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1

Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive anal [...] ysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

Pholoho, Morojele.

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LOS RETOS DE LA EXTENSIÓN ANTE UNA NUEVA Y CAMBIANTE NOCIÓN DE LO RURAL THE CHALLENGES OF EXTENSION FACING A NEW AND CHANGING NOTION OF RURALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ante los cambios ocurridos en el ámbito rural, las formas y las estrategias usadas en la práctica de la extensión no pueden permanecer inmóviles. En respuesta a esta preocupación, el propósito de este artículo es reflexionar y discutir en torno a los retos que supone el ajuste de los modelos tradicionales de extensión a las nuevas formas de concebir, significar e interpretar lo rural. Tras este fin, el documento amplía tres temas principales: el tránsito de la extensión agrícola a la rural, el perfil de un nuevo extensionista rural y el rol del extensionista ante la multidimensionalidad rural. El documento termina con algunas consideraciones acerca de lo que presume asumir los cambios sugeridos.In the face of the changes occurring in the rural realm, the forms and strategies used in extension practices cannot remain immobile. To address this concern, the objective of this article is to reflect on and discuss in turn the challenges implicit in adjustment of traditional extension models to the new ways of conceiving, emphasizing, and interpreting the rural realm. To this end, the document amplifies three main topics: the transition of agricultural extension to rural extension, the profile of the new rural extensionist, and the role of the extensionist in the multidimensional rural realm. The document ends with some considerations about what the suggested changes presumable imply.

Marlon Javier Méndez Sastoque

2006-12-01

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LOS RETOS DE LA EXTENSIÓN ANTE UNA NUEVA Y CAMBIANTE NOCIÓN DE LO RURAL / THE CHALLENGES OF EXTENSION FACING A NEW AND CHANGING NOTION OF RURALITY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante los cambios ocurridos en el ámbito rural, las formas y las estrategias usadas en la práctica de la extensión no pueden permanecer inmóviles. En respuesta a esta preocupación, el propósito de este artículo es reflexionar y discutir en torno a los retos que supone el ajuste de los modelos tradici [...] onales de extensión a las nuevas formas de concebir, significar e interpretar lo rural. Tras este fin, el documento amplía tres temas principales: el tránsito de la extensión agrícola a la rural, el perfil de un nuevo extensionista rural y el rol del extensionista ante la multidimensionalidad rural. El documento termina con algunas consideraciones acerca de lo que presume asumir los cambios sugeridos. Abstract in english In the face of the changes occurring in the rural realm, the forms and strategies used in extension practices cannot remain immobile. To address this concern, the objective of this article is to reflect on and discuss in turn the challenges implicit in adjustment of traditional extension models to t [...] he new ways of conceiving, emphasizing, and interpreting the rural realm. To this end, the document amplifies three main topics: the transition of agricultural extension to rural extension, the profile of the new rural extensionist, and the role of the extensionist in the multidimensional rural realm. The document ends with some considerations about what the suggested changes presumable imply.

Marlon Javier, Méndez Sastoque.

2006-12-01

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Priesthood Satisfaction and the Challenges Priests Face: A Case Study of a Rural Diocese in the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article draws from the experience of Catholic priests based in a rural diocese in the Philippines. It will be argued that their satisfaction as diocesan priests is best understood as a religious emotion in spite of the challenges they face on a daily basis. Their challenges revolve around economic limitation, problems with their bishop and leaders, and relational isolation brought about by social and geographic distance. In spite of these challenges, priest-respondents have asserted that they are satisfied because they are still able to fulfill their vocation as priests and have an impact on the lives of their parishioners. Priesthood satisfaction in this sense is not an individual state of the mind dependent on the environment and circumstances. Instead, priesthood satisfaction can be understood as a religious emotion that allows them to remain faithful to their vocation as Catholic priests. The nuances explored in this article inform and complement the various studies on priesthood in the West.

Jayeel Serrano Cornelio

2012-11-01

5

Challenges facing production grids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

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Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuni...

Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina

2013-01-01

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Summer programming in rural communities: unique challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional loss, and the lack of safe and constructive enrichment activities. However, poor rural communities face three major challenges in implementing summer programming: community resources, human capital, and accessibility. The success of Energy Express, a statewide award-winning six-week summer reading and nutrition program in West Virginia, documents strategies for overcoming the challenges faced by poor, rural communities in providing summer programs. Energy Express (1) uses community collaboration to augment resources and develop community ownership, (2) builds human capital and reverses the acknowledged brain drain by engaging college students and community volunteers in meaningful service, and (3) increases accessibility through creative transportation strategies. West Virginia University Extension Service, the outreach arm of the land-grant institution, partners with AmeriCorps, a national service program, and various state and local agencies and organizations to implement a program that produces robust results. PMID:17623413

Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan

2007-01-01

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Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

CERN. Geneva

2004-01-01

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The Challenges Women Whistleblowers Face  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women Whistleblowers face unique challenges in the workplace.The headline news of ethical concerns in business is transforming the workplace culture and the workforce. More women are beginning to step forward when ethical concerns arise. However they experience gender differences within the corporate culture when they come forward. Women often approach ethical concerns in a different manner than men. This article will bring research to this issue and uncover the unique challenges that women encounter as whistleblowers and the relationship of social status.

Linda Hunt

2010-03-01

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El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* / Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivam [...] ente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal. Abstract in english An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challeng [...] es of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

Juan Carlos, Pacheco Contreras; Gonzalo, Gómez Vásquez; Gabriel, Barrero Tapias.

2009-07-01

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Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural

Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

2009-01-01

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Middle Managers : Facing Everyday Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many industries have gone through changes in the last decades, everyone involved have been affected but few have encountered the same amount of changes as the middle managers. Being in the centre of the organisation, torn between wills, middle managers have struggled during the last years to redefine their job. There exists research describing their workdays, what they do and how they spend their time, but we have not found any study that has tried to investigate what challenges the middle ma...

Lagerman, Moa; Pietila?, Mikael

2005-01-01

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Strategic challenges facing international oil companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study argues that the greatest challenge facing the international oil companies at the moment is how to replace their reserves in the face of declining access to resources, and to solve this issue, they will have to adopt new strategic directions to remain relevant, viable and profitable in the future. This argues for greater investment in technology development that will enable a long-term drift towards renewable sources and greater extraction of unconventional oil; in the short term, in...

Aysev, Su?leyman Is??kcan

2008-01-01

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Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry  

Science.gov (United States)

The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

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Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

Memon, Ismail K.

2009-01-01

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Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

Huang, Ying

2012-01-01

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Comparing Costs of Telephone versus Face-to-Face Extended Care Programs for the Management of Obesity in Rural Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A major challenge following successful weight loss is continuing the behaviors required for long-term weight maintenance. This challenge may be exacerbated in rural areas with limited local support resources. Objective This study describes and compares program costs and cost-effectiveness for 12-month extended care lifestyle maintenance programs following an initial 6-month weight loss program. Design A 1-year prospective controlled randomized clinical trial. Participants/Setting The study included 215 female participants age 50 or older from rural areas who completed an initial 6-month lifestyle program for weight loss. The study was conducted from June 1, 2003, to May 31, 2007. Intervention The intervention was delivered through local Cooperative Extension Service offices in rural Florida. Participants were randomly-assigned to a 12-month extended care program using either individual telephone counseling (n=67), group face-to-face counseling (n=74), or a mail/control group (n=74). Main Outcome Measures Program delivery costs, weight loss, and self-reported health status were directly assessed through questionnaires and program activity logs. Costs were estimated across a range of enrollment sizes to allow inferences beyond the study sample. Statistical Analyses Performed Non-parametric and parametric tests of differences across groups for program outcomes were combined with direct program cost estimates and expected value calculations to determine which scales of operation favored alternative formats for lifestyle maintenance. Results Median weight regain during the intervention year was 1.7 kg for participants in the face-to-face format, 2.1 kg for the telephone format, and 3.1 kg for the mail/control format. For a typical group size of 13 participants, the face-to-face format had higher fixed costs, which translated into higher overall program costs ($420 per participant) when compared to individual telephone counseling ($268 per participant) and control ($226 per participant) programs. While the net weight lost after the 12-month maintenance program was higher for the face-to-face and telephone programs compared to the control group, the average cost per expected kilogram of weight lost was higher for the face-to-face program ($47/kg) compared to the other two programs (approximately $33/kg for telephone and control). Conclusions Both the scale of operations and local demand for programs are important considerations in selecting a delivery format for lifestyle maintenance. In this study, the telephone format had a lower cost, but similar outcomes compared to the face-to-face format. PMID:22818246

Radcliff, Tiffany A.; Bobroff, Linda B.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Durning, Patricia E.; Daniels, Michael J.; Limacher, Marian C.; Janicke, David M.; Martin, A. Daniel; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

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Challenges facing early career academic cardiologists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: 1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists; 2) general challenges to all categories and specific challenges to each category; 3) obstacles as identified by a survey of current early career members of the American College of Cardiology; 4) major reasons for the failure of physician-scientists to receive funding from National Institute of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute career development grants; 5) potential solutions; and 6) a call to action with specific recommendations. PMID:24703919

Tong, Carl W; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T Jared; Damp, Julie B; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A; Hilliard, Anthony A; Houser, Steven R; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J; Rzeszut, Anne K; Sivaram, Chittur A; Valente, Anne Marie; Freeman, Andrew M

2014-06-01

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RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems incompliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural population acce...

Liviu Apostol; Florin - Constantin Mihai

2012-01-01

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Rural waste management:challenges and issues in Romania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems in compliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural population acc...

Apostol, Liviu; Mihai, Florin-constantin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Challenges facing water management in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of water per person in northern China is less than half of that in Egypt, a country with very scarce water resources. Clearly, then, China is one of the regions on our planet that is going to have to face severe problems of water supply in the future. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation growing agricultural output, environmental degradation, climatic instability, a large population density and worsening regional disparities are all factors that will challenge the management and utilisation of China's water resources in the years to come. (orig.)

22

Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

Fischer Tatjana

2014-03-01

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Major Challenges of Iranian Rural Communities for Achieving Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural population in Iran live in an unstable environment and geographically, villages are extremely diverse and more than 65% of them have population less than 250 persons, which do not provide sufficient population threshold for most of services and sustainable economic and job creation activities. Only 7.5% of rural areas have population more than 1000 persons. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out major challenges of Iranian rural communities for achieving sustainable development. Approach: To fulfill this objective, 60 rural development experts who are engaged in government organizations relevant to rural development, were randomly selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbachs alpha of 0.83. To arrive to consensus of experts opinion, factor analysis was used to achieve data reduction and extract factors. Results: In total, 5 factors, including "economic", "management and planning", "environmental", "social" and "physical challenges" were identified. These factors explained 65.52% of challenges to achieving sustainable development in rural areas in Iran. Conclusion: Diversification of rural economy, supporting job creation activities, promoting sustainable rural tourism, business and industrial activities, establishing a stable urban-rural network are among important agenda which can create an appropriate condition for sustainable development in Iranian rural communities.

Khalil Kalantari

2008-01-01

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Oil producers facing a common challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

25

The carbon dioxide challenge facing aviation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the challenge that U.S. aviation would face in meeting future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reduction goals to mitigate global climate change via technological options. This investigation is done within a framework that considers aviation GHG emissions as a function of aviation growth, aircraft efficiency, operational efficiency, and life cycle GHG emissions of aviation fuels. The concept of life cycle GHG intensity (LGI) with units of grams carbon dioxide equivalent per payload distance traveled is used for this purpose as it can be decomposed into components that quantify improvements in aircraft design, operations, and alternative fuels. For example, the life cycle GHG intensity of U.S. aviation in 2005 was 1.37 g CO2e/kg km. If U.S. aviation is to meet the IATA 2050 goal of a 50% reduction in CO2 relative to a 2005 baseline while allowing for a 3.2% annual growth rate in payload-distance traveled, it will need to decrease to 0.22 g CO2e/kg km in 2050, an 84% reduction. The analysis framework that is developed in this manuscript was used to compare the improvements in life cycle GHG intensity that could accompany the use of advanced aircraft designs, operational improvements, and alternative fuels to those required on a fleet-wide basis to meet the future GHG reduction goals under varied aviation growth scenarios. The results indicate that the narrow body segment of the fleet could indeed meet ambitious goals of reducing GHG emissions by 50%, relative to 2005 levels, with a 3.2% annual growth rate; however, it would require relatively rapid adoption of innovative aircraft designs and the widespread use of alternative fuels with relatively low life cycle GHG emissions.

Hileman, James I.; De la Rosa Blanco, Elena; Bonnefoy, Philippe A.; Carter, Nicholas A.

2013-11-01

26

What are the challenges facing our industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

NONE

1998-12-01

27

What are the challenges facing our industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

28

Challenges and Opportunities of Indian Rural Market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior ...

Pardeep Kumar1

2013-01-01

29

A STUDY ON CHALLENGES FACED BY CHILDREN OF HIV PATIENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study strives to find the challenges faced by children of HIVpatients. The samples were taken from a NGO organization in Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu. A random sample of 80 children of HIV patients who were distributed as 40 infected children and 40 affected children were chosen for the study. Each of these 40 children were further divided into 20 boys and 20 girls. The tool used for the study was formulated by the investigator.The result of the study revealed that boys of HIV patients generally face more challenges when compared with the girls. When effect of age was studied on the challenges faced by children of HIV patients it was found that both the age groups studied faced more or less the same level of challenges except between 12-15 and 16-19 year old affected boys where the 16-19 year old boys were found to face more challenges. When a comparison was made between the infected and affected children a significant difference was noted between the infected and affected girls, where the infected girls were found to be facing more challenges than the affected girls. Again a significant difference was noted between infected and affected boys where the affected boys in the age group of 16-19 years were found to be facing more challenges. No difference was found between the other groups studied.

P.KANIMOZHI

2012-12-01

30

Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society  

Science.gov (United States)

Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

Olneck, Michael R.

2011-01-01

31

Disadvantaged Rural Health ? Issues and Challenges: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ?upside-down? perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location?allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

Anil K Chillimuntha

2013-02-01

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Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully: Building Your Family's Resilience  

Science.gov (United States)

... how!. Apply Now Home » Resilience: Total Force Fitness Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully: Building Your Family's ... own and your family's resilience, this information may help. What is resilience? One popular definition of resilience ...

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Challenges of urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing and child rearing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was earned out to explore the challenges faced by urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing & child rearing. Arandom sample 200 working women from urban (100 & rural (100 area of (Chennai, Kundrathur, Gudiyatham were selected. A questionnaire was formulated by the investigator consisting of fifty questions with five domains, having 10 questions, in each domain, which was administered to the subjects and responses were collected. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis and the results were interpreted. The results revealed that both urban and rural pregnant working women experienced the discomforts of pregnancy alike. The support services available to urban pregnant women were less compared to the rural pregnant working women. Urban pregnant women enjoyed the privilege of availing 6 months maternity leave, whereas the rural working women, resorts to work after a month or 40 days after delivery. It is interesting to note that rural women get the opportunity to breast feed their babies till 2 or 2-1/2 years, than the urban working ladies. With regard to stress experienced at work accompanied by feeling of guilt in child rearing, rural women were at ease at their work place than the urban women, who work in shifts and are away from home, spending less time with the growing child.

Jahanaara Razick

2013-07-01

34

Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are increasing in their importance to both the nuclear safety regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry. In the changing technological, economic and social environment surrounding TSOs, the scope of their role has also been changing. In particular, TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of nuclear installations over the plant life cycle; at the same time, they are facing managerial challenges such as maintaining technical competence and improving performance. The paper gives an overview of the current challenges faced by TSOs and the future challenges that could be expected, as well as some approaches to or remedies for these identified problems, focusing on safety regulation of nuclear installations. TSOs providing support to nuclear regulators must have strategic plans to cope with these challenges effectively and efficiently, and to provide adequate technical assistance to the regulators for their regulatory decision making and administrative measures. (author)

35

Therapeutic face of RNAi: in vivo challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: RNA interference is a sequence-specific gene silencing phenomenon in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can trigger gene transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing. This phenomenon represents an emerging therapeutic approach for in vivo studies by efficient delivery of specific synthetic siRNAs against diseases. Therefore, simultaneous development of synthetic siRNAs along with novel delivery techniques is considered as novel and interesting therapeutic challenges. Areas covered: This review provides a basic explanation to siRNA signaling pathways and their therapeutic challenges. Here, we provide a comprehensive explanation to failed and successful trials and their in vivo challenges. Expert opinion: Specific, efficient and targeted delivery of siRNAs is the major concern for their in vivo administrations. Also, anatomical barriers, drug stability and availability, immunoreactivity and existence of various delivery routes, different genetic backgrounds are major clinical challenges. However, successful administration of siRNA-based drugs is expected during foreseeable features. But, their systemic applications will depend on strong targeted drug delivery strategies. PMID:25399911

Borna, Hojat; Imani, Saber; Iman, Maryam; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh

2014-11-15

36

CONSTRAINTS FACED BY RURAL WOMEN DAIRY FARMERS IN VIRUDHUNAGAR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phenomena of women entrepreneurship is largely confined to metropolitan cities and big towns in India. Most of the women entrepreneurs operate small scale units. However, women entrepreneurs are found in rural areas also. A rural women entrepreneur is a women or group of women who undertake to organize and run an farm in rural area. The women folk can easily be considered as backbone of any nation and better half of the man in almost all spheres of community exception. Rural women, who constitute about 50% of total rural population, play an active role in all spheres of economic life and contribute richly towards national income. Of the major rural enterprise, dairy enterprise has been regarded as an important instrument of economic and social change to supplement in income and employment to rural sector in general and rural women in particular.

K. Marichamy

2014-08-01

37

Current Challenges Facing Planet Transit Surveys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The initial task that confronted extrasolar-planet transit surveys was to monitor enough stars with sufficient photometric precision and complete phase coverage. Numerous searches have been pursued over the last few years. Among these projects are shallow, intermediate, and deep surveys of the Galactic plane, and monitoring of open clusters, and a globular cluster. These projects have all defeated the initial technical challenge, but a new obstacle has risen in its place: Si...

Charbonneau, David

2003-01-01

38

European Analytical Column : Analytical chemistry faces challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect to new research projects and sponsorship of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we maintain our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences.

Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.

2009-01-01

39

Innovation in the face of future challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chairman of the Senate Commission for Industry. Tourism and Commerce emphasises the legitimate ambition felt by the citizens of all democratic States with respect to safety and underlines his trust in the regulatory body. He analyses the interesting example of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, true reflection of the democracy achieved in the country, from the standpoint of its history, the functions that have been added to its realm of competence in recent years environmental radiological surveillance, intervention in emergencies and activities at non-regulated facilities- and the need for it to adapt, within a framework of overall consensus, to improve its response to future challenges and to the goal of promoting credibility and forging a closer relationship with the public. (Author)

40

Challenges facing the development of cancer vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Just like any other effective immunization in medicine, cancer vaccines need to have antigens with particular specificity and immunostimulatory features, the immune responses to be elicited in the body, and therapeutic effect-regression or prevention of the cancer-must be meaningful and clinically observable. There are many choices for cancer antigens, such as tissue-specific proteins, cancer-specific proteins, class I- or class II-restricted peptides derived from those, or in situ and whole-cell-derived products are some examples. Another translational issue is that cancer patients are heterogeneous with respect to the extent to which the immune system is already activated with potential to impact the tumor growth or, conversely, the extent to which the immune system has been impaired through a prior and ongoing interaction with the tumor. Conventional or immunologic tests have potential to define a subset of patients with better chance or response, so that particular vaccines can be tested. Treatment of cancer patients is expensive, and trials are slow. To meet these challenges in practical terms will require not only careful scientific technical work for product development, coordination with clinicians to define patient subsets with diseases that can show responses, but also a comprehensive, practical implementation so that we can unlock the full potential of anticancer vaccines. PMID:24619703

Fishman, Mayer

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

BOBE Claudia-Maria

2010-07-01

42

Computerization of Rural Banks in Ghana-Issues and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses issues and challenges encountered in a computerization project being carried out by the ARB Apex Bank to connect rural and community banks in Ghana. Computerization of banking has been going on in the country for some time now. Unlike the commercial banks, the rural banks lag behind with regards to computer and networking technologies. The ARB Apex Bank therefore embarked on the project to make the benefits of such technologies available to member rural banks. The study selected some rural banks engaged in the first phase of the project. Fifty respondents sampled from staff of the selected banks and experts involved in the project, were interviewed. The study concluded that, on the whole, the project was well designed and implemented; envisaged challenges were adequately specified and catered for and that the first phase progressed successfully. Staff beneficiaries were found to be actively involved in the project and majority of them agreed that the project was within time and budget. The study identified that, on completion, the project will enable the rural banks compete favourably with the commercial banks in the financial market. This will lead to improved service delivery to customers and greater customer satisfaction. In addition, complete computerization and networking will lead to improved monitoring of rural banks in order to reduce financial malpractices. The project will also promote intra/inter bank transactions, peer interaction and peer monitoring among the networked members. The aggregate returns will bring greater efficiency, lower cost of operation and increased profitability and sustainability to the Ghanaian rural banks.

G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo

2012-09-01

43

Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key tren...

Wang, Jing; Wang, Jin-zhao

2009-01-01

44

The Challenges Facing Training in Pediatric Surgery Worldwide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Like most specialties, pediatric surgery is becoming more complex, and changes to health systems have not always been in the best interests of trainees or their surgical teachers. This paper outlines four of the current challenges faced by training boards in pediatric surgery worldwide, and documents their implications for the future training of pediatric surgeons.

Beasley, Spencer W.

2013-01-01

45

Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key trends that, taken together, we believe will shape the hospitality sector this year and for years to come include rapid growth in vacation ownership, integration & globalization, new management.
Key words: Issues; Challenges; Trends; Hospitality Industry

Jing WANG

2009-12-01

46

Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya : Outstanding challenges and possible solutions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals participating in school computerization programs often have not carefully considered the contextual questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might there be better avenues for implementing access to the benefits of the digital age? These questions and the issue of school computerization are considered via results from a survey of thirtyseven rural Kenyan primary public schools. Results indicate that, while all schools had low ICT status making them primary targets for computerization, only eleven percent had at least one ICT compliant teacher, of which all were considered to require further training. In addition we found inadequate infrastructural preparedness - lack of access to electricity, internet; no classroom computer space, few desks, secure walls and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome many of the technical challenges found.

Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.

2012-01-01

47

Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional...

Darryl Maybery; Rod Pope; Gene Hodgins; Yvonne Hitchenor

2010-01-01

48

Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

2014-06-01

49

Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

Darryl Maybery

2010-11-01

50

Surveying Education : Facing the Challenges of the Future  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a relevant discipline to surveying. But it does imply that the focus of the surveying profession is changing from being very much related to doing measurements´to now being increasingly related to management of the measurement processes, the geospatial data, and the property and land-use regimes. In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.

Enemark, Stig

2009-01-01

51

Stroke care challenges in rural India: Awareness of causes, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke among the rural communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.

Kanaga Lakshmi

2014-12-01

52

Regulatory challenges faced first Indonesia NPPs by independent TSOs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)

53

Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: the Way Forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact of local government on community and rural development in Nigeria, challenges and the way forward. To scientifically and analytically interrogate the issues raised, the paper traversed conceptualizations and theoretical terrain; utilizing system and rural development theories. Yet, because of the dearth of data, it did content analysis of 466 newspapers and magazines in Nigeria published between 2007 and 2011, to determine people’s feelings about the local governments’ development efforts in communities. It is the position of this paper that the creation of local government in most cases were not based on viability and developmental purposes as required by the constitution but on administrative conveniences to score cheap political goals and legitimacy especially by the military rulers. The paper concludes that while the basic rationale behind the creation of local government is to meet the peculiar needs of the people at the grassroots, it is however pathetic to note that local government has demonstrated incompetence in this regard. Given the catalogue of challenges facing local government, it recommends among other measures, that while local government should remain as a third tier of government, it should be given more powers, resources and enabling environment for the development of localities.

Akhakpe Ighodalo

2012-05-01

54

Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact of local government on community and rural development in Nigeria, challenges and the way forward. To scientifically and analytically interrogate the issues raised, the paper traversed conceptualizations and theoretical terrain; utilizing system and rural development theories. Yet, because of the dearth of data, it did content analysis of 466 newspapers and magazines in Nigeria published between 2007 and 2011, to determine people’s feelings about the local governments’ development efforts in communities. It is the position of this paper that the creation of local government in most cases were not based on viability and developmental purposes as required by the constitution but on administrative conveniences to score cheap political goals and legitimacy especially by the military rulers. The paper concludes that while the basic rationale behind the creation of local government is to meet the peculiar needs of the people at the grassroots, it is however pathetic to note that local government has demonstrated incompetence in this regard. Given the catalogue of challenges facing local government, it recommends among other measures, that while local government should remain as a third tier of government, it should be given more powers, resources and enabling environment for the development of localities.

Akhakpe Ighodalo

2012-06-01

55

Challenges facing PBL tutors: 12 tips for successful group facilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main tasks of a problem-based learning (PBL) tutor is to facilitate group discussion. Group facilitation is about process rather than content. In this process, a tutor helps the group increase their skills and progress in their discussion. Several studies have highlighted strategies and training used in preparing PBL tutors. However, PBL tutors usually feel that it is not that easy to change their teaching style to the PBL format. They are sometimes unsure about their role or what strategy they might use to facilitate their students' discussion. This article in the '12 Tips' series is a detailed description of, and provides answers to, common challenges faced by PBL tutors. The tips provided in this manuscript should help tutors with practical answers. The article may be useful to PBL tutors, medical and health educators and those responsible for PBL training workshops. PMID:16451886

Azer, Samy A

2005-12-01

56

Challenges faced by Pakistani pharmaceutical industry: An intellectual capital perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intellectual capital is recognized as one of the most critical factors for the success of organizations in a knowledge-based economy. In a knowledge-based economy high tech organizations are facing tremendous challenges to gain competitive advantage. The main objective of this study is to introduce the concept and applications of intellectual capital in Pakistani pharmaceutical industry. Pakistani pharmaceutical industry is one of the major industries and it has 70% of share to fulfill the demand of finished pharmaceutical products. This industry also contributes in economic growth and development. This study is a preliminary in nature and it will also be a milestone for future research on this topic.

Khalique, Muhammad

2012-04-01

57

Challenges facing nursing education in Australia: two solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Australia, like many other countries is facing a shortage of qualified nurse educators and this has potential to impact enormously on the quality of nurses working in health services. Methods: This paper discusses the findings of action research recently completed within a Queensland University, involving a range of nurse educators. Results: It explores some of the challenges to role satisfaction and suggests two strategies to build capacity, connection, satisfaction and productivity in Australian nurse educators, that may be relevant for international colleagues. Conclusions: The first solution is to establish a self-sustaining, solution-focused Community of Practice for nurse educators. The second solution is to disseminate an effective, easy to remember teaching framework that draws upon principles of Transformative learning, a pedagogy that is relevant for nurses, because they will need to work with vulnerable populations and graduates need to be equipped with skills, compassion and be committed to social action.

Margaret Maura McAllister

2012-01-01

58

Facing the challenges of nuclear power at Ontario Power Generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power represents a major portion of Ontario Power Generation's generation mix and it will be the bedrock upon which we build a successful, competitive company. Our nuclear units offer many environmental and economic benefits, the one most relevant to this meeting is their significant contribution to the relatively low carbon intensity of Ontario's and Canada's electricity supply. In recent weeks, we have listened with great interest to the endorsement by our federal Minister of the Environment of nuclear technology as a means of reducing global warming. But endorsements of this type alone are not sufficient to ensure that nuclear remains an acceptable option for managing greenhouse gas emissions. Without public acceptance and support, the entire nuclear investment is endangered. At OPG we face three challenges to building this public support: we must continue to improve our safety margins and operating performance; we must continue to improve the environmental performance at our stations; and we must increase our community outreach. Today I would like to focus on the last two challenges and the actions that we are taking to maintain our social and environmental 'licence to operate.' But before I describe these initiatives, I will tell you about: the new company - Ontario Power Generation; the changes in store for Ontario's electricity sector; and our greenhouse gas emissions - the legacy from Ontario Hydro. (author)

59

Policy Choices and Challenges in Expanding Access to Finance for Growth in Rural Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigerian financial system has witnessed significant growth over the years. Thephenomenal growth and high financial depth can be attributed in part to the country’s vastnetwork of financial institutions, including rural finance.Improvements in rural finance notwithstanding, the supply of formal finance appears tobe biased against the rural population. Rural communities remain centre of deprivationsinspite of the various efforts at increasing financial services to them by the Governmentand the CBN. This therefore raises the following questions: what are the constraints andchallenges of providing financial services in the rural areas? What are the policy initiativesthat can be introduced to improve rural financial services in Nigeria? Hence the mainobjective of the paper is to examine the challenges and ways to improve rural financialservices in Nigeria.Keywords: rural finance, growth, infrastructure, microfinance institutions.

Anthony E. Akinlo

2014-02-01

60

Urban and rural dimensions in post-disaster adjustment challenges in selected communities in Kwara State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human populations are exposed to climate change directly through changing weather patterns as manifested in the more frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in ecosystem functions. Rainstorm disasters are common events associated with environmental change and settlements in Kwara state, Nigeria were ravaged by rainstorm events between 2003 and 2006. More than 1000 households were displaced from their habitual homes with consequences for human health and other adjustment challenges. This paper examines the variations in the post-disaster adjustment challenges of rural and urban households so as to identify location specific intervention strategies in the domains of environ- ment and health of the victims. A sample of 200 households was drawn from all households affected by rainstorm disaster as reflected in the FEMA records during the period. A structured questionnaire was administered in addition to the secondary data and analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The  findings include that most households required support before replacing the roofs and/or walls of their homes. Sources of support however vary. Urban households received more institutional support but lower than the amount required for the renovation. A signifficant proportion of urban households moved to poorer homes where they faced challenges relating to the quality of environmental services. Many urban respondents also reported increases in the occurrence of water-borne and weather-related diseases and ailments. Rural households indicated no signi$cant ecological differences between their former homes and the areas to which they relocated. The paper concludes that signi$cant variations exist in the adjustment challenges faced by rural and urban dwellers after a disaster. Community efforts hold promise for emergency response particularly during disasters in rural areas.

Raheem Usman Adebimpe

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

A Feasible Rural Education System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

Lincy Meera Mathews

2012-01-01

62

Constraints and Challenges Facing the Small Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Macro- and micro-structural constraints, including those linked to and exacerbated by historical, natural and financial factors are some of the many stressors facing small-scale farmers in Limpopo Province. The challenge is to co-design ways to effectively manage these constraints with development actions. Small scale farmers in South Africa are still facing major challenges in the agricultural sector. In this paper some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers...

Sylvester Mpandeli; Phokele Maponya

2014-01-01

63

Bygdas unge menn :En studie av bygdemenns forhandlinger om og utforming av «rurale maskuliniteter»  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, young rural men face many challenges resulting from structural changes in the rural work life, increasing demands for gender equality, rising pressure on rural resources such as hunting and fishing, and media portrayals of rural men as marginalized losers. In this dissertation I direct attention to the challenges and processes young rural men are facing as they negotiate and construct rural masculinities. I study how they can be as ‘men’ in their home community...

Bye, Linda Marie

2010-01-01

64

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-12-15

65

RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND LABOUR SUPPLY CHALLENGES IN THE UK: THE ROLE OF NON-UK MIGRANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Characteristic features of the demographic structure of rural areas in the UK include net out-migration of young adults and an older than average age profile. These features pose a labour supply challenge for rural areas. However, many rural areas are experiencing in-migration (from other parts of the UK and overseas) and there has been considerable policy emphasis on capturing the skills of migrants to enhance local economic development. To date, the role of non-UK mig...

Green, Anne E.; Hoyos, Maria; Owen, David; Jones, Paul

2009-01-01

66

Material Challenges For Plasma Facing Components in Future Fusion Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actias reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions. Here a considerable fraction of the plasma energy is deposited on a localized surface area in the divertor strike zone; the time scale of these events is typically in the order of 1 ms. As a consequence, thermal shock induced crack formation, vaporization, surface melting and droplet ejection as well as particle emission induced by brittle destruction processes will limit the lifetime of the components. This is also valid for instabilities in the plasma positioning (vertical displacement events) which cause irreversible damage to plasma facing components, particularly to the metallic wall armour. Moreover, dust particles (neutron activated or toxic metals or tritium enriched carbon) are a serious concern form a safety point of view. In order to investigate the thermally induced plasma wall interaction under fusion specific thermal loads, high heat flux simulation tests are performed routinely in electron or ion beam test facilities as well as in quasi stationary plasma devices. These experiments cover thermal fatigue loads and/or thermal shock tests with relevant operational loading conditions. Furthermore, the wall bombardment with 14 MeV neutrons in D-T-burning plasma devices and the resulting material damage are another critical issue, both, from a safety point of view, but also under the aspect of the component lifetime. While the integrated neutron fluence in ITER will be only in the order of 1 dpa (displacements per atom), future devices such as DEMO or commercial fusion reactors will experience integrated neutron wall loads of 80 to 150 dpa. Therefore the development of new radiation resistant materials and their testing under realistic conditions is required. Due to the lack of an intense 14 MeV neutron source, complex neutron irradiation experiments are performed in material test reactors to quantify the neutron-induced material damage. These tests provide a valuable data base on the degradation of thermal and mechanical parameters. (author)

67

On outsourcing and offshoring : Challenges facing management and engineering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying the research area, (2) Illustrating the current situation and the desired situation, and the gap between these (the descriptive study), (3) Illustrating how to close this gap (the prescriptive study I) and (4) Validating these results (the prescriptive study II). Two descriptive studies were carried out as case studies with seven Danish multinational corporations. A total of 57 semi-structured interviews were conducted with top managers, daily managers and expatriates. In study 1 four areas were investigated: (1) the global product development process in the investigated case companies, (2) the challenges they experienced, (3) the solutions they implemented, and (4) the impact of these solutions. In the descriptive study 2 the use of expatriates were investigated in relation to their role in the organisation when globalising the product development process. Through investigating seven Danish multinationals it became clear that global product development had an impact on both management and engineering projects within the companies. The globalisation of the product development process started with manufacturing activities and later more high value adding activities like product design and R&D were added until some companies had globalised the whole product development process. The globalisation of the product development process seems to consist of four phases: 1. Motivation to move abroad. 2. Preparation phase. 3. Implementation phase. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. 4. Managing the relationship. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. Only top management was involved in these first two phases. In implementation and managing the new global projects and relationships, the daily managers and expatriates were responsible. In these phases the companies faced organisational problems and complications with the technical and managerial aspects of the engineering projects. The problems within management were similar to those previously reported in literature, mainly related to culture, knowledge sharing and coordination but also change management and organisational structures and processes. The problems within engineering were related to product and process modularity as well as the ii knowledge properties of the product. These problems resulted in delays, misunderstandings and quality issues. The novel aspect of the empirical investigation was the in-depth understanding of how these challenges were addressed in the company to try and maximise the perceived benefits from globalising the product development process. The daily managers implemented a series of initiatives to address these; mainly codification of knowledge, streamlined communication, training, bringing more tasks out to ensure contact between vital elements, make the product development process less complex, make the product less complex and detailed work descriptions. There was, in other words, a focus on control and minimizing risk. The result of these solutions impacted on the product, the product development process and the organisation. Some of these impacts were positive and some were negative. The positive impacts of the solutions were related to a better understanding of work processes and the supply chain whereas globalisation itself provided the possibility for an increased product portfolio and products which were better suited to local markets. The negative impacts were for example, that the product development process became slower and less integrated whereas the organisation became more focused on codified knowledge and writte

Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

2011-01-01

68

Assets, Challenges, and the Potential of Technology for Nutrition Education in Rural Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine assets of and challenges to getting adequate nutrition and physical activity among low-income rural residents, and the potential for technology to provide health education. Methods: Environmental scans and community stakeholder interviews were conducted in 5 rural counties in Maryland. During environmental scans, stakeholders…

Atkinson, Nancy L.; Desmond, Sharon M.; Saperstein, Sandra L.; Billing, Amy S.; Gold, Robert S.; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

2010-01-01

69

Taking on the Motivating Challenge: Rural High School Teachers' Perceptions and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivating high school students is a complex and challenging task. Add the resource shortfall and issues that result from the small size and remoteness of rural districts, and it may seem a nearly impossible undertaking. Motivation theory and research offer potential tools for teachers to use, but what are the needs of rural students, and what…

Hardre, Patricia L.

2008-01-01

70

Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of the introduction of the nuclear power plants is under investigation taking into account various important changes due to new realities. Therefore, the safety and fuel cycle aspects, especially the long term program on the back-end fuel cycle, utilizing the existing facilities is also maintained. The construction of a laboratory for carrying out research and development on radio-ecology and marine environmental studies is being planned to support the radioactive waste management for the future nuclear power plants. Considering the need to maintain the energy related research and development and the need for clean water, the study on the utilization of a high power research reactor for generating process heat, hot vapour, and producing clean water as well as electricity is being carried out. The possibility of the construction of this research reactor is being studied. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to co-operate with other countries to support her nuclear research and development programme in various fields due to the fact that she has to overcome her chronic challenges that are perhaps also faced by other countries, i.e. to have a better understanding, perception, appreciation, and support from decision makers, social leaders, scholars, and the whole community nationally and internationally on the importance of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. (author)

71

Mental health services in rural India: challenges and prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mental health services in India are neglected area which needs immediate attention from the government, policymakers, and civil society organizations. Despite, National Mental Health Programme since 1982 and National Rural Health Mission, there has been a very little effort so far to provide mental health services in rural areas. With increase in population, changing life-style, unemployment, lack of social support and increasing insecurity, it is predicted that there would be a substantial increase in the number of people suffering from mental illness in rural areas. Considering the mental health needs of the rural community and the treatment gap, the paper is an attempt to remind and advocate for rural mental health services and suggest a model to reduce the treatment gap.

Anant Kumar

2011-12-01

72

Challenges Facing a Deaf Family Member Concerning a Loved One’s Dying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals who are Deaf face challenges both similar and unique from those faced by hearing individuals when a family member is dying. This study was guided by the question “What are the challenges faced by a Deaf family member when a loved one is dying?” Methods - This qualitative study is guided by critical theory and an interpretive perspective. Robert, a college-educated older adult who has been Deaf from birth was interviewed in American Sign Language using a death history format. R...

Kehl, Karen A.; Gartner, Constance M.

2009-01-01

73

Challenges in responding to the ebola epidemic - four rural counties, liberia, august-november 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa were identified in Guinea on March 22, 2014. On March 30, the first Liberian case was identified in Foya Town, Lofa County, near the Guinean border. Because the majority of early cases occurred in Lofa and Montserrado counties, resources were concentrated in these counties during the first several months of the response, and these counties have seen signs of successful disease control. By October 2014, the epidemic had reached all 15 counties of Liberia. During August 27-September 10, 2014, CDC in collaboration with the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare assessed county Ebola response plans in four rural counties (Grand Cape Mount, Grand Bassa, Rivercess, and Sinoe, to identify county-specific challenges in executing their Ebola response plans, and to provide recommendations and training to enhance control efforts. Assessments were conducted through interviews with county health teams and health care providers and visits to health care facilities. At the time of assessment, county health teams reported lacking adequate training in core Ebola response strategies and reported facing many challenges because of poor transportation and communication networks. Development of communication and transportation network strategies for communities with limited access to roads and limited means of communication in addition to adequate training in Ebola response strategies is critical for successful management of Ebola in remote areas. PMID:25522089

Summers, Aimee; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Montgomery, Joel M; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; T, Nyenswah; M, Fahnbulleh; M, Massaquoi

2014-12-19

74

Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical challenges. The study concluded that the women academic leaders are facing challenges between medium and high levels. In addition, there is n...

Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad Al-Jaradat

2014-01-01

75

Challenges when electricity markets face the investment phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deregulation of electricity industry in Europe has tended to start with a grace period of energy surplus inherited from the previously expansive coordinated economies and further amplified by better resource utilisation from extended international trade. The regulatory challenge has therefore primarily been to allocate existing generation to consumers in an efficient way. However, as energy demand increases, due to economic growth, the challenge of providing new capacity surfaces. The Nordic region, which has been a pioneer in internationalising and deregulating electricity, is now approaching this stage, ahead of most of the rest of Europe. While the Nordic case is characterised by specificities related to hydropower it also raises the more general challenge of capacity expansion under a deregulated market economy. The article therefore discusses how the Nordic investment challenges of today shed light on more generic challenges that may become more general European challenges of tomorrow. In a final section, the article discusses policy options available to address the investment/price-hike challenge. The argument is put forward that recursion to some degree of coordinated governance might seem necessary if solutions are confined within large-scale technical systems. However, within the context of a small-scale decentralised technological development, one may be more confident of competitive solutions. (Author)

76

Challenges to Rural Medical Education: A Student Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

At a clinical school in rural New South Wales (Australia), medical students follow patients through the health care system instead of being attached to doctors. Seeing the progression of illnesses, the impact of behavioral aspects, and the continuity of care develops lifelong learning skills. Because of geographic isolation, information technology…

Delaney, Gabrielle; Lim, Siv Eing; Sar, Lee; Yang, Shu Ching; Sturmberg, Joachim P.; Khandra, Mohammed H.

2002-01-01

77

Sexuality Education in Rural Lesotho Schools: Challenges and Possibilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a "vaccine" against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of the fight…

Khau, Mathabo

2012-01-01

78

Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…

Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

2002-01-01

79

Towards a Pedagogy of Informatics: Preparing Educators To Face the Challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the challenges facing educators to incorporate "informatics"--computer education in the broad context of information technology--into the curriculum for K-12 students, and "capacitation" for teachers, the continuing professional education which enables and empowers teachers to face these demands. The computer education program…

Jurema, Ana Christina L. A.; Lima, Maria Edite Costa; Dalmau, Mary C.; Filho, Merval Jurema

80

Using grid technologies to face medical image analysis challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The availability of digital imagers inside hospitals and their ever growing inspection capabilities have established digital medical images as a key component of many pathologies diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. To face the growing image analysis requirements, automated medical image processing algorithms have been developed over the two past decades. In parallel, medical image databases have been set up in health centers. Some attempts have been made to cross data coming from different or...

Montagnat, Johan; Breton, Vincent; Magnin, Isabelle

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.

Esther W. Dungumaro

2010-12-01

82

Issues and Challenges Facing the Minority Woman Dentist.  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of minority women dentists is reviewed, and initiatives to improve it are noted. Issues and challenges for African-American female dentists are outlined, including negative racial/gender stereotypes, lack of advancement opportunities, difficulties in starting practices and securing professional and social support systems, lack of…

Sinkford, Jeanne C.

1992-01-01

83

Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

C.T. Viljoen

1998-03-01

84

Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in ...

Bland Tomkinson

2011-01-01

85

AlgaePARC: facing the challenges of microalgae mass production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Algal production needs to develop from a craft to a major industrial process. Major challenges are to reduce production costs and energy requirements and increase production scale. Although microalgae are not yet produced at large-scale for bulk applications, recent advances – particularly in the methods of systems biology, genetic engineering, process control, and biorefinery – present opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable and economical way within the next 10 to 15 year...

Barbosa, M. J.; Bosma, R.; Kleinegris, D. M. M.; Wijffels, R. H.

2011-01-01

86

Recruitment of rural community-dwelling older adults: barriers, challenges, and strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The significant increase in the number of older adults in the USA, particularly in rural areas, has signaled the need for more research to address the health care needs of this complex, heterogeneous, and vulnerable population. However, accessing older adults in rural areas presents an especially difficult challenge for gerontological researchers. Barriers can include the normal physiological changes that accompany aging, prevalence of chronic illness and medication use, lower literacy rates, transportation issues, and a distrust of 'outsiders' and research in general. Specific strategies that may facilitate participation include the use of gatekeepers to gain entry, increased personal contact by researchers sensitive to the unique needs of older adults, and other media approaches tailored to the rural community. Understanding the characteristics of rural older adults, along with careful planning of recruitment strategies, is crucial to obtaining adequate participation and the acceptance of future research efforts. PMID:12745386

Dibartolo, M C; McCrone, S

2003-03-01

87

Constraints and Challenges Facing the Small Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macro- and micro-structural constraints, including those linked to and exacerbated by historical, natural and financial factors are some of the many stressors facing small-scale farmers in Limpopo Province. The challenge is to co-design ways to effectively manage these constraints with development actions. Small scale farmers in South Africa are still facing major challenges in the agricultural sector. In this paper some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers in the Limpopo Province have been identified. Some of the challenges found during the formal surveys and focus group meetings in the Tshakhuma, Rabali and Tshiombo areas were those linked to financial, assets, land ownership and biophysical factors. Specific constraints included: (a Market information and market access; (b Price of inputs, for example fertilizer and herbicides; (c Availability of inputs; (d Irrigation; (e Cost of transport, and Natural constraint.

Sylvester Mpandeli

2014-03-01

88

Fighting a Different Battle: Challenges Facing American Indians in Higher Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Educational access and attainment are among the most pressing issues facing Indian Country. Of particular challenge are those of post secondary education. American Indian students are retained and graduated from colleges at rates far below their non-Native peers. Making a successful adjustment to college is a formidable challenge for many people. It is particularly challenging for American Indian students. The authors provide recommendations for increasing the number of proportions of Ame...

Harrington, Charles F.; Harrington, Billie G.

2012-01-01

89

Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ?wicked? problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students? attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ?wicked problems?.

Bland Tomkinson

2011-01-01

90

The Ideology of Consumption: The Challenges Facing a Consumerist Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advancements in modern capitalism, significant changes have been made in its goals and instruments. Past crises and the experiences acquired by economic institutions gave rise to the development of a special pattern of consumption rooted in the industrial revolution. In the post-modern period, we can observe the rise of a new ideology which is going through its completing process very quickly and a large mass is gaining a new perspective and prestige in consumerist societies. Understanding a consumerist society helps us to find out what instruments and fighting strategies the ideology of consumption uses and to what it causes damage. The role of the media is very important in this regard because they help to create false needs using virtual methods. On the other hand, due to the close relationship between ideology and politics, the consumerism crisis in society can be politically managed with success. In this regard, it is necessary for the political managers to understand different dimensions of the existing crisis and the challenges of the consumerist society and to find appropriate scientific and practical solutions to the problem. The main purpose of the present study is to shed some light on the challenges of a consumerist society by analyzing the features of the ideology of consumption and to focus on the influential role modern human beings play in this society as consumers and to evaluate the political dimensions of management of consumption pattern.

Ahmad Jansiz

2014-02-01

91

The Diverse Educational Needs and Challenges of Information Technology Teachers in Two Black Rural Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reflects on the first phase of a research project aimed at the empowerment of Information Technology (IT) teachers in black rural schools in the North-West province of South Africa. In order to empower these IT teachers, the first phase aimed at understanding their unique challenges and needs. Qualitative research methodology was used…

Mentz, Elsa; Bailey, Roxanne; Havenga, Marietjie; Breed, Betty; Govender, Desmond; Govender, Irene; Dignum, Frank; Dignum, Virginia

2012-01-01

92

Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

2015-01-01

93

Prevention in healthcare: France and Quebec face similar challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SummaryMany issues challenge France and Quebec’s health systems. These issues, similar on both sides of the Atlantic, are characterized by transitions (demographical, epidemiological and technological, which will have an impact on care and prevention practices. Factors like ageing populations, improving quality of life or the deficit projected to certain health professions characterize these issues and put the health system to the test.In this context, acting upstream of health problems and investing efforts in prevention will become even more necessary. Health care professionals are directly involved to initiate or participate in prevention actions.In the context of these two systems transforming, four types of levers or incentives benefit from being put forward: 1 the governance lever, which assures global consistency between the actions by linking the care system’s specific interventions with those developed as part of a health strategy; 2 the professional lever, that targets the recognition of skills in terms of preventionpractices and leadership; 3 the organizational lever, which promotes the development of collective skills oriented towards prevention; 4 the financial lever, which forces to explore new methods of compensation and incentives supporting prevention.Prat Organ Soins 2009;40(4:275-282

Rochon J

2009-12-01

94

Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi-structured interviews with successful rural school administrators who serve campuses currently rated recognized or higher on the Texas Education Agency accountability system. The qualitative data analysis employed the coding of interviews and observations that allowed for and sought emergent themes and alternative rural perspectives.

Mann, Matthew James

95

Challenges facing women in business - an assessment of women in the South African petroleum industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report focuses on barriers women face within the petroleum industry, with regard to career advancement to senior positions. This research was conducted to identify the challenges that hinder such progression for women, taking key issues and themes raised by women currently at management levels. The primary outcomes were identifying key barriers and/or challenges that exist in the petroleum industry, and juxtaposing them to barriers identified in other industries at both the local and ...

Sephoti, Masego

2010-01-01

96

BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs) are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, o...

Arokiasamy, Lawrence; Ismail, Maimunah; Ahmad, Aminah; Othman, Jamilah

2009-01-01

97

Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

2006-01-01

98

Changes to Educational Policy and Management in Wales: Facing the "Cuts" and New Strategic Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Like the rest of the United Kingdom, Wales is facing a new challenge from the implementation of the Coalition Government's cuts. The Welsh Assembly Government [WAG, renamed Welsh Government (WG), in May 2011] budget was reduced by 1.8 billion British Pounds over the next four years. WAG responded by introducing its own revised austerity budget…

Reid, Ken

2011-01-01

99

CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AT THE FACE OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Counter-urban movement is becoming more and more common phenomenon nowadays. Several countries have started loosing population; many other are facing tremendous loss of urban population. This paper has addressed the global and local challenges and issues of counter-urban movement and subsequently their response pattern at the same scale.

Islam, Kazi Saiful

2009-01-01

100

CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AT THE FACE OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Counter-urban movement is becoming more and more common phenomenon nowadays. Several countries have started loosing population; many other are facing tremendous loss of urban population. This paper has addressed the global and local challenges and issues of counter-urban movement and subsequently their response pattern at the same scale.

Kazi Saiful ISLAM

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Opportunities to Meet Challenges in Rural Prevention Research: Findings From an Evolving Community-University Partnership Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various rural prevention research challenges have been articulated through a series of sessions convened since the mid 1990s by the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Salient in this articulation was the need for effective collaboration among rural practitioners and scientists, with special consideration of accommodating the diversity of rural areas and surmounting barriers to implementation of evidence-based interventions. This paper summarizes ...

Spoth, Richard

2007-01-01

102

BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.

Lawrence AROKIASAMY

2009-06-01

103

An investigation into the perceived sanitation challenges in the Eastern Cape rural communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a dearth of information on studies that have sought to examine qualitatively the sanitation challenges that rural communities experience. Opsomming Kwalitatiewe navorsing is gedoen om die strukturele, ekonomiese, opvoedkundige, sosiale en tegnologiese uitdagings wat landelike gemeenskappe van die Oos-Kaap met betrekking tot sanitasie in die gesig staar, te ondersoek. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

2006-01-01

104

Challenges faced in well construction as heavy oil exploitation goes deeper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current oil recovery projects in South Oman's Mukhaizna oil field are designed to increase production by 50 per cent. This paper described the challenges faced by the petroleum industry in extracting oil from the world's deepest reservoir yet to be exploited. Some of the challenges relate to the deep target zones at 850 metres while others deal with the exploitation methods and environmental constraints. These challenges must be addressed to ensure thermal well integrity. The field is to be exploited mostly by vertical wells. The limitations in designing these wells were described. The paper does not present solutions to any of the challenges, rather it describes the challenges of loss zones and cementation hurdles that require innovative solutions even for vertical wells. 8 figs.

Davy, C. [Petroleum Development Oman (Oman)

2002-07-01

105

The Background and Challenges Faced by the Small Medium Enterprises. A Human Resource Development Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME’s to future progress and grows. Therefore this article examines the background and challenges face by SME’s which play a vital role in the nation growth. The uniqueness of this paper is the emphasis on the human resource development perspective which is important for SME’s to progress and be competitive. Finally, this article maps out how future research can be more sensitive to how SME’s actually develop their own human resource development for future development.

Siti Sarah bt. Omar

2009-09-01

106

Problemas enfrentados por extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural / Problems faced by Brazilian rural extensionists and their relationship with their conception of rural extension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Tanto na América Latina como no Brasil assistimos a um retorno e fortalecimento do interesse público pela extensão rural. Neste trabalho, são analisados os problemas enfrentados na sua prática por uma amostra de extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural. C [...] inquenta e dois extensionistas rurais de diferentes estados responderam a uma enquete enviada por e-mail. Concluiu-se que (1) as dificuldades associadas com o trabalho grupal ou em parceria entre agricultores são o problema mais mencionado, (2) nos técnicos, tende a persistir uma perspectiva difusionista da extensão rural, mesmo contra as diretrizes participativas e dialógicas estabelecidas pela política pública e (3) existe um olhar autocrítico limitado dos extensionistas, os quais tendem a ver os produtores como problema. Abstract in english In both, Latin America and Brazil, rural extension is recovering acknowledgment in the context of public policy. In this paper, the problems faced in their practice by a sample of Brazilian rural extensionists are described and how they relate to their conception of rural extension is analyzed. 52 r [...] ural extensionists of different Brazilian states were surveyed via email. It is concluded that (1) difficulties related to group or associate work among farmers are the most mentioned, (2) a diffusionist conception of rural extension tend to persist, even against the participatory and dialogical principles established by public policy and (3) rural extensionists have a limited self-critical attitude and tend to perceive the farmers as a problem.

Fernando Pablo, Landini.

2015-02-01

107

School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural

Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

2014-01-01

108

Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country's health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doctors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste's medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government's goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention. PMID:24700995

Asante, Augustine D; Martins, Nelson; Otim, Michael E; Dewdney, John

2014-04-01

109

Facing new challenges: a proposal of information services organization in hospitals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When facing the new challenges launched by the present financial cenarios, health information services in the context of hospitals can transform health information management in a way that facilitates not only progress in services, but also organizational success. We present a model of the (re) organization of information services in hospitals, having as its theoretical-epistemological reference, the post-custodial and informational paradigm of Information Science, which conveys a holistic vi...

Pestana, Oli?via

2013-01-01

110

Challenges Facing Sustainable Real Estate Marketing and Practice in Emerging Economy: Case Study of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtai...

Ayotunde Olawande Oni; Michael Adedayo Adebayo

2012-01-01

111

Testing for her2 in breast cancer: current pathology challenges faced in Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review is designed to highlight several key challenges in the diagnosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)–positive breast cancer currently faced by pathologists in Canada: Pre-analysis issues affecting the accuracy of her2 testing in non-excision sample types: core-needle biopsies, effusion samples, fine-needle aspirates, and bone metastasesher2 testing of core-needle biopsies compared with surgical specimensCriteria for retesting her2 status upon disease recurrence

Hanna, W.; Barnes, P.; Berendt, R.; Chang, M.; Magliocco, A.; Mulligan, A. M.; Rees, H.; Miller, N.; Elavathil, L.; Gilks, B.; Pettigrew, N.; Pilavdzic, D.; Sengupta, S.

2012-01-01

112

HIV and infant feeding counselling:challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT) programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT...

Leshabari, Sebalda C.; Blystad, Astrid; Paoli, Marina; Moland, Karen M.

2007-01-01

113

Montenegro and its people now face a long and challenging road towards EU accession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the opening of EU accession negotiations, Montenegro is now the frontrunner of EU enlargement. Jelena Dzankic argues that the country faces many challenges before it can become an EU member, including boosting a flagging economy, tackling corruption and organized crime and the reform of the judiciary. But, she argues accession has also had some positive effects on the country’s politics by inducing changes through greater consensus between the ruling coalition and opposi...

Dzankic, Jelena

2012-01-01

114

HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT) programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothe...

Blystad Astrid; Leshabari Sebalda C; de Paoli Marina; Moland Karen M

2007-01-01

115

THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working enviro...

Kapil Goel; Sartaj Ahmad; Rahul Bansal; Pawan Parashar; Bhawna Pant; Parul Goel

2012-01-01

116

Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

Inna Rivkin

2013-08-01

117

Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

2010-01-01

118

Teaching in Rural Saskatchewan: First Year Teachers Identify Challenges and Make Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the existing research on rural education, rural teaching, and pre-service rural practicum placements, there is little research on the experiences of beginning teachers in rural schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saskatchewan beginning teachers who obtain employment in rural or northern schools. Eight…

Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; McIntyre, Laureen J.; Prytula, Michelle P.

2011-01-01

119

The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs play an important role in the Kenyan Economy such as creating jobs however they face serious challenges such as lack of finance, discrimination, problems with the city council, multiple duties, poor access to justice, lack of education, among others. The study established that many stakeholders from both public and private sector are helping empower women entrepreneurs in Kenya: such as formation of women enterprise fund, establishing of women’s university of science and technology, formal and informal financial support, and donor initiatives among others have been put in place. The study recommends that women in entrepreneurs need to be accepted and supported financially, legally and more capacity building should be made available. Further research is recommended in this area.

Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

2012-03-01

120

Identity Issues and Challenges Faced by Russian Immigrants in New Zealand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the processes cosmopolitan societies undergo at the present moment, is the unprecedented increase in mass migration across cultures. What challenges are faced by both immigrants, who have to settle in novel socio-cultural environments, and by the host populations accepting them? The current qualitative study investigates the nature of identity construction among Russian-speaking immigrants in New Zealand, applying thematic analysis for the interpretation of the data collected via 23 in-depth interviews. Among the most common themes articulated by the participants was the feeling of identity loss. A taken-for-granted sense of identity, brought by the participants from their culture of origin, was not validated by their new society of residence, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cultural resources. The participants were faced with a challenge of re-constructing their old identity, or constructing a new one, utilising the available resources in the community around them. At the same time, there was a sub-group for whom this challenge brought the realisation that the nature of their identity is cosmopolitan, rather than located within any particular culture or geographical space.

Elena Maydell

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Personal and professional challenges in the management of deliberate self-poisoning patients in rural Sri Lanka: a qualitative study of rural hospital doctors' experiences and perceptions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncooperative and aggressive, intoxicated with alcohol or suffering mental illness. Previous research in developed countries has examined self-poisoning patients and their treatment but little is know about self-poisoning patient care in the context of rural health provision in developing countries. This study provides the first focused exploration of the experiences and perceptions of primary care rural hospital doctors in Sri Lanka toward the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen doctors from rural hospitals in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Participating doctors did perceive that treating self-poisoning patients in a primary care rural hospital as potentially confidence-building. However, resource issues such as the lack of medication, equipment and staffing were seen as important challenges to treating self-poisoning patients. Other challenges identified included disparity with community and other staff members regarding expectations of care, a sense of professional isolation and a lack of continuing education programs. Conclusion Addressing professional isolation through educational and trainee programs for doctors and reducing the variance in expectations between professional groups and the community has the potential to improve delivery of care for self-poisoning patients.

Buckley Nick A

2008-10-01

122

Urban and rural groundwater use in Zhengzhou, China: challenges in joint management  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater plays an important role in the total water supply of much of China, particularly in the north. It has contributed substantially to both agricultural growth and urban and industrial expansion. However, overexploitation and poor management have contributed to infamous groundwater depletion problems and less publicized groundwater quality deterioration. One of the key challenges for China will be how to make groundwater use sustainable while still meeting increased food needs as well as the industrial and domestic demands of a rapidly urbanizing society. Zhengzhou City, one of China’s test cities for building a “water saving society” highlights both the difficulties and potential solutions to northern China’s joint rural and urban groundwater challenges. Based on secondary data and a primary survey of groundwater management in the region, this report provides an overview of Zhengzhou’s groundwater development and use as well as the ongoing institutional and policy reform processes within the water sector. The results highlight how a deepening of ongoing reforms, which simultaneously consider groundwater as an integral rural and urban issue and a fundamental economic and social asset, may improve groundwater outcomes, not only in Zhengzhou but in China, as the country’s economy and demography continue to change.

Sun, Ronglin; Jin, Menggui; Giordano, Mark; Villholth, Karen G.

2009-09-01

123

EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU, income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

MADALINA NEACSU

2009-05-01

124

Some environmental challenges which the uranium production industry faces in the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the environmental challenges which the uranium production industry faces in the 21st century have been discussed in the paper. They are: the use of the linear non-threshold (LNT) model for radiation protection, the concept of 'controllable dose' as an alternative to the current International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of dose limitation, the future of collective dose and the ALARA (As low As Reasonably Achievable) principle and the application of a risk-based framework for managing hazards. The author proposes that, the risk assessment/risk management framework could be used for managing the environmental, safety and decommissioning issues associated with the uranium fuel cycle. (author)

125

Management Innovation in Brazilian Technology Companies: The Challenges Faced by Managers in the Practice of Innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overall objective of the study was to analyze the process of innovation management in technology companies in an Informatics Nucleus in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was qualitative and by the point of view of its nature was applied. It was also characterized as a descriptive research. In order to face challenges in the market, managers of companies from Informatics Nucleus must continually innovate in their processes by acquiring new organizational knowledge and showing an entrepreneurial and innovative approach within the market, the execution and maintenance. Expansion of such actions has become fundamental to the further strengthening of technology companies in the State of Bahia.

Luan Carlos Santos Silva

2012-10-01

126

Changes and Challenges in Rural Graduate Medical Education: The Family Medicine Spokane Rural Training Track Experience in Colville, Wash.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural community-based graduate medical education programs in family practice generate highly trained physicians who typically settle and practice in rural communities. In response to federal funding cutbacks and revised accreditation requirements that threatened its program, the Colville, Washington, Mount Carmel Hospital agreed to fully fund its…

Maudlin, Robert K.; Newkirk, Gary R.; Snook, Michael D.; Cooper, Gloria

2000-01-01

127

Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

2010-08-05

128

Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN  

CERN Document Server

An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

Schmidt, Reiner

1999-01-01

129

The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal industry as a whole. Veterinary colleges have changed in response to the increased number of students who are interested in companion animal medicine. These changes have resulted in diminished large animal content in the professional curricula, attrition of the number of faculty teaching food animal medicine, increases in the number of faculty dedicated to small animal curriculum, and an overwhelming sense that the veterinary program is centered around training in preparation for a career in companion animal practice. A multitude of factors likely contribute to the continued gravitation of veterinary students toward small animal practice. Veterinary colleges must strive to maintain a balanced, open-minded view of the profession so that students have an equal opportunity to choose a path that best suits their desires and interests.

David E. Anderson

2010-10-01

130

Supply Chain Management and Challenges Facing the Food Industry Sector in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexities of food supply chain impose enormous challenges to the processors. As compared to multinational food companies operating in the Tanzania, local firms have been performing inefficiently or going out of the business because they could hardly withstand the competition. SCM in the food industry sector was studied in a qualitative survey covered 23 food processing firms in Tanzania, with the purposes of identifying the existing supply chain operation, knowledge of SCM concept and challenges facing the sector. The findings of this study suggest that a lot of efforts need to be addressed to ensure that processors benefits from the concept of SCM. The understanding of SCM concept among the processors seems to be low, thus, hindering them from taping the opportunity offered by SCM strategies. The sector still faces a number of factors which impede the firms to grow fast and compete in the global market. Such factors include technical know-how, research and development, capital, managerial and physical infrastructures. Keywords Supply chain management; Inventory management; Customer perceived value; food industry.

Juma Makweba Ruteri

2009-11-01

131

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area w [...] ho were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

Julie, O' Connor; Martha, Geiger.

2009-05-01

132

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other Language learners in the Western Cape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

Julie O'Connor

2009-05-01

133

Finding the 'First Voice' in rural England: the challenges of safeguarding intangible heritage in a national museum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to explore the challenges of defining intangible heritage and ‘community’ in England. It uses as its case study the Museum of English Rural Life, University of Reading: an urban museum with a rural theme.The paper examines current theoretical discourse around the concept of the ‘first voice’ and debate about the role of museums in the preservation of intangible heritage. It then examines the relevance of these concepts to the identification of ‘rural’ intangible heritage stake holders in England. In this way, it shows the potential for concepts of intangible heritage to influence national museums.However, by applying theory and practice which is designed to support work with well-defined ‘originating communities’ to a national museum, it also highlights the challenges of initiating community engagement in a multicultural society.

Rhianedd Smith

2009-01-01

134

Challenges on pedagogical mediation in face-to-face and at-a-distance teachers-education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our reflections on pedagogical mediation in face-to-face and at-a-distance teachers-education were here systematized, highlighting, initially, the educational literature and the direction of related public politicies. This principles shown that the insertion of technological-communicative means in the pedagogical mediation in teachers’ education can become a research field related to academic activities, such as the electronical monitoring of distance learning, and the elaboration and implementation of online didactic materials.

Elena Maria Mallmann

2010-07-01

135

Challenges on pedagogical mediation in face-to-face and at-a-distance teachers-education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our reflections on pedagogical mediation in face-to-face and at-a-distance teachers-education were here systematized, highlighting, initially, the educational literature and the direction of related public politicies. This principles shown that the insertion of technological-communicative means in the pedagogical mediation in teachers’ education can become a research field related to academic activities, such as the electronical monitoring of distance learning, and the elaboration and imple...

Elena Maria Mallmann; Araci Hack Catapan; Bastos, Fa?bio Da P.

2010-01-01

136

Challenges facing HIV-positive persons who use drugs and their families in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hypothesized that persons who use drugs (PWUD) in Vietnam who are also HIV-positive may face additional challenges in psychosocial outcomes, and these challenges may extend to their family members. In this study, we examined depressive symptoms, stigma, social support, and caregiver burden of HIV-positive PWUD and their family members, compared to the outcomes of HIV-negative PWUD and their family members. Baseline, 3-month, and 6-month assessment data were gathered from 83 PWUD and 83 family members recruited from four communes in Phú Th? Province, Vietnam. For PWUD, although we observed a general decline in overall stigma over time for both groups, HIV-positive PWUD consistently reported significantly higher overall stigma for all three periods. Depressive symptoms among family members in both groups declined over time; however, family members of HIV-positive PWUD reported higher depressive symptoms across all three periods. In addition, family members of HIV-positive PWUD reported lower levels of tangible support across all three periods. Caregiver burden among family members of HIV-positive PWUD increased significantly over time, whereas the reported burden among family members of HIV-negative PWUD remained relatively unchanged. The findings highlight the need for future interventions for PWUD and family members, with targeted and culturally specific strategies to focus on the importance of addressing additional stigma experienced by PWUD who are HIV-positive. Such challenges may have direct negative impact on their family members' depressive symptoms, tangible support, and caregiver burden. PMID:25285396

Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Le Anh

2015-03-01

137

Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners  

Science.gov (United States)

Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

2006-01-01

138

The Challenges facing Professional Education and Practice of Academic Librarianship in the HE Sector in the UK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines the challenges facing professional education and practice of academic librarianship in a changing Higher Education world. Librarians in the UK, like all the professionals in the academic sector, are faced with changes in organisational mission within the university, and the changing role of information within society. Inter alia, they have to be accountable inside and outside the university and are in competition for resource allocation and funding. Against this socio-po...

Emilce Sandra Rees

2005-01-01

139

Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

Dangi Jyoti

2012-04-01

140

Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?  

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Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

Morten Tryland

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Rural Community Colleges: Creating Institutional Hybrids for the New Economy.  

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The rural community college has evolved into a multipurpose institution that meets lifelong learning needs and the economy's demand for information and skills. The best institutions merge an applied higher education with extension-like services for local industry. New challenges facing rural community colleges include competition from other…

Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

2001-01-01

142

Voluntarism as a Mediator of the Experience of Growing Old in Evolving Rural Spaces and Changing Rural Places  

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This paper examines voluntarism as a response to the challenges faced by people growing old in rural communities that are themselves being transformed in fundamental ways, both socially and demographically. Informed by evolving theorisations within the rural aging and geographies of voluntarism literatures, we outline the key processes in space…

Joseph, Alun E.; Skinner, Mark W.

2012-01-01

143

Promoting Rural Education: The Role of the Society of the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA)  

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The paper explores the role of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and the challenges it has faced as the primary voice for Australian rural educators. The paper charts the origins of SPERA, and the contributions of key people involved in its foundation. The paper then examines the advocacy and impact of SPERA…

Boylan, Colin

2012-01-01

144

Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

2011-01-01

145

Challenge of reducing perinatal mortality in rural Congo: findings of a prospective, population-based study  

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Each year, an estimated six million perinatal deaths occur worldwide, and 98% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. These estimates are based on surveys in both urban and rural areas, and they may underrepresent the problem in rural areas. This study was conducted to quantify perinatal mortality, to identify the associated risk factors, and to determine the most common causes of early neonatal death in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were ...

Matendo, R. M.; Engmann, C. M.; Ditekemena, J. D.; Gado, J.; Tshefu, A.; Mcclure, E. M.; Moore, J.; Boelaert, M.; Carlo, W. A.; Wright, L. L.; Bose, C. L.

2011-01-01

146

Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, afications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

147

The Greek-Catholic Church In Romania Facing The Challenges Of The Post-Modern Society  

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Full Text Available Starting mostly with the second half of the 20th century, the churches and the religious communities are facing the challenges raised by the process of secularization, which is considered by some sociologists of religion as irreversible. The most affected ones were / are the traditional churches and the most obvious area where this phenomenon has become very visible is the Western Europe. This study aims to analyze the situation of the traditional churches in Romania, with a special focus on the Greek-Catholic Church, from the same perspective: the impact of post-modernity over a church which is very much orientated towards the West, which is becoming more and more urban and is still passing through a complicated process of structuring and transition. The study underlines the fact that one of the answers to the problems raised by the process of secularization is based on the way in which the ecclesiastical community is built and on how deep is the consciousness of the confessional identity rooted in the mind and the soul of the believers.  

Ciprian Ghisa

2014-06-01

148

Les maires des petites communes face aux enjeux de la diversification du monde rural, une enquête auprès de 436 élus de Midi-Pyrénées.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mayors of the small communes face to the stakes of the diversification of the rural areas, a survey of 436 mayors elected in the “Région Midi-Pyrénées”. This study presents the results of a survey using a postal questionnaire addressed to a sample representative of the mayors of the communes less than 2500 inhabitants in the “Région Midi-Pyrénées”. This document describes successively: 1) municipal teams, 2) electoral elections, competitions and renewal of the elected offici...

Nevers, Jean-yves; Bages, Robert

2008-01-01

149

Challenges faced in e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Namibia  

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The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period. Storage also poses one of our main challenges. The institution lacks sufficient storage and at present some data are stored externally. Similarly, the back-up storage is limited and outdated, as in some instances storage tapes are used. The Ministry plans to acquire a new storage capacity to enable it to locally host all the data. Subsequently this new storage facility will include back-up storage hosted off-site. The acquisition is in progress and the implementation of the new system is envisaged within the near future. The Ministry is trying its utmost to upgrade its e-infrastructure to support the business of the organisation.

Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada

2014-05-01

150

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

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Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

Elias Kiarie Kagira

2012-05-01

151

THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING  

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Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

Kapil Goel

2012-03-01

152

Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ pr...

Vigano, Laura; Bonomo, Luciano

2006-01-01

153

Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact ...

Akhakpe Ighodalo; Fatile Olufemi Jacob; Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

2012-01-01

154

De los problemas a los retos de la población rural de Castilla y León. (From the problems to the challenges of the rural population in Castile-Leon.  

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Full Text Available Uno de los temas que más preocupan en la actualidad en Castilla y León es el relacionado con los problemas y desafíos de la población en las zonas rurales. Con el fin de contribuir al debate sobre esta cuestión, este texto pretende ofrecer algunas reflexiones sobre este importante y controvertido tema. En primer lugar, se reflexiona sobre la importancia de las cuestiones de población en el imaginario colectivo de la región, en el estado de la autonomía y en la “Agenda para la Población de Castilla y León”. En segundo lugar, se aportan algunos datos poblacionales básicos, poniendo de relieve las disparidades, las diferencias demográficas y los contrastes que existen en la región. Por último, en tercer lugar, proporcionar algunas propuestas para la acción, centrándose en particular en las implicaciones de los nuevos escenarios de la ruralidad. One of the issues that most concern in Castile-Leon are related to the problems and challenges of the population in rural areas. In order to contribute to the debate on this question, this text seeks to provide some thoughts about this important and controversial issue. First, some reflections about the importance of population issues in the collective imagination of the region, in the status of autonomy and in the “Agenda for the Population of Castile-Leon”. Secondly, there is some basic population data, highlighting the disparities, demographic differences and contrasts that exist in the region. Finally, thirdly, some proposals for action are provided, focusing in particular on the implications of the new context in the rural areas.

José Manuel del Barrio Aliste

2013-12-01

155

What are the personal and public challenges facing black women in their quest for leadership roles in schools?  

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This mini dissertation examines the personal and public challenges facing Black women in their quest for leadership in schools. Secondary school leadership remains a male-dominated arena in many schools even after a decade of democracy in the country. This is contrary to the democratic ideals of the country, which include participation in governance, social justice and gender equity in particular. This study seeks to identify the root causes of gender imbalances and to work out stra...

Simelane, Immigardht B. H.

2004-01-01

156

Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S.) when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007), the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and ...

Brooke Fisher Liu; Abbey Blake Levenshus

2010-01-01

157

The Challenge of Bottom-Up Paradigm and Popular Participation in Sustainable Rural Development of Nigeria: The Way Forward  

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Full Text Available The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformation inspite of the attendant difficulties. It examined popular participation as a concept relating to gaining political accessibility through democratic process, mobilizing and educating the masses to support government programmes and policies as in the case of present removal of fuel subsidy which generated hot debate and resulted in industrial action by labour unions with a view to changing government decision. But popular participation is being confronted with serious challenge of control in Nigeria. There is corruption in the high places, armed robbery attacks, religious intolerance, political violence, tribal discrimination and insecurity of life and properties thereby threatening corporate existence of the country. The paper advocates for the strengthening of a bottom-up strategy instead of top-down through decentralization of sufficient powers, functions and resources in favour of rural majority at the grassroot and by doing so, it will foster a balanced development between the centre and the subordinate local administrative units. Moreover, democratic governance must be allowed to reign supreme not only to attain the national goals of 2020 but also enable Nigeria to assume her rightful position in the world. One concludes that if the local communities are given the opportunities to get involved in the decision-making process that often affect their condition of living, engage in productive ventures, self-help communal projects, and harnessing the creative potentials, talents, skills combined with physical and human resources, it would go a long way to reduce not only the over-dependence of the people on the government to provide everything they need but also help to improve socio-economic well-being in the backward, under-privileged and disadvantaged rural areas.

ADEFILA J. O

2012-08-01

158

The Background and Challenges Faced by the Small Medium Enterprises. A Human Resource Development Perspective  

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In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s) in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME...

Siti Sarah bt. Omar; Lawrence Arokiasamy; Maimunah Ismail

2009-01-01

159

HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on nurses in their role as infant feeding counsellors in pMTCT programmes and the urgent need to provide the training and support structure necessary to promote professional confidence and skills. The organisation of counselling services must to a larger extent take into account the local realities in which nurses construct their role as counsellors to HIV-positive childbearing women.

Blystad Astrid

2007-07-01

160

An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study and the expected investment cost of these projects, and the environmental impacts of the renewable energy.

 
 
 
 
161

Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

Grinnell, Max

2012-03-02

162

Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges  

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Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

Janusz Mindykowski

2013-12-01

163

Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

2011-01-01

164

SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

165

PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated…

Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

2006-01-01

166

Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0%) were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%). Down’s syndrome (17.23%) was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%). In 70.68% children no clinical...

Dr. Nadeem Ahmad; Joshi, Dr H. S.; Dr. Rubeena Bano; Phalke, Prof D. B.

2010-01-01

167

Supporting people with AIDS and their carers in rural South Africa: possibilities and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under-served rural areas—home to over half of people in sub-Saharan Africa—bear a heavy HIV/AIDS burden. We present a case study of the existence and quality of support networks available to people with AIDS and their carers in a South African rural area. Drawing on 45 interviews and 13 focus groups, we identify key local HIV/AIDS-relevant actors and agencies in civil society, the public and the private sectors. The most effective support comes from families and neighbours, volunteer heal...

Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi; Maimane, Sbongile; Sibiya, Zweni

2008-01-01

168

Skilled Care at Birth among Rural Women in Nepal: Practice and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess health problems during delivery and seeking care. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two Village Development Committees in Nepal in 2006. In total, 150 women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the...

Dhakal, Sulochana; Teijlingen, Edwin; Raja, Edwin Amalraj; Dhakal, Keshar Bahadur

2011-01-01

169

Challenges and recognizable patterns in the en-face OCT of the retina  

Science.gov (United States)

Using an advanced prototype of en-face OCT/cSLO instrument, an extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. Uniquely specific and reoccurring patterns could be characterized for macular hole ("Chrysanthemum flower"), CME ("Swiss cheese wheel"), Macular Pucker ("Star"), CSR ("Target") and RPE Detachment ("Ring of Light"). Other entities such as polypoidal choroidopathy and diabetic edema residues had easily recognizable features but were variable enough to defy specific descriptive comparison. To facilitate the interpretation of the en-face OCT images, a three dimensional interactive simulation was designed which allows the demonstration of characteristic features and artifacts encountered in the acquisition of transverse images.

Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Lydon, Chris; Dunne, Shane; Dobre, George M.; Cucu, Radu G.; Jackson, David A.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Rosenthal, Jeanne L.; Muldoon, Thomas; Walsh, Joseph B.; Orlock, Dennis A.; Fisher, Yale; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

2004-07-01

170

Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

2011-01-01

171

Conducting Program Evaluation with Hispanics in Rural Settings: Ethical Issues and Evaluation Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many…

Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.

2010-01-01

172

Behind before They Begin: The Challenge of Early Childhood Education in Rural China  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this paper is to analyse factors (accessibility, attendance rates and quality of preschools) that may be affecting the educational readiness of China's rural children before they enter the formal school system. Using data from a survey of 82 preschools and 492 households in six counties in three provinces of China, this paper…

Luo, Renfu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Zhao, Qiran; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

2012-01-01

173

The Challenges facing Professional Education and Practice of Academic Librarianship in the HE Sector in the UK  

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Full Text Available This article examines the challenges facing professional education and practice of academic librarianship in a changing Higher Education world. Librarians in the UK, like all the professionals in the academic sector, are faced with changes in organisational mission within the university, and the changing role of information within society. Inter alia, they have to be accountable inside and outside the university and are in competition for resource allocation and funding. Against this socio-political background, the following eight challenges have been isolated: 1. recognition of librarianship as a profession (and the accreditation of library and information studies; 2. ethical professional responsibilities in a changing organisational world, and how they can be weaved into the librarian’s professional education; 3. the librarian in a changing (HE world; 4. the “assault” on professionalism; 5. the user’s centrality: fact or fiction?; 6. the librarian in an era of global challenge: is resistance futile?; 7. Potemkin villages: fabrication and performance in the academy, and 8. feminisation of the HE professions and patterns of employment. 9. Lastly, I’ll examine future scenarios for librarians and the implications of present practices, which affect all sectors.

Emilce Sandra Rees

2005-07-01

174

State-level employment, accessibility and rurality  

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Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

Casey Abington

2014-09-01

175

Challenges Faced and the Strategies Adopted by a Malaysian English Language Teacher during Teaching Practice  

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Full Text Available In this paper, the reflections on distinct and crucial teaching practices of a pre-service English language teacher are presented and examined. The focus of this paper is on three aspects of class teaching that the teacher found presented a challenge during her teaching practice. For each aspect, the nature of the difficulties and the challenges are described and deciphered. In addition, various strategies that the teacher explored and experimented in order to meet those challenges are outlined and elucidated in terms of their effectiveness. This process is interwoven with the nurturing of pedagogical knowledge of the teacher, which is developed from her reflective practices. This paper also highlights some of the teacher’s plans and thoughts on dealing with those challenges in the future. Implications for teaching practice are also discussed.

Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

2008-06-01

176

Supply Chain Management and Challenges Facing the Food Industry Sector in Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complexities of food supply chain impose enormous challenges to the processors. As compared to multinational food companies operating in the Tanzania, local firms have been performing inefficiently or going out of the business because they could hardly withstand the...

Juma Makweba Ruteri

2009-01-01

177

Subspace-based discrete transform encoded local binary patterns representations for robust periocular matching on NIST's face recognition grand challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we employ several subspace representations (principal component analysis, unsupervised discriminant projection, kernel class-dependence feature analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis) on our proposd discrete transform encoded local binary patterns (DT-LBP) to match periocular region on a large data set such as NIST's face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) ver2 database. We strictly follow FRGC Experiment 4 protocol, which involves 1-to-1 matching of 8014 uncontrolled probe periocular images to 16 028 controlled target periocular images (~128 million pairwise face match comparisons). The performance of the periocular region is compared with that of full face with different illumination preprocessing schemes. The verification results on periocular region show that subspace representation on DT-LBP outperforms LBP significantly and gains a giant leap from traditional subspace representation on raw pixel intensity. Additionally, our proposed approach using only the periocular region is almost as good as full face with only 2.5% reduction in verification rate at 0.1% false accept rate, yet we gain tolerance to expression, occlusion, and capability of matching partial faces in crowds. In addition, we have compared the best standalone DT-LBP descriptor with eight other state-of-the-art descriptors for facial recognition and achieved the best performance. The two general frameworks are our major contribution: 1) a general framework that employs various generative and discriminative subspace modeling techniques for DT-LBP representation and 2) a general framework that encodes discrete transforms with local binary patterns for the creation of robust descriptors. PMID:24951691

Juefei-Xu, Felix; Savvides, Marios

2014-08-01

178

E-Learning for empowering the rural people in Bangladesh opportunities and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractInadequate educational resources,insufficient and unqualified teachers and health care providers,and lack of community involvement, are some of the causes that contribute to the oor state of education and health in rural Bangladesh. This is although, it is well known that,access to quality education and scientific knowledge is essential for creating economic rowth and sustainable human development, including poverty alleviation and improvement of human health. In all countries and in ...

Mridha, Mannan; Erlandsson, Bjo?rn-erik; et al.

2013-01-01

179

Government and e-participation programs: A study of the challenges faced by institutional projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the difficulties faced by government projects aimed at fostering citizens' political participation by using the Internet. After presenting the participatory tools found on two institutional Web sites (the Brazilian Presidency and the House of Representatives), I examine how the constraints pointed out by a relevant part of the literature in e-participation are reflected in such initiatives. Promoting online participation needs more than providing communication resources, s...

Marques, Francisco Paulo Jamil Almeida Federal University Of Minas Gerais

2010-01-01

180

Rural male suicide in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. PMID:20541304

Alston, Margaret

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking Towards the Sky for an Answer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access to safe water supply has great influence on the health, economic productivity and quality of life of the people. But meeting this need is one of the major challenges facing the rural communities of Nigeria today. The purpose of this review paper is to determine whether water supply have contributed effectively to health, social, and cultural development of Nigerian rural communities. Over 70% of households in rural communities do not have access to improved water supply. They rely sole...

Ishaku, H. T.; Majid, M. R.; Ajayi, A. A.; Haruna, A.

2011-01-01

182

How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research  

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Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

Isola Ajiferuke

2011-01-01

183

The Delicate Balancing Act: Challenges and Successes Facing College Student Women in Formal Leadership Roles  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through…

Haber-Curran, Paige

2013-01-01

184

How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

Garrett, Simon

2010-01-01

185

Challenge of reducing perinatal mortality in rural Congo: findings of a prospective, population-based study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year, an estimated six million perinatal deaths occur worldwide, and 98% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. These estimates are based on surveys in both urban and rural areas, and they may underrepresent the problem in rural areas. This study was conducted to quantify perinatal mortality, to identify the associated risk factors, and to determine the most common causes of early neonatal death in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected on 1,892 births. Risk factors associated with perinatal deaths were identified using multivariate analysis with logistic regression models. Causes of early neonatal deaths were determined by physician-review of information describing death. The perinatal mortality rate was 61 per 1,000 births; the stillbirth rate was 30 per 1,000 births; and the early neonatal death rate was 32 per 1,000 livebirths. Clinically-relevant factors independently associated with perinatal death included: low birthweight [odds ratio (OR)=13.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.82-23.35], breech presentation (OR)=12.41; 95% CI 4.62-33.33), lack of prenatal care (OR=2.70, 95% CI 1.81-4.02), and parity greater than 4 (OR=1.93 95% CI 1.11-3.37). Over one-half of early neonatal deaths (n=37) occurred during the first two postnatal days, and the most common causes were low birthweight/prematurity (47%), asphyxia (34%), and infection (8%). The high perinatal mortality rate in rural communities in the DRC, approximately one-half of which is attributable to early neonatal death, may be modifiable. Specifically, deaths due to breech presentation, the second most common risk factor, may be reduced by making available emergency obstetric care. Most neonatal deaths occur soon after birth, and nearly three-quarters are caused by low birthweight/prematurity or asphyxia. Neonatal mortality might be reduced by targeting interventions to improve neonatal resuscitation and care of larger preterm infants. PMID:22106760

Matendo, Richard M; Engmann, Cyril M; Ditekemena, John D; Gado, Justin; Tshefu, Antoinette; McClure, Elizabeth M; Moore, Janet; Boelaert, Marleen; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wright, Linda L; Bose, Carl L

2011-10-01

186

Los desafíos para el minuto de dios (A The challenges facing minuto de dios  

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Full Text Available Este es el caso de la Corporación Minuto de Dios, MD, organización sin ánimo de lucro creada en 1958 para con el fin de tratar de dar solución integral a los problemas sociales de sus afiliados?1. La corporación pertenece a la Organización Minuto de Dios, entidad comprometida con el desarrollo integral de la persona y las comunidades marginadas, tanto urbanas como rurales, a la luz del evangelio cristiano. Su principal línea de trabajo es vivienda de interés social ?ha construido cerca de 60.000 soluciones? y además ofrece servicios en atención de desastres, microempresa, atención a la tercera edad, contacto espiritual y desarrollo juvenil. La corporación ha establecido, desde su origen, alianzas con empresas como Manuelita S.A., uno de los ingenios azucareros más grandes de Colombia. En la década del 90 consolidó colaboraciones con Servibanca, entidad colombiana sin ánimo de lucro cuya misión es promover la automatización de la banca colombiana a través de una red de banca electrónica; el banco Davivienda2 y la red de supermercados Carulla Vivero. En estas tres alianzas las empresas privadas ponían al servicio del MD su infraestructura para recaudar donaciones del público que hacía uso de sus servicios.

Diana Trujillo

2003-01-01

187

The essence of leadership: facing the challenge of being the new manager.  

Science.gov (United States)

To meet the challenge of today's work environment, the leader of a professional, technically skilled, and highly diverse work "group must be an enabler of people, a facilitator of groups, as well as know how to be an effective group member" (Blanchard et al, The One Minute Manager Builds High Performance Teams, New York, NY, William Morrow, 1990). To accomplish this the leader must participate as a member of the work group as well as identify areas of needed management support and direction. Creating the climate that allows professional work teams to develop and mature is both challenging and rewarding. Fully mature, high-performance teams require minimal direction from the leader. At this stage empowerment is reached: the leader lets go so that the team can get going. PMID:8478810

Hannah, B A

1993-02-01

188

Implementation of a Curriculum Management Tool: Challenges Faced by a Large Australian University  

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Full Text Available This paper describes how a large Australian university implemented a new curriculum management tool ? UNITS. UNITS is an online repository of unit guides and a curriculum mapping tool. We analyze the advantages of using a university-wide curriculum management tool and the change management processes used to develop the bespoke tool. Staff development in the use of the tool has led to more thoughtful use of learning and teaching activities and better linking of learning outcomes with assessment. To ensure a smooth transition, faculty were supported throughout the process of implementation. Drop-in clinics, video clips, discipline-specific implementation guides as well as a UNITS help page were provided. This paper contributes to the understanding of the challenges in setting up and implementing a large-scale curriculum management tool in a university. Challenges including increased workload, intellectual property concerns, impact on academic freedom and technological issues are discussed.

Jennifer Lai

2012-10-01

189

The challenges faced in the design, conduct and analysis of surgical randomised controlled trials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Randomised evaluations of surgical interventions are rare; some interventions have been widely adopted without rigorous evaluation. Unlike other medical areas, the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design has not become the default study design for the evaluation of surgical interventions. Surgical trials are difficult to successfully undertake and pose particular practical and methodological challenges. However, RCTs have played a role in the assessment of surgical innovat...

Cook Jonathan A

2009-01-01

190

Computerized provider order entry systems – Research imperatives and organizational challenges facing pathology services  

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Information and communication technologies (ICT) are contributing to major changes taking place in pathology and within health services more generally. In this article, we draw on our research experience for over 7 years investigating the implementation and diffusion of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems to articulate some of the key informatics challenges confronting pathology laboratories. The implementation of these systems, with their improved information management and deci...

Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

191

Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time b...

Morten Tryland

2013-01-01

192

Ice in the Hot Box—What Adaptation Challenges Might We Face? (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Warming is projected to reduce ice, despite the tendency for increased precipitation. The many projected impacts include amplification of warming, sea-ice shrinkage opening seaways, and loss of water storage in snowpacks. However, sea-level rise may combine the largest effects with the greatest uncertainties. Rapid progress in understanding ice sheets has not yet produced projections with appropriately narrow uncertainties and high confidence to allow detailed planning. The range of recently published scaling arguments and back-of-the-envelope calculations is wide but often includes 1 m of rise this century. Steve Schneider’s many contributions on dangerous anthropogenic influence and on decision-making in the face of uncertainty help provide context for interpreting these preliminary and rapidly evolving results.

Alley, R. B.

2010-12-01

193

Disseminated form of syringoma (eruptive syringoma) sparing the face-a rare presentation causing diagnostic challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syringomas are benign neoplasms of the skin commonly appearing around the eye lids. Though common in middle-aged women, it affects all age groups. The lesions are asymptomatic, firm, discrete, translucent or skin colored flat-topped papules. Once papules of syringoma come into being, which usually is after puberty, they remain as they are for a lifetime. Disseminated lesions appearing on the abdomen, scalp and genital area has been described earlier. We report the disseminated form (eruptive) syringoma involving the trunk, the neck, and the upper extremities while sparing the face. Our case created a diagnostic difficulty because of the unusual distribution of lesions. The case is presented and discussed with review of literature. PMID:19271392

Temam, Fuad; Bizuneh, Elizabeth; Leekassa, Ruth

2008-07-01

194

RURAL BANKING FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KENYA  

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Full Text Available Rural poverty and underdevelopment in Kenya are a result of colonialism, which emphasized urban development at the expense of rural development. The new political dispensation in the country has shifted towards improving the lives of people who reside in the rural areas. Despite a positive policy shift by President Kibaki’s government, the lack of finance remains one of the fundamental issues in rural development. The study investigated the opportunities and challenges for establishing rural banks in the country. This desktop research collected data from literature on rural development and financial intermediation. The findings of the study are that opportunities and challenges for establishing rural banks in Kenya are social, political, and economic in nature. Despite the challenges, rural banking deserves support from civil society, government, and nongovernmental organizations.

Nader Naghshbandi

2014-11-01

195

Skilled care at birth among rural women in Nepal: practice and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess health problems during delivery and seeking care. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two Village Development Committees in Nepal in 2006. In total, 150 women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the survey were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The sample population included married women aged 15-49 years. Forty-six (31%) women delivered their babies at hospital, and 104 (69%) delivered at home. The cost of delivery at hospital was significantly (p delivery at home. Results of univariate analysis showed that women from Brahmin-Chhetri ethnicity, women with higher education or who were more skilled, whose husbands had higher education and more skilled jobs, had first or second childbirth, and having adverse previous obstetric history were associated with institutional delivery while women with higher education and having an adverse history of pregnancy outcome predicted the uptake of skilled delivery care in Nepal. The main perceived problems to access skilled delivery care were: distance to hospital, lack of transportation, lack of awareness on delivery care, and cost. The main reasons for seeking intrapartum care were long labour, retained placenta, and excessive bleeding. Only a quarter of women sought care immediately after problems occurred. The main reasons seeking care late were: the woman or her family not perceiving that there was a serious problem, distance to health facility, and lack of transport. The use of skilled birth attendants at delivery among rural women in Nepal is very poor. Home delivery by unskilled birth attendants is still a common practice among them. Many associated factors relating to the use of skilled delivery care that were identified included age, education and occupation of women, and education and occupation of husbands. Therefore, the availability of skilled delivery care services at the community, initiation of a primary health centre with skilled staff for delivery, and increasing awareness among women to seek skilled delivery care are the best solution. PMID:21957676

Dhakal, Sulochana; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Raja, Edwin Amalraj; Dhakal, Keshar Bahadur

2011-08-01

196

Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Meetings: Improving the practice of radiation oncology and facing future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical guidelines widely recognize the importance of multidisciplinary meetings (MDM) in the optimal care of lung cancer patients. The published literature suggest that dedicated Lung Cancer MDM lead to increased treatment utilization rates and improved survival outcomes for patients with lung cancer. For radiation oncologists, Lung Cancer MDM have been proven to support evidence-based practice and improve the utilization of radiotherapy. Lung Cancer MDM also allow for education and promotion of specialty radiotherapy services. The fast pace of modern medicine is also presenting new challenges for the multidisciplinary lung cancer team, and technological advances are likely to lead to new changes in the structure of traditional Lung Cancer MDM. PMID:25581058

Campbell, Belinda A; Ball, David; Mornex, Françoise

2015-02-01

197

Crisis Management: Challenge or Opportunity for Public and Private Managers Face Economic Disaster  

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Full Text Available Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The strategies adopted are based on a series of simplistic reasoning such as analogy, taking into account the ideas of experts, rigorous debate and experimentation. Napoleon Bonaparte said that "there is nothing more important and more valuable than being able to make decisions." Business leaders today must deal with an avalanche of ambiguity, it must decide on the future of the company. I intend to expose some successful methods by which top managers were able to transform into opportunities, challenges of economic crisis.

Lucean MIHALCEA

2012-11-01

198

Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past two decades, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. More recently, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems - Facing Safety and Security Challenges, held in Moscow in 2006. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, because it brought together senior regulators of nuclear safety, radiation safety and security from around the world to discuss how to improve regulatory effectiveness with the objective of improving the protection of the public and the users of nuclear and radioactive material. The International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, from 23 to 27 April 2007. This conference, again, was the first of its kind, because it was the first to address technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), the role they play in supporting either the national regulatory bodies or the industry in making optimum safety decisions and the challenges they face in providing this support. This conference provided a forum for the TSOs to discuss these and other issues with the organizations to which they provide this support - that is, the regulators and the operators/industry - as well as with other stakeholders such as research organizations and public authoas research organizations and public authorities. This conference can also be considered to have a link to the Moscow conference. The Moscow conference concluded that effective regulation of nuclear safety is vital for the safe use of nuclear energy and associated technologies, both now and in the future, and is an essential prerequisite for establishing an effective Global Nuclear Safety Regime. The Moscow conference also highlighted the importance of continued and improved international cooperation in the area of nuclear safety. These conclusions apply equally to TSOs, since their expertise is an integral part of supporting the regulatory decision making process over the entire life cycle of facilities and activities for the continuous improvement of safety. On the basis of the presentations and discussions, the conference developed conclusions as well as recommendations for consideration by TSOs, regulatory authorities, national governments, relevant international and regional organizations, the nuclear industry and other stakeholders. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a summary, the opening speeches, the invited papers, and the conclusions and summary of the conference by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers and the presentations that were submitted with some of the invited papers

199

The challenges faced in the design, conduct and analysis of surgical randomised controlled trials  

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Full Text Available Abstract Randomised evaluations of surgical interventions are rare; some interventions have been widely adopted without rigorous evaluation. Unlike other medical areas, the randomised controlled trial (RCT design has not become the default study design for the evaluation of surgical interventions. Surgical trials are difficult to successfully undertake and pose particular practical and methodological challenges. However, RCTs have played a role in the assessment of surgical innovations and there is scope and need for greater use. This article will consider the design, conduct and analysis of an RCT of a surgical intervention. The issues will be reviewed under three headings: the timing of the evaluation, defining the research question and trial design issues. Recommendations on the conduct of future surgical RCTs are made. Collaboration between research and surgical communities is needed to address the distinct issues raised by the assessment of surgical interventions and enable the conduct of appropriate and well-designed trials.

Cook Jonathan A

2009-02-01

200

Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

 
 
 
 
201

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

2010-11-01

202

Juggling educational ends: Non-Indigenous Yukon principals and the policy challenges that they face  

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Full Text Available This article reports on a 2008 study of non-indigenous principals working in indigenous Yukon contexts. It examines the policy contexts in which Yukon principals are embedded, giving attention to how they address the tensions that exist as a result of operating at the intersections of multiple policy levels. The application of critical ethnography generates the opportunity to reveal and examine the tensions, distinctions, and contradictions underpinning their practice. The principals identify fragmented curricular policy; the competition between instructional time, mandated external curricula, and locally developed curricula; and field trip and hiring policies as being problematic. The principals also describe how they cope with the challenges and tensions that arise as a result of being responsible and accountable to balance competing educational ends, to the satisfaction of multiple external levels of control. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the deployment of externally mandated curricula in the Yukon.

Simon Blakesley

2012-05-01

203

Perception Challenges Faced by Al-Qaeda on the Battlefield of Influence Warfare  

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Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges

James J.F. Forest

2012-03-01

204

The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it i [...] s expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.

Kathrin, Knüppe.

2011-01-01

205

Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: challenges facing new technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi -slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

206

Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural mexican-american mothers: the challenge of attrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n?=?26, attention control [AC] n?=?27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (??=?0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus providing an opportunity to reduce their children's risk of multiple diseases and obesity. Only when we address these considerations will we have an opportunity to decrease health disparities, promote healthy behaviors, and be trusted health care partners. PMID:25373565

Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim

2015-03-01

207

Frontier of therapeutic antibody discovery: The challenges and how to face them  

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Full Text Available Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines. The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies, phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far, and many incremental improvements are being made constantly. These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets. A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention. The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation. Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets. The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on. The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity; however, one needs contingency plans for emergence of anti-product antibody response for clinical trials.

Yun He

2012-01-01

208

Potential challenges facing distributed leadership in health care: evidence from the UK National Health Service.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discourse of leaderism in health care has been a subject of much academic and practical debate. Recently, distributed leadership (DL) has been adopted as a key strand of policy in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, there is some confusion over the meaning of DL and uncertainty over its application to clinical and non-clinical staff. This article examines the potential for DL in the NHS by drawing on qualitative data from three co-located health-care organisations that embraced DL as part of their organisational strategy. Recent theorising positions DL as a hybrid model combining focused and dispersed leadership; however, our data raise important challenges for policymakers and senior managers who are implementing such a leadership policy. We show that there are three distinct forms of disconnect and that these pose a significant problem for DL. However, we argue that instead of these disconnects posing a significant problem for the discourse of leaderism, they enable a fantasy of leadership that draws on and supports the discourse. PMID:25529349

Martin, Graeme; Beech, Nic; MacIntosh, Robert; Bushfield, Stacey

2015-01-01

209

Facing the challenge of mammalian neural microcircuits: taking a few breaths may help.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breathing in mammals is a seemingly straightforward behaviour controlled by the brain. A brainstem nucleus called the preBötzinger Complex sits at the core of the neural circuit generating respiratory rhythm. Despite the discovery of this microcircuit almost 25 years ago, the mechanisms controlling breathing remain elusive. Given the apparent simplicity and well-defined nature of regulatory breathing behaviour, the identification of much of the circuitry, and the ability to study breathing in vitro as well as in vivo, many neuroscientists and physiologists are surprised that respiratory rhythm generation is still not well understood. Our view is that conventional rhythmogenic mechanisms involving pacemakers, inhibition or bursting are problematic and that simplifying assumptions commonly made for many vertebrate neural circuits ignore consequential detail. We propose that novel emergent mechanisms govern the generation of respiratory rhythm. That a mammalian function as basic as rhythm generation arises from complex and dynamic molecular, synaptic and neuronal interactions within a diverse neural microcircuit highlights the challenges in understanding neural control of mammalian behaviours, many (considerably) more elaborate than breathing. We suggest that the neural circuit controlling breathing is inimitably tractable and may inspire general strategies for elucidating other neural microcircuits. PMID:25556783

Feldman, Jack L; Kam, Kaiwen

2015-01-01

210

Challenges Faced by Village Health Teams (VHTs in Amuru, Gulu and Pader Districts in Northern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Primary health care provision through innovative community level interventions such as the Village Health Team (VHT concept in Uganda can be a rational way of achieving universal access to healthcare. This cross-sectional study interviewed 150 VHT members and 16 key informants in three districts in Northern Uganda to establish the roles of VHTs, the service gaps encountered and the measures in place to address these gaps. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Direct content analysis of themes of transcribed qualitative data was conducted manually for common codes. The majority of the respondents 64.29% (n = 72 reported to have been VHT volunteers for more than 5 years. Among the roles were community mobilization reported by 99.1% (n = 111 and home visiting of individuals reported by 97.3% (n = 109. Lack of transport, motivation, adequate skills and community appreciation with nearly no measures in place to counteract the challenges was reported by almost all respondents. Although the VHT concept can be a significant means of achieving universal access to primary health care, extensive community involvement and motivation of the volunteers are highly needed for a maximum benefit.

Geofrey Kimbugwe

2014-09-01

211

Benefits and challenges of the use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long term retention of the radioactive tritium fuel in co-deposited carbon layers may be unacceptable for reasons of fuel supply and safety. Moreover, the erosion yield of low-Z materials will be far too high and their lifetime and their radiation hardness will not be sufficient in a future reactor. These serious concerns caused the reconsideration of high-Z based plasma facing components (PFCs), which show strongly reduced erosion yield especially for the high density, low temperature divertor operation necessary in an ITER-like device or a reactor. Concurrently the T retention is expected to be quite small. Operation with Mo and W is extensively explored in the high field tokamaks FT-U and Alcator C-mod and in the mid-sized devices TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. JT-60 U started investigations installing a divertor segment with W coatings and JET will have a W divertor during its ITER-like Wall project from 2010 on. Since the influxes of high-Z elements are very small and their allowed concentrations in the central plasma are very low (-4), new spectroscopic tools are being developed. Surface analysis techniques are used to support the spectroscopic erosion measurements and to investigate the H retention properties. The W-experiments in the divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade show that most of the relevant discharge scenarios are not hampered and the tungsten concentration remains below some 10-5. Comparison of limiter and divertor operation clearly demonstrer and divertor operation clearly demonstrates the advantage of the lower plasma temperature at the plasma wall interaction zone in the case of the divertor plasma. There are also regimes not suited for high-Z operation: discharges with very low central anomalous transport favour neoclassical accumulation, discharges with suppressed edge transport show largely increased impurity concentrations. However, the former can be cured by applying central heating, the latter can be overcome by externally controlling the frequency of the instabilities. Nevertheless, the experience with W PFCs obtained so far, leads to a fairly optimistic view for their use in a future reactor. This document is made of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)

212

Poor and Homeless Continue to Face Major Challenges in Urban Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Polk Gulch cleanup angers somehttp://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/10/12/POLKSTREET.TMPNation taking a new look at homelessness, solutionshttp://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-10-11-homeless-cover_x.htmStudy: U.S. poor trapped in urban areashttp://www.cnn.com/2005/US/10/12/poverty.study.ap/index.htmlKatrinaâ??s Window: Confronting Concentrated Poverty Across America [pdf]http://www.brookings.edu/metro/pubs/20051012_concentratedpoverty.htmUnited States Interagency Council on Homelessness [pdf]http://www.ich.gov/As the recent tragedy wrought by Hurricane Katrina revealed, poor and homeless residents of Americaâ??s cities remain particularly vulnerable. Whether it is the phenomenon of gentrification or the world of natural hazards, many continue to remain marginalized in terms of opportunities, whether they be economic or otherwise. This week, a number of news pieces once again reminded the general public about the precarious situation faced by this group. In Los Angeles, the City Council decided to impose the first limits on the luxury loft and condo boom that is gradually pushing out single-room-occupancy hotels, most of which are concentrated in the cityâ??s downtown area. While this type of creeping development may affect the poor in increasingly popular urban places, less successful cities continue to have many neighborhoods with concentrated poverty. As a report from the Brookings Institution released this week noted, poor planning over the past several decades has continued to concentrate public housing at the urban core. Generally, the end result is that many urban dwellers remain cut off from the rapid economic and housing growth that has been experienced around the urban fringe. The first link will lead users to a nice article from this Wednesdayâ??s Los Angeles Times that discusses the recent action taken by the City Council. The second link leads visitors to a San Francisco Chronicle article that discusses the recent trend towards gentrification in the cityâ??s Polk Gulch neighborhood. The third link leads to a USA Today article from this past Monday, which talks about how the recent Hurricane Katrina tragedy may transform certain aspects of addressing the homelessness situation in the country. The fourth link will take visitors to a CNN news piece, which talks about the recent report from the Brookings Institution that examines the concentration of urban poverty throughout a number of US cities. The fifth link leads to the full text of that report, authored by Alan Berube. The final link will take users to the homepage of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness.

2005-01-01

213

International Cooperation and Internal displacement in Colombia: facing the challenges of the largest humanitarian crisis in South America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this article is to understand the interaction between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Colombian government in their attempts to mitigate forced internal displacement, as well as the main challenges faced in addressing this problem. This article focu [...] ses on the interpretation adopted by the forementioned actors, who link this displacement to the armed conflict the country that has endured for more than forty years. Although this issue has been discussed for decades, the formulation of national policies intended to mitigate its effects came late, in the mid-1990s. Similarly, the UNHCR began paying more attention only in the late 1990s. The article concludes that there is a significant disparity between the development of norms regarding the internally displaced and the execution of such norms. For example, there needs to be greater coordination between national and local organizations, and national and international organizations. With respect to the prevention of internal displacement and the evaluation of the impact of these policies, the challenge is even greater; as such efforts are in the beginning stages. The UNHCR has used the same criteria as the Colombian government in executing its tasks; these criteria should be rethought and redefined in light of the High Commissioner's experience.

Manuela Trindade, Viana.

214

The Challenges of Youth Empowerment through Access to Credit in the Rural Areas of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Unemployment and poverty are endemic among Nigerian youth in spite of numerousapproaches to curtail the menace Access to credit is critical to enable the poor totransform their production systems and thus exit poverty. It is a well known fact that anefficient financial sector that responds to the needs of the private sector increasesinvestment, enhances economic growth, and creates job opportunities which is one of themajor challenges for developing economies. This paper examines the role of creditdeepening on youth empowerment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The approach of thepaper is qualitative and uses content analysis; literature was reviewed and thereafterconclusion was drawn based on the literature weight. It is however important to note thateconomic empowerment through accessibility to credit could be achieved if and only iffactors like collateral, interest rate, transaction cost and financial literacy, among othersthat pose challenges in accessing credit are remedied Specifically we recommend Indianmodel (Bharatia Yuva Shakti.

Haruna Mohammed Aliero

2013-10-01

215

The Challenges of Youth Empowerment through Access to Credit in the Rural Areas of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unemployment and poverty are endemic among Nigerian youth in spite of numerousapproaches to curtail the menace Access to credit is critical to enable the poor totransform their production systems and thus exit poverty. It is a well known fact that anefficient financial sector that responds to the needs of the private sector increasesinvestment, enhances economic growth, and creates job opportunities which is one of themajor challenges for developing economies. This paper examines the role of ...

Haruna Mohammed Aliero; Saifullahi Sani Ibrahim

2013-01-01

216

Facing the challenges of structure-based target prediction by inverse virtual screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational target prediction for bioactive compounds is a promising field in assessing off-target effects. Structure-based methods not only predict off-targets, but, simultaneously, binding modes, which are essential for understanding the mode of action and rationally designing selective compounds. Here, we highlight the current open challenges of computational target prediction methods based on protein structures and show why inverse screening rather than sequential pairwise protein-ligand docking methods are needed. A new inverse screening method based on triangle descriptors is introduced: iRAISE (inverse Rapid Index-based Screening Engine). A Scoring Cascade considering the reference ligand as well as the ligand and active site coverage is applied to overcome interprotein scoring noise of common protein-ligand scoring functions. Furthermore, a statistical evaluation of a score cutoff for each individual protein pocket is used. The ranking and binding mode prediction capabilities are evaluated on different datasets and compared to inverse docking and pharmacophore-based methods. On the Astex Diverse Set, iRAISE ranks more than 35% of the targets to the first position and predicts more than 80% of the binding modes with a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) accuracy of <2.0 Å. With a median computing time of 5 s per protein, large amounts of protein structures can be screened rapidly. On a test set with 7915 protein structures and 117 query ligands, iRAISE predicts the first true positive in a ranked list among the top eight ranks (median), i.e., among 0.28% of the targets. PMID:24851945

Schomburg, Karen T; Bietz, Stefan; Briem, Hans; Henzler, Angela M; Urbaczek, Sascha; Rarey, Matthias

2014-06-23

217

India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it. PMID:21505773

Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

2012-05-01

218

Teacher Training and Transitions in Rural Indonesian Schools: A Case Study of Bogor, West Java  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…

Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida

2012-01-01

219

Developing Leaders: The Role of Competencies in Rural Community Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…

Eddy, Pamela L.

2013-01-01

220

Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

NONE

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

Wells, Margaret

2009-01-01

222

RURAL BANKING FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KENYA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural poverty and underdevelopment in Kenya are a result of colonialism, which emphasized urban development at the expense of rural development. The new political dispensation in the country has shifted towards improving the lives of people who reside in the rural areas. Despite a positive policy shift by President Kibaki’s government, the lack of finance remains one of the fundamental issues in rural development. The study investigated the opportunities and challenges for...

Nader Naghshbandi; Robert Mosomi Ombati

2014-01-01

223

The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)


More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the inno...

Wu, Wei-guang

2009-01-01

224

Rural Livelihoods Vulnerabilities and Commercial Bushmeat Hunting Challenges in Cross River National Park, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation in parks and protected areas in Africa in general and especially in Nigeria is seriously threatened by the explosion of commercial bushmeat hunting activities in buffer zone communities. Several fauna species are becoming endangered and the list of extinct species is increasing due to commercial bushmeat hunting activities. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative research techniques, this paper assesses the livelihoods vulnerability underpinnings of commercial bushmeat hunting activities in Cross River National Park (CRNP. Results reveal that commercial bushmeat hunting activities are shaped by a vulnerability context that hinges on different elements of environmental shocks, seasonal challenges and surrounding societal trends. The paper highlights the conservation and global sustainable development implications of uncontrolled commercial bushmeat hunting practices and concludes with options on policy recommendations and future research trajectories.

Oliver O. O. Enuoh

2014-10-01

225

The challenge of promoting interventions to prevent disease in impoverished populations in rural western Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poverty is a critical social determinant of health. A particular approach toward mitigating inequitable access to health services in Kenya has been through a community-based distribution program implemented by the Safe Water and AIDS Project (SWAP) that has achieved modest uptake of public health interventions. To explore reasons for modest uptake, we asked program participants about child health problems, daily tasks, household expenditures, and services needed by their communities. Respondents identified child health problems consistent with health data and reported daily tasks, expenses, and needed services that were more related to basic needs of life other than health. These findings highlight the challenges of implementing potentially self-sustaining preventive interventions at scale in poor populations in the developing world. PMID:24188638

Schilling, Katharine; Person, Bobbie; Faith, Sitnah H; Otieno, Ronald; Quick, Robert

2013-12-01

226

Training needs of general library workers:Part I (challenges facing educators in South African institutions of higher learning  

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Full Text Available A recent survey by Meyer (2009 on the need for the training of general library workers revealed that employers in library services are often not aware of the conditions affecting the ability of library and information science (LIS educators at South African tertiary institutions to deliver ‘work ready’ general workers to the LIS industry. Simultaneously, LIS educators are not aware of the extent to which changes to learning programmes can affect the appointment and promotions of library staff in practice. The objectives of the study were to determine the need for a formal learning programme for general library workers and how existing study material can be adapted to develop a formal learning programme suitable for general library workers countrywide. Data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire directed at supervisory staff of provincial and municipal libraries in South Africa, interviews with supervisors, and consultation of relevant internal documentation on job descriptions and legislation. The findings revealed that there is a definite need for training general library workers, whether formally or informally. This article, the first of two parts, considers the challenges facing LIS educators of which employers in the LIS industry are seldom aware of. The discussion is based on a literature study regarding training of general library workers in South Africa, as well as personal experience of the impact of various conditions on the relevant learning programmes of the Department of Information Science, University of South Africa before and after merging with the former Technikon SA. It considers the implementation of legislation and policies with regard to LIS training and how LIS educators, involved in open distance learning (ODL cope with the specific challenges for delivering ‘work ready’ general library workers. Part two will deal with aspects concerning the types of task general workers perform, and the specific type of training required to ensure that these workers contribute to efficient service delivery.

Hester W.J. Meyer

2010-01-01

227

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools  

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Full Text Available

Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 
of education.


Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

Quintero Corzo Josefina

2011-11-01

228

Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates  

Science.gov (United States)

Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

229

Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF, assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relatadas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1 incidência de pragas e doenças; (2 aquisição de mudas; (3 custo de embalagens; (4 necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5 custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo.In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF, Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1 incidence of pests and diseases; (2 strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3 packing costs; (4 need of intensive labor; and (5 high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

Gilmar P Henz

2010-09-01

230

Challenges faced by NRCs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) played an important role in setting up of nuclear power plants (two) and development of fuel technology. However, with no current plans for expansion of this programme, the Institute is looking mainly into multi-cycle fuel management and life extension issues. The Institute focuses on programmes related to radioisotope and radiation applications and on the use of nuclear technologies for non-nuclear applications. The ININ is the major provider of radioisotopes for medical uses. It also promotes and uses nuclear analytical techniques for addressing a variety of problems. In non-nuclear areas some R and D examples include: the use of thermal plasma for hazardous waste incineration, biodegradation of polymers and development of separation techniques for treating industrial effluents. For preservation of knowledge, the Institute has instituted PhD. programmes in materials science, medical physics and nuclear science in collaboration with a university. (author)

231

Challenges Facing Guitar Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The guitar is an extremely versatile instrument. It can produce complex chords and arpeggiated textures as readily as single-note melodies. In the twentieth century alone, it has appeared in a wide range of genres; classical, jazz, blues, rock, and bossa nova compose a partial list. The guitar is also a difficult instrument. Inconsistencies across…

Harrison, Eli

2010-01-01

232

Opportunities and challenges facing small-scale cattle farmers living adjacent to Kruger National Park, Limpopo Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to small-scale communal farmers in five communal villages which fall under Mhinga Traditional Authority (TA) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Contrary to what has been documented in the literature, our study finds no evidence that farmers in rural communities keep livestock for non-market benefits such as cultural reasons or social status. Instead our study shows that farmers in rural areas keep livestock in...

Sikhweni, N. P.; Hassan, Rashid M.

2014-01-01

233

Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

234

Fragmentation and Unity of Rural Public Governance: A Case Study on Lin’an City in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The township, as the most basic political system in China, a head of which is connected to a city, and the another head connected with the countryside, is the foundation of national economic and social development. In the face of strong intervention of economic globalization, the gradually weakening of local township government, and the increasingly tense of national finance, agricultural and rural development policy, which is presently ubiquitous in the rural area of China, stressed from top to bottom, expert guidance, government-dominated promoting, will face the serious challenges of rural governance under the background of globalization. The rural governance is that the national institutions and other authorities based on the village government provides public service activities to the village society, in order to maintain rural order, promote rural development, according to the laws, regulations, customs and traditions. And rural governance is the process of multi subjects’ collaborative management of rural village. Rural governance quality reflects the ability of government’s rural social mobilization and management, and relates to the stable development and prosperity of rural society. The current problems of township governance, mainly are not the “township”problems of its own, but the “institutions and mechanisms of government”problem. This article takes the Lin’an city of Zhejiang province as the research object, through the development of villages and towns work rules in the process of tracking, puts forward a good example of rural governance in china.

Zhihong ZENG

2013-12-01

235

Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Secations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on the themes of the 2007 conference held in Aix-en-Provence. These topical issues were: the roles, functions and values that guide TSOs in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety; technical and scientific support for nuclear safety infrastructure development and capacity building; the emerging need for nuclear security technical and scientific support; and nuclear safety and nuclear security networking and centres of excellence. The President's report on the conference, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, is included in these proceedings and provides an overview of all the issues addressed. In the presentations and subsequent discussions, the conference highlighted positive outcomes, confronted areas of continuing concern and explored avenues to address those concerns. Among the more salient findings was the determination that a means for continuous dialogue among TSOs was necessary. The need to support the review process for a future IAEA safety publication on external expert support on safety issues was also identified. Finally, consideration of a TSO forum along the lines of the Regulatory Cooperation Forum to develop best practices and promote common values was recommended. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a foreword, a summary, the opening addresses and invited papers, and the conclusions, recommendations and a conference summary by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers, the list of participants and the presentations that were submitted with the invited papers.

236

Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment plants: challenges facing small water treatment plants in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered inc [...] luded ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (

MNB, Momba; CL, Obi; P, Thompson.

2009-07-01

237

Aid for agriculture and rural development in the global south: A changing landscape with new players and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the way aid for agriculture and rural development in the global south has changed over time. It finds three key shifts. First, a change in funding priority that has seen aid commitments move to the social sectors. Second is a shift in priority within agriculture and rural development from the productive sector towards support for policy development and administrative capacity strengthening. Third is the emergence and rise in commitments from non-traditional bilateral donor...

Chimhowu, Admos

2013-01-01

238

Low Maintenance Wireless Network Architecture and Strategies For Mitigating Challenges In Implementing Wireless Networks and Wireless Sensor Networks in Dense Forests and Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An innovative ,cost effective and eco friendly approach for the implementation of wide area wireless network coverage forsurveillance, remote wireless sensing , monitoring and other usage in dense forest and rural areas in developing countries like India andAfrica .The paper gives an simplified layout for the network implementation for bridging the digital divide and the knowledge flowbetween the urban areas and the remote locations where telecom companies cannot reach easily or deploy network as it is a costly anddifficult affair for implementation . The proposed paper shows a way to overcome challenges for implementation of the cellular andwireless network and making the technology accessible to the rural areas to enhance their growth and economic development.

Samrat Pravin Patel

2013-04-01

239

International Relations and Cooperation facing the evolution of societies and challenges of living processes : Open Strategies for action : the added-value of patrimonial strategies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facing challenges of a planetary dimension especially regarding the living systems and the man in the biosphere, the system of international relations and cooperation is being put in question. The international organizations and their mode of cooperation are being questioned as far as their methods and their fundamentals are concerned. If the universal values are recognized by all, the complexity of the problems in the biosphere and the urgency they reach now do not appear to be dealt with in...

Hartingh, Franc?ois-vadim

2008-01-01

240

Situated face detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last twenty years, important advances have been made in the field of automatic face processing, given the importance of human faces for personal identification, emotional expression and verbal and non verbal communication. The very first step in a face processing algorithm is the detection of faces; while this is a trivial problem in controlled environments, the detection of faces in real environments is still a challenging task. Until now, the most successful approaches for face dete...

Espinosa-romero, Arturo; Romero, Arturo Espinosa

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Rural Economy and Land Use Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

The rural landscape of England has been greatly transformed over the past few decades, and this particular research initiative based at the University of Newcastle was created in order "to investigate the social, economic, environmental and technological challenges faced by rural areas." Visitors to the site should note the main divisions, which include "Research", "Events", and "Publications/Press". For researchers and scientists, the "Publications/Press" area will be a special treat, as it features briefing papers, annual reports, and their policy series. The topics covered here are quite diverse and recent paper titles include "Eating Biodiversity: An Investigation of the Links Between Quality Food Production and Biodiversity Protection" and "The Role of Regulation in Developing Biological Alternatives to Pesticides". Policy practitioners and others working in the areas of land use planning and rural economic development will want to return to the site and check up on future developments, and it may even help those looking at comparative studies in these areas.

242

Rural White Paper  

reinforced the interdependency of urban and rural communities and businesses, \\affecting not ... the vision of sustainable development in rural areas, addressing \\economic, ...... offers solutions to the issues facing the farming and food industries \\and puts a new emphasis .... China Clay Sure Start Programme, Cornwall ...

243

Trabalho cooperativo no MST e ensino fundamental rural: desafios à educação básica / Co-operative work: challenges for the primary school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é averiguar que desafios o trabalho cooperativo, desenvolvido por agricultores assentados, coloca à escola básica. A metodologia articula uma revisão bibliográfica sobre economia solidária com a pesquisa-ação, feita em assentamentos de reforma agrária e escolas rurais, no mun [...] icípio de Piratini/RS, focalizando a relação entre o trabalho cooperativo e a educação escolar. As falas dos sujeitos evidenciam o conflito entre a formação exigida pelo trabalho cooperativo agrícola e o modelo de escola básica em que se fundamenta a educação rural. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to identify those challenges which co-operative work, developed by 'settled' farmers, raise for the primary school. The methodology involves a literature review about economic solidarity and action-research carried out in settlements established by the Land Reform and in [...] rural schools in the municipality of Piratini/RS. The research focuses on the relation between co-operative work and school education. The discourse of the subjects of the research reveals the conflict between the formation required for co-operative agricultural work and the model of basic education on which rural education is based.

Marlene, Ribeiro.

2001-08-01

244

Information and Communications Technology Development Products Towards Strengthening Rural Communities in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the extent of development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT ability to empower rural communities and enhance their economic productivity. ICT is a core catalyst for the development of a country to achieve developed nation status. However, rural communities are still exposed to the challenges and constraints in order to promote ICT development in rural areas. To address this issue, the government has established various objectives to ensure that rural communities are not marginalized. In an effort to take advantage of ICT development in rural areas, governments and agencies have developed various ICT-based products in rural areas. Programs such as Center of Telecenter, Rural Internet Centre (PID, Medan Info Desa, e-Village/e-Community, K-TRAK, PKIT and others are among the products introduced to the rural community. The purpose of the introduction of this product is to focus on the government’s efforts in ensuring the development of balanced urban and rural areas from different angles. Through ICT products, a rural community not just only follows the development of the ICT revolution, but to create a knowledgeable society and helps to boost the quality of life of rural communities. Thus, this paper will discuss ICT products developed in the rural areas of Malaysia, the purpose and prospects of the product development and the challenges faced during its implementation. Hopefully, the discussion and recommendations given could trigger the opportunity and space in making ICT as a driving force to economic development in rural areas.Key words: ICT products; Rural communities; The use of ICT; Economic catalyst

Fatimah Hassan

2012-10-01

245

Registered nurses working alone in rural and remote Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the demographics of Registered Nurses (RNs) who work alone in rural and remote Canada, their workplaces, and the benefits and challenges of this unique nursing employment situation. Data presented are from a national survey, one of 4 principal approaches used in conducting the project The Nature of Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. Of the total survey sample, 412 nurses (11.5%) were employed as the only RN in their work setting. Variables of interest included level of education, employment setting, and regional distribution of workplaces. An exploration of predictors of work satisfaction confirmed previous research findings with respect to the importance of continuing education and face-to-face contact with colleagues. Findings from this analysis may inform policy decisions regarding the employment of RNs in rural and remote Canada. PMID:15887763

Andrews, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Norma J; Pitblado, J Roger; Morgan, Debra G; Forbes, Dorothy; D'Arcy, Carl

2005-03-01

246

Meeting the Challenge of Health Literacy in Rural Uganda: The Critical Role of Women and Local Modes of Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

This article seeks to better understand the relation between local and traditional modes of communication and health literacy within the context of a rural West Nile community in Northern Uganda. Drawing on social semiotics (multimodality) and Bakhtin's notion of the carnival, the focus is on a group of women participating in a grassroots literacy…

Kendrick, Maureen; Mutonyi, Harriet

2007-01-01

247

A Comparison of Students with Behavior Challenges Educated in Suburban and Rural Settings: Academic, Social, and Behavioral Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors compared the characteristics of early elementary age students educated in either rural or suburban schools who were identified as showing soft signs of emotional or behavioral disorders according to systematic screening procedures. The authors followed 134 kindergarten, first grade, and second grade students identified by these…

Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Little, Annette; Menzies, Holly; Lambert, Warren; Wehby, Joseph

2010-01-01

248

Access to Higher Education for Rural-Poor Students in China  

Science.gov (United States)

China is now facing significant challenges in funding its rapidly expanding higher education systems, though it has experienced enormous economic growth in recent years. Equity has become a serious concern in Chinese higher education system. This article tries to identify the causes and implications of under-representation of the rural-poor…

Yang, Xu

2010-01-01

249

Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women  

Science.gov (United States)

A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

2010-01-01

250

ROLE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RURAL INDUSTRIAL GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT GENERATION: SOME CASE STUDIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of rural-based agro-industries is a challenge that is faced by countries throughout the world. In most cases, there are significant obstacles that restrict or impede this development. Financing, marketing, and technology are examples of these obstacles. Private industry and govern...

251

Fast Track, Bush Track: Late Career Female Rural School Leaders Taking the Slow Road  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research related to this study explored early career female leaders' experiences in rural school settings, and probed the personal and professional challenges they faced and their motivations to accept formal and informal leadership roles ahead of the usual timeframes (e.g., Graham, Miller & Paterson, 2009). This study set out to…

Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Al-Awiwe, Azhar

2014-01-01

252

Food security and food sovereignty in Tarija-Bolivia: Public policy opportunities and challenges in rural communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Insufficient access to water, seeds and agricultural resources, as well as low levels of education and other economic means, have affected food security levels of campesinos (peasants) in rural municipalities in Bolivia. This study, using quantitative research (household survey), assesses the demographic, economic, agricultural characteristics of 96 campesino households. Moreover, through qualitative research (interviews and document analysis), the study examines the current national policy f...

Gallegos, Francisco Daniel

2012-01-01

253

Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed

2014-01-01

254

Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

255

As novas faces do sindicalismo rural brasileiro: a reforma agrária e as tradições sindicais na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco / Les nouveaux visages du syndicalisme rural brésilien: la réforme agraire et les traditions syndicales à la Zona da Mata au Pernambouc / The new faces of the rural labour movement: agrarian reform and union tradition in the Zona da Mata in Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This article seeks to understand the fact that Pernambucan unionists have joined occupations of land, as well as the consequences of this new practice for the labour movement in other states where the Landless Workers' Movement (MST) is a monopoly force. Based on a systematic study of events organiz [...] ed by FETAPE (the rural labour federation of Pernambuco), it emerges that this traditional labour organization started to follow the model forged by the MST guided in large part by its internal union education structures, historic conditions of reproduction and especially by generational conflict between its members.

Marcelo, Rosa.

256

The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

2008-07-01

257

Challenges facing successful development of long life, high temperature, high efficiency/power AMTECs for space applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical challenges confronting development of Alkali Metal Thermal-to Electric Converters (AMTEC) for up to 15 year life on NASA Mars and outer planetary missions are significant, although approaches to solutions are understood by many investigators. The technical challenges include material issues, specifically involving decomposition of materials or chemical reaction between materials in contact; electrical issues, including electrical shunts that reduce output power and possibly plasma discharges within AMTEC converter units in which potentials in excess of 5.25 Volts exist; and heat and mass transport issues which can have major effects on the converter unit's power and efficiency

258

Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Companies in Sustaining Conformance to ISO9001:2008 in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of a Textiles Manufacturing Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS has seen many companies willing to implement it and get certification so as to improve quality delivery. Due to the globalization phenomenon, certification to ISO9001 becomes a prerequisite. Many manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe have been certified in a quest to improve their quality delivery. The main certification body in Zimbabwe is the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ. This paper is based on a case study research for KT Textiles and it assesses the challenges that one certified manufacturing company is facing in a bid to sustain conformance to the ISO 9001: 2008QMS. Questionnaires and Interviews were the main research instruments used in the study. There was also reference to archival records and minutes of important meetings from the organization. Using stratified random sampling, questionnaires were administered to both managers and employees drawn from different departments. Employees were also interviewed to provide further information to compliment the questionnaire data. The data was analyzed using statistical graphs and charts. This research identified how the organization applies the 8 principles of ISO 9001:2008 QMS. The research findings revealed that the main challenges faced by the firm in maintaining the QMS are lack of top management involvement and support, lack of employee creativity and innovation, lack of focused internal audits, preventive maintenance schedule and data analysis lack priority.

Eng. William Msekiwa Goriwondo

2012-12-01

259

"They Drag My Marks Down!"--Challenges Faced by Lecturers in the Allocation of Marks for Multicultural Group Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Our university hosts a diverse student cohort and, in certain discipline areas, international students and domestic students whose first language is not English outnumber their English-speaking peers. On the whole, group projects with these cohorts are challenging, and in particular, the allocation of marks is fraught with difficulty. Awarding the…

Strauss, Pat; U-Mackey, Alice; Crothers, Charles

2014-01-01

260

High-risk medical devices, children and the FDA: regulatory challenges facing pediatric mechanical circulatory support devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric mechanical circulatory support is a critical unmet need in the United States. Infant- and child-sized ventricular assist devices are currently being developed largely through federal contracts and grants through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Human testing and marketing of high-risk devices for children raises epidemiologic and regulatory issues that will need to be addressed. Leaders from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), NHLBI, academic pediatric community, and industry convened in January 2006 for the first FDA Workshop on the Regulatory Process for Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices. The purpose was to provide the pediatric community with an overview of the federal regulatory process for high-risk medical devices and to review the challenges specific to the development and regulation of pediatric mechanical circulatory support devices. Pediatric mechanical circulatory support present significant epidemiologic, logistic, and financial challenges to industry, federal regulators, and the pediatric community. Early interactions with the FDA, shared appreciation of challenges, and careful planning will be critical to avoid unnecessary delays in making potentially life-saving devices available for children. Collaborative efforts to address these challenges are warranted. PMID:17237642

Almond, Christopher S D; Chen, Eric A; Berman, Michael R; Less, Joanne R; Baldwin, J Timothy; Linde-Feucht, Sarah R; Hoke, Tracey R; Pearson, Gail D; Jenkins, Kathy; Duncan, Brian W; Zuckerman, Bram D

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism  

Science.gov (United States)

A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

262

'I could never have learned this in a lecture': transformative learning in rural health education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the 'messy swamps' of rural health practice is a growing challenge. This paper examines the process of learning among health science students from several health disciplines from five Western Australian universities during 'Country Week': a one-week intensive experiential interprofessional education program in rural Western Australia. The paper weaves together strands of transformative theory of learning with findings from staff and student reflections from Country Week to explore how facilitated learning in situ can work to produce practitioners better prepared for rural health practice. PMID:23807733

Prout, Sarah; Lin, Ivan; Nattabi, Barbara; Green, Charmaine

2014-05-01

263

From Farm to Rural Hostel: New Opportunities and Challenges Associated with Tourism Expansion in Daxi, a Village in Anji County, Zhejiang, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China has become one of the leading international tourism destinations, ranking third at a world level. A fast expanding domestic tourism offers new development opportunities to rural areas. Our results from Daxi Village of Anji County, a popular tourist destination in East China, show that farmers are seizing this opportunity that currently represents 27% of total household income. The better educated young generation is benefitting most, being particularly relevant for women that can develop off-farm activities around the family hostels (nongjiale and tourist shops. Visitor’s general satisfaction is high, although there is some concern for environmental quality and overcrowding due to the very high number of tourists that come to the village. Our model suggests that tourism will keep growing at least for another decade, which will strain the area, posing potentially severe environmental problems and challenging the long term sustainability of the tourism development model.

Xiaosheng Yang

2011-01-01

264

Natural Resources Governance as a Way to Achieve Prosperity of Nations facing the 21st Century Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quest for finding points of connection between environmental resilience and economic development have not been positively addressed yet in a century where this divergence continues to recede. As a result, progressively challenges arise and threaten to affect humanity survivability by hindering one of the two. What the common sense proposes under this adverse reality is to build a model of governance which manages somehow to tackle these two elements in a conciliatory manner.

Moreno-arrones, Javier Mun?oz

2013-01-01

265

Challenges faced by health workers in providing counselling services to HIV-positive children in Uganda: a descriptive study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children remains an uphill task for many health workers in HIV-endemic countries, including Uganda. We conducted a descriptive study to explore the challenges of providing HIV counselling and testing services to children in Uganda. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in the districts of Kampala and Kabarole in Uganda. The data were collected using semi-structured individual interv...

Rujumba Joseph; Mbasaalaki-Mwaka Cissy L; Ndeezi Grace

2010-01-01

266

Using visual attention in a Nao humanoid to face the RoboCup any-ball challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual attention is a natural tool which allows animals to locate relevant objects or areas in a given scene, discarding the rest of elements present and thus reducing the amount of information to deal with. In this paper we present the design an implementation of a visual attention mechanism based on a saliency map and its implementation in the Nao humanoid. This control mechanism is applied to solve one of the challenges proposed in the RoboCup competition named ???any-...

Garc A Sierra, Juan Felipe; Rodr Guez, Francisco J.; Mart N Rico, Francisco; Matell N Olivera, Vicente

2012-01-01

267

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL YOUTH DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Youth form a large proportion of the global population. They are valuable human resource and are important asset for development for countries in which they constitute the majority of the population. According to United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, there are 1.2 billion adolescents in the world, of which, nine out of ten live in developing countries and 55% reside in rural areas (UNFPA, 2006. Young farmers are the future of agriculture and rural development in all the countries. When compared to aged farmers they have sense of innovation, creativity and dynamism. Young farmers are the future entrepreneurs and can potentially overcome the food security challenge. However, youth are facing unacceptable levels of unemployment in developing countries. In 2009 in North Africa and the Middle East, youth unemployment reached 24.7% and 22.3% respectively. In addition, an estimated 400 million youth worldwide suffer from a deficit of decent work opportunities. The vast majority of jobs available to youth in rural areas are low paid, insecure, and with few benefits or prospects for advancement, particularly. About 25 percent of all employed youth are earning less than the equivalent of US$ 2 per day (ILO, 2010.

N. Parasuraman

2014-07-01

268

Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part II – Gdynia Maritime University of Experience the 21st Century Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. The maritime education challenges are focused on contribution of the University’s representatives in full implementation of the STCW 1978 as amended in 2010 convention, and on the flexible adoption of the academic specializations and programmes to the European and National Qualifications Frameworks, as well as to the needs of a global and local labour market. The research advancements in the maritime universities are basically oriented to marine transport problems, and their main focus is concentrated on the implementation of new technologies, effective and reliable technical and organizational solutions, friendly for users and environment. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. In this part, firstly the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as the one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. And next, the GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

Janusz Mindykowski

2013-12-01

269

Exercise persistence in the face of varying exercise challenges: a test of self-efficacy theory in working mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) should influence persistence towards goals. Mothers attempting to exercise while managing work and young children (N = 49, M(age) = 35.69, M(children) = 1.88) were stratified into high or low concurrent SRE groups, then randomized to read a hypothetical scenario detailing numerous or minimal exercise barrier conditions. Consistent with self-efficacy theory, when exercise barriers were numerous, mothers with higher concurrent SRE demonstrated greater persistence towards exercise goals, and perceived concurrent management of exercise with their other valued goals as more positively challenging, than mothers with lower concurrent SRE. PMID:21441356

Jung, Mary E; Brawley, Lawrence R

2011-07-01

270

ARCHIVE: Rural Communities - Rural Stress  

Jul 21, 2005 ... ARCHIVE: Combating Rural Stress: the Rural Stress Action Plan ... was first \\introduced in 2000 to reduce the incidence of stress in rural ... available to \\combat rural stress and its effects, contact the following organisations.

271

Overseas territories facing the challenge of climate change - Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report identifies the social-environmental challenges associated with climate change for French overseas territories, proposes an analysis of the impact of activities of the different economic sectors on the environment, and proposes some principles for action. After an introduction which outlines the importance of addressing climate change and adaptation, and describes the situation of French overseas territories in front of climate change, a first part identifies and discusses the main social-environmental challenges associated with climate change (climate evolution, role of climate change in a context of economic development, the territory as a resource system, climate change considered as an impact chain, the relative weight of climatic uncertainties). Then, the report analyses the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity, on tourism, on fishing and aquaculture, on agriculture and breeding, on forestry, on health, and on the energy sector. For each of them, the economic weight is indicated and commented, expected impacts are discussed, and adaptation possibilities and implementation modalities are commented. The issue of coastal planning and risks related to climate change is also addressed

272

Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources in the country. The findings reveal that stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry are largely in favour of formulating and expanding policies that encourage use of solar and wind technologies, at the same time mitigating environmental degradation. The article summarises the findings and duly recommends policies than can be used in Zimbabwe to promote the sustainable use of renewable energy employing solar and wind among others for tourism development.

Marunda, E.

2013-06-01

273

Assessing the Relationship Between Hazard Mitigation Plan Quality and Rural Status in a Cohort of 57 Counties from 3 States in the Southeastern U.S.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural counties face unique challenges with regard to disaster vulnerability and resilience. We compared the quality of hazard mitigation plans (HMPs) completed in accordance with provisions of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 from 21 urban and 36 rural counties in three southeastern states. HMPs were content analyzed to calculate a score for six principles of plan quality. Generalized linear models were used to assess how the mean number of items within each of the six principles was relat...

David Salvesen; Philip Berke; Matt Simon; Ward Lyles; Naimi, Ashley I.; Horney, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

274

van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO{sub 3}, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

Berland, Kristian [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Arter, Calvin A.; Thonhauser, T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Cooper, Valentino R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States); Lee, Kyuho [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lundqvist, Bengt I. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

2014-05-14

275

[Team work and interdiciplinarity: challenges facing the implementation of comprehensive outpatient care for people with HIV/Aids in Pernambuco].  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids) in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry recommendations in terms of basic infrastructure, though none of them had a team of appropriate size. These services have shown signs of fragmentation and difficulty in establishing a systematic intersectorial and interdisciplinary practice, with failings in ensuring the reference and counter-reference flow. It was seen that there was little appreciation of the role of the manager as team leader. The need to perceive the user as a whole was identified, as well as for the team to work in a coordinated manner in order to ensure communicative and relational activities. PMID:22218548

Borges, Maria Jucineide Lopes; Sampaio, Aletheia Soares; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas

2012-01-01

276

Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

Kazi HUDA

2014-12-01

277

Facing the noncommunicable disease (NCD) global epidemic - The battle of prevention starts in utero - The FIGO challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 36 million deaths every year. Of this death toll, nearly 80% (29 million) occur in low- and median-income countries. More than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur in people under 60 years of age. National economies are suffering considerable losses due to premature death or disability to work resulting from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The knowledge that in utero and in early childhood certain processes can affect the risk of developing NCDs provides an opportunity to enforce interventions during this critical time, when they may have the greatest effect. Using appropriate protocols, the health-care provider can educate mothers about the risks of certain nutritional and environmental exposures and integrate health promotion on the agenda, as part of the social and economic development. All this could motivate a substantial reduction in the risk of NCDs. Current and future health challenges demand new and changing competencies that should form the basis for education, training, and workforce planning. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) is aware of that responsibility and has joined hands with other agencies and organizations that make a considerable effort in providing appropriate prenatal care programs to prevent and treat most of the common preconditioning factors, especially in low-income countries. PMID:25248554

Roura, Lluis Cabero; Arulkumaran, Sir Sabaratnam

2015-01-01

278

van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those groundstate properties that can be described by density functional theory (DFT). One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B, in print] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromaticmolecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

Berland, Kristian [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Arter, Calvin A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Lee, Dr. Kyuho [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Schroder, Prof. Elsebeth [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Hyldgaard, Per [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

2014-01-01

279

van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: facing the challenge of competing interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions. PMID:24832347

Berland, Kristian; Arter, Calvin A; Cooper, Valentino R; Lee, Kyuho; Lundqvist, Bengt I; Schröder, Elsebeth; Thonhauser, T; Hyldgaard, Per

2014-05-14

280

The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs, particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the innovative ability of the Internet itself. More generally, it creates tension for China’s successful engagement with the international community, decreases the international competitiveness of the Chinese ICT enterprises and stifles the development of global ICTs. China needs to adopt a more sophisticated approach to regulate Internet content and overcome these challenges in the near future. Failure to do so will widen the gap between China and the world’s developed countries in the Information Age.
Key words: the Internet; the regulation of the Internet; content regulation; China
Résumé: Plus d’une dizaine de départements différents en Chine assument les responsabilités variées du contrôle du contenu des publications sur Internet. Cette structure régulatrice séparée a causé beaucoup de défis en face de la convergence des informations, des technologies de communication et surtout de l’Internet. Tous ces défis contiennent un coût de conformité élevé pour les entreprises ICT?Information and communication technologies en anglais?, qui découragent effectivement les startups high-tech et qui sont défavorables pour la capacité innovatrice d’Internet lui-même.Plus généralement, il crée de la tension pour l’engagement de la Chine avec la communauté internationale, diminue la compétitivité internationales des entreprises ICT chinoises et ralentit le développement de l’ICT. La Chine a besoin d’adopter une approche plus sophistiquée pour régulariser le contenu d’Internet et surmonter tous ces défis dans le proche futur. Si l’on faillit faire cela, la distance entre la Chine et les pays développés s’agrandira dans l’Age d’Information.
Mots-Clés: Internet; régularisation d’Internet; contrôle du contenu; la Chine

Wei-guang WU

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Saúde do trabalhador no SUS: desafios e perspectivas frente à precarização do trabalho / Workers' health at the Public Unified Health System: challenges and perspectives facing precarious work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Refletir sobre o campo saúde do(a) trabalhador(a) é o objetivo deste estudo. Busca-se sublinhar o significado das condições de trabalho para o ser humano do ponto de vista da saúde. A premissa não é quantificar, mas inferir que as condições de trabalho podem gerar danos à saúde, mas nem sempre apres [...] entam de imediato a sua relação com o trabalho. São discutidas, a partir da abordagem qualitativa, três situações, as quais contemplam os trabalhos rural, informal e infantil e, como resultado, verifica-se a contradição da categoria trabalho, que, se por um lado é sinônimo de sociabilidade, por outro, contraditoriamente, constitui-se em mecanismo de exclusão social na medida em que é realizado sem o reconhecimento dos direitos sociais e trabalhistas. Verifica-se a expansão de formas de trabalho sem regulamentação, tais como o domiciliar e o familiar e os realizados em locais como a rua e o lixo. Encerra-se a reflexão com destaque ao papel do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) na "assistência integral" à saúde dos(as) trabalhadores(as) e ao desafio de atuar na perspectiva de prevenção e promoção da saúde do trabalhador de modo integrado e articulado aos demais órgãos públicos que atuam nesta área. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to ponder on occupational health, searching for the meaning of work to workers' health. The premise is not to quantify, but to infer that the work conditions can generate damages to health, although this relationship is not always immediately apparent. Three situations [...] that contemplate rural and informal work, as well as child labor are discussed, using a qualitative approach. As a result, the contradiction of work is verified. It could be a synonym for sociability, but on the other hand, it is a mechanism for social exclusion, when conducted without the recognition of the workers' social and labor rights. The expansion of jobs without regulation have been observed such as the ones conducted at home or within families, or on the streets and at the waste landfills. The article ends by discussing the role of the Public Unified Health System (SUS) in the "integral assistance" to workers' health and the challenge of acting with a preventive perspective and towards occupational health promotion, in a joint effort with other public organization in this field.

Edvânia Ângela de Souza, Lourenço; Íris Fenner, Bertani.

2007-06-01

282

Efficient scarf detection prior to face recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face occlusion is a very challenging problem in face recognition. The performance of face recognition system can decrease drastically due to the presence of partial occlusion on the face. One approach to overcome this problem is to first pre-classify faces into two classes: the clean face and the occluded face; then faces in different classes are treated by different recognition systems. In this case an algorithm which is able to automatically detect the presence of occlusions on the face wil...

Min, Rui D. Angelo

2010-01-01

283

Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.

Chamhuri Siwar

2014-01-01

284

Rural development limitations at the transitional terms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

European countries have been reaffirtmating the role and the significance of agricultural multifunctionality for rural areas development. The transition countries have to make the assessment of their weaknesses and opportunities before facing the necessary significant investments in agriculture, rural settlements and deprived rural areas. Overall economic development should provide for further agriculture employment reduction, along with taking measures for the agriculture farms modernization...

Nikoli? Marija; Maksin-Mi?i? Marija

2003-01-01

285

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodol...

Josefina Quintero Corzo; Odilia Ramírez Contreras

2011-01-01

286

Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges / ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????-?????: ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????? / Retenir les médecins dans les zones rurales du Timor-Leste: une évaluation critique des opportunités et des défis / ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????- ????: ????? ???? ????? ????????? / ????????????????????? / Cómo conservar a los médicos en las zonas rurales de Timor-Leste: una valoración crítica de las oportunidades y desafíos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Timor-Leste se encuentra en proceso de abordar una cuestión clave para el sector sanitario del país: un personal médico demasiado escaso para proporcionar una atención adecuada. En teoría, un programa bilateral de cooperación médica con Cuba, creado en el año 2003, podría solucionar este pro [...] blema. A finales de 2013, casi 700 médicos nuevos formados en Cuba se unieron al personal médico de Timor-Leste, y se espera que profesionales de la salud nacionales y cubanos formen a otros 328 médicos en el país hasta 2017. En Indonesia y otros lugares han recibido formación algunos médicos más, que se sumarán pronto a este personal. Se espera que el número de médicos en Timor-Leste triplique en el año 2017 el número de médicos existentes en el país en 2003. La mayoría de estos médicos nuevos trabajarán en comunidades rurales y respaldarán el objetivo del gobierno nacional de mejorar los resultados sanitarios de la mayoría rural. Aunque el incremento masivo del personal médico podría cambiar el modo de proporcionar la atención sanitaria y mejorar notablemente los resultados sanitarios en todo el país, hay desafíos que es necesario superar si Timor-Leste pretende obtener el máximo beneficio de dicho crecimiento. Parece fundamental que la mayor parte de los nuevos médicos se despliegue en comunidades rurales y se gestione con gran atención para optimizar su permanencia en dichas zonas. Abstract in english Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doct [...] ors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.

Augustine D, Asante; Nelson, Martins; Michael E, Otim; John, Dewdney.

2014-04-01

287

Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal / Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

Gilmar P, Henz.

2010-09-01

288

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

Goodman Catherine

2010-07-01

289

Food Security, Gender and Community Relations. Challenges and Strategies of Rural Women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda, Ethiopia, and the Role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in Empowering Women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was designed to explore Food security, gender and community relations. Challenges and strategies of rural women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda,Ethiopia, and the role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in empowering women. The research applied qualitative methods such as in- depth interviews, Focused Group Discussions and observation to address issues from a gender perspective. The livelihood approach and empowerment approach have been the theoretical frameworks that underpin this s...

Mekonnen, Addis Bezabih

2013-01-01

290

La educación superior en América Latina ante los desafíos de la globalización / Higher education in Latin America facing the challenges of globalization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Viejos y nuevos desafíos enfrenta la Educación Superior en América Latina. Además de los problemas no resueltos de la modernidad, debemos atender otros planteados por la dinámica de los acontecimientos propios de la globalización. Sin embargo, para aprehender el sentido del propósito de poner a tono [...] la Educación Superior con los desafíos del tiempo presente, es indispensable que tengamos claridad acerca de qué estamos hablando cuando utilizamos la palabra globalización, y de los rasgos dominantes del contexto en el cual ocurren los movimientos del fenómeno al cual alude dicho concepto. Esto es muy importante para entender cómo en la región se ha producido el debilitamiento de la Educación Superior pública; las nuevas relaciones entre la Educación Superior, el mundo laboral y la sociedad; la relativización y enriquecimiento de la cultura de los sujetos y las nuevas exigencias al currículo y a las formas de enseñar y de aprender. Abstract in english Higher Education in Latin America is facing old and new challenges. As well as the unresolved problems of modernity, we must concentrate on other problems that have arisen through the dynamics proper to globalization. Nonetheless, to grasp the sense of purpose of making Higher Education fit for the [...] challenges of the present time, it is necessary that we are clear with regard to what we are talking about when we use the word globalization. And the dominant features of the context in which the actions of the phenomenon alluded to by this concept take place. This is very important to understand how the weakening of public Higher Education has come about in the region; the new relationships among Higher Education, the working world and society; the relativization and enrichment of the culture of the people involved; and the new demands of the curriculum and the ways of teaching and learning.

Eleazar, Narváez.

2005-06-01

291

Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?  

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Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

Francesco BONSINETTO

2013-12-01

292

An Investigation of Challenges Facing Home Gardening Farmers in South Africa: A Case Study of Three Villages in Nkokonbe Municipality Eastern Cape Province  

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Full Text Available This paper therefore addresses the challenges facing the home garden farmers in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Sixty households farmer were selected through systematic sampling from Nkokonbe municipality which were purposively selected. The small scale farmers were interviewed with the help of an interview schedule containing open and closed ended questions. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The results revealed that small scale farmers in Eastern Cape Province lack awareness of improved agricultural practices and technical knowhow because the extension staffs to farmer ratio is high. Results further reveals that they also lacked finance, experienced high interest rates on credit facilities and uncertainty of the right seed to use due to flooding of the market by many seed companies. In view of the research findings, several policy proposals are suggested. These include ensuring the availability of market information to all farmers, capacitating smallholder farmers with production and financial management skills and extension support service.

Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

2013-12-01

293

The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context  

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Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

Dodescu Anca

2008-04-01

294

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

295

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

296

Challenges of Implementing HIV and AIDS Education in Secondary Schools  

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Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine challenges teachers face in delivering HIV and AIDS education in secondary schools. Both rural and urban schools were sampled to gain understanding of the possible differences in respondent views depending on their geographical location. Methods: Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observations, focus group discussions and review of documents. Key informants included teachers, students, parents, educational of...

Lungo, Tatu Sultan

2007-01-01

297

A Smart Teaching System for Autistic Children in Rural Area using MANET  

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These The most challenging and stressful issue faced by schools and parents in efforts to provide appropriate education for autistic children .The purpose of this research work was to contribute to the knowledge and implementation of best practices for children with autism and normal children in rural area using manet. Autism is development disability that affects the normal functioning of brain. It means that children with autism think differently because brains work differently. They may ha...

Balaji, V.; Kanaga Suba Raja, S.; Vivekanandan, M.

2012-01-01

298

"How effective is in-service training for teachers in rural school contexts?"  

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The research was aimed at determining whether Grade Nine teachers benefited from the training in Curriculum 2005 assessment techniques that was organised by the Department of Education and whether the training contributed to meeting the intellectual and professional challenges facing South Africans in the 21st century. For this purpose a predominantly rural midlands district of the Pietermaritzburg region of the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education was selected. The study followed a qualitat...

Conco, Zamumuzi Paulos

2004-01-01

299

Un bosquejo del feminismo/s peruano/s: los múltiples desafíos / A outline on peruvian feminism/s: facing multiple challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo muestra las apuestas del feminismo en el Perú desde sus inicios, a partir de la lucha por el sufragio femenino, y más adelante, en la posguerra, la puesta en escena del cuerpo femenino como núcleo de una nueva forma de pensar lo político. Se muestra que es un movimiento de mujeres de sec [...] tores medios que se gesta bajo iniciativa gubernamental y con poca presencia de las corrientes de pensamiento teórico feminista europeas. Por el contrario, fue un movimiento vinculado a ideologías de izquierda aunque, paradójicamente, sus propuestas no fueron acogidas por los partidos de izquierda. En el actual contexto de cambios que se operan en el Perú, a partir de la democratización del país y con una baja institucionalidad del Estado, los feminismos - sin una aparente organicidad - se enfrentan con varios desafíos, siendo el de la capacidad de responder a la heterogeneidad de los actores emergentes el más relevante. Abstract in english This paper is about the developments of feminism in Peru since the struggle for women's suffrage as the starting point till the post-war, with the positioning of the female body as the center of a new manner of thinking the political. Feminism is shown to be a middle-class women's movement, which st [...] emmed from governmental initiatives and with not much presence of European schools of feminist theoretical thought. On the contrary, it was a movement bound with leftist ideologies whose proposals were paradoxically never considered by leftist parties. In the current changing context, which began with Peru's democratization and its lack of state institutionality, feminism/s - lacking an evident organizational capacity - faces different demands, being the ability to meet diverse emerging actors the most relevant challenge.

Violeta, Barrientos Silva; Fanni, Muñoz Cabrejo.

2014-08-01

300

Desafios enfrentados por professores na implementação de atividades investigativas nas aulas de ciências / Challenges faced by teachers in the implementation of inquiry activities in science classes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apesar da associação entre investigação e Ensino de Ciências ser idealizada desde o início do século XX, não necessariamente consiste em uma prática amplamente utilizada nas escolas, nem aplicada com os mesmos objetivos. Desse modo, considera-se relevante que pesquisadores se debrucem sobre o contex [...] to brasileiro e verifiquem como essa união ocorre. Este trabalho investigou quais são os desafios enfrentados e as estratégias utilizadas, por dois professores diferentes, durante a implementação de um único projeto investigativo, para se adequarem à realidade da escola, nível de ensino e ao contexto cultural existente. Os dados que subsidiaram esta pesquisa foram obtidos através de fontes primárias (entrevistas, questionários) e secundárias (portfólios, produções dos alunos, fichas, relatórios e observações). Percebeu-se que o mesmo projeto foi implementado de maneira bastante distinta entre um professor e outro, que realizaram adaptações de acordo com sua experiência profissional e com o nível de ensino de seus alunos. Abstract in english Although the association between inquiry and science education has existed since the beginning of the 20th century, there is no guarantee that this practice frequently occurs in science classes and neither that it can also be used with the same purposes. Therefore, we think it is relevant that resea [...] rchers investigate how this works in the Brazilian context. In this research, we investigated the challenges faced and the strategies used by two different teachers during the implementation of a single inquiry based project equating it to school reality, grade level and cultural context. Data collection was based on primary sources (interviews, questionnaires), and secondary sources (portfolios, student's assignments, cards, reports and observations). We noticed that both teachers implemented the same project in very different ways. The adaptations according to their professional experience and the students' grade level are presented here.

Ana Maria Santos, Gouw; Fernanda, Franzolin; Marcela Elena, Fejes.

 
 
 
 
301

Emergency medicine. The rural challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overcrowding, stress-related job burnout for emergency room physicians and other personnel, violence spilling over into the hospital with the surge in gang activity--it's the stuff of movies and, increasingly, real life in urban emergency departments, even in Minnesota. The trials and tribulations of providing emergency medical care in our metropolitan areas are well documented, both in professional journals and the conventional media. It's dramatic--lives hang in the balance--and it's important to everyone, since those who will one day require emergency medical care must entrust their well-being to this system. But it's only part of the story. PMID:1435644

Benda, C

1992-11-01

302

Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

2012-12-01

303

Desarrollo territorial rural y cooperativas: un análisis desde las políticas públicas / Développement territorial rural et les Coopératives: une anafyse dès les politiques publiques / Territorial Rural Development and Cooperatives: an Analysis from Public Policies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las zonas rurales enfrentan un conjunto de desafíos globales como resultado de las actuales transformaciones económicas y sociales. La contribución de las cooperativas, en tanto que empresas de estructura colectiva con una fuerte adscripción territorial, ha originado que sean consideradas en algunos [...] países como un pilar de las políticas rurales. Este trabajo analiza una exitosa iniciativa pública de casi treinta años: las cooperativas de desarrollo regional. Su función como promotoras del movimiento cooperativo de Quebec es fundamental para la diversidad empresarial y el empleo de las regiones rurales. Abstract in english Rural areas face a range of global challenges as a result of current economic and social transformations. The contribution of cooperatives, as collective companies with a strong territorial affiliation, has led them to be considered in some countries as a pillar of rural policies. This paper analyze [...] s a successful public initiative released almost ???y years ago: cooperatives for regional development. Their function as promoters of the cooperative movement in Quebec is critical for corporate diversity and employment in rural areas.

Inmaculada, Buendía-Martínez; Alain, Côté.

2014-12-01

304

Effective at the Margins: Outmigration and Economic Development in Rural North Carolina  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the economic and social challenges faced by Enfield, a small town in rural northeastern North Carolina, and the efforts by the Center for Competitive Economies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to assist the community in a strategic economic development plan to address these challenges. In particular, the paper outlines the challenges and tensions between place-based versus people-based economic development approaches and how these tensions are generalizeable to other rural small towns. Lastly, the paper concludes that even the most effective economic development strategies may only impact the community marginally given the larger confluence of events in the broader region, such as general population loss due to outmigration, declining traditional industries, and stagnant regional economies.

Jason Jolley

2012-01-01

305

Trabalho rural, saúde e ambiente: as narrativas dos produtores de flor frente aos riscos socioambientais / Rural work, health and the environment: narratives of flower growers in the face of social and environmental risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo insere-se na discussão acerca dos impactos socioambientais gerados pelas práticas agrícolas convencionais, apresentando as principais conclusões de uma pesquisa que analisou o processo produtivo de flores em duas localidades do município de Nova Friburgo (RJ), com ênfase na compreensão das [...] percepções e atitudes dos produtores frente aos riscos associados ao processo de trabalho. Adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa, que priorizou as narrativas dos produtores de flores como o principal meio de aproximação da pluralidade de perspectivas destes sujeitos. Em relação aos procedimentos de coleta de dados, foram utilizadas: entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação descritiva e diário de campo, além do levantamento de dados secundários. As evidências recolhidas indicam que os agrotóxicos se destacam como elemento central da produção e estão permeados por ambiguidades e dilemas. Nesse contexto, os diversos fatores inter-relacionados que atuam como determinantes desta situação são identificados e debatidos. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo trata sobre la discusión de los impactos sociambientales generados por prácticas agrícolas convencionales. Presenta las principales conclusiones de una investigación del proceso productivo de flores en dos localidades del municipio de Nova Friburgo (RJ), haciendo énfasis en la c [...] omprensión de las percepciones y las actitudes de los productores frente a los riesgos en el proceso de trabajo. Fue adoptado un abordaje cualitativo, que priorizo las narrativas de los productores de flores como principal forma de aproximación de la pluralidad de perspectivas de estos sujetos. En relación a los procedimientos de colecta de datos, fueron usados entrevistas semi-estructuradas, observación descriptiva, diarios de campo y el levantamiento de datos secundarios. Las evidencias indican que los plaguicidas son un elemento central de la producción y están permeados por ambigüedades y dilemas. En este contexto, los diversos factores interrelacionados que actúan como determinantes de esta situación son debatidos. Abstract in english The article is part of the discussion about the environmental impacts generated by conventional farming practices. It presents the main conclusions of a research which examined the process of production of flowers in two sites of the city of Nova Friburgo (RJ), with emphasis on the understanding of [...] the perceptions and attitudes of producers face to the risks associated with their work. It was adopted a qualitative approach, that prioritized the narratives of flower producers as the main form of approximation of the plurality of perspectives of these subjects. In relation to data collection procedures were used semi-structured interviews, observation and descriptive field notes and secondary data review. The evidence collected indicates that pesticides stand out as a central element of production and are permeated by ambiguities and dilemmas. In this context, the various interrelated factors that act as determinants of this situation are identified and discussed.

Marina Favrim, Gasparini; Carlos Machado de, Freitas.

2013-09-01

306

Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…

Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

2012-01-01

307

Rural practitioners' experiences in dementia diagnosis and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

When diagnosis of dementia occurs earlier in the disease process, more time is available for treatment aimed at maintaining patient function and delaying decline, and for family education about the disease and its management. Primary care providers often, however, face challenges in making timely diagnoses. Nineteen practitioners in mostly rural areas of a mid-western state were interviewed about their experiences in diagnosis and treatment, to develop a more comprehensive understanding of barriers encountered by providers in non-metropolitan areas. Participants estimated that the time from symptom onset to diagnosis ranged from several months to one year, largely dependant upon family recognition. Limitations in access to consultants and limited or non-existent community support and education resources were major impediments to diagnosis and treatment, respectively. Like their colleagues in more urban communities, denial among family members, or families who were absent or uncooperative, created additional challenges for providers in making and communicating diagnoses and in supporting home-based or institutional care. Conversely, supportive and motivated families played a central role in positive patient care experiences. Participants agreed that support and education services were important for family caregivers, but generally had few resources to offer families, which constrained their ability to provide optimal care. Identifying challenges faced by rural practitioners is essential to planning appropriate interventions for consultative support and educational outreach. PMID:15511740

Teel, C S

2004-09-01

308

Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

LisaRBetts

2010-07-01

309

Regional development - rural employment opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate these trends, and build a generic model which can be used to create employment opportunities in the rural areas, based on the specificities of the tertiary sector.

Tamas Forgacs

2010-06-01

310

The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

311

Nicotine Dependence among Rural-Urban Migrants in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes it challenging to evaluate dependence or progress towards dependence. The aim of this study was to estimate nicotine dependence levels and identify determinants of dependence among Chinese rural-urban migrants. Methods Multi-stage systematic sampling was used to select 4,198 rural-urban migrants aged 18 years or older from three metropolises in China. A structured questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Mandarin Chinese Version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (CFTND. Determinants of dependence were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results Among 4,198 participants, estimated current, daily, and occasional smoking rates were 28.3%, 21.2%, and 7.1%, respectively. The CTFND score for the 894 daily smokers was 3.39(SD: 2.32. MANOVA showed that work type, age at first migration, length of migration, and number of cities ever lived were associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusion A migratory lifestyle is associated with nicotine dependence. Results could inform the design of tobacco control programs that target Chinese rural-urban migrant workers as a special at-risk population.

Li Yuyan

2011-05-01

312

Handbook of Face Recognition  

CERN Document Server

This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

Li, Stan Z

2011-01-01

313

Rural health care: redefining access.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population and demographics of rural America are shifting once again. As our nation's unprecedented health care reform unfolds, it is becoming clear that rural communities have unique strengths, and capitalizing on these strengths can position them well for this health care transformation. Equally important are the distinct challenges that--with careful planning, attention, and resources--can be transformed into opportunities to thrive in the new health care environment. The North Carolina Institute of Medicine's Task Force on Rural Health recently published a report that highlights the strengths and challenges of rural communities [1]. In order to fully leverage these opportunities, we must continue to acknowledge the fundamental importance of access to basic health care, while also broadening our discussion to collectively tackle the additional components necessary to create healthy, thriving rural communities. As we reexamine the needs of rural communities, we should broaden our discussions to include an expansion of the types of access that are necessary for strengthening rural health. Collaboration, successful recruitment and retention, availability of specialty services, quality care, and cost effectiveness are some of the issues that must come into discussions about access to services. With this in mind, this issue of the NCMJ explores opportunities to strengthen the health of North Carolina's rural communities. PMID:25621473

Collins, Chris

2015-01-01

314

Attitudes to telehealth use among rural residents : A Danish survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Context: Rural communities tend to be underserved by medical services. Low access to medical services affects quality of life and may also affect settlement decisions. The use of telehealth has often been mentioned as an alternative way to provide health care services in remote, underserved areas. One prerequisite for successful delivery of health care by means of telehealth is the existence of positive attitudes toward telehealth solutions among the potential end beneficiaries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward telehealth use among residents in a Danish rural area. Method: A representative sample from the island of Ærø (n=1000) was selected and attitudes toward two telehealth applications were examined by structured telephone interviews regarding: 1) video consultation between patient and specialist, and 2) transfer of work tasks from local hospital to hospital outside Denmark. Findings: As many as 58% did not like the idea of having a consultation with a specialist carried out by video consultation, whereas 26% did not like the idea of having their X-rays assessed by a hospital outside Denmark. The reluctance regarding both telehealth solutions was higher among older people and people with no education beyond primary school. Conclusions: As the rural population in Denmark, as well as in other countries, tends to be older and less educated than the national average, the introduction of telehealth services faces special challenges in rural areas.

SØrensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

2008-01-01

315

Robust & Accurate Face Recognition using Histograms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large number of face recognition algorithms have been developed from decades. Face recognition systems have been grabbing high attention from commercial market point of view as well as pattern recognition field. It also stands high in researchers community. Face recognition have been fast growing, challenging and interesting area in real-time applications. This face recognition system detects the faces in a picture taken by webcam or a digital camera, and these face images are then checked ...

Sarbjeet Singh; Meenakshi Sharma; Suresh Rao, N.

2012-01-01

316

Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

D. MEHTA

2010-06-01

317

Postgraduate training for rural family practice. Goals and opportunities.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: The continuing shortage of rural family physicians in Canada. PURPOSE OF PROGRAM: To further develop training for rural family practice so that adequate numbers of rural family physicians will be appropriately prepared. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: All family medicine residents should have the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of rural family practice. Rural family medicine training streams provide the best education for family medicine residents who ar...

Rourke, J. T.

1996-01-01

318

From Farm to Rural Hostel: New Opportunities and Challenges Associated with Tourism Expansion in Daxi, a Village in Anji County, Zhejiang, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

China has become one of the leading international tourism destinations, ranking third at a world level. A fast expanding domestic tourism offers new development opportunities to rural areas. Our results from Daxi Village of Anji County, a popular tourist destination in East China, show that farmers are seizing this opportunity that currently represents 27% of total household income. The better educated young generation is benefitting most, being particularly relevant for women that can develo...

Xiaosheng Yang; Geriletu; Manuel Ruiz Perez; Lucas Gutierrez Rodriguez

2011-01-01

319

Low Maintenance Wireless Network Architecture and Strategies For Mitigating Challenges In Implementing Wireless Networks and Wireless Sensor Networks in Dense Forests and Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An innovative ,cost effective and eco friendly approach for the implementation of wide area wireless network coverage forsurveillance, remote wireless sensing , monitoring and other usage in dense forest and rural areas in developing countries like India andAfrica .The paper gives an simplified layout for the network implementation for bridging the digital divide and the knowledge flowbetween the urban areas and the remote locations where telecom companies cannot reach easily or deploy networ...

Samrat Pravin Patel; Deshmukh, Sumeet S.; Rajbhar, Anil R.

2013-01-01

320

Impact of Preventive Responses to Epidemics in Rural Regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various epidemics have arisen in rural locations through human-animal interaction, such as the H1N1 outbreak of 2009. Through collaboration with local government officials, we have surveyed a rural county and its communities and collected a dataset characterizing the rural population. From the respondents’ answers, we build a social (face-to-face) contact network. With this network, we explore the potential spread of epidemics through a Susceptible-Latent-Infected-Recovered (SLIR) disease m...

Schumm, Phillip; Schumm, Walter; Scoglio, Caterina

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gai...

Ochieng Justus; George Owuor; Bockline Omedo Bebe

2013-01-01

322

Rural Leaders, Rural Places: Problem, Privilege, and Possibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I present a case study of the influence of rurality and a sense of place on leaders’ beliefs about purposes of local schooling and their concomitant theories of action in one rural school district. Interview data show that despite their portrayal of life in the valley as a privilege, most leaders viewed their place as presenting more problems than possibilities in the lives of most students. I conclude with the suggestion that a critical leadership of place may best address the strengths and challenges found in much of rural America.

Budge, K.

2006-12-01

323

Una introducción a la crítica de los desafíos teóricos y prácticos que enfrentan los integrantes de los repositorios públicos de conocimiento en el fenómeno de la sociedad de la información = An introduction to the critique of the theoretical and practical challenges that the stakeholders of the repositories of public knowledge face in the information society phenomenon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'An Introduction to the critic of the theoric and practical challenges which face the stakeholders of the repositories of public knowledge in the phenomenon of the Information Society'. This essay intends to cover the most critical challenges the public repositories of knowledge face in the Information Society phenomenon. The study pretends to be a proposal for an integral theoretical framework to be used as a reference guide for public repositories of knowledge stakeholders: librarians, rese...

Muela-meza, Zapopan Marti?n

2004-01-01

324

A rural perspective: four stories  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english These brief reflections from 4 University of Cape Town (UCT) medical graduates who chose to make their careers in rural practice are written in narrative style to try to capture something of the lived experience of working in rural areas. Although still the career choice of a minority of UCT graduat [...] es, those who have chosen to practise in rural areas have found a solid base of competence and confidence in their clinical skills, that has enabled them to tackle challenges in areas beyond anything that they or their teachers might have anticipated.

Jenny, Nash; Alwyn, Rapatsa; Steve, Reid; Ben, Gaunt.

2012-06-01

325

A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recogni...

Vinodini, R.; Karnan, Dr M.

2014-01-01

326

Robust Face Detection in Airports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO). In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividi...

Jimmy Liu Jiang; Hong Jiang Zhang; Kia-Fock Loe

2004-01-01

327

Challenges, Strategies, and Lessons Learned from a Participatory Community Intervention Study to Promote Female Condoms among Rural Sex Workers in Southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

China faces a rapidly emerging HIV epidemic and nationwide resurgence of sexually transmitted infections associated with a growing sex industry. Community empowerment and capacity building through community-based participatory research partnerships show promise for developing, testing, and refining multilevel interventions suited to the local…

Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer; He, Bin; He, Qiya; Feng, Weiping; Wang, Yanhong

2010-01-01

328

An Analysis of Challenges Faced by Students Learning in Virtual and Open Distance Learning System: A Case of Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)  

Science.gov (United States)

After realizing that the traditional modes of tuition in Zimbabwe's andragogy had either gone obsolete or over-crowded, BUSE ventured into a "virtualised" model of open and distance learning as a way of out-doing other competing universities. However, as the programme was rolled out, there came a myriad of challenges affecting the…

Dodo, Obediah; Makwerere, David; Parwada, Matavire; Parwada, Cosmas

2013-01-01

329

Training for Rural Radiology and Imaging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing the Mismatch Between Services and Population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR) training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, la...

Kawooya, Michael G.

2012-01-01

330

Robust Face Detection in Airports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO. In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividing tool to split up the input face space into inlier and outlier face spaces and its use of dedicated classifiers to handle the inliers and outliers in their corresponding spaces. The results of the dedicated classifiers are then nonlinearly combined. Compared with the leading face detection approaches using both the data obtained from the complex airport environment and some popular face database repositories, FDAO's experimental results clearly show its effectiveness in handling real complex environment in airports.

Jimmy Liu Jiang

2004-04-01

331

Improving low coverage of child immunization in rural hard-to-reach areas of Bangladesh: findings from a project using multiple interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to assess the impact of combined interventions to improve the child immunization coverage in rural hard-to-reach areas of Bangladesh. The valid coverage increased at endline compared to baseline in the study areas, and the difference of the increase was highly significant (pcontribution of each intervention is unknown. The interventions can be implemented in all other hard-to-reach areas of Bangladesh and other countries which are facing similar challenges. PMID:22108489

Uddin, Md Jasim; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Shamsuzzaman; Quaiyum, M A; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez

2012-01-01

332

What's wrong with web2.0?: the challenges facing library staff & students in realising the potential of social media & networking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web2.0 tools (blogs, social bookmarking, feeds, Twitter etc) offer great potential for both libraries and learners and yet usage for academic purposes remains relatively low. This presentation contrasts the possibilities with the reality and looks at some of the challenges that need to be overcome for the wider adoption of these tools. In particular the talk will focus on the need for appropriate staff development for Library staff and will report on digital literacy sessions run by the pres...

Lingard, Matt

2010-01-01

333

Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking Towards the Sky for an Answer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access to safe water supply has great influence on the health, economic productivity and quality of life of the people. But meeting this need is one of the major challenges facing the rural communities of Nigeria today. The purpose of this review paper is to determine whether water supply have contributed effectively to health, social, and cultural development of Nigerian rural communities. Over 70% of households in rural communities do not have access to improved water supply. They rely solely on self-water supply (free source such as rivers, perennial streams, water ponds and unprotected wells which is susceptible to water borne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, malaria parasites etc. These rural populations are engaged in farming activities with low income level living in small scattered settlements thus, making provision of piped water supply very difficult. Governments’ interventions towards rural water supply have been through the provision of hand-operated boreholes and wells. These sources yield little or no water during the dry season and are prone to frequent breakdown; leading water crisis and shortages. This situation forces households especially the women and children to spend more time walking longer distances during the dry season to trot water for domestic purposes. Given the fact that the publicly operated water supply have not been able to cope with increasing demand, there is a need for a paradigm shift from the public monopoly of water supply to an innovative approach. Rainwater harvesting technology appears to be one of such alternative approaches.

H. T Ishaku

2011-08-01

334

Prospective analysis agriculture energy 2030. Agriculture and the challenges of energy - Synthesis; Prospective Agriculture Energie 2030. L'agricuLture face aux defis energetiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present overview document contains the main results of the Agriculture Energy 2030 prospective study, based on the work of the group led by the CEP [Centre d'etudes et de prospective/Centre for studies and strategic foresight] at the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fisheries, Rural Affairs and Spatial Planning. Energy in agriculture is all too often seen as a purely cyclical problem whereas it is a major issue for the future due to its economic consequences for agricultural holdings, its links with environmental and climatic issues, and its influence on food supply chains and spatial planning. Based on the scenario method, this analysis initially involved describing the whole range of links between agriculture and energy in France and organising them into a system of variables before going on to draw up an inventory of the knowledge available. Starting out from this diagnostic approach, the group constructed four scenarios over the period to 2030: 'Regionalization and sobriety to confront the crisis', 'Twin track agriculture and energy realism', 'Health Agriculture with no major energy constraints' and 'Ecological agriculture and energy savings'. These scenarios do not form an exhaustive panorama of all possible developments of the agriculture-energy system - they are rather formalised images of what the future might hold. However, quantification and comparison of the scenarios has led to the identification of major room for progress in energy efficiency in French farming. By helping gain greater awareness of future difficulties and issues or, conversely, opportunities to be grasped, these scenarios provided input for the strategic analysis phase, the concluding stage of this exercise, and the identification of general objectives and levers for public action. (authors)

Vert, Julien; Portet, Fabienne; Even, Marie-Aude; Herault, Bruno; Laisney, Celine; Mahe, Thuriane

2010-07-01

335

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

336

How can “gender planning” contribute to tackle the challenges of demographic change?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.

Wankiewicz Heidrun

2014-03-01

337

Novos desafios das escolas técnicas de saúde do SUS / Noveaux défis addressés aux écoles techniques de santé du SUS / New challengs faced by SUS' technical health schools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As Escolas Técnicas de Saúde do SUS foram criadas para exercer papel estratégico na profissionalização dos trabalhadores de nível médio sem qualificação específica para o Setor Saúde. Apesar do modelo didático-pedagógico flexível, as Escolas Técnicas de Saúde vivem dificuldades expressas em questões [...] de natureza técnico-políticas. Nesse contexto, foi instituído o Projeto Escola de Nível Médio, cujo principal objetivo é o fortalecimento e a consolidação dessas instituições em uma Rede Nacional de Escolas do SUS. Coordenado pela Escola Politécnica de Sàúde Joaquim Venâncio (EPSJV), esse projeto também atua na reorientação das Escolas do SUS, para que estas se integrem às políticas de saúde como atores no processo da reordenação da política de Recursos Humanos em Saúde. Abstract in english SUS' Technical Health Schools were built to play a strategic role for workers in the health sector, who, despite holding an intermediate educational leveI diploma, do not have the specific qualifications the sector requires. Notwithstanding the flexible didactic-pedagogical model, the Technical Heal [...] th Schools face important difficulties related to technical and political issues. ln this context, the Intermediate LeveI School Project was created mainly to support and consolidate such institutions into a National SUS Health School Network. Coordinated by the Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic Health School (EPSJV), the Project also plays an important role in redirecting SUS' Health Schools, aiming particularly at integrating them as players in health policy, in order to redress human resources development policies in the area of health.

Rita, Sório; Isabel, Lamarca.

1998-12-01

338

Research on Rural Financing in China with Reference to Village and Township Banks: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of rural financing is one of the major challenges to the emerging China. It is challenging forgovernment authorities to provide adequate financial resources and access to financial institutions in ruralagricultural areas to farmer households. The development of Village and Township Banks (VTBs hasremarkably increased since 2008 but the deposit collection of VTBs is comparatively weaker than the loandisbursement. Despite of facing numerous challenges, establishing within the framework of new-type financialinstitutions is playing a significant role for the development of agricultural sector. For the sustainabledevelopment of VTBs, VTBs should set up staff and member incentive system, introduce innovative financialproducts; and strengthen the agricultural insurance system. The cooperation between VTBs and the other ruralfinancial institutions should be developed to meet short-term rural financing gap and to strengthen theinstitutional capacity of VTBs. The government’s support in policy formulation and financial assistance isessential and the local government intervention should be discouraged. An autonomously functioning financialinstitution can enhance the sustainable development of rural households’ income, in particular, and theagricultural sector, in general.

Bal Ram Duwal

2013-01-01

339

Innovating for Rural Development : The case of Danish Agricultural Extension  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whereas the primary challenge for agriculture after World War II was improving food security by increasing productivity, the challenges faced by today’s agriculture are more complex and diverse. In this context it is interesting to investigate Danish agricultural extension. Firstly, the more complex and diverse a situation that farmers have to deal with, the more support farmers may need. Secondly, agricultural extension is important to Danish farmers, pointing to a significant arena for learning and change. Thirdly, privatizing agricultural extension (in Denmark since 1994) should not be seen as a permanent panacea, but be reconsidered in the light of new agricultural and societal challenges. The overall objective of this PhD thesis is to explore the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs so as to point to critical aspects of concern to research and policy makers, and to Danish agricultural extension. In total three papers deal with the overall objective, each from a different perspective. The papers examine the capacity of agricultural extension at consultant level, project level and management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural extension agencies in Denmark. All papers show that financial structural aspects critically affect the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs. The most significant conclusion from this PhD thesis is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal conformity with new tendencies. Supportive financial structures in extension agencies extend the range of innovation intermediary roles taken by individual extension agents, and the overall performance of such agents. However, strong professional identity as innovation intermediary also plays a role in that. Finally, ‘urban impact’ positively affects extension capacity.

Christensen, Dorthe

2013-01-01

340

O ensino médio no Brasil: desafios à matrícula e ao trabalho docente / Secondary education in Brazil: challenges facing student enrollment and teacher work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Problematiza questões relacionadas à natureza da matrícula do ensino médio e ao trabalho docente. Recorre, sobretudo, às informações estatísticas disponibilizadas pelo Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (Inep) para discutir a composição da matrícula, os indicadore [...] s educacionais e o trabalho docente no ensino médio. Destaca as metas relacionadas ao ensino médio regular e ao trabalho docente contidas no Projeto de Lei nº 8.035, de 2010. Os dados empíricos expressam os desafios relativos a matrícula, formação, infraestrutura, remuneração, jornada de trabalho e carreiras docentes e podem contribuir para a discussão sobre a definição de políticas regulares que oportunizem uma formação na escola média para que todos os jovens brasileiros sejam dirigentes. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to discuss issues related to the teacher work and secondary school enrollment. For that purpose, the statistical information provided by the National Institute of Anisio Teixeira Educational Studies (Inep) is used to discuss enrollment issues, educational indicators and the [...] teacher work at high school. Based on discussions held, it highlights the goals related to the regular secondary school and teaching contained in the Draft Law Nº 8035, as of 2010. Empirical data express the challenges relating to enrollment, teacher training, infrastructure, remuneration, work load and teaching careers, and may contribute to the discussion on the definition of policies for secondary school education so that all young Brazilians become managers.

Gilvan Luiz Machado, Costa.

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

The coffee planting in Brazil: Evolution, current situation and new challenges facing the future La caficultura en Brasil: Evolución, situación actual y nuevos retos cara al futuro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Coffee production has totally dominated the social, economic, political and cultural scene of Brazil since the first half of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. In fact, the ups and downs that accompany this culture are mixed with the milestones in the history of this Latin American country. In this paper we analyzed the coffee production in Brazil and its evolution over the last two decades, a period that coincides with profound changes in the global economy and in the way that coffee production is organized in Brazil, with the emergence new dynamics and processes that are presented as major challenges to this important sector of the economy of this country in the near future.El café ha dominado totalmente la escena social, económica, política y cultural de Brasil desde la primera mitad del siglo XIX hasta comienzos del siglo XX. En efecto, los avatares que acompañan dicho cultivo se confunden con los hitos de la historia de este país latinoamericano. En este trabajo se analiza la caficultura en Brasil y su evolución a lo largo de las dos últimas décadas, período que coincide con unos cambios profundos tanto en la economía mundial como en la forma con que se estructura la producción cafetalera de Brasil, con la emergencia de nuevas dinámicas y procesos que se presentan como retos importantes para este importante sector de la economía de dicho país en el futuro inmediato.

Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

2011-01-01

342

Chacal ou Cordeiro? O Brasil frente aos desafios e oportunidades do Sistema Internacional Jackal or Lamb? Brazil in face of the challenges and opportunities of the International System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das categorias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China, e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar.This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categories proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China, and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.

Júlio César Cossio Rodriguez

2012-12-01

343

Desafios da divulgação científica em cobertura jornalística de desastre ambiental / Challenges faced by the dissemination of science in press media coverage of an environmental disaster  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A atual crise ambiental planetária sinaliza a tendência de que a humanidade deverá conviver, cada vez mais, com as catástrofes ecológicas. Assim como as diversas esferas da sociedade precisam estar preparadas para lidar com essas situações, a mídia deve estar pronta para contribuir na ampliação do d [...] ebate público e na busca por soluções. Nessas circunstâncias, o grande desafio dos meios de comunicação de massa tem sido abordar os conceitos ligados à ciência ambiental, por se tratar de uma área de conhecimento nova e complexa. Para contribuir com o tema, a pesquisa estudou a cobertura jornalística, realizada pela mídia impressa, de um evento que envolveu a mortandade de peixes num estuário de Natal-RN. A análise de conteúdo jornalístico identificou o tratamento um tanto precário dos conceitos científicos capazes de fundamentar os reais motivos relacionados à mortandade de toneladas de fauna aquática, contribuindo pouco para a formação e educação ambiental dos leitores. Abstract in english The current global environmental crisis indicates that humanity will live, increasingly, with ecological catastrophes. Different spheres of society must be prepared to cope with these situations. Particularly, media must be ready to contribute to the expansion of public debate and to search for solu [...] tions. In these circumstances, the main challenge of mass media is to broach concepts related to environmental sciences, because it is a new and complex knowledge area. To contribute to the subject, this research studied press media coverage of a large fish kill along an estuary of Natal, in Brazil. Thematic content analysis of newspaper reports identified a somewhat precarious treatment of scientific concepts that could substantiate the actual causes of mortality of tons of aquatic fauna, signaling a poor contribution to environmental education and to the scientific understanding of readers.

Luiz Fernando, Dal Pian; Daniel Durante Pereira, Alves.

344

Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes. PMID:21726264

Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

2013-02-01

345

Funny Faces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

Greene, Yvonne

2000-01-01

346

Hold that TIGER! A collaborative service-learning academic-practice partnership with rural healthcare facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observing a renewed focus on community engagement as part of our university's strategic plan and the experiential learning partnerships encouraged by the TIGER (Technology and Information Guiding Education Reform) Initiative in health information technology, an academic-practice partnership was initiated between a group of Midwestern rural hospitals and a university's advanced practice nursing students via the graduate online nursing informatics course. Using a service-learning approach, the course features an emphasis on the collaborative design and implementation of student- and healthcare provider team-driven projects to support rural hospital staff and administrators in meeting the broad spectrum of challenges they face every day. The author discusses the adaptable course outline of foundational and service-learning course activities, recent service-learning projects and outcomes, and results of a cumulative 2-year course evaluation by internal/external stakeholders. PMID:22513769

Fairchild, Roseanne Moody

2012-01-01

347

Critical reflections on the New Rurality and the rural territorial development approaches in Latin America / Visión crítica sobre los enfoques de la Nueva Ruralidad y el desarrollo territorial rural en América Latina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se presenta una aproximación crítica a las nociones de la Nueva Ruralidad y el Desarrollo Territorial Rural (DTR) que actualmente son hegemónicas en el ámbito de las instituciones gubernamentales y ganan espacio en la academia latinoamericana. Con base en una consideración de los principales desafío [...] s que enfrentan los espacios rurales latinoamericanos, se pasa revista crítica a las prescripciones centrales del DTR, mismas que resultan funcionales al encuadre neoliberal de políticas que han propiciado la pérdida de la soberanía alimentaria, el predominio del agronegocio transnacional y la emigración, como principales expresiones del debilitamiento de la agricultura campesina. Consecuentemente se argumenta que las principales transformaciones de dichos espacios, más que a una pretendida nueva ruralidad corresponden a una ruralidad neoliberal. Al resaltar la necesidad de una visión histórica mundial que recupere la tradición del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano, se postula la urgencia de políticas públicas que rompan con las prescripciones neoliberales y se orienten al fortalecimiento de la agricultura campesina e indígena para impulsar un desarrollo rural con soberanía alimentaria, democracia, equidad y sustentabilidad. Abstract in english This paper presents a critical approach to the New Rurality and the Rural Territorial Development (RTD) perspectives, which nowadays are hegemonic for governmental organizations and Latin American academies. RTD's core requirements, which are functional for neoliberal policies resulting in the loss [...] of food sovereignty, the globalization of agribusinesses, and migration as a consequence of peasant agricultural weakening, were critically reviewed on the basis of the principal challenges faced by Latin American rural areas. In light of the above consequences, it is thought that changes in such areas are based on neoliberal rurality rather than on the purported New Rurality. By stressing the need for a global historical view that reintroduces the Latin American critical thinking tradition, the urgency for public policies that stop neoliberal prescriptions and seek to strengthen peasant and indigenous agriculture in order to encourage rural development based on food sovereignty, democracy, equity and sustainability were established.

César, Ramírez-Miranda.

2014-04-01

348

Telerehabilitation Clinical and Vocational Applications for Assistive Technology: Research, Opportunities, and Challenges  

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Full Text Available Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telepractice

Kendra Betz

2009-09-01

349

¿Está preparado nuestro país para asumir los retos que plantea el envejecimiento poblacional? / Is our country ready to face the challenges set by the aging population?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fenómeno del envejecimiento de la población es una realidad que enfrenta la humanidad actualmente y a la cual Colombia no es ajena. ¿Qué es el envejecimiento poblacional?, ¿por qué se está envejeciendo la humanidad?, ¿qué tan envejecido está nuestro país en términos comparativos?, ¿cuáles son las [...] condiciones actuales de nuestros adultos mayores en materia de salud, vivienda, educación, esparcimiento, seguridad económica y cuáles son sus perspectivas a futuro? Todas estas son preguntas pertinentes, algunas más sencillas de responder que otras, mas aun, si tenemos en cuenta nuestras grandes restricciones en materia fiscal, y lo que es más grave todavía, la poca importancia que le hemos dado a este cambio demográfico y, por ende, a los desafíos que se avecinan por cuenta del mismo. En este artículo presentamos un panorama general del envejecimiento de la población colombiana, tocando cada uno de los aspectos arriba mencionados, con el fin de llamar la atención acerca de la necesidad de fortalecer la investigación en todas las áreas para buscar respuestas adecuadas y oportunas a este cambio histórico. Abstract in english Aging of the population is an occurrence that has become a reality for all humanity and Colombia is not an exception to it. What is the aging population? Why is humanity aging? How aged is our country in comparative terms? What are the current conditions of our elderly in matters of health, shelter, [...] education, economic security, and what are their future perspectives? All of these are pertinent questions, some easier to answer than others, however, we do keep in mind our great restrictions in fiscal matters and what's worse, the lack of importance we have given to this demographical change and the challenges that it brings. In this article we present a general view of aging in the Colombian population, pointing out each one of the aspects mentioned above, with the purpose of warning about the necessity to strengthen investigation in all areas to find proper answers to this historic change.

Mario Leonardo, Nieto Antolínez Eco; Luz Marina, Alonso Palacio.

2007-12-01

350

Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent w...

Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

2013-01-01

351

Automatic Face Detection in Frontal Face Color Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automatic detection of facial features of image is an important stage of various image interpretation works, such as facial expression recognition, face recognition, facial features tracking and 3D face modeling etc. Detection of facial features like eye, mouth, nose, nostrils, lip corners etc., with different facial expression is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a method for automatic detection of facial features. A novel technique using the conce...

Nidhi Tiwari; Mittal, N. K.; Kerhalker, S. G.

2013-01-01

352

Fast Multi-Scale Face Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computerized human face processing (detection, recognition, synthesis) has known an intense research activity during the last few years. Applications involving human face recognition are very broad with an important commercial impacts. Human face processing is a difficult and challenging task: the space of different facial patterns is huge. The variability of human faces as well as their similarity and the influence of other features like beard, glasses, hair, illumination, background etc., m...

Fasel, B.

1998-01-01

353

A Review Paper on Face Recognition Techniques  

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Full Text Available Face recognition has been a fast growing,challenging and interesting area in real timeapplications. A large number of face recognitionalgorithms have been developed in last decades. In thispaper an attempt is made to review a wide range ofmethods used for face recognition comprehensively.This include PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, Gabor wavelet softcomputing tool like ANN for recognition and varioushybrid combination of this techniques. This reviewinvestigates all these methods with parameters thatchallenges face recognition like illumination, posevariation, facial expressions.

Sujata G. Bhele , V. H. Mankar

2012-10-01

354

Deep Learning Face Attributes in the Wild  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Predicting face attributes from web images is challenging due to background clutters and face variations. A novel deep learning framework is proposed for face attribute prediction in the wild. It cascades two CNNs (LNet and ANet) for face localization and attribute prediction respectively. These nets are trained in a cascade manner with attribute labels, but pre-trained differently. LNet is pre-trained with massive general object categories, while ANet is pre-trained with ma...

Liu, Ziwei; Luo, Ping; Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

2014-01-01

355

Rural-Urban Migration and Its Consequences on Rural Children: An Empirical Study  

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Full Text Available Rural-urban adult migration, mainly adult male migration makes heavy demand on all family members, but especially on children who are left behind in rural area to shoulder the responsibility of agriculture production and food security. Labor shortage due to rural-urban adult migration may mean that children in rural area often have to face tighter time schedules and patterns of time use and human energy inputs required in agriculture production.  The study revealed the impact of rural-urban migration on rural children. In the study, sample was restricted to households that own and/or operate agricultural land in rural area. A purposive sampling was adopted to select villages and covered 500 sample households. The study was based on link between rural-urban migration of adult persons and child labor in rural area. The empirical result showed that an additional rural migrant of a household increases the probability of having child worker in that household by approximately 51%. However, it was found that children of migrant households receive less preventive health care in their infancy. The study also showed that an additional adult worker of a household increases the probability of having child worker in that household by 29%.  For this reason, this study supports the hypothesis that children are the last economic resource of a household.

Syed Imran Ali Meerza

2010-11-01

356

Context-Based Algorithm for Face Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face detection has been a research area for more than ten years. It is a complex problem due to the high variability in faces and amongst faces; therefore it is not possible to extract a general pattern to be used for detection. This is what makes the face detection problem a challenge. This thesis gives the reader a background to the face detection problem, where the two main approaches of the problem are described. A face detection algorithm is implemented using a context-based method in co...

Wall, Helene

2005-01-01

357

RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the la...

Ci?rstea, Alexandru Costin; Dobre, Ramona

2013-01-01

358

The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Ba?ka  

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Full Text Available Average rural household in Ba?ka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Ba?ka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Ba?ka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

Stankov Uglješa

2007-01-01

359

Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

2013-01-01

360

Predicting Children's Asthma Hospitalizations: Rural and Urban Differences in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma is the number one chronic health condition facing children today; however, little is known about rural-urban inequalities in asthma. This "area effects on health" study examines rural-urban differences in childhood asthma hospitalizations within the state of Texas using negative binomial regression models. Effects associated with residence…

Grineski, Sara E.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Rural Civil Defense Education Program. Report for Fiscal Year 1968.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1968, the Rural Civil Defense Education Program, conducted by the Cooperative Extension Service under contract with the Office of Civil Defense, was faced with discontinuance of funds; in some cases, the Rural Civil Defense (RCD) leader was absorbed into the regular budgets and in others the work was incorporated into the regular ongoing…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

362

Estimating Uncompensated Care Charges at Rural Hospital Emergency Departments  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Rural hospitals face multiple financial burdens. Due to federal law, emergency departments (ED) provide a gateway for uninsured and self-pay patients to gain access to treatment. It is unknown how much uncompensated care in rural hospitals is due to ED visits. Purpose: To develop a national estimate of uncompensated care from patients…

Bennett, Kevin J.; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.

2007-01-01

363

RURAL DRINKING WATER: GOVERNMENT'S INITIATIVES.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Providing drinking water to a large rural population is an enormous challenge. 1.95 lakh habitations in the country are affected by poor water quality. The government has undertaken various programmes since independence to provide safe drinking water to the rural masses. In India, investments in community water supply and sanitation projects have increased steadily from the 1st plan to the 10th plan. Till the 10th plan, an estimated total of Rs.1,105 billion spent on providing safe drinking w...

Patil, R. P.

2013-01-01

364

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points fo...

Hude Quan; Qunhong Wu; Mingli Jiao; Lijun Gao; Hong Sun; Xia Li; Ning Ning; Yanhua Hao

2013-01-01

365

Turning the Tide: Transforming Science Learning and Teaching in Rural and Remote Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent national study into Science, ICT and Mathematics education in rural and regional Australia (SiMERR) highlighted the disadvantages faced by rural and remote communities in terms of science learning and teaching. Focus group interviews conducted in rural primary schools in South Australia identified a lack of resources and of access to…

Aldous, Carol

2008-01-01

366

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Rural Communities: Current Research and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

Contexts: The consumption of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in rural areas is a significant contemporary health care issue. An understanding of CAM use in rural health can provide a new perspective on health beliefs and practice as well as on some of the core service delivery issues facing rural health care generally. Purpose: This…

Wardle, Jon; Lui, Chi-Wai; Adams, Jon

2012-01-01

367

Assessing the Relationship Between Hazard Mitigation Plan Quality and Rural Status in a Cohort of 57 Counties from 3 States in the Southeastern U.S.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural counties face unique challenges with regard to disaster vulnerability and resilience. We compared the quality of hazard mitigation plans (HMPs completed in accordance with provisions of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 from 21 urban and 36 rural counties in three southeastern states. HMPs were content analyzed to calculate a score for six principles of plan quality. Generalized linear models were used to assess how the mean number of items within each of the six principles was related to urban status, adjusting for total county population and state-level differences. Adjusted mean ratios were higher in urban areas for goals, fact base, policies and participation. Rural areas performed better than urban counterparts in both implementation and monitoring and inter-organizational coordination. Our results suggest that there are important differences in hazard mitigation plan quality between urban and rural counties. Future research should explore characteristics of urban and rural counties that explain the observed differences, and whether such differences can help explain the inequalities in response and recovery to disasters between urban and rural counties.

David Salvesen

2012-08-01

368

The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

Md. M. Hossain

2010-01-01

369

Assessing the impact of airborne outreach to build clinical capacity in rural Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a paucity of research demonstrating how best to address inequalities in health and access to specialist care faced by rural disadvantaged populations in high HIV-prevalent settings in Sub Saharan Africa. Delivering equitable and cost-effective specialist clinical services in many parts of Africa is challenging, given human resource shortages, poor transport infrastructure and competing health priorities. In this report we describe how an airborne outreach program to provide HIV services to high HIV burden health facilities in rural Botswana has been an important catalyst for improving specialist service delivery across the spectrum of clinical care. The success of Botswana’s airborne program is a consequence of many country-specific determinants as well as external funding support. We argue that lessons learned from the experience in Botswana are normative for other African settings. Specialist medical airborne outreach to rural hospitals can improve access to and quality of care, when part of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary intervention. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HIV funded program can be a vehicle for enhanced access to essential sub-specialist clinicians in rural Botswana.

Brianna L. Kirk

2013-12-01

370

HIV infection in traditional rural communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge to rural nurses to deliver knowledgeable and skilled nursing and health care to individuals with HIV infection and AIDS is indeed tremendous. Isolation of rural communities and health care facilities coupled with limited resources, financial concerns, conservative values of many traditional rural communities, and the tendency to exclude those who do not conform to community norms make it difficult to integrate the individual with HIV disease into the rural health care delivery system fully. Issues of particular concern to the rural nurse include maintenance of client confidentiality, obtaining and maintaining current knowledge and skills necessary to the provision of quality HIV nursing care, management of complex client health care problems, and provision of appropriate support services. Rural nurses must be innovative and creative in developing mechanisms to deal with these concerns. In addition, because rural nurses are well respected by the community and viewed as possessing a great deal of expertise in the delivery of health care, they are well positioned to provide leadership to the community in developing educational and care strategies to more effectively provide HIV care. Indeed, the delivery of high-quality HIV care in rural areas across the United States will likely depend on the expertise and leadership provided by rural nurses. PMID:8451211

Carwein, V L; Sabo, C E; Berry, D E

1993-03-01

371

Access to, Use of, and Attitudes toward Telecommunication among Rural VR Clients  

Science.gov (United States)

Telecommunication offers rural vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients a method of communicating with their VR counselor between face-to-face visits. Unfortunately, certain telecommunication methods may not be available to many rural VR clients or may pose barriers in the rehabilitation process. This article describes findings from an exploratory…

Ipsen, Catherine; Rigles, Bethany; Arnold, Nancy; Seekins, Tom

2013-01-01

372

Health IT-enabled Care for Underserved Rural Populations: The Role of Nursing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This white paper explains the strong roles that nursing can play in using information technology (IT) to improve healthcare delivery in rural areas. The authors describe current challenges to providing care in rural areas, and how technology innovations can help rural communities to improve their health and health care. To maximize benefits, rural stakeholders (as individuals and groups) must collaborate to effect change. Because nonphysician providers deliver much of the health care in rural...

Effken, Judith A.; Abbott, Patricia

2009-01-01

373

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools / Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razon [...] es que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación. Abstract in english Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discip [...] line problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

Josefina, Quintero Corzo; Odilia, Ramírez Contreras.

2011-10-01

374

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

Josefina Quintero Corzo

2011-10-01

375

The concept of cluster- villages as planning tool in the rural districts of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish rural districts are transforming; structural and demographical changes are influencing the rural villages, and the contemporary rural districts can be characterized by both well-functioning and growing villages as well as declining and decaying villages. In addition to this, the merger of municipalities in 2007 has resulted in geographical larger municipalities in which the distance between the lived lives in the rural villages seem increasingly alienated from the municipal government and civil service. These challenges require new methods and approaches that address the reality of the rural villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together and uses each other’s strengths, as well as developing the individual village in addition to the specific potentials of that village. In recent years, rural Denmark has been undergoing a sweeping and very noticeable process of adjustment, Development in municipal service provision plays a particular important role to play in both the popular and the political debate and in relation to everyday living conditions. The debate about the future of rural Denmark is also very much a debate about the kind of welfare model we choose in self-governing, municipal Denmark. The centralised, specialised model based on economies of scale, or the decentralised model based on proximity. In the developments and debate relating to these matters, strategic and visionary planning is back in the municipal arena as the only tool capable of handling the many different challenges facing the municipalities. Mellem disse to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfoldthe concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks to inscribe the concept into the existing debate regarding villages in the rural districts.

Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; MØller, JØrgen

376

The concept of cluster : villages as planning tool in the rural districts of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish rural districts are transforming; structural and demographical changes are influencing the rural villages, and the contemporary rural districts can be characterized by both well-functioning and growing villages as well as declining and decaying villages. In addition to this, the merger of municipalities in 2007 has resulted in geographical larger municipalities in which the distance between the lived lives in the rural villages seem increasingly alienated from the municipal government and civil service. These challenges require new methods and approaches that address the reality of the rural villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together and uses each other’s strengths, as well as developing the individual village in addition to the specific potentials of that village. In recent years, rural Denmark has been undergoing a sweeping and very noticeable process of adjustment, Development in municipal service provision plays a particular important role to play in both the popular and the political debate and in relation to everyday living conditions. The debate about the future of rural Denmark is also very much a debate about the kind of welfare model we choose in self-governing, municipal Denmark. The centralised, specialised model based on economies of scale, or the decentralised model based on proximity. In the developments and debate relating to these matters, strategic and visionary planning is back in the municipal arena as the only tool capable of handling the many different challenges facing the municipalities. Mellem disse to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfoldthe concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks to inscribe the concept into the existing debate regarding villages in the rural districts.

Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; MØller, JØrgen

2013-01-01

377

Hot Spots and Not Spots: Addressing Infrastructure and Service Provision through Combined Approaches in Rural Scotland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is widespread acceptance that the absence or presence of infrastructure and services in rural areas can lead to cycles of decline or resilience in these localities. It is also accepted that in remoter areas, population sparsity leads to a higher unit cost for delivery of services and infrastructure, and that private sector providers do not find such areas attractive for investment. At the same time, there is a reduction in spending capability within the public sector due to the significant impact of economic crisis on their resource base, affecting provision of services. How are these seemingly intractable challenges being addressed? Using an interpretive policy analysis approach [1] and narrative tools, the storyline of policy statements, approaches and policies in Scotland is presented and discussed, within a wider European setting. This is complemented by a brief presentation of public-private and third sector initiatives in response to service and infrastructure challenges in rural Scotland. The paper concludes with the argument that we are facing two alternatives—the current “hot spots” and “not spots” pattern of provision, where the fittest survive, or further shifts towards strategic, cross-sectoral investment which gives scope for more cohesive development for rural communities.

Sarah Skerratt

2010-06-01

378

A formação profissional frente aos desafios da intervenção e das atuais configurações do ensino público, privado e a distância The professional background facing the challenges of both intervention and configurations of public, private and distance education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A crise atual do capital, com suas novas e antigas determinações, impõe metamorfoses ao mundo do trabalho, o que exige um perfil de profissional funcional a essa etapa do capitalismo. Parto da hipótese de que as atuais configurações do ensino respondem às exigências da atual fase do capitalismo e se orienta pelas demandas do mercado de trabalho. Nesta direção, a formação profissional tem um duplo desafio: desvelar e enfrentar a crise do capital e nela as diversas formas de precarização das relações e condições de trabalho, flexibilização dos direitos e focalização das políticas sociais, que, como parte da mesma racionalidade, se expressam e condicionam exercício e formação profissionais.The current crisis of the capital, together with its new and old determinations, demands metamorphoses from the world of work, which requires a professional profile that serves to this phase of capitalism. My hypothesis is that the current configurations of education are adequate to the demands of the present phase of capitalism, and that such education is guided by the requirements of the labor market. So, the professional background has a double challenge: to unveil and to face the crisis of the capital, as well as the several ways making the working relations and conditions precarious, the flexibility of rights and the emphasis of the social policies that, as a part of the same reasoning, express and influence the professional activity and background.

Yolanda Guerra

2010-12-01

379

The Challenges in Building an Adequate and Comprehensive Fund-Ensuring System for Rural Compulsory Education in China: Empirical Evidence from the Implementation of "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy" (TEOS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Beginning in 2006, the "two exemptions and one subsidy" (TEOS) policy was integrated into the New Mechanism for Assured Funding for Rural Compulsory Education (hereafter the "New Mechanism"). The New Mechanism includes TEOS, raising the standard of public expenditure guarantees for rural compulsory education stage schools, creating a permanent…

Yanqing, Ding

2008-01-01

380

Maestría en Educación Rural: una propuesta innovadora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recibido 3 de noviembre de 2006 • Aprobado 30 de noviembre de 2007      Resumen. El siguiente artículo hace referencia a la Maestría en Educación Rural (MER, que inició en el año 2006. Esta maestría se presenta como una experiencia innovadora en el ámbito de los estudios de posgrado, por sus diversos componentes: una modalidad presencial y a distancia, con componente virtual, su itinerancia, pues cada uno de sus cinco módulos se desarrollan en un país centroamericano y participan en ellos, estudiantes de diversas nacionalidades. Se convierte así en una oferta novedosa que presenta la División de Educación Rural (DER, del Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE a la comunidad nacional e internacional interesada y vinculada con el desarrollo de las zonas rurales de la región.  Abstract. This article is about the Graduate Program in Rural Education that started in 2006. This program is an innovative experience because it is developed in two different modalities: face to face and distance with virtual components.It includes five different modules; each one developed in a different Central American country. The participants are from all over Central America. The author explains, how this is an original alternative from the Rural Education Department (DER of the Center of Investigation and Teaching in Education (CIDE to the national and international community, that supports people who is interested and linked with the development of rural areas in the region.

Vivian Carvajal Jiménez

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov. Related Links National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Women's ...

382

Facing the challenges of the nuclear renaissance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Renaissance is stumbling at the very same time it should speed up in order to help control the climate change and meet a fast growing energy need in a large part of the world. Rising costs of projects, uncertainties about their completion, rocketing safety requirements, and financial constraints are key factors which slow down the Nuclear Renaissance. Furthermore, the legal infrastructure required from any country to enter a commercial nuclear programme (safety authorities, fuel cycle, and waste disposal) is a major hurdle s which impedes consideration for small to mid size reactors, well suited for many countries. The paper prepared and presented by Alain Bugat (Chairman of NucAdvisor and former Head of the French Atomic Energy Commission), Dominique Vignon (CEO of NucAdvisor and former President and CEO of AREVA NP) and Michel Lecomte (Co-founder NucAdvisor) reviews the present status of the Nuclear Renaissance. Based on an analysis of initial versus actual plans for all projects announced during the last three years, it scrutinizes some key factors behind the postponements of start-up dates of construction, and cost increases. On each of the issues which jeopardize new projects, the paper will propose an adequate course of actions, to be taken by vendors, operators, governments and safety authorities as well as investors, financial institutions and banks. - Recommendations are developed with respect to: - A needed coordination between the Kyoto and post Kyoto mechanisms, and the nuclear industry; a financial assessment of the potential of such coordination will be presented; - A transformation of the national licensing processes, under a common International framework; it will take into consideration the experience of the Airspace industry, and a systematic mutual acceptance of licensing certificates; - An easier access for nuclear projects to the financial markets, based on the support of major Financial institutions (World Bank; BEI; etc..). (authors)

Lecomte, M.; Bugat, A.; Vignon, D. [Expert Founders - NUCADVISOR, 86, rue de Paris, batiment Eucalyptus, 91400 Orsay (France)

2010-07-01

383

Sustainable mobility in rural China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural areas in China suffer from various problems. The stagnating economic development and a lack of (sufficient) job opportunities and basic services, etc., lead to disadvantages for great parts of China's population. In this context, the transport sector plays a crucial role for the development of rural settlements. Although the degree of undersupply varies between villages, the situation of Chinese villages is often worsened by an insufficient developed transport sector. Regarding mobility in rural China, major constraints and therefore challenges are the difficult access to the transport infrastructure, bad road conditions and the lack of public transport systems. Improvements within the transport sector can be regarded as crucial for the economic and social development of (rural) China and should be carried out in a sustainable and holistic manner using participatory approaches. The aim should be the development of mobility strategies considering the specific needs within the field of transport, which shall have a decisive and positive impact on related sectors. This paper is based on experiences made during the 3 years lasting Sino-European research project SUCCESS (Sustainable Users Concept for China Engaging Scientific Scenario) that analyses the present and the potential future role of transport systems in selected rural areas of China. Referring to the case studies of three villages in rural China, some mobility-related projects that present a favourable impact not only on the transport sector but also on the social system and the economy shall be highlighted. Finally, based on the analysis, instruments and measures for the development of a pathway to a sustainable mobility in rural China will be outlined. PMID:17977642

Dalkmann, Holger; Hutfilter, Sabine; Vogelpohl, Karin; Schnabel, Peter

2008-04-01

384

The Fuzzing Evaluation on Environmental Harmonization of the Rural Building Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rural dwelling house is not only an important component of housing construction in China, but also significant of promotion of the construction socialism new countryside. With the rapid development of urbanization of rural China, the level of urbanization in China will be close to 60% excepted by 2020, which undoubtedly bring to the rural building industry an unprecedented opportunity for development. The main problem which rural building materials faced is lack of the product performance...

Qiufei Wang; Fuchang Zhang; Jun Liu

2009-01-01

385

Challenges When Introducing Electronic Exam  

Science.gov (United States)

Time pressures often necessitate the use of more efficient exam tools, such as electronic exams (e-exams), instead of traditional paper exams. However, teachers may face challenges when introducing e-exams in a higher education context. This paper describes what kinds of challenges teachers may face when introducing e-exams, based on experiences…

Kuikka, Matti; Kitola, Markus; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

2014-01-01

386

Producing Lecture Videos from Face-to-Face Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a clear demand for lecture videos in modern education. Nevertheless, the desire to keep face-to-face education remains as well. In such a case, the natural option is to produce videos in face-to-face teaching situations rather than in a studio environment. The challenge this kind of production faces is how to make it to cover an entire degree program cost-efficiently while serving the purpose intended. This article explains the demands set for video production in the context of face-to-face education at the scale of a degree program and how to effectively respond to them in practice. The paper also evaluates the effectiveness and impacts of the production model developed in connection with the Master Studies in Mathematical Information Technology at the Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius. According to the results, with the help of a recording system satisfying the requirements of the education provider it is possible to produce lecture videos at the scale of a degree program, cost-efficiently and in a way that reliably provides support for study.

Mikko Myllymäki

2014-02-01

387

Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

388

Red face revisited: Flushing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term red face is reserved for lesions located exclusively or very predominantly on the face that result from changes in cutaneous blood flow triggered by multiple different conditions. Facial erythema may not only present clinically as a distinct entity, but can also be a sign of other diseases. Patients with a red face challenge clinicians to consider a broad differential diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on date and mode of appearance, characteristics of the erythema, functional signs, and associated systemic manifestations. In most cases, the cause is a benign disease such as rosacea, contact dermatitis, photodermatosis, and climacterium, and a thorough history and physical examination is enough to make a diagnosis; facial erythema may also present as a symptom of drug allergies, cardiac disease, carcinoid syndrome, pheochromocytoma, mastocytosis, and anaphylaxis, as well as some rare causes such as medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pancreatic cell tumor, and renal carcinoma where further laboratory, radiologic, or histopathologic studies are required. In this review, the mechanisms of flushing, its clinical differential diagnosis, and management of various conditions that cause flushing are discussed. PMID:25441473

?kizo?lu, Güliz

2014-01-01

389

PERFORMANCE OF REGIONAL RURAL BANKS IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regional Rural Banks plays a pivotal role in the agriculture and rural development of India. The RRBS have more reached to the rural area of India, through their huge network. The success of rural credit in India is largely depends on their financial strength. RRBs are key financing institution at the rural level which shoulders responsibility of meeting credit needs of different types of agriculture credit in rural areas. At present, most of the regional rural banks are facing the problems of overdue, recovery, nonperforming assets and other problems. Therefore, it is necessary to study financial performance of RRBs in India. This paper attempts to analyze the financial performance of RRBs in India during the period 2008-09 to 2010- 2011. The study is based on secondary data collected form annual reports of NABARD and RBI. An analytical research design of Key Performance Indicators Analysis such as deposits, loans, investments and growth rate index is followed in the present study. The study finds and concludes that performance of RRBs has significantly improved.

Shridevi Sharanappa

2014-08-01

390

Face Recognition in Various Illuminations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

Saurabh D. Parmar,

2014-05-01

391

A STUDY ON FACE, EYE DETECTION AND GAZE ESTIMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face and eye detection is one of the most challenging problems in computer vision area. The goal of thispaper is to present a study over the existing literature on face and eye detection and gaze estimation. Withthe uptrend of systems based on face and eye detection in many different areas of life in recent years, thissubject has gained much more attention by academic and industrial area. Many different studies havebeen performed about face and eye detection. Besides having many challenging p...

Zeynep Orman; Abdulkadir Battal; Erdem Kemer

2011-01-01

392

Preparing Principals for High-Need Rural Schools: A Central Office Perspective about Collaborative Efforts to Transform School Leaders  

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Full Text Available This article presents district administrators’ reflections about (a the contextual challenges they face in leading a high-need rural school system in Central Appalachia and (b the change initiatives they implemented to transform the principalship from school management to instructional leadership. After several years of reform efforts, the district superintendent sought external support to deliver intensive professional development to further the district’s efforts. A land-grant research university and the rural district partnered to develop the Principals Excellence Program (PEP and, in turn, submitted a proposal for funding to support training for two cohorts of practicing principals and administrator-certified teachers who aspire to become principals. The article presents perspectives by the district administrators and leadership educators involved in the district-initiated activities to change the culture of administrative practice.

Browne-Ferrigno, T.

2006-02-01

393

Distance-mediated mentoring: A telecommunication-supported model for novice rural mathematics and science teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural educators face unique professional challenges and limitations. This study investigated the effectiveness of an innovative distance-mediated mentoring program for rural novice mathematics and science teachers. Four purposes were pursued: (1) characterize and document the nature and development of the mentor-novice relationship; (2) describe how discourse influenced the novice teachers' perceptions about mathematics and science teaching; (3) determine whether telecommunication effectively supported a distance-mediated mentoring relationship for novice rural teachers; and (4) investigate program effects on novice teachers' attitudes, concerns, and professional growth. A qualitative research design was implemented during academic years 1996-98. Primary data collection focused on nine rural novice teachers and their mentors and included three sets of interviews spanning three semesters, field observation of classrooms, schools, and communities, and analysis of electronic mail messages over a four-month period. Supporting data were collected during observation of workshops and training sessions, and through surveys administered to all program participants in early 1997 and 1998. Categories of mentor-novice communication were identified: curriculum and content, validation of teaching practice, classroom and school issues, moral support, and social talk. Impact on mathematics and science teaching was accomplished by: sharing materials and activities; planning units and projects; locating resources; classroom and student concerns; long-range curriculum design, and improvement of teaching practices. Professional growth (for both novices and mentors) occurred through individual contact with partners and interaction within the larger mentoring community in both face-to-face and on-line venues. Telecommunication was highly valued by successful users. Technical difficulty curtailed access for a significant number of teachers, but they maintained successful relationships via telephone, mail, and meetings. Recommendations include: (1) consider subject and grade level, teaching responsibilities, and school size and setting when matching partners; (2) encourage early face-to-face encounters; (3) educate mentors to perceive novice needs and monitor intervention outcomes; (4) limit structured support to two years and/or implement ongoing evaluation based on systematically increasing expectations; (5) support a telecommunication component with early and repeated user training and remediation as well as provision of alternative modes; and (6) design specific, structured on-line conference folders and activities to motivate meaningful participation by novice and mentor teachers.

Luebeck, Jennifer Lyn

394

An Index to Measure Rural Diversity in the Light of Rural Resilience and Rural Development Debate  

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Full Text Available Diversity has been extensively studied in ecological systems and its relationship with resilience has been well recognized. In social and ecological systems, in fact, diversity is considered key to determining resilience where resilience is defined as system’s capacity to learn and adapt in the face of internal or external perturbations. However, although human and ecological systems are dynamic, interacting and interdependent, little attention has been given to social systems diversity and its implications. The interest in diversity and resilience of social-ecological systems is increasingly growing, particularly in the rural contexts, due to its possible effects on social and economic development and livelihoods. In this paper we define an analytical tool, the Rural Diversity Index (RDI, to assess the role of natural, economic and social diversity in determining alternative rural socio-ecological developmental patterns. The application of the RDI in pilot areas of Southern Italy showed that, in specific socio-ecological systems, higher natural-socio-economic diversity leads to higher degree of rural development, as measured through standard socio-economic indicators.

Quaranta Giovanni

2014-06-01

395

Rural development policy and food industry development : investigation of small firms in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence of power buyers). Further investigation was carried out on the topic of firms' formation of networks, and the use of available assistance in doing so. Firms' evaluations of support received in satisfying specified objectives are not correlated with their views on which objectives should be addressed. Some concrete suggestions for network activities had been made, but overall the development is at an early stage.

Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens

2007-01-01

396

Handsets Malware Threats and Facing Techniques  

CERN Document Server

Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a new approach to group the different malware containment systems according to their typologies.

Elfattah, Marwa M A; Sarhan, Ebada

2012-01-01

397

Handsets Malware Threats and Facing Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a ...

Elfattah, Marwa M. A.; Aliaa A.A Youssif,; Ebada Sarhan Ahmed

2012-01-01

398

Multitasking in the rural world: technological change and sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rural world offers a heterogeneous picture caused by a rich past and varied responses to a diversity of socio-economic, demographic and political challenges. The present paper aims to trace new opportunities for rurality in the context of a metamorphosis of current production and consumption systems. Addressing issues like diversification, local competition or networking, rural firms are adapting to new conditions by segmenting and moving towards less concentrated forms,...

Noronha, Teresa; Nijkamp, Peter

2009-01-01

399

An Efficient Architecture for Automatic Face Expression Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face recognition has been a focus in research for the last couple of decades because of its wide potential applications and its importance to meet the security needs of today’s world. Security systems, criminology, physical access control and man-machine interactions are examples of applications where recognition of human faces may be crucial. The recognition of faces under varying expressions is one of the current challenges in the face recognition community. Face expre...

Amanur Rehman

2012-01-01

400

25 años de estudios rurales / 25 years of rural studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analizan los desplazamientos que han ocurrido en las cuestiones referidas a la agricultura y el mundo rural, en América Latina, en los últimos veinte y cinco años. En pocos ámbitos del conocimiento social, los temas referidos a estas áreas se han desplazado muy profundamente, tan [...] to es así que la lectura de textos que fueron de la mayor trascendencia en los años sesenta hoy en día no son, con excepciones, otra cosa que asuntos de interés para el análisis de la historia de las ideas. Al revisar la literatura uno se encuentra ante debates que hoy suenan pasados de moda, sin importancia actual e incluso desmedidos. Más aún la inercia de los estudios actuales conduce a pensar en una falta de renovación y ausencia de nuevas miradas, por lo que es necesario el ejercicio de la crítica. En este artículo se ensaya la hipótesis, que en este período se ha producido la pérdida de autonomía de la cuestión y sociedad rural y que surge, o debiera surgir, una nueva mirada hacia estas temáticas en busca de comprender el sentido que aún tiene y seguirá teniendo "lo rural" en nuestras sociedades. La cuestión rural sigue siendo importante, y lo será crecientemente, pero ahora no quizá como sistema de producción o como sociedad diferenciada, sino como fuente y fuerza simbólica e identitaria para las sociedades que se encaminan a un proceso de globalización acelerado, anclándolas en sus profundidades culturales. Probablemente será una referencia a relaciones de convivencia, sistemas de pertenencia, sustrato de relaciones primarias, quizá las únicas proveedoras de sentido frente a la acción colectiva globalizada. Abstract in english This article examines the displacements that have taken place in issues regarding agriculture and the rural world in Latin America in the last 25 years. In a few areas of social knowledge the theme related to such matters has been greatly displaced. Reading the 1960s' highly transcendent texts is re [...] levant almost only to the analysis of the history of ideas - an indication of the aforesaid displacement. In reviewing literature one faces outmoded-sounding debates, with no current importance and sometimes even pointless. Besides, the inertia of current studies points to the lack of renovation and the absence of new approaches. That is why critique has to be exercised. This article assays the hypothesis that in this period the rural issue as well as the rural society have lost their autonomy and there emerges - or there should emerge - a new approach towards those subjects in order to understand the meaning that "rural" still has and will have in our societies. The rural issue is still relevant and it will be increasingly relevant, but perhaps not as a production system or a distinct society, but rather as a symbolic identitarian source and force to societies that are heading to a speedy process of globalization, anchoring them in their cultural profundities. It will probably refer to sociability relations, systems of belonging, an essence of basic relations, perhaps the only one to provide meaning in face of collective globalized action.

José, Bengoa.

 
 
 
 
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Can Regional Colleges Make a Difference in Rural America? The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some regional two-year and four-year colleges are moving beyond their traditional mission of education to take proactive roles in promoting the economic development of their regions and communities. A study of regional colleges that help rural businesses and labor forces adapt to the challenges of rural economies found five outstanding goals of…

Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; Sheaff, Katharine

402

From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry / Del papel a la pantalla: cambios y retos de la industria editorial brasileña / Do papel à tela: as transformações e os desafios da indústria editorial brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As novas tecnologias mudam drasticamente o modo como livros são produzidos e consumidos, evidenciando uma quebra de paradigma na indústria editorial. Neste estudo, procura-se compreender como a indústria editorial brasileira está enfrentando essas transformações, capazes de alterar profundamente seu [...] modelo de negócios. Entrevistas em profundidade com os principais executivos de alguns dos principais atores da indústria editorial foram realizadas a fim de coletarem-se dados sobre como esses gestores percebem as mudanças em seu ambiente de negócios e como vão responder a essas transformações. Os resultados sugerem um panorama caracterizado por novos players chegando ao mercado brasileiro e por grande ansiedade decorrente da chegada dos livros digitais, que podem alterar de forma significativa questões relativas à gestão de direitos autorais e à precificação, potencialmente redefinindo o papel de um editor no processo de publicação. Como reflexo, os editores vêm construindo alianças como uma tentativa de preservar seu valor no mercado, ainda que se mantenham firmemente agarrados aos modelos de negócio tradicionais. Abstract in spanish Las nuevas tecnologías han cambiado drásticamente el modo de producción y consumo de libros, lo que señala un claro cambio de paradigma en la industria editorial. En este estudio se busca entender cómo la industria editorial en Brasil está haciendo frente a estos cambios que afectan significativamen [...] te su modelo de negocio. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas en profundidad con ejecutivos de los principales actores de la industria editorial y se recopilaron datos sobre cómo perciben los cambios en su ambiente de negocios y cómo responderán a estas transformaciones. Los resultados sugieren un panorama que se caracteriza por los nuevos jugadores que llegan al mercado brasileño y por la ansiedad que produce el advenimiento de los libros digitales, lo que puede cambiar de manera significativa cómo tratar cuestiones que se relacionan con la de gestión de derechos de autor y la fijación de precios, y redefinir el mismo papel del editor en el proceso de publicación. Como resultado, los editores están forjando asociaciones que tratan de mantener su valor en el mercado, aunque se aferren firmemente a los modelos de negocio tradicionales. Abstract in english The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazi [...] l to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

Marco Aurélio de Souza, Rodrigues; Paula, Chimenti; Antonio Roberto Ramos, Nogueira; Luiz Felipe, Hupsel; Andrea, Repsold.

2014-09-01

403

The Academy of Rural Veterinarians: Grassroots Innovation to Address the Rural Veterinarian Shortage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2000, a group of dedicated rural veterinarians met while taking the Beef Cattle Production Management Course at the Great Plains Veterinary Education Center at Clay Center, NE.  Upon finding an a common belief in the value of rural practice, this group began visiting each other's practices and offered critiques about ways that the practice could work more efficiently.  One thing became almost immediately noticeable through these visits-the challenge of finding qualified associat...

Lenz, Shelley J.; Brian Buff

2010-01-01

404

The Academy of Rural Veterinarians: Grassroots Innovation to Address the Rural Veterinarian Shortage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In 2000, a group of dedicated rural veterinarians met while taking the Beef Cattle Production Management Course at the Great Plains Veterinary Education Center at Clay Center, NE.  Upon finding an a common belief in the value of rural practice, this group began visiting each other's practices and offered critiques about ways that the practice could work more efficiently.  One thing became almost immediately noticeable through these visits-the challenge of finding qualified associates interested in joining a rural practice.

Shelley J. Lenz

2010-10-01

405

The coming vitality of rural places  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn many parts of the world, whether “developing” or “developed,” the concept of a rural sort of education is largely ignored by national ministries. The United States is just one notable example of silence at the bureaucratic center, despite scholarly interest in provincial universities. The future may change the “terms of engagement,” however, and this essay considers the leadership of rural schools and communities from the vantage of the daunting, but clearly visible, challenges of the future. The challenges described in the essay relate to a variety of visible, perhaps even familiar, economic, environmental, political, and cultural threats confronting life in the coming century. Though increasingly important and relevant to education, these threats are not a common part of discussions in education policy. The essay explains why, and why the threats are important to rural villages and districts. Discussion concludes with five rurally appropriate shifts of thinking that might help rural citizens and subjects around the world engage the challenges and counter the threats.

Craig B. HOWLEY

2013-04-01

406

Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-03-01

407

Moving away from Erindi-roukambe : Transferability of a rural community-based co-design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It has become increasingly clear that situated design and contextualized research needs to undergo a validation phase to determine transferability. Within our longitudinal research project in rural Namibia, we have reached a maturity of methods and product. Yet little do we know about their validity beyond the limited context in the absence of cross-contextual verification. In Erindi-roukambe, the site of our community-based co-design, we have learned to understand and include local perspectives and structures within the dialogic of a participatory action research approach. By engaging with the community over a long period of time local research findings, as well as mutual knowledge have fostered and enriched design decisions. Recognizing that indigenous rural communities in the regional and globally face similar challenges with inappropriate mainstream technology we are currently investigating the applicability of our findings, processes and prototype in other contexts. We have introduced our approach at three other rural sites, two in Namibia and one in East Malaysia. The communities responded well to the technology demonstrating intuitive use and engagement. However, although we have gained promising results we wish to caution pre-mature conclusions on transferability without a more profound understanding of the depth of community engagement, transformation, contextual similarities, and cross-contextual validation.

Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska

2013-01-01