was designed which allows the demonstration of characteristic features and artifacts encountered in the acquisition of transverse images.

  6. Convergence in France facing Big Data era and Exascale challenges for Climate Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, Sébastien; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Salas, David; Meurdesoif, Yann; Valcke, Sophie; Caubel, Arnaud; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Servonnat, Jérôme; Sénési, Stéphane; Derouillat, Julien; Voury, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    The presentation will introduce a french national project : CONVERGENCE that has been funded for four years. This project will tackle big data and computational challenges faced by climate modeling community in HPC context. Model simulations are central to the study of complex mechanisms and feedbacks in the climate system and to provide estimates of future and past climate changes. Recent trends in climate modelling are to add more physical components in the modelled system, increasing the resolution of each individual component and the more systematic use of large suites of simulations to address many scientific questions. Climate simulations may therefore differ in their initial state, parameter values, representation of physical processes, spatial resolution, model complexity, and degree of realism or degree of idealisation. In addition, there is a strong need for evaluating, improving and monitoring the performance of climate models using a large ensemble of diagnostics and better integration of model outputs and observational data. High performance computing is currently reaching the exascale and has the potential to produce this exponential increase of size and numbers of simulations. However, post-processing, analysis, and exploration of the generated data have stalled and there is a strong need for new tools to cope with the growing size and complexity of the underlying simulations and datasets. Exascale simulations require new scalable software tools to generate, manage and mine those simulations ,and data to extract the relevant information and to take the correct decision. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a platform capable of running large ensembles of simulations with a suite of models, to handle the complex and voluminous datasets generated, to facilitate the evaluation and validation of the models and the use of higher resolution models. We propose to gather interdisciplinary skills to design, using a component-based approach, a specific programming environment for scalable scientific simulations and analytics, integrating new and efficient ways of deploying and analysing the applications on High Performance Computing (HPC) system. CONVERGENCE, gathering HPC and informatics expertise that cuts across the individual partners and the broader HPC community, will allow the national climate community to leverage information technology (IT) innovations to address its specific needs. Our methodology consists in developing an ensemble of generic elements needed to run the French climate models with different grids and different resolution, ensuring efficient and reliable execution of these models, managing large volume and number of data and allowing analysis of the results and precise evaluation of the models. These elements include data structure definition and input-output (IO), code coupling and interpolation, as well as runtime and pre/post-processing environments. A common data and metadata structure will allow transferring consistent information between the various elements. All these generic elements will be open source and publicly available. The IPSL-CM and CNRM-CM climate models will make use of these elements that will constitute a national platform for climate modelling. This platform will be used, in its entirety, to optimise and tune the next version of the IPSL-CM model and to develop a global coupled climate model with a regional grid refinement. It will also be used, at least partially, to run ensembles of the CNRM-CM model at relatively high resolution and to run a very-high resolution prototype of this model. The climate models we developed are already involved in many international projects. For instance we participate to the CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) project that is very demanding but has a high visibility: its results are widely used and are in particular synthesised in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment reports. The CONVERGENCE project will constitute an invaluable step for the French climate community to prepare and better contribute to the next phase of the CMIP project.

  7. Challenges We Face in Understanding Children and War: A Personal Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of psychological and cultural issues faced by professionals in child abuse dealing with children exposed to war zones stresses the importance of recognizing that the "war" is so powerfully loaded in subjective and ideological meanings for all adults that self-reflection and cultural criticism is a necessary condition of dealing…

  8. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  9. The Social Ecological Challenges of Rural Victim Advocacy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Shelly A.; Johnson, Melencia; Miller, Michelle Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This article re-centers an ecological model traditionally used to understand the experiences of interpersonal violence victims around the perceptions and experiences of victim advocates. We suggest that the development of such a model might shed light on rural-urban differences in the accessibility and availability of support services in rural…

  10. Implementing RTI in Two Rural Elementary Schools: Encouraging Beginnings and Challenges for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gretchen G.; Bursuck, William D.; Sinclair, Kristin D.

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) models are currently being implemented in many school districts nationwide. However, at a time when interest in RTI is high, the extent to which it is being implemented effectively in rural schools is largely unknown. Teachers and administrators in two rural elementary schools in the Southeastern United States who…

  11. Barriers of Referral System to Health Care Provision in Rural Societies in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Eskandari; Abbas Abbaszadeh; Fariba Borhani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Health care delivery systems in rural areas face numerous challenges in meeting the community's needs. This study aimed to describe barriers of health care process in rural societies in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, 26 participants (21 rural health care providers and five rural patients) were selected through purposive sampling. The data was collected via semi-structured individual interviews and small focus group discussions. Data was analyzed with qualitative conte...

  12. The impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural areas in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Having developed and teste...

  13. A Review of China’s Rural Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoman Yu; Yong Geng; Peter Heck; Bing Xue,

    2015-01-01

    With less than 6% of total global water resources but one fifth of the global population, China is facing serious challenges for its water resources management, particularly in rural areas due to the long-standing urban-rural dualistic structure and the economic-centralized developmental policies. This paper addresses the key water crises in rural China including potable water supply, wastewater treatment and disposal, water for agricultural purposes, and environmental concerns, and then anal...

  14. Intelligent CCTV for Mass Transport Security : challenges and Opportunities for Video and Face Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Conrad; Bigdeli, Abbas; Shan, Ting; Chen, Shaokang; Berglund, Erik; Lovell, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    CCTV surveillance systems have long been promoted as being effective in improving public safety. However due to the amount of cameras installed, many sites have abandoned expensive human monitoring and only record video for forensic purposes. One of the sought-after capabilities of an automated surveillance system is “face in the crowd” recognition, in public spaces such as mass transit centres. Apart from accuracy and robustness to nuisance factors such as pose variations, in such surveillan...

  15. Rural health research and rural health in the 21st century: the future of rural health and the future of rural health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    Rural health research is a unique field. It is neither a nested subcategory under general health services research nor a separate field of policy analysis or advocacy. Rural health research faces three potential crises: of content, of applicability, and of credibility. The content of the field is driven often by funds, its applicability is thus limited by its purview as well as its special constituency, and its credibility is challenged by its findings, sometimes contrary to accepted positions in the larger health services field. Rural health research can strengthen its position by accepting the paradoxes it presents, especially the paradox of continuing disparity in the face of substantial investment to eliminate differences, and by seeking to answer why this occurs across the rural-urban spectrum. Rural health research can answer questions about why the distribution of resources is unfair without depending solely on pure definitions PMID:12061509

  16. The Challenges facing Professional Education and Practice of Academic Librarianship in the HE Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilce Sandra Rees

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the challenges facing professional education and practice of academic librarianship in a changing Higher Education world. Librarians in the UK, like all the professionals in the academic sector, are faced with changes in organisational mission within the university, and the changing role of information within society. Inter alia, they have to be accountable inside and outside the university and are in competition for resource allocation and funding. Against this socio-political background, the following eight challenges have been isolated: 1. recognition of librarianship as a profession (and the accreditation of library and information studies; 2. ethical professional responsibilities in a changing organisational world, and how they can be weaved into the librarian’s professional education; 3. the librarian in a changing (HE world; 4. the “assault” on professionalism; 5. the user’s centrality: fact or fiction?; 6. the librarian in an era of global challenge: is resistance futile?; 7. Potemkin villages: fabrication and performance in the academy, and 8. feminisation of the HE professions and patterns of employment. 9. Lastly, I’ll examine future scenarios for librarians and the implications of present practices, which affect all sectors.

  17. A Teacher Tablet Toolkit to meet the challenges posed by 21st century rural teaching and learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Botha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the experiences gained in participating in an Information and Communication Technology for Rural Education (ICT4RED initiative, as part of a larger Technology for Rural Education project (TECH4RED in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation, design and application of an innovative teacher professional development course for rural teachers, enabling them to use tablets to support teaching and learning in their classrooms. The course, as outcome, is presented as a Teacher Tablet Toolkit, designed to meet the challenges inherent to the 21st century rural technology enhanced teaching and learning environment. The paper documents and motivates design decisions, derived from literature and adapted through three iterations of a Design Science Research Process, to be incorporated in the ICT4RED Teacher Professional Development Course. The resulting course aims to equip participating teachers with a toolkit consisting of technology hardware, pragmatic pedagogical and technology knowledge and skills, and practice based experience. The significance of game design elements such as simulation and fun, technology in need rather than in case, adequate scaffolding and a clear learning path with interim learning goals are noted.

  18. Effective nuclear regulatory systems: Facing safety and security challenges. Proceedings of an international conference. Contributed papers and presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 16 years, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety, for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. This series was initiated in 1991 with the International Conference on the Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future. The conference marked the beginning of a global safety regime based on international conventions and legal instruments that was supported by a set of nuclear and radiation safety standards and related review services. The very successful Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) resulted from this effort and now has 56 Contracting Parties. Currently, regulatory authorities and the nuclear industry are facing significant new challenges, which require new strategies and oversight. The key challenges are the result of the following factors: Renewed global interest in the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation and, consequently, its likely expansion; - Increased threats to the security of nuclear installations and the need to link closely security and safety issues and response capabilities; - Increased global use of radioactive materials and the need to ensure their safety and security, similar to the issues faced with the use of nuclear energy; - New safety and security challenges from existing nuclear facilities associated with ageing and extensions of their operating lifetimes. To address these challenges, the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Facing Safety and Security Challenges, was held in Moscow, Russian Federation, from 27 February to 3 March 2006. The IAEA invited global leaders to this conference, including both government regulators and industry representatives, to share their perspectives and experience in addressing these challenges that transcend national boundaries. Participants were asked to make their contributions in the context of global safety and security standards and methods by which a common vision can be achieved. The aim of this conference was to enhance the global vision and commitments among the senior regulators to promote experience sharing and international cooperation, thereby continuously improving nuclear safety and security worldwide. On the basis of the presentations and subsequent discussions, the President of the Conference developed issues for consideration by governments and regulatory bodies, issues for future international cooperation and conference conclusions. This CD-ROM, which is attached to the back of the printed publication, contains the unedited contributed papers to the conference and the slides that were submitted with some of the invited papers. Each paper has been indexed separately

  19. How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isola Ajiferuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

  20. Young women face gender-specific challenges that limit their political participation

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    Young women aged 18-24 are likely less to take part in elections than their male counterparts. As part of our new series on youth participation, Jacqui Briggs explores the reasons for this, showing how women face specific barriers because of their gender and are under-represented throughout the system. She argues that politicians need to address issues that affect women’s lives such as the gender pay gap and domestic violence to show young women that politics is relevant to them.

  1. Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    VIGANO', LAURA; BONOMO, LUCIANO

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ prot...

  2. The Delicate Balancing Act: Challenges and Successes Facing College Student Women in Formal Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber-Curran, Paige

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through…

  3. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  4. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  5. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.

  6. Rural water supply corruption in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Calow, Roger; MacDonald, Alan; Cross, Piers

    2012-01-01

    In Ethiopia, investment in rural water supply underpins the government’s poverty reduction efforts. The challenge is huge: roughly 50 percent of the (mainly rural) population still have no access to safe water, and the country has the highest number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa without access to improved water supply and sanitation. The consequences are dire: every year, roughly 250,000 children die from diseases related to poor water and sanitation, and many others face ...

  7. Progress and challenges of the rural cooperative medical scheme in China / ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? / Progrès et défis du plan médical coopératif rural en Chine / ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? / ???????????????? / Avances y desafíos del sistema médico cooperativo rural en China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Qingyue, Meng; Ke, Xu.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Situación Durante la transición de China hacia una economía de mercado en las décadas de 1980 y 1990, la población rural se enfrentó a importantes barreras para acceder a la atención sanitaria y tuvo que hacer frente a cargas financieras mayores que los residentes urbanos para pagar los ser [...] vicios de salud necesarios. Enfoque En 2003, China comenzó a poner en práctica un sistema médico cooperativo rural (RCMS, en sus siglas en inglés) a través, principalmente, de subsidios del gobierno. El esquema funciona a nivel de condado y ofrece un paquete modesto de beneficios. Marco regional A pesar del rápido crecimiento económico desde comienzos de la década de 1980, las disparidades en los ingresos han aumentado en China, en particular entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas. En respuesta, el gobierno ha puesto un mayor énfasis en el desarrollo social, incluido el desarrollo del sistema de salud. Ejemplos de ello son la priorización de un mejor acceso a los servicios sanitarios y la reducción de la carga de pago por los servicios necesarios. Cambios importantes Tras 10 años de implementación, el RCMS proporciona en la actualidad cobertura para toda la población rural y ha mejorado sustancialmente el acceso a la atención médica. A pesar de una reducción de los pagos directos del gasto total en salud, el pago por servicios necesarios sigue provocando dificultades financieras para muchos residentes rurales. Lecciones aprendidas En su primera década, el RCMS ha logrado avances por medio de la movilización política, los subsidios gubernamentales, la buena disposición del sistema de atención sanitaria y la disponibilidad de un sistema de supervisión y evaluación. Con objeto de seguir mejorando el RCMS, será necesario centrarse en reducir los costes, mejorar la calidad y lograr un sistema móvil. Abstract in english Problem During China’s transition to a market economy in the 1980s and 1990s, the rural population faced substantial barriers to accessing health care and encountered heavier financial burdens than urban residents in paying for necessary health services. Approach In 2003, China started to impleme [...] nt a rural cooperative medical scheme (RCMS), mainly through government subsidies. The scheme operates at the county level and offers a modest benefit package. Local setting In spite of rapid economic growth since the early 1980s, income disparities in China have increased, particularly between rural and urban populations. In response, the government has put greater emphasis on social development, including health system development. Examples are the prioritization of improved access to health services and the reduction of the burden of payment for necessary services. Relevant changes After 10 years of implementation, the RCMS now provides coverage to the entire rural population and has substantially improved access to health care. Yet despite a drop in out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure, paying for necessary services continues to cause financial hardship for many rural residents. Lessons learnt In its first decade, the RCMS made progress through political mobilization, government subsidies, the readiness of the health-care delivery system, and the availability of a monitoring and evaluation system. Further improving the RCMS will require a focus on cost containment, quality improvement and making the scheme portable.

  8. Survivorship in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Challenges Faced and Steps Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvergia, Namrata; Shah, Prashant C; Denlinger, Crystal S

    2015-09-01

    Improvements in curative therapies and the advent of screening have led to increased numbers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) survivors. Most survivors have undergone invasive treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy) and carry a higher comorbidity burden than survivors of other cancers. Overall quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) suffer during the treatment phase, with the potential for long-term decline, and both clinical characteristics and treatment impact these measures. Physical and mental components of HRQOL seem to be most at risk for decline. The issues faced by survivors include physical symptoms such as respiratory issues, fatigue, hearing loss, neuropathy, and postsurgical pain; psychological distress leading to depression, financial issues, and poor compliance with recommended guidelines; and fear or risk of recurrence and secondary malignancies. This article summarizes the major issues faced by NSCLC survivors and suggests appropriate management. Future collaborative efforts are needed to further elucidate the complex issues that affect overall QOL and HRQOL in NSCLC survivors and to develop appropriate interventions in this large and diverse survivor population. PMID:26358799

  9. Los desafíos para el minuto de dios (A The challenges facing minuto de dios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es el caso de la Corporación Minuto de Dios, MD, organización sin ánimo de lucro creada en 1958 para con el fin de tratar de dar solución integral a los problemas sociales de sus afiliados?1. La corporación pertenece a la Organización Minuto de Dios, entidad comprometida con el desarrollo integral de la persona y las comunidades marginadas, tanto urbanas como rurales, a la luz del evangelio cristiano. Su principal línea de trabajo es vivienda de interés social ?ha construido cerca de 60.000 soluciones? y además ofrece servicios en atención de desastres, microempresa, atención a la tercera edad, contacto espiritual y desarrollo juvenil. La corporación ha establecido, desde su origen, alianzas con empresas como Manuelita S.A., uno de los ingenios azucareros más grandes de Colombia. En la década del 90 consolidó colaboraciones con Servibanca, entidad colombiana sin ánimo de lucro cuya misión es promover la automatización de la banca colombiana a través de una red de banca electrónica; el banco Davivienda2 y la red de supermercados Carulla Vivero. En estas tres alianzas las empresas privadas ponían al servicio del MD su infraestructura para recaudar donaciones del público que hacía uso de sus servicios.

  10. The Challenge of Bottom-Up Paradigm and Popular Participation in Sustainable Rural Development of Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEFILA J. O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformation inspite of the attendant difficulties. It examined popular participation as a concept relating to gaining political accessibility through democratic process, mobilizing and educating the masses to support government programmes and policies as in the case of present removal of fuel subsidy which generated hot debate and resulted in industrial action by labour unions with a view to changing government decision. But popular participation is being confronted with serious challenge of control in Nigeria. There is corruption in the high places, armed robbery attacks, religious intolerance, political violence, tribal discrimination and insecurity of life and properties thereby threatening corporate existence of the country. The paper advocates for the strengthening of a bottom-up strategy instead of top-down through decentralization of sufficient powers, functions and resources in favour of rural majority at the grassroot and by doing so, it will foster a balanced development between the centre and the subordinate local administrative units. Moreover, democratic governance must be allowed to reign supreme not only to attain the national goals of 2020 but also enable Nigeria to assume her rightful position in the world. One concludes that if the local communities are given the opportunities to get involved in the decision-making process that often affect their condition of living, engage in productive ventures, self-help communal projects, and harnessing the creative potentials, talents, skills combined with physical and human resources, it would go a long way to reduce not only the over-dependence of the people on the government to provide everything they need but also help to improve socio-economic well-being in the backward, under-privileged and disadvantaged rural areas.

  11. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2013-04-01

    Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

  12. Positioning Industrial Design Education within Higher Education: How to face increasingly challenging market forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Liem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.

  13. Practical reality of media freedom: an examination of challenges facing the Namibian media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Mwilima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.
    Namibia is vast but sparsely populated, with an estimated population of about 1.9 million which is expected to reach 2.3 million by 2025 and 3.75 million by 2050. It is bordered by Angola and Zambia (north, the Atlantic Ocean (west, South Africa (south and southeast and Botswana (east. Walvis Bay, which covers 434 square miles, is Namibia's main port for imports and exports.
    Social challenges in Namibia range from development and health-related issues to the media which has been heavily controlled by government, as is the case elsewhere in Africa.

  14. The essence of leadership: facing the challenge of being the new manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, B A

    1993-02-01

    To meet the challenge of today's work environment, the leader of a professional, technically skilled, and highly diverse work "group must be an enabler of people, a facilitator of groups, as well as know how to be an effective group member" (Blanchard et al, The One Minute Manager Builds High Performance Teams, New York, NY, William Morrow, 1990). To accomplish this the leader must participate as a member of the work group as well as identify areas of needed management support and direction. Creating the climate that allows professional work teams to develop and mature is both challenging and rewarding. Fully mature, high-performance teams require minimal direction from the leader. At this stage empowerment is reached: the leader lets go so that the team can get going. PMID:8478810

  15. Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by a Breast Cancer Patient Navigator in an Urban Underserved Community

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, Jeanne M; Wu, Justine; Dicicco-Bloom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Patient navigation has been widely implemented by cancer care programs across the United States. While activities of navigators have been described elsewhere, little has been documented regarding specific strategies used or challenges experienced by navigators from their own perspectives. We describe the experience of an African American patient navigator who promoted breast cancer screening and facilitated diagnosis and treatment among inner-city mostly African American women in Newark, New ...

  16. The need for cultural innovation to face the environmental challenge in business

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen,Øyvind; Larssæther, Stig

    2000-01-01

    Commercial organisations are the foundation walls of our modern economy. More than 200 years of industrial activity and the recent trend of globalisation have made them the most powerful institutions when it comes to resources, knowledge and ability to influence their surroundings. In spite of their strong position, business is not doing enough to meet the environmental challenge. The suggested ‘solution’ of eco-efficiency initiatives is a product of the same thinking that has created the pro...

  17. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shougang Wei; Lirong Ju; Man Li; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinis...

  18. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Tryland

    2013-01-01

    A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time b...

  19. Facing the challenges of the One-Tablet-Per-Child policy in Thai primary school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchada Viriyapong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Thailand is currently distributing tablets to all first year primary (Prathom 1 school children across the country as part of the government’s “One Tablet Per Child” (OTPC project to improve education. Early indications suggest that there are many unexplored issues in designing and implementing tablet activities for such a large and varied group of students and so far there is a lack of evaluation on the effectiveness of the tablet activities. In this article, the authors propose four challenges for the improving Thailand’s OTPC project, consisting of: developing contextualised content, ensuring usability, providing teacher support, and assessing learning outcomes. A case study on developing science activities for first year primary school children on the OTPC devices is the basis for presenting possible solutions to the four challenges. In presenting a solution to the challenge of providing teacher support, an architecture is described for collecting data from student interactions with the tablet in order to analysis the current progress of students while in a live classroom setting. From tests in three local Thai schools, the authors evaluate the case study from both student and teacher perspectives. In concluding the paper, a framework for guiding mobile learning innovation is utilised to review the qualities and shortcomings of the case study.

  20. Cerumen impaction: Challenges and management profile in a rural health facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Toye Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerumen impaction is a worldwide problem. It constitutes a significant proportion of health problems in many settings and its prevalence varies. Very few studies were done in this region with none from our center. The aim of this study is to review the challenges and management profile of cerumen impaction in a rural health facility in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a 3-year retrospective study of all patients that were managed for cerumen impaction from June 2008 to May 2011, in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Results: A total of 239 patients, aged 3–98 years were managed for cerumen impaction. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. The age group 1–20 years was mostly affected in 29.3%. Major complaints were hearing impairment in 120 cases. Both ears were mostly affected in 48.5% of the patients. Olive oil was a major ceruminolytic agent used in 95.4%. Ear syringing was carried out in 91.2% of cases. Major complications were bruises of external auditory canal and otalgia in 7.3% of cases each. Forty-two (17.8% of our patients were asymptomatic, and they did not complained of ear problem. Out of those patients that were symptomatic, 44.3% had visited general medical practitioners and non-otolaryngologist, while 27.6% had self-medication or visited chemist for their ear complaints. Only 3.7% of them had been seen by ear, nose, and throat (ENT specialist in the past. Conclusion: Cerumen impaction is a common otolaryngological problem that presents to ENT surgeon, children, and elderly are more affected. Hearing impairment is the major complaint which may increase the burden of disability on society. Syringing is the most common mode of treatment of our patients. Continuing medical education, proper otological examination by the non-otolaryngologist and public health education to improve the low level of awareness on danger of self-medication is essential.

  1. Facing challenges in differential classical conditioning research: Benefits of a hybrid design for simultaneous electrodermal and electroencephalographic recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Pastor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG and electrodermal activity (EDA recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+ were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (UCS during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS- remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368 to 600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral psychophysiological measures.

  2. Opportunities and Challenges Faced by the Trade Cooperation of China and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin TANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the new normal background that the early days macroeconomic stimulation lead to the waste of manufacturability and hasted to find a new trade market, So we use the RCA Index proposed by Balassa in 1965 to compute the RCA Index and RMA Index of the mainly ten products of the export and import trade between China and Africa, Then specifies the competitive industries and the disadvantage industries in two countries, furthermore affirms the high growth potential trading products among the China and Africa. At the end of the paper, several opportunities and challenges are proposed according to the empirical results.

  3. Practical reality of media freedom: an examination of challenges facing the Namibian media

    OpenAIRE

    Fred J. Mwilima

    2011-01-01

    Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.
    Namibia is vast but sparsely populated, with an estimated population of about 1.9 million which is expected to reach 2.3 million by 2025 and 3.75 million by 2050....

  4. Crisis Management: Challenge or Opportunity for Public and Private Managers Face Economic Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The strategies adopted are based on a series of simplistic reasoning such as analogy, taking into account the ideas of experts, rigorous debate and experimentation. Napoleon Bonaparte said that "there is nothing more important and more valuable than being able to make decisions." Business leaders today must deal with an avalanche of ambiguity, it must decide on the future of the company. I intend to expose some successful methods by which top managers were able to transform into opportunities, challenges of economic crisis.

  5. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. OJO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

  6. Transformation processes of rural areas in Latin America: the challenges of interdisciplinarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Llambí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the main empirical research about Latin-American rurality in the early twenty-first century, show us at least four different ways of transformation at Latin American Rural Territories: agribusiness headed process, family farming headed process, several diversification of activities and incomes linked by the new quality of relations between country and urban places, the kind of pro­cesses experienced by those territories where peasants or ethnical minorities prevail (native american or afro descendents as an example.The main objective is to identify the theoretical background’s that may help us explaining such processes, while implies a re-construction booth of the rural sociologist space dimension’s and the interdisciplinary focus. 

  7. Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin

    2015-03-16

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692

  8. Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Nadeem Ahmad; Dr. H. S. Joshi; Dr. Rubeena Bano; Prof. D. B. Phalke

    2010-01-01

    The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0%) were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%). Down’s syndrome (17.23%) was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%). In 70.68% children no clinical s...

  9. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau : the benefits of international research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; HØnge, Bo Langhoff

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa has improved the quality of life of millions of people and reduced mortality. However, substantial problems with the infrastructure for ART delivery remain. APPROACH: Clinicians and researchers at an HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. LOCAL SETTING: The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international HIV researchers. Patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the country's main hospital in the capital Bissau. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between 2005 and 2013, 5514 HIV-positive patients were treated at the clinic. Working together, local health-care workers and international researchers identified the main problems affecting ART delivery: inadequate drug supply; loss of patients to follow-up; and inadequate laboratory services. Solutions to these problems were devised. The collaborations encouraged local physicians to start their own research projects to find possible solutions to problems at the clinic. LESSONS LEARNT: The HIV clinic in Bissau faced numerous obstacles in delivering ART at a sufficiently high quality and patients' lives were put in jeopardy. The effectiveness of ART could be enhanced by delivering it as part of an international research collaboration since such collaborations can help identify problems, find solutions and increase the capacity of the health-care system.

  10. National metric challenges facing the Costa Rican goal of achieving carbon - neutrality by 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes weaknesses faced by the carbon neutrality initiative proposed by the Costa Rican government due to metrics and highlights some of the technical improvements that will be required in order to achieve greater comparability, applicability and confidence from the results obtained. Technical gaps are found not only in the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions but when accounting for biogenic carbon capture and storage, where global reference values, usually those reported by the IPCC, are commonly used. We then make reference to problems associated with their use, mainly related to the uncertainty (accuracy and precision that results from any estimate. At the national level there is a lack of information for biomass and carbon for some ecosystems as well as few complete studies that consider all carbon pools at the ecosystem level. We give examples for some of the most studied species. Finally, we compare results using global reference values against those developed from local studies a the national level.

  11. Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nadeem Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0% were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%. Down’s syndrome (17.23% was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%. In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes were found in 29.31% children. For mentally challenged children better quality of life should be provided by disability limitation and suitable rehabilitation.

  12. Perception Challenges Faced by Al-Qaeda on the Battlefield of Influence Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J.F. Forest

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges

  13. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  14. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

  15. Apply Different Techniques to Face Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Challenges for Making Secure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of VANET is discussed in detail.The different concepts used in VANET are explained with very good style. The applications of VANET are also discussed here. In the near future, most new vehicles will be equipped with short range radios capable of communicating with other vehicles or with highwayinfrastructure at distances of at least one kilometer. The radios will allow new applications that will revolutionize the driving experience, providing everything from instant, localized traffic updates to warning signals when the car ahead abruptly brakes. While resembling traditional sensor and ad hoc networks in some respects, vehicular networks pose a number of unique challenges. The differentchallenges of VANET are explained and explained in detail in this paper.

  16. The challenges faced in the design, conduct and analysis of surgical randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Jonathan A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Randomised evaluations of surgical interventions are rare; some interventions have been widely adopted without rigorous evaluation. Unlike other medical areas, the randomised controlled trial (RCT design has not become the default study design for the evaluation of surgical interventions. Surgical trials are difficult to successfully undertake and pose particular practical and methodological challenges. However, RCTs have played a role in the assessment of surgical innovations and there is scope and need for greater use. This article will consider the design, conduct and analysis of an RCT of a surgical intervention. The issues will be reviewed under three headings: the timing of the evaluation, defining the research question and trial design issues. Recommendations on the conduct of future surgical RCTs are made. Collaboration between research and surgical communities is needed to address the distinct issues raised by the assessment of surgical interventions and enable the conduct of appropriate and well-designed trials.

  17. Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: challenges facing new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi -slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

  18. The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kathrin, Knüppe.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it i [...] s expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.

  19. Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: Challenges facing new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi-slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

  20. Challenges faced by genetics service providers' practicing in a culturally and linguistically diverse population: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mona; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Meiser, Bettina; Muchamore, Ian

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores the perceived challenges facing clinical genetics practitioners in multicultural Australia. Focus groups conducted with 53 practitioners explored: 1) participants' experiences and definitions of cultural diversity; 2) their use of educational resources with clients; 3) their experiences with culturally diverse groups/individuals in practice; 4) their experiences working with interpreters; and 5) the impact culturally specific educational training and/or experiential learning had on their confidence or practice when dealing with culturally diverse clients. Participants viewed culture as extending beyond traditional definitions such as ethnicity, language and religion. Most respondents had experienced positive results working with health care interpreters, although at times, this was a challenge for the family as they preferred privacy and the use of family members as interpreters. Another commonly reported challenge was the limited availability of reliable, culturally appropriate translated resources. Some participants expressed concern that learning theories about specific cultures may lead to stereotypes and that opportunities for formal cultural competence training were limited. Recommendations for practice include the targeting of educational resources to meet the needs of a diverse community and placing cultural competence on the agenda for ongoing training and maintenance of professional standards for clinical genetics practitioners to avoid the current ad hoc approach. PMID:19697111

  1. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  2. Place, Survivance, and White Remembrance: A Decolonizing Challenge to Rural Education in Mobile Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Michael Corbett's writing on the irony of schooling in rural places inspires the author to reconsider how place shapes his commitments and his learning as a White, educated class, land- and place-attached American male. In a time of climate change, economic collapse, and other related cultural and ecological crises, people's assumptions about…

  3. Conducting Program Evaluation with Hispanics in Rural Settings: Ethical Issues and Evaluation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many…

  4. Behind before They Begin: The Challenge of Early Childhood Education in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Zhao, Qiran; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse factors (accessibility, attendance rates and quality of preschools) that may be affecting the educational readiness of China's rural children before they enter the formal school system. Using data from a survey of 82 preschools and 492 households in six counties in three provinces of China, this paper…

  5. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  6. History, Hollywood, and the Hood: Challenging Racial Assumptions in Rural Central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John

    2007-01-01

    In light of research on diversity learning and teaching, this article describes how an introductory course on cinematic depictions of African Americans taught at a predominately white, rural university campus leads students to see the impact of history and Hollywood on their own local and statewide communities. Like others who teach courses on…

  7. Organizational Challenges for Schools in Rural Municipalities: Cross-National Comparisons in a Nordic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tommy; Stjernström, Olof

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the spatial structure of primary schools and alternative organizational frameworks are studied in a number of rural municipalities in the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate how the spatial structure of schools has changed between the years 2008 and 2013 in these municipalities, what…

  8. SMART GROWTH LAND USE PLANNING FOR A COMMUNITY AT THE RURAL URBAN INTERFACE UTILIZING STRUCTURED PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Simpson County, KY is facing suburban growth pressure like many communities across the country at the rural urban interface. This presents opportunities and challenges to maintain community identity, build economic diversity, protect environmental resources, and imp...

  9. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may be...... concrete suggestions for network activities had been made, but overall the development is at an early stage....

  10. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated…

  11. SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

  12. Benefits and Challenges of the Use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of high-Z plasma facing components requires intensive research in all areas, i.e. in plasma wall-interaction, in the physics of the confined plasma, diagnostic, and in material development. Only a few present day divertor tokamaks - mainly Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade - gained experience with the refractory metals molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. ASDEX Upgrade was stepwise converted from graphite to tungsten PFCs and in parallel a reduction of the deuterium retention by almost a factor of ten has been observed due to the strong suppression of D co-deposition with carbon. The deuterium retained in W is in line with laboratory results. In order to diagnose W sources and the W content in the main plasma adequate spectroscopic methods had to be developed. As expected from the sputtering threshold of Mo and W, negligible erosion by the thermal divertor background plasma is found in ASDEX Upgrade and Alcator C-Mod under low temperature divertor conditions. However, erosion by fast particles and intrinsic impurities, which additionally might be accelerated in rectified electrical fields observed during ion cyclotron frequency heating, plays an important role. The Mo and W concentrations in the plasma centre are strongly affected by plasma transport and variations up to a factor of 50 are observed for similar influxes. However, it could be demonstrated that sawteeth and turbulent transport driven by central heating can suppress central accumulation. The inward transport of high-Z ions at the edge can be efficiently reduced by 'flushing' the pedestal region caused by frequent edge instabilities. Since with metal walls the edge radiation by low-Z impurities is reduced, it has to be substituted in a pure high-Z device by artificially injected low-Z impurities in order to keep the power load at an acceptable level. Experiments at ASDEX Upgrade suggest that a regime with benign erosion and favourable confinement can be achieved. Extrapolations to ITER and DEMO are difficult since the physics of plasma transport is not yet completely understood, the particle and energy fluxes are orders of magnitude higher and the technical boundary conditions in DEMO strongly differ from those of present day devices.

  13. Benefits and challenges of the use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term retention of the radioactive tritium fuel in co-deposited carbon layers may be unacceptable for reasons of fuel supply and safety. Moreover, the erosion yield of low-Z materials will be far too high and their lifetime and their radiation hardness will not be sufficient in a future reactor. These serious concerns caused the reconsideration of high-Z based plasma facing components (PFCs), which show strongly reduced erosion yield especially for the high density, low temperature divertor operation necessary in an ITER-like device or a reactor. Concurrently the T retention is expected to be quite small. Operation with Mo and W is extensively explored in the high field tokamaks FT-U and Alcator C-mod and in the mid-sized devices TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. JT-60 U started investigations installing a divertor segment with W coatings and JET will have a W divertor during its ITER-like Wall project from 2010 on. Since the influxes of high-Z elements are very small and their allowed concentrations in the central plasma are very low (-4), new spectroscopic tools are being developed. Surface analysis techniques are used to support the spectroscopic erosion measurements and to investigate the H retention properties. The W-experiments in the divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade show that most of the relevant discharge scenarios are not hampered and the tungsten concentration remains below some 10-5. Comparison of limiter and divertor operation clearly demonstrates the advantage of the lower plasma temperature at the plasma wall interaction zone in the case of the divertor plasma. There are also regimes not suited for high-Z operation: discharges with very low central anomalous transport favour neoclassical accumulation, discharges with suppressed edge transport show largely increased impurity concentrations. However, the former can be cured by applying central heating, the latter can be overcome by externally controlling the frequency of the instabilities. Nevertheless, the experience with W PFCs obtained so far, leads to a fairly optimistic view for their use in a future reactor. This document is made of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)

  14. Potential challenges facing distributed leadership in health care: evidence from the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Beech, Nic; MacIntosh, Robert; Bushfield, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of leaderism in health care has been a subject of much academic and practical debate. Recently, distributed leadership (DL) has been adopted as a key strand of policy in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, there is some confusion over the meaning of DL and uncertainty over its application to clinical and non-clinical staff. This article examines the potential for DL in the NHS by drawing on qualitative data from three co-located health-care organisations that embraced DL as part of their organisational strategy. Recent theorising positions DL as a hybrid model combining focused and dispersed leadership; however, our data raise important challenges for policymakers and senior managers who are implementing such a leadership policy. We show that there are three distinct forms of disconnect and that these pose a significant problem for DL. However, we argue that instead of these disconnects posing a significant problem for the discourse of leaderism, they enable a fantasy of leadership that draws on and supports the discourse. PMID:25529349

  15. Frontier of therapeutic antibody discovery: The challenges and how to face them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines. The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies, phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far, and many incremental improvements are being made constantly. These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets. A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention. The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation. Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets. The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on. The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity; however, one needs contingency plans for emergence of anti-product antibody response for clinical trials.

  16. Desafios do Serviço Social na atualidade em Portugal / Challenges faced by Social Work in Portugal nowadays

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Irene, Carvalho; Carla, Pinto.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este texto pretendemos contribuir para a compreensão do Serviço Social e da profissão de assistente social em Portugal, desde a sua emergência até a atualidade, destacando os desafios em contexto de globalização e do risco social. Para efetuar esta análise situamo-nos na inter-relação Estado-soc [...] iedade, em que o Serviço Social, enquanto corpo de saber específico, se destaca entre o mundo da vida e mundo dos sistemas. Tivemos em conta o contexto social, político e econômico e os valores, assim como as influências teóricas, as organizações e as orientações das políticas públicas e sociais que determinam o modelo de profissão e o modelo de formação prosseguido em Portugal. Abstract in english We intended to contribute to the understanding the social work profession in Portugal since its emergence to the present day, highlighting the challenges in the context of globalization and social risk. To perform this analysis are situating in the interrelationship State-society, where the Social W [...] ork, as a body of specific knowledge stands between the world of the living and the world of systems. We consider the social, political and economic context and values ??as well as the theoretical influences, organizations and guidelines of social and public policies that determine the model of profession and training model being pursued in Portugal.

  17. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the SDG's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arena's. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDG's focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDG's are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders two approaches are functional, following: (i) the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision, implementation and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science and (ii) the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impacts and responses to land-use change that affect the state of the land in past, present and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDG's and interdisciplinary studies on Ecosystem Services (ES) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ES, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDG's (2, 3, 6, 12, 13 and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDG's have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint-learning". The internal organization of the soil science discipline is not yet well - tuned to the needs of inter - and transdisciplinary approaches.

  18. Critical reflections on the New Rurality and the rural territorial development approaches in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ramírez-Miranda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical approach to the New Rurality and the Rural Territorial Development (RTD perspectives, which nowadays are hegemonic for governmental organizations and Latin American academies. RTD's core requirements, which are functional for neoliberal policies resulting in the loss of food sovereignty, the globalization of agribusinesses, and migration as a consequence of peasant agricultural weakening, were critically reviewed on the basis of the principal challenges faced by Latin American rural areas. In light of the above consequences, it is thought that changes in such areas are based on neoliberal rurality rather than on the purported New Rurality. By stressing the need for a global historical view that reintroduces the Latin American critical thinking tradition, the urgency for public policies that stop neoliberal prescriptions and seek to strengthen peasant and indigenous agriculture in order to encourage rural development based on food sovereignty, democracy, equity and sustainability were established.

  19. O museu de arte perante o desafio da memória / The art museum facing the memory challenge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Isabel Rocha, Roque.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os museus surgiram como síntese representativa de uma realidade, impondo questões sobre a preservação das memórias inerentes à função e à simbologia dos objetos. No caso dos museus de arte, o objetivo era constituir um repositório patrimonial que contribuísse para a criação de uma identidade cultura [...] l, pelo que os objetos eram avaliados sobretudo em função da excelência dos seus parâmetros estéticos, em detrimento de outras significações; também a historiografia da arte privilegiava os aspectos formais, estabelecendo atribuições e estilos. Essas circunstâncias determinaram a descontextualização do objeto no espaço museológico. Porém, a partir de meados do século XX, os estudos sobre o público, enquanto entidade plural e diversificada, e os debates teóricos em torno da significação do objeto contribuíram para uma redefinição do discurso museológico. O museu passou a compensar as perdas inerentes ao processo de musealização por meio de um conjunto de procedimentos e ferramentas que recontextualizam os significados do objeto nas suas múltiplas valências. Entre ambos os vetores, de descontextualização e de recontextualização, o museu desafia a nossa memória pessoal e coletiva. Abstract in english Museums have emerged as a representative synthesis of a reality, so a question rises about the preservation of the memories inherent to the functional and symbolic objects. In the particular case of art museums, the goal was to build a heritage repository which would contribute to the creation of a [...] cultural identity. So, the objects were mainly evaluated in terms of aesthetic excellence of its parameters, to the detriment of other meanings. On the other hand, also the historiography of art favored formal aspects, establishing authorities and styles. These circumstances determined the decontextualization of the object in the museum. In return, from mid-twentieth century onwards, the studies of the public, as a plural and diversified entity, and the theoretical debates around the meaning of the object, contributed to a redefinition of the museological speech. The museum had to offset losses due to the musealisation through a set of procedures and tools that recontextualize the meanings of the object in their multiple valences. Between the two vectors, decontextualization and recontextualization, the museum challenges our personal and collective memory.

  20. Challenges for Ecosystem Services Provided by Coral Reefs In the Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R. K.; Elliff, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs provide many ecosystem services of which coastal populations are especially dependent upon, both in cases of extreme events and in daily life. However, adaptation to climate change is still relatively unknown territory regarding the ecosystem services provided by coastal environments, such as coral reefs. Management strategies usually consider climate change as a distant issue and rarely include ecosystem services in decision-making. Coral reefs are among the most vulnerable environments to climate change, considering the impact that increased ocean temperature and acidity have on the organisms that compose this ecosystem. If no actions are taken, the most likely scenario to occur will be of extreme decline in the ecosystem services provided by coral reefs. Loss of biodiversity due to the pressures of ocean warming and acidification will lead to increased price of seafood products, negative impact on food security, and ecological imbalances. Also, sea-level rise and fragile structures due to carbonate dissolution will increase vulnerability to storms, which can lead to shoreline erosion and ultimately threaten coastal communities. Both these conditions will undoubtedly affect recreation and tourism, which are often the most important use values in the case of coral reef systems. Adaptation strategies to climate change must take on an ecosystem-based approach with continuous monitoring programs, so that multiple ecosystem services are considered and not only retrospective trends are analyzed. Brazilian coral reefs have been monitored on a regular basis since 2000 and, considering that these marginal coral reefs of the eastern Atlantic are naturally under stressful conditions (e.g. high sedimentation rates), inshore reefs of Brazil, such as those in Tinharé-Boipeba, have shown lower vitality rates due to greater impacts from the proximity to the coastal area (e.g. pollution, overfishing, sediment run-off). This chronic negative impact must be addressed to increase resilience and guarantee the adaptation of this ecosystem to climate change. Thus, considering that the majority of the marine ecosystem services we benefit from are provided from coastal habitats, of which coral reefs play an important role, the challenge at hand is in fact the interaction between local factors and climate change

  1. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  2. Old and New Worlds: The Global Challenges of Rural History. Conference eBook

    OpenAIRE

    Serrão, José Vicente; Freire, Dulce; Fernández Prieto, Lourenzo; Santos, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, a História Rural tem vindo a abandonar quer o seu foco analítico predominantemente nacional e local, quer uma perspectiva interpretativa demasiado centrada na Europa e no Ocidente. É uma evolução muito positiva, que nós pretendemos reforçar com este congresso, ao escolhermos como temática central a relação entre os velhos e os novos mundos. Essa relação entre civilizações e culturas de diferentes partes do globo tem produzido ao longo dos últimos 500 anos múltiplos efeito...

  3. Improvement Efforts in Rural Schools: Experiences of Nine Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Christianson, Megan Davis; Hague Angus, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Low-performing schools in rural settings can face challenges common to all struggling schools, such as low student motivation and maintaining a qualified teaching staff. However, aspects of rural schools' settings, such as the distance from urban areas and the commute between the schools and the students' and teachers' homes, can exacerbate the…

  4. The importance of health insurance and the safety net in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Thomas G; Moore, Kellan S

    2015-01-01

    Access to health insurance and health care are critical for people living in rural communities, where the safety net is fragile. However, rural communities face challenges as they enroll uninsured people in the health insurance marketplace, educate newly insured individuals on how to use insurance, and coordinate care for those who remain uninsured. PMID:25621483

  5. Issues in Vocational Education for Special Populations in Rural Areas. TASPP Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1990-01-01

    Students with special needs living in rural areas face a difficult challenge as they prepare for employment and adult life. Access to vocational education in rural areas may be limited by isolation, problems in teacher recruitment and retention, curriculum and instructional deficiencies, and weak financial support. In addition, program relevance…

  6. The Development of Early Childhood Education in Rural Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Hu, Xinyun

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood education has developed greatly in rural areas in China since the 1980s. Recognising the status of early childhood education as "the foundation of basic education", the authorities in China have set up challenging objectives for rural areas. However, the development of early childhood education in these areas has been facing…

  7. Digital Revolution or Digital Divide: Will Rural Teachers Get a Piece of the Professional Development Pie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Tania

    2010-01-01

    In order to sustain the rural education community, access to high quality professional development opportunities must become a priority. Teachers in rural areas face many challenges in order to access professional learning equitable to their city counterparts. In the current climate, the Federal government of Australia is committed to initiatives…

  8. International Cooperation and Internal displacement in Colombia: facing the challenges of the largest humanitarian crisis in South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuela Trindade, Viana.

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to understand the interaction between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Colombian government in their attempts to mitigate forced internal displacement, as well as the main challenges faced in addressing this problem. This article focu [...] ses on the interpretation adopted by the forementioned actors, who link this displacement to the armed conflict the country that has endured for more than forty years. Although this issue has been discussed for decades, the formulation of national policies intended to mitigate its effects came late, in the mid-1990s. Similarly, the UNHCR began paying more attention only in the late 1990s. The article concludes that there is a significant disparity between the development of norms regarding the internally displaced and the execution of such norms. For example, there needs to be greater coordination between national and local organizations, and national and international organizations. With respect to the prevention of internal displacement and the evaluation of the impact of these policies, the challenge is even greater; as such efforts are in the beginning stages. The UNHCR has used the same criteria as the Colombian government in executing its tasks; these criteria should be rethought and redefined in light of the High Commissioner's experience.

  9. As novas faces do sindicalismo rural brasileiro: a reforma agrária e as tradições sindicais na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on cherche à comprendre le sens de l'engagement de certains syndicalistes du Pernambouc dans les actions d'occupation des terres ainsi que les conséquences de cette nouvelle pratique observée dans d'autres États brésiliens sous l'égide du MST (Mouvement des Sans-Terre pour le syndicalisme rural vu comme le plus dynamique du pays. À l'aide d'une analyse centrée surtout sur le suivi systématique des événements organisés par la FETAPE (Fédération des travailleurs de l'agriculture à Pernambouc, on a pu percevoir que l'adhésion de ce traditionnel pôle de défense des travailleurs ruraux au modèle fabriqué par le MST a été dictée, en grande partie, par les structures internes elles-mêmes de la formation syndicale, par leurs conditions historiques de reproduction et surtout par un conflit de générations entre ses membres.

  10. Key challenges in the governance of rural water supply: lessons learnt from tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    El primer objetivo de esta tesis es la identificación y análisis de aspectos clave para la gobernanza de los servicios de agua rural en países que adolecen de bajos niveles de cobertura, altos índices de pobreza, se encuentran en procesos de descentralización, reciben un importante apoyo de donantes internacionales. Esta situación es común para muchos países de África Sub-sahariana. Por ello, se eligió Tanzania como objeto de estudio. El segundo objetivo de esta tesis ha sido el e...

  11. Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking Towards the Sky for an Answer

    OpenAIRE

    H. T Ishaku; Majid, M. R.; Ajayi, A A; A Haruna

    2011-01-01

    Access to safe water supply has great influence on the health, economic productivity and quality of life of the people. But meeting this need is one of the major challenges facing the rural communities of Nigeria today. The purpose of this review paper is to determine whether water supply have contributed effectively to health, social, and cultural development of Nigerian rural communities. Over 70% of households in rural communities do not have access to improved water supply. They rely sole...

  12. Challenges facing young astrophysicists

    OpenAIRE

    Zakamska, N. L.; Schulz, A. E.; Heng, K; Juric, M.; Kocsis, B.; Kuhlen, M.; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J. L.; Pan, M.; Rudd, D. H.; Ven, G., van der; Zheng, Z

    2009-01-01

    In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shor...

  13. Challenges facing young astrophysicists

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, N L; Heng, K; Juric, M; Kocsis, B; Kuhlen, M; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J L; Pan, M; Rudd, D H; van de Ven, G; Zheng, Z

    2009-01-01

    In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shortage of child care options and design reasonable profession-wide parental leave policies. (4) Streamline the job application and hiring process. We summarize our reasons for bringing these areas to the attention of the committee, and we suggest several practical steps that can be taken to address them.

  14. Challenges faced by NRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) played an important role in setting up of nuclear power plants (two) and development of fuel technology. However, with no current plans for expansion of this programme, the Institute is looking mainly into multi-cycle fuel management and life extension issues. The Institute focuses on programmes related to radioisotope and radiation applications and on the use of nuclear technologies for non-nuclear applications. The ININ is the major provider of radioisotopes for medical uses. It also promotes and uses nuclear analytical techniques for addressing a variety of problems. In non-nuclear areas some R and D examples include: the use of thermal plasma for hazardous waste incineration, biodegradation of polymers and development of separation techniques for treating industrial effluents. For preservation of knowledge, the Institute has instituted PhD. programmes in materials science, medical physics and nuclear science in collaboration with a university. (author)

  15. Challenges Facing Guitar Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The guitar is an extremely versatile instrument. It can produce complex chords and arpeggiated textures as readily as single-note melodies. In the twentieth century alone, it has appeared in a wide range of genres; classical, jazz, blues, rock, and bossa nova compose a partial list. The guitar is also a difficult instrument. Inconsistencies across…

  16. Applying knowledge, facing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Greg

    2015-05-16

    After qualifying from Cambridge, Greg Dickens looked for a job that could support him while he tried to break into international sport. He became an innovation consultant, inventing or modifying new technologies, for which, he says, the skills developed during the veterinary degree are ideal. PMID:25977498

  17. How Waldorf School graduates cope with the challenges they face during military service: a ten-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Goldshmidt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews part of a study that dealt with how graduates of the Waldorf School integrate into Israeli society, as seen from their perspective. The purpose of the study was to explore how Waldorf School graduates integrate into society on completing high school, and examine the nature and quality of life readiness that the Waldorf educational method provides its graduates. Three main areas of life were reviewed in the study: graduates in the one-year volunteer framework, in the regular military framework, and in academic studies. Of these, the current study reviews only the area of military service. The study applied qualitative methodology, including semi-structured interviews with 46 graduates of the Waldorf School in Harduf, Israel, following twelve full years of study. This is the first study of Waldorf-educated graduates ever conducted worldwide relying solely qualitative methodology, and the only study conducted in Israel thus far. The study’s main conclusion is that the Waldorf School, as an education system emphasizing artistic and creative manifestation, hands-on work, a connection with nature, warm personal relationships, and an absence of exams and grades, can produce graduates who see themselves as successfully cope with the challenges they face following completion of school, and in this particular case, the challenges of coping with military service in the IDF. One of the questions surfacing from the study is whether it is possible to implement Waldorf School methods and approaches fully or partially also in the framework of other governmental education systems.

  18. Experience of developing rural surgical care in a remote mountainous region of Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. AKMCS was established in 1992 to provide emergency and common elective surgical care. It has strengthened the primary health service through training, education and referral mechanism. It also provided an opportunity for family physicians to be trained in common surgical operations with special emphasis on emergency obstetric care. In addition it offers elective rotations for the residents and medical students to see the spectrum of diseases and to understand the concept of optimal care with limited resources. Methods and Results: The clinical data was collected prospectively using international classification of diseases ICD -9 coding and the database was developed on a desktop computer. Information about the operative procedures and outcome was separately collected on an Excel worksheet. The data from January 1998 to December 2001 were retrieved and descriptive analysis was done on epi info-6. Thirty-one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two patients were seen during this period, 53% were medical, 24% surgical, 16% obstetric and 7% with psychiatric illness. Out of 1990 surgical operations 32% were general surgery, 31% orthopedic, 21% pediatric, 12% obstetric and 4% urological cases; 42% of operations were done under general anesthesia, 22% spinal, 9% intravenous (IV ketamine, 6% IV sedation and 21% under local anesthesia. Six hundred and sixty-two were done in the main operation room including general surgery 337, obstetric 132, urological 67, pediatric 66 and orthopedic 66 cases; 64% of cases in the main operation room were done under general and 22% under spinal anesthesia. The commonest surgeries were exploratory laparotomy, caesarian sections, open prostatectomy, urological stone surgeries, appendectomy, hernia repairs and surgery for osteomyelitis. There were 21 surgical mortalities including six operative deaths, 15 non-operative deaths and 89% of the mortalities were unavoidable. The crude in-hospital mortality decreased significantly from 5.5% in 1992 to 1.1% in 2001 and the contributing factors were improved structure and process of care. Conclusion: The impact of a secondary care rural medical centre (AKMC is very obvious from the clinical audit including accessibility, sustainability and quality of care. This could be a model of care in rural Pakistan where accessibility, affordability and quality of care is lacking.

  19. Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment plants: challenges facing small water treatment plants in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MNB, Momba; CL, Obi; P, Thompson.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered inc [...] luded ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (

  20. Challenges faced by health workers in providing counselling services to HIV-positive children in Uganda: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujumba Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children remains an uphill task for many health workers in HIV-endemic countries, including Uganda. We conducted a descriptive study to explore the challenges of providing HIV counselling and testing services to children in Uganda. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in the districts of Kampala and Kabarole in Uganda. The data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions with health workers who are involved in the care of HIV-positive children. Key informant interviews were conducted with the administrators of the 10 study healthcare institutions. Quantitative data were summarized using frequency tables, while qualitative data were analyzed using the content thematic approach. Results Counselling children was reported to be a difficult exercise due to some children being unable to express themselves, being dependent on adults for their care, being fearful, and requiring more time to open up during counselling. This was compounded by some caretakers' unwillingness and difficulty to disclose the HIV status of their children. Other issues about the caretakers were: lack of consistency in caretakers; old age; sickness; and poverty. Health workers mentioned the following as some of the challenges they face in the delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children: lack of counselling skills; failure to cope with the knowledge demand; difficulty to facilitate disclosure; heavy work load; and lack of other support services. Institutions were found to be constrained by limited space and lack of antiretrovirals for children. Conclusions The major challenges in the delivery of paediatric HIV services were related to the knowledge gap in paediatric HIV and the lack of counselling skills, as well as health system-related constraints. There is a need to train health workers in child-counselling skills, especially in the issues of disclosure, sexuality and sexual abuse, as well as in addressing fears related to death and an uncertain future, in order to improve paediatric HIV care. Provision of child-friendly services, guidelines and antiretroviral formulations for children may provide a window of hope to improve HIV counselling and testing services for children.

  1. Tourism and new governance structures, a relation with potential to develop depressed rural areas: the example of the municipality of Almeida (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fernando Pereira da; Ramos, Rui A. R., ed. lit.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in Portugal some rural areas are facing the challenges resulting from the reform of traditional economic activities and new markets’ characteristics. These challenges promote new local development policies that result in mobilising local resources and in expanding rural activities. In this context, tourism is considered, in many cases, a key sector for the economic growth of these territories. In rural areas tourism can include different types of tourist activiti...

  2. Construction and Validation of a Survey Instrument to Determine the Gender-Related Challenges Faced by Pre-Service Male Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Vaughan; Pedersen, Scott; Hill, Allen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The gender-related challenges facing males entering the primary-school teaching profession have been well documented in the academic literature over recent decades. The majority of these data have come about through qualitative reports. Whilst qualitative methods provide important perspectives into these issues, the use of valid and reliable…

  3. "It's Intense, to an Extent": A Qualitative Study of the Emotional Challenges Faced by Staff Working on a Treatment Programme for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…

  4. Mondialisation et exploitation des ressources linguistiques: les defis des communautes francophones de l'Ontario (Globalization and Use of Linguistic Resources: The Challenges Facing Francophone Communities in Ontario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Normand; Belanger, Nathalie; Lozon, Roger; Roy, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Examines challenges faced by two Canadian francophone communities, one in Niagra Peninsula, and the other in the Simcoe region. Investigates how communities are affected by changes related to globalization and how the members of these two communities use their linguistic resources to adapt socially and professionally. (Author/VWL)

  5. "It's Intense, to an Extent": A Qualitative Study of the Emotional Challenges Faced by Staff Working on a Treatment Programme for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…

  6. Distance Education Potential For A Canadian Rural Island Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning....

  7. People with learning disabilities in rural Scotland: review of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Anthony

    2015-10-14

    People with learning disabilities may have additional healthcare needs compared to the general population, and the NHS faces challenges in addressing these needs. Scotland has many remote and rural communities, and residents of these communities can encounter difficulties in accessing healthcare resources. This article considers Scotland's healthcare policy in relation to remote and rural areas, and how effective it is in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities in these communities. PMID:26463809

  8. Challenges in recruitment of African Americans with type 2 diabetes in rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Dana; Garth, Katy; Byers, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment of African Americans to participate in research studies is challenging, however creativity in study design and attention to the community can overcome many barriers. Community based partnerships to assist African Americans in managing their disease and preventing complications. PMID:23101356

  9. Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

  10. Confronting the climate change challenge: discussing the role of rural India under cumulative emission budget approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO2) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.

  11. CHALLENGES FACING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ ICT-BASED MARKET INFORMATION SERVICE (MIS PROJECTS: THE CASE OF BROSDI AND WOUGNET IN UGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Juma Okello (Corresponding Author

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Access and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs by the smallholder rural farmer is envisaged to improve their welfare due to increased access to input and output markets. This study analyzes the constraints to the use of such tools for market linkage in Uganda and policy implications. The paper draws from a case study of two local organizations ICT-based projects namely, Busoga Rural Open Source Development Initiative (BROSDI, and Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET. The constraints identified include lack or poor to ICT tools, poor ICT infrastructure, inadequate resources and high levels of poverty, low levels of literacy, inappropriate modes of information transfer, socio-cultural dynamics and sustainability issues. The paper argues that reaching the poor illiterate smallholder farmers requires redesigning the information content and delivery modes so that the information comes in audio form and in ICT tools that do not require literature. Also the government and private sector need to work hand in hand to ensure access and usability of ICT tools in rural areas by the former investing more in making electricity available in rural communities and the latter extending network boosters to remote rural areas

  12. Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on the themes of the 2007 conference held in Aix-en-Provence. These topical issues were: the roles, functions and values that guide TSOs in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety; technical and scientific support for nuclear safety infrastructure development and capacity building; the emerging need for nuclear security technical and scientific support; and nuclear safety and nuclear security networking and centres of excellence. The President's report on the conference, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, is included in these proceedings and provides an overview of all the issues addressed. In the presentations and subsequent discussions, the conference highlighted positive outcomes, confronted areas of continuing concern and explored avenues to address those concerns. Among the more salient findings was the determination that a means for continuous dialogue among TSOs was necessary. The need to support the review process for a future IAEA safety publication on external expert support on safety issues was also identified. Finally, consideration of a TSO forum along the lines of the Regulatory Cooperation Forum to develop best practices and promote common values was recommended. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a foreword, a summary, the opening addresses and invited papers, and the conclusions, recommendations and a conference summary by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers, the list of participants and the presentations that were submitted with the invited papers.

  13. The Challenges of Youth Empowerment through Access to Credit in the Rural Areas of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Mohammed Aliero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment and poverty are endemic among Nigerian youth in spite of numerousapproaches to curtail the menace Access to credit is critical to enable the poor totransform their production systems and thus exit poverty. It is a well known fact that anefficient financial sector that responds to the needs of the private sector increasesinvestment, enhances economic growth, and creates job opportunities which is one of themajor challenges for developing economies. This paper examines the role of creditdeepening on youth empowerment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The approach of thepaper is qualitative and uses content analysis; literature was reviewed and thereafterconclusion was drawn based on the literature weight. It is however important to note thateconomic empowerment through accessibility to credit could be achieved if and only iffactors like collateral, interest rate, transaction cost and financial literacy, among othersthat pose challenges in accessing credit are remedied Specifically we recommend Indianmodel (Bharatia Yuva Shakti.

  14. Challenges and implementation of a women's breast health initiative in rural Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Dallas P; Erwin, Deborah O; Ciupak, Gregory; Hellenthal, Nicholas; Sofi, Mehbooba J; Guru, Khurshid A; Edge, Stephen B

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how to successfully collect demographic, lifestyle and health behavior data, followed by an educational intervention on a culturally sensitive topic, breast cancer, in the politically fragile Kashmir Valley. Survey results of 520 women identified challenges that impact the general health of women, including literacy, hygiene and water safety, as well as a dearth of breast health and educational resources and all cancer services. The study tested culturally sensitive approaches to obtain survey data and provide appropriate breast health education for Kashmiri women at risk for breast cancer, who live within this socially and politically challenging environment. This study provides a foundation for future development of research and clinical programs to identify women at high risk and implement an active health surveillance monitoring program with a focus on breast cancer in Kashmir. PMID:21324696

  15. Expansão das licenciaturas em Educação do Campo: desafios e potencialidades / Expansion of the degree in rural education: challenges and potentialities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monica Castagna, Molina.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo integra a Pesquisa realizada a partir do Observatório da Educação da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), intitulada "Políticas da Expansão da Educação Superior no Brasil". Uma das frentes da expansão da Educação Superior tem se dado no âmbito da formação [...] de educadores do campo, com a implementação de 42 cursos de uma nova modalidade de graduação, intitulada "Licenciatura em Educação do Campo". Se considerados os aspectos relativos à ampliação concreta da oferta de formação de educadores e a conquista dos fundos públicos do Estado para manutenção destas graduações esta expansão destes cursos permanentes pode ser tomada como vitória dos movimentos sociais. Porém, esta expansão também impõe uma série de desafios à manutenção dos princípios originais do Movimento da Educação do Campo. Quais os riscos e potencialidades desta ampliação? Com a perspectiva de apresentar elementos de reflexão sobre estas questões, este artigo elenca os riscos da descaracterização de aspectos estruturantes desta política e as potencialidades que se julgam conter neste processo de ampliação, que estão sendo analisadas na pesquisa "Políticas de Expansão da Educação Superior no Brasil". Abstract in english This article is part of the research conducted from the Centre for Education of CAPES, entitled "Expansion of Higher Education Policies in Brazil". One of the important development in the expansion of higher education, has been the training of rural educators, with the implementation of 42 courses o [...] f a new type of degree, entitled "Degree in Rural Education." If we consider the aspects relating to the concrete enlargement of places for teacher training and the achievement of gaining public funds from the State to fund these courses, this expansion of these permanent courses can be taken as a victory for the social movements. However, this expansion also imposes a number of challenges to maintain the original principles of the Rural Education Movement. What are the risks and potentialities of this expansion? With the prospect of presenting thoughts on these issues, this article lists the risks of disfiguration of fundamental aspects of this policy and potentialities that are deemed to be contained within this expansion process, which are being analysed in the research "Political Expansion of Higher Education in Brazil".

  16. Small-scale farming in rural areas :logistical challenges with direct distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsveen, Roar; Solvoll, Gisle

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews Norwegian farmers’ and companies’ strategies and experience with the use of direct distribution and e-commerce when selling agriculture products. Based on the opportunities and pitfalls resulting from the use of Internet and e-commerce in consumer marketing, the article discusses the commercial possibilities emerging from direct distribution of agricultural products to end-consumers. The focus on direct distribution is brought up to date through studying the challenges fa...

  17. Why medical students do not like to join rural health service? An exploratory study in India

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Nallala; Subhashisa Swain; Sanju Das; Kasam, Shravan K.; Sanghamitra Pati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inadequate, inequitable distribution of the medical workforce remains a challenge across the globe, and India is no exception. Odisha, a state in India faces a major shortage of doctors particularly in rural and remote areas. In order to address this challenge, it is essential to understand medical students’ career plans, specialization preferences, choices of job location and sector, and views on working in rural and remote areas. This study explored the immediate and long-term...

  18. THE MODERNIZATION OF RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER THE MEASURE 322 OF THE NATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius MIHALACHE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context in which rural areas represent 92% of the EU territory and gather over 50% of the EU population, and many rural areas face significant challenges such as migration and aging, reduced access to services, poor infrastructure or reduced employment opportunities, the concerns for rural development and improved quality of life in these areas have increased. Rural development is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union, which is pointed out by the consistent financial allocations: over a third of the total available funds at EU level between 2007 and 2013, and an estimated 38% for 2014-2020. The main institutional mechanism to support the development of rural areas in Romania was represented by the implementation of the National Rural Development Programme 2007-2013 (NRDP financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development. In the absence of other major government initiatives for rural development, the absorption of EU funds has been the main funding opportunity after 2007, for the initiatives of modernizing the Romanian rural areas. Based on a mix of secondary data analysis and the analysis of official documents provided by The Agency for Financing Rural Investment, the article aims to examine how the public investments program was carried out under the measure 322 of the NRDP, to identify its strong and weak points and its impact on rural infrastructure.

  19. Leadership Strategies for Maintaining Success in a Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Greta G.; Randolph, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Success in a PK-12 educational environment begins at the top with school leadership. Due to economic problems, poverty and added responsibilities, leaders in rural communities throughout the United States face sensitive and distinctive challenges. Based on research and years of administrative experience as school and school system leaders, the…

  20. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  1. Developing Leaders: The Role of Competencies in Rural Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…

  2. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  3. Career Changers as First-Year Teachers in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Anderson, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The challenges novice teachers face as they adjust to inservice teaching are well documented. However, relatively little attention has been given to beginning teachers in rural schools who have had previous careers in other professions. We used qualitative methods to examine the professional experiences and perceptions of four career-changing…

  4. Advancing Rural Family Resiliency Research, Education, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Families face trials, tribulations, transitions, and tragedies over time. Some families are better able to get through these challenges than others. Understanding why and how is central to the scientific inquiry known as family resiliency research. This article reports on multiple studies that together advance a rural family risk and resiliency…

  5. Rural Hispanic populations at risk in developing diabetes: sociocultural and familial challenges in promoting a healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuman, Amy N; Scholl, Juliann C; Wilkinson, Kenton

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes affects Hispanic populations disproportionately and is the fifth leading cause of death for Hispanic people in the United States ( Smith & Barnett, 2005 ). Risk of diabetes is of great concern throughout the United States and is clearly of epidemic proportions for regions such as the Southwest and Texas where the primary minority populations are Mexican American. We conducted four focus groups with a total of 49 Hispanic participants (23 adults and 26 adolescents) from rural West Texas communities to gain insights about participants' eating habits, knowledge of diabetes, and potential barriers to preventive care. From the data, we identified a three-tiered predisposition or vulnerability to diabetes-heredity; preferences for unhealthy, culturally based food; and temptations from U.S. mainstream fast food culture. These vulnerabilities added to the sociocultural concerns that participants identified-importance of parental and familial modeling; challenges to healthy eating based on a culturally based diet and mainstream fast food culture; and a lack of support from the larger sociocultural networks such as teachers, community leaders, and the media. From these data, we have a better understanding of familial and sociocultural factors that need to be addressed in the development of preventive public awareness and educational plans. We outline implications for practitioners and educators from an integrated cultural biomedical approach. PMID:22716086

  6. There exists a disjunction between Tory preoccupations in Birmingham and the more fundamental challenges the party actually faces

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Tim Bale describes the typical party conference atmosphere and argues the Conservatives’ obsession with issues like Europe, visa restrictions and Boris only distract from far greater and more pressing concerns facing the party.

  7. Rural nurses’ continuing education needs: A U.S. multi-site survey reveals challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Roseanne Fairchild; Marcee Everly; Linda Walters; Renee Bauer; Stephanie Laws; Louise Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Background: Provision of relevant, evidence-based continuing education (CE) is an integral part of maintaining a highly competent rural nursing workforce. Numerous tangible and intangible barriers exist to nurses’ participation in CE in rural settings. Major barriers to accessibility and participation in CE for rural nurses include: 1) Geographic isolation, 2) lack of perceived administrative, financial, and/or technological resources and support, 3) lack of time due to workload, inadequate s...

  8. Teacher Training and Transitions in Rural Indonesian Schools: A Case Study of Bogor, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…

  9. International Relations and Cooperation facing the evolution of societies and challenges of living processes : Open Strategies for action : the added-value of patrimonial strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    de HARTINGH, François-Vadim

    2008-01-01

    Facing challenges of a planetary dimension especially regarding the living systems and the man in the biosphere, the system of international relations and cooperation is being put in question. The international organizations and their mode of cooperation are being questioned as far as their methods and their fundamentals are concerned. If the universal values are recognized by all, the complexity of the problems in the biosphere and the urgency they reach now do not appear to be dealt with in...

  10. Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development

    OpenAIRE

    Marunda, E.; Sai, J.P.; Muchenje, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources i...

  11. The prospects and challenges in rural marketing with references to two wheelers - A study of Karad Taluka of Satara District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H G Abhyankar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available India’s geo-demographic identity underscores as “India lives in her villages”. Even the economy is progressing day by day very fast but the division between rural and urban has no signs of receding. As for the Indian context where more than three forth of population lives in rural India & the national income generated in rural India is one third of its total. Now it becomes compulsory for researchers to study in-depth the needs and wants of ruler population therefore most of the industries are investing their money for rural marketing. The researcher has taken two wheeler industries for studying the rural marketing. This research paper focuses the objectives, review of literature, scope, research methodology, hypothesis testing, and suggestions.

  12. Challenges Students' Face in Their Transition from Primary to Secondary School and the Interventions Schools Take to Ease the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarekegne, Wudu Melese

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the major challenges that affect students' enrollment and participation and the key measures schools take to mitigate the challenge and help students continue their education. The data were collected from 23 secondary school grade nine students in Amahara Regional State in Ethiopia using the structured questionnaires from…

  13. Emergent Teacher-Researchers: A Reflection on the Challenges Faced when Conducting Research in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The following narrative reflects on the dilemmas and problems faced by inexperienced researchers working within the field of education. Focusing on a research project completed in fulfilment of an MA in Teaching and Learning, the article recounts the decisions made by one emergent researcher and evaluates how far the chosen methods may have helped…

  14. Addressing Rural Library Technology Budgets with Single Board Computers: Testing the APC 8950 Rock Circuit Board Computer for Patron Access

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Wells

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, libraries have faced enormous budgetary challenges when it comes to implementing new technologies. These challenges are very pronounced in rural areas where libraries struggle to develop and define a path for purchasing and replacing systems that have become outdated. The author attempted to create a unit to replace aging OPAC terminals and to provide a low cost computing option for budget constrained rural libraries. The initial attempt detailed in this paper involved p...

  15. Implementing clinical supervision for Australian rural nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Amanda; Allenby, Ann

    2013-05-01

    In a practice environment characterised by diversity and unpredictability, the role of rural nurses is described as challenging. Developing strategies to support rural nurses is important, for recruitment and retention, and to ensure that nurses provide quality services for rural communities. Most researchers recommend ongoing education as almost a panacea to the challenges that rural nurses face. In this Australian study, there was interest in exploring the potential for clinical supervision as a mechanism for supporting rural nurses. Clinical supervision has been identified as a useful means of reflecting on practice, building resilience, reducing stress and avoiding burnout. A six month clinical supervision programme was developed and implemented with twenty two rural nurses. Using an interpretive descriptive design, a group discussion on participant views of the programme was conducted. Using a thematic network approach, three themes; becoming reflective, understanding and commitment, and losing the client were developed. While in no way devaluing the usefulness of clinical supervision, the findings from this study provide guidance for others introducing similar programmes and indicate that clinical supervision must be focused, well planned and supported. PMID:22980923

  16. The prospects and challenges in rural marketing with references to two wheelers - A study of Karad Taluka of Satara District

    OpenAIRE

    H G Abhyankar; Sandeep N Jagadale

    2013-01-01

    India’s geo-demographic identity underscores as “India lives in her villages”. Even the economy is progressing day by day very fast but the division between rural and urban has no signs of receding. As for the Indian context where more than three forth of population lives in rural India & the national income generated in rural India is one third of its total. Now it becomes compulsory for researchers to study in-depth the needs and wants of ruler population therefore most of the industri...

  17. Towards an inclusive society in Ghana: An analysis of challenges persons with disabilities face in participating in tourism in Ashanti region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussan Aggrey Mensah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation in tourism brings individuals, families and communities together, making it an important social inclusion strategy. Negative perceptions about persons with disabilities could make it difficult for them to access public places. Therefore, this study served to examine tourism challenges for persons with disabilities (PwDs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A cross sectional study with quantitative data collection was conducted with PwDs. Structured questionnaires were administered to 120 PwDs using a convenience sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were explored using SPSS version 20. The study found that PwDs faced barriers to facilities and structures at tourist destinations. The barriers to tourism included lack of income, negative attitudes of the public and physical barriers such as a lack of adapted toilet facilities, tables and chairs, inaccessible routes for wheel chair users, inability to climb walkways and an absence of canopy walk-ways. The study supports the evidence of challenges faced by PwDs at tourism destinations. Redesigning and resourcing tourism facilities to be more PwD friendly could remove barriers faced by PwDs in tourism, creating greater social inclusion for this population. Keywords: tourism, persons with disabilities, participation, accessibility, inclusion

  18. Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P Henz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF, assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relatadas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1 incidência de pragas e doenças; (2 aquisição de mudas; (3 custo de embalagens; (4 necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5 custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo.In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF, Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1 incidence of pests and diseases; (2 strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3 packing costs; (4 need of intensive labor; and (5 high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

  19. Fragmentation and Unity of Rural Public Governance: A Case Study on Lin’an City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong ZENG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The township, as the most basic political system in China, a head of which is connected to a city, and the another head connected with the countryside, is the foundation of national economic and social development. In the face of strong intervention of economic globalization, the gradually weakening of local township government, and the increasingly tense of national finance, agricultural and rural development policy, which is presently ubiquitous in the rural area of China, stressed from top to bottom, expert guidance, government-dominated promoting, will face the serious challenges of rural governance under the background of globalization. The rural governance is that the national institutions and other authorities based on the village government provides public service activities to the village society, in order to maintain rural order, promote rural development, according to the laws, regulations, customs and traditions. And rural governance is the process of multi subjects’ collaborative management of rural village. Rural governance quality reflects the ability of government’s rural social mobilization and management, and relates to the stable development and prosperity of rural society. The current problems of township governance, mainly are not the “township”problems of its own, but the “institutions and mechanisms of government”problem. This article takes the Lin’an city of Zhejiang province as the research object, through the development of villages and towns work rules in the process of tracking, puts forward a good example of rural governance in china.

  20. The challenges faced when starting from scratch: baking GRI G4 sustainability reporting into existing organizational practices

    OpenAIRE

    Multanen, Juho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY, ACADEMIC BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: This study focuses on the process of introducing the trendy GRI G4 sustainability reporting standard in a Finnish chemical company and how this is done. The purpose of this single case study is to deepen our understanding on the challenges and tensions that actors dealing with reporting must handle and turn to their advantages. What empowers them to tackle these challenges, who are they exactly, and how have they baked the MA-...

  1. Slammed by government cuts and sidelined by the occupy movements, women face an uphill battle to challenge patriarchy in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Women have borne the brunt of the coalition government’s cut programme, facing reduced public services and diminished employment opportunities. And while the Occupy and other protests movements have highlighted inequality in the UK, they continue to be dominated by white men. Amanda Conroy argues that feminists should take a cue from the OccupyPatriarchy movement and turn their attention toward the values underpinning maledominated capitalism.

  2. New challenges in rural development: A multi-scale inquiry into emerging issues, posed by the global land rush

    OpenAIRE

    Scheidel, Arnim

    2013-01-01

    En los últimos años están surgiendo nuevos retos asociados al desarrollo rural, catalizados por una fiebre mundial por la adquisición de tierras a gran escala. Este fenómeno, conocido como ‘acaparamiento de tierras', está generando controversia en cuanto a si el interés creciente en estas adquisiciones podría beneficiar a las comunidades rurales empobrecidas del campesinado mundial, o al contrario, incidirá en su marginalización. Esta tesis doctoral presenta una recopilación de cuatro artícul...

  3. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Bermès

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This paper aims at presenting the organizational and human resources challenges that have been faced by the library in this context, and those that are still awaiting us.The library has been facing these challenges through a variety of actions at different levels: organizational changes, training sessions, dedicated working group and task forces, analysis of skills and processes, etc. The results of these actions provide insights on how a national library is going digital, and what is needed to reach this longstanding goal.

  4. Advantages and Challenges of A Village Doctor-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Late-Life Depression in Rural China: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tan; Yang, Xuemei; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Xiaohua; Ji, Li; Xiao, Yun; Ma, Kun; Wang, Ying; Kong, Xianglei; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Jun; Xu, Qian; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The delivery of mental health services in rural China has been notably limited due to lack of qualified mental health professionals among other impeding factors. A village doctor-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention may be one way of improving accessibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the advantages and challenges of implementing this intervention, as delivered by trained village doctors, to treat late-life depression in rural China. Methods We conducted one focus group discussion with 10 village doctors, 10 individual interviews with each of the village doctors, and individual interviews with 19 older adults. The topic guides were advantages and challenges of the intervention program from the perspective of the village doctors and older adults. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded using NVivo 8, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The village doctors stressed the importance of role-playing and using instructive manuals in the training. Proper supervision was also a key component of the program. The benefits received from the intervention for the village doctors and the elders were positive such that both the doctors and the older adults were willing to implement/receive this intervention. Cultural and political factors (renqing and perceived policy consideration) facilitated the elders’ access to mental health services. Challenges included a lack of real therapy (in contrast to role-playing) demonstrated in the training and lack of a step-by-step manual based on different types of problems encountered. Other impediments to the successful implementation of the intervention included the time constraints of village doctors and the presence of other people when conducting the intervention. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that the intervention program is likely to be an acceptable geriatric depression intervention in rural China if several challenges are appropriately addressed. PMID:26371473

  5. An investigation into the challenges facing the future provision of continuing professional development for allied health professionals in a changing healthcare environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.

  6. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  7. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  8. Facing the challenge of Arctic fisheries management within a context of spatially differentiated ecological-economic externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Sundet, Jan; Kourantidou, Melina

    inherent in these species’ introductions. The challenges of effectively managing these species are particularly high, mainly due to their twofold role as invasive species and market commodities. Part of the balancing act needed for a solution to the spread of the RKC has been directed at spatial...... its economic productivity. The challenging environmental conditions have so far created barriers that prevented extended introduction and establishment of most non-native species. Climate change is working to reduce these barriers, thus the same characteristics that have previously made the Arctic...

  9. Application of Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize the Challenges Facing Public Transportation in Dar Es Salaam City-Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick P. Massami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is a key to the economy and social welfare; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. On the other hand, the increase of urban population, pollution and other negative impacts has directly affected the existing transportation system in Dar es Salaam City - Tanzania. As the transportation challenges cannot be overcome simultaneously due to the scarcity of financial resources, a decision support tool is needed to prioritize these challenges. In this study, a composite model of Vague Set Theory (VST and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is applied to appraise the challenges. The Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process (VAHP uses opinions of experts collected from a survey questionnaire. The computational results reveal the ranking in descending order of the urban transportation challenges as poor traffic management, inadequacy of proper public transit service and inadequacy of road transport infrastructure. The results also depict that the VAHP model is a useful decision support tool for transport planners, transport policy makers and other industry stakeholders.

  10. A Peach of a Telehealth Program: Georgia Connects Rural Communities to Better Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Rena; Goble, GiGi; Guy, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article presents Georgia's telehealth response to some of the significant healthcare challenges and disparities facing the rural citizens of this state. When compared to their urban and suburban counterparts, rural communities have fewer healthcare providers, and residents must travel longer distances to reach them. Georgia's statewide telemedicine network, the Georgia Partnership for TeleHealth (GPT), uses information technology to improve the efficiency and quality of healthcare and he...

  11. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma. Access to EMS is critical for rural citizens, but providing services is often challenging in rural ... rural EMS unit: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) offers funding to ...

  12. Facing up to programmatic challenges created by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari Shirin; Harries Anthony D; Zachariah Rony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three decades after the emergence of HIV, we have made great strides in our response to the epidemic, from prevention of transmission to testing and treatment. However, it is still common in high-prevalence settings for people to not know their HIV status, and estimates are that globally, a mere 36% of those eligible for treatment are receiving it. On top of this, for every person with HIV entering treatment, two more are infected. The operationa obstacles to overcoming the challenge...

  13. Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Companies in Sustaining Conformance to ISO9001:2008 in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of a Textiles Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. William Msekiwa Goriwondo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS has seen many companies willing to implement it and get certification so as to improve quality delivery. Due to the globalization phenomenon, certification to ISO9001 becomes a prerequisite. Many manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe have been certified in a quest to improve their quality delivery. The main certification body in Zimbabwe is the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ. This paper is based on a case study research for KT Textiles and it assesses the challenges that one certified manufacturing company is facing in a bid to sustain conformance to the ISO 9001: 2008QMS. Questionnaires and Interviews were the main research instruments used in the study. There was also reference to archival records and minutes of important meetings from the organization. Using stratified random sampling, questionnaires were administered to both managers and employees drawn from different departments. Employees were also interviewed to provide further information to compliment the questionnaire data. The data was analyzed using statistical graphs and charts. This research identified how the organization applies the 8 principles of ISO 9001:2008 QMS. The research findings revealed that the main challenges faced by the firm in maintaining the QMS are lack of top management involvement and support, lack of employee creativity and innovation, lack of focused internal audits, preventive maintenance schedule and data analysis lack priority.

  14. Younger Native Americans Face High Suicide Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bullying, both face-to-face and via the Internet, Gray said. In addition, "there's a lack of ... Gray, Ph.D., associate director and research associate professor, University of North Dakota Center for Rural Health, ...

  15. Future Issues in Rural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; And Others

    Many rural schools today are faced with problems of inadequate facilities and instructional materials, limited course offerings, inadequate funding, poor teaching, and limited job opportunities for students. Rural young people, particularly women, have bleak prospects for post-secondary education or non-traditional employment. Because rural youth…

  16. Effective at the Margins: Outmigration and Economic Development in Rural North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Jolley; Aaron Nousaine; Carolyn Huang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the economic and social challenges faced by Enfield, a small town in rural northeastern North Carolina, and the efforts by the Center for Competitive Economies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to assist the community in a strategic economic development plan to address these challenges. In particular, the paper outlines the challenges and tensions between place-based versus people-based economic development approaches and how these tensions are generalize...

  17. Preparing Rural Community College Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mitchell R.; Pennington, Kevin L.; Couch, Gene; Dougherty, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of universities offer graduate programs that focus specifically on preparing rural community college leaders. At the same time, community colleges are facing projections of unprecedented turnover in both administrative and instructional leadership. The rural community college is a unique educational institution which faces…

  18. Overseas territories facing the challenge of climate change - Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies the social-environmental challenges associated with climate change for French overseas territories, proposes an analysis of the impact of activities of the different economic sectors on the environment, and proposes some principles for action. After an introduction which outlines the importance of addressing climate change and adaptation, and describes the situation of French overseas territories in front of climate change, a first part identifies and discusses the main social-environmental challenges associated with climate change (climate evolution, role of climate change in a context of economic development, the territory as a resource system, climate change considered as an impact chain, the relative weight of climatic uncertainties). Then, the report analyses the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity, on tourism, on fishing and aquaculture, on agriculture and breeding, on forestry, on health, and on the energy sector. For each of them, the economic weight is indicated and commented, expected impacts are discussed, and adaptation possibilities and implementation modalities are commented. The issue of coastal planning and risks related to climate change is also addressed

  19. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  20. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  1. Information and Communications Technology Development Products Towards Strengthening Rural Communities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the extent of development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT ability to empower rural communities and enhance their economic productivity. ICT is a core catalyst for the development of a country to achieve developed nation status. However, rural communities are still exposed to the challenges and constraints in order to promote ICT development in rural areas. To address this issue, the government has established various objectives to ensure that rural communities are not marginalized. In an effort to take advantage of ICT development in rural areas, governments and agencies have developed various ICT-based products in rural areas. Programs such as Center of Telecenter, Rural Internet Centre (PID, Medan Info Desa, e-Village/e-Community, K-TRAK, PKIT and others are among the products introduced to the rural community. The purpose of the introduction of this product is to focus on the government’s efforts in ensuring the development of balanced urban and rural areas from different angles. Through ICT products, a rural community not just only follows the development of the ICT revolution, but to create a knowledgeable society and helps to boost the quality of life of rural communities. Thus, this paper will discuss ICT products developed in the rural areas of Malaysia, the purpose and prospects of the product development and the challenges faced during its implementation. Hopefully, the discussion and recommendations given could trigger the opportunity and space in making ICT as a driving force to economic development in rural areas.Key words: ICT products; Rural communities; The use of ICT; Economic catalyst

  2. Facing the challenge of Arctic fisheries management within a context of spatially differentiated ecological-economic externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    Abrupt and rapid climate change in combination with increased human disturbance in Arctic marine ecosystems is of significant and growing concern to the scientific community, particularly regarding non-native species introductions and the threats they are posing to the overall marine habitat and its economic productivity. The challenging environmental conditions have so far created barriers that prevented extended introduction and establishment of most non-native species. Climate change is working to reduce these barriers, thus the same characteristics that have previously made the Arctic less open to the spread of invasive species are now responsible for the expansiveness of the problem. At stake are unique species and co-evolved systems that have taken millennia to develop. Even small-scale disturbances in the pristine Arctic ecosystems are likely to have outsized impacts both on an ecological and on an economic level. This work discusses optimal management approaches regarding threats from invasive specieson an international scale in order to delineate international policy characteristics that may reduce overall damages and costs. The purposeful introduction of the Red King Crab (RKC), together with the appearance of the Snow Crab (SC) in the Barents Sea and the RKC’s identification in Icelandic waters, are used as a basis for the discussion of the local, regional and international governance opportunities and failures as well as intervention possibilities to address the tradeoffs inherent in these species’ introductions. The challenges of effectively managing these species are particularly high, mainly due to their twofold role as invasive species and market commodities. Part of the balancing act needed for a solution to the spread of the RKC has been directed at spatial containment, where the containment procedure depends on economic incentives of open access fisheries. Such solutions are examined regarding whether they would be feasible for the newer but more rapidly expanding SC invasion.

  3. O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola / The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Maria, Rigotto; Fernando Ferreira, Carneiro; Alice Maria Correia Pequeno, Marinho; Mayara Melo, Rocha; Marcelo José Monteiro, Ferreira; Vanira Matos, Pessoa; Ana Cláudia de Araújo, Teixeira; Maria de Lourdes Vicente da, Silva; Lara de Queiroz Viana, Braga; Maiana Maia, Teixeira.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compar [...] tilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido. Abstract in english In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) [...] in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  4. O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compartilhadas: (1 para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2 é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3 o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4 setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5 é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6 se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7 comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido.In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1 in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2 it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3 the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4 sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5 studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6 we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7 rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  5. Disseminating research in rural Yup'ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Rivkin; Joseph Trimble; Ellen D.S. Lopez; Samuel Johnson; Eliza Orr; James Allen

    2013-01-01

    Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify co...

  6. Challenging the economic reform paradigm: policy and politics in the early 1980s collapse of the rural cooperative medical system

    OpenAIRE

    Duckett, J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades an economic reform paradigm has dominated social security and health research: economic reform policies have defined its parameters, established its premises, generated its questions and even furnished its answers. This paradigm has been particularly influential in accounts of the early 1980s collapse of China’s rural cooperative medical system (CMS), which is depicted almost exclusively as the outcome of the post-Mao economic policies that decollectivized agricul...

  7. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions

  8. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Kristian [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Arter, Calvin A.; Thonhauser, T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Cooper, Valentino R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States); Lee, Kyuho [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lundqvist, Bengt I. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-05-14

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO{sub 3}, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  9. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  10. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Kristian [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Arter, Calvin A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Lee, Dr. Kyuho [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Schroder, Prof. Elsebeth [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Hyldgaard, Per [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those groundstate properties that can be described by density functional theory (DFT). One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B, in print] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromaticmolecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  11. Facing the noncommunicable disease (NCD) global epidemic--the battle of prevention starts in utero--the FIGO challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Lluis Cabero; Arulkumaran, Sir Sabaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 36 million deaths every year. Of this death toll, nearly 80% (29 million) occur in low- and median-income countries. More than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur in people under 60 years of age. National economies are suffering considerable losses due to premature death or disability to work resulting from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The knowledge that in utero and in early childhood certain processes can affect the risk of developing NCDs provides an opportunity to enforce interventions during this critical time, when they may have the greatest effect. Using appropriate protocols, the health-care provider can educate mothers about the risks of certain nutritional and environmental exposures and integrate health promotion on the agenda, as part of the social and economic development. All this could motivate a substantial reduction in the risk of NCDs. Current and future health challenges demand new and changing competencies that should form the basis for education, training, and workforce planning. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) is aware of that responsibility and has joined hands with other agencies and organizations that make a considerable effort in providing appropriate prenatal care programs to prevent and treat most of the common preconditioning factors, especially in low-income countries. PMID:25248554

  12. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  13. Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marunda, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources in the country. The findings reveal that stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry are largely in favour of formulating and expanding policies that encourage use of solar and wind technologies, at the same time mitigating environmental degradation. The article summarises the findings and duly recommends policies than can be used in Zimbabwe to promote the sustainable use of renewable energy employing solar and wind among others for tourism development.

  14. Elephant Trunk-Like Teratoma of the Face with Compromised Airway in an Infant with Complex Congenital Cardiac Defects: An Anesthetic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddali, Madan Mohan; Al Balushi, Faisal Khalfan Ahmed; Waje, Niranjan Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Large head and neck teratomas are very rare. Depending on their site of origin, they can produce varying degrees of airway compromise and can interfere with the conduct of general anesthesia. Large space-occupying lesions of the face may even interfere with the simple task of mask ventilation rendering inhaled induction of general anesthesia and maintenance of spontaneous ventilation difficult. If these neoplasms coexist with cardiac lesions necessitating corrective or palliative procedures, the task of oxygenation, ventilation, and securing a definitive airway becomes challenging especially in the presence of underlying unstable hemodynamics. We report on the anesthetic management of a female infant with a facial teratoma and single-ventricle physiology undergoing a cardiac palliative procedure where securing a definitive airway with minimal hemodynamic instability was the immediate requirement. PMID:26599737

  15. Access to Higher Education for Rural-Poor Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    China is now facing significant challenges in funding its rapidly expanding higher education systems, though it has experienced enormous economic growth in recent years. Equity has become a serious concern in Chinese higher education system. This article tries to identify the causes and implications of under-representation of the rural-poor…

  16. Sudanese Young People of Refugee Background in Rural and Regional Australia: Social Capital and Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…

  17. Leveraging the Unique Features of Small, Rural Schools for Improvement. Lessons Learned. Volume 1, Issue 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Much of the Northwest Region (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) is rural in nature. A characteristic of the extractive economies such as timber, agriculture, mining, and fisheries is that they are generally located in small communities isolated by distances. While schools in these communities face the same challenges as those in…

  18. Fast Track, Bush Track: Late Career Female Rural School Leaders Taking the Slow Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Al-Awiwe, Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Previous research related to this study explored early career female leaders' experiences in rural school settings, and probed the personal and professional challenges they faced and their motivations to accept formal and informal leadership roles ahead of the usual timeframes (e.g., Graham, Miller & Paterson, 2009). This study set out to…

  19. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  20. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  1. Face To Face

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, Lea Holst; Eilertzen, Freja Nissen; Repsdorph, Helene Reck; Gerelsaikhan, Gerelmaa; Otkjær, Mia Jo; Søndergaard, Ditte Klerens

    2008-01-01

    The face-to-face (F2F) strategy is a method which entails groups of so-called ‘facers’ standing in a public space trying to recruit people to the organisation and informing about the organisation’s work. In combination with the possibility of reaching large numbers of people, this technique provides a steady and ongoing flow of money, something which is vital for the NGO’s when planning future activities. In spite of ethical regulations the use of facers is a very controversial strat...

  2. Do patients bypass rural hospitals? Determinants of inpatient hospital choice in rural California

    OpenAIRE

    Escarce, José J.; Kapur, Kanika

    2009-01-01

    Rural hospitals play a crucial role in providing healthcare to rural Americans, a vulnerable and underserved population; however, rural hospitals have faced threats to their financial viability and many have closed as a result. This paper examines the hospital characteristics that are associated with patients choosing rural hospitals, and sheds light on the types of patients who depend on rural hospitals for care and, hence, may be the most impaired by the closure of rural hospitals. Using da...

  3. The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guang WU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available
    More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs, particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the innovative ability of the Internet itself. More generally, it creates tension for China’s successful engagement with the international community, decreases the international competitiveness of the Chinese ICT enterprises and stifles the development of global ICTs. China needs to adopt a more sophisticated approach to regulate Internet content and overcome these challenges in the near future. Failure to do so will widen the gap between China and the world’s developed countries in the Information Age.
    Key words: the Internet; the regulation of the Internet; content regulation; China
    Résumé: Plus d’une dizaine de départements différents en Chine assument les responsabilités variées du contrôle du contenu des publications sur Internet. Cette structure régulatrice séparée a causé beaucoup de défis en face de la convergence des informations, des technologies de communication et surtout de l’Internet. Tous ces défis contiennent un coût de conformité élevé pour les entreprises ICT?Information and communication technologies en anglais?, qui découragent effectivement les startups high-tech et qui sont défavorables pour la capacité innovatrice d’Internet lui-même.Plus généralement, il crée de la tension pour l’engagement de la Chine avec la communauté internationale, diminue la compétitivité internationales des entreprises ICT chinoises et ralentit le développement de l’ICT. La Chine a besoin d’adopter une approche plus sophistiquée pour régulariser le contenu d’Internet et surmonter tous ces défis dans le proche futur. Si l’on faillit faire cela, la distance entre la Chine et les pays développés s’agrandira dans l’Age d’Information.
    Mots-Clés: Internet; régularisation d’Internet; contrôle du contenu; la Chine

  4. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamhuri Siwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.

  5. As mulheres perante o desafio de uma carreira internacional / Les femmes face au défi d’une carrière internationale / Women facing the challenge of an international career / Las mujeres ante el desafio de una carrera internacional

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Rita, Nunes; Sara Falcão, Casaca.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resulta de uma investigação que procurou compreender as motivações, as experiências e os desafios enfrentados pelas mulheres envolvidas em processos de mobilidade internacional, tentando simultaneamente apreender o efeito do género nas respetivas experiências. Com este intuito, foram rea [...] lizadas 20 entrevistas a gestoras que, durante o seu percurso profissional, participaram em experiências internacionais. A persistência de estereótipos de género e a escassez de mulheres em posições de liderança destacam-se enquanto referências aos obstáculos enfrentados, tanto antes como durante as experiências em análise. Além disso, em alguns contextos registaram-se situações de isolamento e também de maior exposição e visibilidade. Por fim, é possível destacar a centralidade assumida pela dimensão familiar enquanto condicionante das decisões de mobilidade e do desenvolvimento de uma carreira no plano internacional. Abstract in spanish Este artículo resulta de una investigación que procuró comprender las motivaciones, las experiencias y los desafios enfrentados por las mujeres involucradas en procesos de movilidad internacional, intentando simultáneamente apropiarse del efecto de género en las respectivas experiencias. Con este pr [...] opósito, fueron realizadas veinte entrevistas a administradoras que, durante su trayecto profesional, participaron en experiencias internacionales. Predominan la persistencia de estereótipos de género y la escasez de mujeres en posiciones de liderazgo como referencias a los obstáculos enfrentados, tanto antes como durante las experiencias en análisis. Además de eso, en algunos contextos se registraron situaciones de aislamiento y también de mayor exposición y visibilidad. Finalmente, es posible destacar la importancia central asumida por la dimensión familiar como condicionante de las decisiones de movilidad y del desarrollo de una carrera en el plan internacional Abstract in english This article resulted from a study designed to understand the motivations and experiences of women involved in international mobility processes and the challenges they face, while simultaneously seeking to gauge the gender effect in their experiences. Twenty female managers with international elemen [...] ts in their career paths were interviewed. The persistence of gender stereotypes and the small number of women in leadership positions stand out as references among the obstacles they faced, both before and during the experiences analysed during the project. In addition, in some contexts the women found themselves both isolated and more exposed and visible. Finally, the authors note the centrality the family dimension assumes as a factor that conditions both the mobility decisions taken during a career at international level and its development.

  6. Changing Preservice Teachers' Attitudes for Teaching in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Hudson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Australia continues to face teaching shortages in rural schools. Indeed, preservice teachers may be reluctant to apply for rural teaching positions, particularly as most have had no rural teaching experiences. What may motivate non-rural preservice teachers to seek employment in rural schools? This study investigates 17 preservice teachers' first…

  7. Rural Schools and Communities: How Globalization Influences Rural School and Community Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how a rural school district and the communities in which the district belonged collaborated on a community development initiative. This dissertation examined the opportunities and constraints rural communities are facing and the role that a rural school system could play in increasing social and economic sustainability of rural…

  8. Face To Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  9. Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  10. Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal / Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar P, Henz.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

  11. Community acquired multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a rural setting of North Western Ethiopia: a tough challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibebu, Martha; Embiyale, Wondimagegn

    2014-07-01

    Commnunity acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus species are common causes of skin and soft tissue infections. Foot ulcer of former leprosy patients can be invaded by a multi-microbial infection. Cervicitis is usually caused by certain sexually transmitted agents. Here we report a series of cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from two patients presenting with foot ulcer and cervicitis respectively, both in an outpatient or community setting (community onset) in rural North Western Ethiopia. The strains were resistant to all commonly available drugs such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline but sensitive to clindamycin. This is the first report of CA-MRSA in the study area. PMID:25812289

  12. Dryland Resource Management Technology Adoption in South–Eastern Kenya: Successes, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nyariki, Dickson; Musimba, Nashon K.; Ikutwa, Charles K.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...

  13. Gas giant facing big challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief analysis of the Russian state-controlled company Gazprom is provided. Many European countries are highly dependent on Russian gas, and in total about 25 to 30 percent of Europe's gas demand is covered by Russian gas. After the gas dispute with Ukraine, questions on how reliable the Russian delivery is have been asked. With Gazprom's increasing interest in China and other Asian countries, and insufficient exploration activities and development of new fields, there is a concern that the European market will suffer consequences (ml)

  14. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  15. Separation of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital: Perioperative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurita Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing anaesthesia for the separation surgery of conjoined twins presents unique challenges to the managing anaesthesiologists. The low incidence of such surgeries and anatomical variations in each type of conjoined twins makes each separation surgery a unique experience. This report features the anaesthetic plan and challenges faced in performing the separation surgery of a set of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital in a remote location in India.

  16. Fuel poverty is facing a data challenge - Which strategies to struggle against fuel poverty? Propositions for an ecologic and social transition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address three main questions: how are structured the network of actors and the tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, what are the specific data challenges faced by the actors and the possible responses, and which lessons can be learned for the governance of energy transition in its whole. After a presentation of the context of fuel poverty (analysis of tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, the use of social-energetic data), this study, based on about forty interviews of various actors and on a workshop, proposes an analysis framework which distinguishes six steps in the definition and implementation of policies of struggle against fuel poverty. After a description of the current status and an identification of required improvements for each step, the authors propose a set of recommendations, draw lessons for urban policies aimed at an ecologic transformation and a modernisation of the social protection system in terms of level of intervention, scope of actions, and ownership and access to data bases. These recommendations more particularly address the definition of fuel poverty, its diagnosis at the national and at the territorial level, a better identification of concerned households, and an assessment of existing arrangements

  17. The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

  18. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

  19. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…

  20. Future Sex Educator Perceptions of Rural versus Urban Instruction: A Case for Community-Centered Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina L.; Jensen, Robin E.; Selzer King, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Instructors of sexual health courses in rural areas face unique challenges as they are often forced to use school-based prevention curricula field-tested in urban areas. Research has yet to consider what future sex educators' regional expectations are for their profession and how those expectations might have an impact on the classroom.…

  1. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas : Opportunities and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; MØller, JØrgen

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the carpooling in sufficient time (2-24 hours before). Another factor that has to be fulfilled is a high level of cohesion in the local area, i.e. a high level of knowledge of any participants in the scheme. Despite of these requirements being met, it is still a challenge to change car owners’ habit in order to make carpooling work.

  2. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools (Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Corzo, Josefina; Ramírez Contreras, Odilia

    2011-01-01

    Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as…

  3. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  4. Comparison of primary health care services between urban and rural settings after the introduction of the first urban health centre in Vyronas, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Papathanasiou Marek; Marayiannis Konstantinos; Mariolis-Sapsakos Theodoros; Alevizos Alevizos; Mihas Constantinos; Mariolis Anargiros; Gizlis Vassilios; Karanasios Dimitris; Merkouris Bodossakis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Discrepancies in primary health care (PHC) services between urban and rural settings have already been studied in many countries; however, limited information exists regarding countries, such as Greece, where public Health Centres dedicated to primary care have not been in existence in major cities. The objective of this study was to evaluate points of divergence or convergence between an urban and a rural health centre, in an attempt to underline challenges faced by the i...

  5. Challenges facing effective implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa,1 Vicky Manyanga21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented.Aim: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants' PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV register books for the past 2 years were reviewed to obtain information regarding the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. One hundred and twenty-six health care workers were interviewed to identify success stories and challenges in the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children. In addition, 321 parents and guardians of children born to HIV-infected mothers were interviewed in the health facilities.Results: Approximately 80% of children were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis within 2 months after birth. Two hundred and ninety-one (58.4% children started using co-trimoxazole within 4 weeks after birth. Majority (n=458, 91.8% of the children were prescribed 120 mg of co-trimoxazole per day, whereas 39 (7.8% received 240 mg per day. Only a small proportion (n=1, 0.2% of children received 480 mg/day. Dose determination was based on the child's age rather than body weight. Parents and guardians reported that 42 (13.1% children had missed one or more doses of co-trimoxazole during the course of prophylaxis. The majority of health care workers (89.7% reported that co-trimoxazole is very effective for the prevention of opportunistic infections among children, but frequent shortage of co-trimoxazole in the health facilities was the main challenge.Conclusion: Most children who were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis did not experience significant opportunistic infections, and the drug was well tolerated. The major barrier for co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was due to frequent out-of-stocks of pediatric co-trimoxazole formulations in the health facilities. Dose determination was based on the age rather than the weight of children, thus creating potential for under- or over-dosing of children.Keywords: health facilities, opportunistic infections, CD4, parents, guardians

  6. Rural-Urban Migration and Its Consequences on Rural Children: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Imran Ali Meerza

    2010-01-01

    Rural-urban adult migration, mainly adult male migration makes heavy demand on all family members, but especially on children who are left behind in rural area to shoulder the responsibility of agriculture production and food security. Labor shortage due to rural-urban adult migration may mean that children in rural area often have to face tighter time schedules and patterns of time use and human energy inputs required in agriculture production.  The study revealed the impact of rural-urban m...

  7. Desafios enfrentados por professores na implementação de atividades investigativas nas aulas de ciências / Challenges faced by teachers in the implementation of inquiry activities in science classes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Santos, Gouw; Fernanda, Franzolin; Marcela Elena, Fejes.

    Full Text Available Apesar da associação entre investigação e Ensino de Ciências ser idealizada desde o início do século XX, não necessariamente consiste em uma prática amplamente utilizada nas escolas, nem aplicada com os mesmos objetivos. Desse modo, considera-se relevante que pesquisadores se debrucem sobre o contex [...] to brasileiro e verifiquem como essa união ocorre. Este trabalho investigou quais são os desafios enfrentados e as estratégias utilizadas, por dois professores diferentes, durante a implementação de um único projeto investigativo, para se adequarem à realidade da escola, nível de ensino e ao contexto cultural existente. Os dados que subsidiaram esta pesquisa foram obtidos através de fontes primárias (entrevistas, questionários) e secundárias (portfólios, produções dos alunos, fichas, relatórios e observações). Percebeu-se que o mesmo projeto foi implementado de maneira bastante distinta entre um professor e outro, que realizaram adaptações de acordo com sua experiência profissional e com o nível de ensino de seus alunos. Abstract in english Although the association between inquiry and science education has existed since the beginning of the 20th century, there is no guarantee that this practice frequently occurs in science classes and neither that it can also be used with the same purposes. Therefore, we think it is relevant that resea [...] rchers investigate how this works in the Brazilian context. In this research, we investigated the challenges faced and the strategies used by two different teachers during the implementation of a single inquiry based project equating it to school reality, grade level and cultural context. Data collection was based on primary sources (interviews, questionnaires), and secondary sources (portfolios, student's assignments, cards, reports and observations). We noticed that both teachers implemented the same project in very different ways. The adaptations according to their professional experience and the students' grade level are presented here.

  8. Un bosquejo del feminismo/s peruano/s: los múltiples desafíos / A outline on peruvian feminism/s: facing multiple challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Violeta, Barrientos Silva; Fanni, Muñoz Cabrejo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra las apuestas del feminismo en el Perú desde sus inicios, a partir de la lucha por el sufragio femenino, y más adelante, en la posguerra, la puesta en escena del cuerpo femenino como núcleo de una nueva forma de pensar lo político. Se muestra que es un movimiento de mujeres de sec [...] tores medios que se gesta bajo iniciativa gubernamental y con poca presencia de las corrientes de pensamiento teórico feminista europeas. Por el contrario, fue un movimiento vinculado a ideologías de izquierda aunque, paradójicamente, sus propuestas no fueron acogidas por los partidos de izquierda. En el actual contexto de cambios que se operan en el Perú, a partir de la democratización del país y con una baja institucionalidad del Estado, los feminismos - sin una aparente organicidad - se enfrentan con varios desafíos, siendo el de la capacidad de responder a la heterogeneidad de los actores emergentes el más relevante. Abstract in english This paper is about the developments of feminism in Peru since the struggle for women's suffrage as the starting point till the post-war, with the positioning of the female body as the center of a new manner of thinking the political. Feminism is shown to be a middle-class women's movement, which st [...] emmed from governmental initiatives and with not much presence of European schools of feminist theoretical thought. On the contrary, it was a movement bound with leftist ideologies whose proposals were paradoxically never considered by leftist parties. In the current changing context, which began with Peru's democratization and its lack of state institutionality, feminism/s - lacking an evident organizational capacity - faces different demands, being the ability to meet diverse emerging actors the most relevant challenge.

  9. Face to Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.

  10. Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges / ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????-?????: ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????? / Retenir les médecins dans les zones rurales du Timor-Leste: une évaluation critique des opportunités et des défis / ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????- ????: ????? ???? ????? ????????? / ????????????????????? / Cómo conservar a los médicos en las zonas rurales de Timor-Leste: una valoración crítica de las oportunidades y desafíos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augustine D, Asante; Nelson, Martins; Michael E, Otim; John, Dewdney.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Timor-Leste se encuentra en proceso de abordar una cuestión clave para el sector sanitario del país: un personal médico demasiado escaso para proporcionar una atención adecuada. En teoría, un programa bilateral de cooperación médica con Cuba, creado en el año 2003, podría solucionar este pro [...] blema. A finales de 2013, casi 700 médicos nuevos formados en Cuba se unieron al personal médico de Timor-Leste, y se espera que profesionales de la salud nacionales y cubanos formen a otros 328 médicos en el país hasta 2017. En Indonesia y otros lugares han recibido formación algunos médicos más, que se sumarán pronto a este personal. Se espera que el número de médicos en Timor-Leste triplique en el año 2017 el número de médicos existentes en el país en 2003. La mayoría de estos médicos nuevos trabajarán en comunidades rurales y respaldarán el objetivo del gobierno nacional de mejorar los resultados sanitarios de la mayoría rural. Aunque el incremento masivo del personal médico podría cambiar el modo de proporcionar la atención sanitaria y mejorar notablemente los resultados sanitarios en todo el país, hay desafíos que es necesario superar si Timor-Leste pretende obtener el máximo beneficio de dicho crecimiento. Parece fundamental que la mayor parte de los nuevos médicos se despliegue en comunidades rurales y se gestione con gran atención para optimizar su permanencia en dichas zonas. Abstract in english Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doct [...] ors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.

  11. Perceived Gender Classification from Face Images

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

    2012-01-01

    Perceiving human faces and modeling the distinctive features of human faces that contribute most towards face recognition are some of the challenges faced by computer vision and psychophysics researchers. There are many methods have been proposed in the literature for the facial features and gender classification. However, all of them have still disadvantage such as not complete reflection about face structure, face texture. The features set is applied to three different applications: face re...

  12. 78 FR 64926 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...Request: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants...Collection: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants...school transformation model. Rural schools and districts often face...

  13. Facing the Challenges of Accessing, Managing, and Integrating Large Observational Datasets in Ecology: Enabling and Enriching the Use of NEON's Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.

  14. How rural is the EU RDP? An analysis through spatial fund allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Camaioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although representing less than 20% of total CAP expenditure, the Rural Development Policy (RDP 2007-2013 is supposed to support rural areas which are facing new challenges. Currently, many EU rural areas are experiencing major transformations and the traditional urban-rural divide seems outdated (OECD, 2006. Going beyond dichotomous definitions and approaches, the paper applies at EU NUTS 3 level a new composite and comprehensive measure of rurality and peripherality (the PeripheRurality Indicator, PRI: the higher this index, the more rural and peripheral a given region is. Within a Principal Component Analysis (PCA approach, this indicator takes into account both conventional socio-economic indicators and the relevant geographical characteristics of the region. On the basis of this analysis, the paper also puts forward a clusterisation of NUTS 3 regions across Europe and assesses the correlation between the RDP expenditure intensity, the PRI and the different regional clusters. This analysis is aimed at assessing the coherence of RDP fund allocation with the real characteristics of EU rural space.

  15. Heart Failure in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreccio, Catterina; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) living in rural areas face an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Even in countries with universal access to health care, rural areas are characteristically underserved, with reduced health care providers supply, greater distance to health care centers, decreased physician density with higher reliance on generalists, and high health care staff turnover. On the other hand, patient-related characteristics vary widely among published data. This review describes the epidemiology of CHF in rural or remote settings, organizational and patient-related factors involved in cardiovascular outcomes, and the role of interventions to improve rural health care. PMID:26462091

  16. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LisaRBetts

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  17. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

  18. What Can a Woman Do with a Camera? Turning the Female Gaze on Poverty and HIV and AIDS in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene; Stuart, Jean; Buthelezi, Thabisile; Taylor, Myra

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the use of participatory video in finding solutions to challenges faced by schools and communities in the contexts of poverty and the AIDS pandemic in one rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Locating the analysis within the study of feminist visual culture and the notion of the female gaze, the article focuses on…

  19. Submission to the Australian Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Committee Inquiry into economic and security challenges facing Papua New Guinea and the island states of the Southwest Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Lee, Karen

    This submission highlights the benefits of labour mobility, remittances and microfinance for the South Pacific region. We make a number of recommendations on the basis of our research findings, our experience with industry partners and studies done elsewhere that we believe are relevant and can assist the Committee in finding solutions to the challenges facing our neighbours. The scope of our submission is therefore set by our expertise in the above mentioned fields.

  20. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Correa

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to...

  1. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  2. Who is rural? or, how to be rural: towards a sociology of the rural.

    OpenAIRE

    Mormont, Marc

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis is put forward that a specific concept or category of 'the rural' has evolved. This occurred in the 1920s and 1930s in a manner specific to each country, although in all cases there was an attempt to reformulate both the relationship between town and country and the definition of agriculture, as a result of the changes facing the countryside and its inhabitants. The concept of the rural evolved by distinguishing the rural and the agricultural, and by defining the rural in relat...

  3. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

  4. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

  5. Challenges of Implementing HIV and AIDS Education in Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lungo,Tatu Sultan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine challenges teachers face in delivering HIV and AIDS education in secondary schools. Both rural and urban schools were sampled to gain understanding of the possible differences in respondent views depending on their geographical location. Methods: Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observations, focus group discussions and review of documents. Key informants included teachers, students, parents, educational of...

  6. Summary and conclusions of the conference [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation are currently experiencing a period of unprecedented change. The nature and pace of this change is affected by many factors - technological, economic, environmental, political and social. These factors not only influence the governmental and business environment in which the nuclear industry operates, but they also impact other stakeholders, the media, the public and international organizations. These developments have already resulted in significant changes to how nuclear enterprises are organized and operated. They can be expected to continue and even accelerate as new projects and designs for reactors and other facilities and new approaches to nuclear safety emerge. It is essential that high levels of nuclear and radiation safety be maintained worldwide throughout this period of change and for the lifetime of nuclear facilities, including site and waste management legacies. Effective, efficient and independent regulatory bodies must be established and maintained in all countries utilizing nuclear energy to ensure that nuclear activities are conducted safely and securely, consistent with national standards and international good practices. In this respect, it is of the utmost importance that all countries and expert organizations involved in nuclear related activities participate as active partners in the Global Nuclear Safety Regime [The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of nuclear safety]. This participation includes uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture and the safe management of radioactive waste and transport of radioactive material. Nuclear and radiation safety are based on technical, managerial, administrative, economic and organizational requirements. In this respect, the role and quality of technical and scientific expertise in the nuclear industry and of regulatory systems are of fundamental importance. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), whether part of a regulatory body or a separate organization, are gaining increased importance in providing the technical and scientific bases for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety. International organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) also rely on the active contribution of TSOs. In the light of the important role played by TSOs, it is essential that these organizations conduct their work consistent with the highest levels of technical competence and transparency, and with the observance of ethical principles. To enhance their capabilities in these areas, TSOs need to foster cooperative activities among themselves and other relevant organizations, whether on an ad hoc basis or in the framework of regional or multilateral arrangements and institutions. Recognizing the need for TSOs to broaden their cooperation, the IAEA has sponsored this first international conference specifically addressing the role TSOs can play and the challenges they face in enhancing nuclear safety. It is hoped that the conference provided a platform for further promoting and strengthening international nuclear and radiation safety cooperation to enhance the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

  7. The innovativeness of rural Europe: A contribution to the concept of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Gilda; Lukesch, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Rural Europe faces new challenges in an increasingly globalized economy. There are problems of cost competition, outmigration, an ageing population, dispersed settlements, lack of proximity services and employment opportunities. On the other hand opportunities emerge from new demands of the information society, like a healthy environment and typical products of high quality, or space for creative leisure and learning activities, or like a new look to cultural traditions in agriculture and cra...

  8. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. M.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladeshs main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural&...

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production in rural area of Algeria, the case of Chemini (Kabylie)

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Nassim; Salhi, A.; Touazi, L.; Philippe, François-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The Algerian agricultural sector faces the challenge to meet the food needs of its population despite low agricultural capacity, resulting in increasing pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to inventory the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to livestock sector in the rural area of Chemini (province of Bejaia), taking into account the emissions due to enteric fermentation, in the form of methane, and manure management, in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. Emi...

  10. Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Ehrami; Hassan Houshyar

    2013-01-01

    Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnair...

  11. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories

    OpenAIRE

    Wurie, Haja R.; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. Methods This article is based on participatory life histories...

  12. Robust & Accurate Face Recognition using Histograms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjeet Singh; Meenakshi Sharma; N.Suresh Rao

    2012-01-01

    A large number of face recognition algorithms have been developed from decades. Face recognition systems have been grabbing high attention from commercial market point of view as well as pattern recognition field. It also stands high in researchers community. Face recognition have been fast growing, challenging and interesting area in real-time applications. This face recognition system detects the faces in a picture taken by webcam or a digital camera, and these face images are then checked ...

  13. Saúde, trabalho e ambiente no meio rural brasileiro Health, work and environment at the Brazilian rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Peres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute as implicações das mudanças no paradigma produtivo sobre a saúde e o ambiente no meio rural brasileiro. Para tanto, analisa dados de produção, demografia e economia, contrastando os determinantes, de ordem social, estrutural e econômica, com os reflexos na relação saúde, trabalho e ambiente, desvelando um quadro preocupante, que inclui: a os impactos ambientais de grandes cadeias produtivas como soja, milho, algodão e cana de açúcar; b a contaminação química de diversos compartimentos ambientais em razão do uso de agrotóxicos e fertilizantes na agricultura; c o uso de áreas naturais para o aumento de áreas destinadas à agricultura e pecuária; e d os reflexos destas ações sobre a saúde de um contingente expressivo de indivíduos, trabalhadores ou não, colocados cada vez mais em situação de extrema vulnerabilidade face aos riscos advindos dos diversos processos produtivos presentes no meio rural brasileiro. Assim, o presente artigo mostra que os macrodeterminantes (ou grandes forças motrizes acabam por configurar o retrato da saúde dos habitantes do Brasil Rural que, cotidianamente, enfrentam uma série de desafios para a garantia de uma qualidade de vida e de trabalho digna.This manuscript discusses the implications of the productive paradigm changes in health and environment of rural area of Brazil. It analyzes production, economy and demography data, facing social and structural determinants with health and environmental reflexes, revealing a serious panorama that includes: a environmental impacts associated to large productive chains, such as corn, soy-bean, cotton and sugar cane; b chemical contamination of diverse environment compartments due to pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture; c the use of natural land in the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming activities; and d the reflexes of these actions on individuals, workers or not, that are more and more forced to deal with extreme vulnerability situations because of the risk of rural work processes. Thus, the present article points that macro-determinants (or driven-forces tends to configure the health status of Rural Brazil inhabitants which, day after day, face a series of challenges in order to guarantee dignity in their work and quality of life.

  14. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova; Rostrup, Egill; Iversen, Helle; Starrfelt, Randi

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading and...... face processing, indicating that these processes may be more associated than previously thought....

  15. The Truth About Operating In Syria : The opportunities and challenges companies face upon entering and operating in the emerging market of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Moukbel, Maya; Bergqvist, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Emerging markets are playing a significant role in the ongoing process of economical and political globalisation. Due to the fall of international trade and investment barriers, a wider range of opportunities has risen for companies of the developed countries seeking to further enhance their international business potentials. Nonetheless, many hurdles still facing the integration process due to the existing political and cultural polarity, between emerging markets and their potential business...

  16. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not go away, call your primary health care provider or dentist. ... is throbbing, worse on one side of the face, and aggravated by ... unexplained symptoms. Call your primary health care provider.

  17. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  18. Critical reflections on the New Rurality and the rural territorial development approaches in Latin America / Visión crítica sobre los enfoques de la Nueva Ruralidad y el desarrollo territorial rural en América Latina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Ramírez-Miranda.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una aproximación crítica a las nociones de la Nueva Ruralidad y el Desarrollo Territorial Rural (DTR) que actualmente son hegemónicas en el ámbito de las instituciones gubernamentales y ganan espacio en la academia latinoamericana. Con base en una consideración de los principales desafío [...] s que enfrentan los espacios rurales latinoamericanos, se pasa revista crítica a las prescripciones centrales del DTR, mismas que resultan funcionales al encuadre neoliberal de políticas que han propiciado la pérdida de la soberanía alimentaria, el predominio del agronegocio transnacional y la emigración, como principales expresiones del debilitamiento de la agricultura campesina. Consecuentemente se argumenta que las principales transformaciones de dichos espacios, más que a una pretendida nueva ruralidad corresponden a una ruralidad neoliberal. Al resaltar la necesidad de una visión histórica mundial que recupere la tradición del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano, se postula la urgencia de políticas públicas que rompan con las prescripciones neoliberales y se orienten al fortalecimiento de la agricultura campesina e indígena para impulsar un desarrollo rural con soberanía alimentaria, democracia, equidad y sustentabilidad. Abstract in english This paper presents a critical approach to the New Rurality and the Rural Territorial Development (RTD) perspectives, which nowadays are hegemonic for governmental organizations and Latin American academies. RTD's core requirements, which are functional for neoliberal policies resulting in the loss [...] of food sovereignty, the globalization of agribusinesses, and migration as a consequence of peasant agricultural weakening, were critically reviewed on the basis of the principal challenges faced by Latin American rural areas. In light of the above consequences, it is thought that changes in such areas are based on neoliberal rurality rather than on the purported New Rurality. By stressing the need for a global historical view that reintroduces the Latin American critical thinking tradition, the urgency for public policies that stop neoliberal prescriptions and seek to strengthen peasant and indigenous agriculture in order to encourage rural development based on food sovereignty, democracy, equity and sustainability were established.

  19. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

  20. Ditlhohlo tše Malutere a Borwa bja Afrika a lebanego natšo / The challenges facing Lutherans in South(ern) Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elelwani B., Farisani.

    Full Text Available This article seeks to discuss what the future appears to hold for Lutheranism in South Africa. In order to do this, it is important to look at the past through the history and involvement of Lutheranism in South Africa. This will show the strengths, weaknesses, challenges, and opportunities for Luth [...] eran theology and the Lutheran churches in South Africa in relation to Lutheranism in its global context. Accordingly the article starts off by providing a brief history of Lutheranism in South Africa, examining the role of missionaries from Germany, Norway and Sweden in establishing Lutheranism in South Africa. The article also looks at how apartheid divided the faithful along racial lines, thereby pointing to the challenges, weaknesses, as well as the strengths of the mission of Lutheran churches in this part of Africa. It then moves on to discuss some challenges before Lutheranism in South Africa today. Some of the challenges discussed in this article are as follows: (1) efforts to unite the Black and White Lutherans have so far not succeeded, (2) the role of Lutheran theological education in equipping ministers to address current societal challenges, (3) financial sustainability, (4) African Religious Pluralism, (5) the promotion of gender sensitivity and equality amongst Lutheran congregants, (6) ethnicity and (7) the role and status of self-supporting ministry. And, finally, the article highlights few issues about the changing world of Lutheranism globally.