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Problems and Challenges Faced by the Rural Women: A Case Study of Balochistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current research addressed the issue of challenges faced by the rural women in Balochistan. A qualitative research were conducted on various parts of the Balochistan, Data were collected from 300 respondents five districts of Balochistan i.e. Turbat, Gawader, Sibbi, Pashen and Khuzdar Districts by using simple random technique. It was revealed that women in Balochistan are facing lot f problems like karo Kari, sexual harassments by their Tribal Waderas and feeling unsecure. Women are totally deprived from the basic rights. According to our research about 80% of the Karo Kari cases are based on Bias basis there was no reality. It was further revealed that women are facing difficulties and after Watta satta marriages they feel unsecure. Government and NGOs can play role to educate those women about their basic rights. Women are deprived from their basic rights in Balochistan. In most of the cases they are illegally raped with their feudal and in many cases they were married with 60 years old man without their wishes.

Immamuddin Khoso; Kamran Shafiq; Asad Raza Abdi; Faiz. M. Shaikih

2011-01-01

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Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dyn (more) amics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

Morojele, Pholoho

2013-01-01

3

Challenges and Opportunities of Indian Rural Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior to globalisation of Indian economy convey the same meaning, but after wardsboth understand by the markets in different context– the later denotes agricultural and rural production of the forthe urban consumers or industrial consumers, whereas rural marketing involves marketing of manufactured orprocessed inputs to rural consumers. These have changed the entire spectrum of marketing for the Indian ruralmarket and force the marketers to move towards rural areas. Rural marketing in India is still at infancy stages,and faces the various types of problems in respect of marketing, product designing and positioning, pricing,distribution and promotion. Today’s corporation must understand the rural market on different context to widentheir business horizon, to expand their market and to exploiting the opportunities available in the rural areas. TheIndian rural market is bigger and vast in size with its lager consumer base, its offers the great opportunities forthe marketer and stay tune with the rural marketing offerings. Rural marketing consists of around 833 millionpotential consumers, and majority of the Indian middle-class, and about half the country's disposable income.The marketer must understand the growing complexities of the rural market and making strategy for the propermixing of marketing mix. It involves high risk and attractive for those who are searching challenge and having acourage to face those challenges. The key to face the challenges is to understand the market, the consumer needand behaviour.Hence, it is proposed to undertake in this study to assess the various dimension of Indian rural markets. The mainaim of this study is to observe the potentiality of Indian Rural Markets and finding out various problems arebeing faced by rural markets. This paper attempts to look into the challenges and opportunities of Indian ruralmarketing by adopting SWOT analysis matrix on rural markets.

Pardeep Kumar

2013-01-01

4

Summer programming in rural communities: unique challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional loss, and the lack of safe and constructive enrichment activities. However, poor rural communities face three major challenges in implementing summer programming: community resources, human capital, and accessibility. The success of Energy Express, a statewide award-winning six-week summer reading and nutrition program in West Virginia, documents strategies for overcoming the challenges faced by poor, rural communities in providing summer programs. Energy Express (1) uses community collaboration to augment resources and develop community ownership, (2) builds human capital and reverses the acknowledged brain drain by engaging college students and community volunteers in meaningful service, and (3) increases accessibility through creative transportation strategies. West Virginia University Extension Service, the outreach arm of the land-grant institution, partners with AmeriCorps, a national service program, and various state and local agencies and organizations to implement a program that produces robust results.

Phillips R; Harper S; Gamble S

2007-01-01

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The Challenges Women Whistleblowers Face  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women Whistleblowers face unique challenges in the workplace.The headline news of ethical concerns in business is transforming the workplace culture and the workforce. More women are beginning to step forward when ethical concerns arise. However they experience gender differences within the corporate culture when they come forward. Women often approach ethical concerns in a different manner than men. This article will bring research to this issue and uncover the unique challenges that women encounter as whistleblowers and the relationship of social status.

Linda Hunt

2010-01-01

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Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

Raluca IGNAT

2012-01-01

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Challenges Facing the Emerging Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges that Jordanian economy may have to face based on different scenarios in his macro-environment. Specifically, the study focused on the development in the Palestinians and the Iraqi fronts and their impact on the Jordanian economy. Approach: An exploratory research method was utilized. Results: The study findings revealed that the majority of Jordanians believed that the level of conflicts at both fronts are more likely to continue as is ?no war-no peace?. Jordanians showed a tendency to be more optimistic than pessimistic about the reach for a final settlement for both conflicts. However, Jordanians showed more concern for the situation in Palestine than it is in Iraq. Conclusion/Recommendations: were provided for Jordanian policy makers to deal with economic issues based on each scenario.

Basem M. Lozi; Dr. A.A. Al-Ziod

2011-01-01

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El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal.An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

Juan Carlos Pacheco Contreras; Gonzalo Gómez Vásquez; Gabriel Barrero Tapias

2009-01-01

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El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible*/ Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el (more) mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal. Abstract in english An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural reso (more) urces. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

Pacheco Contreras, Juan Carlos; Gómez Vásquez, Gonzalo; Barrero Tapias, Gabriel

2009-07-01

10

Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

Klüter H.; Levchenkov A. V.

2012-01-01

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EU REGIONS FACING OLD AND NEW CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EU regions have to face a lot of social, environmental and economic challenges. In addition the economic turbulence has been causing a lot of changes in the world, affecting the regions of the community, too. This study focuses on these challenges and tries to present the EU’s answers formulated as a response to these issues.

ANDREA MIKLÓSNÉ ZAKAR; ELENA TONEA

2009-01-01

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Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

Memon, Ismail K.

2009-01-01

13

Facing the Challenges of a Turbulent Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

|As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…

Gann, Pamela B.

2009-01-01

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Adaptation challenges facing internationally educated nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes the challenges facing internationally educated nurses working in the United States, combining an extensive literature review with the personal perspectives of a registered nurse from Kenya. An extensive literature search was conducted, and databases were collected and reviewed, while the nurse was participating in an internship at a hospital in a border city in California. Intertwining the personal experiences of the first author with an extensive literature review, the areas of communication, culture shock, nursing roles, and practice and orientation needs are covered. This article reinforces the difficulties faced by internationally educated nurses and makes suggestions for helping them make the adjustment to the US workforce.

Chege N; Garon M

2010-05-01

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Adaptation challenges facing internationally educated nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the challenges facing internationally educated nurses working in the United States, combining an extensive literature review with the personal perspectives of a registered nurse from Kenya. An extensive literature search was conducted, and databases were collected and reviewed, while the nurse was participating in an internship at a hospital in a border city in California. Intertwining the personal experiences of the first author with an extensive literature review, the areas of communication, culture shock, nursing roles, and practice and orientation needs are covered. This article reinforces the difficulties faced by internationally educated nurses and makes suggestions for helping them make the adjustment to the US workforce. PMID:20395732

Chege, Nancy; Garon, Maryanne

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The challenges facing wearable sensor systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been pointed out that, in spite of significant national and international funding programmes, there is a dearth of successfully commercialised wearable monitoring systems. Although problems such as financial reimbursement, device interoperability and the present lack of the required connected healthcare infrastructure are major hurdles to the provision of remote clinical monitoring of home-based patients, the "Mount Everest" of monitoring applications, why are wearable systems not already commercialised and used in less demanding applications? The numerous wearable systems which appear on the Web and even in the literature are, for the most part, basic prototypes unsuited to the demands of real-life applications. SMEs which do seek to commercialise clinically promising systems are unfortunately faced with many challenges and few as yet have survived long enough to successfully commercialise their innovations.

McAdams E; Gehin C; Massot B; McLaughlin J

2012-01-01

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Pedagogic challenges facing business and management educators: Assessing the evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a BEST-supported investigation into the pedagogic challenges faced by business and management educators. The views of those in the 'front line' of business and management education on the challenges they currently face were obtained by m...

Ottewill, R; Macfarlane, BJ

18

What are the challenges facing our industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

NONE

1998-12-01

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Major Challenges of Iranian Rural Communities for Achieving Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural population in Iran live in an unstable environment and geographically, villages are extremely diverse and more than 65% of them have population less than 250 persons, which do not provide sufficient population threshold for most of services and sustainable economic and job creation activities. Only 7.5% of rural areas have population more than 1000 persons. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out major challenges of Iranian rural communities for achieving sustainable development. Approach: To fulfill this objective, 60 rural development experts who are engaged in government organizations relevant to rural development, were randomly selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbachs alpha of 0.83. To arrive to consensus of experts opinion, factor analysis was used to achieve data reduction and extract factors. Results: In total, 5 factors, including "economic", "management and planning", "environmental", "social" and "physical challenges" were identified. These factors explained 65.52% of challenges to achieving sustainable development in rural areas in Iran. Conclusion: Diversification of rural economy, supporting job creation activities, promoting sustainable rural tourism, business and industrial activities, establishing a stable urban-rural network are among important agenda which can create an appropriate condition for sustainable development in Iranian rural communities.

Khalil Kalantari; Hossein S. Fami; Ali Asadi; Iraj Qasemi; Shahla Chubchian

2008-01-01

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Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society  

Science.gov (United States)

Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

Olneck, Michael R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explains the difficulties anatomy education in Pakistan is facing. The article highlights the concern about how the changes to the traditional curriculum decreases the quality of education medical students are receiving. Issues discussed are the advantages/disadvantages of PBL learning, lack of trained faculty, lack of cadaver access among others.

2009-07-27

22

The challenges facing hydroelectric power in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The single major challenge for hydroelectric power stations today is the durability of production. Environmental management has to be rethought, climate change integrated, but also the economic role of hydroelectricity reassessed. More generally, the challenge of energy transition in which hydroelectricity will have primary role must be met. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions, underway in some European countries, must be placed in this context. By using as examples Switzerland and France, the author sets out to show that this rethink can be an opportunity to put into practice new ways of management for this sector. (author)

2012-01-01

23

Challenges and opportunities facing holistic approaches to neuropsychological rehabilitation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Holistic approaches to neuropsychological rehabilitation have progressively been recognized as an important form of rehabilitative care for persons who have a history of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: After providing historical and contemporary perspectives, identify challenges and opportunities facing the field of neuropsychological rehabilitation. METHODS: Selective literature review from neuropsychological rehabilitation, neurosciences, learning theory, cognitive neuropsychology, and psychotherapy that highlight challenges to the development of holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation. RESULTS: Ten challenges and associated opportunities that face the field of holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation are identified. Illustrations of these challenges and opportunities are provided. CONCLUSIONS: Effectively addressing the challenges that face holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation will result in greater advances for this field of care for both children and adults.

Prigatano GP

2013-01-01

24

Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are increasing in their importance to both the nuclear safety regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry. In the changing technological, economic and social environment surrounding TSOs, the scope of their role has also been changing. In particular, TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of nuclear installations over the plant life cycle; at the same time, they are facing managerial challenges such as maintaining technical competence and improving performance. The paper gives an overview of the current challenges faced by TSOs and the future challenges that could be expected, as well as some approaches to or remedies for these identified problems, focusing on safety regulation of nuclear installations. TSOs providing support to nuclear regulators must have strategic plans to cope with these challenges effectively and efficiently, and to provide adequate technical assistance to the regulators for their regulatory decision making and administrative measures. (author)

2007-01-01

25

Engineering craniofacial structures: facing the challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human innate regenerative ability is known to be limited by the intensity of the insult together with the availability of progenitor cells, which may cause certain irreparable damage. It is only recently that the paradigm of tissue engineering found its way to the treatment of irreversibly affected body structures with the challenge of reconstructing the lost part. In the current review, we underline recent trials that target engineering of human craniofacial structures, mainly bone, cartilage, and teeth. We analyze the applied engineering strategies relative to the selection of cell types to lay down a specific targeted tissue, together with their association with an escorting scaffold for a particular engineered site, and discuss their necessity to be sustained by growth factors. Challenges and expectations for facial skeletal engineering are discussed in the context of future treatment.

Zaky SH; Cancedda R

2009-12-01

26

RURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural areas of the new EU Member States face serious problems incompliance of EU regulation on waste management. Firstly, the share of rural population is higher and it has lower living standards and secondly, the waste collection services are poorly-developed covering some rural regions. In this context, open dumping is used as an appropriate waste disposal solution generating complex pollution. This paper analyzes the disparities between Romanian counties regarding the rural population access to waste collection services in 2008 which reflects the geographical distribution of rural dumpsites in 2009. It examines on one hand , the role of waste management services to reduce illegal dumping and on the other hand, the dysfunctions of traditional waste management system from ruralareas and their implications on local environment.

Liviu Apostol; Florin-Constantin Mihai

2012-01-01

27

THREATS AND CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt is an agricultural based country. Its development primarily depends upon rural resources. Agriculture contributes approximately 14% of the GDP and absorbs about 31% of workforce. About 53% population lives in rural areas where directly or indirectly their livelihood depends upon agricultural sector. Despite its positive and significant contributions to food security/supply, economy, employment, export earnings, ecological balance, yet the agriculture of the country faces many threats and challenges which, in turn, impacts rural development initiatives. The prominent challenges include land and water issues; old cultivation techniques; lack of information on marketing; poverty; degradation of natural resources and environmental issues; population growth; inadequate support services; framework and institutional constraints; and lack of agricultural and rural development policies. In this article, an effort has been made to identify the constraints faced by the agricultural sector, discuss the available farm management options, and to outline the vibrant strategy backed by an efficient and effective Extension to realize sustainable yields and rural development in the country

M. Y. Shalaby, K. H. Al-Zahrani, M. B. Baig, G. S. Straquadine* and F. Aldosari

2011-01-01

28

Challenges in the face of uncertainty  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Opinions of the Interim Director of the Global Environment Program of Cornell University are presented. The focus is on obstacles to the implementation by policymakers of actions needed to address climate change. A major obstacle preventing action is stated to be the uncertainties involved in climate predictions. It is proposed that rapid, comprehensive action is required to meet the challenges posed by climate predictions, regardless of the inherent uncertainties. Aspects of future climate which are relatively certain are discussed, including continued greenhouse effects for the next several decades, a greater warming effect at higher altitudes, more warming in the winter, and linkage of all other aspects of climate to temperature changes. Aspects of climatic change which pose particular problems regarding predictability are also discussed.

Oglesby, R.T. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

29

Challenges in the face of uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Opinions of the Interim Director of the Global Environment Program of Cornell University are presented. The focus is on obstacles to the implementation by policymakers of actions needed to address climate change. A major obstacle preventing action is stated to be the uncertainties involved in climate predictions. It is proposed that rapid, comprehensive action is required to meet the challenges posed by climate predictions, regardless of the inherent uncertainties. Aspects of future climate which are relatively certain are discussed, including continued greenhouse effects for the next several decades, a greater warming effect at higher altitudes, more warming in the winter, and linkage of all other aspects of climate to temperature changes. Aspects of climatic change which pose particular problems regarding predictability are also discussed.

1992-01-01

30

Competitive challenges facing Australian metallurgical coal producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The export coal industry earns Australia $8 billion a year. Of the 130 million tonnes a year exported, some 70 million tonnes a year are metallurgical coal, Australia being the largest supplier to the 160 million tonnes a year international seaborne trade in this commodity. This paper highlights challenges confronting metallurgical coal producers which require strong responses if the industry is to prosper. The fortunes of the metallurgical coal industry are intimately linked to those of the steel industry. Although volatility and low average growth in steel demand since 1973, coupled with the erosion of demand for traditional metallurgical coking coals through changing steel-making technology, has impacted on the industry, growth in the Asian region is expected to create substantial opportunities for Australian producers over the next decade. Efforts to reduce cost through productivity improvements will need to be accelerated and, nationally, performance standards in all aspects of service delivery must be improved. (author).

Flint, L. [Shell Coal (Australia) Pty. Ltd., Sydney NSW (Australia)

1996-10-01

31

Environmental challenges facing military base closures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental remediation activities at military bases mandated for closure or realignment pose unique technical and managerial challenges to meet statutory requirements and community interests. Past industrial activities at Department of Army installations involving weapons development, testing, and repairs present extremely diverse problems for cleanup. The combination of environmental and defense statutory requirements present even greater challenges to assure that remediation activities are accelerated to render bases available for early re-use. The inclusion of bases on the National Priorities List and the need to consider socio-economic factors in identifying alternative uses of military bases and public involvement become significant factors in environment decisionmaking. Specific statutory authorities enable military facilities to identify uncontaminated parcels and allow property to be deeded, upon demonstration that an approved remedy is operating properly and successfully, while long-term cleanup of the entire installation continues. Successful cleanup strategies also require effective communication with public and disparate community interest groups. To speed the economic recovery of communities with closing military bases, the Clinton Administration has pledged to reduce the delays normally associated with environmental remediation activities. This article examines four core issues in the decontamination process: complexities associated with accelerating remediation activities at Army installations; managing the process within the constraints of limited resources; the public`s early involvement in shaping environmental contamination. The complexities presented by closing military bases and assuring environmental compliance have resulted in the development and implementation of several innovative methods that may prove useful to non-defense environmental situations. Examples of these methods and a discussion of strategies will be presented.

Pomerleau, N.M.; Cunanan, P.P.; Lingo, R. [U.S. Army Material Command, Alexandria, VA (United States)

1995-12-01

32

Challenges of urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing and child rearing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was earned out to explore the challenges faced by urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing & child rearing. Arandom sample 200 working women from urban (100) & rural (100) area of (Chennai), Kundrathur, Gudiyatham were selected. A questionnaire was formulated by the investigator consisting of fifty questions with five domains, having 10 questions, in each domain, which was administered to the subjects and responses were collected. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis and the results were interpreted. The results revealed that both urban and rural pregnant working women experienced the discomforts of pregnancy alike. The support services available to urban pregnant women were less compared to the rural pregnant working women. Urban pregnant women enjoyed the privilege of availing 6 months maternity leave, whereas the rural working women, resorts to work after a month or 40 days after delivery. It is interesting to note that rural women get the opportunity to breast feed their babies till 2 or 2-1/2 years, than the urban working ladies. With regard to stress experienced at work accompanied by feeling of guilt in child rearing, rural women were at ease at their work place than the urban women, who work in shifts and are away from home, spending less time with the growing child.

Jahanaara Razick

2013-01-01

33

NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

SASU Dinu Vlad; MOCANU Mihaela; BOBE Claudia-Maria

2010-01-01

34

Rural Development Practice in Nigeria: How Participatory and What Challenges?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes that participatory development has not been practiced in the real sense of the concept in rural development in Nigeria. While highly centralized and top-down exploitative rural development practice dominated the colonial system up to the period of post-independence military dictatorship, not much significant difference have been observed within the current civilian democratic experiment. The paper argues that while long years of military rule in Nigeria have made it impossible for the development of effective institutional arrangements that could sustain true participatory democratic culture, a lack of citizens? capacity to participate in development intended for their benefit has posed the greatest challenge in achieving sustainable participatory rural development.

Nseabasi S. Akpan

2012-01-01

35

Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key trends that, taken together, we believe will shape the hospitality sector this year and for years to come include rapid growth in vacation ownership, integration & globalization, new management.Key words: Issues; Challenges; Trends; Hospitality Industry

Jin-zhao WANG; Jing WANG

2009-01-01

36

Computerization of Rural Banks in Ghana-Issues and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses issues and challenges encountered in a computerization project being carried out by the ARB Apex Bank to connect rural and community banks in Ghana. Computerization of banking has been going on in the country for some time now. Unlike the commercial banks, the rural banks lag behind with regards to computer and networking technologies. The ARB Apex Bank therefore embarked on the project to make the benefits of such technologies available to member rural banks. The study selected some rural banks engaged in the first phase of the project. Fifty respondents sampled from staff of the selected banks and experts involved in the project, were interviewed. The study concluded that, on the whole, the project was well designed and implemented; envisaged challenges were adequately specified and catered for and that the first phase progressed successfully. Staff beneficiaries were found to be actively involved in the project and majority of them agreed that the project was within time and budget. The study identified that, on completion, the project will enable the rural banks compete favourably with the commercial banks in the financial market. This will lead to improved service delivery to customers and greater customer satisfaction. In addition, complete computerization and networking will lead to improved monitoring of rural banks in order to reduce financial malpractices. The project will also promote intra/inter bank transactions, peer interaction and peer monitoring among the networked members. The aggregate returns will bring greater efficiency, lower cost of operation and increased profitability and sustainability to the Ghanaian rural banks.

G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; B.N.A. Botchway-Anang

2012-01-01

37

Explores in the '90s will face new challengers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses how the oil and gas exploration business has gone through significant changes during the past decade and faces new challenges in the 1990's. The intergration of all technical disciplines is cited as being necessary for future exploratory success. According to the author, new geologic concepts and advances significant volumes of hydrocarbons in the offshore U.S. and Gulf of Mexico, and to discover new productive areas internationally.

Forrest, M.C. (Pecten International Co. (US))

1989-12-01

38

Surveying Education : Facing the Challenges of the Future  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a relevant discipline to surveying. But it does imply that the focus of the surveying profession is changing from being very much related to doing measurements´to now being increasingly related to management of the measurement processes, the geospatial data, and the property and land-use regimes. In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.

Enemark, Stig

2009-01-01

39

Challenges faced by developing countries in nuclear power deployment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Analysis of future domestic electricity demand and supply conducted by official UAE entities has concluded that increasing demand for electricity is fast outstripping the growth in supply. Total electricity demand in the UAE is expected to rise from approximately 15,000 megawatts to 42,000 megawatts by 2020. Significant new generation capacity must be constructed and brought on-line. It was concluded that peaceful nuclear power-generation represents an environmentally promising and commercially competitive option which could make a significant contribution to the UAE's economy and future energy security. To make clear its intentions with regard to nuclear power, the Government of the UAE has prepared and formally endorsed its 'Policy on the Evaluation and Potential Implementation o Peaceful Nuclear Energy' as a reflection of its views on the potential establishment of a peaceful civilian nuclear energy program. The policy defines the framework under which the program will be developed and is based on principles of transparency, highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation , and working directly with the IAEA and responsible nations of expertise. Many challenges face developing countries embarking on the development of a civil nuclear energy program. Challenges include initial questions such as where and when a nation should start planning. Other challenges are related to the development of required infrastructure in legislation, regulatory, human resources, and institutional structure. Further challenges are faced at the time of transforming guidance and recommendations into an implementation plan and the execution of such plan in an effective manner. The UAE has addressed many of these challenges by conventional and sometimes innovative ways in developing the required infrastructure and moving into the implementation phase of the program. Starting from almost no nuclear energy infrastructure, these plans are being conducted today in the UAE with an expanding number of domestic and international stakeholders. (author)

2009-01-01

40

Regulatory challenges faced first Indonesia NPPs by independent TSOs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Facing the challenges. New structures in the energy business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utility sector is facing big challenges over the short, mid and long term. All utilities have to meet three challenges, a so-called trilemma: They must optimise between security of supply, profitability and the environment while dealing with the liberalisation and the parallel integration of energy markets as well as the huge need for modernisation and investment in the asset base. The role of the utility sector in climate protection is evident. The same applies to the European-wide need for modernisation of grid and generation assets. The possible answer for integrated utilities could be a structural change with a turn to cross-regional focussing along the whole value chain. (orig.)

2011-01-01

42

Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

Darryl Maybery; Rod Pope; Gene Hodgins; Yvonne Hitchenor

2010-01-01

43

Environmental Sustainability: The Challenge for the Rural Women in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given our settlement pattern as evident in Nigeria, it is expedient to note that the country's population spread has shown considerably that we have older women and children dwelling within the rural areas of the country and doing subsistence job on their respective farms so as to keep them going. Given this trend, their quest for survival at the face of the eminent economic pressures has sent many into pursuing vigorously the best option in survival strategy with utmost aim of making life bearable for them within the changing society of ours by their subsisting on nature. The consequences of such effort demonstrated the government's total neglect of women's need. Therefore, this study looked at these issues from the feminist perspective as they relate to women's need. Also, the plight of the rural dwelling women, their survival strategy, the poverty syndrome and the planned action of the government in the effect to salvage the impending problems which women's quest for survival in the rural areas will cause the Nation as a whole have been studied. Our submission is arrived at as a result of our observations in villages such as Eye-Korin, Gambari, Lasoju, Gbede and Ote among others in Asa Local Government are of Kwara State in Nigeria. Consequently, this study proposes a premise for the re-awakening of all parties to the needs of not just women alone, but the environment that all must collectively preserve lest the consequential effects which such neglect will cause will be enormous.

Aluko, T.

2011-01-01

44

The challenges facing OEMs of alternatively fuelled vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ever increasing market for Alternative Fuelled Vehicles (AFVs) has encouraged several major Original Equipment Vehicle Manufacturers (OEMs) to offer fully engineered AFVs supported by factory warranty and comprehensive service backup. This paper describes the challenges faced by the OEs in providing high quality products to satisfy the customer needs and latest legislation whilst still compressing the development programmes into extremely tight schedules. The prime objectives of low emissions with good driveability will be discussed with consideration to the current market and legislative requirements. In just a few short years AFVs have come from the crude aftermarket carburettor to the integrated multi-fuel vehicles offered today. Looking to the future the potential benefits of these cleaner fuels will only be realised through comprehensive development programmes undertaken by the major OEMs. (Author)

Eastlake, A.; Edwards, J. [Millbrook Proving Ground, Bedford (United Kingdom)

2000-07-01

45

The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.). Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

Sébastien Peyrouse

2011-01-01

46

Survive or thrive?: Challenges facing the minerals industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Challenges facing the Australian minerals industry include the passage of Native Title legislation, increasing pressure to adopt a Code of Practice, declining profitability, the changing nature of employment, and community demands for greater disclosure and accountability. For the industry to thrive, expectations of the major stakeholders, customers, shareholders, communities and employees must be balanced. The relationship with the community includes local communities, indigenous communities and the broader community, particularly in relation to environmental performance. Pressure to adopt a Code of Practice has arisen as a result of media coverage of environmental incidents at mining operations in Australia and overseas. By seeking a greater level of communication and debate, and responding to changing expectations, the minerals industry will ensure a secure future in Australia. (author). 4 figs.

Stewart, D. [Pasminco Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

1996-10-01

47

Challenges faced by Pakistani pharmaceutical industry: An intellectual capital perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intellectual capital is recognized as one of the most critical factors for the success of organizations in a knowledge-based economy. In a knowledge-based economy high tech organizations are facing tremendous challenges to gain competitive advantage. The main objective of this study is to introduce the concept and applications of intellectual capital in Pakistani pharmaceutical industry. Pakistani pharmaceutical industry is one of the major industries and it has 70% of share to fulfill the demand of finished pharmaceutical products. This industry also contributes in economic growth and development. This study is a preliminary in nature and it will also be a milestone for future research on this topic.

Khalique, Muhammad; Md. Isa, Abu Hassan bin; Shaari, Jamal Abdul Nassir

2012-01-01

48

Challenges facing nursing education in Australia: two solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Australia, like many other countries is facing a shortage of qualified nurse educators and this has potential to impact enormously on the quality of nurses working in health services. Methods: This paper discusses the findings of action research recently completed within a Queensland University, involving a range of nurse educators. Results: It explores some of the challenges to role satisfaction and suggests two strategies to build capacity, connection, satisfaction and productivity in Australian nurse educators, that may be relevant for international colleagues. Conclusions: The first solution is to establish a self-sustaining, solution-focused Community of Practice for nurse educators. The second solution is to disseminate an effective, easy to remember teaching framework that draws upon principles of Transformative learning, a pedagogy that is relevant for nurses, because they will need to work with vulnerable populations and graduates need to be equipped with skills, compassion and be committed to social action.

Margaret Maura McAllister

2012-01-01

49

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

2009-01-01

50

Electronic health systems: challenges faced by hospital-based providers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this article is to discuss specific challenges faced by hospitals adopting the use of electronic medical records and implementing electronic health record (EHR) systems. Challenges include user and information technology support; ease of technical use and software interface capabilities; compliance; and financial, legal, workforce training, and development issues. Electronic health records are essential to preventing medical errors, increasing consumer trust and use of the health system, and improving quality and overall efficiency. Government efforts are focused on ways to accelerate the adoption and use of EHRs as a means of facilitating data sharing, protecting health information privacy and security, quickly identifying emerging public health threats, and reducing medical errors and health care costs and increasing quality of care. This article will discuss physician and nonphysician staff training before, during, and after implementation; the effective use of EHR systems' technical features; the selection of a capable and secure EHR system; and the development of collaborative system implementation. Strategies that are necessary to help health care providers achieve successful implementation of EHR systems will be addressed.

Agno CF; Guo KL

2013-07-01

51

Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: the Way Forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact of local government on community and rural development in Nigeria, challenges and the way forward. To scientifically and analytically interrogate the issues raised, the paper traversed conceptualizations and theoretical terrain; utilizing system and rural development theories. Yet, because of the dearth of data, it did content analysis of 466 newspapers and magazines in Nigeria published between 2007 and 2011, to determine people’s feelings about the local governments’ development efforts in communities. It is the position of this paper that the creation of local government in most cases were not based on viability and developmental purposes as required by the constitution but on administrative conveniences to score cheap political goals and legitimacy especially by the military rulers. The paper concludes that while the basic rationale behind the creation of local government is to meet the peculiar needs of the people at the grassroots, it is however pathetic to note that local government has demonstrated incompetence in this regard. Given the catalogue of challenges facing local government, it recommends among other measures, that while local government should remain as a third tier of government, it should be given more powers, resources and enabling environment for the development of localities.

Akhakpe Ighodalo; Fatile Olufemi Jacob; Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

2012-01-01

52

Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact of local government on community and rural development in Nigeria, challenges and the way forward. To scientifically and analytically interrogate the issues raised, the paper traversed conceptualizations and theoretical terrain; utilizing system and rural development theories. Yet, because of the dearth of data, it did content analysis of 466 newspapers and magazines in Nigeria published between 2007 and 2011, to determine people’s feelings about the local governments’ development efforts in communities. It is the position of this paper that the creation of local government in most cases were not based on viability and developmental purposes as required by the constitution but on administrative conveniences to score cheap political goals and legitimacy especially by the military rulers. The paper concludes that while the basic rationale behind the creation of local government is to meet the peculiar needs of the people at the grassroots, it is however pathetic to note that local government has demonstrated incompetence in this regard. Given the catalogue of challenges facing local government, it recommends among other measures, that while local government should remain as a third tier of government, it should be given more powers, resources and enabling environment for the development of localities.

Akhakpe Ighodalo; Fatile Olufemi Jacob; Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

2012-01-01

53

GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

2013-01-01

54

Challenging the Inevitability of Rural Decline: Advancing the Policy of Place in Northern British Columbia  

Science.gov (United States)

In current policy discourse, rural decline is often described as an inevitable process associated with such broader structural trends as globalization and urbanization. The purpose of this paper is to challenge the supposed inevitability of rural decline in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. We argue that rural decline in northern BC has been…

Markey, Sean; Halseth, Greg; Manson, Don

2008-01-01

55

Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. METHODS: In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. RESULTS: Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to 'get the job done' on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges that arise as a cohesive team, with timely, locally-relevant, and often creative, solutions. Budgeting sufficient time and project resources for capacity building and community buy-in processes is also essential when working in remote communities unaccustomed to research. Documenting and sharing field experiences can provide valuable information for other researchers planning to conduct fieldwork in similar contexts.

Casale M; Lane T; Sello L; Kuo C; Cluver L

2013-01-01

56

Interview: challenges faced by the modern bioanalytical laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Timothy Sangster (Charles River Laboratories) and Mike Oliver (Thermo Fisher Scientific) speak to Thomas Payne at Bioanalysis in September 2012 about the challenges faced by the modern bioanalytical laboratory. Timothy Sangster has been with Charles River Laboratories since September 2009. Having worked for Quintiles, Pharmacia, Astrazeneca and Huntingdon Life Sciences, he has gained experience over 17 years in both CRO and pharmaceutical environments, and also in both Europe and the USA. Specific areas of interest over the past years have been microchromatography, sample preparation and matrix effects, to name a few. Mike Oliver has held the position of Global Product Manager for sample preparation at Thermo Fisher Scientific since 2010, being responsible for the development and introduction of new innovative technologies such as SOLA™ to the market place. Prior to this role, Mike has worked for two leading MS vendors over a 9?year period, being responsible for biotechnology sales within the UK and providing application solutions for proteomic and metabolic workflows based on high-resolution LC-MS platforms, respectively. Mike holds a PhD in MS and Biochemistry from the MS Research Unit, University of Wales, Swansea, UK.

Sangster T; Oliver M

2012-10-01

57

Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-12-15

58

On outsourcing and offshoring : Challenges facing management and engineering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying the research area, (2) Illustrating the current situation and the desired situation, and the gap between these (the descriptive study), (3) Illustrating how to close this gap (the prescriptive study I) and (4) Validating these results (the prescriptive study II). Two descriptive studies were carried out as case studies with seven Danish multinational corporations. A total of 57 semi-structured interviews were conducted with top managers, daily managers and expatriates. In study 1 four areas were investigated: (1) the global product development process in the investigated case companies, (2) the challenges they experienced, (3) the solutions they implemented, and (4) the impact of these solutions. In the descriptive study 2 the use of expatriates were investigated in relation to their role in the organisation when globalising the product development process. Through investigating seven Danish multinationals it became clear that global product development had an impact on both management and engineering projects within the companies. The globalisation of the product development process started with manufacturing activities and later more high value adding activities like product design and R&D were added until some companies had globalised the whole product development process. The globalisation of the product development process seems to consist of four phases: 1. Motivation to move abroad. 2. Preparation phase. 3. Implementation phase. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. 4. Managing the relationship. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. Only top management was involved in these first two phases. In implementation and managing the new global projects and relationships, the daily managers and expatriates were responsible. In these phases the companies faced organisational problems and complications with the technical and managerial aspects of the engineering projects. The problems within management were similar to those previously reported in literature, mainly related to culture, knowledge sharing and coordination but also change management and organisational structures and processes. The problems within engineering were related to product and process modularity as well as the ii knowledge properties of the product. These problems resulted in delays, misunderstandings and quality issues. The novel aspect of the empirical investigation was the in-depth understanding of how these challenges were addressed in the company to try and maximise the perceived benefits from globalising the product development process. The daily managers implemented a series of initiatives to address these; mainly codification of knowledge, streamlined communication, training, bringing more tasks out to ensure contact between vital elements, make the product development process less complex, make the product less complex and detailed work descriptions. There was, in other words, a focus on control and minimizing risk. The result of these solutions impacted on the product, the product development process and the organisation. Some of these impacts were positive and some were negative. The positive impacts of the solutions were related to a better understanding of work processes and the supply chain whereas globalisation itself provided the possibility for an increased product portfolio and products which were better suited to local markets. The negative impacts were for example, that the product development process became slower and less integrated whereas the organisation became more focused on codified knowledge and writte

Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

2011-01-01

59

A Feasible Rural Education System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES)” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

Lincy Meera Mathews; Dr Bandaru Rama Krishna Rao

2012-01-01

60

Challenges to Born Global SMEs : A study on overcoming the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs and how they overcome these challenges. Method: For literature review and secondary research, data and information has been gathered from disciplines of international entrepreneurship. Primary research ...

Hamza, Aziz; Zulfiqar, Salman

 
 
 
 
61

Logistic support in rural areas – the idea and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.

Anna Bruska

2012-01-01

62

Challenges when electricity markets face the investment phase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deregulation of electricity industry in Europe has tended to start with a grace period of energy surplus inherited from the previously expansive coordinated economies and further amplified by better resource utilisation from extended international trade. The regulatory challenge has therefore primarily been to allocate existing generation to consumers in an efficient way. However, as energy demand increases, due to economic growth, the challenge of providing new capacity surfaces. The Nordic region, which has been a pioneer in internationalising and deregulating electricity, is now approaching this stage, ahead of most of the rest of Europe. While the Nordic case is characterised by specificities related to hydropower it also raises the more general challenge of capacity expansion under a deregulated market economy. The article therefore discusses how the Nordic investment challenges of today shed light on more generic challenges that may become more general European challenges of tomorrow. In a final section, the article discusses policy options available to address the investment/price-hike challenge. The argument is put forward that recursion to some degree of coordinated governance might seem necessary if solutions are confined within large-scale technical systems. However, within the context of a small-scale decentralised technological development, one may be more confident of competitive solutions. (Author)

Finon, Dominique [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement, Paris (France); Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Midttun, Atle [Norwegian School of Management, Dept. of Innovation and Economic Organization, Sandvika (Norway)

2004-08-01

63

Using grid technologies to face medical image analysis challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The availability of digital imagers inside hospitals and their ever growing inspection capabilities have established digital medical images as a key component of many pathologies diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. To face the growing image analysis requirements, automated medical image processing a...

Montagnat, Johan; BRETON, Vincent; Magnin, Isabelle

64

Mental health services in rural India: challenges and prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mental health services in India are neglected area which needs immediate attention from the government, policymakers, and civil society organizations. Despite, National Mental Health Programme since 1982 and National Rural Health Mission, there has been a very little effort so far to provide mental health services in rural areas. With increase in population, changing life-style, unemployment, lack of social support and increasing insecurity, it is predicted that there would be a substantial increase in the number of people suffering from mental illness in rural areas. Considering the mental health needs of the rural community and the treatment gap, the paper is an attempt to remind and advocate for rural mental health services and suggest a model to reduce the treatment gap.

Anant Kumar

2011-01-01

65

Challenging Coaching Going beyond traditional coaching to face the FACTS  

CERN Document Server

This book breaks the mould of traditional coaching approaches to challenge coaches and their clients to achieve courageous goals that sustainably transform bottom line performance.Based on the authors' extensive experience working with international Board level teams, it suggests that for too long coaches have shied away from adopting a more challenging stance in their work - a stance that can provoke greater performance and unlock deeper potential in business leaders and their teams. In particular, the authors offer a new coaching approach, FACTS, to help coaches develop this challenging stan

Blakey, John

2012-01-01

66

Challenges Facing Contemporary Associative Approaches to Acquired Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the considerable success of contemporary associative models of learning in stimulating new behavioral research and modest success in providing direction to both neuroscience and psychotherapy, these models are confronted with at least three challenges. The first challenge is to the assumption that animals encode only one or a few summary statistics to capture what has been experienced over many training trials. This assumption is contrary to overwhelming evidence that the brain retains episodic information. The second challenge is that the learning-performance distinction has been largely ignored. Most models erroneously assume that behavior is a nearly perfect reflection of what has been encoded. The third challenge is to account for interactions between stimuli that have been presented separately (e.g., stimulus interference) as well as between stimuli that have been presented together (e.g., stimulus competition).

Ralph R. Miller

2006-01-01

67

Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI) clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal elimination of HIV/AIDS.

Margaret Macherera, MSc; Lindani Moyo, BSc; Mkhanyiseli Ncube, BSc; Angella Gumbi, MSc

2012-01-01

68

Challenging Coaching Going beyond traditional coaching to face the FACTS  

CERN Document Server

Challenging Coaching is a real-world, timely, and provocative book which provides a wakeup call to move beyond the limitations of traditional coaching. Based on the authors' extensive experience working at board and management levels, they suggest that for too long coaching approaches have shied away from adopting a more challenging stance - a stance that can provoke greater performance and unlock deeper potential in business leaders and their teams. The authors detail their unique FACTS coaching model, which provides a practical and pragmatic approach focusing on Feedback, Accountability, C

Blakey, John

2012-01-01

69

The present-day rural family: a challenge for nursing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to think over the rural family, relating it with health and Nursing in a contemporary context. Methodology: to develop the test, a bibliographical research was done conducted with authors from different areas (political, economic, social and health) in books and articles, as well as the experience of the authors to make the reflexive analysis on rural households. Results: the increasing transformations in family structure dynamics and functionality, both in urban and rural environments, it is necessary to get to know family peculiarities such as culture, beliefs and health habits in order to care for these families. This set of values varies from one group to another. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to reflect on the family dimension in this context, as the rural environment occupies an unfavorable rank as to public service access, and this favors social inequalities and poverty.

Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer, Eda Schwartz, Teila Ceolin, Rita Maria Heck

2009-01-01

70

Problemy razvitija sel'skoj mestnosti Severo-Vostochnoj Germanii [Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

Klüter Helmut; Levchenkov Andrei

2012-01-01

71

Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational reso...

Ken Thaxter

72

Facing the Issues: Challenges, Censorship, and Reflection through Dialogue  

Science.gov (United States)

ReLeah Cossett Lent provides practical advice for ensuring that books are kept on shelves and in classrooms for students to read. She outlines steps for creating professional learning communities that engage with censorship issues and prepare schools to deal with book challenges in thoughtful, supportive ways. (Contains 4 figures.)

Lent, ReLeah Cossett

2008-01-01

73

Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs). This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

Vivian E A Eta; Mary B S Atanga; Julius Atashili; Gibson D’Cruz

2011-01-01

74

Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective  

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Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration), and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

Ghada Quaisi Audi

2008-01-01

75

The United Nations in the Face of Current Challenges  

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Full Text Available As a result of the 50th anniversary of the birth of the United Nations Organization (UN), this article takes a look at the role which this international organization has played on the international stage and sets out the great challenges which this has to confront today, especially since the transformation of the international system from 1988 onwards and the beginning of (what has been called) the end of the Cold War. These challenges are the following: peace-keeping and international security in an increasingly complex and unstable world, the promotion and protection of Human Rights throughout the world and the challenge of development.At the same time, the process of institutional reform taken up by the UN in order to make its various organs more efficient and the obtaining of the necessary financial resources and their putting to more efficent use are also discussed. In this context, the reform of the Security Council as well as in the economic and social sector, the financial problem and the changes made in the organization of the Secretariat are also analysed.The article concludes with the positive evaluation that whatever the imperfections of the UN, the world today would be much less safer and just if it did not exist.

Francisco Villar

1995-01-01

76

Lives of quality in the face of challenge in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the quality of life of Israeli families raising a child with a disability while challenged with all the usual demands of family life. METHODS: Respondents were main caregivers of 103 children with disability receiving services at Beit Issie Shapiro, a service agency in Israel. The respondents completed the Family Quality of Life Survey-2006 which operationalises family quality of life (FQOL) as a construct in nine domains of family life. FINDINGS: The findings show an underlying pattern within the domains that define FQOL. In general, the findings indicate that the families are strongly challenged to meet the needs of a special child and raise a family meeting the needs of all its members. The respondents report that, within the limits of available opportunities, they had achieved well and they are satisfied with their attainment. In general, our findings seem to reflect in our respondents a sense of resilience and an ability to manage family challenges to achieve a reasonably high FQOL. Domains described as internal to the family were rated highly in terms of FQOL as compared to domains external to the family. CONCLUSION: The Family Quality of Life Survey-2006 was found to be a valuable tool for identifying and evaluating factors that enhance FQOL. Further research is needed to develop application models for integrating this instrument into the agency's service and evaluation repertoire.

Neikrug S; Roth D; Judes J

2011-12-01

77

How coal is facing the challenge of global climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels are the most abundant, cost effective and reliable fuel source in the world. Renewables will be unable to provide affordable reliable energy in significant amounts, even with major subsidies. Therefore, since coal must be utilized, a strategy for dealing with the global climate challenge must be developed in the following areas: technology transfers to developing countries; commercial introduction of clean coal technologies into industrialized countries; utilization of coal bed methane; and voluntary actions by industry. This paper discusses each of these areas from the perspective of the Coal Industry Advisory Board. 10 figs.

Scherder, D.B. [Peabody Holding Company Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

78

Challenges faced by parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few studies address the daily challenges faced by parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. This article reports on a qualitative interview study with 20 parents exploring their experiences, challenges faced, and what has helped them to cope. A thematic analysis of the data identified five core categories: Dealing with challenging behaviour; dealing with judgements from others; lack of support; impact upon the family; coping and the importance of appropriate support. The findings emphasize where the parents themselves believe they still require additional support. It raises key strategies and resources that parents have found helpful.

Ludlow A; Skelly C; Rohleder P

2012-07-01

79

Challenges faced by parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies address the daily challenges faced by parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. This article reports on a qualitative interview study with 20 parents exploring their experiences, challenges faced, and what has helped them to cope. A thematic analysis of the data identified five core categories: Dealing with challenging behaviour; dealing with judgements from others; lack of support; impact upon the family; coping and the importance of appropriate support. The findings emphasize where the parents themselves believe they still require additional support. It raises key strategies and resources that parents have found helpful. PMID:22021276

Ludlow, Amanda; Skelly, Charlotte; Rohleder, Poul

2011-10-21

80

Hydrogen Storage: The Key Challenge Facing a Hydrogen Economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a viable hydrogen storage system is one of the key challenges that must be met prior to the establishment of a true hydrogen economy. Current hydrogen storage options, such as compressed gas and liquid hydrogen, fall short of meeting vehicle manufacturers' goals for safe and efficient energy storage. The most viable long-term alternative to these options is solid-state storage, which has been proven both safe and efficient. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), with over 50 years of hydrogen storage expertise and over 25 years of expertise in solid-state storage, has assembled a world-class team to meet this key challenge. The SRTC team is comprised of distinguished scientists and engineers from national laboratories, leading universities, and major corporate research centers that are actively performing research in hydrogen storage on complex hydrides. Their collective expertise in materials development combined with fundamental science and systems engineering, will provide the synergy to meet the hydrogen storage goals. The team's goal is to develop a hydrogen storage system that meets the 2010 U.S. DOE targets, which includes a system with greater than 6 wt per cent hydrogen.

MOTYKA, THEODORE

2004-03-03

 
 
 
 
81

Lessons on rural development, challenges and approaches/ Lecciones del desarrollo rural, desafíos y enfoques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Colombia manejó una política de desarrollo rural durante 25 años bajo los modelos impuestos en América Latina desde los años setenta. Esta política tuvo un avance progresivo hacia un desarrollo descentralizado y más participativo dirigiéndose hacia un concept de desarrollo territorial rural. Sin embargo, por múltiples las causas el Programa DRI, convertido en Fondo de Cofinanciamiento, se dio por terminado cuando empezaba el segundo quinquenio de los años novent (more) a. El cambio de las políticas proteccionistas hacia una desregulación, la cooptación del programa por los políticos, así como la poca capacidad y decisión del Estado para sustituirlo con otras alternativas que estabilizaran las sociedades rurales, ayudaron a la desaparición de esta política. Abstract in english For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, the Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist p (more) olicies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.

Machado, Absalón

2010-12-01

82

Facing the Adaptive Management Challenge: Insights from Transition Management  

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Full Text Available Recent research suggests that transitions toward adaptive water management regimes are needed because current water management regimes cannot adequately respond to uncertainty. The pivotal question is how to understand and manage such transitions. The literature on adaptive management addresses this question in part, but must now move beyond the descriptive toward a prescriptive management framework. Transition management theory could help in meeting this challenge. The similarity of the theoretical starting points yet different applications offer fertile conditions for cross-pollination. We investigate three central concepts from the transition management literature for their potential contribution to adaptive management. In particular, the notions of arenas and shadow networks merit further study through joint research.

Rutger van der Brugge; Roel van Raak

2007-01-01

83

Challenges facing NATO in the 21st century  

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Full Text Available During the entire post Cold-War era numerous security challenges were pushing NATO in search of a new mission. Although redefined several times in the past, NATO's mission is still not steady and in its final shape. NATO's framework is not final yet for several reasons: lack of internal balance; NATO is moving towards rather 'loose' formula of Trans-Atlantic relations, through a 'Coalition of the Willing', in which countries accept the level and scope of military engagement in war missions (Afghanistan and Iraq) according to their own interests. This certainly has influenced the character of NATO mission in the 21st Century. Therefore, NATO countries do not speak with 'one voice' and they do not equally participate in military missions. Instead, specific countries are engaged in specific issues, in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. NATO deepening and widening process is continuing in the 21st Century. .

Simi? Jasminka

2009-01-01

84

Sexuality Education in Rural Lesotho Schools: Challenges and Possibilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a "vaccine" against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of the fight…

Khau, Mathabo

2012-01-01

85

Potential solutions to several vestibular challenges facing clinicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among other problems, patients with vestibular problems suffer imbalance, spatial disorientation, and blurred vision. These problems lead to varying degrees of disability and can be debilitating. Unfortunately, a large number of patients with vestibular complaints cannot be diagnosed with the clinical tests available today. Nor do we have treatments for all patients that we can diagnose. These clinical problems provide challenges to and opportunities for the field of vestibular research. In this paper, we discuss some new diagnostic and treatment options that could become available for tomorrow's patients. As a new diagnostic, we have begun measuring patient's perceptual direction-detection thresholds. Preliminary results appear encouraging; patients diagnosed with bilateral loss have yaw rotation thresholds almost ten times greater than normals, while patients diagnosed with migraine associated vertigo have roll tilt thresholds well below normal at 0.1 Hz. As a new treatment, we have performed animal studies looking at responses evoked by electrical stimulation provided by a vestibular prosthesis. Results measuring the VOR demonstrate promise and preliminary studies of balance and perception are also encouraging. While electrical stimulation is a standard means of stimulation, optical stimulation is also being investigated as a way to improve prosthetic stimulation specificity. PMID:20555169

Merfeld, Daniel M; Priesol, Adrian; Lee, Daniel; Lewis, Richard F

2010-01-01

86

Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers  

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Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."

Ken Thaxter

2010-01-01

87

Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.

Breslin Jonathan M; MacRae Susan K; Bell Jennifer; Singer Peter A

2005-01-01

88

Rural Community Colleges Developing Perceptions of Self-Identity  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural America, in direct competition with growing suburban and urban America, has struggled to maintain a high quality of life. Rural out-migration levels are high, as are poverty and illiteracy rates. Rural community colleges have worked to defend and expand opportunities in rural settings, yet face their own challenges tied to resources,…

Miller, Michael T.; Tuttle, Courtney C.

2006-01-01

89

UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation  

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Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole system and together improve service user outcomes.Keywords: strategic aims, planning processes, productive working, reducing waste, primary care, service user outcomes.

Carr SM; Pearson P; Young-Murphy L; Cleghorn B

2012-01-01

90

Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.

Esther W. Dungumaro; Goran Hyden

2010-01-01

91

Challenges facing early infant diagnosis of HIV among infants in resource poor settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The number of children who have HIV continues to grow. Studies have confirmed dramatic survival benefits and mortality reduction for infants confirmed and managed as early as possible after diagnosis. With the advent of the Polymerase Chain Reaction technology, early infant diagnosis of HIV among children is easier and more reliable worldwide. Most HIV programmes in developing countries are donor dependent with less encouraging moves towards sustainability drive by the local health authority. The health systems also face a lot of challenges while implementing these programmes that would promptly identify HIV exposed babies as well as enrolment into care. This review examined challenges facing early infant diagnosis of HIV among infants in Nigeria.

Adebimpe WO

2013-03-01

92

Challenges that face Kiswahili Usage in ICT in NEPAD Secondary Schools in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Despite the various efforts to enable Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), users of Kiswahili language in ICT have continued to face various challenges. This paper discusses the various challenges that face Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software’s: Chavakali and Maranda Boy’s secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two theories: Use and Gratification theory and Symbolic Interaction theory. Data from the two schools are analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analysis. The Data for this work came from 120 students selected through random sampling and 8 teachers of Kiswahili selected through saturated sampling technique. From the analysis of the responses from the study it is evident that Kiswahili usage in ICT is faced by various challenges. Major challenges included negative attitude towards Kiswahili language, difficult technological terms, limited number of those using Kiswahili in ICT, wrong usage of Kiswahili in ICT, English preference and limited research work written in Kiswahili in the internet. Others were limited Kiswahili programs, being forced to use correct Kiswahili, and Kiswahili not being accepted by English programs. The study notes that these challenges need to be addressed. Therefore, recommendations are made on how to overcome the challenges.

Jagero Juliet Akinyi; Peter Maina Matu

2011-01-01

93

CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AT THE FACE OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION  

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Full Text Available Counter-urban movement is becoming more and more common phenomenon nowadays. Several countries have started loosing population; many other are facing tremendous loss of urban population. This paper has addressed the global and local challenges and issues of counter-urban movement and subsequently their response pattern at the same scale.

Kazi Saiful ISLAM

2009-01-01

94

Challenges facing translational research organizations in China: a qualitative multiple case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: TROs in China face the challenge of attracting sustainable funding sources, widening multidisciplinary cooperation, cultivating multi-disciplinary translational researchers and adapting current research management to translational research. Greater emphasis should be placed on increasing multidisciplinary cooperation, and innovating in education programs to cultivate of translational researchers. Efforts should be made to reform research management in TROs, and establish sustainable funding resources.

Zhou L; Li Y; Bosworth HB; Ehiri J; Luo C

2013-10-01

95

Global Education: Instructional Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by In-Service Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the result of a study on teachers' reported use of instructional strategies in dealing with the U.S.-Iraq war, the resources that they use, the challenges that they face in implementing a globally oriented curriculum, and the sources of influence on their commitment to global education. A questionnaire was developed and used…

Eslami, Zohreh R.

2005-01-01

96

BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs) are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.

Lawrence AROKIASAMY; Maimunah ISMAIL; Aminah AHMAD; Jamilah OTHMAN

2009-01-01

97

The Background and Challenges Faced by the Small Medium Enterprises. A Human Resource Development Perspective  

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Full Text Available In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s) in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME’s to future progress and grows. Therefore this article examines the background and challenges face by SME’s which play a vital role in the nation growth. The uniqueness of this paper is the emphasis on the human resource development perspective which is important for SME’s to progress and be competitive. Finally, this article maps out how future research can be more sensitive to how SME’s actually develop their own human resource development for future development.

Siti Sarah bt. Omar; Lawrence Arokiasamy; Maimunah Ismail

2009-01-01

98

What Challenges are Boys Facing, and What Opportunities Exist to Address Those Challenges. Initial Findings Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief sets aside the debate to present research-based information about the strengths that make boys likely to succeed and the risks, or challenges, that increase the likelihood that they will struggle. It does not make an effort to compare boys to g...

2007-01-01

99

Rural healthcare disparities: challenges and solutions for the pregnant opioid-dependent population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Substance abuse among pregnant women is a significant public health problem affecting both maternal and fetal health. Access to both obstetrical care and substance abuse treatment is a challenge for women in rural West Virginia. A multi-disciplinary collaborative treatment approach for this population is necessary to reach and retain women in treatment. Through such collaboration, a positive impact on access to treatment for women from rural communities and reduced barriers to both prenatal care and substance abuse treatment can be achieved in order to improve outcomes for both mother and infant.

Lander LR; Marshalek P; Yitayew M; Ford D; Sullivan CR; Gurka KK

2013-07-01

100

Shared care arrangements for specialist drugs in the UK: the challenges facing GP adherence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the challenges facing GPs' adherence to shared care arrangements for specialist drugs. DESIGN: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews; data analysed using the 'framework' approach aided by QSR N-Vivo 2.0. SETTING: Three Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) within one Strategic Health Authority (SHA) in the North West of England. PARTICIPANTS: 47 semistructured interviews were conducted with a range of Practice, PCT and SHA staff and other relevant stakeholders. RESULTS: GPs faced multiple challenges in adhering to shared care arrangements for specialist drugs. Psychiatric patients were given as an example where such arrangements were perceived as particularly difficult to maintain, with patient non-compliance a contributory factor. GP uncertainty and confusion surrounded the sharing of test results between primary and secondary care, and was felt to give rise to test duplication and omission. Of particular concern to GPs was the lack of compliance of practice and hospital colleagues with these arrangements, and the dependence they placed on specialists' responses to requests for advice. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of the numerous challenges facing GP adherence to shared care arrangements. Such challenges need to be overcome if the issues of test duplication and omission are to be addressed, and GPs' future acceptance of shared care arrangements encouraged.

Crowe S; Cantrill JA; Tully MP

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. Methods The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.

Newbronner Elizabeth V; Pedler Mike J; Tim Scott J; Sheldon Trevor A

2001-01-01

102

Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi-structured interviews with successful rural school administrators who serve campuses currently rated recognized or higher on the Texas Education Agency accountability system. The qualitative data analysis employed the coding of interviews and observations that allowed for and sought emergent themes and alternative rural perspectives.

Mann, Matthew James

103

Anesthesiology trainees face ethical, practical, and relational challenges in obtaining informed consent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Categorizing difficulties anesthesiologists have in obtaining informed consent may influence education, performance, and research. This study investigated the trainees' perspectives and educational needs through a qualitative analysis of narratives. METHODS: The Program to Enhance Relational and Communication Skills-Anesthesia used professional actors to teach communication skills and relational abilities associated with informed consent. Before attending the program, participants wrote about a challenging informed consent experience. Narratives were analyzed by two researchers following the principles of grounded theory. The researchers independently read the narratives and marked key words and phrases to identify reoccurring challenges described by anesthesiologists. Through rereading of the narratives and discussion, the two researchers reached consensus on the challenges that arose and calculated their frequency. RESULTS: Analysis of the 39 narratives led to the identification of three types of challenges facing anesthesiologists in obtaining informed consent. Ethical challenges included patient wishes not honored, conflict between patient and family wishes and medical judgment, patient decision-making capacity, and upholding professional standards. Practical challenges included the amount of information to provide, communication barriers, and time limitations. Relational challenges included questions about trainee competence, mistrust associated with previous negative experiences, and misunderstandings between physician and patient or family. CONCLUSIONS: The ethical, practical, and relational challenges in obtaining informed consent colored trainees' views of patient care and affected their interactions with patients. Using participant narratives personalizes education and motivates participants. The richness of narratives may help anesthesiologists to appreciate the qualitative aspects of informed consent.

Waisel DB; Lamiani G; Sandrock NJ; Pascucci R; Truog RD; Meyer EC

2009-03-01

104

An Analysis of Business Challenges Faced by Foreign Multinationals Operating the Chinese Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth has presented numerous opportunities and challenges for foreign firms there. Many large corporations have established a China centre to coordinate and control their operations in the country. As firms have increased their presence in China, their concerns are increasingly focused on implementing successful management practices and strategies. This article describes the challenges and difficulties that multinational companies faced in Chinese market. It analyses roles played by the human resource function in these China, culture differences, social environment and other factors.

Jianlian Wu

2009-01-01

105

Utility faces new challenges through state-of-the-art help desk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer technology is putting more and more information into the hands of employees, increasing efficiency and enabling employees to {open_quotes}work smarter.{close_quotes} Supporting these employees and the technology is becoming as critical as the technology itself. Help-desk operations today are facing some of their greatest challenges ever. Solving complicated user problems, supporting increasingly complex computer applications and managing an increasing asset base are challenges faced by all help-desk organizations. Entergy Corp., a major Southeastern utility company, has consolidated help-desk operations into two operations using a single help-desk application. The new help-desk organization supports more than 10,000 users and receives approximately 450 calls each day. Users are provided with 24-hour, seven-days-a-week support.

Hansen, T.

1995-09-01

106

Evaluation of the progress and challenges facing the Ponseti method program in Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In 2003, an ICRC-SFD Ponseti program was introduced in southern Vietnam. Additional programs were introduced by the Prosthetics Outreach Foundation and independently by physicians trained at our center. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact, progress and challenges facing Ponseti practitioners and patients' family members in Vietnam. In addition, web-conferencing (Ponseti Virtual Forum) for continued medical education in the method was also assessed. METHODS: Multiple questionnaires were developed to conduct face-to-face practitioner interviews, focus group interviews, and parental interviews. Observation was done at multiple site clinics to determine or confirm additional challenges faced by practitioners. Web conferencing was introduced to sites in Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang City. RESULTS: The number of clubfoot patients treated with the Ponseti method has increased over time with approximately 1,252 infants treated between 2003 and 2010. Specific challenges were identified relating to communication, networking, distance and transportation, and finances for both practitioners and parents. The PVF was not only found to facilitate rapid, relevant dissemination of medical knowledge--thus increasing physician and patient satisfaction--but it may also be found to act as an interface in which medical culture, insight, and compassion are shared benefiting all virtual forum participants. CONCLUSION: The identified progress and challenges mirrored that of similar studies done in other countries with several factors affecting progress. Focusing on improving communication channels and networking while working with the ministry of health may improve the facilitation of the Ponseti method in Vietnam. Further implementation and evaluation of the PVF may act as a guide for current and future programs in Vietnam or other countries.

Wu V; Nguyen M; Nhi HM; Thanh do V; Oprescu F; Cook T; Morcuende JA

2012-01-01

107

An investigation into the perceived sanitation challenges in the Eastern Cape rural communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a dearth of information on studies that have sought to examine qualitatively the sanitation challenges that rural communities experience. Opsomming Kwalitatiewe navorsing is gedoen om die strukturele, ekonomiese, opvoedkundige, sosiale en tegnologiese uitdagings wat landelike gemeenskappe van die Oos-Kaap met betrekking tot sanitasie in die gesig staar, te ondersoek. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

2006-01-01

108

Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

Shougang Wei; Lirong Ju; Man Li; Wei Wang

2011-01-01

109

The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the Kenyan Economy such as creating jobs however they face serious challenges such as lack of finance, discrimination, problems with the city council, multiple duties, poor access to justice, lack of education, among others. The study established that many stakeholders from both public and private sector are helping empower women entrepreneurs in Kenya: such as formation of women enterprise fund, establishing of women’s university of science and technology, formal and informal financial support, and donor initiatives among others have been put in place. The study recommends that women in entrepreneurs need to be accepted and supported financially, legally and more capacity building should be made available. Further research is recommended in this area.

Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

2012-01-01

110

HIV and tuberculosis coinfection: a qualitative study of treatment challenges faced by care providers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SETTING: Infectious Diseases Department, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. OBJECTIVE: To understand the challenges faced by nurses and physicians in the treatment of patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB), with special focus on opportunities for information and communication technology. DESIGN: Using a qualitative study design, on-site observations and informal discussions were carried out to become acquainted with the clinical context. Seven nurses and six physicians were purposefully selected to participate in one-to-one in-depth interviews inspired by cognitive task analysis. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Care providers faced challenges related to 1) the complexities inherent to TB-HIV co-treatment, 2) clinical knowledge and task standardisation, 3) care coordination and collaboration, 4) information management, and 5) engaging patients in their treatment. CONCLUSION: Support is needed on several levels to address the emerging burden of TB-HIV coinfection in Sweden. Educational material and tools need to be further developed to support care providers in making decisions about adequate care, and to support collaborative activities and communication among patients and care providers. Information and communication technology based solutions may provide an opportunity to address some of these challenges.

Wannheden C; Westling K; Savage C; Sandahl C; Ellenius J

2013-08-01

111

China: facing a long-term care challenge on an unprecedented scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Population ageing is occurring in China at a breathtaking pace and rapidly becoming a major public health issue. Due to the one-child policy, rural/urban migration and other societal changes, the family-dependent long-term care (LTC) of the past will no longer suffice. Barely existent now, both institutional and community-based services will need to expand to meet the growing need. China is still at an earlier stage in economic development and will be challenged to build these services and train staff. Furthermore, many elders are not yet covered by financial and insurance support. This massive demographic transition requires political efforts to develop integrated and sustainable national LTC systems.

Glass AP; Gao Y; Luo J

2013-07-01

112

Stressors and self-care challenges faced by adolescents living with type 1 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The American Diabetes Association currently recommends that all youth with type 1 diabetes over the age of 7 years follow a plan of intensive management. The purpose of this study was to describe stressors and self-care challenges reported by adolescents with type 1 diabetes who were undergoing initiation of intensive management. Subjects described initiation of intensive management as complicating the dilemmas they faced. The importance of individualized and nonjudgmental care from parents and health care providers was stressed. This study supports development of health care relationships and environments that are teen focused not merely disease-centered and embrace exploring options with the teen that will enhance positive outcomes.

Davidson M; Penney ED; Muller B; Grey M

2004-05-01

113

Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

2010-08-05

114

Challenges facing internationalisation of nursing practice, nurse education and nursing workforce in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines factors that have lead to increasing internationalisation in nursing workforce and nursing education and contends that education and support for nurse managers and nurse academics is required in order to better prepare them for the challenges they will face. There are many benefits to be gained from internationalisation of nursing, the most significant being greater cross-cultural understanding and improved practices in workplaces across countries. However, the way in which nursing and nurses contribute to the international agenda is crucial to maintaining standards of education and nursing care in Australia and in countries with whom Australians collaborate. Internationalisation poses numerous challenges that need to be carefully thought through. This paper seeks to unravel and scrutinize some of the issues central to internationalisation in nursing, particularly in the Australian context. PMID:17563321

Parker, Vicki; McMillan, Margaret

2007-04-01

115

Challenges facing internationalisation of nursing practice, nurse education and nursing workforce in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines factors that have lead to increasing internationalisation in nursing workforce and nursing education and contends that education and support for nurse managers and nurse academics is required in order to better prepare them for the challenges they will face. There are many benefits to be gained from internationalisation of nursing, the most significant being greater cross-cultural understanding and improved practices in workplaces across countries. However, the way in which nursing and nurses contribute to the international agenda is crucial to maintaining standards of education and nursing care in Australia and in countries with whom Australians collaborate. Internationalisation poses numerous challenges that need to be carefully thought through. This paper seeks to unravel and scrutinize some of the issues central to internationalisation in nursing, particularly in the Australian context.

Parker V; McMillan M

2007-04-01

116

Facing the challenges. New structures in the energy business; Herausforderungen annehmen. Neue Strukturen in der Stromerzeugung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The utility sector is facing big challenges over the short, mid and long term. All utilities have to meet three challenges, a so-called trilemma: They must optimise between security of supply, profitability and the environment while dealing with the liberalisation and the parallel integration of energy markets as well as the huge need for modernisation and investment in the asset base. The role of the utility sector in climate protection is evident. The same applies to the European-wide need for modernisation of grid and generation assets. The possible answer for integrated utilities could be a structural change with a turn to cross-regional focussing along the whole value chain. (orig.)

Fischer, Bernhard; Neubronner, Matthias; Roeglin, Torsten [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

2011-07-01

117

Facing the challenges. New structures in the energy business; Herausforderungen annehmen. Neue Strukturen in der Stromerzeugung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The utility sector is facing big challenges over the short, mid and long term. All utilities have to meet three challenges, a so-called trilemma: They must optimise between security of supply, profitability and the environment while dealing with the liberalisation and the parallel integration of energy markets as well as the huge need for modernisation and investment in the asset base. The role of the utility sector in climate protection is evident. The same applies to the European-wide need for modernisation of grid and generation assets. The possible answer for integrated utilities could be a structural change with a turn to cross-regional focussing along the whole value chain. (orig.)

Fischer, Bernhard; Neubronner, Matthias; Roeglin, Torsten [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

2010-07-01

118

Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

Schmidt, Reiner

1999-01-01

119

Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

Hanna EG; Bell E; King D; Woodruff R

2011-03-01

120

Facing the challenges and building solutions in clinical psychiatric nursing in Iran: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psychiatric nurses play an important role in the process of caring for mentally ill patients and are continually faced with the numerous challenges and complex issues related to this field. This study aimed to understand the perspectives of psychiatric nurses regarding the issues they face while providing care and examine the possible solutions for improvement of inpatient care in clinical settings. The study adopted a qualitative approach that utilized a content analysis of audio taped, semi-structured interviews that had been conducted with 24 nurses. Two main themes emerged from the data. The first, Challenges in Providing Care within Psychiatric Wards, had the following subthemes: Politics and Rules of Organization, Safety and Security Issues, Uncertainty about the Role, Lack of Trained Staff, and Sociocultural Issues. The second theme, Solutions for Improving Psychiatric Care, had the subthemes of Empowerment across four domains: Psychiatric Nurses, Mentally Ill Patients and their Families, The Psychiatric Mental Health System, and the Cultural Context. The results indicated that if nurses are expected to provide optimal nursing care within a psychiatric ward, then there is a need for a stable and responsible organizational structure, skilled psychiatric nurses, and community-based care along with an anti-stigma program.

Zarea K; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi A; Abbaszadeh A; Mohammadpour A

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Challenges Facing Sustainable Real Estate Marketing and Practice in Emerging Economy: Case Study of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtained through the primary source. Three thousand Estate Surveyors and Valuers across the country were surveyed using the internet-based SurveyMonkey software. The analysis indicated that “topping up”, “gazumping”, “gazundering”, low level of salaries and misdemeanors by the ever-increasing number of charlatans are major challenges facing the profession. In addition, majority of practitioners confessed to involvement in mounting of multiple signboards, collection of double fees, and soliciting for jobs with financial inducements. It was therefore recommended that prosecution of erring members, encouragement of non-professionals to attend formal training, and establishment of a college for such training, enforcement of professional standards, and adoption of proactive stance on laws that are inimical to sustainable real estate practice to ensure an enduring professional practice.

Ayotunde Olawande Oni; Michael Adedayo Adebayo

2012-01-01

122

Supply Chain Management and Challenges Facing the Food Industry Sector in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexities of food supply chain impose enormous challenges to the processors. As compared to multinational food companies operating in the Tanzania, local firms have been performing inefficiently or going out of the business because they could hardly withstand the competition. SCM in the food industry sector was studied in a qualitative survey covered 23 food processing firms in Tanzania, with the purposes of identifying the existing supply chain operation, knowledge of SCM concept and challenges facing the sector. The findings of this study suggest that a lot of efforts need to be addressed to ensure that processors benefits from the concept of SCM. The understanding of SCM concept among the processors seems to be low, thus, hindering them from taping the opportunity offered by SCM strategies. The sector still faces a number of factors which impede the firms to grow fast and compete in the global market. Such factors include technical know-how, research and development, capital, managerial and physical infrastructures. Keywords Supply chain management; Inventory management; Customer perceived value; food industry.

Juma Makweba Ruteri

2009-01-01

123

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

Julie O'Connor; Martha Geiger

2009-01-01

124

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educato (more) r perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

O'Connor, Julie; Geiger, Martha

2009-05-01

125

When health systems are barriers to health care: challenges faced by uninsured Mexican kidney patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. METHODS: The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. RESULTS: In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. CONCLUSIONS: Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.

Kierans C; Padilla-Altamira C; Garcia-Garcia G; Ibarra-Hernandez M; Mercado FJ

2013-01-01

126

When Health Systems Are Barriers to Health Care: Challenges Faced by Uninsured Mexican Kidney Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. Methods The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. Results In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Conclusions Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.

Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J.

2013-01-01

127

Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding) to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

Inna Rivkin; Joseph Trimble; Ellen D. S. Lopez; Samuel Johnson; Eliza Orr; James Allen

2013-01-01

128

Disseminating research in rural Yup'ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup'ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup'ik communities' concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup'ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. OBJECTIVES: Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding) to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. DESIGN: Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. RESULTS: Challenges included translation between English and Yup'ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for "principled cultural sensitivity". CONCLUSIONS: Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

Rivkin I; Trimble J; Lopez ED; Johnson S; Orr E; Allen J

2013-01-01

129

The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of u...

David E. Anderson; Brad White; Robert Larson

130

The challenges facing midwifery educators in sustaining a future education workforce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: national and international trends have identified concerns over the ability of health and social care workforces in meeting the needs of service users. Attention has increasingly been drawn to problems of recruiting and retaining professionals within higher education; however data in relation to the midwifery profession is scant. AIM: to examine the perceptions and experiences of midwifery educators, in south-west England, about the challenges facing them sustaining the education workforce of the future. DESIGN: a mixed methodology approach was adopted involving heads of midwifery education and midwife educators. METHODOLOGY: midwifery participants were recruited from three higher education institutions in south west England. Data collection comprised of self-administered questionnaires plus individual qualitative interviews with heads of midwifery education (n=3), and tape recorded focus groups with midwife academics (n=19). Numerical data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Textual data were analysed for themes that represented the experiences and perspectives of participants. Ethics approval was granted by one University Ethics committee. FINDINGS: demographic data suggests that within south-west England, there is a clear ageing population and few in possession of a doctorate within midwifery. The six identified sub-themes represented in the data describe challenges and tensions that midwifery academics experienced in their efforts to attract new recruits and retain those in post in a highly changing educational environment which demands more from a contracting workforce. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: there remain some serious challenges facing midwifery educators in sustaining the future education workforce, which if unresolved may jeopardise standards of education and quality of care women receive. Active succession planning and more radical approaches that embrace flexible careers will enable educational workforce to be sustained and by a clinically credible and scholarly orientated midwifery workforce.

Albarran JW; Rosser EA

2013-07-01

131

Facing Our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science (2011 EFRC Forum)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Patricia Dehmer, Deputy Director for Science Programs at DOE, opened the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, 'Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research,' with the talk, 'Facing Our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science.' In her presentation, Dr. Dehmer gave a tutorial on the energy challenges facing our Nation and showed how the DOE research portfolio addresses those issues. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Dehmer, Patricia M. (Deputy Director for Science Programs at DOE)

2011-05-26

132

The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal industry as a whole. Veterinary colleges have changed in response to the increased number of students who are interested in companion animal medicine. These changes have resulted in diminished large animal content in the professional curricula, attrition of the number of faculty teaching food animal medicine, increases in the number of faculty dedicated to small animal curriculum, and an overwhelming sense that the veterinary program is centered around training in preparation for a career in companion animal practice. A multitude of factors likely contribute to the continued gravitation of veterinary students toward small animal practice. Veterinary colleges must strive to maintain a balanced, open-minded view of the profession so that students have an equal opportunity to choose a path that best suits their desires and interests.

David E. Anderson; Brad White; Robert Larson

2010-01-01

133

Resilient excellence: challenges faced by trailblazing women in U.S. sport psychology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consistent with other sciences (e.g, Kass-Simon, 1993; Tang 2006), the field of kinesiology has been called a "masculine domain," which has an institutionalized culture biased against women (Brackenridge, Mutrie, & Choi, 2005). This paper represents the second part of a larger project that examined the life histories of eight trailblazing women in sport and exercise psychology. In the first paper (Krane & Whaley, 2010) we made the case for replacing these women into the history of sport psychology, based on their contributions to research, teaching and service to the field. In this study, we explored the experiences of these women with regard to the challenges they faced and how they overcame or coped with them. The specific themes emerging from the data analysis were the trailblazers' graduate school and early professional experiences, general campus climates, departmental politics, gender or discipline, coping and the cost of caring and giving back and moving forward.

Whaley DE; Krane V

2012-03-01

134

Psychodynamic psychotherapy with the older adult: challenges facing the patient and the therapist.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subject of advanced age is often neglected in discussions of diversity and intersubjectivity in psychodynamic psychotherapy. In addition, psychologists historically have underestimated the ability of older individuals to utilize and benefit from psychodynamic treatment. This article provides support for the belief that many older individuals are capable of engaging in insight-oriented treatment and addresses some of the unique challenges faced by the older patient and the psychotherapist. The importance of determining the impact of age on intrapsychic conflicts is examined. Concepts from developmental psychodynamic theory are reviewed and applied to the clinical case of A., an 81-year-old widow. This case illustrates several themes that often emerge in work with older patients. The significance of changes in family structure and roles, object loss, and narcissistic injury in the life of this patient and older individuals in general is discussed.

Wheelock I

1997-01-01

135

Psychodynamic psychotherapy with the older adult: challenges facing the patient and the therapist.  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject of advanced age is often neglected in discussions of diversity and intersubjectivity in psychodynamic psychotherapy. In addition, psychologists historically have underestimated the ability of older individuals to utilize and benefit from psychodynamic treatment. This article provides support for the belief that many older individuals are capable of engaging in insight-oriented treatment and addresses some of the unique challenges faced by the older patient and the psychotherapist. The importance of determining the impact of age on intrapsychic conflicts is examined. Concepts from developmental psychodynamic theory are reviewed and applied to the clinical case of A., an 81-year-old widow. This case illustrates several themes that often emerge in work with older patients. The significance of changes in family structure and roles, object loss, and narcissistic injury in the life of this patient and older individuals in general is discussed. PMID:9327109

Wheelock, I

1997-01-01

136

Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

2010-01-01

137

Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of t...

Cindy J. Price; Michael R. Brown

138

EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU), income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

MADALINA NEACSU; CRISTINA BÂLDAN

2009-01-01

139

Rural Hospital Support for Emergency Medical Services. Findings Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prehospital emergency care is an important component of a comprehensive health care system. Rural EMS agencies face continual challenges to ensure a qualified workforce to meet prehospital emergency care needs. While most EMS agencies function as independ...

H. A. Howard R. Lavergne V. A. Freeman

2010-01-01

140

Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the context of greater perceived workload. Conclusions Older health workers are managing a range of issues, on top of the general challenges of rural practice. Personal health, wellbeing and other realms of life appear to take on increasing importance for older health workers when faced with increasing difficulties at work. Solutions need to address difficulties at personal, workplace and system wide levels.

Fragar Lyn J; Depczynski Julie C

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Beyond 50. Challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. METHODS: Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. RESULTS: Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the context of greater perceived workload. CONCLUSIONS: Older health workers are managing a range of issues, on top of the general challenges of rural practice. Personal health, wellbeing and other realms of life appear to take on increasing importance for older health workers when faced with increasing difficulties at work. Solutions need to address difficulties at personal, workplace and system wide levels.

Fragar LJ; Depczynski JC

2011-01-01

142

Finding the 'First Voice' in rural England: the challenges of safeguarding intangible heritage in a national museum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to explore the challenges of defining intangible heritage and ‘community’ in England. It uses as its case study the Museum of English Rural Life, University of Reading: an urban museum with a rural theme.The paper examines current theoretical discourse around the concept of the ‘first voice’ and debate about the role of museums in the preservation of intangible heritage. It then examines the relevance of these concepts to the identification of ‘rural’ intangible heritage stake holders in England. In this way, it shows the potential for concepts of intangible heritage to influence national museums.However, by applying theory and practice which is designed to support work with well-defined ‘originating communities’ to a national museum, it also highlights the challenges of initiating community engagement in a multicultural society.

Rhianedd Smith

2009-01-01

143

Reflecting on some of the challenges facing postgraduate nursing education in South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Considering the dearth of professional nurses in South Africa today, and the fact that postgraduate nursing education can contribute towards enhancing the competences of those in the profession, I shall examine some of the challenges faced by a group of previously enrolled postgraduate nursing students which resulted in their non-completion of a formal qualification. The focus of this investigation was a 2008 cohort of students that did not complete their non-clinical postgraduate diplomas at the institution where I work. Of the 29 students who did not complete their studies, I have selected a group of 8 students through a purposive non-random sample with the objective to ascertain some of the reasons for them not completing their diploma. My aim was to examine some of the reasons as to why postgraduate nursing students do not complete their qualification and to suggest ways as to how the curriculum can be reconstructed as to counteract some of students' pitfalls. Based on my qualitative interpretive analysis, I shall argue that these students did not complete their diplomas on the grounds of, having experienced a lack of institutional and social support; their inability to cope with the demands of academic rigour; their experiences of isolation and exclusion; and, the inability to cope with unimagined realities. My contention is that if postgraduate nursing is not adequately attended to, the possibility that nursing education would not contribute to the transformation of the profession, is highly possible.

Essa I

2011-04-01

144

Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

1991-01-01

145

Federal Government Funding Reforms: Issues and Challenges Facing Malaysian Public Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government objectives for public universities in order for them to become more dynamic, competitive and productive. Public universities must follow these plans through closely coordinated actions aimed to achieve specific strategic outcomes in teaching and research. It is the most comprehensive plan launched to date, and intends to transform the Malaysian higher education system. It aims to help these institutions achieve world class standards and make Malaysia a hub for higher education in Southeast Asia. Indeed, the government has also introduced a system of categorisations of the Malaysian public universities including research university, comprehensive university, and focused university. These categories determine the area and level of fund allocation according to specialisation of the university and the extent of its operations. Moreover, this paper will discuss the strategies needed for the focused universities in order to enhance educational research and teaching to align with the Federal Government objectives.

Abd Rahman Ahmad; Alan Farley

2013-01-01

146

Testing for her2 in breast cancer: current pathology challenges faced in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review is designed to highlight several key challenges in the diagnosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)-positive breast cancer currently faced by pathologists in Canada: Pre-analysis issues affecting the accuracy of her2 testing in non-excision sample types: core-needle biopsies, effusion samples, fine-needle aspirates, and bone metastasesher2 testing of core-needle biopsies compared with surgical specimensCriteria for retesting her2 status upon disease recurrenceLiterature searches for each topic were carried out using the medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and biosis databases. In addition, the congress databases of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2005-2011) and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (2007-2011) were searched for relevant abstracts.All authors are expert breast pathologists with extensive experience of her2 testing, and several participated in the development of Canadian her2 testing guidelines. For each topic, the authors present an evaluation of the current data available for the guidance of pathology practice, with recommendations for the optimization or improvement of her2 testing practice. PMID:23300357

Hanna, W; Barnes, P; Berendt, R; Chang, M; Magliocco, A; Mulligan, A M; Rees, H; Miller, N; Elavathil, L; Gilks, B; Pettigrew, N; Pilavdzic, D; Sengupta, S

2012-12-01

147

Testing for her2 in breast cancer: current pathology challenges faced in Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review is designed to highlight several key challenges in the diagnosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)-positive breast cancer currently faced by pathologists in Canada: Pre-analysis issues affecting the accuracy of her2 testing in non-excision sample types: core-needle biopsies, effusion samples, fine-needle aspirates, and bone metastasesher2 testing of core-needle biopsies compared with surgical specimensCriteria for retesting her2 status upon disease recurrenceLiterature searches for each topic were carried out using the medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and biosis databases. In addition, the congress databases of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2005-2011) and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (2007-2011) were searched for relevant abstracts.All authors are expert breast pathologists with extensive experience of her2 testing, and several participated in the development of Canadian her2 testing guidelines. For each topic, the authors present an evaluation of the current data available for the guidance of pathology practice, with recommendations for the optimization or improvement of her2 testing practice.

Hanna W; Barnes P; Berendt R; Chang M; Magliocco A; Mulligan AM; Rees H; Miller N; Elavathil L; Gilks B; Pettigrew N; Pilavdzic D; Sengupta S

2012-12-01

148

How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history as learners, their teaching context and preparation influenced their decisions. Moreover, it was possible to identify the strategies they implemented to interact in English with their students.En mi labor como tutor de estudiantes practicantes del inglés como lengua extranjera, he percibido constantemente que, para ellos, la utilización del inglés como medio de comunicación con sus estudiantes dentro de la clase es un reto. Por esta razón, me interesé por investigar cómo trece estudiantes practicantes en colegios públicos de Tunja afrontaban esta circunstancia. Mientras los participantes se involucraban en un modelo reflexivo de preparación docente, utilicé notas de campo, entrevistas y sus portafolios para explorar sus actitudes y estrategias. Los hallazgos revelan que sus decisiones fueron influenciadas por su trayectoria como estudiantes, su contexto de enseñanza y su preparación. Además, se pudieron identificar las estrategias que utilizaron para interactuar por medio del inglés con sus estudiantes.

Viáfara John Jairo

2011-01-01

149

The challenge of localizing the anterior temporal face area: a possible solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Humans recognize faces exceptionally well. However, the neural correlates of face recognition are still elusive. Accumulated evidence in recent years suggests that the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), in particular face-selective region in the ATL, is a probable locus of face recognition. Unfortunately, functional MRI (fMRI) studies encounter severe signal drop-out in the ventral ATL, where that ATL face area resides. Consequently, all previous studies localized this region in no more than half of the subjects and its volume was relatively small. Thus, a systematic exploration of the properties of the ATL face area is scarce. In the current high-resolution fMRI study we used coronal slice orientation, which permitted us to localize the ATL face area in all the subjects. Furthermore, the volume of the area was much larger than was reported in previous studies. Direct within subjects comparison with data collected with the commonly used axial slice orientation confirmed that the advantage of the coronal slice orientation in revealing a reliable and larger face-selective area in the ATL. Finally, by displaying the face-selective activations resultant from coronal and axial scanning together, we demonstrate an organization principle of a chain of face-selective regions along the posterior-anterior axis in the ventral temporal lobe that is highly reproducible across all subjects. By using the procedure proposed here, a significant progress can be made in studying the neural correlates of face recognition.

Axelrod V; Yovel G

2013-11-01

150

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii

2012-01-01

151

Where you live matters: challenges and opportunities to address the urban-rural divide through innovative secondary cardiac rehabilitation programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Only one third of clinically eligible patients attend a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Few studies have looked at participation in rural cardiac patients. This paper examines the risk profile and participation in CR of rural and urban residents with cardiac disease who enrolled in a telephone coaching program. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Comparison of baseline characteristics of 173 urban and 140 rural Australians referred to CR, and who enrolled in a telephone-based coaching program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and participation in CR programs. RESULTS: Rural residents were more likely to enrol in a telephone coaching secondary prevention program (44.7% versus 25.5%, P < 0.001) than urban residents. For those enrolling in the telephone-based program, rural participants were more likely to be obese (42.0% rural versus 28.8% urban, P = 0.02), to rate their health as fair or poor (45% versus 24.3%, P < 0.001) and less likely to be sufficiently physically active (35.3% versus 53.2%, P = 0.002), or follow a special diet for their heart (40.0% versus 56.6%, P = 0.003) compared with urban participants. Those who attended a CR program were more likely to be from an urban location and live closer to a CR program. CONCLUSIONS: Rural participants in this study had poorer health profiles and attendance at outpatient CR compared with urban participants. This poses challenges for the provision of secondary prevention programs for rural cardiac patients and highlights opportunities to trial innovative delivery models, such as telephone-based programs, to reach people that would otherwise not have access.

Sangster J; Furber S; Phongsavan P; Allman-Farinelli M; Redfern J; Bauman A

2013-06-01

152

Location-Based Intelligent Power Generation and Management Algorithms for Physically Challenging Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Climatic change is one of the driving forcesbehind a new wave of energy management systems beingpracticed in different parts of the world today. Powergeneration and Management in disconnected rural villages ischallenging. The situation is even more challenging whenlandscape structures in such environment are irregular. Thispaper describes the implementation of two algorithms used inpower generation and management of rural energy supplies:Location-based Solar Energy Potential Prediction Algorithm(LOSEPPA) and Intelligent Fuzzy-controlled PowerGeneration and Management Algorithm (IFPGMA).LOSEPPA takes as input, the geographic latitude of thelocation to compute the solar irradiance factor. IFPGMAintelligently manages the utilization of the generated solarenergy. Geographic latitude plays an important role in theavailability of sufficient solar radiation as well as the state ofthe atmosphere. Therefore, the value of solar irradiance factorserves as a guide to the state of the atmosphere in terms ofdegree of cloud cover, temperature, humidity and landscapestructure; which determines the feasibility of the solar energyimplementation. With the solar irradiance factor, solar panelcan be mounted along specific angle of inclination to the sun.The implemented design is based on solar PV modulesarranged in array, integrated with rechargeable batteries andconverter models to drive solar energy generation for poweringnetworking equipments. The proposed system was simulatedusing Homer energy software, C++ and MATLAB-Simulink.Result show that the more irregular the landscape is, thelower the solar irradiance factor. Solar irradiance factor valueof 400 and above predicts well enough sunshine for solar PVimplementation. Set point values for batterycharging/discharging and the charge controller, maintainscircuit voltage supplies at 130V maximum and 2KWh/day at$0.735/KWh with an initial investment cost of $3,090 for thesolar implementation.

Onabajo Olawale Olusegun; Chong Eng Tan

2013-01-01

153

Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC) outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH), Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5%) were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42) were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

Dangi Jyoti; Kinnunen Taru H; Zavras Athanasios I

2012-01-01

154

THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

Kapil Goel; Sartaj Ahmad (PhD); Rahul Bansal; Pawan Parashar; Bhawna Pant; Parul Goel

2012-01-01

155

Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Key words: ESL writing, academic writing, academic voice, disciplinary writing Con base en teorías críticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías más efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de género, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Palabras clave: escritura de inglés como segunda lengua, escritura académica, voz académica, escritura disciplinaria

Correa Doris

2010-01-01

156

A review of rural electrification practices and challenges throughout South East Asia and the Pacific  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Standing Committee on Rural Electrification (SCRE) of the Federation of Engineering Institutions of South East Asia and the Pacific (FEISEAP) was formed in 1990 to promote the understanding and development of the scope, practice and technology for the establishment and maintenance of electricity supplies, having adequate reliability, quality and economy, in areas of low population density. This paper is a status report on rural electrification throughout the region and includes, for several member countries details of rural electrification systems. It is an analysis of the extent of existing rural electrification and outlines the scope for further rural electrification. A review is provided of specific or unique rural electrification problems and associated solutions. Input to the paper was provided by various country representatives on the FEISEAP SCRE. It concludes that increasingly, rural electrification authorities will implement stand alone non-grid connected systems based on renewable energy technologies as the preferred sustainable method of providing electricity supply to remote locations. (author). 1 tab.

Cooper, C.

1996-11-01

157

The project ENABLE II randomized controlled trial to improve palliative care for rural patients with advanced cancer: baseline findings, methodological challenges, and solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate models of palliative care. Although interventions vary, all have faced a variety of methodological challenges including adequate recruitment, missing data, and contamination of the control group. We describe the ENABLE II intervention, methods, and sample baseline characteristics to increase intervention and methodological transparency, and to describe our solutions to selected methodological issues. METHODS: Half of the participants recruited from our rural U.S. comprehensive cancer center and affiliated clinics were randomly assigned to a phone-based, nurse-led educational, care coordination palliative care intervention model. Intervention services were provided to half of the participants weekly for the first month and then monthly until death, including bereavement follow-up call to the caregiver. The other half of the participants were assigned to care as usual. Symptoms, quality of life, mood, and functional status were assessed every 3 months until death. RESULTS: Baseline data of 279 participants were similar to normative samples. Solutions to methodological challenges of recruitment, missing data, and "usual care" control group contamination are described. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: It is feasible to overcome many of the methodological challenges to conducting a rigorous palliative care RCT.

Bakitas M; Lyons KD; Hegel MT; Balan S; Barnett KN; Brokaw FC; Byock IR; Hull JG; Li Z; McKinstry E; Seville JL; Ahles TA

2009-03-01

158

Motivation for Math in Rural Schools: Student and Teacher Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning…

Hardre, Patricia L.

2011-01-01

159

Motivation for Math in Rural Schools: Student and Teacher Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

|Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning…

Hardre, Patricia L.

2011-01-01

160

Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about how they are managing their resources, how they are using new media, and how they envision their future. The results show that most media are struggling, but also find that local media are in a good position to make their new media content viable for their local audiences.

Cindy J. Price; Michael R. Brown

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Envelhecimento e dependência: desafios a serem enfrentados = Aging and dependence: challenges to be faced  

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Full Text Available O envelhecimento da população mundial e a questão da dependência são dois importantes desafios que os países terão que enfrentar neste século. Esses desafios requerem maiores exigências econômicas e sociais e necessitam de políticas e programas adequados para que a seguridade social possa continuar atendendo as necessidades das pessoas com mais de 65 anos e das que sofrem de algum tipo de dependência. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sustenta que todos os países e, principalmente, os em vias de desenvolvimento precisam fazer planos e agir, pois as medidas para ajudar que as pessoas de mais idade continuem ativas devem ser tratadas prioritariamente. As taxas de dependência das pessoas idosas mudam rapidamente em todo mundo (a tendência é de que quase dupliquem até 2025) e mostram o prognóstico das políticas previdenciárias ao longo dos anos. Este estudo bibliográfico tem por objetivo mostrar a importância da seguridade social no Brasil, nas formas de aposentadoria, pensão e benefícios. Para tanto fará uso de dados secundários colhidos através do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE (2002). The aging of the world-wide population and the question of the dependency are two important challenges that the countries will have to face in this century. These require greater economic and social exigencies and need policies and suitable programs so that the social security can continue taking care of the necessities of the people with 65 years and more as well as those than suffer of some type of dependency. The World-wide Organization of the Health (the WHO) sustains that all the countries and mainly the developing need to formulate plans and to act, because the measures to help that the people of more age continue active are than a luxury more, a priority. This bibliographical study must by objective show the importance of the social security in Brazil, in the forms of retirement, pension and benefits. For as much it will make use of secondary dices harvested through the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic – IBGE (2002).

Areosa, Silvia Virginia Coutinho; Areosa, Antonio Luiz

2008-01-01

162

Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of communication. When designing 'Mail-Info' strategy, it was decided that senior experienced staff with both technical and communicational skills should run this service, together with junior apprentices, to guarantee prompt and efficient feedback in the present and in the future. This paper is focused on describing the experience acquired in implementing this tool and the lessons learned up to date. (authors)

Acosta, Gabriela M.; Arnaud, Marta I.; Cesario, Pablo A. [Nuclear Affairs and Institutional Communication Department, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP (Argentina)

2010-07-01

163

The Challenges of Warfare Facing the IDF in Densely Populated Areas  

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Full Text Available Current assessments are that fighting in densely populated areas will be one of the main types of combat the IDF will face in the foreseeable future. This essay will focus on three points: one, the change in threats facing the State of Israel; two, the main characteristics of the military response necessitated by the change in the threat; and three, some components of the necessary method of action in such confrontations.

Gabi Siboni

2012-01-01

164

EU RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE NEW PROGRAMMING PERIOD: CHALLENGES AHEAD AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCEEDING COUNTRIES  

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Full Text Available Paper discusses about the main changes of the EU Rural Development policy and highlights the open issues that refer to its financing and implementation in the period 2007-2013. The paper presents the implications of the recent EU enlargement for implementation of rural development policy in countries aspiring for EU membership.

Luka Juvan?i?

2007-01-01

165

Challenges and recognizable patterns in the en-face OCT of the retina  

Science.gov (United States)

Using an advanced prototype of en-face OCT/cSLO instrument, an extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. Uniquely specific and reoccurring patterns could be characterized for macular hole ("Chrysanthemum flower"), CME ("Swiss cheese wheel"), Macular Pucker ("Star"), CSR ("Target") and RPE Detachment ("Ring of Light"). Other entities such as polypoidal choroidopathy and diabetic edema residues had easily recognizable features but were variable enough to defy specific descriptive comparison. To facilitate the interpretation of the en-face OCT images, a three dimensional interactive simulation was designed which allows the demonstration of characteristic features and artifacts encountered in the acquisition of transverse images.

Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Lydon, Chris; Dunne, Shane; Dobre, George M.; Cucu, Radu G.; Jackson, David A.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Rosenthal, Jeanne L.; Muldoon, Thomas; Walsh, Joseph B.; Orlock, Dennis A.; Fisher, Yale; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

2004-07-01

166

Foreign Faces in Kuwaiti Places: The Challenges of Human Capital Utilization in Kuwait  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aims to shed light on the challenges of human capital utilization in Kuwait and the labor market
reform approaches used to address them. Using secondary data and interviews with 28 subject matter experts, the
findings revealed that the most salient challenges...

Ikhlas A. Abdalla; Moudi A. Al-Homoud

167

Rural hospital web-based, evidence-based practice professional development: challenges and opportunities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To provide quality patient care and achieve positive patient outcomes, it is widely recognized that organizations must develop a supportive environment that encourages individuals to practice from a research- and evidence-based framework. This article describes a Web-based professional educational program designed to teach principles of evidence-based practice to nurses in rural hospitals. Nurses working in staff development will find this useful for designing educational programs for staff in rural hospitals.

Oman KS; Fink RM; Krugman M; Goode CJ; Traditi LK

2013-03-01

168

Challenges Faced and the Strategies Adopted by a Malaysian English Language Teacher during Teaching Practice  

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Full Text Available In this paper, the reflections on distinct and crucial teaching practices of a pre-service English language teacher are presented and examined. The focus of this paper is on three aspects of class teaching that the teacher found presented a challenge during her teaching practice. For each aspect, the nature of the difficulties and the challenges are described and deciphered. In addition, various strategies that the teacher explored and experimented in order to meet those challenges are outlined and elucidated in terms of their effectiveness. This process is interwoven with the nurturing of pedagogical knowledge of the teacher, which is developed from her reflective practices. This paper also highlights some of the teacher’s plans and thoughts on dealing with those challenges in the future. Implications for teaching practice are also discussed.

Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan; Raja Ida Raja Izzaham

2008-01-01

169

Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

2013-04-01

170

Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence.

Puffer ES; Pian J; Sikkema KJ; Ogwang-Odhiambo RA; Broverman SA

2013-04-01

171

The Challenge of Bottom-Up Paradigm and Popular Participation in Sustainable Rural Development of Nigeria: The Way Forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformation inspite of the attendant difficulties. It examined popular participation as a concept relating to gaining political accessibility through democratic process, mobilizing and educating the masses to support government programmes and policies as in the case of present removal of fuel subsidy which generated hot debate and resulted in industrial action by labour unions with a view to changing government decision. But popular participation is being confronted with serious challenge of control in Nigeria. There is corruption in the high places, armed robbery attacks, religious intolerance, political violence, tribal discrimination and insecurity of life and properties thereby threatening corporate existence of the country. The paper advocates for the strengthening of a bottom-up strategy instead of top-down through decentralization of sufficient powers, functions and resources in favour of rural majority at the grassroot and by doing so, it will foster a balanced development between the centre and the subordinate local administrative units. Moreover, democratic governance must be allowed to reign supreme not only to attain the national goals of 2020 but also enable Nigeria to assume her rightful position in the world. One concludes that if the local communities are given the opportunities to get involved in the decision-making process that often affect their condition of living, engage in productive ventures, self-help communal projects, and harnessing the creative potentials, talents, skills combined with physical and human resources, it would go a long way to reduce not only the over-dependence of the people on the government to provide everything they need but also help to improve socio-economic well-being in the backward, under-privileged and disadvantaged rural areas.

ADEFILA J. O

2012-01-01

172

Social, psychological and economic challenges faced by transgender individuals and their significant others: gaining insight through personal narratives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using narrative analysis, this study uses survey data to explore the social, psychological and economic challenges faced by transgender individuals and their significant others. With over 300 participants, this study not only validates the findings of previous yet smaller scale studies surrounding the transgender experience, it adds greater context to our current understanding, specifically because of its inclusion of significant others. Findings include participants' reports of social stigma coupled with psychological pain and economic hardship. The authors discuss the intersectionality of these three variables and the possible implications for understanding the transgender experience and that of their partners.

Lenning E; Buist CL

2013-01-01

173

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 

Quintero Corzo Josefina; Ramírez Contreras Odilia

2011-01-01

174

How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research  

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Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

Isola Ajiferuke

2011-01-01

175

21st century challenges faced by nursing faculty in educating for compassionate practice: embodied interpretation of phenomenological data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nursing faculty are facing challenges in facilitating student learning of complex concepts such as compassionate practice. Compassion is a stated expectation of Registered Nurse (RN) and student nurse practice, and yet how it is enabled and learned within the challenging environments of university and health service provider organisations are not yet understood. There is currently an international concern that student nurses are not being adequately prepared for compassion to flourish and for compassionate practice to be sustained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate the experiences of nursing faculty in their preparation of student nurses for compassionate practice, an exploratory aesthetic phenomenological research study was undertaken using in depth interviews with five nurse teachers in the North of England. Findings from this study were analysed and presented using embodied interpretation, and indicate that nurse teachers recognise the importance of the professional ideal of compassionate practice alongside specific challenges this expectation presents. They have concerns about how the economically constrained and target driven practice reality faced by RNs promotes compassionate practice, and that students are left feeling vulnerable to dissonance between learned professional ideals and the RNs' practice reality they witness. Nurse teachers also experience dissonance within the university setting, between the pressures of managing large student groups and the time and opportunity required for small group discussion with students that enables compassion to develop in a meaningful and emotionally sustainable way. Teachers also express discomfort due to a perceived promotion of an 'unachievable utopia' within practice, identifying how the constraints within practice could be better managed to support professional ideals. The nurse teachers within this exploratory study identify the need for strong nurse leadership in practice to challenge constraints and realign the reality of practice with professional ideals, and the need to foster student resilience for maintaining the professional ideals of compassionate practice. This exploratory study promotes the use of embodied interpretation for shared understanding of phenomenological research findings.

Curtis K

2013-07-01

176

21st century challenges faced by nursing faculty in educating for compassionate practice: embodied interpretation of phenomenological data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing faculty are facing challenges in facilitating student learning of complex concepts such as compassionate practice. Compassion is a stated expectation of Registered Nurse (RN) and student nurse practice, and yet how it is enabled and learned within the challenging environments of university and health service provider organisations are not yet understood. There is currently an international concern that student nurses are not being adequately prepared for compassion to flourish and for compassionate practice to be sustained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate the experiences of nursing faculty in their preparation of student nurses for compassionate practice, an exploratory aesthetic phenomenological research study was undertaken using in depth interviews with five nurse teachers in the North of England. Findings from this study were analysed and presented using embodied interpretation, and indicate that nurse teachers recognise the importance of the professional ideal of compassionate practice alongside specific challenges this expectation presents. They have concerns about how the economically constrained and target driven practice reality faced by RNs promotes compassionate practice, and that students are left feeling vulnerable to dissonance between learned professional ideals and the RNs' practice reality they witness. Nurse teachers also experience dissonance within the university setting, between the pressures of managing large student groups and the time and opportunity required for small group discussion with students that enables compassion to develop in a meaningful and emotionally sustainable way. Teachers also express discomfort due to a perceived promotion of an 'unachievable utopia' within practice, identifying how the constraints within practice could be better managed to support professional ideals. The nurse teachers within this exploratory study identify the need for strong nurse leadership in practice to challenge constraints and realign the reality of practice with professional ideals, and the need to foster student resilience for maintaining the professional ideals of compassionate practice. This exploratory study promotes the use of embodied interpretation for shared understanding of phenomenological research findings. PMID:23725910

Curtis, Katherine

2013-05-30

177

Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0%) were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%). Down’s syndrome (17.23%) was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%). In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes were found in 29.31% children. For mentally challenged children better quality of life should be provided by disability limitation and suitable rehabilitation.

Dr. Nadeem Ahmad; Dr. H. S. Joshi; Dr. Rubeena Bano; Prof. D. B. Phalke

2010-01-01

178

Facing the Challenge of Teaching and Learning EFL Reading: Beyond the Language of Critique.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Summarizes challenges in teaching English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) reading in Morocco. Argues that teachers are needed who can change and reconstruct their own identities through sound pedagogical practice and effective leadership. Provides an example of such leadership by describing how and why classroom libraries were created and a regional…

Sehlaoui, Abdelilah Salim

2001-01-01

179

Students' Reasons for Studying Special Needs Education: Challenges Facing Inclusive Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article attempts to clarify some of the problems and challenges currently met by the teaching profession in special education, in particular those relating to why students choose to study special needs education and what they expect to learn. There are two major reasons why students choose to become a "special needs" teacher: to help those…

Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa

2007-01-01

180

Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons  

Science.gov (United States)

The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Produt : a pipeline technological program to face the challenges in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline companies have turned their focus on new technologies to deal with the natural aging of facilities and on problems with operational procedures. They have also focused on more demanding environmental legislation and saving resources through pipeline rehabilitation. Most of the pipeline work by the Petrobras transportation company in Brazil took place about 20 years ago. This poses a challenge regarding the aging problem for the company, particularly since its monopoly ended in 1997. In order to remain competitive, Petrobras has established a technological pipeline program called PRODUT as well as a Brazilian Network of Pipeline Technology called RBTD (Rede Brasileira de Tecnologia de Dutos). The programs are geared at developing new technologies for pipelines to ensure the success of new challenges of enlargement, modernization and operational reliability of the pipelines. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Gomes, M.G.F.; Baptista, R.M. [Petrobras Transportation Co., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2000-07-01

182

Practical reality of media freedom: an examination of challenges facing the Namibian media  

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Full Text Available Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.Namibia is vast but sparsely populated, with an estimated population of about 1.9 million which is expected to reach 2.3 million by 2025 and 3.75 million by 2050. It is bordered by Angola and Zambia (north), the Atlantic Ocean (west), South Africa (south and southeast) and Botswana (east). Walvis Bay, which covers 434 square miles, is Namibia's main port for imports and exports.Social challenges in Namibia range from development and health-related issues to the media which has been heavily controlled by government, as is the case elsewhere in Africa.

Fred J. Mwilima

2011-01-01

183

Heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the challenges facing physicians and health services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pulmonary disease is common in patients with heart failure, through shared risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms. Adverse pulmonary vascular remodelling and chronic systemic inflammation characterize both diseases. Concurrent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The cornerstones of therapy are beta-blockers and beta-agonists, whose pharmacological properties are diametrically opposed. Each disease is implicated in exacerbations of the other condition, greatly increasing hospitalizations and associated health care costs. Such multimorbidity is a key challenge for health-care systems oriented towards the treatment of individual diseases. Early identification and treatment of cardiopulmonary disease may alleviate this burden. However, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies require further validation in patients with both conditions.

Hawkins NM; Virani S; Ceconi C

2013-07-01

184

Facing the challenges of the One-Tablet-Per-Child policy in Thai primary school education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Thailand is currently distributing tablets to all first year primary (Prathom 1) school children across the country as part of the government’s “One Tablet Per Child” (OTPC) project to improve education. Early indications suggest that there are many unexplored issues in designing and implementing tablet activities for such a large and varied group of students and so far there is a lack of evaluation on the effectiveness of the tablet activities. In this article, the authors propose four challenges for the improving Thailand’s OTPC project, consisting of: developing contextualised content, ensuring usability, providing teacher support, and assessing learning outcomes. A case study on developing science activities for first year primary school children on the OTPC devices is the basis for presenting possible solutions to the four challenges. In presenting a solution to the challenge of providing teacher support, an architecture is described for collecting data from student interactions with the tablet in order to analysis the current progress of students while in a live classroom setting. From tests in three local Thai schools, the authors evaluate the case study from both student and teacher perspectives. In concluding the paper, a framework for guiding mobile learning innovation is utilised to review the qualities and shortcomings of the case study.

Ratchada Viriyapong; Antony Harfield

2013-01-01

185

SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

186

Behind before They Begin: The Challenge of Early Childhood Education in Rural China  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this paper is to analyse factors (accessibility, attendance rates and quality of preschools) that may be affecting the educational readiness of China's rural children before they enter the formal school system. Using data from a survey of 82 preschools and 492 households in six counties in three provinces of China, this paper…

Luo, Renfu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Zhao, Qiran; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

2012-01-01

187

Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant r...

VIGANO', LAURA; BONOMO, LUCIANO

188

E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

Bamidele A. OJO

2009-01-01

189

Foreign Faces in Kuwaiti Places: The Challenges of Human Capital Utilization in Kuwait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to shed light on the challenges of human capital utilization in Kuwait and the labor marketreform approaches used to address them. Using secondary data and interviews with 28 subject matter experts, thefindings revealed that the most salient challenges were the acute underutilization of the scarce native workforceaccruing from absence of coherent and consistent workforce policies particularly impaired by overgenerouswages and working conditions. These policies led to concentration and underemployment of nationals in thepublic sector and heavy reliance on non-nationals in the private sector, deficit in the labor budget and a risk ofun-sustainability of the present extravagant approach. Among the more effective labor market reform approachesare strict restriction of employment in the public sector and establishment of an agency to oversee several reforminitiatives such as, enforcing quotas of natives in the private sector and directing natives - through incentives,training and employment support - towards the private sector. However, the approaches are still piecemeal and amore comprehensive reform system in which, among other things, the private sector transformation from rentseeking to economic leader is yet to be seen. The findings are discussed within the economic and socio-politicalcontexts.

Ikhlas A. Abdalla; Moudi A. Al-Homoud

2012-01-01

190

Digital Revolution or Digital Divide: Will Rural Teachers Get a Piece of the Professional Development Pie?  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to sustain the rural education community, access to high quality professional development opportunities must become a priority. Teachers in rural areas face many challenges in order to access professional learning equitable to their city counterparts. In the current climate, the Federal government of Australia is committed to initiatives…

Broadley, Tania

2010-01-01

191

Juggling educational ends: Non-Indigenous Yukon principals and the policy challenges that they face  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports on a 2008 study of non-indigenous principals working in indigenous Yukon contexts. It examines the policy contexts in which Yukon principals are embedded, giving attention to how they address the tensions that exist as a result of operating at the intersections of multiple policy levels. The application of critical ethnography generates the opportunity to reveal and examine the tensions, distinctions, and contradictions underpinning their practice. The principals identify fragmented curricular policy; the competition between instructional time, mandated external curricula, and locally developed curricula; and field trip and hiring policies as being problematic. The principals also describe how they cope with the challenges and tensions that arise as a result of being responsible and accountable to balance competing educational ends, to the satisfaction of multiple external levels of control. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the deployment of externally mandated curricula in the Yukon.

Simon Blakesley

2012-01-01

192

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

2010-11-01

193

Apply Different Techniques to Face Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Challenges for Making Secure Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of VANET is discussed in detail.The different concepts used in VANET are explained with very good style. The applications of VANET are also discussed here. In the near future, most new vehicles will be equipped with short range radios capable of communicating with other vehicles or with highwayinfrastructure at distances of at least one kilometer. The radios will allow new applications that will revolutionize the driving experience, providing everything from instant, localized traffic updates to warning signals when the car ahead abruptly brakes. While resembling traditional sensor and ad hoc networks in some respects, vehicular networks pose a number of unique challenges. The differentchallenges of VANET are explained and explained in detail in this paper.

Parveen Kumar

2012-01-01

194

Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

Weingart, J.W.

1996-12-31

195

The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures.

Fiore, J. J.; Murphie, W. E.; Meador, S. W.

2002-02-26

196

The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures

2002-01-01

197

The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it is expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and su (more) stainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.

Knüppe, Kathrin

2011-01-01

198

Financial Challenges Faced by Retail Smes Operating in a Multi- Currency Environment. A Case of Gweru Urban, Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study sought to find out financial challenges encountered by retail SMEs operating in a multi-currency environment with particular reference to Gweru Urban in Zimbabwe. The replacement of the Zimbabwean dollar by foreign currencies gave birth to a multi-currency environment. The adoption of multi-currencies was necessitated by the need to curb inflationary pressures which characterized the economy up to April 2009.Convenience sampling was used to select 150 retail SMEs. The data were collected using questionnaires. The questionnaires were filled either by the owners of the SMEs or their managers. The study established that retail SMEs were facing several financial challenges in a multi- currency environment. The challenges included shortage of liquidity in the economy which resulted in low sales due to depressed consumer demand. In turn low sales negatively affected the profitability of the SMEs. High interest rates constrained the ability of SMEs to raise finance through bank loans and overdrafts. The use of personal savings and retained profits as sources of finance implies that SMEs could only raise limited amounts of capital. The financial position of the SMEs was also worsened by high operating expenses and lack of trade credit. In light of these financial challenges the study recommends that the Zimbabwean government should adopt a long-term policy on the use of the foreign currency. It is also imperative that the government of Zimbabwe swallows its pride and officially makes arrangements with South Africa or the United States of America in order to have an increased supply of the rand or US dollar. The SMEs should also devise survival strategies such as formation of strategic alliances and voluntary chains.

Ephraim Munanga

2013-01-01

199

The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanDespite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels). Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

Christophe Bellmann; Jonathan Hepburn; Marie Wilke

2012-01-01

200

International Cooperation and Internal displacement in Colombia: facing the challenges of the largest humanitarian crisis in South America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this article is to understand the interaction between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Colombian government in their attempts to mitigate forced internal displacement, as well as the main challenges faced in addressing this problem. This article focuses on the interpretation adopted by the forementioned actors, who link this displacement to the armed conflict the country that has endured for more than forty years. Although (more) this issue has been discussed for decades, the formulation of national policies intended to mitigate its effects came late, in the mid-1990s. Similarly, the UNHCR began paying more attention only in the late 1990s. The article concludes that there is a significant disparity between the development of norms regarding the internally displaced and the execution of such norms. For example, there needs to be greater coordination between national and local organizations, and national and international organizations. With respect to the prevention of internal displacement and the evaluation of the impact of these policies, the challenge is even greater; as such efforts are in the beginning stages. The UNHCR has used the same criteria as the Colombian government in executing its tasks; these criteria should be rethought and redefined in light of the High Commissioner's experience.

Viana, Manuela Trindade

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Human resource challenges facing Zambia's mental health care system and possible solutions: results from a combined quantitative and qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human resources for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries are inadequate to meet the growing public health burden of neuropsychiatric disorders. Information on actual numbers is scarce, however. The aim of this study was to analyse the key human resource constraints and challenges facing Zambia's mental health care system, and the possible solutions. This study used both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The WHO-AIMS Version 2.2 was utilized to ascertain actual figures on human resource availability. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to assess key stakeholders' perceptions regarding the human resource constraints and challenges. The results revealed an extreme scarcity of human resources dedicated to mental health in Zambia. Respondents highlighted many human resource constraints, including shortages, lack of post-graduate and in-service training, and staff mismanagement. A number of reasons for and consequences of these problems were highlighted. Dedicating more resources to mental health, increasing the output of qualified mental health care professionals, stepping up in-service training, and increasing political will from government were amongst the key solutions highlighted by the respondents. There is an urgent need to scale up human and financial resources for mental health in Zambia.

Sikwese A; Mwape L; Mwanza J; Kapungwe A; Kakuma R; Imasiku M; Lund C; Cooper S; The Mhapp Research Programme Consortium

2010-01-01

202

Human resource challenges facing Zambia's mental health care system and possible solutions: results from a combined quantitative and qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human resources for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries are inadequate to meet the growing public health burden of neuropsychiatric disorders. Information on actual numbers is scarce, however. The aim of this study was to analyse the key human resource constraints and challenges facing Zambia's mental health care system, and the possible solutions. This study used both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The WHO-AIMS Version 2.2 was utilized to ascertain actual figures on human resource availability. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to assess key stakeholders' perceptions regarding the human resource constraints and challenges. The results revealed an extreme scarcity of human resources dedicated to mental health in Zambia. Respondents highlighted many human resource constraints, including shortages, lack of post-graduate and in-service training, and staff mismanagement. A number of reasons for and consequences of these problems were highlighted. Dedicating more resources to mental health, increasing the output of qualified mental health care professionals, stepping up in-service training, and increasing political will from government were amongst the key solutions highlighted by the respondents. There is an urgent need to scale up human and financial resources for mental health in Zambia. PMID:21226643

Sikwese, Alice; Mwape, Lonia; Mwanza, Jason; Kapungwe, Augustus; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Imasiku, Mwiya; Lund, Crick; Cooper, Sara; The Mhapp Research Programme Consortium

2010-01-01

203

O museu de arte perante o desafio da memória/ The art museum facing the memory challenge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os museus surgiram como síntese representativa de uma realidade, impondo questões sobre a preservação das memórias inerentes à função e à simbologia dos objetos. No caso dos museus de arte, o objetivo era constituir um repositório patrimonial que contribuísse para a criação de uma identidade cultural, pelo que os objetos eram avaliados sobretudo em função da excelência dos seus parâmetros estéticos, em detrimento de outras significações; também a hist (more) oriografia da arte privilegiava os aspectos formais, estabelecendo atribuições e estilos. Essas circunstâncias determinaram a descontextualização do objeto no espaço museológico. Porém, a partir de meados do século XX, os estudos sobre o público, enquanto entidade plural e diversificada, e os debates teóricos em torno da significação do objeto contribuíram para uma redefinição do discurso museológico. O museu passou a compensar as perdas inerentes ao processo de musealização por meio de um conjunto de procedimentos e ferramentas que recontextualizam os significados do objeto nas suas múltiplas valências. Entre ambos os vetores, de descontextualização e de recontextualização, o museu desafia a nossa memória pessoal e coletiva. Abstract in english Museums have emerged as a representative synthesis of a reality, so a question rises about the preservation of the memories inherent to the functional and symbolic objects. In the particular case of art museums, the goal was to build a heritage repository which would contribute to the creation of a cultural identity. So, the objects were mainly evaluated in terms of aesthetic excellence of its parameters, to the detriment of other meanings. On the other hand, also the his (more) toriography of art favored formal aspects, establishing authorities and styles. These circumstances determined the decontextualization of the object in the museum. In return, from mid-twentieth century onwards, the studies of the public, as a plural and diversified entity, and the theoretical debates around the meaning of the object, contributed to a redefinition of the museological speech. The museum had to offset losses due to the musealisation through a set of procedures and tools that recontextualize the meanings of the object in their multiple valences. Between the two vectors, decontextualization and recontextualization, the museum challenges our personal and collective memory.

Roque, Maria Isabel Rocha

2012-04-01

204

Institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage in lesser-developed countries: challenges facing the Lao PDR.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage. PMID:23433544

Ahmed, Shakil; Annear, Peter Leslie; Phonvisay, Bouaphat; Phommavong, Chansaly; Cruz, Valeria de Oliveira; Hammerich, Asmus; Jacobs, Bart

2013-02-04

205

Computer usage among nurses in rural health-care facilities in South Africa: obstacles and challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: This study discusses factors inhibiting computer usage for work-related tasks among computer-literate professional nurses within rural healthcare facilities in South Africa. BACKGROUND: In the past two decades computer literacy courses have not been part of the nursing curricula. Computer courses are offered by the State Information Technology Agency. Despite this, there seems to be limited use of computers by professional nurses in the rural context. METHODS: Focus group interviews held with 40 professional nurses from three government hospitals in northern KwaZulu-Natal. RESULTS: Contributing factors were found to be lack of information technology infrastructure, restricted access to computers and deficits in regard to the technical and nursing management support. The physical location of computers within the health-care facilities and lack of relevant software emerged as specific obstacles to usage. CONCLUSION: Provision of continuous and active support from nursing management could positively influence computer usage among professional nurses. A closer integration of information technology and computer literacy skills into existing nursing curricula would foster a positive attitude towards computer usage through early exposure. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Responses indicated that change of mindset may be needed on the part of nursing management so that they begin to actively promote ready access to computers as a means of creating greater professionalism and collegiality.

Asah F

2013-04-01

206

Health literacy, health communication challenges, and cancer screening among rural native Hawaiian and Filipino women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Native Hawaiians and Filipinos are disproportionately impacted by cancer and are less likely to participate in cancer screening than whites. Limited information exists about health information pathways and health communication challenges as they relate to cancer screening in these groups. Six focus groups (n=77) of Native Hawaiian and Filipino women age 40+years were conducted to investigate these research gaps. Participants noted many health information challenges. Challenges were both practical and interpersonal and included both written and oral health communication. Practical challenges included "big" words, complexity of terms, and lack of plain English. Interpersonal issues included doctors rushing, doctors not assessing comprehension, and doctors treating respondents as patients not people. Women noted that they would often not ask questions even when they knew they did not understand because they did not want the provider to think negatively of them. Overarching themes to improve cancer communication gaps included: (1) the importance of family and community in health information dissemination, (2) the key role women play in interpreting health information for others, (3) the importance of personal experience and relationships to the salience of health information, and (4) the desire for local cultural relevance in health communication. Findings are discussed in light of the 2010 National Action Plan for Health Literacy.

Sentell T; Dela Cruz MR; Heo HH; Braun KL

2013-06-01

207

The Challenges & Opportunities of using Low Carbon Technologies to Deliver Sustainable Energy Resources to Rural Communities in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving universal modern energy access is a key objective in many developing countries as a means of supporting not only economic but social development [1]. Low carbon technologies may provide a sustainable means of achieving this with limited environmental and socioeconomic impacts .However, social attitudes are a major challenge to overcome in order to successfully introduce these technologies as a sustainable alternative to more traditional means of energy provision. There becomes a challenge in educating the target populations in order to overcome any negative preconceptions or scepticisms surrounding their use which can have adverse effects upon their long term viability and success. This work draws on the results of a rural energy survey conducted in the Indian state of Orissa; the survey highlighted various barriers identified by respondents that could be experienced during the set up and operation of low carbon technologies for energy generation. The results indicate that the main barriers to these projects are the lack of available space for their installation and the inability to carry out maintenance in order to keep the technology operational. However, further investigation reveals that a lack of financial assistance from regional and/or national authorities coupled with an inability to source funding from private investors is a more significant barrier as many of the barriers identified can be avoided or surmounted through the introduction of suitable energy policies and proper financial support.

T.Blenkinsopp; S.R. Coles; S.R. Samantaray; K. Kirwan

2013-01-01

208

Challenges facing young astrophysicists  

CERN Multimedia

In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shortage of child care options and design reasonable profession-wide parental leave policies. (4) Streamline the job application and hiring process. We summarize our reasons for bringing these areas to the attention of the committee, and we suggest several practical steps that can be taken to address them.

Zakamska, N L; Heng, K; Juric, M; Kocsis, B; Kuhlen, M; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J L; Pan, M; Rudd, D H; van de Ven, G; Zheng, Z

2009-01-01

209

Desafios das Ciências Sociais no desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico contemporâneo Challenges facing Social Sciences in contemporary scientific and technological development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo procura analisar o contexto amplo do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico que, ao mesmo tempo, torna possível e limita a produção do conhecimento em Ciências Sociais. Para isso, apresenta algumas idéias de estudos contemporâneos sobre as novas tendências do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico e aborda as políticas recentes de ciência e tecnologia, sob a ótica dessas idéias, enfatizando a transição para um modelo misto do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico. Em seguida, mostra resultados de pesquisa que indicam essas novas tendências e, finalmente, discute os desafios das Ciências Sociais diante desse quadro.The article seeks to analyze the broad context of scientific and technological development, which also allows for restraining knowledge production within Social Sciences. In order to do that, it presents some ideas of contemporary studies about new trends in scientific and technological development and approaches recent science and technology policies from the perspective of such ideas, focusing on the transition to a hybrid model of scientific and technological development. Afterwards, it shows research results that indicate those new trends and, finally, it discusses the challenges facing social sciences within this context.

Fernanda Sobral

2004-01-01

210

Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment plants: challenges facing small water treatment plants in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered included ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In (more) general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (

Momba, MNB; Obi, CL; Thompson, P

2009-07-01

211

Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates  

Science.gov (United States)

Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

212

Enhancing the routine health information system in rural southern Tanzania: successes, challenges and lessons learned.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the use of handheld computers for the management of Health Management Information System data. METHODS: Electronic data capture took place in 11 sentinel health centres in rural southern Tanzania. Information from children attending the outpatient department (OPD) and the Expanded Program on Immunization vaccination clinic was captured by trained local school-leavers, supported by monthly supervision visits. Clinical data included malaria blood slides and haemoglobin colour scale results. Quality of captured data was assessed using double data entry. Malaria blood slide results from health centre laboratories were compared to those from the study's quality control laboratory. RESULTS: The system took 5 months to implement, and few staffings or logistical problems were encountered. Over the following 12 months (April 2006-March 2007), 7056 attendances were recorded in 9880 infants aged 2-11 months, 50% with clinical malaria. Monthly supervision visits highlighted incomplete recording of information between OPD and laboratory records, where on average 40% of laboratory visits were missing the record of their corresponding OPD visit. Quality of microscopy from health facility laboratories was lower overall than that from the quality assurance laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic capture of HMIS data was rapidly and successfully implemented in this resource-poor setting. Electronic capture alone did not resolve issues of data completeness, accuracy and reliability, which are essential for management, monitoring and evaluation; suggestions to monitor and improve data quality are made.

Maokola W; Willey BA; Shirima K; Chemba M; Armstrong Schellenberg JR; Mshinda H; Alonso P; Tanner M; Schellenberg D

2011-06-01

213

Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal/ Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relatadas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de- (more) obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensiv (more) e labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

Henz, Gilmar P

2010-09-01

214

Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relatadas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo.In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

Gilmar P Henz

2010-01-01

215

Moving towards universal coverage with malaria control interventions: achievements and challenges in rural Burkina Faso.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on a study, which assessed coverage with malaria control interventions in rural Burkina Faso, namely insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) ownership, intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for pregnant women and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for under-five children. The study also addressed the distributional impact of such interventions, with specific reference to equity. The study used data from a representative household survey conducted on 1106 households in the Nouna Health District in 2010. Findings indicated that 59% of all households owned at least one ITN, 66% of all pregnant women received IPT at least once and 34% of under-five children reporting a malaria case were treated with ACT. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that higher socio-economic status, ownership of at least one radio and living in a village within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were significantly positively associated with ITN, IPTp and ACT coverage. ITN coverage was higher among households in villages, which had previously hosted an ITN trial and/or the most favourable arm of a trial. Comparing current findings with previous estimates suggests that the country has made substantial progress towards scaling up malaria control interventions but that current coverage rates are still far from achieving the universal coverage targets set by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. In addition, current coverage patterns reveal the existence of multiple inequities across groups, suggesting that current policies are inadequate to achieve equitable scaling up. Future planning of malaria control interventions ought to take into consideration current inadequacies and lead to programmes better designed to overcome them.

De Allegri M; Louis VR; Tiendrébeogo J; Souares A; Yé M; Tozan Y; Jahn A; Mueller O

2013-01-01

216

Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

217

CHALLENGES FACING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ ICT-BASED MARKET INFORMATION SERVICE (MIS) PROJECTS: THE CASE OF BROSDI AND WOUGNET IN UGANDA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by the smallholder rural farmer is envisaged to improve their welfare due to increased access to input and output markets. This study analyzes the constraints to the use of such tools for market linkage in Uganda and policy implications. The paper draws from a case study of two local organizations ICT-based projects namely, Busoga Rural Open Source Development Initiative (BROSDI), and Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET). The constraints identified include lack or poor to ICT tools, poor ICT infrastructure, inadequate resources and high levels of poverty, low levels of literacy, inappropriate modes of information transfer, socio-cultural dynamics and sustainability issues. The paper argues that reaching the poor illiterate smallholder farmers requires redesigning the information content and delivery modes so that the information comes in audio form and in ICT tools that do not require literature. Also the government and private sector need to work hand in hand to ensure access and usability of ICT tools in rural areas by the former investing more in making electricity available in rural communities and the latter extending network boosters to remote rural areas

Julius Juma Okello (Corresponding Author); Narathius Asingwire

2011-01-01

218

Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

NONE

2010-07-01

219

Career Changers as First-Year Teachers in Rural Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges novice teachers face as they adjust to inservice teaching are well documented. However, relatively little attention has been given to beginning teachers in rural schools who have had previous careers in other professions. We used qualitative methods to examine the professional experiences and perceptions of four career-changing…

Fry, Sara Winstead; Anderson, Holly

2011-01-01

220

Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

|Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges

Wells, Margaret

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Rural Hispanic populations at risk in developing diabetes: sociocultural and familial challenges in promoting a healthy diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Type II diabetes affects Hispanic populations disproportionately and is the fifth leading cause of death for Hispanic people in the United States ( Smith & Barnett, 2005 ). Risk of diabetes is of great concern throughout the United States and is clearly of epidemic proportions for regions such as the Southwest and Texas where the primary minority populations are Mexican American. We conducted four focus groups with a total of 49 Hispanic participants (23 adults and 26 adolescents) from rural West Texas communities to gain insights about participants' eating habits, knowledge of diabetes, and potential barriers to preventive care. From the data, we identified a three-tiered predisposition or vulnerability to diabetes-heredity; preferences for unhealthy, culturally based food; and temptations from U.S. mainstream fast food culture. These vulnerabilities added to the sociocultural concerns that participants identified-importance of parental and familial modeling; challenges to healthy eating based on a culturally based diet and mainstream fast food culture; and a lack of support from the larger sociocultural networks such as teachers, community leaders, and the media. From these data, we have a better understanding of familial and sociocultural factors that need to be addressed in the development of preventive public awareness and educational plans. We outline implications for practitioners and educators from an integrated cultural biomedical approach.

Heuman AN; Scholl JC; Wilkinson K

2013-01-01

222

Rural maternity care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Evidence: Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. Outcomes: This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in rural settings. Remuneration models should facilitate interprofessional collaboration. 9. Practitioners skilled in neonatal resuscitation and newborn care are essential to rural maternity care. 10. Training of rural maternity health care providers should include collaborative practice as well as the necessary clinical skills and competencies. Sites must be developed and supported to train midwives, nurses, and physicians and provide them with the skills necessary for rural maternity care. Training in rural and northern settings must be supported. 11. Generalist skills in maternity care, surgery, and anaesthesia are valued and should be supported in training programs in family medicine, surgery, and anaesthesia as well as nursing and midwifery. 12. All physicians and nurses should be exposed to maternity care in their training, and basic competencies should be met. 13. Quality improvement and outcome monitoring should be integral to all maternity care systems. 14. Support must be provided for ongoing, collaborative, interprofessional, and locally provided continuing education and patient safety programs.

Miller KJ; Couchie C; Ehman W; Graves L; Grzybowski S; Medves J

2012-10-01

223

MAKING TIME FOR STORYTELLING; THE CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY BUILDING AND ACTIVISM IN A RURAL LOCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn to involvement in social action through group workshops without prior personal engagement. This paper considers which other participatory media techniques can be employed to encourage involvement in community digital storytelling workshops to inspire activism, and examines barriers to participation, with emphasis on the necessity of mandate, for project success. To help answer these issues, one particular workshop in a case study in North Yorkshire, UK will be used to identify the importance of place and incorporation of methods when undertaking community digital storytelling.

Sarah Copeland, Clodagh Miskelly

2010-01-01

224

Headed for rural practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Too often, training programs can overlook the needs and ignore the perspectives of their trainees. In this paper, Dr Chris Homan provides a personal view on the issues facing young graduates considering a career in rural practice. Chris is a senior rural trainee based at the Rural Training Unit in Toowoomba, Queensland. He is the trainee representative to the Board of the Faculty of Rural Medicine, as well as the founding Co-Chairperson of the Australian Rural Doctor Trainees Association. This grass roots, sociopolitical association aims to optimise training for rural practice.

Homan C

1994-07-01

225

Active living for rural youth: addressing physical inactivity in rural communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rural youth are at greater risk than urban youth for obesity and physical inactivity. Active living research incorporates an ecological approach to promoting physical activity (PA) by recognizing that individual behavior, social environments, physical environments, and policies contribute to behavior change. Active living research and interventions have been limited primarily to urban settings. Because rural communities have unique environmental features and sociocultural characteristics, this project combines insights from current active living models with more focused consideration of the physical and social realities of rural areas. In this study, we report on our efforts to develop, test, and refine a conceptual model describing the interaction between the individual and the environment as it enhances or thwarts active living in rural communities. Our findings revealed a host of relevant "predisposing" and "enabling" factors, including sociodemographic, environmental, policy, and programmatic elements, that extend across the four domains of active living--transportation, recreation, occupation, and household. A one-size approach to PA promotion will not fit the needs of rural youth. Given the unique challenges that rural communities face, efforts to combat childhood obesity must consider rural residents a priority population. More research, interventions, and evaluations on ways to promote rural PA are needed.

Yousefian A; Ziller E; Swartz J; Hartley D

2009-05-01

226

Rural nurses’ continuing education needs: A U.S. multi-site survey reveals challenges and opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Provision of relevant, evidence-based continuing education (CE) is an integral part of maintaining a highly competent rural nursing workforce. Numerous tangible and intangible barriers exist to nurses’ participation in CE in rural settings. Major barriers to accessibility and participation in CE for rural nurses include: 1) Geographic isolation, 2) lack of perceived administrative, financial, and/or technological resources and support, 3) lack of time due to workload, inadequate staffing, and/or travel distance, 4) lack of relevance of continuing education topics, and 5) lack of a dedicated on-site nurse educator. Proactive development of academic-practice partnerships is important to support rural care providers regarding CE delivery. The purpose of this study was to assess perceptions of CE needs of nursing unit staff working in a group of health care facilities in a rural region of midwestern U.S. Methods: A cross-sectional CE needs assessment survey was conducted in winter of 2010 with rural health care providers (N=302/1107; response rate 27%) working in rural healthcare facilities (N=40), including rural hospitals (n=10) and long-term care (LTC) facilities (n=30). A well-validated 72-item Likert-type survey was distributed via a secure online university survey platform, and included assessment of 59 CE need areas. Internal consistency reliability was 0.87. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed a greater number of licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants working in rural LTC’s (27.2% and 62.5%, respectively) compared to rural hospital setting (14% and 15%, respectively). There are a large number of associate degree-prepared nurses (63%) working in the participating rural hospitals compared to LTC setting (8.4%). Respondents’ priority learning needs included: 1) Review aspects of medication administration/drug interactions; 2) improve skills in patient assessment (physical/mental); 3) increase knowledge of management of patients with comorbidities; 4) promotion of patient safety; 5) enhance communication skills/teamwork; 6) increase lifelong learning. Student’s t tests revealed LTC nursing unit staff reported significantly higher priority learning needs in “manage aggressive behavior (verbal/physical)” (t = 2.044, df = 300,  ? = .003), “family participation in care” (t= 2.470, df= 300, ?= .036), and “maintain standards of care” (t= 2.880, df = 300, ?= .042), whilst acute care nursing staff reported a significantly higher priority learning need in “manage a crisis”  (t= 2.122, df = 300, ?= .050). Conclusions: Study results revealed key learning needs related to several aspects of patient care delivery for rural nursing unit staff who are primarily nursing assistants or nurses meeting minimum state educational requirements. Basic health- care workforce training does not typically emphasize continuous quality improvements, or how to recognize and develop an evidence-based practice at the entry level. The potential for nursing knowledge stagnation among entry level nursing unit staff in rural settings needs to be addressed to help break down isolation barriers impacting knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of health care providers practicing in rural health care facilities.

Roseanne Fairchild; Marcee Everly; Linda Walters; Renee Bauer; Stephanie Laws; Louise Anderson

2012-01-01

227

Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

1999-01-01

228

Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) network: first-person accounts in a community-university partnership.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community research and action projects undertaken by community-university partnerships can lead to contextually appropriate and sustainable community improvements in rural and urban localities. However, effective implementation is challenging and prone to failure when poorly executed. The current paper seeks to inform rural community-university partnership practice through consideration of first-person accounts from five stakeholders in the Rural Embedded Assistants for Community Health (REACH) Network. The REACH Network is a unique community-university partnership aimed at improving rural health services by identifying, implementing, and evaluating innovative health interventions delivered by local caregivers. The first-person accounts provide an insider's perspective on the nature of collaboration. The unique perspectives identify three critical challenges facing the REACH Network: trust, coordination, and sustainability. Through consideration of the challenges, we identified several strategies for success. We hope readers can learn their own lessons when considering the details of our partnership's efforts to improve the delivery infrastructure for rural healthcare.

Brown LD; Alter TR; Brown LG; Corbin MA; Flaherty-Craig C; McPhail LG; Nevel P; Shoop K; Sterner G 3rd; Terndrup TE; Weaver ME

2013-03-01

229

'It's intense, to an extent': a qualitative study of the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a treatment programme for intellectually disabled sex offenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Staff experienced a range of negative emotions that they dealt with in a variety of ways including through the use of humour and various emotional defences. Empathy was a challenging and complex issue with individuals taking a variety of positions. CONCLUSION: Staff awareness and understanding of the role of emotions in relation to their own well-being and in relation to therapeutic processes varied. Emotional intelligence was associated with greater therapeutic understanding. Recommendations are made in relation to personal and professional characteristics and need for clinical supervision to support staff well-being and the development of therapeutic competence and effectiveness.

Sandhu DK; Rose J; Rostill-Brookes HJ; Thrift S

2012-07-01

230

Women's access needs in maternity care in rural Tasmania, Australia: A mixed methods study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates (i) maternity care access issues in rural Tasmania, (ii) rural women's challenges in accessing maternity services and (iii) rural women's access needs in maternity services. METHODS: A mixed-method approach using a survey and semi-structured interviews was conducted. The survey explored women's views of rural maternity services from antenatal to postnatal care, while interviews reinforced the survey results and provided insights into the access issues and needs of women in maternity care. FINDINGS: The survey was completed by n=210 women, with a response rate of 35%, with n=22 follow-up interviews being conducted. The survey indicated the majority of rural women believed antenatal education and check-ups and postnatal check-ups should be provided locally. The majority of women surveyed also believed in the importance of having a maternity unit in the local hospital, which was further iterated and clarified within the interviews. Three main themes emerged from the interview data, namely (i) lack of access to maternity services, (ii) difficulties in accessing maternity services, and (iii) rural women's access needs. CONCLUSION: The study suggested that women's access needs are not fully met in some rural areas of Tasmania. Rural women face many challenges when accessing maternity services, including financial burden and risk of labouring en route. The study supports the claim that the closure of rural maternity units shifts cost and risk from the health care system to rural women and their families.

Hoang H; Le Q; Terry D

2013-03-01

231

Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power - opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential and role of biomass resources in developing countries for addressing global climate change concerns are highlighted using India as a case study. Promotion of technologies, which use biomass more efficiently, is seen as a key strategy to integrate the concerns of both developing countries and developed countries. The role of various biomass technologies for improving rural infrastructure and village power is discussed in detail. A vision of establishing and running a chain of rural energy service companies, operating with a basket of devices and technologies, under the general provisions of CDM, is examined for commercialization and mainstreaming of biomass technologies which have achieved reasonable levels of maturity. (author)

2004-01-01

232

Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power - opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential and role of biomass resources in developing countries for addressing global climate change concerns are highlighted using India as a case study. Promotion of technologies, which use biomass more efficiently, is seen as a key strategy to integrate the concerns of both developing countries and developed countries. The role of various biomass technologies for improving rural infrastructure and village power is discussed in detail. A vision of establishing and running a chain of rural energy service companies, operating with a basket of devices and technologies, under the general provisions of CDM, is examined for commercialization and mainstreaming of biomass technologies which have achieved reasonable levels of maturity. (author)

Kishore, V.V.N.; Bhandari, P.M.; Gupta, P. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

2004-04-01

233

Meeting the Challenge of Health Literacy in Rural Uganda: The Critical Role of Women and Local Modes of Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article seeks to better understand the relation between local and traditional modes of communication and health literacy within the context of a rural West Nile community in Northern Uganda. Drawing on social semiotics (multimodality) and Bakhtin's notion of the carnival, the focus is on a group of women participating in a grassroots…

Kendrick, Maureen; Mutonyi, Harriet

2007-01-01

234

O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compartilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido.In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

Raquel Maria Rigotto; Fernando Ferreira Carneiro; Alice Maria Correia Pequeno Marinho; Mayara Melo Rocha; Marcelo José Monteiro Ferreira; Vanira Matos Pessoa; Ana Cláudia de Araújo Teixeira; Maria de Lourdes Vicente da Silva; Lara de Queiroz Viana Braga; Maiana Maia Teixeira

2012-01-01

235

O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola/ The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compartilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora (more) ; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido. Abstract in english In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural mo (more) dernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente da; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

2012-06-01

236

A prisoner's dilemma with asymmetrical payoffs: revealing the challenges faced by performing arts health and wellness practitioners.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a prisoner's dilemma, constructed narratives are used to demonstrate problems within individual rationality and decision-making. Performing artists can be seen as facing a type of prisoner's dilemma in their careers: they must practice repeated movements for long periods in order to improve, yet despite the short-term perception of gained artistic benefit, the long-term consequences may be playing-related musculoskeletal disorders and injury. To help avoid such an outcome, educators and health and wellness practitioners must function as negotiators, engaging in discussions of artistry as part of establishing credibility and encouraging behaviors that keep artists in efficient, healthy behaviors. By setting practice time limits that are considerate of the intensity of each specific task, performers can improve their performance on a daily basis and become more skilled at planning their future training. PMID:20795379

Shan, Gongbing; Visentin, Peter

2010-03-01

237

ROLE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RURAL INDUSTRIAL GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT GENERATION: SOME CASE STUDIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of rural-based agro-industries is a challenge that is faced by countries throughout the world. In most cases, there are significant obstacles that restrict or impede this development. Financing, marketing, and technology are examples of these obstacles. Private industry and govern...

238

Delivering care to rural HIV/AIDS patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With HIV/AIDS on the rise in rural areas, health care providers must find ways of delivering care with little or no increase in resource support. This paper examines the evolution of a rural HIV/AIDS alliance using a life cycle model to identify each stage of the alliance development and the specific issues associated with each stage. The data were collected through structured interviews and by review of background materials, including budgets, grant proposals, and program reports. The findings identify alliance strategies that can be used in other rural communities facing the challenge of serving an increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients with limited resources. Differing from other models, this rural HIV/AIDS alliance emerged from local government and community support into an independent, nonprofit organization operating through a network of interorganizational relationships.

Topping S; Hartwig LC

1997-01-01

239

Overseas territories facing the challenge of climate change - Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report identifies the social-environmental challenges associated with climate change for French overseas territories, proposes an analysis of the impact of activities of the different economic sectors on the environment, and proposes some principles for action. After an introduction which outlines the importance of addressing climate change and adaptation, and describes the situation of French overseas territories in front of climate change, a first part identifies and discusses the main social-environmental challenges associated with climate change (climate evolution, role of climate change in a context of economic development, the territory as a resource system, climate change considered as an impact chain, the relative weight of climatic uncertainties). Then, the report analyses the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity, on tourism, on fishing and aquaculture, on agriculture and breeding, on forestry, on health, and on the energy sector. For each of them, the economic weight is indicated and commented, expected impacts are discussed, and adaptation possibilities and implementation modalities are commented. The issue of coastal planning and risks related to climate change is also addressed

2012-01-01

240

A Rural Implementation of a 52 Node Mixed Wireless Mesh Network in Macha, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of increasing international and academic attention, there remains many challenges facing real world implementations of developing technologies. There has been considerable hype behind Wireless Mesh Networking as the ubiquitous solution for rural ICT in the developing world. In this paper, we present the real world rural mesh network implementation in the village of Macha, Zambia and draw both performance conclusions as well as overall experiential conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze our low cost solution and extrapolate future trends for rural ICT implementations in Zambia.

Backens, Jonathan; Mweemba, Gregory; van Stam, Gertjan

 
 
 
 
241

Spain’s foreign policy in the face of the challenges of its politization: from consensus to legitimacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyse the new context in which Spanish foreign policy should develop, after the break in consensus and the growing politization that has occurred in the last few years. The changes that have occurred in the international order have ended up decisively affecting Spanish foreign policy, which has entered a new stage of politization and democratisation. In this article, it will be argued that this change is not temporary but rather structural, and that it is due to both internal and external causes.Thus, the current challenge should no be thought of as rebuilding consensus in foreign policy, but rather how to manage the dissent.

Albert Aixalà i Blanch

2005-01-01

242

Aging well and gay in rural America: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using person-environment-fit theory as a theoretical framework, this qualitative case study examined, through in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, the lived experience of an older gay man who has lived solely in rural communities. An overarching theme of life satisfaction clearly emerged, along with themes regarding supportive social networks and disclosure management of his sexual orientation. The findings suggest that although it is important to understand the challenges faced by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community in rural environments, it is equally important to shed light on the ways in which older adults age well within these communities.

Rowan NL; Giunta N; Grudowski ES; Anderson KA

2013-01-01

243

[Team work and interdiciplinarity: challenges facing the implementation of comprehensive outpatient care for people with HIV/Aids in Pernambuco].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids) in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry recommendations in terms of basic infrastructure, though none of them had a team of appropriate size. These services have shown signs of fragmentation and difficulty in establishing a systematic intersectorial and interdisciplinary practice, with failings in ensuring the reference and counter-reference flow. It was seen that there was little appreciation of the role of the manager as team leader. The need to perceive the user as a whole was identified, as well as for the team to work in a coordinated manner in order to ensure communicative and relational activities.

Borges MJ; Sampaio AS; Gurgel IG

2012-01-01

244

Critical coping challenges facing caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS and other terminally ill persons: The case of Kanye care program, Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: This article aims to identify and explore the needs, gaps, and coping challenges faced by the Kanye CHBC caregivers. Objective: To provide the Kanye primary caregivers with an opportunity to explore, discuss, and brainstorm the care giving challenges that impede their coping process. Materials and Methods: The study was exploratory in nature and attracted qualitative design. Eighty-two primary caregivers aged between 18 and 85 years were involved in 10 focus group discussions steered by an interview guide; while five CHBC nurses were subjected to one-to-one in-depth interviews still guided by an interview guide that differed only slightly with the one for the caregivers. Results: The following aspects were found detrimental and affecting the productivity and coping capacities of the primary caregivers inadequate counseling and debriefings; lack of motivation and incentives; inadequate supervision visits; and lack of support groups to facilitate information sharing and encouraging one another. Conclusion: This article recommends counseling and debriefings; formation of caregivers support groups; motivation strategies to be put in place; and provisions of adequate care package and food basket.

Kangethe Simon

2009-01-01

245

Reforms and emerging noncommunicable disease: some challenges facing a conflict-ridden country--the case of the Syrian Arab Republic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure. This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health. The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region. This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions. This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health.

Sen K; Al-Faisal W

2013-07-01

246

The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the innovative ability of the Internet itself. More generally, it creates tension for China’s successful engagement with the international community, decreases the international competitiveness of the Chinese ICT enterprises and stifles the development of global ICTs. China needs to adopt a more sophisticated approach to regulate Internet content and overcome these challenges in the near future. Failure to do so will widen the gap between China and the world’s developed countries in the Information Age. Key words: the Internet; the regulation of the Internet; content regulation; China Résumé: Plus d’une dizaine de départements différents en Chine assument les responsabilités variées du contrôle du contenu des publications sur Internet. Cette structure régulatrice séparée a causé beaucoup de défis en face de la convergence des informations, des technologies de communication et surtout de l’Internet. Tous ces défis contiennent un coût de conformité élevé pour les entreprises ICT?Information and communication technologies en anglais?, qui découragent effectivement les startups high-tech et qui sont défavorables pour la capacité innovatrice d’Internet lui-même.Plus généralement, il crée de la tension pour l’engagement de la Chine avec la communauté internationale, diminue la compétitivité internationales des entreprises ICT chinoises et ralentit le développement de l’ICT. La Chine a besoin d’adopter une approche plus sophistiquée pour régulariser le contenu d’Internet et surmonter tous ces défis dans le proche futur. Si l’on faillit faire cela, la distance entre la Chine et les pays développés s’agrandira dans l’Age d’Information. Mots-Clés: Internet; régularisation d’Internet; contrôle du contenu; la Chine

Wei-guang WU

2009-01-01

247

'I could never have learned this in a lecture': transformative learning in rural health education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the 'messy swamps' of rural health practice is a growing challenge. This paper examines the process of learning among health science students from several health disciplines from five Western Australian universities during 'Country Week': a one-week intensive experiential interprofessional education program in rural Western Australia. The paper weaves together strands of transformative theory of learning with findings from staff and student reflections from Country Week to explore how facilitated learning in situ can work to produce practitioners better prepared for rural health practice.

Prout S; Lin I; Nattabi B; Green C

2013-06-01

248

The rural pipeline: building a strong nursing workforce through academic and service partnerships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nurse recruitment and the retention of a high-quality workforce are challenging issues facing rural hospitals and health centers. The Bassett Healthcare Network has met these challenges by building a supportive framework to develop and support nurses at every level of their professional careers. The organization has partnered with local colleges to help staff nurses further their education. These and other partnership endeavors, such as the organization's clinical ladder and collaborative continuing nursing education opportunities, are helping Bassett sustain and grow the nursing workforce across 8 counties in rural upstate New York and develop stronger ties with academic partners.

Murray MF; Havener JM; Davis PS; Jastremski C; Twichell ML

2011-03-01

249

Building social capital among rural, older Australians through information and communication technologies: a review article.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper undertakes a comprehensive review of the growing international literature on the adoption and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) among older people. Issues associated with access and adoption of ICTs among older people living in rural communities will be explored, drawing on social capital as a theoretical lens through which to identify how these new technologies can build healthy ageing. ICTs as bridging social capital can address some of the challenges of service provision in rural Australia and provide access to more extensive information and resources. ICTs can also contribute to bonding social capital through access to other forms of communication to build on local connectedness. However, rural, older people face particular challenges of access, which may exacerbate the cycle of rural social exclusion. In the context of the Australian National Broadband rollout, it is timely to consider how some of these disparities can be addressed.

Warburton J; Cowan S; Bathgate T

2013-03-01

250

The health and welfare of rural and urban cancer survivors in missouri.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: An estimated 2.8 million cancer survivors reside in rural areas in the United States. We compared the risk behaviors, psychosocial factors, health outcomes, quality of life, and follow-up care of rural and urban cancer survivors in Missouri. METHODS: We used 2009-2010 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine various health outcomes, behaviors, and psychosocial factors among rural and urban cancer survivors and their respective rural and urban counterparts without a cancer history. Cancer survivors also were asked about receipt of survivorship care plan components. Sociodemographic factors, access to medical care, and chronic conditions were examined as potential explanatory factors for differences among the 4 groups. RESULTS: An estimated 9.4% of rural and 7.9% of urban Missourians aged 18 years or older reported a cancer history. Rural survivors reported the highest rates of poor self-reported health, physical distress, and activity limitation; however differences between rural and urban survivors were attributable largely to sociodemographic differences. Both rural and urban cancer survivors reported more fatigue than their respective counterparts without a cancer history. Rural survivors also were less likely to meet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for physical activity than their rural controls. The prevalence of smoking among rural survivors was higher than among urban survivors. Only 62% of rural survivors versus 78% of urban survivors reported receiving advice about cancer follow-up care. CONCLUSION: Rural cancer survivors face many health challenges. Interventions to improve quality of life and health behaviors should be adapted to meet the needs of rural cancer survivors.

Schootman M; Homan S; Weaver KE; Jeffe DB; Yun S

2013-01-01

251

The Health and Welfare of Rural and Urban Cancer Survivors in Missouri  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction An estimated 2.8 million cancer survivors reside in rural areas in the United States. We compared the risk behaviors, psychosocial factors, health outcomes, quality of life, and follow-up care of rural and urban cancer survivors in Missouri. Methods We used 2009–2010 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine various health outcomes, behaviors, and psychosocial factors among rural and urban cancer survivors and their respective rural and urban counterparts without a cancer history. Cancer survivors also were asked about receipt of survivorship care plan components. Sociodemographic factors, access to medical care, and chronic conditions were examined as potential explanatory factors for differences among the 4 groups. Results An estimated 9.4% of rural and 7.9% of urban Missourians aged 18 years or older reported a cancer history. Rural survivors reported the highest rates of poor self-reported health, physical distress, and activity limitation; however differences between rural and urban survivors were attributable largely to sociodemographic differences. Both rural and urban cancer survivors reported more fatigue than their respective counterparts without a cancer history. Rural survivors also were less likely to meet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for physical activity than their rural controls. The prevalence of smoking among rural survivors was higher than among urban survivors. Only 62% of rural survivors versus 78% of urban survivors reported receiving advice about cancer follow-up care. Conclusion Rural cancer survivors face many health challenges. Interventions to improve quality of life and health behaviors should be adapted to meet the needs of rural cancer survivors.

Homan, Sherri; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Yun, Shumei

2013-01-01

252

Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism  

Science.gov (United States)

|A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

253

Equal and universal access?: water at mealtimes, inequalities, and the challenge for schools in poor and rural communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a result of the rising national obesity rates, public health researchers and advocates have initiated a number of obesity prevention interventions to reduce the rates of overweight and obesity along with their related medical conditions and costs. Policymakers have also initiated a wide range of environmental and policies to support healthy eating and physical activity. Policies such as California's SB1413, which requires that free drinking water be served in school cafeterias during mealtimes, and subsequently the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, assume an equal access to safe and healthy drinking water. As a result, these policies and their application may unintentionally, exacerbate the inequities already present. Unless we take reasonable steps to address the needs of high-need communities, these one-size-fits-all policy efforts may result in an unequal patchwork of disparities and may have a greater negative impact in high-need poor and rural areas.

Ramirez SM; Stafford R

2013-05-01

254

Rural health professionals' perspectives on providing grief and loss support in cancer care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research demonstrates considerable inequalities in service delivery and health outcomes for people with cancer living outside large metropolitan cities. Semi-structured interviews with 11 professionals providing grief and loss support for people with cancer and their families in rural, regional, and remote areas Western Australia revealed the challenges they faced in delivering such support. The data are presented in four themes - Inequity of regional versus metropolitan services, Strain of the 'Jack of all trades' role, Constraints to accessing professional development, and Challenges in delivering post-bereavement services. These challenges are likely to be of growing concern given that populations are declining in rural areas as Australia becomes increasingly urban. The findings have implications in enhancing the loss and grief support services available in rural, regional, and remote Western Australia, including those grieving the death of a loved one through cancer.

Breen LJ; O'Connor M

2013-07-01

255

The perspective of rural physicians providing abortion in Canada: qualitative findings of the BC Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of Canadian induced abortions are performed in large urban areas. For unknown reasons the number of rural abortion providers in Canadian provinces, such as British Columbia (BC), has declined substantially. This study explored the experiences of BC rural and urban physicians providing abortion services. METHODS: The mixed methods BC Abortion Providers Survey employed self-administered questionnaires, distributed to all known current and some past BC abortion providers in 2011. The optional semi-structured interviews are the focus of this analysis. Interview questions probed the experiences, facilitators and challenges faced by abortion providers, and their future intentions. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using cross-case and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty interviews were completed and transcribed, representing 13/27 (48.1%) rural abortion providers, and 7/19 (36.8%) of urban providers in BC. Emerging themes differed between urban and rural providers. Most urban providers worked within clinics and reported a supportive environment. Rural physicians, all providing surgical abortions within hospitals, reported challenging barriers to provision including operating room scheduling, anesthetist and nursing logistical issues, high demand for services, professional isolation, and scarcity of replacement abortion providers. Many rural providers identified a need to "fly under the radar" in their small community. DISCUSSION: This first study of experiences among rural and urban abortion providers in Canada identifies addressable challenges faced by rural physicians. Rural providers expressed a need for increased support from hospital administration and policy. Further challenges identified include a desire for continuing professional education opportunities, and for available replacement providers.

Dressler J; Maughn N; Soon JA; Norman WV

2013-01-01

256

The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

Dodescu Anca; Bugnar Nicoleta

2008-01-01

257

After-school programs for health promotion in rural communities: Ashe County Middle School 4-H After-School Program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rural youth have a higher risk for lower health and developmental outcomes, often facing numerous constraints (eg, poor socioeconomic conditions, lower levels of social support, fewer recreational programs and facilities, and inadequate transportation). After-school programs have the potential to effectively deliver health-promoting activities but often face significant challenges in these areas. Ashe County is a rural community in the Appalachian region of North Carolina. Ashe County is economically depressed and its youth population has many poor health and developmental indicators. However, with more than 20 years of sustained activity, one important community resource trying to address disparities in youth health and development is the Ashe County 4-H After-School Program. To successfully overcome inherent challenges, the program has positioned itself as essential to community development, supported and retained qualified personnel, and cultivated a network of key partners to continue its efforts to provide essential youth programs for this rural community.

Edwards MB; Miller JL; Blackburn L

2011-05-01

258

'Testing Together Challenges the Relationship': Consequences of HIV Testing as a Couple in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention. METHODS: This study was conducted in October 2011 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 2 years after couples tested and received results together. Fourteen couples were purposively sampled: discordant, concordant negative and concordant positive couples. FINDINGS: Learning about each other's status together challenged relationships of the couples in different ways depending on HIV status and gender. The mutual information confirmed suspected infidelity that had not been discussed before. Negative women in discordant partnerships remained with their positive partner due to social pressure and struggled to maintain their HIV negative status. Most of the couple relationships were characterized by silence and mistrust. Knowledge of sero-status also led to loss of sexual intimacy in some couples especially the discordant. For most men in concordant negative couples, knowledge of status was an awakening of the importance of fidelity and an opportunity for behaviour change, while for concordant positive and discordant couples, it was seen as proof of infidelity. Although positive HIV status was perceived as confirmation of infidelity, couples continued their relationship and offered some support for each other, living and managing life together. Sexual life in these couples was characterized by conflict and sometimes violence. In the concordant negative couples, trust was enhanced and behaviour change was promised. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that testing together as couples challenged relationships in both negative and positive ways. Further, knowledge of HIV status indicated potential to influence behaviour change especially among concordant negatives. In the discordant and concordant positive couples, traditional gender roles exposed women's vulnerability and their lack of decision-making power.

Tabana H; Doherty T; Rubenson B; Jackson D; Ekström AM; Thorson A

2013-01-01

259

Desafios enfrentados por professores na implementação de atividades investigativas nas aulas de ciências/ Challenges faced by teachers in the implementation of inquiry activities in science classes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Apesar da associação entre investigação e Ensino de Ciências ser idealizada desde o início do século XX, não necessariamente consiste em uma prática amplamente utilizada nas escolas, nem aplicada com os mesmos objetivos. Desse modo, considera-se relevante que pesquisadores se debrucem sobre o contexto brasileiro e verifiquem como essa união ocorre. Este trabalho investigou quais são os desafios enfrentados e as estratégias utilizadas, por dois professores dife (more) rentes, durante a implementação de um único projeto investigativo, para se adequarem à realidade da escola, nível de ensino e ao contexto cultural existente. Os dados que subsidiaram esta pesquisa foram obtidos através de fontes primárias (entrevistas, questionários) e secundárias (portfólios, produções dos alunos, fichas, relatórios e observações). Percebeu-se que o mesmo projeto foi implementado de maneira bastante distinta entre um professor e outro, que realizaram adaptações de acordo com sua experiência profissional e com o nível de ensino de seus alunos. Abstract in english Although the association between inquiry and science education has existed since the beginning of the 20th century, there is no guarantee that this practice frequently occurs in science classes and neither that it can also be used with the same purposes. Therefore, we think it is relevant that researchers investigate how this works in the Brazilian context. In this research, we investigated the challenges faced and the strategies used by two different teachers during the (more) implementation of a single inquiry based project equating it to school reality, grade level and cultural context. Data collection was based on primary sources (interviews, questionnaires), and secondary sources (portfolios, student's assignments, cards, reports and observations). We noticed that both teachers implemented the same project in very different ways. The adaptations according to their professional experience and the students' grade level are presented here.

Gouw, Ana Maria Santos; Franzolin, Fernanda; Fejes, Marcela Elena

2013-01-01

260

Topical problems of rural labor market development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural labor market of the country requires further development of infrastructure that would contribute tobalancing labor demand and supply. Particular challenge for the reforms in rural labor market is the qualification leveland structure of the local workers.

Komiljon Homitov

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Recruitment and retention of occupational therapists and physiotherapists in rural regions: a meta-synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Significant efforts have been made to address the shortage of health professionals in rural communities. In the face of increasing demand for rehabilitation services, strategies for recruiting and retaining occupational therapists (OTs) and physiotherapists (PTs) have yielded limited success. This study aims to broaden the understanding of factors associated with recruitment and retention of OTs and PTs in rural regions, through a synthesis of evidence from qualitative studies found in the literature. METHODS: A systematic search of three databases was conducted for studies published between 1980 - 2009 specific to the recruitment and retention of OTs and PTs to rural areas. Studies deemed eligible were appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form. Employing an iterative process, we conducted a thematic analysis of studies and developed second order interpretations to gain new insight into factors that influence rural recruitment and retention. RESULTS: Of the 615 articles retrieved, 12 qualitative studies met the eligibility criteria. Our synthesis revealed that therapists' decision to locate, stay or leave rural communities was influenced to a greater degree by the availability of and access to practice supports, opportunities for professional growth and understanding the context of rural practice, than by location. The second-order analysis revealed the benefits of a strength-based inquiry in determining recruitment and retention factors. The themes that emerged were 1) support from the organization influences retention, 2) with support, challenges can become rewards and assets, and 3) an understanding of the challenges associated with rural practice prior to arrival influences retention. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-synthesis illustrates how universally important practice supports are in the recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals in rural practice. While not unique to rural practice, the findings of this synthesis provide employers and health service planners with information necessary to make evidence-informed decisions regarding recruitment and retention to improve availability of health services for rural residents.

Roots RK; Li LC

2013-01-01

262

Rigor, Relevance and Relationships Improve Achievement in Rural High Schools: High School Reform Works When Schools Do the Right Things. Challenge to Lead  

Science.gov (United States)

This report focuses on the noteworthy achievement and the successful practices of 12 rural schools in the southern region that are members of the "High Schools That Work" (HSTW) school improvement network. Although these schools enroll high percentages of minority and/or impoverished students, they have managed to outperform rural southern schools…

Bottoms, Gene; Presson, Alice; Han, Lingling

2004-01-01

263

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs) (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience). Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

Mullei Kethi; Mudhune Sandra; Wafula Jackline; Masamo Eunice; English Michael; Goodman Catherine; Lagarde Mylene; Blaauw Duane

2010-01-01

264

Wallonia facing the challenge to correct vestiges left from its industrial past - overview of the new policy developments on contaminated land issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Walloon Region (16.844 km{sup 2}, South of Belgium) has experienced a prestigious industrial past. Correcting the vestiges left from it is one challenge the Walloon government has been facing since the years 70-80's. In 1978, one of the first laws in Europe dealing specifically with brownfield issues was passed. Today, 25 years later, we have to recognize that the ambitious objectives we pursued with this legislation have not been met. Some 3,000 abandoned and (potentially) contaminated sites are still remaining, rhythm of brownfield reuse is still judged insufficient, while the pressure for the settlement of new economic activities on greenfield land is more than ever growing. In its 'Contract d'Avenir' published at the beginning of 2000, the present government recognized that this situation and these trends were contrary to the sustainable development principles adaopted for Wallonia. Moreover, he identified as one of the root of the problem the lack of appropriate juridical and technical tools to tackle soil pollution problems that might be associated with disused industrial sites. The lack of any strategical tool able to conciliate in one shot spatial planning- and environmental-components of the problem is certainly another aspect to consider. On this basis, works have been ordered for the implementation of a new and adapted legislation on contaminated soils and sites, and for Brownfield redevelopment. The 'soil decree project' (SDP), as the main outcome of these works, is currently under discussion with the concerned sectors. Its key issues are presented. How they will-, could-, or should be improve to- tackle the contaminated land and Brownfield issue in Wallonia will be the purpose of an open debate. It will join potential stakeholders of the future legislation together with representatives of the international community. Two main questions will be addressed: 1 Taking into consideration the great complexity of the situations the decree will have to deal with (stacking up effects of various activities and pollutions, those that took place on the site together with diffuse pollution), discussion will be launched on who has to carry out actions (investigation / indepth studies, monitoring, remediation) on polluted sites and who must bear the costs? 2. How getting onto sustainable remediation especially for those declining and heavily polluting industrial sectors generally characterized by tremendous remediation requirements but also by the small est financial means available to remediate? (orig.)

Halen, H.; Maes, E.; Moutier, M. [SPAQuE, Societe Publique d' Aide a la qualite de l' Environnement, Liege (Belgium)

2003-07-01

265

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

2008-01-01

266

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

Haanyika, Charles M. [Utilink Limited, Plot 1311, Lubu Road, Longacres, P.O. Box 31661, Lusaka (Zambia)

2008-03-15

267

Lake Region Hospital: case study in rural hospital intravenous therapy updating.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rural hospitals, like large metropolitan hospitals, are constantly facing the challenge of updating and revising their patient care policies and procedures. Using information and guidelines formulated by professional nursing societies, rural hospitals keep pace with fast changing technological advances. During the past year-and-a-half, Lake Region Hospital (LRH) has worked hard to improve its I.V. policies and procedures. The guidance available through the Intravenous Nursing Society (INS) and the INS Network System has been central to these improvements. These changes were instituted by the I.V. resource nurse at LRH in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team. This paper describes these changes in a nursing process format.

Ahlschlager P

1989-03-01

268

Disseminating wind pumps in rural Kenya - meeting rural water needs using locally manufactured wind pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Around half the population in rural sub-Saharan Africa does not have access to reliable and clean water sources (World Bank, 2000). The use of wind energy for water pumping provides a valuable opportunity for meeting rural water needs. Bobs Harries Engineering Ltd. (BHEL), a local company in Kenya, is involved in the manufacture of Kijito wind pumps. With over 20 years experience in the manufacture and installation of over 300 wind pumps (both in Kenya and abroad), BHEL has developed a range of reliable and sturdy machines capable of withstanding storms and pumping water for years, with only minimal maintenance and attention. This article presents a historical review of the design, field-testing and manufacturing experiences of BHEL in the development of wind pumps for water pumping in remote rural areas. Using case studies of wind pump installation projects, the article outlines the challenges facing the dissemination of wind pumps in Africa and the benefits of wind pumps to rural and remote areas. Policy options that may improve the dissemination and use of wind pumps are proposed. (Author)

Harries, Mike [Bob Harries Engineering Ltd., Kijito Wind Pumps, Thika (Kenya)

2002-09-01

269

Handbook of Face Recognition  

CERN Document Server

This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

Li, Stan Z

2011-01-01

270

Saúde, trabalho e ambiente no meio rural brasileiro Health, work and environment at the Brazilian rural  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo discute as implicações das mudanças no paradigma produtivo sobre a saúde e o ambiente no meio rural brasileiro. Para tanto, analisa dados de produção, demografia e economia, contrastando os determinantes, de ordem social, estrutural e econômica, com os reflexos na relação saúde, trabalho e ambiente, desvelando um quadro preocupante, que inclui: a) os impactos ambientais de grandes cadeias produtivas como soja, milho, algodão e cana de açúcar; b) a contaminação química de diversos compartimentos ambientais em razão do uso de agrotóxicos e fertilizantes na agricultura; c) o uso de áreas naturais para o aumento de áreas destinadas à agricultura e pecuária; e d) os reflexos destas ações sobre a saúde de um contingente expressivo de indivíduos, trabalhadores ou não, colocados cada vez mais em situação de extrema vulnerabilidade face aos riscos advindos dos diversos processos produtivos presentes no meio rural brasileiro. Assim, o presente artigo mostra que os macrodeterminantes (ou grandes forças motrizes) acabam por configurar o retrato da saúde dos habitantes do Brasil Rural que, cotidianamente, enfrentam uma série de desafios para a garantia de uma qualidade de vida e de trabalho digna.This manuscript discusses the implications of the productive paradigm changes in health and environment of rural area of Brazil. It analyzes production, economy and demography data, facing social and structural determinants with health and environmental reflexes, revealing a serious panorama that includes: a) environmental impacts associated to large productive chains, such as corn, soy-bean, cotton and sugar cane; b) chemical contamination of diverse environment compartments due to pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture; c) the use of natural land in the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming activities; and d) the reflexes of these actions on individuals, workers or not, that are more and more forced to deal with extreme vulnerability situations because of the risk of rural work processes. Thus, the present article points that macro-determinants (or driven-forces) tends to configure the health status of Rural Brazil inhabitants which, day after day, face a series of challenges in order to guarantee dignity in their work and quality of life.

Frederico Peres

2009-01-01

271

Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). METHODS: We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. CONCLUSIONS: Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

Norman WV; Soon JA; Maughn N; Dressler J

2013-01-01

272

Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalis...

Carolyn Ayson

273

Rural and Micropolitan Residence and Mortality in Patients on Dialysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background and objectives Micropolitan and rural patients face challenges when initiating dialysis, including healthcare access. Previous studies have shown little association of nonurban residence with dialysis outcomes but have not examined the association of dialysis modality with residence location. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This retrospective cohort study used data from the U.S. Renal Data System. Adults who initiated maintenance dialysis between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007, were classified as rural, micropolitan, or urban. Early and long-term mortality and kidney transplantation were examined with Cox regression stratified by dialysis modality. Results Of 204,463 patients, 80% were urban; 10.2%, micropolitan; and 9.8%, rural. Micropolitan and rural patients were older, were less racially diverse, had more comorbid conditions, and were more likely to start peritoneal dialysis (PD). Median follow-up was 2.0 years. Early mortality or long-term hemodialysis (HD) mortality did not significantly differ by geographic residence. After adjustment, micropolitan and rural PD patients had higher risk for long-term mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.35] and 1.12 [95% CI, 1.01–1.24], respectively) than urban PD patients. After adjustment, kidney transplantation was more likely in micropolitan and rural HD patients (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.11–1.28] and 1.30 [CI, 1.21–1.40]) than urban HD patients, and micropolitan PD patients (HR, 1.31 [95%, CI 1.13–1.51]) than urban PD patients. Conclusions Micropolitan and rural residence is associated with higher mortality in PD patients and similar or higher likelihood of kidney transplantation among HD and PD patients. Studies examining the underlying mechanisms of these associations are warranted.

Maripuri, Saugar; Arbogast, Patrick; Ikizler, T. Alp

2012-01-01

274

Learning Discriminant Face Descriptor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is pre-defined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different persons. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems.

Lei Z; Pietikainen M; Li SZ

2013-06-01

275

Learning Discriminant Face Descriptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is pre-defined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different persons. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. PMID:23775461

Lei, Zhen; Pietikainen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

2013-06-12

276

National Rural Health Association  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the Journal of Rural Health Advertising in Rural Roads The Journal of Rural Health Editorial Board Editorial Board Applications Press Releases NRHA Today Resources Rural Roads Magazine Rural Health Bookstore Rural Lens photo contest ...

277

Regional development - rural employment opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate these trends, and build a generic model which can be used to create employment opportunities in the rural areas, based on the specificities of the tertiary sector.

Tamas Forgacs

2010-01-01

278

Telephone Communications: Issues Affecting Rural Telephone Service.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the telephone industry moves to a more competitive structure, about 1,400 local telephone companies face regulatory and technological changes. Small rural companies could have more difficulty in adjusting to some changes because they serve low-density ...

1987-01-01

279

Face bow  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a face bow, which belongs to the technical field of medical appliance for five sense-organs. The face bow comprises a bowed body, two sliding condyle rods pivot-connected with both ends of the bowed body, and length scales arranged on the sliding condyle rods. Fastening screws arranged at both ends of the bowed body are support-connected with the sliding condyle rods, the center of the bowed body is pivot-connected with a jaw fork regulation rod which is pivot-connected with a jaw fork handle at the upper end thereof, and one end of the jaw fork handle is provided with a jaw fork which is provided with convex teeth in the center. The jaw fork regulation rod is provided with a regulation screw at the upper end and a lifting bolt at the lower end, and the bowed body is pivot-connected with an orbit pointer regulation rod which is pivot-connected with an orbit pointer. The face bow, designed according to trigonometry, is characterized by simple structure, easy operation, accurate positioning and obviously face-resetting effect. The face bow is used to record the position relation between the upper jaw and the lower jaw, shift the position relation to a face skeleton, and arrange teeth on the face skeleton to ensure that tooth arrangement conforms to physiological requirements.

YANYING MA

280

Robust Face Detection in Airports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO). In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividing tool to split up the input face space into inlier and outlier face spaces and its use of dedicated classifiers to handle the inliers and outliers in their corresponding spaces. The results of the dedicated classifiers are then nonlinearly combined. Compared with the leading face detection approaches using both the data obtained from the complex airport environment and some popular face database repositories, FDAO's experimental results clearly show its effectiveness in handling real complex environment in airports.

Hong Jiang Zhang; Kia-Fock Loe; Jimmy Liu Jiang

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Challenges, Strategies, and Lessons Learned from a Participatory Community Intervention Study to Promote Female Condoms among Rural Sex Workers in Southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

China faces a rapidly emerging HIV epidemic and nationwide resurgence of sexually transmitted infections associated with a growing sex industry. Community empowerment and capacity building through community-based participatory research partnerships show promise for developing, testing, and refining multilevel interventions suited to the local…

Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer; He, Bin; He, Qiya; Feng, Weiping; Wang, Yanhong

2010-01-01

282

Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s) in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years), who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1) promoted normalisation; and 2) provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1) elicited positive changes in mood; 2) reduced anxiety; and 3) supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents.

Carolyn Ayson

2008-01-01

283

Do patients bypass rural hospitals? Determinants of inpatient hospital choice in rural California  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

vulnerable and underserved population; however, rural hospitals have faced threats to their financial viability and many have closed as a result. This paper examines the hospital characteristics that are associated wit...

Escarce, José J.; Kapur, Kanika

284

A rural perspective: four stories  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english These brief reflections from 4 University of Cape Town (UCT) medical graduates who chose to make their careers in rural practice are written in narrative style to try to capture something of the lived experience of working in rural areas. Although still the career choice of a minority of UCT graduates, those who have chosen to practise in rural areas have found a solid base of competence and confidence in their clinical skills, that has enabled them to tackle challenges in areas beyond anything that they or their teachers might have anticipated.

Nash, Jenny; Rapatsa, Alwyn; Reid, Steve; Gaunt, Ben

2012-06-01

285

Chacal ou Cordeiro? O Brasil frente aos desafios e oportunidades do Sistema Internacional Jackal or Lamb? Brazil in face of the challenges and opportunities of the International System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das categorias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China), e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar.This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categories proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China), and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.

Júlio César Cossio Rodriguez

2012-01-01

286

Chacal ou Cordeiro? O Brasil frente aos desafios e oportunidades do Sistema Internacional/ Jackal or Lamb? Brazil in face of the challenges and opportunities of the International System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das categorias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, (more) atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China), e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar. Abstract in english This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categories proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it (more) acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China), and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.

Rodriguez, Júlio César Cossio

2012-12-01

287

The coffee planting in Brazil: Evolution, current situation and new challenges facing the future La caficultura en Brasil: Evolución, situación actual y nuevos retos cara al futuro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Coffee production has totally dominated the social, economic, political and cultural scene of Brazil since the first half of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. In fact, the ups and downs that accompany this culture are mixed with the milestones in the history of this Latin American country. In this paper we analyzed the coffee production in Brazil and its evolution over the last two decades, a period that coincides with profound changes in the global economy and in the way that coffee production is organized in Brazil, with the emergence new dynamics and processes that are presented as major challenges to this important sector of the economy of this country in the near future.El café ha dominado totalmente la escena social, económica, política y cultural de Brasil desde la primera mitad del siglo XIX hasta comienzos del siglo XX. En efecto, los avatares que acompañan dicho cultivo se confunden con los hitos de la historia de este país latinoamericano. En este trabajo se analiza la caficultura en Brasil y su evolución a lo largo de las dos últimas décadas, período que coincide con unos cambios profundos tanto en la economía mundial como en la forma con que se estructura la producción cafetalera de Brasil, con la emergencia de nuevas dinámicas y procesos que se presentan como retos importantes para este importante sector de la economía de dicho país en el futuro inmediato.

Flávio Sacco dos Anjos; Walter Belik; Nádia Velleda Caldas

2011-01-01

288

Face Recognition : A Single View Based HMM Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation addresses the challenges of giving computers the ability of doing face recognition, i.e. discriminate between different faces. Face recognition systems are commonly trained with a database of face images, becoming “familiar” with the given faces. Many reported methods rely heavily ...

Le, Hung Son

289

Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambézia Province  

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Full Text Available Background: In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. Methods: VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. Results: Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n=380) of the women (9% if age ?30 years (n=3154) and 7% if age <30 years (n=1497); p=0.02). Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% (n=16) had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened) requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88%) of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58%) either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21%) were HIV positive. Conclusions: Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV investments, chronic disease screening and management for cervical cancer is feasible even in severely resource-constrained rural Africa.

Troy D Moon; Carla Silva-Matos; Aventina Cordoso; Alberto J Baptista; Mohsin Sidat; Sten H Vermund

2012-01-01

290

Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambezia Province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. METHODS: VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. RESULTS: Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n=380) of the women (9% if age ? 30 years (n=3154) and 7% if age <30 years (n=1497); p=0.02). Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% (n=16) had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened) requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88%) of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58%) either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21%) were HIV positive. CONCLUSIONS: Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV investments, chronic disease screening and management for cervical cancer is feasible even in severely resource-constrained rural Africa.

Moon TD; Silva-Matos C; Cordoso A; Baptista AJ; Sidat M; Vermund SH

2012-01-01

291

Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes. PMID:21726264

Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

2011-07-04

292

Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes.

Fung RK; Kerridge IH

2013-02-01

293

Retos del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo: Colombia Bilingüe Desafios do Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo: Colômbia Bilíngue The Challenges Facing the National Program for Bilingualism: Bilingual Colombia  

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Full Text Available En 2004 el Ministerio de Educación de Colombia diseñó el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) y estipuló los lineamientos y objetivos para su desarrollo en todo el país. El presente artículo hace parte de un proyecto investigativo sobre bilingüismo financiado por la Universidad de La Salle y su objetivo es analizar los pro y los contra del Programa para presentar los dos retos principales que se deben enfrentar: la formación bilingüe de los estudiantes colombianos y la educación bilingüe de niños. En este análisis teórico fueron utilizados principios de la investigación documental y se presentan algunas reflexiones que la comunidad colombiana de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera debería tener en cuenta para desarrollos futuros.Em 2004, o Ministério da Educação da Colômbia desenhou o Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo (PNB) e estipulou os lineamentos e objetivos para seu desenvolvimento em todo o país. O presente artigo faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa sobre bilinguismo financiado pela Universidade La Salle e seu objetivo é analisar os prós e contras do Programa para apresentar os dois desafios principais que se devem enfrentar: a formação bilíngue dos estudantes colombianos e a educação bilíngue de crianças. Nesta análise teórica, foram utilizados princípios da pesquisa documental e se apresentam algumas reflexões que a comunidade colombiana de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira deveria considerar para desenvolvimentos futuros.In 2004, the Colombian Ministry of Education designed the National Program for Bilingual Education (GNP) and specified the guidelines and objectives for its implementation throughout the country. This article is part of a research project on bilingual education funded by La Salle University, the primary objective of which is to analyze the pros and cons of the program in light of its two main challenges: bilingual education for Colombian students and bilingual education for children. Documentary research principles were used in this theoretical analysis and several considerations for teachers of English as foreign language in Colombia are raised in the interest of future developments.

Yamith José Fandiño-Parra; Jenny Raquel Bermúdez-Jiménez; Víctor Elías Lugo-Vásquez

2012-01-01

294

Understanding the rural food environment--perspectives of low-income parents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity rates appear to be more pronounced among youth in rural areas of the USA. The availability of retail food outlets in rural communities that sell quality, affordable, nutritious foods may be an important factor for encouraging rural families to select a healthy diet and potentially reduce obesity rates. Researchers use the term 'food desert' to describe communities where access to healthy and affordable food is limited. Understanding the ways in which the food environment and food deserts impact childhood obesity may be a key component to designing interventions that increase the availability of healthy and affordable foods, thus improving the health of rural communities. METHODS: The food environment was investigated in 6 rural low-income Maine communities to assess how food environments affect eating behaviors and obesity rates of rural children enrolled in Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program in Maine ('MaineCare'). Focus groups were conducted with low-income parents of children enrolled in MaineCare to ask them about their food shopping habits, barriers faced when trying to obtain food, where they get their food, and what they perceive as healthy food. RESULTS: Cost, travel distance, and food quality were all factors that emerged as influential in rural low-income family's efforts to get food. Parents described patterns of thoughtful and creative shopping habits that involve coupons and sales. Grocery shopping is often supplemented with food that is harvested, hunted, and bartered. The use of large freezers for storing bulk items was reported as necessary for survival in 'tough' times. Families often travel up to 128.8 km (80 miles) to purchase good quality, affordable food, recognizing that in rural communities travelling these distances is a reality of rural life. Parents appeared to know what qualities describe 'healthy food'. CONCLUSIONS: Rural families may have greater flexibility and opportunity to be methodical in their food shopping than urban families since many have access to cars and large freezers. This creates a buffer around these rural communities that might otherwise be considered food deserts. Although the meaning of food desert may be different in rural areas than in urban, it does not negate the fact that low-income rural families are struggling. The combination of challenges that rural low-income families face call for more rigorous study to identify promising interventions for increasing food access and quality in these communities. Participants have developed creative skills for getting food on the table and they know what healthy food is. Despite having acquired this knowledge and these skills, rural families are struggling. With these struggles in mind, policy-makers should consider the shopping patterns reported in this study when thinking about how to help rural residents better access affordable, healthy and quality foods. Customary approaches to remedying the problem of food deserts in urban areas, such as building more grocery stores, may not be necessary in rural areas. More creative approaches for food-access policy changes, subsidies and incentives are needed to match the complex and multi-faceted strategies that low-income residents utilize to feed their families.

Yousefian A; Leighton A; Fox K; Hartley D

2011-04-01

295

The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Background: The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective: To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design: Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion: This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated.

Helen Prytherch; Melkidezek T. Leshabari; Christiane Wiskow; Gifty A. Aninanya; Deodatus C.V. Kakoko; Moubassira Kagoné; Juliane Burghardt; Gisela Kynast-Wolf; Michael Marx; Rainer Sauerborn

2012-01-01

296

Retos del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo: Colombia Bilingüe/ The Challenges Facing the National Program for Bilingualism: Bilingual Colombia/ Desafios do Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo: Colômbia Bilíngue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em 2004, o Ministério da Educação da Colômbia desenhou o Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo (PNB) e estipulou os lineamentos e objetivos para seu desenvolvimento em todo o país. O presente artigo faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa sobre bilinguismo financiado pela Universidade La Salle e seu objetivo é analisar os prós e contras do Programa para apresentar os dois desafios principais que se devem enfrentar: a formação bilíngue dos estudantes colombianos e a educa (more) ção bilíngue de crianças. Nesta análise teórica, foram utilizados princípios da pesquisa documental e se apresentam algumas reflexões que a comunidade colombiana de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira deveria considerar para desenvolvimentos futuros. Abstract in spanish En 2004 el Ministerio de Educación de Colombia diseñó el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) y estipuló los lineamientos y objetivos para su desarrollo en todo el país. El presente artículo hace parte de un proyecto investigativo sobre bilingüismo financiado por la Universidad de La Salle y su objetivo es analizar los pro y los contra del Programa para presentar los dos retos principales que se deben enfrentar: la formación bilingüe de los estudiantes colombi (more) anos y la educación bilingüe de niños. En este análisis teórico fueron utilizados principios de la investigación documental y se presentan algunas reflexiones que la comunidad colombiana de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera debería tener en cuenta para desarrollos futuros. Abstract in english In 2004, the Colombian Ministry of Education designed the National Program for Bilingual Education (GNP) and specified the guidelines and objectives for its implementation throughout the country. This article is part of a research project on bilingual education funded by La Salle University, the primary objective of which is to analyze the pros and cons of the program in light of its two main challenges: bilingual education for Colombian students and bilingual education f (more) or children. Documentary research principles were used in this theoretical analysis and several considerations for teachers of English as foreign language in Colombia are raised in the interest of future developments.

Fandiño-Parra, Yamith José; Bermúdez-Jiménez, Jenny Raquel; Lugo-Vásquez, Víctor Elías

2012-12-01

297

Detection of Occluded Face Image using Mean Based Weight Matrix and Support Vector Machine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Face occlusion is a very challenging problem in face recognition. The performance of face recognition system decreases drastically due to the presence of partial occlusion on the face. Extracting discriminative features to achieve accurate detection versus computational ove...

G. Nirmala Priya; R. S.D. Wahida Banu

298

Collaborative Rural Healthcare Network: A Conceptual Model  

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Full Text Available Healthcare is a critical issue in rural communities throughout the world. Provision of timely and cost effective health care in these communities is a challenge since it is coupled with a lack of adequate infrastructure and manpower support. Twenty percent of the United States of America‘s population resides in rural communities, i.e., 59 million people; however, only nine percent of the nation’s physicians practice in rural communities. Shortage of health care personnel and the lack of equipment and facilities often force rural residents to travel long distances to receive needed medical treatment. Researchers and practitioners are in search of solutions to address these unique challenges. In this research, we present a proposed collaborative model of a health information system for rural communities and the challenges and opportunities of this global issue.

U. Raja; D.J. McManus; J.M. Hardin; B.C. Haynes

2011-01-01

299

Marketing strategy determinants in rural hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rural hospitals confront an inauspicious environment due to changes in patient reimbursement and medical practice. Facing a situation of declining revenues, marketing presents an option for rural hospitals to adapt to the growing constraints. This paper analyzes the determinants of marketing strategy emphasis in rural hospitals. The conceptual model adopted in this study predicts that prior performance and contextual variables explain marketing strategy emphasis. The relationships are examined in a case study of rural New Mexico hospitals. Results suggest that prior performance and several contextual variables explain variations in marketing strategy emphasis. In particular, higher gross patient revenues are associated with more emphasis on television and radio advertising. Furthermore, rural New Mexico hospitals with high numbers of licensed beds and medical staff members, or that are affiliated with a chain organization, place greater emphasis on market research and market planning. The implications for marketing practice in rural hospitals are discussed.

Smith HL; Haley D; Piland NF

1993-01-01

300

Understanding the benefits and challenges of community engagement in the development of community mental health services for common mental disorders: lessons from a case study in a rural South African subdistrict site.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Against the backdrop of a large treatment gap for mental disorders in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), the 2007 Lancet series on global mental health calls for a scaling up of mental health services. Community participation is largely harnessed as one strategy to facilitate this call. Using a participatory implementation framework for the development of mental health services for common mental disorders (CMDs) in a rural subdistrict in South Africa as a case study, this study sought to understand the benefits and challenges of community participation beyond that of scaling up. Qualitative process evaluation involving interviews with service providers and users was employed. The results suggest that in addition to promoting mobilization of resources and actions for scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially contribute to more culturally competent services and personal empowerment of recipients of care. In addition, community participation holds promise for engendering community-led public health actions to ameliorate some of the social determinants of mental ill health. Challenges include that community members involved in these activities are mainly marginalized women, who have limited power to achieve structural change, including cultural practices that may be harmful to the mental health of women and children. We conclude that in addition to contributing to scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially promote the development of culturally competent mental health services and greater community control of mental health.

Petersen I; Baillie K; Bhana A

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking Towards the Sky for an Answer  

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Full Text Available Access to safe water supply has great influence on the health, economic productivity and quality of life of the people. But meeting this need is one of the major challenges facing the rural communities of Nigeria today. The purpose of this review paper is to determine whether water supply have contributed effectively to health, social, and cultural development of Nigerian rural communities. Over 70% of households in rural communities do not have access to improved water supply. They rely solely on self-water supply (free source) such as rivers, perennial streams, water ponds and unprotected wells which is susceptible to water borne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, malaria parasites etc. These rural populations are engaged in farming activities with low income level living in small scattered settlements thus, making provision of piped water supply very difficult. Governments’ interventions towards rural water supply have been through the provision of hand-operated boreholes and wells. These sources yield little or no water during the dry season and are prone to frequent breakdown; leading water crisis and shortages. This situation forces households especially the women and children to spend more time walking longer distances during the dry season to trot water for domestic purposes. Given the fact that the publicly operated water supply have not been able to cope with increasing demand, there is a need for a paradigm shift from the public monopoly of water supply to an innovative approach. Rainwater harvesting technology appears to be one of such alternative approaches.

H. T Ishaku; M. R Majid; A. A Ajayi; A Haruna

2011-01-01

302

Online communities of practice to support collaborative mental health practice in rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The provision of quality mental health services in rural areas continues to be an ongoing challenge for nurses and the patients they serve. The use of computer mediated communication to construct collaborative learning environments similar to those suggested in Wenger's community of practice framework has the potential to mitigate a number of the difficulties faced by rural health care providers. The author presents a brief discussion of social learning theories, the communities of practice framework, and related concepts. Examples of current online communities of practice used as a means for knowledge construction in various professional disciplines are presented in building the case for the fit between online communities of practice and the needs of nurses in rural mental health. Nurses providing mental health care in rural areas have documented needs for interdisciplinary teamwork, access to a collaborative learning environment, and ongoing contact with expert resources. The construction of online communities of practice could potentially address a multitude of concerns identified by nurses practicing mental health care in rural areas.

Cassidy L

2011-01-01

303

"Rural health is subjective, everyone sees it differently": Understandings of rural health among Australian stakeholders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Australia, a diversity of perspectives of rural health have produced a deficit discourse as well as multidisciplinary perspectives that acknowledge diversity and blend in social, cultural and public health concepts. Interviews with 48 stakeholders challenged categories of rural and remote, and discussed these concepts in different ways, but invariably marginalised Aboriginal voices. Respondents overwhelmingly used a deficit discourse to plead for more resources but also blended diverse knowledge and at times reflected a relational understanding of rurality. However, mainstream perspectives dominated Aboriginal voices and racial exclusion remains a serious challenge for rural/remote health in Australia.

Bourke L; Taylor J; Humphreys JS; Wakerman J

2013-08-01

304

A Review Paper on Face Recognition Techniques  

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Full Text Available Face recognition has been a fast growing,challenging and interesting area in real timeapplications. A large number of face recognitionalgorithms have been developed in last decades. In thispaper an attempt is made to review a wide range ofmethods used for face recognition comprehensively.This include PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, Gabor wavelet softcomputing tool like ANN for recognition and varioushybrid combination of this techniques. This reviewinvestigates all these methods with parameters thatchallenges face recognition like illumination, posevariation, facial expressions.

Sujata G. Bhele , V. H. Mankar

2012-01-01

305

Challenges to ART scale-up in a rural district in Tanzania: stigma and distrust among Tanzanian health care workers, people living with HIV and community members.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore attitudes, perceptions and practices among health care workers, antiretroviral treatment (ART) patients and community members regarding ART care and the social consequences of ART roll-out in rural Tanzania. METHODS: We performed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health care workers, community members, ART patients, religious leaders, as well as social workers. Field observations and ethnographic assessments were conducted in parallel. RESULTS: We found widespread negative attitudes and perceptions of ART care HIV testing and the ART programme, a lack of trust in its sustainability, as well as lack of community and health worker involvement in the programme planning and treatment. HIV-positive individuals on ART reported risky behaviours with the aim of revenge and were feared by community members. We also found that the ART availability was seen as an incentive to engage in HIV testing among some community members. CONCLUSION: Our findings underline the importance of involving health workers and the community at a high level and their important role in promoting trust in the ART programme. There is an immense need to adjust interventions focusing on stigma reduction in the direction of ART scale-up and to build awareness among ART patients so they understand how risky behaviours affect their personal well-being and the community at large.

Agnarson AM; Masanja H; Ekström AM; Eriksen J; Tomson G; Thorson A

2010-09-01

306

Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most important challenges that can be pointed out are: lack of access to capital and facilities, problems in supplying goods and services, emphasis on an industry or particular business, low possibility risk in villages and lack of supporting organizations. Review and analysis of rural entrepreneurship in order to achieve sustainability. This research in implementation process is qualitative and in objective is descriptive and then analytic. The results indicate that comprehensive development can never be obtained without rural development and in order to achieve this goal the best investment is creating a context for sustainable entrepreneurship and its promotion in rural area since the entrepreneurship has this ability to identify resources, opportunities and problems available in the context while devising new solutions to move toward developing of different aspects of village and environment.

Bahareh Ansari; Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi; Azita Zand; Masoumeh Arfaee

2013-01-01

307

Robust & Accurate Face Recognition using Histograms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large number of face recognition algorithms have been developed from decades. Face recognition systems have been grabbing high attention from commercial market point of view as well as pattern recognition field. It also stands high in researchers community. Face recognition have been fast growing, challenging and interesting area in real-time applications. This face recognition system detects the faces in a picture taken by webcam or a digital camera, and these face images are then checked with training image dataset based on descriptive features. In this paper, we use a histogram approach for human face detection. Since different faces contains different facial features, having the features which are unique. In this paper the vector machine is used for skin detection and face detection.

Sarbjeet Singh; Meenakshi Sharma; N.Suresh Rao

2012-01-01

308

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools/ Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artíc (more) ulo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación. Abstract in english Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study (more) on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

Quintero Corzo, Josefina; Ramírez Contreras, Odilia

2011-10-01

309

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

Josefina Quintero Corzo; Odilia Ramírez Contreras

2011-01-01

310

Telerehabilitation Clinical and Vocational Applications for Assistive Technology: Research, Opportunities, and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telepractice

Mark R. Schmeler; Richard M. Schein; Michael McCue; Kendra Betz

2009-01-01

311

The perceived health of rural caregivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Caregiving can be stressful in any setting; however, some challenges and differences are unique to the rural population of caregivers. Gene and Lena Tanner The rural elderly report more chronic illness and physical impairment than their urban counterparts. This study examines the differences between self-reported health status in rural caregivers and the general population. The participants were 63 caregivers from rural southwest Alabama and southeast Mississippi. A statistically significant greater number of caregivers considered themselves to be in poor and fair health than in the general population.

Sanford JT; Townsend-Rocchiccioli J

2004-05-01

312

[Nursing school facing new educational challenges].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current avatars situate education schools and colleges in training students for competitions so that they be able to: perform successfully in the labor market, develop in a globalized world and deliver "human sense" services these can offer. The pillars of education [1] or the four ways to acquire significant knowledge for life are the basic premises on which is built the new educational dynamics in the context of globalization and global village, prepare students for internationalizaition is now imperative. In a globalized world in which we now live, acquire an ecological awareness, sense of solidarity, responsibility, social justice, peace, harmony, democracy, equity and learn to know, are actions that are thought together and as indispensable for complex life on the planet. The socio-cultural, economic, technological and political demand new ways of understanding the world and require fundamental changes in lifestyles for sustainable development.

Osuna Torres BH; Gonzáles Rendón MC

2013-06-01

313

Facing the challenges of the nuclear renaissance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Renaissance is stumbling at the very same time it should speed up in order to help control the climate change and meet a fast growing energy need in a large part of the world. Rising costs of projects, uncertainties about their completion, rocketing safety requirements, and financial constraints are key factors which slow down the Nuclear Renaissance. Furthermore, the legal infrastructure required from any country to enter a commercial nuclear programme (safety authorities, fuel cycle, and waste disposal) is a major hurdle s which impedes consideration for small to mid size reactors, well suited for many countries. The paper prepared and presented by Alain Bugat (Chairman of NucAdvisor and former Head of the French Atomic Energy Commission), Dominique Vignon (CEO of NucAdvisor and former President and CEO of AREVA NP) and Michel Lecomte (Co-founder NucAdvisor) reviews the present status of the Nuclear Renaissance. Based on an analysis of initial versus actual plans for all projects announced during the last three years, it scrutinizes some key factors behind the postponements of start-up dates of construction, and cost increases. On each of the issues which jeopardize new projects, the paper will propose an adequate course of actions, to be taken by vendors, operators, governments and safety authorities as well as investors, financial institutions and banks. - Recommendations are developed with respect to: - A needed coordination between the Kyoto and post Kyoto mechanisms, and the nuclear industry; a financial assessment of the potential of such coordination will be presented; - A transformation of the national licensing processes, under a common International framework; it will take into consideration the experience of the Airspace industry, and a systematic mutual acceptance of licensing certificates; - An easier access for nuclear projects to the financial markets, based on the support of major Financial institutions (World Bank; BEI; etc..). (authors)

2010-06-02

314

Facing the challenges of the nuclear renaissance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Renaissance is stumbling at the very same time it should speed up in order to help control the climate change and meet a fast growing energy need in a large part of the world. Rising costs of projects, uncertainties about their completion, rocketing safety requirements, and financial constraints are key factors which slow down the Nuclear Renaissance. Furthermore, the legal infrastructure required from any country to enter a commercial nuclear programme (safety authorities, fuel cycle, and waste disposal) is a major hurdle s which impedes consideration for small to mid size reactors, well suited for many countries. The paper prepared and presented by Alain Bugat (Chairman of NucAdvisor and former Head of the French Atomic Energy Commission), Dominique Vignon (CEO of NucAdvisor and former President and CEO of AREVA NP) and Michel Lecomte (Co-founder NucAdvisor) reviews the present status of the Nuclear Renaissance. Based on an analysis of initial versus actual plans for all projects announced during the last three years, it scrutinizes some key factors behind the postponements of start-up dates of construction, and cost increases. On each of the issues which jeopardize new projects, the paper will propose an adequate course of actions, to be taken by vendors, operators, governments and safety authorities as well as investors, financial institutions and banks. - Recommendations are developed with respect to: - A needed coordination between the Kyoto and post Kyoto mechanisms, and the nuclear industry; a financial assessment of the potential of such coordination will be presented; - A transformation of the national licensing processes, under a common International framework; it will take into consideration the experience of the Airspace industry, and a systematic mutual acceptance of licensing certificates; - An easier access for nuclear projects to the financial markets, based on the support of major Financial institutions (World Bank; BEI; etc..). (authors)

Lecomte, M.; Bugat, A.; Vignon, D. [Expert Founders - NUCADVISOR, 86, rue de Paris, batiment Eucalyptus, 91400 Orsay (France)

2010-07-01

315

[Nursing school facing new educational challenges].  

Science.gov (United States)

The current avatars situate education schools and colleges in training students for competitions so that they be able to: perform successfully in the labor market, develop in a globalized world and deliver "human sense" services these can offer. The pillars of education [1] or the four ways to acquire significant knowledge for life are the basic premises on which is built the new educational dynamics in the context of globalization and global village, prepare students for internationalizaition is now imperative. In a globalized world in which we now live, acquire an ecological awareness, sense of solidarity, responsibility, social justice, peace, harmony, democracy, equity and learn to know, are actions that are thought together and as indispensable for complex life on the planet. The socio-cultural, economic, technological and political demand new ways of understanding the world and require fundamental changes in lifestyles for sustainable development. PMID:23909222

Osuna Torres, Blanca Herlinda; Gonzáles Rendón, M C Cristina

2013-06-01

316

The environmental challenge facing the petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The special characteristics of the global warming problem are briefly reviewed and the role of the petroleum industry discussed. A number of countermeasures and proposals are made. These include: the promotion of scientific studies and research into global warming; international cooperation, the creation of urban and local infrastructures and transport systems that generate minimal carbon dioxide emissions; the realization of environmentally conscious life styles; the development of technologies to limit carbon dioxide emissions. The petroleum industry should establish goals that are reasonable, rational and not influenced by government pressure. (UK)

1992-01-01

317

A formação profissional frente aos desafios da intervenção e das atuais configurações do ensino público, privado e a distância/ The professional background facing the challenges of both intervention and configurations of public, private and distance education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A crise atual do capital, com suas novas e antigas determinações, impõe metamorfoses ao mundo do trabalho, o que exige um perfil de profissional funcional a essa etapa do capitalismo. Parto da hipótese de que as atuais configurações do ensino respondem às exigências da atual fase do capitalismo e se orienta pelas demandas do mercado de trabalho. Nesta direção, a formação profissional tem um duplo desafio: desvelar e enfrentar a crise do capital e nela as diver (more) sas formas de precarização das relações e condições de trabalho, flexibilização dos direitos e focalização das políticas sociais, que, como parte da mesma racionalidade, se expressam e condicionam exercício e formação profissionais. Abstract in english The current crisis of the capital, together with its new and old determinations, demands metamorphoses from the world of work, which requires a professional profile that serves to this phase of capitalism. My hypothesis is that the current configurations of education are adequate to the demands of the present phase of capitalism, and that such education is guided by the requirements of the labor market. So, the professional background has a double challenge: to unveil and (more) to face the crisis of the capital, as well as the several ways making the working relations and conditions precarious, the flexibility of rights and the emphasis of the social policies that, as a part of the same reasoning, express and influence the professional activity and background.

Guerra, Yolanda

2010-12-01

318

Hold that TIGER! A collaborative service-learning academic-practice partnership with rural healthcare facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observing a renewed focus on community engagement as part of our university's strategic plan and the experiential learning partnerships encouraged by the TIGER (Technology and Information Guiding Education Reform) Initiative in health information technology, an academic-practice partnership was initiated between a group of Midwestern rural hospitals and a university's advanced practice nursing students via the graduate online nursing informatics course. Using a service-learning approach, the course features an emphasis on the collaborative design and implementation of student- and healthcare provider team-driven projects to support rural hospital staff and administrators in meeting the broad spectrum of challenges they face every day. The author discusses the adaptable course outline of foundational and service-learning course activities, recent service-learning projects and outcomes, and results of a cumulative 2-year course evaluation by internal/external stakeholders. PMID:22513769

Fairchild, Roseanne Moody

319

Interweaving communities and universities: current epistemological challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematize and engage the readers in a discussion about the dominant trend in higher education around the world, and particularly in Latin America, in reproducing the status quo; making invisible alternative perspectives and insights that could reshape and empower research on notions of community development and sustainability with new imaginings that question the cultural-political-economic space defined by Euro centered notion of modernity. We will share the specific conceptual challenges we are facing while developing an international researchproject between rural community-based organizations, NGOs, and Colombian and Canadian universities, addressing issues of sustainability and education within Colombian Afro-descendent, Campesino and Indigenous contexts from a decolonial perspective.

Zayda Sierra Gerald Fallon

2013-01-01

320

Recruitment of Itinerant Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Rural Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

Legislative mandate and judicial precedence of the guarantee of a free and appropriate public education for students with disabilities can be challenging to uphold in rural areas. 13 out of 15 counties in Arizona are in rural areas according to the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban continuum code, 2003, making the challenge of filling…

Thomas, Della W.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Universities: Facing Change and Competition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing importance of international competition is well recognized both in the business and academic environment. This article’s aim is to discusses the issue of how universities must learn to compete, given that national institutional context and everchanging environment facing many and different challenges. This means that, in some ways, the university has a central place and becomes more integrated into state’s economic activities and companies, than they were before. In the knowledge society, the university' mission is to create, develop and transfer knowledge capital in order to obtain valuable asset status in the modern economy. Therefore, universities face continous challenges due to globalization and internationalization of education, learning and research, and must satisfy higher quality demands, ‘measurable’ outcomes, and explicit economic benefits. Facing competition from other knowledge-providers, universities must change their identity from that of state-financed monopolies to self-financed participants in the knowledge - providing markets.

Stanit Alexandra; Popa Liliana Mihaela; Mihai Indres

2014-01-01

322

Wheelchair Seating Assessment and Intervention: A Comparison between Telerehabilitation and Face-to-Face Service  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared outcomes of wheelchair seating and positioning interventions provided by telerehabilitation (n=10) and face-to-face (n=20; 10 in each of two comparison groups, one urban and one rural). Comparison clients were matched to the telerehabilitation clients in age, diagnosis, and type of seating components received. Clients and referring therapists rated their satisfaction and identified if seating intervention goals were met. Clients recorded travel expenses incurred or saved, and all therapists recorded time spent providing service. Wait times and completion times were tracked. Clients seen by telerehabilitation had similar satisfaction ratings and were as likely to have their goals met as clients seen face-to-face; telerehabilitation clients saved travel costs. Rural referring therapists who used telerehabilitation spent more time in preparation and follow-up than the other groups. Clients assessed by telerehabilitation had shorter wait times for assessment than rural face-to-face clients, but their interventions took as long to complete. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Videoconferencing, Wheelchair Seating, Outcomes, Rehabilitation

Ingrid G Barlow; Lili Liu; Angela Sekulic

2009-01-01

323

The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Ba?ka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Average rural household in Ba?ka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Ba?ka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Ba?ka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

Stankov Uglješa

2007-01-01

324

O controle do câncer do colo do útero: desafios para implementação de ações programáticas no Amazonas, Brasil Cervical cancer prevention: challenges facing the implementation of program actions in Amazonas, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar alguns desafios para a implementação de ações programáticas visando ao controle do câncer do colo do útero no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados os relatórios do Programa Viva Mulher do Amazonas referentes à coleta e qualidade das lâminas e os dados de mortalidade por esta causa registrados no DATASUS para os períodos 2001 a 2005. Os resultados apresentam que no período não houve o aumento na cobertura da coleta de exames de Papanicolaou, embora tenha havido uma discreta melhora na qualidade das lâminas; as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero estão aumentando, e situam-se em patamares acima dos encontrados no país e na região norte. A análise desses resultados sugere a necessidade de haver um esforço, por parte da gestão do Programa no Amazonas, na capacitação de profissionais e dos gerentes dos serviços, visando aumentar a captação das mulheres sob maior risco.The purpose of this study is to present a number of challenges facing the implementation of program actions regarding the control of cervical cancer in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Reports of the Viva Mulher program in Amazonas on Papanicolaou screening tests and the quality of cervical samples and mortality rates from this disease taken from DATASUS were analyzed for the 2001 to 2005 period. The results show no increase in the population covered by the Papanicolaou screening test in this period, although there was a small improvement in the quality of cervical samples. However, mortality rates for cervical cancer are increasing in this reason, and are higher than the rates for Brazil as a whole and for the North region of the country. Analysis of these results suggests the need for local program managers, to make efforts to build the capacity of health-care professionals and service managers, with a view to increasing Papanicolaou screening test coverage for high-risk women.

Dina Albuquerque Duarte Corrêa; Wilza Vieira Villela

2008-01-01

325

Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors/ Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con base en teorías criticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El anál (more) isis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías mas efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de genero, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Abstract in english Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional produc (more) t-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training.

Correa, Doris

2010-04-01

326

ECONOMIC CHANGE IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agricultural and rural sector is connected with great hopes in the economic recovery not only in our country, but world-wide. Rural firms and business should do their best to respond to the challenges of the changes and this way, to bring an improvement to the markets and to the whole economic and social environment. If the advanced, more opened economies are more competitive, this is due to their capacity of change, by raising the quality of the offer (merchandise) they sell.

MARINA LUMINI?A SÂRBOVAN

2009-01-01

327

Robust E-Health Communication Architecture for Rural Communities in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lack of access to quality healthcare and the lack of sufficient manpower, especially doctors, in rural areas is a major healthcare challenge faced by dwellers in rural communities in most developing countries. The intervention of governments, which range from the introduction of training programs aimed at producing health workers from schools of health technology and nursing to the recalling and deployment of retired nurses to rural areas, has still not been able to generate the desired improvement in healthcare delivery, as outbreaks of epidemics are still being reported in such areas. This work presents an E-Health architecture which utilizes low cost sensors and communication devices to link the doctors in the urban areas with the patients in rural areas enabling doctors-patients interaction. The system enables accurate and timely diagnosis of the patients and facilitates proper treatment plans. It also incorporates an epidemic alert which enables the tracking of diseases and the early detection and control of epidemics.

F. E. Idachaba; E. M. Idachaba

2012-01-01

328

The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims), the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus). Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

Md. M. Hossain

2010-01-01

329

Tourism as a socially sustainable tool for rural development - Case: Mutianyu village, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural areas around the world are facing serious problems today such as aging and population decline due to loss of employment opportunities and services. Many rural areas have turned to tourism in search of a better future and it has revealed its potential to sustain rural communi-ties by providing ...

Sajaniemi, Pietari

330

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Rural Communities: Current Research and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

Contexts: The consumption of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in rural areas is a significant contemporary health care issue. An understanding of CAM use in rural health can provide a new perspective on health beliefs and practice as well as on some of the core service delivery issues facing rural health care generally. Purpose: This…

Wardle, Jon; Lui, Chi-Wai; Adams, Jon

2012-01-01

331

Towards Automatic Face Recognition in Unconstrained Scenarios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face recognition as an active area of research over the past two decades still poses many challenges. Current face recognition systems yield satisfactory performance only under controlled scenarios and recognition accuracy degrades significantly when confronted with unconstrained situations due to v...

Sarfraz, Muhammad Saquib

332

An Automatic Face Recognition Technique Based on Face Contours and Face Profile Characterization Substrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face recognition is such a challenging yet interesting problem that it has attracted researchers with different backgrounds: psychology, pattern recognition, neural networks, computer vision, and computer graphics.In this paper, an improved algorithm for automatic face recognition, based on the characterization of faces by their contours and profiles, is proposed. The main aim of this paper is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. Experiments show that the central vertical profile and the contour are both very useful features for face recognition. Illumination and pose remains a largely unsolved problem. Hence the pose compensation and illumination compensation are discussed in order to avoid their effects. Current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system. Hence the solutions for the problems of face recognition are also considered. Image morphing technique was introduced to get the better efficiency for the recognition of faces. A comparison to the principle component analysis was made to prove our algorithm is more robust, simpler and less computationally intensive.

Avinash Kumar Jha

2012-01-01

333

Automatic Face Detection in Frontal Face Color Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic detection of facial features of image is an important stage of various image interpretation works, such as facial expression recognition, face recognition, facial features tracking and 3D face modeling etc. Detection of facial features like eye, mouth, nose, nostrils, lip corners etc., with different facial expression is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a method for automatic detection of facial features. A novel technique using the concepts of facial geometry is used to locate the mouth, eyes and nose positions.

Nidhi Tiwari; N. K. Mittal; S. G. Kerhalker

2013-01-01

334

Access to, Use of, and Attitudes toward Telecommunication among Rural VR Clients  

Science.gov (United States)

Telecommunication offers rural vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients a method of communicating with their VR counselor between face-to-face visits. Unfortunately, certain telecommunication methods may not be available to many rural VR clients or may pose barriers in the rehabilitation process. This article describes findings from an exploratory…

Ipsen, Catherine; Rigles, Bethany; Arnold, Nancy; Seekins, Tom

2013-01-01

335

The concept of cluster- villages as planning tool in the rural districts of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish rural districts are transforming; structural and demographical changes are influencing the rural villages, and the contemporary rural districts can be characterized by both well-functioning and growing villages as well as declining and decaying villages. In addition to this, the merger of municipalities in 2007 has resulted in geographical larger municipalities in which the distance between the lived lives in the rural villages seem increasingly alienated from the municipal government and civil service. These challenges require new methods and approaches that address the reality of the rural villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together and uses each other’s strengths, as well as developing the individual village in addition to the specific potentials of that village. In recent years, rural Denmark has been undergoing a sweeping and very noticeable process of adjustment, Development in municipal service provision plays a particular important role to play in both the popular and the political debate and in relation to everyday living conditions. The debate about the future of rural Denmark is also very much a debate about the kind of welfare model we choose in self-governing, municipal Denmark. The centralised, specialised model based on economies of scale, or the decentralised model based on proximity. In the developments and debate relating to these matters, strategic and visionary planning is back in the municipal arena as the only tool capable of handling the many different challenges facing the municipalities. Mellem disse to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfoldthe concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks to inscribe the concept into the existing debate regarding villages in the rural districts.

Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; MØller, JØrgen

336

Hot Spots and Not Spots: Addressing Infrastructure and Service Provision through Combined Approaches in Rural Scotland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is widespread acceptance that the absence or presence of infrastructure and services in rural areas can lead to cycles of decline or resilience in these localities. It is also accepted that in remoter areas, population sparsity leads to a higher unit cost for delivery of services and infrastructure, and that private sector providers do not find such areas attractive for investment. At the same time, there is a reduction in spending capability within the public sector due to the significant impact of economic crisis on their resource base, affecting provision of services. How are these seemingly intractable challenges being addressed? Using an interpretive policy analysis approach [1] and narrative tools, the storyline of policy statements, approaches and policies in Scotland is presented and discussed, within a wider European setting. This is complemented by a brief presentation of public-private and third sector initiatives in response to service and infrastructure challenges in rural Scotland. The paper concludes with the argument that we are facing two alternatives—the current “hot spots” and “not spots” pattern of provision, where the fittest survive, or further shifts towards strategic, cross-sectoral investment which gives scope for more cohesive development for rural communities.

Sarah Skerratt

2010-01-01

337

Sustainable Rural Development though Women Participation in SMEs Business Growth in Sindh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research paper is focused is focused on the sustainable development through women participation in SMEs business growth in Sindh. The main objective of current research is to examine the sustainable development through women participation in Small and medium enterprises in upper Sindh. The data were collected from 300 respondents from five Districts Dadu, Nawabshah, Shikarpur, Jacobabad and Kashmore district by using simple random technique. It was further revealed that the rural women is less confident and their husbands were always given them hard time once they are exposing them selves to out side the boundaries of the house. It was revealed the rural women is innovate designs of toppi (Sindhi Caps) as well as other SMEs products which are the only source of earning. They are also paid 60% less value of their products because of lack of marketing and other facilities. The biggest challenges which they were facing they were doing all business in house, lack of marketing facilities, Karo Kari criminal activities and they were deprived from the basic rights. This study contributes and explores the Rural Women challenges in SMEs business and how these critical unethical problems we can overcome like KARO KARI, and other various social issues growth.

Nanik Ram; Imamuddin Khoso; Shaukat Ali Raza; Kamran Shafiq; Faiz.M. Shaikh

2011-01-01

338

Oficina Desafio – Challenging creativity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oficina Desafio, Challenge Workshop, is a project of UNICAMP Exploratory Science Museum – the Science Center of the State University of Campinas (Brazil). It is an outreach project, consisting of a fully - equipped mobile workshop constructed on a truck, which visits schools and gives the students open solution real problems challenging them to “design, construct and operate a device” capable of solving the challenge. Analysis of the evaluation forms answered by school students reveals that participants of the challenges perceive it as a “learning opportunity”, in the sense they identify school related capabilities as conditions that increase the chance of facing the challenges successfully.

Marcelo Firer

2008-01-01

339

RURAL DRINKING WATER: GOVERNMENT'S INITIATIVES.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing drinking water to a large rural population is an enormous challenge. 1.95 lakh habitations in the country are affected by poor water quality. The government has undertaken various programmes since independence to provide safe drinking water to the rural masses. In India, investments in community water supply and sanitation projects have increased steadily from the 1st plan to the 10th plan. Till the 10th plan, an estimated total of Rs.1,105 billion spent on providing safe drinking water. However, despite such expenditure lack of safe and secure drinking water continues to be a major hurdle and a national economic burden. It is essential that communities and panchayats are actively involved in the planning, implementation and execution of programmes for water supply. Government should made significant interventions to improve the quality of drinking water in rural areas.

R. P. PATIL

2013-01-01

340

Perceived Gender Classification from Face Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perceiving human faces and modeling the distinctive features of human faces that contribute most towards face recognition are some of the challenges faced by computer vision and psychophysics researchers. There are many methods have been proposed in the literature for the facial features and gender classification. However, all of them have still disadvantage such as not complete reflection about face structure, face texture. The features set is applied to three different applications: face recognition, facial expressions recognition and gender classification, which produced the reasonable results in all database. In this paper described two phases such as feature extraction phase and classification phase. The proposed system produced very promising recognition rates for our applications with same set of features and classifiers. The system is also realtime capable and automatic.

Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Climate change and health research: has it served rural communities?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: If climate change is the 21st Century's biggest public health threat, research faces the major challenge of providing adequate evidence for vulnerable communities to adapt to the health effects of climate change. Available information about best practice in climate adaptation suggests it is inclusive of socio-economic disadvantage and local community factors such as access to health services. Since 1995, at least 19 164 papers have been published on climate change in the health sciences and social sciences. This body of literature has not yet been systematically examined for how well it serves rural communities. METHODS: The ultimate aim of the study was to contribute to better understandings about what climate adaptation research has been done and is needed for rural communities. The two research questions were: 'What kinds of content define climate change research in disciplines that could potentially contribute to adaptation for health?' and 'How is content about rural and Aboriginal communities and best practice in adaptation related to this content?' A quantitative content analysis was performed using 'computational linguistics' Leximancer software. The analysis included 19 164 health and social sciences abstracts, batched by years, from 1 January 1995 to 31 July 2012. The relative frequency and co-occurrence of 52 concepts in these abstracts were mapped, as well as associations with positive or negative sentiment for selected concepts. RESULTS: Aboriginal' concepts tend to be relatively infrequent (3% and 5% overall likelihood of occurrence, respectively) and are more associated with socio-economic concepts in the social sciences than the health sciences. Multiple concepts in the health sciences literature are typically connected with 'disease' and ultimately 'science' storylines, with a 38% likelihood of paired co-occurrence of 'health' and 'disease' concepts alone. The social sciences appear more focused on the local and particular issues of community in climate change than the health sciences. 'Rural' and 'Aboriginal' concepts have increased by 1% across both discipline areas, since 2011 for the 'rural' concept and since 2004 for the 'Aboriginal' concept. 'Health' concepts in the health sciences and 'economic' concepts in the social sciences, as well as 'urban' concepts, are referred to more positively than either the 'rural' or 'Aboriginal' concepts. CONCLUSIONS: While care needs to be taken in interpreting the results of this study too negatively for rural and Aboriginal communities, they suggest that a disease focus dominates climate and health research typically unconnected to wider socio-economic and human system factors. This finding needs to be considered in light of the accumulating evidence of the importance of such contextual systemic factors in understanding climate and health effects and responses. The study adds some support to the view that a key priority is bringing the learnings of applied community-based researchers, from those in rural health to those in the social sciences, to climate research. There is a need to build confidence, including in the rural health sector which has arguably been slow to participate in programs of climate change research, that community-based research could make a difference to rural health in a climate-changing world.

Bell EJ

2013-01-01

342

Maestría en Educación Rural: una propuesta innovadora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recibido 3 de noviembre de 2006 • Aprobado 30 de noviembre de 2007      Resumen. El siguiente artículo hace referencia a la Maestría en Educación Rural (MER), que inició en el año 2006. Esta maestría se presenta como una experiencia innovadora en el ámbito de los estudios de posgrado, por sus diversos componentes: una modalidad presencial y a distancia, con componente virtual, su itinerancia, pues cada uno de sus cinco módulos se desarrollan en un país centroamericano y participan en ellos, estudiantes de diversas nacionalidades. Se convierte así en una oferta novedosa que presenta la División de Educación Rural (DER), del Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE) a la comunidad nacional e internacional interesada y vinculada con el desarrollo de las zonas rurales de la región.  Abstract. This article is about the Graduate Program in Rural Education that started in 2006. This program is an innovative experience because it is developed in two different modalities: face to face and distance with virtual components.It includes five different modules; each one developed in a different Central American country. The participants are from all over Central America. The author explains, how this is an original alternative from the Rural Education Department (DER) of the Center of Investigation and Teaching in Education (CIDE) to the national and international community, that supports people who is interested and linked with the development of rural areas in the region.

Vivian Carvajal Jiménez

2007-01-01

343

Using technology to help rural practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health care providers in rural settings are faced with the same issues as those in urban areas, write Susan Dymond, M.B.A., and Christopher Rankin, but those issues are compounded by the isolation of distance. One answer to this problem is to use telecommunications and satellite technology to bridge these distances and that's just what Texas Tech University is doing.

Dymond SB; Rankin CJ

1992-09-01

344

Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

345

A STUDY ON FACE, EYE DETECTION AND GAZE ESTIMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face and eye detection is one of the most challenging problems in computer vision area. The goal of thispaper is to present a study over the existing literature on face and eye detection and gaze estimation. Withthe uptrend of systems based on face and eye detection in many different areas of life in recent years, thissubject has gained much more attention by academic and industrial area. Many different studies havebeen performed about face and eye detection. Besides having many challenging problems like, havingdifferent lighting conditions, having glasses, facial hair or mustache on face, different orientation pose orocclusion of face, face and eye detection methods performed great progress. In this paper we firstcategorize face detection models and examine the basic algorithms for face detection. Then we presentmethods for eye detection and gaze estimation.

Zeynep Orman; Abdulkadir Battal; Erdem Kemer

2011-01-01

346

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 66...

Xia Li; Ning Ning; Yanhua Hao; Hong Sun; Lijun Gao; Mingli Jiao; Qunhong Wu; Hude Quan

347

Methamphetamine Exposure: A Rural Early Intervention Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study of methamphetamine (MA) effects on children, the authors screened approximately 27,000 newborn infants for MA exposure, and from that pool derived a sample of in utero MA-exposed children as well as a comparison group matched for other drug use and other factors. IDEAL measures…

Lester, Barry M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Derauf, Christian; Grant, Penny; LaGasse, Linda; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Stewart, Sara; Wouldes, Trecia

2006-01-01

348

Energy challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The last couple of years have seen the combined challenge of energy and climate rise to the top of the EU policy agenda. The European Community faces three major energy challenges: 1) Sustainability. Current energy and transport policies imply that EU CO{sub 2} emissions will rise by approximately 5 % by 2030. Global emissions are expected to increase by 55 % in the same period if no actions are taken. 2) Security of supply. Europe is becoming increasingly dependent on imported fuels. Existing trends imply that the present import share of 50 % will increase to approximately 65 % by 2030. This will make Europe's energy system more vulnerable to external factors that are difficult to control, including terrorism. 3) Competitiveness. Rising energy prices could jeopardise job creating in the EU. Investing in energy efficiency and renewable energy could promote innovation and industrial development, with corresponding benefits for employment and the economy. This paper summarizes present European and Danish energy policy and energy challenges, and offers recommendations on how Denmark maintains its tradition of energy saving. (BA)

Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU (Denmark); Henningsen, J.

2007-11-15

349

DISTANCE EDUCATION POTENTIAL FOR A CANADIAN RURAL ISLAND COMMUNITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning. A unique set of considerations confront many of these isolated communities if they wish to engage in distance education and training. This set ranges from internet access to excessive travel by secondary students to the lack of centralized facility. For this study, a group of 48 participants were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the potential for distance education to impact on the community's educational, both academic and vocational, life-long learning and economic needs. The results indicated that there were four general areas of purported benefit: academic advancement, an improved quality of life, support for young families and a stabilizing affect on the local economy. Suggestions for the implementation of a suitable distance education resource are noted.

Tom JONES

2009-01-01

350

AN APPROACH TO FORENSIC FACE RECOGNITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For criminal investigators in the field of forensic science the face recognition is challenging task. As the forensic face images captured under non-ideal conditions with complex background and variation in the pose. This paper is implemented PCA and Eigenface method for face recognition with variation in the pose. The purpose of PCA is to reduce the large dimensionality of the facial data space to the smaller intrinsic dimensionality of feature space. The face images are projected onto face space simply by multiplying the difference between the image and the average and the result is multiplied by each eigenvector. The result of this operation will be the weighted contribution of each Eigenface in representing the input face image, treating the Eigenfaces as a basis set for face images. The Euclidean distance taken from the features of captured face image and available facial features will determine the matching of the face image. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using Eigenface method is an efficient method for face recognition in the field of forensic science. The experimental results shows that the proposed method is best suited for face recognition with variation in the pose.

Angadi S.A., Hatture S.M. and Karchi R.P.

2012-01-01

351

Rural model dedicated education unit: partnership between college and hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes the pilot project development of a rural model Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) by a rural college nursing program and a rural hospital to increase student nurses' confidence and proficiency and improve recruitment of prepared rural staff nurses. Traditionally, for economies of scale, most student clinical rotations occurred in urban settings with the number of students per clinical instructor allowed by the state board of nursing. College budget constraints negated the placement of fewer than this mandated maximum number of students in a rural hospital with a clinical instructor; moreover, rural hospitals could not accommodate 10 students at one time. Rural nursing students were anxious in the urban settings, and this anxiety precluded learning in many instances. Rural hospitals face higher registered nurse vacancies than urban centers. Of the nurses applying for open positions, many were not prepared for the demands of rural nursing, resulting in increased turnover and high orientation costs. The rural model DEU addressed issues of both the nursing program and the hospital. The design and development of the rural model DEU and the advantages of the partnership for the college nursing program and the hospital are discussed. Initial outcomes and serendipitous findings from the pilot project are also discussed.

Harmon LM

2013-02-01

352

Health care in China: improvement, challenges, and reform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 2 decades, significant progress has been made in improving the health-care system and people's health conditions in China. Following rapid economic growth and social development, China's health-care system is facing new challenges, such as increased health-care demands and expenditure, inefficient use of health-care resources, unsatisfying implementation of disease management guidelines, and inadequate health-care insurance. Facing these challenges, the Chinese government carried out a national health-care reform in 2009. A series of policies were developed and implemented to improve the health-care insurance system, the medical care system, the public health service system, the pharmaceutical supply system, and the health-care institution management system in China. Although these measures have shown promising results, further efforts are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of providing affordable and high-quality care for both urban and rural residents in China. This article not only covers the improvement, challenges, and reform of health care in general in China, but also highlights the status of respiratory medicine-related issues.

Wang C; Rao K; Wu S; Liu Q

2013-02-01

353

Rural nursing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.As an accompaniment to this month's original research article on loneliness in chronically ill rural older adults, we thought you'd enjoy a look back at Lavinia L. Dock's firsthand account of the mutual aid provided by people from a rural mountain region in Pennsylvania to an older man in the community. This article, from the December 1906 issue and published here in its entirety, provides a fascinating look at how one community came together to "sit up" with this ailing man, and the beliefs people held about illness-for example, keeping windows tightly shut-at the time.

Dock LL

2013-09-01

354

Development of a Rural Health Framework: Implications for Program Service Planning and Delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose: to describe the development and application of an evidence-based rural health framework to guide rural health program, policy and service planning. Methods: a literature review of rural health programs, focusing on health promotion, chronic disease prevention and population health, was conducted using several bibliographic databases. Findings: thirty papers met the criteria for review, describing chronic disease interventions and public health policies in rural settings. twenty-one papers demonstrated effective intervention programs and highlighted potential good practices for rural health programs, which were used to define key elements of a rural health framework. Conclusions: the rural health framework was applied to an influenza immunization program to demonstrate its utility in assisting public health providers to increase uptake of the vaccine. this rural health framework provides an opportunity for program planners to reflect on the key issues facing rural communities to ensure the development of policies and strategies that will prudently and effectively meet population health needs.

White D

2013-02-01

355

Telemedicine and Face-to-Face Care for Pediatric Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The University of California Davis Medical Center (Sacramento, CA) has pioneered the use of telemedicine in its approach to childhood obesity to cover more than 20 rural clinics in California. In our study, we compared the outcomes of the Telemedicine Weight Management Clinic (TM) with those of its face-to-face (FTF) Weight Management Clinic counterpart over the last 5 years, predicting the results to be equivalent or in favor of TM. All children seen in the TM from June 2006 to June 2011 were included (n=121), and encounter notes in medical records were reviewed. For comparison, an equivalent sample of FTF patients was selected from that time frame (n=122). Data that were also abstracted from the medical record included age at first visit, gender, race, referral site, and comorbid diagnoses. Forty-two percent of TM patients compared with 52% of FTF patients received a change in diagnosis. Thirty-nine percent of TM patients received a change in diagnostic evaluation compared with 67% of patients in FTF. When comparing patients who received more than one visit with either form of consultation, the TM group demonstrated substantially more improvement than the FTF group in improving nutrition (88% versus 65%), increasing activity (76% versus 49%), and decreasing screen time (33% versus 8%). Substantially more TM patients were successful with a combined outcome of any one of the weight parameters that included weight loss, weight maintenance, or slowing of weight gain (69% TM versus 44% FTF). Our study suggests that telemedicine can serve as a feasible strategy to increase access to medical care for childhood obesity in rural communities and promote changes in lifestyle with the goal of maintaining a healthy weight.

Lipana LS; Bindal D; Nettiksimmons J; Shaikh U

2013-10-01

356

Reformas da gestão na saúde: desafios que se colocam aos enfermeiros/ Health management reforms: challenges faced by nurses/ Reformas en la gestión de la salud: retos para los enfermeros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o intuito de tornar a Administração Pública mais eficiente emergiu um novo modelo de gestão que se refletiu nos serviços de saúde e, consequentemente, nos enfermeiros. Assim, pretendeu-se conhecer quais os desafios, considerados pelos enfermeiros, que se colocam à profissão de Enfermagem perante estas mudanças. Este estudo é do tipo descritivo, com o recurso a técnicas de análise qualitativa, realizado a partir de um questionário auto preenchido. As respo (more) stas à questão em estudo foram analisadas através do programa NVivo. Da análise emergiram três categorias centrais designadas de: valorização da profissão; carreira de enfermagem; e formação e investigação. Os Enfermeiros consideram que a profissão não é valorizada ou reconhecida, além disso, referem que as alterações na carreira de enfermagem, advindas da Nova Gestão Pública, não se adequam à prática e impossibilitam a progressão e a remuneração justa. Os participantes realçam que é caminhando para a autonomia e construção do seu próprio corpo de conhecimentos que a Enfermagem poderá enfrentar estes desafios. Considera-se relevante a continuação da realização de estudos que abordem o impacto das reformas nos enfermeiros, incluindo diferentes variáveis. É igualmente relevante que estes resultados sejam tidos em conta pelos gestores e responsáveis. Abstract in spanish Con el fin de hacer que la administración pública sea más eficiente ha surgido un nuevo modelo de gestión que se refleja en los servicios de salud y por tanto lo en los enfermeros. En este marco, nos proponemos saber cuáles son los desafíos a los que los enfermeros consideran que se va a enfrentar la enfermería, delante de estos cambios. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, que cuenta con el uso de técnicas de análisis cualitativo, realizado a partir de un cuestio (more) nario rellenado por los encuestados. Las respuestas a la cuestión objeto de estudio fueron analizadas con el programa de NVivo. El análisis reveló tres categorías principales: Valoración de la profesión, Carreras de Enfermería y Formación Profesional e Investigaciones. Los enfermeros creen que la profesión ni se valora ni se reconoce. Además, indican que los cambios en la carrera de enfermería derivados de la Nueva Gestión Pública no son adecuados para la práctica e imposibilitan la progresión y la remuneración justa. Los participantes destacan que la enfermería solo podrá hacer frente a estos desafíos si tiene como objetivos la autonomía y la construcción de su propio cuerpo de conocimientos. Consideramos pues relevante que se sigan realizando estudios que aborden el impacto de estos cambios en los enfermeros, y que incluyan diferentes variables. También es importante que los gestores y responsables tengan en cuenta estos resultados. Abstract in english A new management model has been introduced with the purpose of making public management more efficient. This has had consequences for the health services and therefore for nurses. Therefore, it was necessary to identify the challenges perceived by nurses that Nursing has to confront in the face of these changes. The present study was descriptive, using qualitative analysis techniques, based on a self-administered questionnaire. Responses were analysed using the NVivo prog (more) ramme. Three main categories arose from the analysis: Value of the Profession; Nursing Career, and Training and Research. Nurses consider that the profession is not valued or recognized; furthermore, they consider that changes in the nursing career resulting from the New Public Management are not appropriate to nursing practice and do not allow career progression or fair remuneration. Participants added that the only way forward is to work towards autonomy for the profession and to build a body of nursing knowledge. It is important to continue to study the impact of the reforms on nurses, including different variables. It is equally important that the results are taken into account

Frederico-Ferreira, Manuela; Silva, Cristiana Filipa Ribeiro da

2012-12-01

357

Reformas da gestão na saúde: desafios que se colocam aos enfermeiros Reformas en la gestión de la salud: retos para los enfermeros Health management reforms: challenges faced by nurses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o intuito de tornar a Administração Pública mais eficiente emergiu um novo modelo de gestão que se refletiu nos serviços de saúde e, consequentemente, nos enfermeiros. Assim, pretendeu-se conhecer quais os desafios, considerados pelos enfermeiros, que se colocam à profissão de Enfermagem perante estas mudanças. Este estudo é do tipo descritivo, com o recurso a técnicas de análise qualitativa, realizado a partir de um questionário auto preenchido. As respostas à questão em estudo foram analisadas através do programa NVivo. Da análise emergiram três categorias centrais designadas de: valorização da profissão; carreira de enfermagem; e formação e investigação. Os Enfermeiros consideram que a profissão não é valorizada ou reconhecida, além disso, referem que as alterações na carreira de enfermagem, advindas da Nova Gestão Pública, não se adequam à prática e impossibilitam a progressão e a remuneração justa. Os participantes realçam que é caminhando para a autonomia e construção do seu próprio corpo de conhecimentos que a Enfermagem poderá enfrentar estes desafios. Considera-se relevante a continuação da realização de estudos que abordem o impacto das reformas nos enfermeiros, incluindo diferentes variáveis. É igualmente relevante que estes resultados sejam tidos em conta pelos gestores e responsáveis.Con el fin de hacer que la administración pública sea más eficiente ha surgido un nuevo modelo de gestión que se refleja en los servicios de salud y por tanto lo en los enfermeros. En este marco, nos proponemos saber cuáles son los desafíos a los que los enfermeros consideran que se va a enfrentar la enfermería, delante de estos cambios. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, que cuenta con el uso de técnicas de análisis cualitativo, realizado a partir de un cuestionario rellenado por los encuestados. Las respuestas a la cuestión objeto de estudio fueron analizadas con el programa de NVivo. El análisis reveló tres categorías principales: Valoración de la profesión, Carreras de Enfermería y Formación Profesional e Investigaciones. Los enfermeros creen que la profesión ni se valora ni se reconoce. Además, indican que los cambios en la carrera de enfermería derivados de la Nueva Gestión Pública no son adecuados para la práctica e imposibilitan la progresión y la remuneración justa. Los participantes destacan que la enfermería solo podrá hacer frente a estos desafíos si tiene como objetivos la autonomía y la construcción de su propio cuerpo de conocimientos. Consideramos pues relevante que se sigan realizando estudios que aborden el impacto de estos cambios en los enfermeros, y que incluyan diferentes variables. También es importante que los gestores y responsables tengan en cuenta estos resultados.A new management model has been introduced with the purpose of making public management more efficient. This has had consequences for the health services and therefore for nurses. Therefore, it was necessary to identify the challenges perceived by nurses that Nursing has to confront in the face of these changes. The present study was descriptive, using qualitative analysis techniques, based on a self-administered questionnaire. Responses were analysed using the NVivo programme. Three main categories arose from the analysis: Value of the Profession; Nursing Career, and Training and Research. Nurses consider that the profession is not valued or recognized; furthermore, they consider that changes in the nursing career resulting from the New Public Management are not appropriate to nursing practice and do not allow career progression or fair remuneration. Participants added that the only way forward is to work towards autonomy for the profession and to build a body of nursing knowledge. It is important to continue to study the impact of the reforms on nurses, including different variables. It is equally important that the results are taken into account by managers and leaders.

Manuela Frederico-Ferreira; Cristiana Filipa Ribeiro da Silva

2012-01-01

358

RURAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian rural market with its enormous size and heterogeneous demand base offers great lucrative opportunities to organizations. After all, seventy percent of India's population, 56% of income, 64% of expenditure and 33% of savings come from rural India. The rural share of popular consumer goods and durables ranges from 30% to 60% and also sales to rural India are steadily growing. For the first time since economic reforms began two decades ago, consumption in rural India is growing faster than in urban India.. Understanding the importance of rural market this paper is an attempt to study the Indian rural marketing environment and its features.

PRAMOD PATIL

2013-01-01

359

Tablet computers in support of rural and frontier clinical practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Healthcare organizations are increasingly faced with an environment in which they must implement health information systems to achieve higher standards for efficiency and quality of care while at the same time being asked to provide needed services with fewer resources. This is particularly challenging for rural health systems where access to resources is often more limited. This study investigates the potential value of iPad tablets for enhancing health services delivery by primary care physicians in rural Nevada. METHODS: Five physicians from rural Nevada were selected to receive iPads and funding for apps that would enhance their medical practices. Following a year of use, data was gathered on each physician's actual use and perceived value of the iPads. A case study approach was taken using both an online survey and semi-structured phone interviews to collect case data. RESULTS: Use and perceived usefulness of the iPad was mixed but generally positive with some physicians utilizing it much more than others. The iPads were primarily used by the physicians to access medical information through online resources (e.g. Epocrates and UpToDate) for reference and diagnostic purposes, although they were also used for some interaction with patients. All felt that resources available through the iPad were limited and that better applications would improve the usefulness of the iPad, particularly in regard to graphical and video content suitable to sharing with patients. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians in this study felt that the iPad could fill a need between smartphones and desktops, which were their primary technology tools prior to receiving the iPad, but that useful medical applications and resources are currently limited for the iPad. In particular, better graphical and video content would improve the usefulness of the iPad as a tool for patient interactions. Apps that store content locally would serve to mitigate inconsistent internet access that is still common in rural settings, increasing the usefulness of the iPad in that context. Tablets like the iPad also have potential for use in accessing the electronic medical record systems that are increasingly being implemented in rural hospitals and healthcare facilities.

Anderson C; Henner T; Burkey J

2013-08-01

360

Community health workers in health systems strengthening: a qualitative evaluation from rural Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Haiti is among the countries facing serious shortages in human resources for healthcare. In rural Haiti, the need for daily, long-term adherence to medication for HIV and TB was initially the driving factor for recruitment of community health workers (CHW) during scale-up of HIV services. Their role became broader over time. This qualitative study evaluated the role of CHW in the health system as a whole in both HIV and non-HIV-related services in rural Haiti and investigated the challenges and facilitating factors for their work. METHODS: We used qualitative methods including focus group discussions and group interviews in four sites in rural Haiti. Data from 462 CHW were analysed for themes and content according to standard ethnographic methods. RESULTS: CHW contributed to a wide range of primary health services and non-HIV-related activities. Recognition from the community, status, satisfaction of contributing to the well-being of others and remuneration were facilitating factors to performing their work. Challenges included insufficient materials to cope with the obstacles on the ground, lack of diagnostic and treatment roles in their activities, high work load, and desire for ongoing training and a higher salary. CONCLUSION: CHW initially hired for HIV care represent an important part of the health system in rural Haiti in both HIV-related and primary healthcare services. CHW programmes have important potential for building capacity in the health workforce and thereby contributing to strengthening of the health system as a whole. Attention must be paid to adequate remuneration, training and provision of materials.

Jerome G; Ivers LC

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A STUDY OF CONSUMER GOODS MARKETING TO INDIAN RURAL CONSUMERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rise of rural market has been the most important marketing phenomenon of 1990s, providing volume growth to all leading companies. Many corporate have been trying to get a grip on the rural markets, but the challenges are many: how to make the product affordable, how to penetrate villages with small population, connectivity , communication, language barrier, spurious brands etc.

Dr.R.L.Laddha

2012-01-01

362

Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenges facing rural electrification in Uganda are diverse with less than 3% of the rural population having access to electricity. The establishment of mini-grids powered by renewable energy sources makes it possible to electrify remote areas at affordable rates. In this study, an assessment of a solar PV mini-grid system to provides electricity to forty households in rural Uganda is carried out. The system comprises six solar modules each rated 175 Wp, a controller, inverters and batteries with a capacity of 600 Ah. Manufactured by SMA, the Sunny Island inverter proposed for the mini-grid ensures provision of grid-quality electricity. The study aimed to investigate the mini-grid's technical design with focus on optimal distribution against constraints of voltage drops, electrical losses and increasing load. Customised load limiters shared between households using thermistors were included to reduce costs and limit consumption. Flat rate monthly charging was used to simplify operation. The incomes of rural households are often seasonal and thus issues pertaining to affordability and sustainability were also considered. Results of the economic analysis showed a payback period of about 4 years given an affordable fixed monthly tariff for the case study area. (orig.)

Bakkabulindi, Geofrey; Sendegeya, Al-Mas; Da Silva, Izael; Lugujjo, Eriabu [Makerere Univ., Kampala (Uganda). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

2010-07-01

363

Attracting doctors to rural areas: a case study of the post-graduate seat reservation scheme in andhra pradesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Attracting doctors to rural posts is an ongoing challenge for health departments across different states in India. One strategy adopted by several states to make rural service attractive for medical graduates is to reserve post-graduate (PG) seats in medical colleges for doctors serving in the public sector. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the PG reservation scheme in Andhra Pradesh to understand its role in improving rural recruitment of doctors and specialists, the challenges faced by the scheme and how it can be strengthened. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative case study methodology was adopted in which a variety of stakeholders such as government officials, health systems managers and serving Medical Officers were interviewed. This was supplemented with quantitative data on the scheme obtained from the Health, Medical and Family Welfare Department in Andhra Pradesh. RESULTS: The PG reservation scheme appears to have been one of the factors responsible in attracting doctors to the public sector and to rural posts, with a reduction in vacancies at both the Primary Health Centre and Community Health Centre levels. Expectedly, in-service candidates have a better chance of getting a PG seat than general candidates. However, problems such as the mismatch of the demand and supply of certain types of specialist doctors, poor academic performance of in-service candidates as well as quality of services and enforcement of the post-PG bond need to be resolved. CONCLUSION: The PG reservation scheme is a powerful incentive to attract doctors to rural areas. However, better monitoring of service quality, strategically aligning PG training through the scheme with the demand for specialists as well as stricter enforcement of the financial bond are required to improve the scheme's effectiveness.

Shroff ZC; Murthy S; Rao KD

2013-01-01

364

DCT Based Face Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A typical automatic face recognition system is composed of three parts: face detection, face alignment and face recognition. Conventionally, these three parts are processed in a bottom-up manner: face detection is performed first, then the results are passed to face alignment, and finally to face recognition. In this paper we will see the face recognition using DCT. The face recognition algorithm is based on appearances of Local facial regions that are represented with discrete cosine transform coefficients. This system exploits the feature extraction capabilities of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and invokes certain normalization techniques that increase its robustness to variations in facial geometry and illumination. The method is tested on two databases first the standard database and second database of real images. High percent of recognition is achieved by varying the threshold.

Prof. Anand Najan; Prof. Mrs. A. C. Phadke

2012-01-01

365

Offshore northern Europe, the challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

Bergseth, S. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

1996-12-31

366

Offshore northern Europe, the challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background.

1996-08-29

367

Rural and Frontier EMS Town Hall Meeting Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) struggle to meet the needs and demands of citizens in communities across the nation. For rural or frontier communities it is becoming even more challenging to meet the communitys needs for prehospital emergency care. EMS S...

2008-01-01

368

25 años de estudios rurales 25 years of rural studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los desplazamientos que han ocurrido en las cuestiones referidas a la agricultura y el mundo rural, en América Latina, en los últimos veinte y cinco años. En pocos ámbitos del conocimiento social, los temas referidos a estas áreas se han desplazado muy profundamente, tanto es así que la lectura de textos que fueron de la mayor trascendencia en los años sesenta hoy en día no son, con excepciones, otra cosa que asuntos de interés para el análisis de la historia de las ideas. Al revisar la literatura uno se encuentra ante debates que hoy suenan pasados de moda, sin importancia actual e incluso desmedidos. Más aún la inercia de los estudios actuales conduce a pensar en una falta de renovación y ausencia de nuevas miradas, por lo que es necesario el ejercicio de la crítica. En este artículo se ensaya la hipótesis, que en este período se ha producido la pérdida de autonomía de la cuestión y sociedad rural y que surge, o debiera surgir, una nueva mirada hacia estas temáticas en busca de comprender el sentido que aún tiene y seguirá teniendo "lo rural" en nuestras sociedades. La cuestión rural sigue siendo importante, y lo será crecientemente, pero ahora no quizá como sistema de producción o como sociedad diferenciada, sino como fuente y fuerza simbólica e identitaria para las sociedades que se encaminan a un proceso de globalización acelerado, anclándolas en sus profundidades culturales. Probablemente será una referencia a relaciones de convivencia, sistemas de pertenencia, sustrato de relaciones primarias, quizá las únicas proveedoras de sentido frente a la acción colectiva globalizada.This article examines the displacements that have taken place in issues regarding agriculture and the rural world in Latin America in the last 25 years. In a few areas of social knowledge the theme related to such matters has been greatly displaced. Reading the 1960s' highly transcendent texts is relevant almost only to the analysis of the history of ideas - an indication of the aforesaid displacement. In reviewing literature one faces outmoded-sounding debates, with no current importance and sometimes even pointless. Besides, the inertia of current studies points to the lack of renovation and the absence of new approaches. That is why critique has to be exercised. This article assays the hypothesis that in this period the rural issue as well as the rural society have lost their autonomy and there emerges - or there should emerge - a new approach towards those subjects in order to understand the meaning that "rural" still has and will have in our societies. The rural issue is still relevant and it will be increasingly relevant, but perhaps not as a production system or a distinct society, but rather as a symbolic identitarian source and force to societies that are heading to a speedy process of globalization, anchoring them in their cultural profundities. It will probably refer to sociability relations, systems of belonging, an essence of basic relations, perhaps the only one to provide meaning in face of collective globalized action.

José Bengoa

2003-01-01

369

Framing community forestry challenges with a broader lens: case studies from the Brazilian Amazon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community forestry initiatives have been shown to reduce rural poverty while promoting the conservation and sustainable use of forests. However, a number of challenges face communities wanting to initiate or maintain formal, community-based forest management. Through a grounded theory approach, this paper uses three case studies of community forest management models in the eastern Amazon to create a framework showing challenges faced by communities at different phases of formal management. The framework shows that, in the development phase, four root problems (land ownership, knowledge acquisition, community organization, and adequate capital) need to be addressed to obtain legal management permission. With this permission in hand, further challenges to operationalization are presented (deterring illegal loggers, maintaining infrastructure, obtaining necessary managerial skills and accessing markets). The interrelatedness of these challenges emphasizes that all challenges need to be addressed in a holistic manner for communities to maintain a profitable and self-sufficient operation. This contradicts current development approaches that only address part of this framework. The framework proposed here can be used as a starting point for community forestry initiatives in other regions.

Hajjar R; McGrath DG; Kozak RA; Innes JL

2011-09-01

370

Vitality Detection in Face Images using Second Order Gradient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spoofing is a very big challenge in biometrics, specially in face image. So many artificial techniques are available to tamper or hide the original face. To ensure the actual presence of live face image in contrast to fake face image this research has been contributed. The intended purpose of proposed approach is also to endorse the biometric authentication, by joining the liveness awareness with Facial Recognition Technology (FRT). In this research 200 dummy face images and 200 real face images are evaluated to detect the vitality using second order gradient method and observed 65-89.5 % classification accuracy.

Aruni Singh

2012-01-01

371

A review on face recognition techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to present the review of certain face recognition techniques. Although the existing methods perform well under certain conditions but illumination, occlusion, pose, structural components, facial expression and quality of images are still the challenging problems. In reviewing these techniques we have compared the performance of various techniques used for face recognition. The performances are compared in order to state advantages and limitations of each technique discussed.

Choudhary, Kritika; Goel, Nidhi

2013-01-01

372

The continuing challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Scottish coal industry is faced with evolutionary changes. The Scottish Area has become the Scottish Group, with operational units becoming largely self-sufficient. There is the planning challenge with the expansion of opencast mining in Scotland; opposition to such developments is becoming greater, so there is a need for sensible strategies. There is the import challenge with the increased importation of foreign coal; the nuclear challenge with its cost to be assessed over the next few years; the ecological challenge concerning acid rain and the depletion of the Ozone layer. (This is less of a problem in Scotland as low sulphur coal is burnt and Scotland's SO/sub 2/ emissions contribute to only 2% of the UK figure). Deposition of acidity in Scotland is predominantly from sources outside Scotland; the privatization challenge; and finally the mining manufacturers' challenge which is to increase the percentage of British manufactured equipment used in mining. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

Rowell, W.

1989-02-01

373

Rural development limitations at the transitional terms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European countries have been reaffirtmating the role and the significance of agricultural multifunctionality for rural areas development. The transition countries have to make the assessment of their weaknesses and opportunities before facing the necessary significant investments in agriculture, rural settlements and deprived rural areas. Overall economic development should provide for further agriculture employment reduction, along with taking measures for the agriculture farms modernization and changes in the structure of agriculture production, within the process of integrated rural development. Declining population at mountain areas might be a prerequisite for intensified farm restructuring, namely through development reorientation, achieving more balanced agriculture economy, along with rediscovering comparative advantages in the development of new activities linked to social changes and changes in lifestyle - green tourism, leisure activities, health care, as well as to forestry, traditional crafts etc. Subsequent to European experience in maintenance of the necessary level of spatial development in sparsely populated and neglected rural areas, the development of priority mountain areas in Serbia should be defined at national level, and the new system of support should facilitate the preparation and the implementation of different projects for integrated rural development of this priority areas.

Nikoli? Marija; Maksin-Mi?i? Marija

2003-01-01

374

Rural School Psychology: Re-Opening the Discussion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practice of school psychology in rural areas is a topic that has been fairly absent from the literature since the 1980s. A needs assessment of school psychologists practicing in rural counties in a midwestern state was conducted to explore current issues for rural school psychologists. The response rate for usable surveys was 72% (N = 106). Respondents answered questions regarding travel, supervision, professional development, practice, and the rewards and challenges of working in rural communities. The limited availability of support services in the community, feelings of professional isolation, work space, and travel time were issues of concern to the respondents. Recommendations, including implications for practitioners and trainers, are provided.

Clopton, K. L.; Knesting, K.

2006-01-01

375

Innate face processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent monkey studies provide intriguing information for an open question whether face processing is a special perceptual process and is organized as such at birth, or has its origin in a more general system that becomes specialized with experience. Before seeing any faces or face-like objects, macaque monkeys showed a preference for faces rather than nonface objects. Furthermore, they showed remarkable face processing abilities both for human and monkey faces. It was also shown that macaque newborns are able to imitate human facial gestures, indicating the ability to match their own facial movements to observed facial gestures. Taken together, it seems very likely that newborns can acquire the knowledge about the basic structure of their own face, presumably through proprioception, so that facial structure would become a familiar and attractive visual object without the experience of the face itself.

Sugita Y

2009-02-01

376