The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations. (author)
Bhattacharyya, Subhes C. [CEPMLP, Dundee University, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Srivastava, Leena [The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi (India)
The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations
The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive anal [...] ysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.
Full Text Available This article draws from the experience of Catholic priests based in a rural diocese in the Philippines. It will be argued that their satisfaction as diocesan priests is best understood as a religious emotion in spite of the challenges they face on a daily basis. Their challenges revolve around economic limitation, problems with their bishop and leaders, and relational isolation brought about by social and geographic distance. In spite of these challenges, priest-respondents have asserted that they are satisfied because they are still able to fulfill their vocation as priests and have an impact on the lives of their parishioners. Priesthood satisfaction in this sense is not an individual state of the mind dependent on the environment and circumstances. Instead, priesthood satisfaction can be understood as a religious emotion that allows them to remain faithful to their vocation as Catholic priests. The nuances explored in this article inform and complement the various studies on priesthood in the West.
Jayeel Serrano Cornelio
In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.
Full Text Available Women Whistleblowers face unique challenges in the workplace.The headline news of ethical concerns in business is transforming the workplace culture and the workforce. More women are beginning to step forward when ethical concerns arise. However they experience gender differences within the corporate culture when they come forward. Women often approach ethical concerns in a different manner than men. This article will bring research to this issue and uncover the unique challenges that women encounter as whistleblowers and the relationship of social status.
Women Whistleblowers face unique challenges in the workplace.
El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting
Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal.An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.
Juan Carlos Pacheco Contreras
El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* / Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivam [...] ente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal. Abstract in english An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challeng [...] es of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.
Juan Carlos, Pacheco Contreras; Gonzalo, Gómez Vásquez; Gabriel, Barrero Tapias.
Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.
... Shapiro, who has lived and taught in China, now teaches environmental politics at American University. Her previous books include Mao’s War against ... Judith Shapiro: China’s Environmental Challenges. Polity Books, August 2012. ISBN: 9780745660912 by Judith Shapiro The World Bank has ... Judith Shapiro A 2007 OECD study found that hundreds of millions of Chinese people drink water contaminated by arsenic, fluoride, untreated ...global pollution (posted on May 21, 2013) Category: Asia, Books & Reports, Featured | Tagged: Judith Shapiro One Comment Rory Short August 13, 2012 at 12:57 ...
In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…
Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…
Memon, Ismail K.
Early career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: 1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists; 2) general challenges to all categories and specific challenges to each category; 3) obstacles as identified by a survey of current early career members of the American College of Cardiology; 4) major reasons for the failure of physician-scientists to receive funding from National Institute of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute career development grants; 5) potential solutions; and 6) a call to action with specific recommendations. PMID:24703919
Tong, Carl W; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T Jared; Damp, Julie B; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A; Hilliard, Anthony A; Houser, Steven R; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J; Rzeszut, Anne K; Sivaram, Chittur A; Valente, Anne Marie; Freeman, Andrew M
In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063
Jones, C Rick
Full Text Available Technical education is necessary if Kenya is to industrialize by the year 2030. Relevant skills have to be given in Technical training institutions. The training in T.T.Is should therefore be market driven. The current study was designed to investigate on challenges facing skill training in T.T.Is. This study focused on the adequacy of training facilities, relevance of facilities, relevance of curriculum and the trainers’ level of qualifications. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Snowball sampling technique was used to identify T.T.I graduates and their employers became automatic respondents. A sample size of one hundred and sixty eight respondents was used for the study. The study found out that training facilities used by T.T.Is are inferior to facilities used in industries and business organizations Majority of respondents indicated that T.T.I graduates posses’ very irrelevant skills in relation to skill needs in industries and business organizations. This implies that training policies need to be urgently reviewed to ensure that training is market driven. The study recommends an urgent overhaul of the training curriculum to enhance adequacy of skill training to skill needs in industries and business organizations.
Zacharia K. Mbugua
The purpose of this study was to determine the problems faced by small, rural Nebraska school districts. For this study, 15 possible challenges were identified (a) student enrollment, (b) instructional programs, (c) instructional support services, (d) extra curricular activities, (e) hiring and retaining administrative staff, (f) hiring and…
Montgomery, Michael R.
Water scarcity characterizes large portions of the world, particularly the Mediterranean area. It is due to natural causes - climate aridity, which is permanent, and droughts, that are temporary - and to human causes - long term desertification and short term water shortages. Droughts aggravate water scarcity. Knowledge has well developed relative to all processes but management tools still are insufficient as well as the tools required to support appropriate planning and management. Particularly, new approaches on tools for assessing related impacts in agriculture and other economic and social activities are required. Droughts occur in all climates but their characteristics largely differ among regions both in terms frequency, duration and intensity. Research has already produced a large number of tools that allow appropriate monitoring of droughts occurrence and intensity, including dynamics of drought occurrence and time evolution. Advances in drought prediction already are available but we still are far from knowing when a drought will start, how it will evolve and when it dissipates. New developments using teleconnections and GCM are being considered. Climate change is a fact. Are droughts occurrence and severity changing with global change? Opinions are divided about this subject since driving factors and processes are varied and tools for the corresponding analysis are also various. Particularly, weather data series are often too short for obtaining appropriate answers. In a domain where research is producing improved knowledge and innovative approaches, research faces however a variety of challenges. The main ones, dealt in this keynote, refer to concepts and definitions, use of monitoring indices, prediction of drought initiation and evolution, improved assessment of drought impacts, and possible influence of climate change on drought occurrence and severity.
Pereira, Luis S.
Full Text Available The present study strives to find the challenges faced by children of HIVpatients. The samples were taken from a NGO organization in Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu. A random sample of 80 children of HIV patients who were distributed as 40 infected children and 40 affected children were chosen for the study. Each of these 40 children were further divided into 20 boys and 20 girls. The tool used for the study was formulated by the investigator.The result of the study revealed that boys of HIV patients generally face more challenges when compared with the girls. When effect of age was studied on the challenges faced by children of HIV patients it was found that both the age groups studied faced more or less the same level of challenges except between 12-15 and 16-19 year old affected boys where the 16-19 year old boys were found to face more challenges. When a comparison was made between the infected and affected children a significant difference was noted between the infected and affected girls, where the infected girls were found to be facing more challenges than the affected girls. Again a significant difference was noted between infected and affected boys where the affected boys in the age group of 16-19 years were found to be facing more challenges. No difference was found between the other groups studied.
The purpose of this study is to identify the specific and concrete logistical problems that small- and medium sized enterprises face as they export their manufactures to Russia. Another aim is to name some of the benefits achieved from Russia’s future membership to WTO that might ease exporting to Russia. The theoretical part of the thesis discusses the topics of international trade and exporting. The international trade part explains the fundamentals of the international business environme...
... Force Fitness Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully: Building Your Family's Resilience Long deployment separations, difficult post- ... confidence in your ability to solve problems and trust your instincts helps build resilience. Keep things in ...
The single major challenge for hydroelectric power stations today is the durability of production. Environmental management has to be rethought, climate change integrated, but also the economic role of hydroelectricity reassessed. More generally, the challenge of energy transition in which hydroelectricity will have primary role must be met. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions, underway in some European countries, must be placed in this context. By using as examples Switzerland and France, the author sets out to show that this rethink can be an opportunity to put into practice new ways of management for this sector. (author)
The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphas...
Sasu, Dinu Vlad; Mocanu, Mihaela; Bobe, Claudia-maria
By being the first observatory to survey the source rich low frequency region of the gravitational wave spectrum, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. For the first time we will be able to detect the gravitational radiation from millions of galactic binaries, the coalescence of two massive black holes, and the inspirals of compact objects into massive black holes. The signals from multiple sources in each class, and possibly others as well, will be simultaneously present in the data. To achieve the enormous scientific return possible with LISA, sophisticated data analysis techniques must be developed which can mine the complex data in an effort to isolate and characterize individual signals. This proceedings paper very briefly summarizes the challenges associated with analyzing the LISA data, the current state of affairs, and the necessary next steps to move forward in addressing the imminent challenges
The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to New Product Development-literature by expanding the analysis of the R&D-manufacturing interface in complex product development in three areas, i.e. the outsourcing of manufacturing, uncertainty and time-criticality, and field service. The thesis focuses on interface challenges and solutions which concern three questions: How does the level of outsourcing of manufacturing affect the management of the R&Dmanufacturing interface in complex p...
Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior ...
The International Fund for Agricultural Development's 2001 report on rural poverty argues that to reduce poverty, international efforts must focus on "legally secure entitlements to assets (especially land and water); technology (above all for increasing the output and yield of food staples); access to markets; opportunities to participate in decentralized resource management; and access to microfinance." The extensive document is posted in .pdf format with the above address linking to its table of contents.
This collection of papers addresses the personal challenges academics face in successfully responding to "the call" to academic leadership, focusing on who academic deans are, unique challenges to women deans, stress impacting deans' ability to lead, keys to successful entry into the deanship, organizational strategies for leading successfully,…
Gmelch, Walter H., Ed.
The numbers of project competitions and interest in this kind of competition have been steadily increasing in Turkey. Accordingly, it is important to determine what challenges teachers and students may face while preparing themselves for project competitions, so that recommendations may be made to overcome these challenges. This study investigated…
Demirel, Turgay; Baydas, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Goktas, Yuksel
The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002â??07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect to new research projects and sponsorship of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we maintain our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences.
Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.
Uranium could pose one of the greatest challenges to South African metallurgy in the coming years. South Africa has the advantage of a good supply of uranium which occur as a by-product of gold mining. Looking at ore reserves, in the case of most metals and minerals it is unlikely that many spectacular new large high-grade deposits will be found. What metallurgists would have to do is to concentrate on the development of techniques related to existing processes and others completely different, which would enable the treatment of low-grade mineral deposits. Southern Africa's mineral resources will continue to be exploited and in the absence of complete change throughout the area there will be an important place for South Africans properly trained and prepared to give all they can do to this continued development
There has been significant progress in the field of heart transplantation over the last 45 years. The 1-yr survival rates following heart transplantation have improved from 30% in the 1970s to almost 90% in the 2000s. However, there has been little change in long-term outcomes. This is mainly due to chronic rejection, malignancy, and the detrimental side effects of chronic immunosuppression. In addition, over the last decade, new challenges have arisen such as increasingly complicated recipients and antibody-mediated rejection. Most, if not all, of these obstacles to long-term survival could be prevented or ameliorated by the induction of transplant tolerance wherein the recipient's immune system is persuaded not to mount a damaging immune response against donor antigens, thus eliminating the need for chronic immunosuppression. However, the heart, as opposed to other allografts like kidneys, appears to be a tolerance-resistant organ. Understanding why organs like kidneys and livers are prone to tolerance induction, whereas others like hearts and lungs are tolerance-resistant, could aid in our attempts to achieve long-term, immunosuppression-free survival in human heart transplant recipients. It could also advance the field of pig-to-human xenotransplantation, which, if successful, would eliminate the organ shortage problem. Of course, there are alternative futures to the field of heart transplantation that may include the application of total mechanical support, stem cells, or bioengineered whole organs. Which modality will be the first to reach the ultimate goal of achieving unlimited, long-term, circulatory support with minimal risk to longevity or lifestyle is unknown, but significant progress in being made in each of these areas. PMID:24789875
Tonsho, Makoto; Michel, Sebastian; Ahmed, Zain; Alessandrini, Alessandro; Madsen, Joren C
Discusses seven factors that impact upon the establishment/support of recreation/leisure services in rural environments: scale, recreation economics, community customs/traditions, work cycle, program delivery, focus on family, attitudinal variances. Examines how each factor has been used to justify limiting recreational opportunities and provides…
Neal, Larry L.; Long, Patrick T.
This article presents a study identifying benefits and challenges of a novel hospital-to-hospital information technology (IT) outsourcing partnership (HHP). The partnership is an innovative response to the problem that many smaller, rural hospitals face: to modernize their IT infrastructure in spite of a severe shortage of resources. The investigators studied three rural hospitals that outsourced their IT infrastructure, through an HHP, to a larger, more technologically advanced hospital in t...
Reddy, Madhu C.; Purao, Sandeep; Kelly, Mary
This research is on the challenges that the state parties faced in including the crime of aggression under the international affairsfuture challenges that might arise in prosecuting the crime of aggression. The crime of aggression, formerly known as crimes against peace, is the use of unlawful force by a state against another state. Its prohibition started before World War One but successful prosecutions for this crime took place after World War Two when Nazi and Japanese leaders were prosecu...
Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key tren...
Wang, Jin-zhao; Wang, Jing
Full Text Available Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes that participatory development has not been practiced in the real sense of the concept in rural development in Nigeria. While highly centralized and top-down exploitative rural development practice dominated the colonial system up to the period of post-independence military dictatorship, not much significant difference have been observed within the current civilian democratic experiment. The paper argues that while long years of military rule in Nigeria have made it impossible for the development of effective institutional arrangements that could sustain true participatory democratic culture, a lack of citizens? capacity to participate in development intended for their benefit has posed the greatest challenge in achieving sustainable participatory rural development.
Nseabasi S. Akpan
The report is divided into two sections. The first discusses the broad range of challenges facing the industry as it moves towards the 21st century. The author identifies four areas that present challenges: the quantity of oil; its quality; oil`s image; and the industry`s broader responsibilities. The second section looks at possible opportunities to meet these challenges: making the best use of the new world economic and political order; deriving the maximum benefit from a more unified international oil industry; and participating in environmental and other forms aimed at realigning the global energy mix.
Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key trends that, taken together, we believe will shape the hospitality sector this year and for years to come include rapid growth in vacation ownership, integration & globalization, new management.
Key words: Issues; Challenges; Trends; Hospitality Industry
Full Text Available Globalization is an irreversible development and the main purpose of this paper is to rethink how Mainland China responds to the challenges of globalization in rural area. To achieve this aim, this study will be divided into three parts. First of all, it will examine the phenomenon of privatization and dumping in rural China as a result of globalization. It will then try to consider the feasible top-down administrative changes of Chinese government. The last part will explore the new modalities of political engineering and social transformation of the state-society relation resulted from the bottom-up resistance to globalization.
Chan Wing Wa Edwina
Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional...
Darryl Maybery; Rod Pope; Gene Hodgins; Yvonne Hitchenor
This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals participating in school computerization programs often have not carefully considered the contextual questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might there be better avenues for implementing access to the benefits of the digital age? These questions and the issue of school computerization are considered via results from a survey of thirtyseven rural Kenyan primary public schools. Results indicate that, while all schools had low ICT status making them primary targets for computerization, only eleven percent had at least one ICT compliant teacher, of which all were considered to require further training. In addition we found inadequate infrastructural preparedness - lack of access to electricity, internet; no classroom computer space, few desks, secure walls and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome many of the technical challenges found.
Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.
China`s sustained and rapid economic development has placed its energy industries under great strain. Decades of government ownership and central planning have resulted in a low degree of productive efficiency and of energy efficiency. Energy prices have been fixed well below marginal costs and therefore the energy industries have lacked the funds to expand capacity to match demand. These weaknesses are exacerbated by severe transport problems. The government has recognised the impending energy crisis. The last ten years have seen a concerted attempt to raise energy prices to near international levels or marginal costs. However, only limited steps have been taken to restructure China`s energy industries and introduce competition. Substantial reform may be necessary, but the nature of this reform must be rooted in a thorough understanding of the specific challenges facing China`s energy sector. This paper provides an analysis of the structure and performance of China`s energy industries and of the regulation of energy markets and prices. This analysis leads to the identification of the key challenges which face this sector of the economy which may be classified into four categories: management, financial, regulatory and administrative challenges. The degree of urgency is such that a coherent energy policy is required which addresses these issues in a sustained and consistent manner. 44 refs., 5 figs., 43 tabs.
Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.
Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil
Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.
Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)
Full Text Available Given our settlement pattern as evident in Nigeria, it is expedient to note that the country's population spread has shown considerably that we have older women and children dwelling within the rural areas of the country and doing subsistence job on their respective farms so as to keep them going. Given this trend, their quest for survival at the face of the eminent economic pressures has sent many into pursuing vigorously the best option in survival strategy with utmost aim of making life bearable for them within the changing society of ours by their subsisting on nature. The consequences of such effort demonstrated the government's total neglect of women's need. Therefore, this study looked at these issues from the feminist perspective as they relate to women's need. Also, the plight of the rural dwelling women, their survival strategy, the poverty syndrome and the planned action of the government in the effect to salvage the impending problems which women's quest for survival in the rural areas will cause the Nation as a whole have been studied. Our submission is arrived at as a result of our observations in villages such as Eye-Korin, Gambari, Lasoju, Gbede and Ote among others in Asa Local Government are of Kwara State in Nigeria. Consequently, this study proposes a premise for the re-awakening of all parties to the needs of not just women alone, but the environment that all must collectively preserve lest the consequential effects which such neglect will cause will be enormous.
This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.
Full Text Available Background: Australia, like many other countries is facing a shortage of qualified nurse educators and this has potential to impact enormously on the quality of nurses working in health services. Methods: This paper discusses the findings of action research recently completed within a Queensland University, involving a range of nurse educators. Results: It explores some of the challenges to role satisfaction and suggests two strategies to build capacity, connection, satisfaction and productivity in Australian nurse educators, that may be relevant for international colleagues. Conclusions: The first solution is to establish a self-sustaining, solution-focused Community of Practice for nurse educators. The second solution is to disseminate an effective, easy to remember teaching framework that draws upon principles of Transformative learning, a pedagogy that is relevant for nurses, because they will need to work with vulnerable populations and graduates need to be equipped with skills, compassion and be committed to social action.
Margaret Maura McAllister
Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.
Full Text Available
Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.
Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor
The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.
Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)
This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)
Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)
This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying the research area, (2) Illustrating the current situation and the desired situation, and the gap between these (the descriptive study), (3) Illustrating how to close this gap (the prescriptive study I) and (4) Validating these results (the prescriptive study II). Two descriptive studies were carried out as case studies with seven Danish multinational corporations. A total of 57 semi-structured interviews were conducted with top managers, daily managers and expatriates. In study 1 four areas were investigated: (1) the global product development process in the investigated case companies, (2) the challenges they experienced, (3) the solutions they implemented, and (4) the impact of these solutions. In the descriptive study 2 the use of expatriates were investigated in relation to their role in the organisation when globalising the product development process. Through investigating seven Danish multinationals it became clear that global product development had an impact on both management and engineering projects within the companies. The globalisation of the product development process started with manufacturing activities and later more high value adding activities like product design and R&D were added until some companies had globalised the whole product development process. The globalisation of the product development process seems to consist of four phases: 1. Motivation to move abroad. 2. Preparation phase. 3. Implementation phase. ï?? Complications. ï?? Operational solutions to complications. 4. Managing the relationship. ï?? Complications. ï?? Operational solutions to complications. Only top management was involved in these first two phases. In implementation and managing the new global projects and relationships, the daily managers and expatriates were responsible. In these phases the companies faced organisational problems and complications with the technical and managerial aspects of the engineering projects. The problems within management were similar to those previously reported in literature, mainly related to culture, knowledge sharing and coordination but also change management and organisational structures and processes. The problems within engineering were related to product and process modularity as well as the ii knowledge properties of the product. These problems resulted in delays, misunderstandings and quality issues. The novel aspect of the empirical investigation was the in-depth understanding of how these challenges were addressed in the company to try and maximise the perceived benefits from globalising the product development process. The daily managers implemented a series of initiatives to address these; mainly codification of knowledge, streamlined communication, training, bringing more tasks out to ensure contact between vital elements, make the product development process less complex, make the product less complex and detailed work descriptions. There was, in other words, a focus on control and minimizing risk. The result of these solutions impacted on the product, the product development process and the organisation. Some of these impacts were positive and some were negative. The positive impacts of the solutions were related to a better understanding of work processes and the supply chain whereas globalisation itself provided the possibility for an increased product portfolio and products which were better suited to local markets. The negative impacts were for example, that the product development process became slower and less integrated whereas the organisation became more focused on codified knowledg
Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee
Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of the introduction of the nuclear power plants is under investigation taking into account various important changes due to new realities. Therefore, the safety and fuel cycle aspects, especially the long term program on the back-end fuel cycle, utilizing the existing facilities is also maintained. The construction of a laboratory for carrying out research and development on radio-ecology and marine environmental studies is being planned to support the radioactive waste management for the future nuclear power plants. Considering the need to maintain the energy related research and development and the need for clean water, the study on the utilization of a high power research reactor for generating process heat, hot vapour, and producing clean water as well as electricity is being carried out. The possibility of the construction of this research reactor is being studied. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to co-operate with other countries to support her nuclear research and development programme in various fields due to the fact that she has to overcome her chronic challenges that are perhaps also faced by other countries, i.e. to have a better understanding, perception, appreciation, and support from decision makers, social leaders, scholars, and the whole community nationally and internationally on the importance of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. (author)
Individuals who are Deaf face challenges both similar and unique from those faced by hearing individuals when a family member is dying. This study was guided by the question “What are the challenges faced by a Deaf family member when a loved one is dying?” Methods - This qualitative study is guided by critical theory and an interpretive perspective. Robert, a college-educated older adult who has been Deaf from birth was interviewed in American Sign Language using a death history format. R...
Kehl, Karen A.; Gartner, Constance M.
Across the country, states are concentrating efforts to meet the requirements and the spirit of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The implementation provisions and timelines are demanding and challenging for all districts. NCLB is particularly daunting, however, for rural and small districts. This paper outlines the characteristics of rural schools and…
Motivating high school students is a complex and challenging task. Add the resource shortfall and issues that result from the small size and remoteness of rural districts, and it may seem a nearly impossible undertaking. Motivation theory and research offer potential tools for teachers to use, but what are the needs of rural students, and what…
Hardre, Patricia L.
Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…
Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy
Full Text Available Objective: to think over the rural family, relating it with health and Nursing in a contemporary context. Methodology: to develop the test, a bibliographical research was done conducted with authors from different areas (political, economic, social and health in books and articles, as well as the experience of the authors to make the reflexive analysis on rural households. Results: the increasing transformations in family structure dynamics and functionality, both in urban and rural environments, it is necessary to get to know family peculiarities such as culture, beliefs and health habits in order to care for these families. This set of values varies from one group to another. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to reflect on the family dimension in this context, as the rural environment occupies an unfavorable rank as to public service access, and this favors social inequalities and poverty.
Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer, Eda Schwartz, Teila Ceolin, Rita Maria Heck
Lecture held at the South Asia Institute in Heidelberg on 2nd December, 2008. In the context of post-colonial rural India there are essentially two phases in rural politics institutionalized through "panchayati raj institutions" (PRIs). The first phase began in the late 1950s following the implementation of the Balvantrao Mehta Committee recommendations which led to the birth of the first generation PRIs. The second phase began in 1993 when the Constitution was amended to strengthen the basi...
Problem statement: Rural population in Iran live in an unstable environment and geographically, villages are extremely diverse and more than 65% of them have population less than 250 persons, which do not provide sufficient population threshold for most of services and sustainable economic and job creation activities. Only 7.5% of rural areas have population more than 1000 persons. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out major ch...
Khalil Kalantari; Fami, Hossein S.; Ali Asadi; Iraj Qasemi; Shahla Chubchian
landscape structureKód oboru RIV: DE - Zemský magnetismus, geodézie, geografie http://studiacrescent.com/images/02_2010/09_jaromir_kolejka_post_industrial_landscape_its_identification_and_classification_as_contemporary_challenges_faced_by_geographic_.pdf
Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal elimination of HIV/AIDS.
Margaret Macherera, MSc
Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.
Ghada Quaisi Audi
Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course ...
Algal production needs to develop from a craft to a major industrial process. Major challenges are to reduce production costs and energy requirements and increase production scale. Although microalgae are not yet produced at large-scale for bulk applications, recent advances – particularly in the methods of systems biology, genetic engineering, process control, and biorefinery – present opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable and economical way within the next 10 to 15 year...
Barbosa, M. J.; Bosma, R.; Kleinegris, D. M. M.; Wijffels, R. H.
Recent research suggests that transitions toward adaptive water management regimes are needed because current water management regimes cannot adequately respond to uncertainty. The pivotal question is how to understand and manage such transitions. The literature on adaptive management addresses this question in part, but must now move beyond the descriptive toward a prescriptive management framework. Transition management theory could help in meeting this challenge. The similarity of the theo...
The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.
Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.
One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real c...
The offshore wind sector is undergoing rapid expansion across Europe, driven by the demand for renewable energy and the uncertainty regarding fossil fuel supplies. The proposed wind farm developments are creating significant geotechnical challenges, particularly in terms of efficient foundation design. The majority of wind farms constructed to date have been founded in water depths of less than thirty meters. However 70% of the proposed turbines over the next 10 years will be located in water...
Doherty, Paul; Gavin, Kenneth; Casey, Bernard
Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting servi...
Abstract. Increasing the organizational benefits from IT projects is a key concern in most organizations. The use of Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is generally recommended by consultants (e.g. Kaplan 2005) and researchers (e.g. De Reyck et al 2005) as one way of increasing the organizational benefits from IT investments. This article reports from an action research project aiming at understanding and improving IT PPM practices in Danish municipalities, thereby contributing to the general body of knowledge concerning PPM of IT projects. Our findings suggest that the participating organizations might benefit from a structured approach as suggested by the literature (e.g. Kaplan 2005), but also that the prescriptive PPM literature in some areas is too simplistic when compared to the reality faced by the participating practitioners. Especially, our research suggests that different PPM elements should be prioritized differently depending on the IT-management maturity and role of IT in the organization.
Hansen, Lars; Pedersen, Keld
Full Text Available With the advancements in modern capitalism, significant changes have been made in its goals and instruments. Past crises and the experiences acquired by economic institutions gave rise to the development of a special pattern of consumption rooted in the industrial revolution. In the post-modern period, we can observe the rise of a new ideology which is going through its completing process very quickly and a large mass is gaining a new perspective and prestige in consumerist societies. Understanding a consumerist society helps us to find out what instruments and fighting strategies the ideology of consumption uses and to what it causes damage. The role of the media is very important in this regard because they help to create false needs using virtual methods. On the other hand, due to the close relationship between ideology and politics, the consumerism crisis in society can be politically managed with success. In this regard, it is necessary for the political managers to understand different dimensions of the existing crisis and the challenges of the consumerist society and to find appropriate scientific and practical solutions to the problem. The main purpose of the present study is to shed some light on the challenges of a consumerist society by analyzing the features of the ideology of consumption and to focus on the influential role modern human beings play in this society as consumers and to evaluate the political dimensions of management of consumption pattern.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ?wicked? problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students? attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ?wicked problems?.
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs and how they overcome these challenges. Method: For literature review and secondary research, data and information has been gathered from disciplines of international entrepreneurship. Primary research has been done on four born global firms; two from Sweden and two from Pakistan. Qualitative research and analysis has been used in the study. Originality: This study contributes to literature by...
Hamza, Aziz; Zulfiqar, Salman
Full Text Available SummaryMany issues challenge France and Quebec’s health systems. These issues, similar on both sides of the Atlantic, are characterized by transitions (demographical, epidemiological and technological, which will have an impact on care and prevention practices. Factors like ageing populations, improving quality of life or the deficit projected to certain health professions characterize these issues and put the health system to the test.In this context, acting upstream of health problems and investing efforts in prevention will become even more necessary. Health care professionals are directly involved to initiate or participate in prevention actions.In the context of these two systems transforming, four types of levers or incentives benefit from being put forward: 1 the governance lever, which assures global consistency between the actions by linking the care system’s specific interventions with those developed as part of a health strategy; 2 the professional lever, that targets the recognition of skills in terms of preventionpractices and leadership; 3 the organizational lever, which promotes the development of collective skills oriented towards prevention; 4 the financial lever, which forces to explore new methods of compensation and incentives supporting prevention.Prat Organ Soins 2009;40(4:275-282
Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."
Although the outlook for most segments of the contract drilling business is now more optimistic than in the past decade, the increased activity has brought several problems: the availability of fully trained crews, the need for new capital, and the limited number of quality drillstrings. These problems will grow in importance if natural gas deliverability begins to decline visibly and once the scramble to correct this decline begins. As the drilling recovery unfolds, the most important lesson to remember, based on worldwide activity in the past year, is how rapidly conditions can change and how quickly excess capacity can turn into chronic shortages. The various segments of the world wide contract drilling industry's prospects have changed dramatically during the past 12 months, and oddly, some market sectors have improved while others have become worse. These quick changes highlight the unpredictable and volatile nature of the markets for contract drilling and other services needed to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The paper describes the business of well drilling onshore and offshore in the US, drilling activities in Canada, international markets, capacity, the supplies of natural gas, Gulf of Mexico activities, drill pipe shortages, manpower shortages, and challenges offshore
Private initiatives can contribute to the eradication of many of the educational problems of developing countries, specifically in rural Africa. This article explores the crippling education problems of several developing countries. It argues that many of these problems can be addressed by non-governmental organisations making use of privately funded mini-education systems. In particular, an analysis and discussion of the Foundation for Cross-Cultural Education shows that a private educationa...
Compion, Jannie; Steyn, Hendrik Johannes; Wolhuter, Charste Coetzee; Walt, Johannes Lodewicus
Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical challenges. The study concluded that the women academic leaders are facing challenges between medium and high levels. In addition, there is no difference attributed to the job position in all domains, except for the physical challenges in favor for the principals. There were differences attributed to the academic qualification in all the domains in favor of those who hold BA degrees or higher, except for the organizational challenges domain. Finally, there were no differences related to the years of experience in all domains. The study recommended setting up developmental programs for the women’s academic leaders.
Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad Al-Jaradat
The economic landscape of most nations remains dominated by family businesses. Therefore, it is fitting that academia has begun to recognise the importance of family business studies. Family businesses are here to stay. Families who work together and live together face certain unique challenges that other families do not face. They have more opportunity for closeness and, at the same time, there is more opportunity for disagreement. Paradoxically, many of their outstanding strengths are also ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.
The current challenges facing all electricity suppliers essentially result from market requirements, market liberalisation and the requirements for environmental and climate protection. EDF is accordingly focussing its activities on innovative areas in terms of individual generation options - such as nuclear energy, fossil-fired power plants and hydroelectric power generation. The challenges require both technical and organisational solutions, as shown by the grid instability in western Europe on November 4th 2006, for example. (orig.)
Giger, F. [EDF Generation and Engineering, Saint-Denis (France); Vailhen, O. [EDF Generation and Engineering, CIH (Hydro Engineering), Le Bourget du Lac (France); Arrondel, V. [EDF-R and D, Cedex (France)
The current challenges facing all electricity suppliers essentially result from market requirements, market liberalisation and the requirements for environmental and climate protection. EDF is accordingly focussing its activities on innovative areas in terms of individual generation options - such as nuclear energy, fossil-fired power plants and hydroelectric power generation. The challenges require both technical and organisational solutions, as shown by the grid instability in western Europe on November 4th 2006, for example. (orig.)
The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) ...
Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia
Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the Univ...
Breslin Jonathan M; MacRae Susan K; Bell Jennifer; Singer Peter A
China’s rapid economic growth has presented numerous opportunities and challenges for foreign firms there. Many large corporations have established a China centre to coordinate and control their operations in the country. As firms have increased their presence in China, their concerns are increasingly focused on implementing successful management practices and strategies. This article describes the challenges and difficulties that multinational companies faced in Chinese market. It analyses...
Informing both program evaluation and practice research, this paper describes lessons learned during the planning, implementation, and pilot phases of an abstinence education program based in a rural community in a southern state in the USA. Although a number of challenges can emerge in successfully implementing and evaluating such a program in a…
Stauss, Kimberly; Boyas, Javier; Murphy-Erby, Yvette
Like the rest of the United Kingdom, Wales is facing a new challenge from the implementation of the Coalition Government's cuts. The Welsh Assembly Government [WAG, renamed Welsh Government (WG), in May 2011] budget was reduced by 1.8 billion British Pounds over the next four years. WAG responded by introducing its own revised austerity budget…
This article examines the result of a study on teachers' reported use of instructional strategies in dealing with the U.S.-Iraq war, the resources that they use, the challenges that they face in implementing a globally oriented curriculum, and the sources of influence on their commitment to global education. A questionnaire was developed and used…
Eslami, Zohreh R.
Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…
Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally
Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.
This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded. PMID:17477170
Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira
Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency of complications in unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department Otorhinolaryngology MMIMSR over the time duration of one year from March 2011 to April 2012. Fifty consecutive patients were selected whose clinical diagnosis was CSOM Attico-antral type.Conclusion: The rate of complications, especially more serious intracranial complications ,observed in developing countries is significantly more than those observed in studies from the developed countries. (12. In our study the frequency of extracranial complications excluding ossicular erosion is 22% and the frequency of intracranial complications is 4%. It was observed by Memon et al (13 in 2008 that in a series of 390 patients of chronic discharging ears that the rate of extracranial complications was 4.10% and rate of intracranial complications was 2.3%of the unsafe variety . The high frequency in our study may be explained by the fact that we are sitting in a rural background with very poor socio-economic background patients. Osama U et al (14 from Turkey reveals the rate of 1.35% of extracranial complications and 1.97% of intracranial complications in his study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.
Cooke Graham S
Full Text Available In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME’s to future progress and grows. Therefore this article examines the background and challenges face by SME’s which play a vital role in the nation growth. The uniqueness of this paper is the emphasis on the human resource development perspective which is important for SME’s to progress and be competitive. Finally, this article maps out how future research can be more sensitive to how SME’s actually develop their own human resource development for future development.
Siti Sarah bt. Omar
In a task choice situation, why do some students spontaneously choose challenging tasks while others do not? In the study, 114 undergraduate students were first asked of their perceived competence and interest in solving number puzzles at both individual and situational levels, and then asked to choose one puzzle from four difficulty levels. They…
The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.
Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.
Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth has presented numerous opportunities and challenges for foreign firms there. Many large corporations have established a China centre to coordinate and control their operations in the country. As firms have increased their presence in China, their concerns are increasingly focused on implementing successful management practices and strategies. This article describes the challenges and difficulties that multinational companies faced in Chinese market. It analyses roles played by the human resource function in these China, culture differences, social environment and other factors.
Various rural prevention research challenges have been articulated through a series of sessions convened since the mid 1990s by the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Salient in this articulation was the need for effective collaboration among rural practitioners and scientists, with special consideration of accommodating the diversity of rural areas and surmounting barriers to implementation of evidence-based interventions. This paper summarizes ...
The overall objective of the study was to analyze the process of innovation management in technology companies in an Informatics Nucleus in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was qualitative and by the point of view of its nature was applied. It was also characterized as a descriptive research. In order to face challenges in the market, managers of companies from Informatics Nucleus must continually innovate in their processes by acquiring new organizational knowledge and showing an ent...
Luan Carlos Santos Silva; João Luiz Kovaleski; Silvia Gaia; Pedro Paulo Andrade Júnior
This review is designed to highlight several key challenges in the diagnosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)–positive breast cancer currently faced by pathologists in Canada: Pre-analysis issues affecting the accuracy of her2 testing in non-excision sample types: core-needle biopsies, effusion samples, fine-needle aspirates, and bone metastasesher2 testing of core-needle biopsies compared with surgical specimensCriteria for retesting her2 status upon disease recurrence
Hanna, W.; Barnes, P.; Berendt, R.; Chang, M.; Magliocco, A.; Mulligan, A. M.; Rees, H.; Miller, N.; Elavathil, L.; Gilks, B.; Pettigrew, N.; Pilavdzic, D.; Sengupta, S.
The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were...
Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers has been a challenge for many rural school districts. Lower salaries, working conditions, and geographic location are some of the challenges rural districts face when staffing their schools. The challenges of recruiting teachers in rural areas are compounded by competition from larger districts…
Gadson, Denise Brooks
There is a dearth of information on studies that have sought to examine qualitatively the sanitation challenges that rural communities experience. Opsomming Kwalitatiewe navorsing is gedoen om die strukturele, ekonomiese, opvoedkundige, sosiale en tegnologiese uitdagings wat landelike gemeenskappe van die Oos-Kaap met betrekking tot sanitasie in die gesig staar, te ondersoek. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to...
This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector i...
Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii
A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health
Full Text Available The Internet has fundamentally transformed the practice of journalism in Africa. It has spawned enormous opportunities and challenges for the African media, and Zimbabwe is no exception. Not only has the concept of news changed but also the manner in which it is gathered and disseminated. Journalists no longer feel compelled to adhere to the ethical cannons of their profession owing to certain qualities of the Internet. This paper investigates ethical challenges faced by the Zimbabwean media as a result of the Internet. In particular the paper discusses ethical challenges in the Zimbabwean media that are either directly or indirectly linked to the Internet. The main argument advanced in this paper is that while the Internet has brought about a number of opportunities for the Zimbabwean media, the same technology has been the root of unethical reporting.
Urban and rural geographies should be further included in feminist intersectional research on intimate partner violence. The article reviews existing research on the challenges facing rural victims of IPV. This research makes visible the specific problems rurality imposes on victims of IPV. However, research on rural IPV risks being misused and subsequently reinforcing othering and stereotypes of rurality and rural inhabitants. The article suggests that researchers alternate between intra- an...
This paper addresses the logistical challenges of implementing public health interventions in the setting of cluster randomized trials (CRTs), drawing on the experience of carrying out a CRT within a community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme in rural India. Our CRT is seeking to improve the equity impact – i.e., reduce the differential in claims submission for hospitalization between poor and less poor – of this CBHI in rural areas. Five main challenges are identified and discussed: ...
Ranson, M. Kent; Sinha, Tara; Morris, Saul S.; Mills, Anne J.
Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.
Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory
Full Text Available Vast majority of Iranian farmers are still peasants who farm small plots of land, usually in marginalenvironments, utilizing traditional and subsistence methods. Despite of these characteristics, peasant-farmingsystem has vital role in Iranian agriculture sector. Solutions therefore must be found for empowering peasants todeal with such problems. The main purpose of this study was to identify solutions to deal with challenges facingpeasant farming system in Iran. Seventy one extension experts at headquarter level of Ministry of Agriculturewere selected using random sampling technique. Principal component analysis was applied as main statisticaltechnique to analyze the data. The findings revealed that five factors /components containing 38 variablesdetermined about 63 percent of variations in solutions to deal with challenges facing peasant farming system:extension solutions (19.03 % of variance, economic solutions (16.60% of variance, social solutions (10.234%of variance, political solutions (9.75% of variance and managerial solutions (7.69% of variance.
Seyed Abolhasan Sadati
Full Text Available The complexities of food supply chain impose enormous challenges to the processors. As compared to multinational food companies operating in the Tanzania, local firms have been performing inefficiently or going out of the business because they could hardly withstand the competition. SCM in the food industry sector was studied in a qualitative survey covered 23 food processing firms in Tanzania, with the purposes of identifying the existing supply chain operation, knowledge of SCM concept and challenges facing the sector. The findings of this study suggest that a lot of efforts need to be addressed to ensure that processors benefits from the concept of SCM. The understanding of SCM concept among the processors seems to be low, thus, hindering them from taping the opportunity offered by SCM strategies. The sector still faces a number of factors which impede the firms to grow fast and compete in the global market. Such factors include technical know-how, research and development, capital, managerial and physical infrastructures. Keywords Supply chain management; Inventory management; Customer perceived value; food industry.
Juma Makweba Ruteri
Full Text Available The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtained through the primary source. Three thousand Estate Surveyors and Valuers across the country were surveyed using the internet-based SurveyMonkey software. The analysis indicated that “topping up”, “gazumping”, “gazundering”, low level of salaries and misdemeanors by the ever-increasing number of charlatans are major challenges facing the profession. In addition, majority of practitioners confessed to involvement in mounting of multiple signboards, collection of double fees, and soliciting for jobs with financial inducements. It was therefore recommended that prosecution of erring members, encouragement of non-professionals to attend formal training, and establishment of a college for such training, enforcement of professional standards, and adoption of proactive stance on laws that are inimical to sustainable real estate practice to ensure an enduring professional practice.
Ayotunde Olawande Oni
Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Furthermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent involvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language therapist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area w [...] ho were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Furthermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent involvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language therapist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.
Julie, O' Connor; Martha, Geiger.
Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.
Patricia Dehmer, Deputy Director for Science Programs at DOE, opened the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, 'Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research,' with the talk, 'Facing Our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science.' In her presentation, Dr. Dehmer gave a tutorial on the energy challenges facing our Nation and showed how the DOE research portfolio addresses those issues. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.
Dehmer, Patricia M. (Deputy Director for Science Programs at DOE)
Despite the existing research on rural education, rural teaching, and pre-service rural practicum placements, there is little research on the experiences of beginning teachers in rural schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saskatchewan beginning teachers who obtain employment in rural or northern schools. Eight…
Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; McIntyre, Laureen J.; Prytula, Michelle P.
This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…
Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter
Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, at least 35% of Merino lambs born will be u
Groundwater plays an important role in the total water supply of much of China, particularly in the north. It has contributed substantially to both agricultural growth and urban and industrial expansion. However, overexploitation and poor management have contributed to infamous groundwater depletion problems and less publicized groundwater quality deterioration. One of the key challenges for China will be how to make groundwater use sustainable while still meeting increased food needs as well as the industrial and domestic demands of a rapidly urbanizing society. Zhengzhou City, one of China’s test cities for building a “water saving society” highlights both the difficulties and potential solutions to northern China’s joint rural and urban groundwater challenges. Based on secondary data and a primary survey of groundwater management in the region, this report provides an overview of Zhengzhou’s groundwater development and use as well as the ongoing institutional and policy reform processes within the water sector. The results highlight how a deepening of ongoing reforms, which simultaneously consider groundwater as an integral rural and urban issue and a fundamental economic and social asset, may improve groundwater outcomes, not only in Zhengzhou but in China, as the country’s economy and demography continue to change.
Sun, Ronglin; Jin, Menggui; Giordano, Mark; Villholth, Karen G.
Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.
Why does IFAD need rural finance guidelines? With its exclusive emphasis on rural poverty alleviation, IFAD enjoys a competitive advantage over other development agencies, and should strengthen its role by providing support for the development of rural finance as an important instrument. The goal of IFAD?s support for rural finance is the sustainable improvement of the livelihood of the rural poor. This paper offers guiding principles to IFAD?s staff and partner institutions to stimulate inno...
Seibel, Hans Dieter
Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about ...
Price, Cindy J.; Brown, Michael R.
Context: Medication safety is clearly an important quality issue for rural hospitals. However, rural hospitals face special challenges implementing medication safety practices in terms of their staffing and financial and technical resources. Purpose: This study assessed the capacity of small rural hospitals to implement medication safety…
Casey, Michelle M.; Moscovice, Ira S.; Davidson, Gestur
This report examines the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) on student achievement and teacher quality in rural school districts and the challenges those rural districts face in complying with the Act. It also analyzes differences in responses to NCLB between rural districts and urban or suburban districts. Findings are drawn from the…
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 poses unique challenges for rural schools and districts. Small schools are more likely to be labeled as needing improvement due to the volatility of annual test scores for small student populations. Rural districts are limited in their capacity to provide parents with school choice, and rural districts face…
This PowerPoint presentation by Iroquois Gas Transmission examined challenges facing natural gas infrastructure growth in the northeast. Issues concerning pipeline management and expansions in liquefied natural gas (LNG) in North America were discussed as well as various proposed LNG terminals. Delays in terminal construction were attributed to the fact that areas with the highest demand have proved to be the most difficult for terminal siting. An increased awareness of environmental issues has led to state and local opposition, as well as a broad-based well-organized grassroots opposition. It was suggested that safety and infrastructure integrity for all stakeholders will be the leading factors in determining gas quality standards and interchangeability specifications for pipeline gas blending and gas treating facilities. In the northeast, new pipeline infrastructure will be needed to accommodate increased LNG imports and reinforcement requirements due to high electric generation growth. It was estimated that nearly US$60 billion will be needed for natural gas infrastructure investment. More than 26,000 miles of pipe will need to be installed in the United States and Canada by 2020. However, resistance to long-term capacity contracts and the high capital cost of projects are proving to be significant challenges, especially when combined with the long lead times required for the completion of projects. Regulatory incentives and improved education of the consumer through public outreach are needed in addition to the collaborative efforts of all natural gas industry stakeholders. Policy changes are needed to provide incentives for longer-term contracting, particularly as most power growth will be met by gas-fired generation in the near future. Natural gas consumption in the power sector is expected to double in the next 12 years. It was concluded that natural gas supply and demand will require significant new infrastructure to meet growing demands. tabs., figs.
Holm, E.J. [Iroquois Gas Transmission, Shelton, CT (United States)
Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing. PMID:16863105
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government objectives for public universities in order for them to become more dynamic, competitive and productive. Public universities must follow these plans through closely coordinated actions aimed to achieve specific strategic outcomes in teaching and research. It is the most comprehensive plan launched to date, and intends to transform the Malaysian higher education system. It aims to help these institutions achieve world class standards and make Malaysia a hub for higher education in Southeast Asia. Indeed, the government has also introduced a system of categorisations of the Malaysian public universities including research university, comprehensive university, and focused university. These categories determine the area and level of fund allocation according to specialisation of the university and the extent of its operations. Moreover, this paper will discuss the strategies needed for the focused universities in order to enhance educational research and teaching to align with the Federal Government objectives.
Abd Rahman Ahmad
This handbook is designed to be a practical field-experience guide and methods text for beginning teachers, K-12. It presents basic skills and strategies that will enable beginning teachers to deal creatively and responsibly with the significant new challenges they face. This handbook is also applicable as a resource for teacher candidates during…
MacDonald, Robert E.
The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period. Storage also poses one of our main challenges. The institution lacks sufficient storage and at present some data are stored externally. Similarly, the back-up storage is limited and outdated, as in some instances storage tapes are used. The Ministry plans to acquire a new storage capacity to enable it to locally host all the data. Subsequently this new storage facility will include back-up storage hosted off-site. The acquisition is in progress and the implementation of the new system is envisaged within the near future. The Ministry is trying its utmost to upgrade its e-infrastructure to support the business of the organisation.
Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada
Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.
Full Text Available Climatic change is one of the driving forcesbehind a new wave of energy management systems beingpracticed in different parts of the world today. Powergeneration and Management in disconnected rural villages ischallenging. The situation is even more challenging whenlandscape structures in such environment are irregular. Thispaper describes the implementation of two algorithms used inpower generation and management of rural energy supplies:Location-based Solar Energy Potential Prediction Algorithm(LOSEPPA and Intelligent Fuzzy-controlled PowerGeneration and Management Algorithm (IFPGMA.LOSEPPA takes as input, the geographic latitude of thelocation to compute the solar irradiance factor. IFPGMAintelligently manages the utilization of the generated solarenergy. Geographic latitude plays an important role in theavailability of sufficient solar radiation as well as the state ofthe atmosphere. Therefore, the value of solar irradiance factorserves as a guide to the state of the atmosphere in terms ofdegree of cloud cover, temperature, humidity and landscapestructure; which determines the feasibility of the solar energyimplementation. With the solar irradiance factor, solar panelcan be mounted along specific angle of inclination to the sun.The implemented design is based on solar PV modulesarranged in array, integrated with rechargeable batteries andconverter models to drive solar energy generation for poweringnetworking equipments. The proposed system was simulatedusing Homer energy software, C++ and MATLAB-Simulink.Result show that the more irregular the landscape is, thelower the solar irradiance factor. Solar irradiance factor valueof 400 and above predicts well enough sunshine for solar PVimplementation. Set point values for batterycharging/discharging and the charge controller, maintainscircuit voltage supplies at 130V maximum and 2KWh/day at$0.735/KWh with an initial investment cost of $3,090 for thesolar implementation.
Onabajo Olawale Olusegun
Dramatic demographic changes longevity and medical progress helped create a new population made up of the survivors of previously fatal diseases. These trends pose new major social and economic challenges that should be accounted for in health policy making. This paper discusses the similarities between the specialties of pediatrics and geriatrics, especially in the realm of patient care. Children and the elderly share a limited autonomy and dependence on the human environment (i.e., willing and able caregiving persons) due to age or disease. The long-term care of dependent patients (DP) requires caregiving persons who share with dependent persons the risk of losing autonomy, facing burnout, family disruption, and interference with work and educational activities. Families with DPs may face potential losses of income because both patients and caregivers are partially or completely unable to work, the former for medical reasons and the latter due to the new demands on their time and energy. Additionally, new expenses have to be met because while direct medical expenses might be covered by insurance or the State, other expenses have to be financed by the family, such as co-payments for medicines, new water or electricity home installations, and transport and eventual hotel costs if they have to stay overnight near a hospital outside of their town. The main objectives of long-term care should be to maximize patients' independence and prevent their physical and psychological deterioration while minimizing the social, economic and personal costs to caregivers. To achieve these goals, one needs a holistic approach, a multidisciplinary professional team (doctors, nurses, social workers, nutritionists and psychologists) and auxiliary staff (secretaries, electricians, administrators, messengers, cleaning staff, doormen, nursing aids and coordinators of medical appointments and medical procedures). Optimal management of DPs on chronic treatments such as chronic dialysis requires adequate communication skills, respectful attitudes toward patients and caregivers and effective use of communication and information technologies. Auxiliary personnel require specific training to contribute effectively to the DP attention processes. This paper postulates that pediatric and geriatric teams and their patients would benefit from closer training and sharing of experiences and systems. PMID:19517264
Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.
Elias Kiarie Kagira
Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Key words: ESL writing, academic writing, academic voice, disciplinary writing Con base en teorías críticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías más efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de género, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Palabras clave: escritura de inglés como segunda lengua, escritura académica, voz académica, escritura disciplinaria
Full Text Available Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about how they are managing their resources, how they are using new media, and how they envision their future. The results show that most media are struggling, but also find that local media are in a good position to make their new media content viable for their local audiences.
Michael R. Brown
Abstract The study explored the challenges of using English as a medium of instruction in the upper part of primary schools in rural Uganda. The sample consisted of the head teacher; pupils and teachers of upper primary school grades (five to seven), from one selected primary school in Mpigi district. The research questions used were: How do teachers use English as a medium of instruction in the upper part of primary schools in Mpigi district? How are teachers facilitated by the government i...
Namuchwa, Cissy Edith
The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of communication. When designing 'Mail-Info' strategy, it was decided that senior experienced staff with both technical and communicational skills should run this service, together with junior apprentices, to guarantee prompt and efficient feedback in the present and in the future. This paper is focused on describing the experience acquired in implementing this tool and the lessons learned up to date. (authors)
In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s) in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME...
Siti Sarah bt. Omar; Lawrence Arokiasamy; Maimunah Ismail
Date: June 7th of 2013 Level: Master thesis in marketing, 15 ECTS Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Authors: Tapio Heinonen & Marc Rozenveld 18 thof November 1988 & 16th of June 1990 Title: Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era. Subtitle: A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies. Tutor: Peter Selegård Keywords: media logic, advertising industry, advertising agencies, advertising and digital ...
Rozenveld, Marc; Heinonen, Tapio
The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database
In the frame of EU rural policy, always more oriented towards environmental concerns and green livelihoods, Romania stands out for the predominance of rural areas and high nature value farming. The country has to face the challenge of joining the modernization process of rural farming systems with the valorization of local assets. Tourism has emerged as one of the main drivers of change and contributors for a sustainable exploitation of local resources. Rural tourism (RT) can foster the en...
This brief summarizes the lessons learned during a February 2010 AYPF study mission to North Carolina that examined how rural education systems are providing high quality instruction and improving the readiness of young people for life beyond high school. Participants learned about how federal and state policies and funding streams affect rural…
American Youth Policy Forum, 2010
China has a largest population in the world (1.3Billion) and 0.9 Billion is rural population. Most of rural people earn less than US$3/day, and they are called “Base of the economic pyramid (BoP)”. Compared with high level market, BoP is a new market, which means a low individual profit, but a large population. This paper discusses the healthcare issues in rural China (BoP) and study their healthcare needs through field study and case studies. This research is carried out within the frame...
Jiehui, J.; Kandachar, P.
Despite its unprecedented achievements in rural development, China remains a lower-middle income country. Unsound practices in farmland use and management have contributed to farmland loss, rising social conflicts and deprivation of the landless, which perpetuates rural poverty and land tenure insecurity of the weak and poor. The current hybrid land tenure systems characterized by collective ownership and individual use rights exert both positive and negative effects on land governance. China...
To provide quality patient care and achieve positive patient outcomes, it is widely recognized that organizations must develop a supportive environment that encourages individuals to practice from a research- and evidence-based framework. This article describes a Web-based professional educational program designed to teach principles of evidence-based practice to nurses in rural hospitals. Nurses working in staff development will find this useful for designing educational programs for staff in rural hospitals. PMID:23657035
Oman, Kathleen S; Fink, Regina M; Krugman, Mary; Goode, Colleen J; Traditi, Lisa K
The study aims to shed light on the challenges of human capital utilization in Kuwait and the labor market
reform approaches used to address them. Using secondary data and interviews with 28 subject matter experts, the
findings revealed that the most salient challenges were the acute underutilization of the scarce native workforce
accruing from absence of coherent and consistent workforce policies particularly impaired by overgenerous
Abdalla, Ikhlas A.; Al-homoud, Moudi A.
Full Text Available The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformation inspite of the attendant difficulties. It examined popular participation as a concept relating to gaining political accessibility through democratic process, mobilizing and educating the masses to support government programmes and policies as in the case of present removal of fuel subsidy which generated hot debate and resulted in industrial action by labour unions with a view to changing government decision. But popular participation is being confronted with serious challenge of control in Nigeria. There is corruption in the high places, armed robbery attacks, religious intolerance, political violence, tribal discrimination and insecurity of life and properties thereby threatening corporate existence of the country. The paper advocates for the strengthening of a bottom-up strategy instead of top-down through decentralization of sufficient powers, functions and resources in favour of rural majority at the grassroot and by doing so, it will foster a balanced development between the centre and the subordinate local administrative units. Moreover, democratic governance must be allowed to reign supreme not only to attain the national goals of 2020 but also enable Nigeria to assume her rightful position in the world. One concludes that if the local communities are given the opportunities to get involved in the decision-making process that often affect their condition of living, engage in productive ventures, self-help communal projects, and harnessing the creative potentials, talents, skills combined with physical and human resources, it would go a long way to reduce not only the over-dependence of the people on the government to provide everything they need but also help to improve socio-economic well-being in the backward, under-privileged and disadvantaged rural areas.
ADEFILA J. O
Over the past 16 years, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety, for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. This series was initiated in 1991 with the International Conference on the Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future. The conference marked the beginning of a global safety regime based on international conventions and legal instruments that was supported by a set of nuclear and radiation safety standards and related review services. The very successful Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) resulted from this effort and now has 56 Contracting Parties. Currently, regulatory authorities and the nuclear industry are facing significant new challenges, which require new strategies and oversight. The key challenges are the result of the following factors: Renewed global interest in the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation and, consequently, its likely expansion; - Increased threats to the security of nuclear installations and the need to link closely security and safety issues and response capabilities; - Increased global use of radioactive materials and the need to ensure their safety and security, similar to the issues faced with the use of nuclear energy; - New safety and security challenges from existing nuclear facilities associated with ageing and extensions of their operating lifetimes. To address these challenges, the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Facing Safety and Security Challenges, was held in Moscow, Russian Federation, from 27 February to 3 March 2006. The IAEA invited global leaders to this conference, including both government regulators and industry representatives, to share their perspectives and experience in addressing these challenges that transcend national boundaries. Participants were asked to make their contributions in the context of global safety and security standards and methods by which a common vision can be achieved. The aim of this conference was to enhance the global vision and commitments among the senior regulators to promote experience sharing and international cooperation, thereby continuously improving nuclear safety and security worldwide. On the basis of the presentations and subsequent discussions, the President of the Conference developed issues for consideration by governments and regulatory bodies, issues for future international cooperation and conference conclusions. This CD-ROM, which is attached to the back of the printed publication, contains the unedited contributed papers to the conference and the slides that were submitted with some of the invited papers. Each paper has been indexed separately
Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging has increased our understanding of human brain function tremendously and has become a standard tool in clinical and cognitive neuroscience research. We briefly review its methodological foundations and describe remaining challenges for translational research. The application of neuroimaging results to individual subjects, for example in predicting treatment response or determining the veracity of a statement, is limited by these challenges, in particular by the anatomical and statistical procedures commonly employed. We thus argue for sincere caution in the translation of functional neuroimaging to real-world applications.
Nursing faculty are facing challenges in facilitating student learning of complex concepts such as compassionate practice. Compassion is a stated expectation of Registered Nurse (RN) and student nurse practice, and yet how it is enabled and learned within the challenging environments of university and health service provider organisations are not yet understood. There is currently an international concern that student nurses are not being adequately prepared for compassion to flourish and for compassionate practice to be sustained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate the experiences of nursing faculty in their preparation of student nurses for compassionate practice, an exploratory aesthetic phenomenological research study was undertaken using in depth interviews with five nurse teachers in the North of England. Findings from this study were analysed and presented using embodied interpretation, and indicate that nurse teachers recognise the importance of the professional ideal of compassionate practice alongside specific challenges this expectation presents. They have concerns about how the economically constrained and target driven practice reality faced by RNs promotes compassionate practice, and that students are left feeling vulnerable to dissonance between learned professional ideals and the RNs' practice reality they witness. Nurse teachers also experience dissonance within the university setting, between the pressures of managing large student groups and the time and opportunity required for small group discussion with students that enables compassion to develop in a meaningful and emotionally sustainable way. Teachers also express discomfort due to a perceived promotion of an 'unachievable utopia' within practice, identifying how the constraints within practice could be better managed to support professional ideals. The nurse teachers within this exploratory study identify the need for strong nurse leadership in practice to challenge constraints and realign the reality of practice with professional ideals, and the need to foster student resilience for maintaining the professional ideals of compassionate practice. This exploratory study promotes the use of embodied interpretation for shared understanding of phenomenological research findings. PMID:23725910
In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess health problems during delivery and seeking care. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two Village Development Committees in Nepal in 2006. In total, 150 women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the...
This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.
Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter
On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation. PMID:24691918
Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C
Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.
Full Text Available This paper describes how a large Australian university implemented a new curriculum management tool ? UNITS. UNITS is an online repository of unit guides and a curriculum mapping tool. We analyze the advantages of using a university-wide curriculum management tool and the change management processes used to develop the bespoke tool. Staff development in the use of the tool has led to more thoughtful use of learning and teaching activities and better linking of learning outcomes with assessment. To ensure a smooth transition, faculty were supported throughout the process of implementation. Drop-in clinics, video clips, discipline-specific implementation guides as well as a UNITS help page were provided. This paper contributes to the understanding of the challenges in setting up and implementing a large-scale curriculum management tool in a university. Challenges including increased workload, intellectual property concerns, impact on academic freedom and technological issues are discussed.
This chapter’s objective is to reflect on existing and impending challenges to European Union (EU) public law from both a constitutional and an administrative angle. The background to such an overview is that the EU law has radically changed in the past decades. Next to several Treaty amendments enlarging the scope of EU policies, the EU has grown substantially in size. European administrative law has evolved over time and has become an important factor shaping the reality of policy impleme...
Commercial organisations are the foundation walls of our modern economy. More than 200 years of industrial activity and the recent trend of globalisation have made them the most powerful institutions when it comes to resources, knowledge and ability to influence their surroundings. In spite of their strong position, business is not doing enough to meet the environmental challenge. The suggested ‘solution’ of eco-efficiency initiatives is a product of the same thinking that has created the...
Hagen, Øyvind; Larssæther, Stig
Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Thailand is currently distributing tablets to all first year primary (Prathom 1 school children across the country as part of the government’s “One Tablet Per Child” (OTPC project to improve education. Early indications suggest that there are many unexplored issues in designing and implementing tablet activities for such a large and varied group of students and so far there is a lack of evaluation on the effectiveness of the tablet activities. In this article, the authors propose four challenges for the improving Thailand’s OTPC project, consisting of: developing contextualised content, ensuring usability, providing teacher support, and assessing learning outcomes. A case study on developing science activities for first year primary school children on the OTPC devices is the basis for presenting possible solutions to the four challenges. In presenting a solution to the challenge of providing teacher support, an architecture is described for collecting data from student interactions with the tablet in order to analysis the current progress of students while in a live classroom setting. From tests in three local Thai schools, the authors evaluate the case study from both student and teacher perspectives. In concluding the paper, a framework for guiding mobile learning innovation is utilised to review the qualities and shortcomings of the case study.
Full Text Available This study examined some of the challenges posed to the authentic assessment and measurement procedures as a policy tool in the Nigerian education system, particularly, the acceptability and universality of common assessment of secondary school students. Considering fit diversified educational backgrounds of these students, it appears that our current educational assessment processes do not tally with, the practicability of the test end results. It was therefore, suggested that educational performance in common assessment measures should be based on the principles of crude grasp of the whole. Only in this would our pluralistic complex, society be recognized.
Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.
Namibia is vast but sparsely populated, with an estimated population of about 1.9 million which is expected to reach 2.3 million by 2025 and 3.75 million by 2050....
Mwilima, Fred J.
Full Text Available Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The strategies adopted are based on a series of simplistic reasoning such as analogy, taking into account the ideas of experts, rigorous debate and experimentation. Napoleon Bonaparte said that "there is nothing more important and more valuable than being able to make decisions." Business leaders today must deal with an avalanche of ambiguity, it must decide on the future of the company. I intend to expose some successful methods by which top managers were able to transform into opportunities, challenges of economic crisis.
Full Text Available The study aims to shed light on the challenges of human capital utilization in Kuwait and the labor marketreform approaches used to address them. Using secondary data and interviews with 28 subject matter experts, thefindings revealed that the most salient challenges were the acute underutilization of the scarce native workforceaccruing from absence of coherent and consistent workforce policies particularly impaired by overgenerouswages and working conditions. These policies led to concentration and underemployment of nationals in thepublic sector and heavy reliance on non-nationals in the private sector, deficit in the labor budget and a risk ofun-sustainability of the present extravagant approach. Among the more effective labor market reform approachesare strict restriction of employment in the public sector and establishment of an agency to oversee several reforminitiatives such as, enforcing quotas of natives in the private sector and directing natives - through incentives,training and employment support - towards the private sector. However, the approaches are still piecemeal and amore comprehensive reform system in which, among other things, the private sector transformation from rentseeking to economic leader is yet to be seen. The findings are discussed within the economic and socio-politicalcontexts.
Ikhlas A. Abdalla
In order to sustain the rural education community, access to high quality professional development opportunities must become a priority. Teachers in rural areas face many challenges in order to access professional learning equitable to their city counterparts. In the current climate, the Federal government of Australia is committed to initiatives…
Full Text Available Abstract Three decades after the emergence of HIV, we have made great strides in our response to the epidemic, from prevention of transmission to testing and treatment. However, it is still common in high-prevalence settings for people to not know their HIV status, and estimates are that globally, a mere 36% of those eligible for treatment are receiving it. On top of this, for every person with HIV entering treatment, two more are infected. The operationa obstacles to overcoming the challenges and fully implementing proven strategies are numerous. The operational research and implementation sciences aim to provide a sound basis for how to maximize the use of limited resources by investigating the best models to deliver services and implement programmes in various settings and contexts. In this special issue, the Journal of the International AIDS Society intends to highlight some of the operational and programmatic challenges that are faced in sub-Saharan Africa, home to the largest population living with HIV. Our hope is that readers gain insight into some of the challenges associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and a changing environment in the region, and become familiar with some applications of operational research and implementation science in HIV healthcare settings.
This paper explores the perceived challenges facing clinical genetics practitioners in multicultural Australia. Focus groups conducted with 53 practitioners explored: 1) participants' experiences and definitions of cultural diversity; 2) their use of educational resources with clients; 3) their experiences with culturally diverse groups/individuals in practice; 4) their experiences working with interpreters; and 5) the impact culturally specific educational training and/or experiential learning had on their confidence or practice when dealing with culturally diverse clients. Participants viewed culture as extending beyond traditional definitions such as ethnicity, language and religion. Most respondents had experienced positive results working with health care interpreters, although at times, this was a challenge for the family as they preferred privacy and the use of family members as interpreters. Another commonly reported challenge was the limited availability of reliable, culturally appropriate translated resources. Some participants expressed concern that learning theories about specific cultures may lead to stereotypes and that opportunities for formal cultural competence training were limited. Recommendations for practice include the targeting of educational resources to meet the needs of a diverse community and placing cultural competence on the agenda for ongoing training and maintenance of professional standards for clinical genetics practitioners to avoid the current ad hoc approach. PMID:19697111
Saleh, Mona; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Meiser, Bettina; Muchamore, Ian
El primer objetivo de esta tesis es la identificación y análisis de aspectos clave para la gobernanza de los servicios de agua rural en países que adolecen de bajos niveles de cobertura, altos índices de pobreza, se encuentran en procesos de descentralización, reciben un importante apoyo de donantes internacionales. Esta situación es común para muchos países de África Sub-sahariana. Por ello, se eligió Tanzania como objeto de estudio. El segundo objetivo de esta tesis ha...
Jime?nez Ferna?ndez Palencia, Alejandro
The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.
Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.
Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges
James J.F. Forest
Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi -slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)
Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi-slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it i [...] s expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.
Full Text Available The study sought to find out financial challenges encountered by retail SMEs operating in a multi-currency environment with particular reference to Gweru Urban in Zimbabwe. The replacement of the Zimbabwean dollar by foreign currencies gave birth to a multi-currency environment. The adoption of multi-currencies was necessitated by the need to curb inflationary pressures which characterized the economy up to April 2009.Convenience sampling was used to select 150 retail SMEs. The data were collected using questionnaires. The questionnaires were filled either by the owners of the SMEs or their managers. The study established that retail SMEs were facing several financial challenges in a multi- currency environment. The challenges included shortage of liquidity in the economy which resulted in low sales due to depressed consumer demand. In turn low sales negatively affected the profitability of the SMEs. High interest rates constrained the ability of SMEs to raise finance through bank loans and overdrafts. The use of personal savings and retained profits as sources of finance implies that SMEs could only raise limited amounts of capital. The financial position of the SMEs was also worsened by high operating expenses and lack of trade credit. In light of these financial challenges the study recommends that the Zimbabwean government should adopt a long-term policy on the use of the foreign currency. It is also imperative that the government of Zimbabwe swallows its pride and officially makes arrangements with South Africa or the United States of America in order to have an increased supply of the rand or US dollar. The SMEs should also devise survival strategies such as formation of strategic alliances and voluntary chains.
Polk Gulch cleanup angers somehttp://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/10/12/POLKSTREET.TMPNation taking a new look at homelessness, solutionshttp://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-10-11-homeless-cover_x.htmStudy: U.S. poor trapped in urban areashttp://www.cnn.com/2005/US/10/12/poverty.study.ap/index.htmlKatrinaÃ¢ÂÂs Window: Confronting Concentrated Poverty Across America [pdf]http://www.brookings.edu/metro/pubs/20051012_concentratedpoverty.htmUnited States Interagency Council on Homelessness [pdf]http://www.ich.gov/As the recent tragedy wrought by Hurricane Katrina revealed, poor and homeless residents of AmericaÃ¢ÂÂs cities remain particularly vulnerable. Whether it is the phenomenon of gentrification or the world of natural hazards, many continue to remain marginalized in terms of opportunities, whether they be economic or otherwise. This week, a number of news pieces once again reminded the general public about the precarious situation faced by this group. In Los Angeles, the City Council decided to impose the first limits on the luxury loft and condo boom that is gradually pushing out single-room-occupancy hotels, most of which are concentrated in the cityÃ¢ÂÂs downtown area. While this type of creeping development may affect the poor in increasingly popular urban places, less successful cities continue to have many neighborhoods with concentrated poverty. As a report from the Brookings Institution released this week noted, poor planning over the past several decades has continued to concentrate public housing at the urban core. Generally, the end result is that many urban dwellers remain cut off from the rapid economic and housing growth that has been experienced around the urban fringe. The first link will lead users to a nice article from this WednesdayÃ¢ÂÂs Los Angeles Times that discusses the recent action taken by the City Council. The second link leads visitors to a San Francisco Chronicle article that discusses the recent trend towards gentrification in the cityÃ¢ÂÂs Polk Gulch neighborhood. The third link leads to a USA Today article from this past Monday, which talks about how the recent Hurricane Katrina tragedy may transform certain aspects of addressing the homelessness situation in the country. The fourth link will take visitors to a CNN news piece, which talks about the recent report from the Brookings Institution that examines the concentration of urban poverty throughout a number of US cities. The fifth link leads to the full text of that report, authored by Alan Berube. The final link will take users to the homepage of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness.
Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment Human Resource Management has become a valuable part of each organization especially for banks because HRM policies are directly linked with the overall performance. The main purpose of the paper is to study the recruitment and retention policies implied by the public sector of Pakistan.By deep analysis of problems and challenges study suggest the implementation of various policies to become an employer of choice. Previous studies on recruitment and retention have been performed mainly in western context. The distinction of this paper is that it studies recruitment and retention practices merely in public sector of Pakistan. The paper proposes a conceptual framework linking various psychological factors and strategic HRM perspectives, examining how various strategies adopted by firms help in image building and recruiting and retaining talented employees. Hypotheses were developed with the help of framework. The study was conducted in 20 branches of NBP in Faisalabad and a sample size of 100 was selected. Five point likert scales were used to get the responses. Mean and standard deviation were calculated to know the relationships o variables and at last bi variate test was applied to conclude.
Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanDespite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.
Full Text Available Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines. The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies, phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far, and many incremental improvements are being made constantly. These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets. A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention. The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation. Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets. The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on. The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity; however, one needs contingency plans for emergence of anti-product antibody response for clinical trials.
The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Moridis, G. J.; Collett, T. S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Reagan, M. T.; Sloan, E. D.; Sum, A. K.; Koh, C. A.
Full Text Available In the Neapolitan metropolitan area the rural lands are often represented by close areas inside large conurbations, for which there isn’t any interest to cultivation, because of the most greater economic convenience of their transformation in built areas. Such development is stimulated by the control of the territory practiced by the organized crime (camorra able to rule the urbanization process. It’s necessary to regain the control of these areas, through different actions, to preserve them such open spaces, to improve environmental conditions and to assure a high quality level to the metropolitan landscape.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os museus surgiram como síntese representativa de uma realidade, impondo questões sobre a preservação das memórias inerentes à função e à simbologia dos objetos. No caso dos museus de arte, o objetivo era constituir um repositório patrimonial que contribuísse para a criação de uma identidade cultura [...] l, pelo que os objetos eram avaliados sobretudo em função da excelência dos seus parâmetros estéticos, em detrimento de outras significações; também a historiografia da arte privilegiava os aspectos formais, estabelecendo atribuições e estilos. Essas circunstâncias determinaram a descontextualização do objeto no espaço museológico. Porém, a partir de meados do século XX, os estudos sobre o público, enquanto entidade plural e diversificada, e os debates teóricos em torno da significação do objeto contribuíram para uma redefinição do discurso museológico. O museu passou a compensar as perdas inerentes ao processo de musealização por meio de um conjunto de procedimentos e ferramentas que recontextualizam os significados do objeto nas suas múltiplas valências. Entre ambos os vetores, de descontextualização e de recontextualização, o museu desafia a nossa memória pessoal e coletiva. Abstract in english Museums have emerged as a representative synthesis of a reality, so a question rises about the preservation of the memories inherent to the functional and symbolic objects. In the particular case of art museums, the goal was to build a heritage repository which would contribute to the creation of a [...] cultural identity. So, the objects were mainly evaluated in terms of aesthetic excellence of its parameters, to the detriment of other meanings. On the other hand, also the historiography of art favored formal aspects, establishing authorities and styles. These circumstances determined the decontextualization of the object in the museum. In return, from mid-twentieth century onwards, the studies of the public, as a plural and diversified entity, and the theoretical debates around the meaning of the object, contributed to a redefinition of the museological speech. The museum had to offset losses due to the musealisation through a set of procedures and tools that recontextualize the meanings of the object in their multiple valences. Between the two vectors, decontextualization and recontextualization, the museum challenges our personal and collective memory.
Maria Isabel Rocha, Roque.
Introduction There is recognition among public health scholars and community practitioners that translating cancer prevention and control research into practice is challenging. This circumstance is particularly germane to medically underserved communities, such as rural Appalachia, where few evidence-based interventions originate and cancer incidence and mortality are elevated. Methods A case study approach was selected to examine the collective experience of 13 West Virginia community organizations awarded mini-grants requiring the use of an evidence-based cancer control intervention. Methods included a systematic review of grant applications and final programmatic reports, a faxed survey, and qualitative, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. Results Appalachian grantees reported notable challenges with selecting, adapting, and implementing evidence-based cancer education interventions. Evidence-based programming was viewed as a barrier. Grantees made a range of adaptations to meet constituent needs, thereby jeopardizing intervention fidelity. However, programs were perceived as successful due to community participation and engagement, some element of behavioral change, dissemination of the health message, and establishment of collaborative partnerships. Conclusions A descriptive examination provides insights into the challenges of translating research to practice. This Appalachian cancer education grant program also highlights areas of compromise that are important for researchers and practitioners to understand.
Vanderpool, RC; Gainor, SJ; Conn, ME; Spencer, C; Allen, AR; Kennedy, S
There is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage. PMID:23433544
Ahmed, Shakil; Annear, Peter Leslie; Phonvisay, Bouaphat; Phommavong, Chansaly; Cruz, Valeria de Oliveira; Hammerich, Asmus; Jacobs, Bart
In Cambodia, agriculture and natural resources constitute a corner stone in the production systems of peasant families, who constitute the large majority of the rural population. Hence, in the perspective of an important demographic growth and an increasing marketing of agricultural inputs and outputs, man-made management of ecosystems represent considerable economic, social and environmental challenges to Cambodian peasants.
Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO2) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.
The purpose of this study was to explore how to successfully collect demographic, lifestyle and health behavior data, followed by an educational intervention on a culturally sensitive topic, breast cancer, in the politically fragile Kashmir Valley. Survey results of 520 women identified challenges that impact the general health of women, including literacy, hygiene and water safety, as well as a dearth of breast health and educational resources and all cancer services. The study tested culturally sensitive approaches to obtain survey data and provide appropriate breast health education for Kashmiri women at risk for breast cancer, who live within this socially and politically challenging environment. This study provides a foundation for future development of research and clinical programs to identify women at high risk and implement an active health surveillance monitoring program with a focus on breast cancer in Kashmir. PMID:21324696
Erwin, Dallas P; Erwin, Deborah O; Ciupak, Gregory; Hellenthal, Nicholas; Sofi, Mehbooba J; Guru, Khurshid A; Edge, Stephen B
This article reviews Norwegian farmers’ and companies’ strategies and experience with the use of direct distribution and e-commerce when selling agriculture products. Based on the opportunities and pitfalls resulting from the use of Internet and e-commerce in consumer marketing, the article discusses the commercial possibilities emerging from direct distribution of agricultural products to end-consumers. The focus on direct distribution is brought up to date through studying the challenge...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children remains an uphill task for many health workers in HIV-endemic countries, including Uganda. We conducted a descriptive study to explore the challenges of providing HIV counselling and testing services to children in Uganda. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in the districts of Kampala and Kabarole in Uganda. The data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions with health workers who are involved in the care of HIV-positive children. Key informant interviews were conducted with the administrators of the 10 study healthcare institutions. Quantitative data were summarized using frequency tables, while qualitative data were analyzed using the content thematic approach. Results Counselling children was reported to be a difficult exercise due to some children being unable to express themselves, being dependent on adults for their care, being fearful, and requiring more time to open up during counselling. This was compounded by some caretakers' unwillingness and difficulty to disclose the HIV status of their children. Other issues about the caretakers were: lack of consistency in caretakers; old age; sickness; and poverty. Health workers mentioned the following as some of the challenges they face in the delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children: lack of counselling skills; failure to cope with the knowledge demand; difficulty to facilitate disclosure; heavy work load; and lack of other support services. Institutions were found to be constrained by limited space and lack of antiretrovirals for children. Conclusions The major challenges in the delivery of paediatric HIV services were related to the knowledge gap in paediatric HIV and the lack of counselling skills, as well as health system-related constraints. There is a need to train health workers in child-counselling skills, especially in the issues of disclosure, sexuality and sexual abuse, as well as in addressing fears related to death and an uncertain future, in order to improve paediatric HIV care. Provision of child-friendly services, guidelines and antiretroviral formulations for children may provide a window of hope to improve HIV counselling and testing services for children.
Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…
Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.
This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)
Abstract Introduction In 2002, the Egypt Ministry of Health and Population faced the challenge of improving access to and quality of services in rural Upper Egypt in the face of low morale among health workers and managers. From 1992 to 2000, the Ministry, with donor support, had succeeded in reducing the nationwide maternal mortality rate by 52%. Nevertheless, a gap remained between urban and rural areas. Case description In 2002, the Ministry, with fund...
Mansour Morsi; Mansour Joan; Swesy Abdo
To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on the themes of the 2007 conference held in Aix-en-Provence. These topical issues were: the roles, functions and values that guide TSOs in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety; technical and scientific support for nuclear safety infrastructure development and capacity building; the emerging need for nuclear security technical and scientific support; and nuclear safety and nuclear security networking and centres of excellence. The President's report on the conference, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, is included in these proceedings and provides an overview of all the issues addressed. In the presentations and subsequent discussions, the conference highlighted positive outcomes, confronted areas of continuing concern and explored avenues to address those concerns. Among the more salient findings was the determination that a means for continuous dialogue among TSOs was necessary. The need to support the review process for a future IAEA safety publication on external expert support on safety issues was also identified. Finally, consideration of a TSO forum along the lines of the Regulatory Cooperation Forum to develop best practices and promote common values was recommended. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a foreword, a summary, the opening addresses and invited papers, and the conclusions, recommendations and a conference summary by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers, the list of participants and the presentations that were submitted with the invited papers.
Full Text Available Access and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs by the smallholder rural farmer is envisaged to improve their welfare due to increased access to input and output markets. This study analyzes the constraints to the use of such tools for market linkage in Uganda and policy implications. The paper draws from a case study of two local organizations ICT-based projects namely, Busoga Rural Open Source Development Initiative (BROSDI, and Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET. The constraints identified include lack or poor to ICT tools, poor ICT infrastructure, inadequate resources and high levels of poverty, low levels of literacy, inappropriate modes of information transfer, socio-cultural dynamics and sustainability issues. The paper argues that reaching the poor illiterate smallholder farmers requires redesigning the information content and delivery modes so that the information comes in audio form and in ICT tools that do not require literature. Also the government and private sector need to work hand in hand to ensure access and usability of ICT tools in rural areas by the former investing more in making electricity available in rural communities and the latter extending network boosters to remote rural areas
Julius Juma Okello (Corresponding Author
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered inc [...] luded ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (
Momba, MNB; Obi, CL; Thompson, P.
As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…
Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida
Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…
Full Text Available The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn to involvement in social action through group workshops without prior personal engagement. This paper considers which other participatory media techniques can be employed to encourage involvement in community digital storytelling workshops to inspire activism, and examines barriers to participation, with emphasis on the necessity of mandate, for project success. To help answer these issues, one particular workshop in a case study in North Yorkshire, UK will be used to identify the importance of place and incorporation of methods when undertaking community digital storytelling.
Sarah Copeland, Clodagh Miskelly
Full Text Available India’s geo-demographic identity underscores as “India lives in her villages”. Even the economy is progressing day by day very fast but the division between rural and urban has no signs of receding. As for the Indian context where more than three forth of population lives in rural India & the national income generated in rural India is one third of its total. Now it becomes compulsory for researchers to study in-depth the needs and wants of ruler population therefore most of the industries are investing their money for rural marketing. The researcher has taken two wheeler industries for studying the rural marketing. This research paper focuses the objectives, review of literature, scope, research methodology, hypothesis testing, and suggestions.
H G Abhyankar
The access to modern energy services are deeply embedded in most aspects of the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of human development. In Mozambique, just a small fraction of the rural population has access to electricity, as the electrification process so far has relied on a leastcost approach, only inciting the development and extension of the national grid. As the population of rural off-grid communities are often highly dispersed, having low purchasing power, low...
Lyndrup, Morten; Jensen, Thomas Young Hwan Westring
En los últimos años están surgiendo nuevos retos asociados al desarrollo rural, catalizados por una fiebre mundial por la adquisición de tierras a gran escala. Este fenómeno, conocido como ‘acaparamiento de tierras’, está generando controversia en cuanto a si el interés creciente en estas adquisiciones podría beneficiar a las comunidades rurales empobrecidas del campesinado mundial, o al contrario, incidirá en su marginalización. Esta tesis doctoral presenta una recopilación de...
Background: Evidence suggests that growth in a country’s Gross National Products does improve life expectancy only when substantial funds are directed towards healthcare and poverty eradication in society. The economic crisis currently faced by Swaziland has a potential of impacting negatively on her healthcare system, hence the need for drawing-up mitigation strategies.
Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbo...
This paper describes the economic and social challenges faced by Enfield, a small town in rural northeastern North Carolina, and the efforts by the Center for Competitive Economies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to assist the community in a strategic economic development plan to address these challenges. In particular, the paper outlines the challenges and tensions between place-based versus people-based economic development approaches and how these tensions are general...
Jason Jolley; Aaron Nousaine; Carolyn Huang
Full Text Available Sous le titre « The Hispanic Challenge », Samuel P. Huntington propose dans le numéro de Foreign Policy de mars-avril 2004 une nouvelle démonstration du danger de sa pseudo-théorie du « choc des civilisations ». Quel est donc ce « challenge » auquel, d'après Huntington, la société américaine serait aujourd'hui confrontée ? C'est celui de l'immigration « hispanique » qui « menace l'identité américaine, ses valeurs et son mode de vie » ...
OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors that determine whether a patient will initiate treatment within a system of health-care services, and the factors that determine whether the patient will be retained in the chosen system, in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: The data used were pooled from four rounds of a household survey conducted in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. The ongoing demographic surveillance system provided a sampling framework for this survey in which 800 households were sampled usin...
Mugisha, Frederick; Bocar, Kouyate; Dong, Hengjin; Chepng Eno, Gloria; Sauerborn, Rainer
This study investigates the challenges sixteen non-native preservice ESL teachers in a Bachelor of Education (English Language) (BEdEL) programme from Hong Kong experienced in an eight-week teaching practicum. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were collected from all 16 participants to obtain a detailed…
Describes the major characteristics of elementary school education in rural China and the problems that confront rural educators. Discusses student-teacher relationship, classroom management strategies, principal and teacher roles, differences between urban and rural education, economic influences on rural education, and challenges for rural…
Luo, Jiali; Wendel, Frederick C.
Full Text Available Development of the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS has seen many companies willing to implement it and get certification so as to improve quality delivery. Due to the globalization phenomenon, certification to ISO9001 becomes a prerequisite. Many manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe have been certified in a quest to improve their quality delivery. The main certification body in Zimbabwe is the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ. This paper is based on a case study research for KT Textiles and it assesses the challenges that one certified manufacturing company is facing in a bid to sustain conformance to the ISO 9001: 2008QMS. Questionnaires and Interviews were the main research instruments used in the study. There was also reference to archival records and minutes of important meetings from the organization. Using stratified random sampling, questionnaires were administered to both managers and employees drawn from different departments. Employees were also interviewed to provide further information to compliment the questionnaire data. The data was analyzed using statistical graphs and charts. This research identified how the organization applies the 8 principles of ISO 9001:2008 QMS. The research findings revealed that the main challenges faced by the firm in maintaining the QMS are lack of top management involvement and support, lack of employee creativity and innovation, lack of focused internal audits, preventive maintenance schedule and data analysis lack priority.
Eng. William Msekiwa Goriwondo
Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the extent of development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT ability to empower rural communities and enhance their economic productivity. ICT is a core catalyst for the development of a country to achieve developed nation status. However, rural communities are still exposed to the challenges and constraints in order to promote ICT development in rural areas. To address this issue, the government has established various objectives to ensure that rural communities are not marginalized. In an effort to take advantage of ICT development in rural areas, governments and agencies have developed various ICT-based products in rural areas. Programs such as Center of Telecenter, Rural Internet Centre (PID, Medan Info Desa, e-Village/e-Community, K-TRAK, PKIT and others are among the products introduced to the rural community. The purpose of the introduction of this product is to focus on the government’s efforts in ensuring the development of balanced urban and rural areas from different angles. Through ICT products, a rural community not just only follows the development of the ICT revolution, but to create a knowledgeable society and helps to boost the quality of life of rural communities. Thus, this paper will discuss ICT products developed in the rural areas of Malaysia, the purpose and prospects of the product development and the challenges faced during its implementation. Hopefully, the discussion and recommendations given could trigger the opportunity and space in making ICT as a driving force to economic development in rural areas.Key words: ICT products; Rural communities; The use of ICT; Economic catalyst
The study sought to find out financial challenges encountered by retail SMEs operating in a multi-currency environment with particular reference to Gweru Urban in Zimbabwe. The replacement of the Zimbabwean dollar by foreign currencies gave birth to a multi-currency environment. The adoption of multi-currencies was necessitated by the need to curb inflationary pressures which characterized the economy up to April 2009.Convenience sampling was used to select 150 retail SMEs. The data were coll...
O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola / The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compar [...] tilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido. Abstract in english In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) [...] in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.
Raquel Maria, Rigotto; Fernando Ferreira, Carneiro; Alice Maria Correia Pequeno, Marinho; Mayara Melo, Rocha; Marcelo José Monteiro, Ferreira; Vanira Matos, Pessoa; Ana Cláudia de Araújo, Teixeira; Maria de Lourdes Vicente da, Silva; Lara de Queiroz Viana, Braga; Maiana Maia, Teixeira.
O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola / The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compar [...] tilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido. Abstract in english In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) [...] in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.
Raquel Maria, Rigotto; Fernando Ferreira, Carneiro; Alice Maria Correia Pequeno, Marinho; Mayara Melo, Rocha; Marcelo José Monteiro, Ferreira; Vanira Matos, Pessoa; Ana Cláudia de Araújo, Teixeira; Maria de Lourdes Vicente da, Silva; Lara de Queiroz Viana, Braga; Maiana Maia, Teixeira.
Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and debris flows, wildfires, hurricanes, and intense storm-induced flash floods threaten communities to varying degrees all along the United States–Mexican border. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with Federal, State, and local agencies to minimize the effects of natural hazards by providing timely, unbiased science information to emergency response officials, resource managers, and the public to help reduce property damage, injury, and loss of life. The USGS often mobilizes response efforts during and after a natural hazard event to provide technical and scientific counsel on recovery and response, and it has a long history of deploying emergency response teams to major disasters in both domestic and international locations. This chapter describes the challenges of natural hazards in the United States–Mexican border region and the capabilities of the USGS in the fields of hazard research, monitoring, and assessment, as well as preventative mitigation and post-disaster response.
Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.; Stefanov, Jim
Previous research related to this study explored early career female leaders' experiences in rural school settings, and probed the personal and professional challenges they faced and their motivations to accept formal and informal leadership roles ahead of the usual timeframes (e.g., Graham, Miller & Paterson, 2009). This study set out to…
Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Al-Awiwe, Azhar
Much of the Northwest Region (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) is rural in nature. A characteristic of the extractive economies such as timber, agriculture, mining, and fisheries is that they are generally located in small communities isolated by distances. While schools in these communities face the same challenges as those in…
Self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) should influence persistence towards goals. Mothers attempting to exercise while managing work and young children (N = 49, M(age) = 35.69, M(children) = 1.88) were stratified into high or low concurrent SRE groups, then randomized to read a hypothetical scenario detailing numerous or minimal exercise barrier conditions. Consistent with self-efficacy theory, when exercise barriers were numerous, mothers with higher concurrent SRE demonstrated greater persistence towards exercise goals, and perceived concurrent management of exercise with their other valued goals as more positively challenging, than mothers with lower concurrent SRE. PMID:21441356
Jung, Mary E; Brawley, Lawrence R
In spite of increasing international and academic attention, there remains many challenges facing real world implementations of developing technologies. There has been considerable hype behind Wireless Mesh Networking as the ubiquitous solution for rural ICT in the developing world. In this paper, we present the real world rural mesh network implementation in the village of Macha, Zambia and draw both performance conclusions as well as overall experiential conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze our low cost solution and extrapolate future trends for rural ICT implementations in Zambia.
Backens, Jonathan; Mweemba, Gregory; van Stam, Gertjan
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyse the new context in which Spanish foreign policy should develop, after the break in consensus and the growing politization that has occurred in the last few years. The changes that have occurred in the international order have ended up decisively affecting Spanish foreign policy, which has entered a new stage of politization and democratisation. In this article, it will be argued that this change is not temporary but rather structural, and that it is due to both internal and external causes.Thus, the current challenge should no be thought of as rebuilding consensus in foreign policy, but rather how to manage the dissent.
Albert Aixalà i Blanch
The Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) provides finance services (such as paying military members, government-employed civilians, and contractors) and accounting services (such as tabulation and analysis of customer obligations and expenditures) to Department of Defense (DoD) customers This report examines the DFAS pricing structure and its impact on customer incentives and behavior. We believe the DFAS pricing structure is important on two levels. First, with approximately $2 billion in expenditures per year, DFAS itself is a sizable portion of the DoD infrastructure Second, we believe the pricing issues that DFAS confronts are similar to those faced by other Defense Working Capital Fund (DWCF) organizations, including the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the Defense information Systems Agency (DISA), the Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA), and the military services' depot systems. Analysis of DFAS's pricing issues might therefore provide insights into the pricing structures of DoD working capital fund organizations in general Like other DWCF organizations, DFAS covers its expenditures by charging customers for its services DFAS charges per "work unit" (e.g., per account paid) for its finance services and charges by the hour for its accounting services. Hourly rates for accounting services vary by customer; finance fees generally do not Various finance products represented about half of the DFAS regions' fiscal year 2001 (FY01) expenditures, accounting represented about 40 percent of the regions' expenditures, and information services represented about 10 percent.
The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids) in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry recommendations in terms of basic infrastructure, though none of them had a team of appropriate size. These services have shown signs of fragmentation and difficulty in establishing a systematic intersectorial and interdisciplinary practice, with failings in ensuring the reference and counter-reference flow. It was seen that there was little appreciation of the role of the manager as team leader. The need to perceive the user as a whole was identified, as well as for the team to work in a coordinated manner in order to ensure communicative and relational activities. PMID:22218548
Borges, Maria Jucineide Lopes; Sampaio, Aletheia Soares; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas
The challenges posed by the energy turnaround in Germany to the power industry and the national economy after the Fukushima events were the topic of the ''Energy in a Dialog'' meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum in Berlin on December 14, 2011. Dr. Ralf Gueldner, President of the Deutsches Atomforum, opened the conference by drawing attention to the real purposes of the energy turnaround, namely to prevent severe climate changes and, thus, also carbon emissions. Both nationally in Germany and worldwide, nuclear power made major contributions to achieving these goals. Referring to developments in many neighboring countries, he underlined that opting out of the use of nuclear power in Germany was not tantamount to the end of nuclear power. Reality in energy policy had to be accepted, however, namely that nuclear power played, and would go on playing, an important role in Europe. Other contributions by Dr. Juergen Grossmann (Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG), Stefan Kohler (Chairman of the Board of Management of the German Energy Agency - dena), and Prof.Dr. Felix Muesgens (Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus, Chair of Power Economics) dealt with political and other boundary conditions required for the energy turnaround, and with the consequences and burdens on the power industry and the national economy. A final panel discussion chaired by Henning Krumrey (Wirtschaftswoche) was attended by F. Muesgens and Prof. Dr. Hans-Werner Sinn (President of the Munich-based Info Institute) and Prof. Dr. Michael Huether (German Business Institute). (orig.)
The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.
Berland, Kristian; Arter, Calvin A.; Cooper, Valentino R.; Lee, Kyuho; Lundqvist, Bengt I.; Schröder, Elsebeth; Thonhauser, T.; Hyldgaard, Per
The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions. PMID:24832347
Berland, Kristian; Arter, Calvin A; Cooper, Valentino R; Lee, Kyuho; Lundqvist, Bengt I; Schröder, Elsebeth; Thonhauser, T; Hyldgaard, Per
Full Text Available Aim: This article aims to identify and explore the needs, gaps, and coping challenges faced by the Kanye CHBC caregivers. Objective: To provide the Kanye primary caregivers with an opportunity to explore, discuss, and brainstorm the care giving challenges that impede their coping process. Materials and Methods: The study was exploratory in nature and attracted qualitative design. Eighty-two primary caregivers aged between 18 and 85 years were involved in 10 focus group discussions steered by an interview guide; while five CHBC nurses were subjected to one-to-one in-depth interviews still guided by an interview guide that differed only slightly with the one for the caregivers. Results: The following aspects were found detrimental and affecting the productivity and coping capacities of the primary caregivers inadequate counseling and debriefings; lack of motivation and incentives; inadequate supervision visits; and lack of support groups to facilitate information sharing and encouraging one another. Conclusion: This article recommends counseling and debriefings; formation of caregivers support groups; motivation strategies to be put in place; and provisions of adequate care package and food basket.
Gender and ethnocultural affiliation can influence people's health beliefs and their ability to make behavioural changes associated with risk reduction. The authors undertook a series of grounded theory studies aimed at describing and explaining how gender and ethnocultural affiliation influence the process that people undergo when faced with the need to make behavioural changes to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, they describe the gender-based influences associated with managing CAD risk in a small sample of older Sikh immigrants to Canada. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, using an interpreter when necessary. Interviews were audiotaped to enable verification of interpretation and transcription. Data were analyzed using constant comparative methods. The core variable that emerged in the series of studies was "meeting the challenge." The process of managing CAD risk included pre-diagnosis or event, liminal or changing self, and living with CAD. Intra-, inter-, and extrapersonal factors as well as sociodemographic characteristics influenced the participants' ability to meet the challenge of managing CAD risk. Health-care providers and policy-makers have a responsibility to work with ethnocultural communities in order to (1) enhance the ability of health-care providers to provide ethnoculturally sensitive care, and (2) develop ethnoculturally relevant resources to enable health promotion and disease prevention. The ultimate aim is to improve health outcomes for Sikh immigrants as vulnerable members of society. PMID:16671279
King, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pam; Sanguins, Julianne; Mather, Charles
A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…
Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.
People living in rural areas are often faced with multiple, complex, and seemingly insurmountable barriers to receiving appropriate treatment for mental health problems. Some of the barriers identified in the research literature include inaccessibility to mental health providers, stigma, and limited resources in the community. Despite existing data regarding rural patients and their families, little is known about their lived, personal experiences. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to determine the experience of patients and family members who are dealing with mental illness in rural communities. Based on this qualitative analysis of patient and family members' experiences in rural areas, issues surrounding mental health and treatment are accompanied by significant stigma, often left unresolved, and exacerbated by practical challenges which hinder access to proper mental health resources, frequently leaving rural residents to cope with inadequate solutions or seek their own, alternative solutions. PMID:23088821
Robinson, W David; Springer, Paul R; Bischoff, Richard; Geske, Jenenne; Backer, Elizabeth; Olson, Michael; Jarzynka, Kimberly; Swinton, Jonathan
Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the 'messy swamps' of rural health practice is a growing challenge. This paper examines the process of learning among health science students from several health disciplines from five Western Australian universities during 'Country Week': a one-week intensive experiential interprofessional education program in rural Western Australia. The paper weaves together strands of transformative theory of learning with findings from staff and student reflections from Country Week to explore how facilitated learning in situ can work to produce practitioners better prepared for rural health practice. PMID:23807733
Prout, Sarah; Lin, Ivan; Nattabi, Barbara; Green, Charmaine
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Refletir sobre o campo saúde do(a) trabalhador(a) é o objetivo deste estudo. Busca-se sublinhar o significado das condições de trabalho para o ser humano do ponto de vista da saúde. A premissa não é quantificar, mas inferir que as condições de trabalho podem gerar danos à saúde, mas nem sempre apres [...] entam de imediato a sua relação com o trabalho. São discutidas, a partir da abordagem qualitativa, três situações, as quais contemplam os trabalhos rural, informal e infantil e, como resultado, verifica-se a contradição da categoria trabalho, que, se por um lado é sinônimo de sociabilidade, por outro, contraditoriamente, constitui-se em mecanismo de exclusão social na medida em que é realizado sem o reconhecimento dos direitos sociais e trabalhistas. Verifica-se a expansão de formas de trabalho sem regulamentação, tais como o domiciliar e o familiar e os realizados em locais como a rua e o lixo. Encerra-se a reflexão com destaque ao papel do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) na "assistência integral" à saúde dos(as) trabalhadores(as) e ao desafio de atuar na perspectiva de prevenção e promoção da saúde do trabalhador de modo integrado e articulado aos demais órgãos públicos que atuam nesta área. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to ponder on occupational health, searching for the meaning of work to workers' health. The premise is not to quantify, but to infer that the work conditions can generate damages to health, although this relationship is not always immediately apparent. Three situations [...] that contemplate rural and informal work, as well as child labor are discussed, using a qualitative approach. As a result, the contradiction of work is verified. It could be a synonym for sociability, but on the other hand, it is a mechanism for social exclusion, when conducted without the recognition of the workers' social and labor rights. The expansion of jobs without regulation have been observed such as the ones conducted at home or within families, or on the streets and at the waste landfills. The article ends by discussing the role of the Public Unified Health System (SUS) in the "integral assistance" to workers' health and the challenge of acting with a preventive perspective and towards occupational health promotion, in a joint effort with other public organization in this field.
Lourenço, Edvânia Ângela de Souza; Bertani, Íris Fenner.
Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.
Along the United States–Mexican border, the health of communities, economies, and ecosystems is inextricably intertwined with the availability and quality of water, but effective water management in the Borderlands is complicated. Water users compete for resources, and their needs are increasing. Managers are faced with issues such as finding a balance between agriculture and rapidly growing cities or maintaining public supplies while ensuring sufficient resources for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to human factors, the dry climate of the Borderlands, as compared to more temperate regions, also increases the challenge of balancing water supplies between humans and ecosystems. Warmer, drier, and more variable conditions across the southwestern United States—the projected results of climate change (Seager and others, 2007)—would further stress water supplies.
Callegary, James; Langeman, Jeff; Leenhouts, Jim; Martin, Peter
Under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the Department of Energy (DOE) can determine that certain material resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is not high-level waste (HLW), and therefore does not need to be disposed of in a geologic repository in order to manage the risks that the waste poses. Reprocessing wastes can take a variety of forms including, but not limited to, liquid and sludge waste stored in underground tanks, waste removed from tanks and disposed of elsewhere after processing, and equipment that was utilized in waste processing which has been prepared for disposal. Section 3116 of the NDAA requires DOE to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding DOE's non-HLW determinations performed pursuant to the NDAA. The NDAA also requires the NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions to assess compliance with 10 CFR 61, Subpart C. The NDAA applies only to the States of Idaho and South Carolina. Although the NDAA applies only to the States of Idaho and South Carolina, similar waste determinations may be performed at DOE's Hanford site and West Valley Demonstration Project. The NRC expects to perform similar technical reviews for waste determinations performed at those sites. The Commission directed the staff to take the time necessary to complete its reviews to ensure protection of public health and safety, to make decisions that are transparent, traceable, complete, and as open to the public as practical, and to inform the Commission on how the staff intends to implement its monitoring responsibilities. NRC's waste determination reviews under the NDAA are watched closely by many stakeholders, including environmental groups, other Federal and State agencies, and the public. The complexity associated with the key aspects of making a non-HLW determination imposes significant challenges on the NRC staff. This paper provides an overview of the technical challenges faced by the NRC after passage of the NDAA and describes how those challenges are being addressed. The main challenge addressed in this paper is the differences between disposal of non-HLW and traditional low-level waste. Secondarily, this paper briefly addresses how to ensure consistency of technical reviews, and how to develop risk insights for a complicated system including estimating the impact of real-world features and complexity with simplified computer models. (authors)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.
Gilmar P, Henz.
Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.
Many people still die of tuberculosis (TB). One-third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis, and the poor suffer most. More than 95% of TB cases and deaths are in developing countries and TB is closely linked to poverty. The prevalence of TB increases globally, mainly because of the worsening HIV pandemic. Emerging drug-resistant TB poses another challenge to efforts to control TB. In 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a comprehensive approach to TB co...
Shargie, Estifanos Biru
European countries have been reaffirtmating the role and the significance of agricultural multifunctionality for rural areas development. The transition countries have to make the assessment of their weaknesses and opportunities before facing the necessary significant investments in agriculture, rural settlements and deprived rural areas. Overall economic development should provide for further agriculture employment reduction, along with taking measures for the agriculture farms modernization...
Nikoli? Marija; Maksin-Mi?i? Marija
Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges / Retenir les médecins dans les zones rurales du Timor-Leste: une évaluation critique des opportunités et des défis / Cómo conservar a los médicos en las zonas rurales de Timor-Leste: una valoración crítica de las oportunidades y desafíos / ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????- ????: ????? ???? ????? ????????? / ????????????????????? / ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????-?????: ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Timor-Leste se encuentra en proceso de abordar una cuestión clave para el sector sanitario del país: un personal médico demasiado escaso para proporcionar una atención adecuada. En teoría, un programa bilateral de cooperación médica con Cuba, creado en el a [...] ño 2003, podría solucionar este problema. A finales de 2013, casi 700 médicos nuevos formados en Cuba se unieron al personal médico de Timor-Leste, y se espera que profesionales de la salud nacionales y cubanos formen a otros 328 médicos en el país hasta 2017. En Indonesia y otros lugares han recibido formación algunos médicos más, que se sumarán pronto a este personal. Se espera que el número de médicos en Timor-Leste triplique en el año 2017 el número de médicos existentes en el país en 2003. La mayoría de estos médicos nuevos trabajarán en comunidades rurales y respaldarán el objetivo del gobierno nacional de mejorar los resultados sanitarios de la mayoría rural. Aunque el incremento masivo del personal médico podría cambiar el modo de proporcionar la atención sanitaria y mejorar notablemente los resultados sanitarios en todo el país, hay desafíos que es necesario superar si Timor-Leste pretende obtener el máximo beneficio de dicho crecimiento. Parece fundamental que la mayor parte de los nuevos médicos se despliegue en comunidades rurales y se gestione con gran atención para optimizar su permanencia en dichas zonas. Abstract in english Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 ne [...] w doctors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.
Asante, Augustine D; Martins, Nelson; Otim, Michael E; Dewdney, John.
Rural women living with HIV/AIDS (WLA) in India face multifarious challenges which affect access to antiretroviral regimens and management of HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this pilot study, using cluster randomization, is to compare the effectiveness of the Asha-Life (AL) intervention, delivered by HIV-trained village women, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activists), with a usual care group on reduction of internalized stigma and avoidant coping among 68 WLA in rural India over a 6-month period. The findings demonstrated that participation in the AL intervention was associated with significant reductions in internalized stigma and the use of avoidant coping strategies at follow-up. The findings of our study are promising in terms of the role rural village women (Asha) may play in reducing internalized stigma and avoidant coping in the lives of rural WLA in India. PMID:23539322
Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Salem, Benissa E; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K; Leake, Barbara
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine challenges teachers face in delivering HIV and AIDS education in secondary schools. Both rural and urban schools were sampled to gain understanding of the possible differences in respondent views depending on their geographical location. Methods: Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observations, focus group discussions and review of documents. Key informants included teachers, students, parents, educational of...
Lungo, Tatu Sultan
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability
As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.
Thibault, K. M.
This paper focuses on the application of Spatial Data mining Techniques to efficiently manage the challenges faced by peripheral rural areas in analyzing and predicting market scenario and better manage their economy. Spatial data mining is the task of unfolding the implicit knowledge hidden in the spatial databases. The spatial Databases contain both spatial and non-spatial attributes of the areas under study. Finding implicit regularities, rules or patterns hidden in spati...
Kanagavalli, V. R.; Raja, K.
Trabalho rural, saúde e ambiente: as narrativas dos produtores de flor frente aos riscos socioambientais / Rural work, health and the environment: narratives of flower growers in the face of social and environmental risks
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo insere-se na discussão acerca dos impactos socioambientais gerados pelas práticas agrícolas convencionais, apresentando as principais conclusões de uma pesquisa que analisou o processo produtivo de flores em duas localidades do município de Nova Friburgo (RJ), com ênfase na compreensão das [...] percepções e atitudes dos produtores frente aos riscos associados ao processo de trabalho. Adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa, que priorizou as narrativas dos produtores de flores como o principal meio de aproximação da pluralidade de perspectivas destes sujeitos. Em relação aos procedimentos de coleta de dados, foram utilizadas: entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação descritiva e diário de campo, além do levantamento de dados secundários. As evidências recolhidas indicam que os agrotóxicos se destacam como elemento central da produção e estão permeados por ambiguidades e dilemas. Nesse contexto, os diversos fatores inter-relacionados que atuam como determinantes desta situação são identificados e debatidos. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo trata sobre la discusión de los impactos sociambientales generados por prácticas agrícolas convencionales. Presenta las principales conclusiones de una investigación del proceso productivo de flores en dos localidades del municipio de Nova Friburgo (RJ), haciendo énfasis en la c [...] omprensión de las percepciones y las actitudes de los productores frente a los riesgos en el proceso de trabajo. Fue adoptado un abordaje cualitativo, que priorizo las narrativas de los productores de flores como principal forma de aproximación de la pluralidad de perspectivas de estos sujetos. En relación a los procedimientos de colecta de datos, fueron usados entrevistas semi-estructuradas, observación descriptiva, diarios de campo y el levantamiento de datos secundarios. Las evidencias indican que los plaguicidas son un elemento central de la producción y están permeados por ambigüedades y dilemas. En este contexto, los diversos factores interrelacionados que actúan como determinantes de esta situación son debatidos. Abstract in english The article is part of the discussion about the environmental impacts generated by conventional farming practices. It presents the main conclusions of a research which examined the process of production of flowers in two sites of the city of Nova Friburgo (RJ), with emphasis on the understanding of [...] the perceptions and attitudes of producers face to the risks associated with their work. It was adopted a qualitative approach, that prioritized the narratives of flower producers as the main form of approximation of the plurality of perspectives of these subjects. In relation to data collection procedures were used semi-structured interviews, observation and descriptive field notes and secondary data review. The evidence collected indicates that pesticides stand out as a central element of production and are permeated by ambiguities and dilemmas. In this context, the various interrelated factors that act as determinants of this situation are identified and discussed.
Marina Favrim, Gasparini; Carlos Machado de, Freitas.
Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent. PMID:24356350
Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo discute as implicações das mudanças no paradigma produtivo sobre a saúde e o ambiente no meio rural brasileiro. Para tanto, analisa dados de produção, demografia e economia, contrastando os determinantes, de ordem social, estrutural e econômica, com os reflexos na relação saúde, tr [...] abalho e ambiente, desvelando um quadro preocupante, que inclui: a) os impactos ambientais de grandes cadeias produtivas como soja, milho, algodão e cana de açúcar; b) a contaminação química de diversos compartimentos ambientais em razão do uso de agrotóxicos e fertilizantes na agricultura; c) o uso de áreas naturais para o aumento de áreas destinadas à agricultura e pecuária; e d) os reflexos destas ações sobre a saúde de um contingente expressivo de indivíduos, trabalhadores ou não, colocados cada vez mais em situação de extrema vulnerabilidade face aos riscos advindos dos diversos processos produtivos presentes no meio rural brasileiro. Assim, o presente artigo mostra que os macrodeterminantes (ou grandes forças motrizes) acabam por configurar o retrato da saúde dos habitantes do Brasil Rural que, cotidianamente, enfrentam uma série de desafios para a garantia de uma qualidade de vida e de trabalho digna. Abstract in english This manuscript discusses the implications of the productive paradigm changes in health and environment of rural area of Brazil. It analyzes production, economy and demography data, facing social and structural determinants with health and environmental reflexes, revealing a serious panorama that in [...] cludes: a) environmental impacts associated to large productive chains, such as corn, soy-bean, cotton and sugar cane; b) chemical contamination of diverse environment compartments due to pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture; c) the use of natural land in the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming activities; and d) the reflexes of these actions on individuals, workers or not, that are more and more forced to deal with extreme vulnerability situations because of the risk of rural work processes. Thus, the present article points that macro-determinants (or driven-forces) tends to configure the health status of Rural Brazil inhabitants which, day after day, face a series of challenges in order to guarantee dignity in their work and quality of life.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo discute as implicações das mudanças no paradigma produtivo sobre a saúde e o ambiente no meio rural brasileiro. Para tanto, analisa dados de produção, demografia e economia, contrastando os determinantes, de ordem social, estrutural e econômica, com os reflexos na relação saúde, tr [...] abalho e ambiente, desvelando um quadro preocupante, que inclui: a) os impactos ambientais de grandes cadeias produtivas como soja, milho, algodão e cana de açúcar; b) a contaminação química de diversos compartimentos ambientais em razão do uso de agrotóxicos e fertilizantes na agricultura; c) o uso de áreas naturais para o aumento de áreas destinadas à agricultura e pecuária; e d) os reflexos destas ações sobre a saúde de um contingente expressivo de indivíduos, trabalhadores ou não, colocados cada vez mais em situação de extrema vulnerabilidade face aos riscos advindos dos diversos processos produtivos presentes no meio rural brasileiro. Assim, o presente artigo mostra que os macrodeterminantes (ou grandes forças motrizes) acabam por configurar o retrato da saúde dos habitantes do Brasil Rural que, cotidianamente, enfrentam uma série de desafios para a garantia de uma qualidade de vida e de trabalho digna. Abstract in english This manuscript discusses the implications of the productive paradigm changes in health and environment of rural area of Brazil. It analyzes production, economy and demography data, facing social and structural determinants with health and environmental reflexes, revealing a serious panorama that in [...] cludes: a) environmental impacts associated to large productive chains, such as corn, soy-bean, cotton and sugar cane; b) chemical contamination of diverse environment compartments due to pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture; c) the use of natural land in the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming activities; and d) the reflexes of these actions on individuals, workers or not, that are more and more forced to deal with extreme vulnerability situations because of the risk of rural work processes. Thus, the present article points that macro-determinants (or driven-forces) tends to configure the health status of Rural Brazil inhabitants which, day after day, face a series of challenges in order to guarantee dignity in their work and quality of life.
This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems
Li, Stan Z
The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation are currently experiencing a period of unprecedented change. The nature and pace of this change is affected by many factors - technological, economic, environmental, political and social. These factors not only influence the governmental and business environment in which the nuclear industry operates, but they also impact other stakeholders, the media, the public and international organizations. These developments have already resulted in significant changes to how nuclear enterprises are organized and operated. They can be expected to continue and even accelerate as new projects and designs for reactors and other facilities and new approaches to nuclear safety emerge. It is essential that high levels of nuclear and radiation safety be maintained worldwide throughout this period of change and for the lifetime of nuclear facilities, including site and waste management legacies. Effective, efficient and independent regulatory bodies must be established and maintained in all countries utilizing nuclear energy to ensure that nuclear activities are conducted safely and securely, consistent with national standards and international good practices. In this respect, it is of the utmost importance that all countries and expert organizations involved in nuclear related activities participate as active partners in the Global Nuclear Safety Regime [The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of nuclear safety]. This participation includes uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture and the safe management of radioactive waste and transport of radioactive material. Nuclear and radiation safety are based on technical, managerial, administrative, economic and organizational requirements. In this respect, the role and quality of technical and scientific expertise in the nuclear industry and of regulatory systems are of fundamental importance. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), whether part of a regulatory body or a separate organization, are gaining increased importance in providing the technical and scientific bases for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety. International organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) also rely on the active contribution of TSOs. In the light of the important role played by TSOs, it is essential that these organizations conduct their work consistent with the highest levels of technical competence and transparency, and with the observance of ethical principles. To enhance their capabilities in these areas, TSOs need to foster cooperative activities among themselves and other relevant organizations, whether on an ad hoc basis or in the framework of regional or multilateral arrangements and institutions. Recognizing the need for TSOs to broaden their cooperation, the IAEA has sponsored this first international conference specifically addressing the role TSOs can play and the challenges they face in enhancing nuclear safety. It is hoped that the conference provided a platform for further promoting and strengthening international nuclear and radiation safety cooperation to enhance the Global Nuclear Safety Regime
The objective of the study was to highlight the key issues of rural transport and bring out the special problems faced by rural communities. The document reports on: (i) lack of public transport and lack of shops; (ii) the increase in car use and the decline in walking, cycling and public transport; (iii) road safety and rural traffic growth; (iv) the cost of rural motoring and the fraction of income spent on transport; (v) alternatives to the car and (vi) development of a typology of rural areas and a range of optimum transport solutions.
Gray, D. [The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Centre for Transport Policy
Emerging markets are playing a significant role in the ongoing process of economical and political globalisation. Due to the fall of international trade and investment barriers, a wider range of opportunities has risen for companies of the developed countries seeking to further enhance their international business potentials. Nonetheless, many hurdles still facing the integration process due to the existing political and cultural polarity, between emerging markets and their potential business...
Moukbel, Maya; Bergqvist, Kristina
This report, based on clinical practice on a childrenÃ¢Â€Â™s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s) in music therapy sessions? ...
This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s) in music therapy sessions? Three hospi...
APPRI International Workshop:Learning, producing and sharing innovations. Tools for co-construction and sustainable implementation of innovations in dryland Africa Atelier International APPRI : Apprentissage, Production et Partage d'Innovations : quels outils pour le renforcement des capacités, les mesures d'accompagnement, la co-construction et la mise en œuvre durable d'innovations dans les zones rurales sèches en Afrique?
The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...
After realizing that the traditional modes of tuition in Zimbabwe's andragogy had either gone obsolete or over-crowded, BUSE ventured into a "virtualised" model of open and distance learning as a way of out-doing other competing universities. However, as the programme was rolled out, there came a myriad of challenges affecting the…
Dodo, Obediah; Makwerere, David; Parwada, Matavire; Parwada, Cosmas
Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes it challenging to evaluate dependence or progress towards dependence. The aim of this study was to estimate nicotine dependence levels and identify determinants of dependence among Chinese rural-urban migrants. Methods Multi-stage systematic sampling was used to select 4,198 rural-urban migrants aged 18 years or older from three metropolises in China. A structured questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Mandarin Chinese Version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (CFTND. Determinants of dependence were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results Among 4,198 participants, estimated current, daily, and occasional smoking rates were 28.3%, 21.2%, and 7.1%, respectively. The CTFND score for the 894 daily smokers was 3.39(SD: 2.32. MANOVA showed that work type, age at first migration, length of migration, and number of cities ever lived were associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusion A migratory lifestyle is associated with nicotine dependence. Results could inform the design of tobacco control programs that target Chinese rural-urban migrant workers as a special at-risk population.
Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO). In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividi...
Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO). In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividing tool ...
Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.
Full Text Available Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO. In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividing tool to split up the input face space into inlier and outlier face spaces and its use of dedicated classifiers to handle the inliers and outliers in their corresponding spaces. The results of the dedicated classifiers are then nonlinearly combined. Compared with the leading face detection approaches using both the data obtained from the complex airport environment and some popular face database repositories, FDAO's experimental results clearly show its effectiveness in handling real complex environment in airports.
Zhang Hong Jiang
The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gai...
Homestay programme, which was introduced in 1988, has become the iconic rural tourism product highlighting Malaysian cultural and traditional ways of life. The concept of Homestay is whereby a tourist stays together with the host family and interacts with the local community for a reasonable charge. This paper presents a review of community development through the Homestay programme in Malaysia as well as to review challenges facing the Homestay operators and community. Due to the potential o...
Arif Kamisan Pusiran; Honggen Xiao
The present overview document contains the main results of the Agriculture Energy 2030 prospective study, based on the work of the group led by the CEP [Centre d'etudes et de prospective/Centre for studies and strategic foresight] at the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fisheries, Rural Affairs and Spatial Planning. Energy in agriculture is all too often seen as a purely cyclical problem whereas it is a major issue for the future due to its economic consequences for agricultural holdings, its links with environmental and climatic issues, and its influence on food supply chains and spatial planning. Based on the scenario method, this analysis initially involved describing the whole range of links between agriculture and energy in France and organising them into a system of variables before going on to draw up an inventory of the knowledge available. Starting out from this diagnostic approach, the group constructed four scenarios over the period to 2030: 'Regionalization and sobriety to confront the crisis', 'Twin track agriculture and energy realism', 'Health Agriculture with no major energy constraints' and 'Ecological agriculture and energy savings'. These scenarios do not form an exhaustive panorama of all possible developments of the agriculture-energy system - they are rather formalised images of what the future might hold. However, quantification and comparison of the scenarios has led to the identification of major room for progress in energy efficiency in French farming. By helping gain greater awareness of future difficulties and issues or, conversely, opportunities to be grasped, these scenarios provided input for the strategic analysis phase, the concluding stage of this exercise, and the identification of general objectives and levers for public action. (authors)
Vert, Julien; Portet, Fabienne; Even, Marie-Aude; Herault, Bruno; Laisney, Celine; Mahe, Thuriane
The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen’s (1968, 1995) Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users’ substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. ...
Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.
The audience will be informed about the process of establishing a new research niche area in a School of Information Technology situated on the Vaal Triangle Campus (VTC) of the North-West University (NWU). The School covers all aspects of IT as well as Operational Research. Since the topics of postgraduate studies and other research endeavours are very divergent it is a challenge to form a cohesive group with a central research focus. The panel will be enriched by the sharing of experiences ...
Kroeze, Jan H.; Pretorius, Philip D.; Gilliland, Sonja; Kirlidog, Melih; Seymour, Lisa
During the transition of the Vietnamese economy, adaptation of the financial system was one of the most challenging reforms. A major task of this reform was to expand the financial systems outreach to the emerging private sector and household (HH) economies, especially in rural areas. Therefore, state-owned financial intermediaries such as the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD) and the Vietnam Bank for the Poor (VBP) have been established. Despite general successes in ...
Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recognition all having their respective pros and cons. In this paper, we presented an overview of face recognition techniques and its applications.
The main findings of the current study were that exposing adult sockeye salmon Onchorhynchus nerka to a warm temperature that they regularly encounter during their river migration induced a heat shock response at an mRNA level, and this response was exacerbated with forced swimming. Similar to the heat shock response, increased immune defence-related responses were also observed after warm temperature treatment and with a swimming challenge in two different populations (Chilko and Nechako), but with some important differences. Microarray analyses revealed that 347 genes were differentially expressed between the cold (12-13° C) and warm (18-19° C) treated fish, with stress response (GO:0006950) and response to fungus (GO:0009620) elevated with warm treatment, while expression for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (GO:0006119) and electron transport chain (GO:0022900) elevated for cold-treated fish. Analysis of single genes with real-time quantitative PCR revealed that temperature had the most significant effect on mRNA expression levels, with swimming and population having secondary influences. Warm temperature treatment for the Chilko population induced expression of heat shock protein (hsp) 90?, hsp90? and hsp30 as well as interferon-inducible protein. The Nechako population, which is known to have a narrower thermal tolerance window than the Chilko population, showed even more pronounced stress responses to the warm treatment and there was significant interaction between population and temperature treatment for hsp90? expression. Moreover, significant interactions were noted between temperature treatment and swimming challenge for hsp90? and hsp30, and while swimming challenge alone increased expression of these hsps, the expression levels were significantly elevated in warm-treated fish swum to exhaustion. In conclusion, it seems that adult O. nerka currently encounter conditions that induce several cellular defence mechanisms during their once-in-the-lifetime migration. As river temperatures continue to increase, it remains to be seen whether or not these cellular defences provide sufficient protection for all O. nerka populations. PMID:24684400
Anttila, K; Eliason, E J; Kaukinen, K H; Miller, K M; Farrell, A P
China faces a rapidly emerging HIV epidemic and nationwide resurgence of sexually transmitted infections associated with a growing sex industry. Community empowerment and capacity building through community-based participatory research partnerships show promise for developing, testing, and refining multilevel interventions suited to the local…
Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer; He, Bin; He, Qiya; Feng, Weiping; Wang, Yanhong
Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a childrenÃ¢Â€Â™s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the childrenÃ¢Â€Â™s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents
Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As Escolas Técnicas de Saúde do SUS foram criadas para exercer papel estratégico na profissionalização dos trabalhadores de nível médio sem qualificação específica para o Setor Saúde. Apesar do modelo didático-pedagógico flexível, as Escolas Técnicas de Saúde vivem dificuldades expressas em questões [...] de natureza técnico-políticas. Nesse contexto, foi instituído o Projeto Escola de Nível Médio, cujo principal objetivo é o fortalecimento e a consolidação dessas instituições em uma Rede Nacional de Escolas do SUS. Coordenado pela Escola Politécnica de Sàúde Joaquim Venâncio (EPSJV), esse projeto também atua na reorientação das Escolas do SUS, para que estas se integrem às políticas de saúde como atores no processo da reordenação da política de Recursos Humanos em Saúde. Abstract in english SUS' Technical Health Schools were built to play a strategic role for workers in the health sector, who, despite holding an intermediate educational leveI diploma, do not have the specific qualifications the sector requires. Notwithstanding the flexible didactic-pedagogical model, the Technical Heal [...] th Schools face important difficulties related to technical and political issues. ln this context, the Intermediate LeveI School Project was created mainly to support and consolidate such institutions into a National SUS Health School Network. Coordinated by the Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic Health School (EPSJV), the Project also plays an important role in redirecting SUS' Health Schools, aiming particularly at integrating them as players in health policy, in order to redress human resources development policies in the area of health.
Sório, Rita; Lamarca, Isabel.
The Society of Rural Physicians of Canada and the CMA are cooperating in the production of a new quarterly peer-reviewed journal that will focus on issues facing rural physicians. It will serve as a complement to existing primary care journals.
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das categorias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China, e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar.This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categories proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China, and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.
Júlio César Cossio Rodriguez
Since the mid-1990s, the protection of human subjects through institutional review boards (IRBs) has progressively broadened in scope. In this case study, the authors describe their challenges in effectively handling IRB processes to conduct educational and social sciences research within academic health centers, particularly (1) complications in conducting longitudinal interinstitutional research that involves multiple IRBs, each with different procedures that changed over ten years; and (2) factors affecting consent form and survey response rates when applying the biomedical IRB process to obtain the consent of human subjects for participation in social and educational research. The authors had a unique opportunity to follow the effect of changes in consent forms (from no form to a one-page form to a three-page form requiring signature of a witness), ways of administration (in person or by mail), and time of administration (at the time of the program or years later) on consent form and survey response rates among medical and dental school faculty members. The authors explore the extended timelines required for data collection and increased costs in dealing with these issues, as well as the effects on response rates of consent form language and administration procedures. The authors recommend strategies to lessen adverse effects of dealing with multiple IRBs at different institutions for social science and educational research, and discuss policy implications for funders, institutions and investigators. PMID:16728800
Morahan, Page S; Yamagata, Hisashi; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn; Francis, Ray; Odhner, Victoria C
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das catego [...] rias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China), e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar. Abstract in english This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categor [...] ies proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China), and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.
Júlio César Cossio, Rodriguez.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, where HIV and tuberculosis (TB are very common, little is known about the prejudice and misconceptions of rural communities towards People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA and TB. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in Gilgel Gibe Field Research area (GGFRA in southwest Ethiopia to assess the prejudice and misconceptions of rural and urban communities towards PLHA and TB. The study population consisted of 862 randomly selected adults in GGFRA. Data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. To triangulate the findings, 8 focus group discussions among women and men were done. Results Of the 862 selected study participants, 750(87% accepted to be interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 31.2 (SD ± 11.0. Of the total interviewed individuals, 58% of them were females. More than half of the respondents did not know the possibility of transmission of HIV from a mother to a child or by breast feeding. For fear of contagion of HIV, most people do not want to eat, drink, and share utensils or clothes with a person living with HIV/AIDS. A higher proportion of females [OR = 1.5, (95% CI: 1.0, 2.2], non-literate individuals [OR = 2.3, (95%CI: 1.4, 3.6], rural residents [OR = 3.8, (95%CI: 2.2, 6.6], and individuals who had poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS [OR = 2.8, (95%CI: 1.8, 2.2] were more likely to have high prejudice towards PLHA than respectively males, literates, urban residents and individuals with good knowledge. Exposure to cold air was implicated as a major cause of TB. Literates had a much better knowledge about the cause and methods of transmission and prevention of TB than non-literates. More than half of the individuals (56% had high prejudice towards a patient with TB. A larger proportion of females [OR = 1.3, (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9] and non-literate individuals [OR = 1.4, (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0] had high prejudice towards patients with TB than males and literate individuals. Conclusion TB/HIV control programs in collaboration with other partners should invest more in social mobilization and education of the communities to rectify the widespread prejudice and misconceptions.
Objectives To (1) evaluate educational needs of clinical students at Al-Quds University Medical School in the West Bank; (2) address these needs where possible using synchronous distance learning, with clinicians in Oxford providing case-based tutorials to undergraduates in the West Bank via an online platform (WizIQ) and (3) assess the impact of this education. Design Review of online OxPal Medlink database for tutorials held between March 2012 and April 2013. Needs assessment and evaluation of student and tutor experiences through online questionnaires, focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Setting Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK, and Al-Quds University Medical School, Abu Dies, Palestine. Participants Doctors at Oxford University Hospitals and fourth-, fifth- and sixth-year medical students and faculty members at Al-Quds Medical School. Main outcome measures Number of tutorials, student participation, student-rated satisfaction and qualitative feedback from tutors and students. Results Students demonstrated strong theoretical knowledge but struggled to apply this in presentation-based scenarios. Between March 2012 and April 2013, 90 tutorials were delivered to 60 students. Feedback: >95% respondents rated tutorials as ‘Excellent’ or ‘Good’ and ‘Very’ or ‘Fairly’ relevant to their future practice in Palestine. Students reported the programme had modified their approach to patients but requested better synchronization with concurrent attachments and clarification of learning outcomes. Conclusions OxPal Medlink is a novel, web-based distance-learning partnership designed to overcome some of the challenges to local medical education in the occupied Palestinian territories. Evaluation of the first year indicates teaching is relevant to local practice and of high quality. This approach may have the potential to strengthen local capacity for medical education.
Ali, Mohammad A; Ali, Adam M; Patel, Ishita; MacGregor, Thomas; Shankar, Sushma; Cahill, Thomas J; Finlayson, Alexander ET; Mahmud, Imran
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes. PMID:21726264
Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H
Retos del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo: Colombia Bilingüe Desafios do Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo: Colômbia Bilíngue The Challenges Facing the National Program for Bilingualism: Bilingual Colombia
Full Text Available En 2004 el Ministerio de Educación de Colombia diseñó el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB y estipuló los lineamientos y objetivos para su desarrollo en todo el país. El presente artículo hace parte de un proyecto investigativo sobre bilingüismo financiado por la Universidad de La Salle y su objetivo es analizar los pro y los contra del Programa para presentar los dos retos principales que se deben enfrentar: la formación bilingüe de los estudiantes colombianos y la educación bilingüe de niños. En este análisis teórico fueron utilizados principios de la investigación documental y se presentan algunas reflexiones que la comunidad colombiana de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera debería tener en cuenta para desarrollos futuros.Em 2004, o Ministério da Educação da Colômbia desenhou o Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo (PNB e estipulou os lineamentos e objetivos para seu desenvolvimento em todo o país. O presente artigo faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa sobre bilinguismo financiado pela Universidade La Salle e seu objetivo é analisar os prós e contras do Programa para apresentar os dois desafios principais que se devem enfrentar: a formação bilíngue dos estudantes colombianos e a educação bilíngue de crianças. Nesta análise teórica, foram utilizados princípios da pesquisa documental e se apresentam algumas reflexões que a comunidade colombiana de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira deveria considerar para desenvolvimentos futuros.In 2004, the Colombian Ministry of Education designed the National Program for Bilingual Education (GNP and specified the guidelines and objectives for its implementation throughout the country. This article is part of a research project on bilingual education funded by La Salle University, the primary objective of which is to analyze the pros and cons of the program in light of its two main challenges: bilingual education for Colombian students and bilingual education for children. Documentary research principles were used in this theoretical analysis and several considerations for teachers of English as foreign language in Colombia are raised in the interest of future developments.
Yamith José Fandiño-Parra
Full Text Available Background: The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective: To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design: Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion: This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated.
Healthcare is a critical issue in rural communities throughout the world. Provision of timely and cost effective health care in these communities is a challenge since it is coupled with a lack of adequate infrastructure and manpower support. Twenty percent of the United States of America‘s population resides in rural communities, i.e., 59 million people; however, only nine percent of the nation’s physicians practice in rural communities. Shortage of health care personnel and the lack of e...
The unique context of the rural setting provides special challenges to furnishing ethical healthcare to its approximately 62 million inhabitants. Although rural communities are widely diverse, most have the following common features: limited economic resources, shared values, reduced health status, limited availability of and accessibility to healthcare services, overlapping professional–patient relationships and care giver stress. These rural features shape common healthcare ethical issues...
In biometrics research and industry, it is critical yet a challenge to match infrared face images to optical face images. The major difficulty lies in the fact that a great discrepancy exists between the infrared face image and corresponding optical face image because they are captured by different devices (optical imaging device and infrared imaging device). This paper presents a new approach called common feature discriminant analysis to reduce this great discrepancy and improve optical-infrared face recognition performance. In this approach, a new learning-based face descriptor is first proposed to extract the common features from heterogeneous face images (infrared face images and optical face images), and an effective matching method is then applied to the resulting features to obtain the final decision. Extensive experiments are conducted on two large and challenging optical-infrared face data sets to show the superiority of our approach over the state-of-the-art. PMID:24723626
Li, Zhifeng; Gong, Dihong; Qiao, Yu; Tao, Dacheng
BACKGROUND: Lebanon is faced with a particular challenge because of large socioeconomic inequality and accelerated demographic transition. Rural residents seem more vulnerable because of limited access to transport, health and social services. No information is available regarding health, nutrition and living conditions of this specific population. The purpose of the AMEL (Aging and Malnutrition in Elderly Lebanese) study is to assess the nutritional status of community dwelling elderly peopl...
Boulos, Christa; Salameh, Pascale; Barberger-gateau, Pascale
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fenómeno del envejecimiento de la población es una realidad que enfrenta la humanidad actualmente y a la cual Colombia no es ajena. ¿Qué es el envejecimiento poblacional?, ¿por qué se está envejeciendo la humanidad?, ¿qué tan envejecido está nuestro país en términos comparativos?, ¿cuáles son las [...] condiciones actuales de nuestros adultos mayores en materia de salud, vivienda, educación, esparcimiento, seguridad económica y cuáles son sus perspectivas a futuro? Todas estas son preguntas pertinentes, algunas más sencillas de responder que otras, mas aun, si tenemos en cuenta nuestras grandes restricciones en materia fiscal, y lo que es más grave todavía, la poca importancia que le hemos dado a este cambio demográfico y, por ende, a los desafíos que se avecinan por cuenta del mismo. En este artículo presentamos un panorama general del envejecimiento de la población colombiana, tocando cada uno de los aspectos arriba mencionados, con el fin de llamar la atención acerca de la necesidad de fortalecer la investigación en todas las áreas para buscar respuestas adecuadas y oportunas a este cambio histórico. Abstract in english Aging of the population is an occurrence that has become a reality for all humanity and Colombia is not an exception to it. What is the aging population? Why is humanity aging? How aged is our country in comparative terms? What are the current conditions of our elderly in matters of health, shelter, [...] education, economic security, and what are their future perspectives? All of these are pertinent questions, some easier to answer than others, however, we do keep in mind our great restrictions in fiscal matters and what's worse, the lack of importance we have given to this demographical change and the challenges that it brings. In this article we present a general view of aging in the Colombian population, pointing out each one of the aspects mentioned above, with the purpose of warning about the necessity to strengthen investigation in all areas to find proper answers to this historic change.
Nieto Antolínez Eco, Mario Leonardo; Alonso Palacio, Luz Marina.
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La diversidad se traduce en la diferenciación que parte de la condición de género, etnicidad, religión, clase social, habilidad física, orientación sexual y edad. Estas orientaciones emanan producto de los cambios que se ha dado a partir de la globalización e impacto de las tecnologías de la informa [...] ción y comunicación. En consecuencia se asume, que la fuerza laboral tiene carácter diferenciado y plural, que requiere de mecanismos que permitan lograr administrar la diversidad y la cultura como un elemento condicionante y de impacto en las nuevas relaciones laborales y en la gestión de lo humano bajo esquemas de complejidad. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo indagar sobre la complejidad, diversidad, pluralidad y cultura, para establecer algunos de los retos que emergen en las formas de gestionar lo humano. La metodología que se utilizó, fue el análisis documental a través de la triangulación de información sobre las categorías asumidas, para lograr la construcción de una reflexión en relación al tema. La conclusión se enmarcó en la necesidad de lograr fomentar una gestión humana con actitud pluralista, abierta, flexible y de gran sensibilidad transcultural, orientada a la búsqueda de la igualdad de oportunidades y el trato digno del ser humano. Abstract in english Diversity translates into differentiation that begins with conditions of gender, ethnicity, religion, social class, physical ability, sexual orientation and age. These orientations have come out as a product of the changes that have occurred with globalization and the impact of information and commu [...] nication technologies. As a consequence, it is assumed that the labor force has a differentiated and plural character which requires mechanisms that permit administering diversity and culture as a conditioning element that impacts new labor relations and human management under perceptions of complexity. The objective of this article is to investigate complexity, diversity, plurality and culture, to establish some of the challenges that emerge in ways of managing human beings. The methodology used was documentary through triangulation of the information about assumed categories, to construct a reflection related to the theme. The conclusion was framed by the need to foment human management with a pluralist, open, flexible attitude that has great transcultural sensitivity, oriented toward a search for the equality of opportunities and treatment worthy of the human being.
María Candelaria, Rodríguez Pérez.
Full Text Available Recibido 11 de setiembre 2007 • Aprobado 20 de noviembre 2007 Resumen. El artículo explora la labor de los docentes rurales en Costa Rica y analiza los planes de formación impartidos por las universidades públicas. Indaga sobre las limitaciones y ventajas que tienen quienes ejercen la docencia en las zonas rurales y la manera como enfrentan los retos que les demanda este contexto a partir de sus particularidades culturales, económicas y sociales. Finalmente, a partir de la información recabada por medio de la investigación, presenta una serie de contenidos para que las universidades formadoras de docentes, enriquezcan sus planes de estudio y ofrezcan a sus estudiantes, futuras y futuros docentes, las herramientas necesarias para trabajar en una zona rural. Abstract. The article explores the performance of rural teachers in Costa Rica and analyses the curricula taught in public universities. It also examines limitations and advantages of teaching in rural areas and the way teachers face the challenges imposed by this kind of context in terms of cultural, economical and social particularities. Finally, based on the information collected in this investigation, a series of contents are presented in order to enrich the curricula of teacher training universities and to offer to their students, future teachers, the necessary tools to work in the rural area.
Claudio Antonio Vargas Fallas
Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science
Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.
Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.
Full Text Available Face recognition has been a fast growing,challenging and interesting area in real timeapplications. A large number of face recognitionalgorithms have been developed in last decades. In thispaper an attempt is made to review a wide range ofmethods used for face recognition comprehensively.This include PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, Gabor wavelet softcomputing tool like ANN for recognition and varioushybrid combination of this techniques. This reviewinvestigates all these methods with parameters thatchallenges face recognition like illumination, posevariation, facial expressions.
Sujata G. Bhele , V. H. Mankar
In this report, we address the problem of face verification across illumination, since it has been identified as one of the major factor degrading the performance of face recognition systems. First, a brief overview of face recognition together with its main challenges is made, before reviewing state-of-the-art approaches to cope with illumination variations. We then present investigated approaches, which consists in applying a pre-processing step to the face images, and we also present the u...
Heusch, Guillaume; Cardinaux, Fabien; Marcel, Se?bastien
Rural governance in the UK and elsewhere has undergone far-reaching changes, as partnerships and other collaborative approaches have emerged to address the challenges of rural sustainable development. The legitimacy of this "new rural governance" is purportedly grounded in deliberation between stakeholders, but this is problematic--it is not clear…
Connelly, Steve; Richardson, Tim; Miles, Tim
... Driving down copper prices would tarnish the business case for investing in fibre by encouraging customers to stay on copper, argues a ... But given the interest in fibre, this is no longer the case. Incumbents maintain that they face an uncertain future, with ...group's economic analyst, Monika Stajnarova, points to Spain and Italy as 'alarming cases' which have set a poor precedent and urges EU policymakers to ... Recent cases in Italy and Spain where regulators approved increases in wholesale access charges will result in higher retail prices inevitably being passed ...
Configurações curriculares mediante o enfoque CTS: desafios a serem enfrentados na educação de jovens e adultos / Curricular configurations through the CTS approach: challenges to be faced in EJA (the education of youths and adults)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, são analisados desafios a serem enfrentados no âmbito de intervenções curriculares que buscam enfocar interações entre Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade (CTS), mediante a abordagem de temáticas contemporâneas, marcadas pela componente científico-tecnológica. Tais encaminhamentos estão bal [...] izados por uma aproximação entre pressupostos do educador brasileiro Freire (1987) e referenciais ligados ao denominado movimento CTS. No âmbito destas intervenções situa-se o problema investigado: Quais os possíveis desafios a serem enfrentados/investigados quando se buscam configurações curriculares que contemplem o enfoque CTS por meio da abordagem de problemas de relevância social junto à Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)? Os objetivos da pesquisa são: identificar e discutir posicionamentos de professores da EJA quanto à utilização de temas/problemas de relevância social em suas aulas, e identificar e discutir estrangulamentos a serem enfrentados nas instituições escolares. Esta pesquisa é de cunho qualitativo e os instrumentos utilizados foram: registros escritos, sob a forma de diários; questionário e entrevista. Como síntese dos resultados da investigação, foram definidas quatro categorias, as quais constituem desafios a serem enfrentados: a) superação do reducionismo metodológico, ou seja, ao professor atribui-se o papel de "vencer programas"; b) o trabalho interdisciplinar; c) suposta resistência dos alunos à abordagem temática, e d) desenvolvimento de temas polêmicos que envolvem conflitos/contradições locais. No presente trabalho, são discutidas as categorias "a" e "d". Abstract in english In this work, challenges are analyzed to be faced with the range of curricular interventions which aim to approach the interaction between Science, Technology and Society (CTS) through the setting down of contemporary themes, notably science and technology. Such curricular routings are marked by the [...] approximation of the presuppositions of the Brazilian pedagogue Freire (1987) and references to the movement known as CTS. In the context of such curricular interventions, is raised the problem of investigation: What are the possible challenges to be faced / investigated in the search for curricular configurations which look at the CTS approach through the laying out of socially relevant problems together with EJA? The objectives of the research are: to identify and discuss the position of EJA teachers in relation to the use, in class, of themes/problems of social relevance and to identify and discuss complications to be confronted in schools. This project is of a qualitative nature and the instruments used were: written registers in the form of diaries; questionnaires and interviews. As a synthesis of the results of the investigation, four categories are defined and discussed which constitute challenges to be faced: a) the excess of methodological reductionism, this being the teacher giving himself the role of "program beater"; b) interdisciplinary work; c) the supposed student resistance to the themed approach and d) the development of polemic themes which involve local conflicts/contradictions. In the present work, the categories are argued "a" and "d".
Cristiane, Muenchen; Décio, Auler.
In ruralChina, agricultural production factor markets, particularly land and labour, face many institutional obstacles and remain largely underdeveloped. Further growth in agricultural productivity and rural household incomes, and thus a reduction in rural-urban income inequality are likely to depend on increases in rural land and labour productivity, and therefore require the development of land and labour ma...
Full Text Available The problem of rural financing is one of the major challenges to the emerging China. It is challenging forgovernment authorities to provide adequate financial resources and access to financial institutions in ruralagricultural areas to farmer households. The development of Village and Township Banks (VTBs hasremarkably increased since 2008 but the deposit collection of VTBs is comparatively weaker than the loandisbursement. Despite of facing numerous challenges, establishing within the framework of new-type financialinstitutions is playing a significant role for the development of agricultural sector. For the sustainabledevelopment of VTBs, VTBs should set up staff and member incentive system, introduce innovative financialproducts; and strengthen the agricultural insurance system. The cooperation between VTBs and the other ruralfinancial institutions should be developed to meet short-term rural financing gap and to strengthen theinstitutional capacity of VTBs. The government’s support in policy formulation and financial assistance isessential and the local government intervention should be discouraged. An autonomously functioning financialinstitution can enhance the sustainable development of rural households’ income, in particular, and theagricultural sector, in general.
Bal Ram Duwal
Full Text Available Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telepractice
Whereas the primary challenge for agriculture after World War II was improving food security by increasing productivity, the challenges faced by todayâ??s agriculture are more complex and diverse. In this context it is interesting to investigate Danish agricultural extension. Firstly, the more complex and diverse a situation that farmers have to deal with, the more support farmers may need. Secondly, agricultural extension is important to Danish farmers, pointing to a significant arena for learning and change. Thirdly, privatizing agricultural extension (in Denmark since 1994) should not be seen as a permanent panacea, but be reconsidered in the light of new agricultural and societal challenges. The overall objective of this PhD thesis is to explore the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs so as to point to critical aspects of concern to research and policy makers, and to Danish agricultural extension. In total three papers deal with the overall objective, each from a different perspective. The papers examine the capacity of agricultural extension at consultant level, project level and management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: â??rural development serviceâ?? is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural extension agencies in Denmark. All papers show that financial structural aspects critically affect the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs. The most significant conclusion from this PhD thesis is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of â??public good extension servicesâ?? like rural development services and â??innovation intermediationâ?? in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal conformity with new tendencies. Supportive financial structures in extension agencies extend the range of innovation intermediary roles taken by individual extension agents, and the overall performance of such agents. However, strong professional identity as innovation intermediary also plays a role in that. Finally, â??urban impactâ?? positively affects extension capacity.
Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores
Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training.Con base en teorías criticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías mas efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de genero, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado.
Spoofing is a very big challenge in biometrics, specially in face image. So many artificial techniques are available to tamper or hide the original face. To ensure the actual presence of live face image in contrast to fake face image this research has been contributed. The intended purpose of proposed approach is also to endorse the biometric authentication, by joining the liveness awareness with Facial Recognition Technology (FRT). In this research 200 dummy face images and 200 real face ima...
One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine. PMID:20299717
Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K
Organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas de atenção à saúde: desafios do Sistema Único de Saúde (Brasil) / The organization of regional and integrated healthcare delivery systems: challenges facing Brazil's Unified Health System
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo refere-se às causas da segmentação/fragmentação na atenção à saúde e aos benefícios da integração e constituição de redes para racionalizar gastos, otimizar recursos e promover uma atenção condizente com as necessidades dos usuários. Tem como principal objetivo analisar os desafios presente [...] s no Sistema Único de Saúde para promover uma melhor integração entre os serviços e organizar redes. Entre os desafios abordados, destacam-se os relacionados à insuficiência de recursos decorrentes do baixo financiamento público, aos processos de formação e educação e seus reflexos na disponibilização dos profissionais para o sistema público e às dificuldades inerentes à descentralização de ações e serviços de saúde no contexto do pacto federativo brasileiro. O artigo conclui que, além de esforços para enfrentar esses desafios, a organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas no SUS depende de aperfeiçoamento na gestão intergovernamental nas regiões de saúde para qualificar a pactuação de responsabilidades entre as esferas de governo e de qualificação da atenção primária à saúde para coordenar o cuidado e ordenar sua continuidade nos outros níveis do sistema. Abstract in english This article examines the causes of the segmentation/fragmentation in the healthcare process and the benefits of the constitution of networks set up to rationalize expenditures, optimize resources and ensure care tailored to the needs of the users. Its main purpose is to analyze the current challeng [...] es facing Brazil's Unified Health System, in order to promote improved integration between services. Among the challenges, those related to the insufficiency of resources due to low public funding, the training and education processes and their effects on the availability of health professionals to work in the public health system and the difficulties in the decentralization of health services and actions in the context of the Brazilian Federation Pact should be stressed. The paper concludes that, besides the efforts to tackle these challenges, the organization of regionalized networks integrated with the Unified Health System also depends on the improvement of intergovernmental management in the health regions to bolster the agreement on responsibilities among the government areas and the qualification of primary healthcare to coordinate care and ensure its continuity at other levels of the system.
Silvio Fernandes da, Silva.
Organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas de atenção à saúde: desafios do Sistema Único de Saúde (Brasil) / The organization of regional and integrated healthcare delivery systems: challenges facing Brazil's Unified Health System
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo refere-se às causas da segmentação/fragmentação na atenção à saúde e aos benefícios da integração e constituição de redes para racionalizar gastos, otimizar recursos e promover uma atenção condizente com as necessidades dos usuários. Tem como principal objetivo analisar os desafios presente [...] s no Sistema Único de Saúde para promover uma melhor integração entre os serviços e organizar redes. Entre os desafios abordados, destacam-se os relacionados à insuficiência de recursos decorrentes do baixo financiamento público, aos processos de formação e educação e seus reflexos na disponibilização dos profissionais para o sistema público e às dificuldades inerentes à descentralização de ações e serviços de saúde no contexto do pacto federativo brasileiro. O artigo conclui que, além de esforços para enfrentar esses desafios, a organização de redes regionalizadas e integradas no SUS depende de aperfeiçoamento na gestão intergovernamental nas regiões de saúde para qualificar a pactuação de responsabilidades entre as esferas de governo e de qualificação da atenção primária à saúde para coordenar o cuidado e ordenar sua continuidade nos outros níveis do sistema. Abstract in english This article examines the causes of the segmentation/fragmentation in the healthcare process and the benefits of the constitution of networks set up to rationalize expenditures, optimize resources and ensure care tailored to the needs of the users. Its main purpose is to analyze the current challeng [...] es facing Brazil's Unified Health System, in order to promote improved integration between services. Among the challenges, those related to the insufficiency of resources due to low public funding, the training and education processes and their effects on the availability of health professionals to work in the public health system and the difficulties in the decentralization of health services and actions in the context of the Brazilian Federation Pact should be stressed. The paper concludes that, besides the efforts to tackle these challenges, the organization of regionalized networks integrated with the Unified Health System also depends on the improvement of intergovernmental management in the health regions to bolster the agreement on responsibilities among the government areas and the qualification of primary healthcare to coordinate care and ensure its continuity at other levels of the system.
Silvio Fernandes da, Silva.
Critical reflections on the New Rurality and the rural territorial development approaches in Latin America / Visión crítica sobre los enfoques de la Nueva Ruralidad y el desarrollo territorial rural en América Latina
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se presenta una aproximación crítica a las nociones de la Nueva Ruralidad y el Desarrollo Territorial Rural (DTR) que actualmente son hegemónicas en el ámbito de las instituciones gubernamentales y ganan espacio en la academia latinoamericana. Con base en una consideración de los principales desafío [...] s que enfrentan los espacios rurales latinoamericanos, se pasa revista crítica a las prescripciones centrales del DTR, mismas que resultan funcionales al encuadre neoliberal de políticas que han propiciado la pérdida de la soberanía alimentaria, el predominio del agronegocio transnacional y la emigración, como principales expresiones del debilitamiento de la agricultura campesina. Consecuentemente se argumenta que las principales transformaciones de dichos espacios, más que a una pretendida nueva ruralidad corresponden a una ruralidad neoliberal. Al resaltar la necesidad de una visión histórica mundial que recupere la tradición del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano, se postula la urgencia de políticas públicas que rompan con las prescripciones neoliberales y se orienten al fortalecimiento de la agricultura campesina e indígena para impulsar un desarrollo rural con soberanía alimentaria, democracia, equidad y sustentabilidad. Abstract in english This paper presents a critical approach to the New Rurality and the Rural Territorial Development (RTD) perspectives, which nowadays are hegemonic for governmental organizations and Latin American academies. RTD's core requirements, which are functional for neoliberal policies resulting in the loss [...] of food sovereignty, the globalization of agribusinesses, and migration as a consequence of peasant agricultural weakening, were critically reviewed on the basis of the principal challenges faced by Latin American rural areas. In light of the above consequences, it is thought that changes in such areas are based on neoliberal rurality rather than on the purported New Rurality. By stressing the need for a global historical view that reintroduces the Latin American critical thinking tradition, the urgency for public policies that stop neoliberal prescriptions and seek to strengthen peasant and indigenous agriculture in order to encourage rural development based on food sovereignty, democracy, equity and sustainability were established.
The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...
Full Text Available Rural-urban adult migration, mainly adult male migration makes heavy demand on all family members, but especially on children who are left behind in rural area to shoulder the responsibility of agriculture production and food security. Labor shortage due to rural-urban adult migration may mean that children in rural area often have to face tighter time schedules and patterns of time use and human energy inputs required in agriculture production. The study revealed the impact of rural-urban migration on rural children. In the study, sample was restricted to households that own and/or operate agricultural land in rural area. A purposive sampling was adopted to select villages and covered 500 sample households. The study was based on link between rural-urban migration of adult persons and child labor in rural area. The empirical result showed that an additional rural migrant of a household increases the probability of having child worker in that household by approximately 51%. However, it was found that children of migrant households receive less preventive health care in their infancy. The study also showed that an additional adult worker of a household increases the probability of having child worker in that household by 29%. For this reason, this study supports the hypothesis that children are the last economic resource of a household.
Syed Imran Ali Meerza
Full Text Available The growing importance of international competition is well recognized both in the business and academic environment. This article’s aim is to discusses the issue of how universities must learn to compete, given that national institutional context and everchanging environment facing many and different challenges. This means that, in some ways, the university has a central place and becomes more integrated into state’s economic activities and companies, than they were before. In the knowledge society, the university' mission is to create, develop and transfer knowledge capital in order to obtain valuable asset status in the modern economy. Therefore, universities face continous challenges due to globalization and internationalization of education, learning and research, and must satisfy higher quality demands, ‘measurable’ outcomes, and explicit economic benefits. Facing competition from other knowledge-providers, universities must change their identity from that of state-financed monopolies to self-financed participants in the knowledge - providing markets.
Full Text Available Average rural household in Ba?ka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Ba?ka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Ba?ka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.
In 1968, the Rural Civil Defense Education Program, conducted by the Cooperative Extension Service under contract with the Office of Civil Defense, was faced with discontinuance of funds; in some cases, the Rural Civil Defense (RCD) leader was absorbed into the regular budgets and in others the work was incorporated into the regular ongoing…
Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
For many small rural school districts across America, the effort to attract and retain quality teachers continues to be a major concern. Schools located in what are considered to be "hard to staff" areas experience the most difficult. While not all communities face the problems of inadequate teacher supply, many small and rural school districts…
Lowe, Jerry M.
Rural electrification in the state of Sabah, Malaysia is described. The rural electrification target of achieving 90% electrification in the state by the year 2000, using conventional systems, is facing problems of cost and reliability. The potential of photovoltaics is discussed as a viable alternative. (Author)
Dalimin, M.N. (Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia, Sabah (Malaysia))
Full Text Available The agricultural and rural sector is connected with great hopes in the economic recovery not only in our country, but world-wide. Rural firms and business should do their best to respond to the challenges of the changes and this way, to bring an improvement to the markets and to the whole economic and social environment. If the advanced, more opened economies are more competitive, this is due to their capacity of change, by raising the quality of the offer (merchandise they sell.
MARINA LUMINI?A SÂRBOVAN
Cancer survivorship experiences were explored among Hispanic men and women with cancer and family members of cancer survivors, recruited from two rural Washington communities in the Lower Yakima Valley. Five focus groups were conducted from February 2006 to October 2007 with 31 women and 10 men. Disbelief, fear, sadness, strength, courage, faith, and hope were common reactions to diagnosis. Concerns about family/children, losing medical coupons, and feelings of depression/isolation were identified as challenges faced after diagnosis. Participants identified smoking and environmental exposures as causes of cancer, but many believed operating on tumors caused cancer to spread. Participants used conventional treatments but identified herbal/natural remedies as cures. Most participants reported negative experiences with physicians and believed their community would benefit from language-appropriate information regarding prevention and treatment. The importance of linking survivors through support groups was emphasized and information elicited from sessions has been used to organize survivor support groups in these two communities. PMID:20623413
Livaudais, Jennifer C; Thompson, Beti; Godina, Ruby; Islas, Ilda; Ibarra, Genoveva; Coronado, Gloria D
Full Text Available Rural counties face unique challenges with regard to disaster vulnerability and resilience. We compared the quality of hazard mitigation plans (HMPs completed in accordance with provisions of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 from 21 urban and 36 rural counties in three southeastern states. HMPs were content analyzed to calculate a score for six principles of plan quality. Generalized linear models were used to assess how the mean number of items within each of the six principles was related to urban status, adjusting for total county population and state-level differences. Adjusted mean ratios were higher in urban areas for goals, fact base, policies and participation. Rural areas performed better than urban counterparts in both implementation and monitoring and inter-organizational coordination. Our results suggest that there are important differences in hazard mitigation plan quality between urban and rural counties. Future research should explore characteristics of urban and rural counties that explain the observed differences, and whether such differences can help explain the inequalities in response and recovery to disasters between urban and rural counties.
O controle do câncer do colo do útero: desafios para implementação de ações programáticas no Amazonas, Brasil Cervical cancer prevention: challenges facing the implementation of program actions in Amazonas, Brazil
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar alguns desafios para a implementação de ações programáticas visando ao controle do câncer do colo do útero no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados os relatórios do Programa Viva Mulher do Amazonas referentes à coleta e qualidade das lâminas e os dados de mortalidade por esta causa registrados no DATASUS para os períodos 2001 a 2005. Os resultados apresentam que no período não houve o aumento na cobertura da coleta de exames de Papanicolaou, embora tenha havido uma discreta melhora na qualidade das lâminas; as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero estão aumentando, e situam-se em patamares acima dos encontrados no país e na região norte. A análise desses resultados sugere a necessidade de haver um esforço, por parte da gestão do Programa no Amazonas, na capacitação de profissionais e dos gerentes dos serviços, visando aumentar a captação das mulheres sob maior risco.The purpose of this study is to present a number of challenges facing the implementation of program actions regarding the control of cervical cancer in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Reports of the Viva Mulher program in Amazonas on Papanicolaou screening tests and the quality of cervical samples and mortality rates from this disease taken from DATASUS were analyzed for the 2001 to 2005 period. The results show no increase in the population covered by the Papanicolaou screening test in this period, although there was a small improvement in the quality of cervical samples. However, mortality rates for cervical cancer are increasing in this reason, and are higher than the rates for Brazil as a whole and for the North region of the country. Analysis of these results suggests the need for local program managers, to make efforts to build the capacity of health-care professionals and service managers, with a view to increasing Papanicolaou screening test coverage for high-risk women.
Dina Albuquerque Duarte Corrêa
Full Text Available The lack of access to quality healthcare and the lack of sufficient manpower, especially doctors, in rural areas is a major healthcare challenge faced by dwellers in rural communities in most developing countries. The intervention of governments, which range from the introduction of training programs aimed at producing health workers from schools of health technology and nursing to the recalling and deployment of retired nurses to rural areas, has still not been able to generate the desired improvement in healthcare delivery, as outbreaks of epidemics are still being reported in such areas. This work presents an E-Health architecture which utilizes low cost sensors and communication devices to link the doctors in the urban areas with the patients in rural areas enabling doctors-patients interaction. The system enables accurate and timely diagnosis of the patients and facilitates proper treatment plans. It also incorporates an epidemic alert which enables the tracking of diseases and the early detection and control of epidemics.
F. E. Idachaba
Full Text Available Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnaire. Based on this approach explain the descriptive statistical analysis and test results show Comments on the conditions the quality of life of society have been evaluated (education and leisure as moderate and less of it. Meanwhile, can be seen the most difficult aspects of environmental and economic conditions that the calculated T statistic shows Frequency deviation than average So that more rural areas are located the quality of the environment at a disadvantage. Findings show that the distribution of all the components influencing the quality of life in rural Shahindezh is observed significant differences in terms of location or distance of the rural population.
Full Text Available There is a paucity of research demonstrating how best to address inequalities in health and access to specialist care faced by rural disadvantaged populations in high HIV-prevalent settings in Sub Saharan Africa. Delivering equitable and cost-effective specialist clinical services in many parts of Africa is challenging, given human resource shortages, poor transport infrastructure and competing health priorities. In this report we describe how an airborne outreach program to provide HIV services to high HIV burden health facilities in rural Botswana has been an important catalyst for improving specialist service delivery across the spectrum of clinical care. The success of Botswana’s airborne program is a consequence of many country-specific determinants as well as external funding support. We argue that lessons learned from the experience in Botswana are normative for other African settings. Specialist medical airborne outreach to rural hospitals can improve access to and quality of care, when part of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary intervention. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HIV funded program can be a vehicle for enhanced access to essential sub-specialist clinicians in rural Botswana.
Brianna L. Kirk
When questioned, secondary mathematics teachers in rural and regional schools in Australia refer to their limited opportunities to engage and share experiences with peers in other schools as an under-utilised and cost-effective mechanism to support their professional learning and enhance their students' learning. The paper reports on the creation and evaluation of a network of learning communities of rural secondary mathematics teachers around a common purpose—enhancement and increased engagement of student learning in mathematics. To achieve this goal, teams of teachers from six rural schools identified an issue hindering improved student learning of mathematics in their school. Working collaboratively with support from university personnel with expertise in curriculum, assessment and quality pedagogy, teachers developed and implemented strategies to address an identified issue in ways that were relevant to their teaching contexts. The research study identifies issues in mathematics of major concern to rural teachers of mathematics, the successes and challenges the teachers faced in working in learning communities on the issue they identified, and the efficacy of the professional learning model.
Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra
Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.
Md. M. Hossain
Our data show that the face system flexibly engages into local or global eye movement strategies across cultures, by relying on distinct facial information span and culturally tuned spatially filtered information. Overall, our findings challeng
Telecommunication offers rural vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients a method of communicating with their VR counselor between face-to-face visits. Unfortunately, certain telecommunication methods may not be available to many rural VR clients or may pose barriers in the rehabilitation process. This article describes findings from an exploratory…
Ipsen, Catherine; Rigles, Bethany; Arnold, Nancy; Seekins, Tom
In this report, we present methods for face recognition using a collection of images with captions. We consider two tasks: retrieving all faces of a particular person in a data set, and establishing the correct association between the names in the captions and the faces in the images. This is challenging because of the very large appearance variation in the images, as well as the potential mismatch between images and their captions. We survey graph-based, generative and discriminative approac...
Guillaumin, Matthieu; Mensink, Thomas; Verbeek, Jakob; Schmid, Cordelia
Despite decades of effort in academia and industry, it is not yet possible to build machines that can replicate many seemingly-basic human perceptual abilities. This work focuses on the problem of face identification that most of us effortlessly solve daily. Substantial progress has been made towards the goal of automatically identifying faces under tightly controlled conditions; however, in the domain of unconstrained face images, many challenges remain. We observe that the recent combinatio...
Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.
Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison
Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a new approach to group the different malware containment systems according to their typologies.
Elfattah, Marwa M A; Sarhan, Ebada
Face recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. Recently, many local geometrical structure-based techiniques are presented to obtain the low-dimensional representation of face images with enhanced discriminatory power. However, these methods suffer from the small simple size (SSS) problem or the high computation complexity of high-dimensional data. To overcome these problems, we...
Miao Cheng; Bin Fang; Yuan Yan Tang; Jing Wen
Full Text Available Automatic detection of facial features of image is an important stage of various image interpretation works, such as facial expression recognition, face recognition, facial features tracking and 3D face modeling etc. Detection of facial features like eye, mouth, nose, nostrils, lip corners etc., with different facial expression is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a method for automatic detection of facial features. A novel technique using the concepts of facial geometry is used to locate the mouth, eyes and nose positions.
Full Text Available There is widespread acceptance that the absence or presence of infrastructure and services in rural areas can lead to cycles of decline or resilience in these localities. It is also accepted that in remoter areas, population sparsity leads to a higher unit cost for delivery of services and infrastructure, and that private sector providers do not find such areas attractive for investment. At the same time, there is a reduction in spending capability within the public sector due to the significant impact of economic crisis on their resource base, affecting provision of services. How are these seemingly intractable challenges being addressed? Using an interpretive policy analysis approach  and narrative tools, the storyline of policy statements, approaches and policies in Scotland is presented and discussed, within a wider European setting. This is complemented by a brief presentation of public-private and third sector initiatives in response to service and infrastructure challenges in rural Scotland. The paper concludes with the argument that we are facing two alternatives—the current “hot spots” and “not spots” pattern of provision, where the fittest survive, or further shifts towards strategic, cross-sectoral investment which gives scope for more cohesive development for rural communities.
Full Text Available Perceiving human faces and modeling the distinctive features of human faces that contribute most towards face recognition are some of the challenges faced by computer vision and psychophysics researchers. There are many methods have been proposed in the literature for the facial features and gender classification. However, all of them have still disadvantage such as not complete reflection about face structure, face texture. The features set is applied to three different applications: face recognition, facial expressions recognition and gender classification, which produced the reasonable results in all database. In this paper described two phases such as feature extraction phase and classification phase. The proposed system produced very promising recognition rates for our applications with same set of features and classifiers. The system is also realtime capable and automatic.
Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
Responses of 218 urban husbands and wives and 202 rural husbands and wives were used to test the hypotheses that these two populations would use different coping strategies to deal with the stressors they faced in their different environments and that women would use different strategies than men. Neither hypothesis was supported. (Author/BL)
Marotz-Baden, Ramona; Colvin, Peggy Lester
We hypothesize that individuals with a larger social-family network are more likely to choose self-employment. We test this hypothesis using data on temporary rural-urban migrants in China. The size of a migrant's social-family network is measured by the number of relatives and friends this migrant greeted during the past Spring Festival. Our empirical analysis faces two challenges. First, there is an endogeneity problem in that a migrant may want to develop and maintain a large social-family...
Zhang, Junfu; Zhao, Zhong
Quality of water resources in the rural area of Qorveh Plain (Kurdistan Iran) is facing a serious challenge due to arsenic (As) pollution and agricultural development. Therefore, 25 shallow groundwater samples (from 14 households and 11 farms) were collected from this area with aim of evaluating their quality as drinking purposes. The water samples were analyzed for pH, water electrical conductivity (Ecw), As, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO3, P, Cl, HCO3, SO4, Si, total hardness (TH), and total di...
Full Text Available This article suggests some possible responses, drawn from the Judeo-Christian-
Islamic tradition, to Theo de Wit’s analysis of evil, narrativity and reconciliation. It
is argued, first, that the problem of evil is rightly seen, not as a question relating
incidentally to faith, but as an existential challenge arising from the human condition,
to which the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition has sought, from its inception, to
provide answers. Secondly, that the theme of not downplaying evil, but facing it in its
full reality, is central to this tradition, inter alia in the longing for, and expectation of,
the resurrection of the dead as a way of approaching the unresolved problem of past
evil. Some related theological concepts and questions are also brought to bear on the
questions raised by De Wit.
The rural dwelling house is not only an important component of housing construction in China, but also significant of promotion of the construction socialism new countryside. With the rapid development of urbanization of rural China, the level of urbanization in China will be close to 60% excepted by 2020, which undoubtedly bring to the rural building industry an unprecedented opportunity for development. The main problem which rural building materials faced is lack of the product performance...
Qiufei Wang; Fuchang Zhang; Jun Liu
Mercantilização do ensino superior: os desafios da universidade diante do atual cenário educacional = The commodification of higher education: the challenges of university education in face of the present scenario
Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por propósito refletir sobre o atual contexto da Educação Superior no Brasil, propiciando o conhecimento de diferentes aspectos que comprovam a importância da ética na formação universitária e a necessidade de contrapô-la à tecnificação do Ensino Superior. Para isso, no primeiro momento, são analisadas as transformações socioculturais ocorridas nas últimas décadas. A apresentação dessas transformações possibilita conhecer as atuais tendências da Educação Superior a partir do processo de globalização, da urbanização, do predomínio do conhecimento e da internacionalização da educação. Com a passagem da "sociedade do trabalho" para a "sociedade do conhecimento", influenciada pelo desenvolvimento das tecnologias da informação, iniciado em meados do século XX, o conhecimento tornou-se uma mercadoria altamente comercializável. A partir de então, os cursos superiores passaram a ser criados sob a ótica do mercado. A abertura do mercado educacional obteve respaldo na década de 1990, após a implementação de políticas educacionais de cunho neoliberal. Tais iniciativas proporcionaram expressivo aumento do número de IES particulares ou privado/mercantis. Ao compreender essa nova dinâmica que configura o mundo contemporâneo e a influência das políticas públicas no âmbito educacional, são apresentadas as consequências do processo de mercantilização do Ensino Superior e os desafios a serem enfrentados pela Universidade.The purpose of this work is to reflect on the current context of higher education in Brazil, providing knowledge of different aspects that prove the importance of ethics in university education and the need to contrast it to the technological development of higher education. For this, at first, we analyze the socio-cultural transformations that occurred in recent decades. The presentation of these transformations makes it possible to know the current trends in higher education from the process of globalization, urbanization, the prevalence of knowledge and internationalization of education. With the passage from the “society of work” to the “knowledge society”, influenced by the development of information technology, started in the mid-twentieth century, knowledge has become a highly marketable commodity. Since then, higher education majors began to be created from the perspective of the market. The opening of the educational market got support in the 1990s, after the implementation of neoliberal educational policies. These initiatives have provided a significant increase in the number of private or private/ commercial HEIs. By understanding this new dynamic that shapes the contemporary world and the influence of public policies in education, this work presents the consequences of the process of commodification of higher education and the challenges faced by universities.
Faces are among the most informative stimuli we ever perceive: Even a split-second glimpse of a person's face tells us their identity, sex, mood, age, race, and direction of attention. The specialness of face processing is acknowledged in the artificial vision community, where contests for face recognition algorithms abound. Neurological evidence strongly implicates a dedicated machinery for face processing in the human brain, to explain the double dissociability of face and object recognitio...
Tsao, Doris Y.; Livingstone, Margaret S.
Full Text Available Oficina Desafio, Challenge Workshop, is a project of UNICAMP Exploratory Science Museum – the Science Center of the State University of Campinas (Brazil. It is an outreach project, consisting of a fully - equipped mobile workshop constructed on a truck, which visits schools and gives the students open solution real problems challenging them to “design, construct and operate a device” capable of solving the challenge. Analysis of the evaluation forms answered by school students reveals that participants of the challenges perceive it as a “learning opportunity”, in the sense they identify school related capabilities as conditions that increase the chance of facing the challenges successfully.
Face recognition under changing lighting conditions and facial expression are a challenging problem in computer vision. The variations in illumination and facial expressions can dramatically reduce the performance of face recognition. In this paper, an efficient method for face recognition which is robust under illumination and facial expressions variations. The core of the algorithm based on dense correspondence which we used is characterized by LBP and regional gradient between images. Our experiment on the AR databases and ORL face databases, ORL databases as a supplement in this framework. The results show that the proposed approach is not only efficient but also outperforms the comparative methods.
Zhang, Wenke; Liu, Rui; Shuai, Jianmei; Zhu, Ming
Rural educators face unique professional challenges and limitations. This study investigated the effectiveness of an innovative distance-mediated mentoring program for rural novice mathematics and science teachers. Four purposes were pursued: (1) characterize and document the nature and development of the mentor-novice relationship; (2) describe how discourse influenced the novice teachers' perceptions about mathematics and science teaching; (3) determine whether telecommunication effectively supported a distance-mediated mentoring relationship for novice rural teachers; and (4) investigate program effects on novice teachers' attitudes, concerns, and professional growth. A qualitative research design was implemented during academic years 1996-98. Primary data collection focused on nine rural novice teachers and their mentors and included three sets of interviews spanning three semesters, field observation of classrooms, schools, and communities, and analysis of electronic mail messages over a four-month period. Supporting data were collected during observation of workshops and training sessions, and through surveys administered to all program participants in early 1997 and 1998. Categories of mentor-novice communication were identified: curriculum and content, validation of teaching practice, classroom and school issues, moral support, and social talk. Impact on mathematics and science teaching was accomplished by: sharing materials and activities; planning units and projects; locating resources; classroom and student concerns; long-range curriculum design, and improvement of teaching practices. Professional growth (for both novices and mentors) occurred through individual contact with partners and interaction within the larger mentoring community in both face-to-face and on-line venues. Telecommunication was highly valued by successful users. Technical difficulty curtailed access for a significant number of teachers, but they maintained successful relationships via telephone, mail, and meetings. Recommendations include: (1) consider subject and grade level, teaching responsibilities, and school size and setting when matching partners; (2) encourage early face-to-face encounters; (3) educate mentors to perceive novice needs and monitor intervention outcomes; (4) limit structured support to two years and/or implement ongoing evaluation based on systematically increasing expectations; (5) support a telecommunication component with early and repeated user training and remediation as well as provision of alternative modes; and (6) design specific, structured on-line conference folders and activities to motivate meaningful participation by novice and mentor teachers.
Luebeck, Jennifer Lyn
Full Text Available Face and eye detection is one of the most challenging problems in computer vision area. The goal of thispaper is to present a study over the existing literature on face and eye detection and gaze estimation. Withthe uptrend of systems based on face and eye detection in many different areas of life in recent years, thissubject has gained much more attention by academic and industrial area. Many different studies havebeen performed about face and eye detection. Besides having many challenging problems like, havingdifferent lighting conditions, having glasses, facial hair or mustache on face, different orientation pose orocclusion of face, face and eye detection methods performed great progress. In this paper we firstcategorize face detection models and examine the basic algorithms for face detection. Then we presentmethods for eye detection and gaze estimation.
This presentation described the impact that the wind power industry has had on the rural community of Pincher Creek, Alberta. Rural communities dominated by agriculture are facing threats to traditional agriculture by competing interests, climate change and economies of scale. The elements of success that the wind industry can bring to the agricultural community include land owner compensation, land tax assessment, property values, green energy and community pride. This presentation included slides of the construction and commissioning phases of the Pincher Creek wind turbine array. The beneficial economic outcomes per 100 MW in the short- and long-term periods were outlined. The wind energy project has brought millions of dollars into the local economy and there is strong public support for the wind industry in Pincher Creek. tabs., figs.
Aris, S. [Canadian Wind Energy Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)
A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)
Full Text Available The report of the eighteenth national congress of the communist party of China has indicated that we should improve the rural three-level health service network and perfect urban community health service system. But, in the 21st century, the prevalence of the rural population is still growing and the rural disease prevention and control work is still tough, how to break the phenomenon caused by illness among the rural people., become a problem to be solved facing the whole society, and develop the rural medical and health undertakings, and to improve the backward situation in the rural medical and health care is an important content of construction of new socialist countryside; Based on the analysis of the current situation of rural disease prevention and control, puts forward a series of countermeasures and Suggestions of the importance to rural health education, increase government investment in health, to perfect the new rural cooperative medical care system.
Full Text Available The Indian rural market with its enormous size and heterogeneous demand base offers great lucrative opportunities to organizations. After all, seventy percent of India's population, 56% of income, 64% of expenditure and 33% of savings come from rural India. The rural share of popular consumer goods and durables ranges from 30% to 60% and also sales to rural India are steadily growing. For the first time since economic reforms began two decades ago, consumption in rural India is growing faster than in urban India.. Understanding the importance of rural market this paper is an attempt to study the Indian rural marketing environment and its features.
Many nations in Sub-Saharan Africa, supported by donors, have increased efforts in their rural water supply programmes within the last few decades. However, these programmes suffer from a range of challenges and problems and, according to recent figures, over half of rural inhabitants in Sub-Saharan Africa lack access to safe water supplies. In order to improve the delivery of rural water services, effective monitoring and evaluation can provide support. Uganda has recently been recognised fo...
Face detection is a classical application of object detection. There are many practical applications in which face detection is the first step; face recognition, video surveillance, image database management, video coding. This report presents the results of an implementation of the AdaBoost algorithm to train a Strong Classifier to be used for face detection. The AdaBoost algorithm is fast and shows a low false detection rate, two characteristics which are important for face detection algor...
Meeting the needs of disabled college students within the limits of the rural institution's resources is a challenge to all rural educators. Support services which must be provided can be divided into two categories: core services, such as classroom assistance and housing, and comprehensive environmental services, such as admissions, registration,…
Brill, Jay W.
According to a recent announcement (‘Achievements and challenges: Rural development’), the ANC is committed to a ‘comprehensive and clear rural development strategy linked to land and agrarian reform’. In this regard the post April 2009 government will intensify the land reform programme.
Pienaar, Juanita; Olivier, N. J. J.
Full Text Available The rise of rural market has been the most important marketing phenomenon of 1990s, providing volume growth to all leading companies. Many corporate have been trying to get a grip on the rural markets, but the challenges are many: how to make the product affordable, how to penetrate villages with small population, connectivity , communication, language barrier, spurious brands etc.
Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitud...
Tham Rachel; Humphreys John S; Kinsman Leigh; Buykx Penny; Asaid Adel; Tuohey Kathy
Full Text Available Modern face recognition systems are vulnerable to spoofing attack. Spoofing attack occurs when a persontries to cheat the system by presenting fake biometric data gaining unlawful access. A lot of researchershave originated novel techniques to fascinate these types of face tampering attack. It seems that nocomparative studies of different face recognition algorithms on same protocols and fake data have beenincorporated. The motivation behind this paper is to present the effect of face tampering on variouscategories of face recognition algorithms. For this purpose four categories of facial recognition algorithmshave been selected to present the obtained results in the form of facial identification accuracy at varioustampering and experimental protocols but obtained results are very fluctuating in nature. Finally, we cometo the conclusion that it is totally unpredictable to select particular type of algorithm for tampered facerecognition.
BACKGROUND: Training health care professionals (HCPs) to work in rural areas is a challenge for educationalists. This study aimed to understand how HCPs choose to work in rural areas and how education influences this. METHODS: Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 15 HCPs working in rural areas in SA. RESULTS: Themes identified included personal, facilitating,contextual, staying and reinforcing factors. Personal attributes
Rural community colleges have an often understated impact on the communities they serve, especially in regard to their role in developing the identity of individuals. The ability of the rural community college to influence individual identity development is often exasperated due to the challenges associated with rural American life. The role of…
Miller, Michael T.; Deggs, David
Full Text Available A typical automatic face recognition system is composed of three parts: face detection, face alignment and face recognition. Conventionally, these three parts are processed in a bottom-up manner: face detection is performed first, then the results are passed to face alignment, and finally to face recognition. In this paper we will see the face recognition using DCT. The face recognition algorithm is based on appearances of Local facial regions that are represented with discrete cosine transform coefficients. This system exploits the feature extraction capabilities of the discrete cosine transform (DCT and invokes certain normalization techniques that increase its robustness to variations in facial geometry and illumination. The method is tested on two databases first the standard database and second database of real images. High percent of recognition is achieved by varying the threshold.
Prof. Anand Najan
In this paper we consider the problem of the non-empty intersection of exposed faces in a Banach space. We find a sufficient condition to assure that the non-empty intersection of exposed faces is an exposed face. This condition involves the concept of inner point. Finally, we also prove that every minimal face of the unit ball must be an extreme point and show that this is not the case at all for minimal exposed faces since we prove that every Banach space with dimension greater than or equal to 2 can be equivalently renormed to have a non-singleton, minimal exposed face.
García-Pacheco, Francisco Javier
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn many parts of the world, whether “developing” or “developed,” the concept of a rural sort of education is largely ignored by national ministries. The United States is just one notable example of silence at the bureaucratic center, despite scholarly interest in provincial universities. The future may change the “terms of engagement,” however, and this essay considers the leadership of rural schools and communities from the vantage of the daunting, but clearly visible, challenges of the future. The challenges described in the essay relate to a variety of visible, perhaps even familiar, economic, environmental, political, and cultural threats confronting life in the coming century. Though increasingly important and relevant to education, these threats are not a common part of discussions in education policy. The essay explains why, and why the threats are important to rural villages and districts. Discussion concludes with five rurally appropriate shifts of thinking that might help rural citizens and subjects around the world engage the challenges and counter the threats.
Craig B. HOWLEY
Full Text Available European countries have been reaffirtmating the role and the significance of agricultural multifunctionality for rural areas development. The transition countries have to make the assessment of their weaknesses and opportunities before facing the necessary significant investments in agriculture, rural settlements and deprived rural areas. Overall economic development should provide for further agriculture employment reduction, along with taking measures for the agriculture farms modernization and changes in the structure of agriculture production, within the process of integrated rural development. Declining population at mountain areas might be a prerequisite for intensified farm restructuring, namely through development reorientation, achieving more balanced agriculture economy, along with rediscovering comparative advantages in the development of new activities linked to social changes and changes in lifestyle - green tourism, leisure activities, health care, as well as to forestry, traditional crafts etc. Subsequent to European experience in maintenance of the necessary level of spatial development in sparsely populated and neglected rural areas, the development of priority mountain areas in Serbia should be defined at national level, and the new system of support should facilitate the preparation and the implementation of different projects for integrated rural development of this priority areas.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.
Seyed J.F. Hosseini
It has become increasingly clear that situated design and contextualized research needs to undergo a validation phase to determine transferability. Within our longitudinal research project in rural Namibia, we have reached a maturity of methods and product. Yet little do we know about their validity beyond the limited context in the absence of cross-contextual verification. In Erindi-roukambe, the site of our community-based co-design, we have learned to understand and include local perspectives and structures within the dialogic of a participatory action research approach. By engaging with the community over a long period of time local research findings, as well as mutual knowledge have fostered and enriched design decisions. Recognizing that indigenous rural communities in the regional and globally face similar challenges with inappropriate mainstream technology we are currently investigating the applicability of our findings, processes and prototype in other contexts. We have introduced our approach at three other rural sites, two in Namibia and one in East Malaysia. The communities responded well to the technology demonstrating intuitive use and engagement. However, although we have gained promising results we wish to caution pre-mature conclusions on transferability without a more profound understanding of the depth of community engagement, transformation, contextual similarities, and cross-contextual validation.
Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska
Full Text Available The practice of school psychology in rural areas is a topic that has been fairly absent from the literature since the 1980s. A needs assessment of school psychologists practicing in rural counties in a midwestern state was conducted to explore current issues for rural school psychologists. The response rate for usable surveys was 72% (N = 106. Respondents answered questions regarding travel, supervision, professional development, practice, and the rewards and challenges of working in rural communities. The limited availability of support services in the community, feelings of professional isolation, work space, and travel time were issues of concern to the respondents. Recommendations, including implications for practitioners and trainers, are provided.
Clopton, K. L.
Why do we find entrepreneurship within larger groups? This question has challenged the social sciences since Olson (1965) showed that it does not pay an individual to provide collective goods voluntarily, if the individual economic gain from doing this is negative. However, the fact that larger groups actually do organize in local areas cannot be explained in strict economic terms. In an attempt to fill this gap in literature, we offer another solution, namely the presence of social incentives called 'social capital'. Social capital is derived from regular face-to-face, co-operative relations among larger groups in local areas. Such relations, we argue, are initiated by writing down formal "rules of the game", which are sanctioned effectively. This suggestion seems to be confirmed by empirical evidence from rural Denmark 1800-1900. During this period, written rules in the form of the formal founding statutes of co-operative associations enhanced informal peasant co-operation and stocks of beneficial social capital of an inclusive nature. As an outcome of this process, entrepreneurs voluntarily organized larger groups which provided collective goods locally, thus contributing to economic growth in former poor, rural areas.
Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Full Text Available A large number of face recognition techniques have been developed in recent years. The face recognition includes recognition of facialfeatures such as eyes, nose, etc. Under controlled conditions and variable illuminations and poses. Face recognition under variable illuminations and poses is more challenging task than under controlled conditions. Thus aim of this paper is mainly to focus on face recognition under variations. Previous research work related to Face recognition yields different Dimensionality reduction subspace methods such as Principle component analysis, Linear discriminant analysis etc. This survey paper discusses various approaches used for face recognition. In addition, relevant topics such as, system evaluation, issues of illumination and pose variation are covered.
Despite significant progress in deformable model fitting over the last decade, the problem of efficient and accurate person-independent face fitting remains a challenging problem. In this work, a reformulation of the generative fitting objective is presented, where only soft correspondences between the model and the image are enforced. This has the dual effect of improving robustness to unseen faces as well as affording fitting time which scales linearly with the model’s complexity. This ap...
Saragih, Jason M.; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F.
Access to electricity appears to be a prerequisite to materialize social, economic, and human development in the underprivileged rural areas. However, 1.1 billion rural people in the world, almost all of them living in developing countries, still do not have access to electricity. Although the rural electrification process poses more challenges than urban electrification, rural areas are blessed with abundant and relatively evenly distributed renewable energy resources. To facilitate electric...
Rahman, Mizanur Md
The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)
This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background
Bergseth, S. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)
This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background
Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images.
Dhamecha, Tejas Indulal; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Kumar, Ajay
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish La crisis que supuso el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SRAS) en China reveló no sólo los fallos del sistema de atención de salud de ese país sino también algunas deficiencias estructurales fundamentales. Un sistema sanitario descentralizado y fragmentado, como el que hay en China, no es el adec [...] uado para articular una respuesta rápida y coordinada a las emergencias de salud pública. La orientación comercial del sector sanitario por el lado de la oferta, unida a la falta de cobertura del seguro de enfermedad por el lado de la demanda, agravan aún más los problemas de escasez de algunos servicios públicos, como la vigilancia sanitaria y la atención preventiva. Durante los últimos 25 años el Gobierno de China ha considerado el desarrollo económico como la máxima prioridad de su agenda, a expensas de la salud pública, sobre todo en lo que atañe al acceso a la atención sanitaria por parte de los 800 millones de personas que viven en zonas rurales. Un aumento importante de la inversión del gobierno en la infraestructura de salud pública, aunque esperado desde hace tiempo, resulta insuficiente para resolver los problemas del sistema asistencial. China necesita reorganizar su sistema de salud pública fortaleciendo los vínculos tanto verticales como horizontales entre sus diversas organizaciones de salud pública. La reciente política de China de establecer un sistema de seguro médico rural con fondos de contrapartida brinda una interesante oportunidad para mejorar el acceso de la población a la atención de salud. Abstract in english The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crisis in China revealed not only the failures of the Chinese health-care system but also some fundamental structural deficiencies. A decentralized and fragmented health system, such as the one found in China, is not well-suited to making a rapid and coor [...] dinated response to public health emergencies. The commercial orientation of the health sector on the supply-side and lack of health insurance coverage on the demand-side further exacerbate the problems of the under-provision of public services, such as health surveillance and preventive care. For the past 25 years, the Chinese Government has kept economic development at the top of the policy agenda at the expense of public health, especially in terms of access to health care for the 800 million people living in rural areas. A significant increase in government investment in the public health infrastructure, though long overdue, is not sufficient to solve the problems of the health-care system. China needs to reorganize its public health system by strengthening both the vertical and horizontal connections between its various public health organizations. China's recent policy of establishing a matching-fund financed rural health insurance system presents an exciting opportunity to improve people's access to health care.
All health systems across the world have faced new challenges, which is primarily referable to increasing the cost of health care services as well as growing demands for new and expensive health technologies. The aim of this study is to analyse the main challenges facing the Iranian health system. A review of available governmental and relevant publications about Iranian health care system was undertaken to assess the direction of future healthcare policy. Electronic news agencies, newspapers...
Davari, M.; Haycox, A.; Walley, T.
In this document, we address the problem of multiview face detection. This work extends the frontal face detection system developed at the IDIAP Research Institute to multiview face detection. The main state-of-the art techniques are reviewed and a novel architecture is presented, based on a pyramid of detectors that are trained for different views of faces. The proposed approach robustly detects faces rotated up to -67.5 degree in the image plane and up to -90 degree out of the image plane. ...
Sauquet, Tiffany; Rodriguez, Yann; Marcel, Se?bastien
Jun 8, 2001 ... Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs .... Recognising that much of \\the responsibility for rural delivery lies with ... there is greater regional and local \\control over rural economic and social outcomes; ..... 1.32 Defining accountability \\is an essential part of good corporate governance, both in the ...
A conception of schooling and its associated conception of educational policy, designed to join rural schools with their communities in a powerful force for rural development, are described in this paper. Information is presented in the form of answers to pertinent questions and covers the following areas: the revitalization of rural communities;…
Stutz, Rowan C.; And Others
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata do ambiente rural, considerando três momentos historicamente diferenciados: o rural tradicional, o rural moderno e o rural socioambiental. Para analisar esses momentos, o autor leva em conta as formas de organização social no campo e respectivas formas de sociabilidade, as relações [...] com a natureza e os atores construtores do ambiente rural. A análise fundamentou-se em dados e informações de estudos realizados sobre o rural de distintas regiões do país e consagrados pela literatura. Abstract in english This article deals with the rural environment, considering three historically diferentiated moments: the traditional rural, the modern rural and the socio-environmental rural. In order to analyze these moments, the author takes forms of social organization in the countryside into account, along with [...] their respective forms of sociability, relationships with nature and the actors involved in the construction of the rural environment. Analysis is based on data and information from studies on the rural in different parts of the country which have been recognized for their contribution to the literature.
Full Text Available Este artigo trata do ambiente rural, considerando três momentos historicamente diferenciados: o rural tradicional, o rural moderno e o rural socioambiental. Para analisar esses momentos, o autor leva em conta as formas de organização social no campo e respectivas formas de sociabilidade, as relações com a natureza e os atores construtores do ambiente rural. A análise fundamentou-se em dados e informações de estudos realizados sobre o rural de distintas regiões do país e consagrados pela literatura.This article deals with the rural environment, considering three historically diferentiated moments: the traditional rural, the modern rural and the socio-environmental rural. In order to analyze these moments, the author takes forms of social organization in the countryside into account, along with their respective forms of sociability, relationships with nature and the actors involved in the construction of the rural environment. Analysis is based on data and information from studies on the rural in different parts of the country which have been recognized for their contribution to the literature.
Full Text Available For addressing the problem of hallucinating a higher resolution face given a low resolution input face, the goal of face hallucination aim should be to produce high resolution images with fidelity from low-resolution ones. Face hallucination is a technique of domain-specific super-resolution problem having goal to generate high-resolution images from low-resolution inputs, which finds numerous vision applications. Since a LR image can be made from a HR image by a linear convolution process with down sampling, the hallucination problem can be viewed as an inverse task to reconstruct the high-frequency details. In this paper, we study face hallucination which is the process of synthesizing a high-resolution face image from an input LR image, with the help of a large collection of other HR face images.
The tourism industry plays a more and more important role in the world economy, and is generally acknowledged to represent a significant source of economic growth for the European Union. In the present Romanian tourism losing the competitiveness face to demand of international market, moreover tourism contribution to the growth of the national economy is very low. This paper presents aspects of the rural tourism and analyses the Romanian tourism potential that holds a giant attractive heritag...
Bran, Florina; Hincu, Daniela; Ioan, Ildiko
In the new rural development framework, the supply of public goods in rural areas is a huge systematic project,
which needs aspects of reform and adjustment. At present, the supply of public goods in rural areas faces many
difficulties. It is particularly important to establish an effective public decision-making allocation mechanism,
improve the irrational supply structure and adjust the supply of the induced pattern of supply and compulsory.
Yinhu Wang; Lin Yu
Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...
Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias
Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...
Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias
Full Text Available Introduction Diabetes care is a challenge in rural areas where primary care practices are faced with limited resources, few clinical information systems, and relative isolation from education programs and diabetes centers with multispecialty teams. This report describes an effective field-based approach to support improved care for patients with diabetes in primary care practices in rural states. Methods A collaborative effort between diabetes prevention and control programs in Montana and Wyoming and the University of North Dakota was established to provide support to rural primary care practices for improvement in diabetes care. Field teams from each state diabetes program approached primary care practices. After assessment and orientation of office staff, a computer-based registry was established in each practice. Baseline data were collected in 1997 in Montana and in 1998 in Wyoming; follow-up occurred on July 31, 2004. Health department staff provided ongoing technical support for implementing and evaluating quality-improvement interventions. Results Forty primary care practices, providing care to more than 7000 patients with diabetes, participated in this quality-improvement effort at follow-up. Of the 37 primary care practices participating in the quality-improvement program for 6 or more months at follow-up, there were significant improvements in Montana in rates of hemoglobin A1c testing, blood glucose control, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol testing, foot and dilated retinal examinations, and pneumococcal vaccinations, and there were significant improvements in pneumococcal vaccinations in Wyoming. Conclusion A field-based approach in which individual practices maintain and use their own registries for both clinical care and quality improvement with ongoing support is a sustainable and an effective strategy for improving diabetes care for rural populations.
Elizabeth A. Johnson, BSN, APRN
Full Text Available In the modern times E-commerce is giving a tough competition to the traditional trade and business. Due to the advancement of technology the world has became a global village. E-commerce has reached most of the consumers in the urban sector but the challenge lies in front of the companies so that it reaches the rural sector also. The rural population of India has to go at distant places or nearby cities to purchase luxury products. Here E-commerce can come to their help by widening its area of operations. A profound understanding of people, their behavior and their community is critical within the digital marketplace. If you can’t connect to your customers’ wants and needs, you’re going nowhere fast – and so is your investment. That’s why every great piece of digital starts with a deep understanding of who you’re trying to reach .E-bay Census reveals E-commerce trends across all 28 States & 7 Union Territories. Consumers & Entrepreneurs from Rural India are increasingly plugged into E-commerce. This is supported by the fact that over 1,267 Rural Hubs are transacting online with 1 out of every 10 purchases from Rural India as well as 1 out of every 20 sales from Rural India. Metros (India have a dominant share of purchases, with Tier 2 & 3 cities (Bharat catch