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1

Challenges facing rural entrepreneurship in selected areas in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa, unlike other developing countries, is classified as one of the best performing economies in Africa. Unfortunately the economic growth of the country continue to be limited by the general constraints of the small business sector, due to challenges of skills such as managerial skills, lack of global competition and the weak entrepreneurial performance. The primary objective of the study is to investigate the influence of selected challenges on the perceived success of entrepreneur...

Agbenyegah, Albert Tchey

2013-01-01

2

Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations. (author)

3

Problems and Challenges Faced by the Rural Women: A Case Study of Balochistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current research addressed the issue of challenges faced by the rural women in Balochistan. A qualitative research were conducted on various parts of the Balochistan, Data were collected from 300 respondents five districts of Balochistan i.e. Turbat, Gawader, Sibbi, Pashen and Khuzdar Districts by using simple random technique. It was revealed that women in Balochistan are facing lot f problems like karo Kari, sexual harassments by their Tribal Waderas and feeling unsecure. Women are totally deprived from the basic rights. According to our research about 80% of the Karo Kari cases are based on Bias basis there was no reality. It was further revealed that women are facing difficulties and after Watta satta marriages they feel unsecure. Government and NGOs can play role to educate those women about their basic rights. Women are deprived from their basic rights in Balochistan. In most of the cases they are illegally raped with their feudal and in many cases they were married with 60 years old man without their wishes.

Immamuddin Khoso

2011-01-01

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Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

2001-01-01

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Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive anal [...] ysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

Pholoho, Morojele.

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LOS RETOS DE LA EXTENSIÓN ANTE UNA NUEVA Y CAMBIANTE NOCIÓN DE LO RURAL / THE CHALLENGES OF EXTENSION FACING A NEW AND CHANGING NOTION OF RURALITY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante los cambios ocurridos en el ámbito rural, las formas y las estrategias usadas en la práctica de la extensión no pueden permanecer inmóviles. En respuesta a esta preocupación, el propósito de este artículo es reflexionar y discutir en torno a los retos que supone el ajuste de los modelos tradici [...] onales de extensión a las nuevas formas de concebir, significar e interpretar lo rural. Tras este fin, el documento amplía tres temas principales: el tránsito de la extensión agrícola a la rural, el perfil de un nuevo extensionista rural y el rol del extensionista ante la multidimensionalidad rural. El documento termina con algunas consideraciones acerca de lo que presume asumir los cambios sugeridos. Abstract in english In the face of the changes occurring in the rural realm, the forms and strategies used in extension practices cannot remain immobile. To address this concern, the objective of this article is to reflect on and discuss in turn the challenges implicit in adjustment of traditional extension models to t [...] he new ways of conceiving, emphasizing, and interpreting the rural realm. To this end, the document amplifies three main topics: the transition of agricultural extension to rural extension, the profile of the new rural extensionist, and the role of the extensionist in the multidimensional rural realm. The document ends with some considerations about what the suggested changes presumable imply.

Marlon Javier, Méndez Sastoque.

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Challenges and Opportunities of Indian Rural Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior to globalisation of Indian economy convey the same meaning, but after wardsboth understand by the markets in different context– the later denotes agricultural and rural production of the forthe urban consumers or industrial consumers, whereas rural marketing involves marketing of manufactured orprocessed inputs to rural consumers. These have changed the entire spectrum of marketing for the Indian ruralmarket and force the marketers to move towards rural areas. Rural marketing in India is still at infancy stages,and faces the various types of problems in respect of marketing, product designing and positioning, pricing,distribution and promotion. Today’s corporation must understand the rural market on different context to widentheir business horizon, to expand their market and to exploiting the opportunities available in the rural areas. TheIndian rural market is bigger and vast in size with its lager consumer base, its offers the great opportunities forthe marketer and stay tune with the rural marketing offerings. Rural marketing consists of around 833 millionpotential consumers, and majority of the Indian middle-class, and about half the country's disposable income.The marketer must understand the growing complexities of the rural market and making strategy for the propermixing of marketing mix. It involves high risk and attractive for those who are searching challenge and having acourage to face those challenges. The key to face the challenges is to understand the market, the consumer needand behaviour.Hence, it is proposed to undertake in this study to assess the various dimension of Indian rural markets. The mainaim of this study is to observe the potentiality of Indian Rural Markets and finding out various problems arebeing faced by rural markets. This paper attempts to look into the challenges and opportunities of Indian ruralmarketing by adopting SWOT analysis matrix on rural markets.

Pardeep Kumar

2013-04-01

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Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuni...

Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina

2013-01-01

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Rural challenges, local solutions  

of the goals of the Government's Rural Strategy 2004. How to make a success of \\..... The school's head- teacher sees this project as ... champions, public sector \\representatives and guest speakers, all of which were found on the site, enabling\\ ...

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The Challenges Women Whistleblowers Face  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women Whistleblowers face unique challenges in the workplace.The headline news of ethical concerns in business is transforming the workplace culture and the workforce. More women are beginning to step forward when ethical concerns arise. However they experience gender differences within the corporate culture when they come forward. Women often approach ethical concerns in a different manner than men. This article will bring research to this issue and uncover the unique challenges that women encounter as whistleblowers and the relationship of social status.

Linda Hunt

2010-03-01

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Challenges New Science Teachers Face  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing support focused on real challenges is critical in retaining highly qualified new science teachers, but the field lacks a systematic description of these teachersâ needs. The authors of this article examine the areas that science teachers are expected to understand: (1) the content and disciplines of science, (2) learners, (3) instruction, (4) learning environments, and (5) professionalism. They review the literature on challenges facing preservice and early-career science teachers, identify issues on which conventional wisdom is supported or called into question, and highlight the areas where the existing research is inadequate as a basis for generalization. For example, the authors found few studies on how new science teachers use curriculum materials or how they understand scientific inquiry. Their overview of challenges is followed by a discussion of how these teachers can be supported.

Davis, Elizabeth A.; Petish, Debra; Smithey, Julie

2008-08-21

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Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that ...

Ignat, Raluca

2012-01-01

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China faces massive pollution challenge  

... They must provide an improvement in material living standards in a country whose hinterlands are still desperately poor and whose middle class is just beginning to discover the joys of consumption after decades of privation. At the same time, they must deal with industrial accidents, the environmental costs of the country’s manufacturing so many of the world’s consumer products, and growing resistance to toxic pollution. Despite being armed with some of the world’s best environmental laws and regulations,China’s bureaucracy faces huge challenges in implementation. Local incentives to cut ...

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Challenges Facing the Emerging Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges that Jordanian economy may have to face based on different scenarios in his macro-environment. Specifically, the study focused on the development in the Palestinians and the Iraqi fronts and their impact on the Jordanian economy. Approach: An exploratory research method was utilized. Results: The study findings revealed that the majority of Jordanians believed that the level of conflicts at both fronts are more likely to continue as is ?no war-no peace?. Jordanians showed a tendency to be more optimistic than pessimistic about the reach for a final settlement for both conflicts. However, Jordanians showed more concern for the situation in Palestine than it is in Iraq. Conclusion/Recommendations: were provided for Jordanian policy makers to deal with economic issues based on each scenario.

Basem M. Lozi

2011-01-01

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Challenges Beginning Teachers Face in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

By conducting in-depth interviews with new teachers who are about to become full-time teachers and then reinterviewing them two years later, the author of this article presents how beginning teachers think and feel about teaching and describes the challenges they face as beginning teachers in the context of Hong Kong. The stories of the teachers,…

Lam, Bick-Har

2014-01-01

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Facing the challenges of a competitive market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

British Energy is one of the world's largest nuclear generating companies. This paper describes the business environment in which the company competes, its strategic responses to the challenges it faces, and gives some conclusions regarding the priorities for the nuclear generation industry if it is to thrive as a mainstream source of energy. (author)

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Challenges in evaluating rural health programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex community-based prevention programs are being held to scientific evidence of their effectiveness and rural public health departments that implement such programs often are not equipped to evaluate them. Rural public health departments are fettered by small budgets, small staffs, and less access to evaluation experts and similar resources. Community-based health promotion programs can include complex designs that may work differently in rural areas and evaluation of rural programs can be hampered by lack of control groups and the instability of results from small populations. The University of Kentucky has entered into a contract with the state Department for Public Health to implement an internal, participatory model of evaluation. In this model, the university evaluation expert trains local public health department staff in technical skills for program evaluation and acts as mentor and technical consultant to local public health departments on an ongoing basis. Through training and site visits, this model is one approach to addressing the challenges of evaluating rural health promotion programs. PMID:12135148

Beaulieu, Joyce; Webb, John

2002-01-01

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Plasma facing components: Challenges for nuclear materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In current fusion devices, the components located in front of plasma, the so-called plasma facing components (PFCs), sustain severe constraints such as high thermal flux (several MW/m2), erosion, flux of particles. The management of this first material interface is critical from a plasma performance point of view. ITER, as nuclear facility, is initiating a new era for fusion, which will be reinforced for a future fusion power plant which will add specific requirements (sufficient lifetime, a cooling system to produce energy, use of low activation material) while increasing nuclear constraints. The talk will recall in a first part the main requirements of an actively plasma facing components and the main results obtained with low-Z carbon based PFCs (mainly CFC). Experimental feedback from these challenging components is an essential step for the success of the next generation of components, in particular in term of manufacturing or handling intense heat loads. Nuclear safety requirements mainly drive the need of new materials for the nuclear phase of ITER. The tritium retention in carbon based PFCs and the strong erosion are expected to be too high in the Deuterium-Tritium phase with CFC targets, justifying the use of high-Z materials. The evolution toward high-Z materials, with tungsten the most promising, becomes a major challenge for fusion research. Large scale experiences with W have only been obtained recently with the operation of ASDEX-upgrade and J with the operation of ASDEX-upgrade and JET tokamaks but with non-actively cooled PFCs. ASDEX-upgraded is equipped with W coated carbon PFCs while JET includes W coated carbon PFC and inertially cooled solid W, using in all cases a technology not relevant for ITER. Extensive R and D programmes have been performed in Europe to develop reliable actively PFCs for ITER [1-5]. The state of the art will be presented including specific devices needed to fully qualify, at laboratory scale, designs foreseen for ITER. In order to reduce the risks and anticipate any difficulties ITER may face in terms of manufacturing or operation, it is proposed to update Tore Supra with a full W first wall and divertor, benefiting from the unique long pulse capabilities of the Tore Supra platform, the high installed power and the long history of operation with actively cooled high heat flux components [6]. The main goals of the 'WEST' project (W - for tungsten -Environment in Steady-state Tokamak, figure 1) will be presented. The talk will also address acknowledged gaps in PFCs developments for DEMO, which require extensive studies in different topics, from plasma-surface interaction to engineering including material sciences. Further challenges address simultaneously the higher power density, high-temperature wall, bulk (neutron) and surface (charged particle) accumulated damage. The high neutron fluence expected in a fusion reactor (more than 10 dpa/year) will affect erosion and tritium retention properties of materials. Near-surface material properties will be for instance altered by the neutron damage. Such synergistic effects are expected to be important in the DEMO environment and are difficult to be addressed experimentally. A more robust coupling of materials development, including fundamentally studies, with advanced design is required. If tungsten is the most promising material for the plasma-facing, tungsten also offers less favorable properties (recrystallization, which influences the mechanical properties, embrittlement as a result of neutron-induced damages, He-induced sputtering..) that have to be resolved. Only a global approach, including fundamental science, material development, joining/welding techniques, design innovation and a close link with plasma physics is able to reach the necessary level of credibility for operating such components in a fusion environment in an economically reasonable way. (authors)

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Challenges Facing Techinical Training in Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technical education is necessary if Kenya is to industrialize by the year 2030. Relevant skills have to be given in Technical training institutions. The training in T.T.Is should therefore be market driven. The current study was designed to investigate on challenges facing skill training in T.T.Is. This study focused on the adequacy of training facilities, relevance of facilities, relevance of curriculum and the trainers’ level of qualifications. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Snowball sampling technique was used to identify T.T.I graduates and their employers became automatic respondents. A sample size of one hundred and sixty eight respondents was used for the study. The study found out that training facilities used by T.T.Is are inferior to facilities used in industries and business organizations Majority of respondents indicated that T.T.I graduates posses’ very irrelevant skills in relation to skill needs in industries and business organizations. This implies that training policies need to be urgently reviewed to ensure that training is market driven. The study recommends an urgent overhaul of the training curriculum to enhance adequacy of skill training to skill needs in industries and business organizations.

Zacharia K. Mbugua

2012-02-01

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Oil producers facing a common challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

 
 
 
 
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Droughts and water scarcity: facing challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Water scarcity characterizes large portions of the world, particularly the Mediterranean area. It is due to natural causes - climate aridity, which is permanent, and droughts, that are temporary - and to human causes - long term desertification and short term water shortages. Droughts aggravate water scarcity. Knowledge has well developed relative to all processes but management tools still are insufficient as well as the tools required to support appropriate planning and management. Particularly, new approaches on tools for assessing related impacts in agriculture and other economic and social activities are required. Droughts occur in all climates but their characteristics largely differ among regions both in terms frequency, duration and intensity. Research has already produced a large number of tools that allow appropriate monitoring of droughts occurrence and intensity, including dynamics of drought occurrence and time evolution. Advances in drought prediction already are available but we still are far from knowing when a drought will start, how it will evolve and when it dissipates. New developments using teleconnections and GCM are being considered. Climate change is a fact. Are droughts occurrence and severity changing with global change? Opinions are divided about this subject since driving factors and processes are varied and tools for the corresponding analysis are also various. Particularly, weather data series are often too short for obtaining appropriate answers. In a domain where research is producing improved knowledge and innovative approaches, research faces however a variety of challenges. The main ones, dealt in this keynote, refer to concepts and definitions, use of monitoring indices, prediction of drought initiation and evolution, improved assessment of drought impacts, and possible influence of climate change on drought occurrence and severity.

Pereira, Luis S.

2014-05-01

22

Rapid Urbanization and the Aspiration and Challenge of Second-Generation Urban-Rural Migrants  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the features of second-generation rural migrants and the challenges facing them in terms of schooling and employment. There is a gap that is hard for them to step over: barriers against social inclusion. The article concludes that poverty tends to pass on to the next generation and fossilize. Therefore, it is vital to…

Jialing, Han

2012-01-01

23

What are the challenges facing our industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

NONE

1998-12-01

24

What are the challenges facing our industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

25

The Challenges Facing Adult Literacy Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of adult literacy is complex. This complexity poses many challenges for literacy programs. This paper addresses the challenges of collaboration, diversity, attendance, assessment and professional development as they apply to adult literacy programs. Recommendations for increasing the success of literacy programs are provided.

Greenberg, Daphne

2008-01-01

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Rural Development Practice in Nigeria: How Participatory and What Challenges?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes...

Akpan, Nseabasi S.

2012-01-01

27

The challenges facing hydroelectric power in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The single major challenge for hydroelectric power stations today is the durability of production. Environmental management has to be rethought, climate change integrated, but also the economic role of hydroelectricity reassessed. More generally, the challenge of energy transition in which hydroelectricity will have primary role must be met. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions, underway in some European countries, must be placed in this context. By using as examples Switzerland and France, the author sets out to show that this rethink can be an opportunity to put into practice new ways of management for this sector. (author)

28

CHALLENGES FACING HIGH POWER PROTON ACCELERATORS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation will provide an overview of the challenges of high power proton accelerators such as SNS, J-PARC, etc., and what we have learned from recent experiences. Beam loss mechanisms and methods to mitigate beam loss will also be discussed.

Plum, Michael A [ORNL

2013-01-01

29

Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

30

Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are increasing in their importance to both the nuclear safety regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry. In the changing technological, economic and social environment surrounding TSOs, the scope of their role has also been changing. In particular, TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of nuclear installations over the plant life cycle; at the same time, they are facing managerial challenges such as maintaining technical competence and improving performance. The paper gives an overview of the current challenges faced by TSOs and the future challenges that could be expected, as well as some approaches to or remedies for these identified problems, focusing on safety regulation of nuclear installations. TSOs providing support to nuclear regulators must have strategic plans to cope with these challenges effectively and efficiently, and to provide adequate technical assistance to the regulators for their regulatory decision making and administrative measures. (author)

31

European Analytical Column : Analytical chemistry faces challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect to new research projects and sponsorship of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we maintain our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences.

Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

2009-01-01

32

Heart transplantation: challenges facing the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been significant progress in the field of heart transplantation over the last 45 years. The 1-yr survival rates following heart transplantation have improved from 30% in the 1970s to almost 90% in the 2000s. However, there has been little change in long-term outcomes. This is mainly due to chronic rejection, malignancy, and the detrimental side effects of chronic immunosuppression. In addition, over the last decade, new challenges have arisen such as increasingly complicated recipients and antibody-mediated rejection. Most, if not all, of these obstacles to long-term survival could be prevented or ameliorated by the induction of transplant tolerance wherein the recipient's immune system is persuaded not to mount a damaging immune response against donor antigens, thus eliminating the need for chronic immunosuppression. However, the heart, as opposed to other allografts like kidneys, appears to be a tolerance-resistant organ. Understanding why organs like kidneys and livers are prone to tolerance induction, whereas others like hearts and lungs are tolerance-resistant, could aid in our attempts to achieve long-term, immunosuppression-free survival in human heart transplant recipients. It could also advance the field of pig-to-human xenotransplantation, which, if successful, would eliminate the organ shortage problem. Of course, there are alternative futures to the field of heart transplantation that may include the application of total mechanical support, stem cells, or bioengineered whole organs. Which modality will be the first to reach the ultimate goal of achieving unlimited, long-term, circulatory support with minimal risk to longevity or lifestyle is unknown, but significant progress in being made in each of these areas. PMID:24789875

Tonsho, Makoto; Michel, Sebastian; Ahmed, Zain; Alessandrini, Alessandro; Madsen, Joren C

2014-05-01

33

CONSTRAINTS FACED BY RURAL WOMEN DAIRY FARMERS IN VIRUDHUNAGAR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phenomena of women entrepreneurship is largely confined to metropolitan cities and big towns in India. Most of the women entrepreneurs operate small scale units. However, women entrepreneurs are found in rural areas also. A rural women entrepreneur is a women or group of women who undertake to organize and run an farm in rural area. The women folk can easily be considered as backbone of any nation and better half of the man in almost all spheres of community exception. Rural women, who constitute about 50% of total rural population, play an active role in all spheres of economic life and contribute richly towards national income. Of the major rural enterprise, dairy enterprise has been regarded as an important instrument of economic and social change to supplement in income and employment to rural sector in general and rural women in particular.

K. Marichamy

2014-08-01

34

What Challenges Do We Face Going Back to the Moon?  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a set of lessons about the Moon. Learners will focus on answering the essential question: What are the challenges engineers and scientists are working to solve as NASA prepares to send humans to live and work on the Moon for extended periods of time? In order to understand the challenges NASA faces in returning humans to the Moon, and how these challenges can be overcome, learner groups will brainstorm the challenges of going back to the Moon. They will read what the experts have to say about these challenges, discuss their value and relevancy, debate the importance of the challenges, debrief as a class, and identify the most difficult challenges for returning humans to the Moon to live and work for extended periods of time. They will use skills in reading, interpretation, communication, and processing to interpret information, make inferences, and draw conclusions.

35

NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

BOBE Claudia-Maria

2010-07-01

36

Chinese, European creative industries face similar challenges | EurActiv  

...European creative industries face similar challenges | EurActiv specialreport-innovation-and-the-digital-economy,innovation-enterprise,infosociety,trade,China,creativity,digital agenda,innovation,intellectual property rights EU news & policy ...face similar challenges -A + A Published 08 June 2012, updated 11 June 2012 2 comments Tags China creativity digital agenda innovation intellectual property rights We are entering a new ...countries and will have to gain its vital competitive edge from culture-based creativity and innovation, argues Philippe Kern. Much like in Europe....and founder of KEA European affairs, a consultancy firm specialised in culture, creativity, media and sport. 'For the past five years, ...

37

Challenges of urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing and child rearing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was earned out to explore the challenges faced by urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing & child rearing. Arandom sample 200 working women from urban (100 & rural (100 area of (Chennai, Kundrathur, Gudiyatham were selected. A questionnaire was formulated by the investigator consisting of fifty questions with five domains, having 10 questions, in each domain, which was administered to the subjects and responses were collected. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis and the results were interpreted. The results revealed that both urban and rural pregnant working women experienced the discomforts of pregnancy alike. The support services available to urban pregnant women were less compared to the rural pregnant working women. Urban pregnant women enjoyed the privilege of availing 6 months maternity leave, whereas the rural working women, resorts to work after a month or 40 days after delivery. It is interesting to note that rural women get the opportunity to breast feed their babies till 2 or 2-1/2 years, than the urban working ladies. With regard to stress experienced at work accompanied by feeling of guilt in child rearing, rural women were at ease at their work place than the urban women, who work in shifts and are away from home, spending less time with the growing child.

Jahanaara Razick

2013-07-01

38

Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key tren...

Wang, Jing; Wang, Jin-zhao

2009-01-01

39

Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

2009-01-01

40

Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key trends that, taken together, we believe will shape the hospitality sector this year and for years to come include rapid growth in vacation ownership, integration & globalization, new management.
Key words: Issues; Challenges; Trends; Hospitality Industry

Jing WANG

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Dental laboratory technology in crisis: the challenges facing the industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Undoubtedly, the four challenges facing dental technology we have described in this article are not the only ones, but they are the major ones as identified by the participants in the Dental Technology Summit. The attendees conducted active discussion on all of these points and developed potential solutions. It was gratifying to see the various political and organizational factions agree on the challenges, and the participants felt at the conclusion of the conference that the described challenges are, in fact, those that need immediate attention. We will discuss suggested potential solutions in a column in the June issue of JADA. PMID:15966654

Christensen, Gordon J; Yancey, William

2005-05-01

42

Challenges and opportunities facing the international oil industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is divided into two sections. The first discusses the broad range of challenges facing the industry as it moves towards the 21st century. The author identifies four areas that present challenges: the quantity of oil; its quality; oil`s image; and the industry`s broader responsibilities. The second section looks at possible opportunities to meet these challenges: making the best use of the new world economic and political order; deriving the maximum benefit from a more unified international oil industry; and participating in environmental and other forms aimed at realigning the global energy mix.

NONE

1992-12-31

43

Problems Faced By Rural Women Entrepreneurs In Karaikal District Of Puducherry (ut  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women are an important human resource of the nation and every state should try to utilize them as mediators of economic growth and development. Encouragement for women entrepreneurship particularly in rural is one of the ways for that. But unfortunately it is seen that the traditional mind set of the society and the negligence of the state and respective authorities is important obstacles in the rural women entrepreneurship development in India. A major objective of this article is to identify the various problems faced by rural women entrepreneurship in the Karaikal district of Puducherry (UT and to present suggestion for the betterment of rural women entrepreneurs in the study area.

P. Madhan Mohan Gandhi

2013-12-01

44

The challenges faced by Portuguese-speaking universities in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A common challenge faced by members of the Association of Portuguese Language Universities (AULP) and by other higher education institutions around the world is providing access to up-to-date and relevant academic literature. In an age where more research is being published than ever before, institutions need to move with the times and recognise that we should change our approach to tertiary education. This report considers how a university based in a Portuguese speaking country can use e-lea...

Thompson, Stephen J.; Ferrao, Jorge

2012-01-01

45

European Food Regulation After Enlargement: Facing the challenges of diversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book presents a critical legal perspective on the current direction of EU food regulation. Analysing three regulatory mechanisms - mutual recognition, scientific risk regulation and standardisation - in the evolution of food legislation in the EU, the book shows the inadequacy of the current framework in facing the challenges of enlargement. Using the particular experience of a new member state, Poland, the book argues that enlarged Europe must not disregard diverse socio-economic implic...

Zurek, Karolina

2012-01-01

46

How Can Rural China Respond to the Challenges of Globalization?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization is an irreversible development and the main purpose of this paper is to rethink how Mainland China responds to the challenges of globalization in rural area. To achieve this aim, this study will be divided into three parts. First of all, it will examine the phenomenon of privatization and dumping in rural China as a result of globalization. It will then try to consider the feasible top-down administrative changes of Chinese government. The last part will explore the new modalities of political engineering and social transformation of the state-society relation resulted from the bottom-up resistance to globalization.

Chan Wing Wa Edwina

2008-01-01

47

Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya : Outstanding challenges and possible solutions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals participating in school computerization programs often have not carefully considered the contextual questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might there be better avenues for implementing access to the benefits of the digital age? These questions and the issue of school computerization are considered via results from a survey of thirtyseven rural Kenyan primary public schools. Results indicate that, while all schools had low ICT status making them primary targets for computerization, only eleven percent had at least one ICT compliant teacher, of which all were considered to require further training. In addition we found inadequate infrastructural preparedness - lack of access to electricity, internet; no classroom computer space, few desks, secure walls and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome many of the technical challenges found.

Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.

2012-01-01

48

Surveying Education : Facing the Challenges of the Future  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a relevant discipline to surveying. But it does imply that the focus of the surveying profession is changing from being very much related to doing measurements´to now being increasingly related to management of the measurement processes, the geospatial data, and the property and land-use regimes. In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.

Enemark, Stig

2009-01-01

49

Challenges faced by developing countries in nuclear power deployment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Analysis of future domestic electricity demand and supply conducted by official UAE entities has concluded that increasing demand for electricity is fast outstripping the growth in supply. Total electricity demand in the UAE is expected to rise from approximately 15,000 megawatts to 42,000 megawatts by 2020. Significant new generation capacity must be constructed and brought on-line. It was concluded that peaceful nuclear power-generation represents an environmentally promising and commercially competitive option which could make a significant contribution to the UAE's economy and future energy security. To make clear its intentions with regard to nuclear power, the Government of the UAE has prepared and formally endorsed its 'Policy on the Evaluation and Potential Implementation o Peaceful Nuclear Energy' as a reflection of its views on the potential establishment of a peaceful civilian nuclear energy program. The policy defines the framework under which the program will be developed and is based on principles of transparency, highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation , and working directly with the IAEA and responsible nations of expertise. Many challenges face developing countries embarking on the development of a civil nuclear energy program. Challenges include initial questions such as where and when a nation should start planning. Other challenges are related to the development of required infrastructure in legislation, regulatory, human resources, and institutional structure. Further challenges are faced at the time of transforming guidance and recommendations into an implementation plan and the execution of such plan in an effective manner. The UAE has addressed many of these challenges by conventional and sometimes innovative ways in developing the required infrastructure and moving into the implementation phase of the program. Starting from almost no nuclear energy infrastructure, these plans are being conducted today in the UAE with an expanding number of domestic and international stakeholders. (author)

50

Regulatory challenges faced first Indonesia NPPs by independent TSOs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)

51

Facing the challenges. New structures in the energy business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utility sector is facing big challenges over the short, mid and long term. All utilities have to meet three challenges, a so-called trilemma: They must optimise between security of supply, profitability and the environment while dealing with the liberalisation and the parallel integration of energy markets as well as the huge need for modernisation and investment in the asset base. The role of the utility sector in climate protection is evident. The same applies to the European-wide need for modernisation of grid and generation assets. The possible answer for integrated utilities could be a structural change with a turn to cross-regional focussing along the whole value chain. (orig.)

52

Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

Darryl Maybery

2010-11-01

53

Environmental Challenges in China: From Rural Villages to Big Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about the wonderful and fascinating country of China, and its environmental challenges that require engineering solutions, many in the form of increased energy efficiency, the incorporation of renewable energy, and new engineering developments for urban and rural areas. China is fast becoming an extremely influential factor in our world today, and will likely have a large role in shaping the decades ahead. China is the world's largest energy consumer and the largest producer of carbon dioxide emissions, leading engineers and scientists to be concerned about the role these emissions play in rural and urban public and environmental health, as well as in global climate change. Through exploring some sources of air pollution, appropriate housing for different climate zones, and the types of renewable energy, the lessons and activities of this unit present ways that engineers are helping people in China, using an approach to cleaner, smarter, healthier and more-efficient ways of living that apply to people wherever they live.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

54

Difficulties faced when conducting primary health care programs in rural areas.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This study revealed that approximately one 3rd of primary health care teams who work in the rural areas of Aseer region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia face significant difficulties that will affect the introducing of essential primary health care programs. A multi-sectoral integrated approach is mandatory to overcome these difficulties and introduce good quality care.

Yahia M. Al-Khaldi

2002-04-01

55

Challenges faced by Pakistani pharmaceutical industry: An intellectual capital perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intellectual capital is recognized as one of the most critical factors for the success of organizations in a knowledge-based economy. In a knowledge-based economy high tech organizations are facing tremendous challenges to gain competitive advantage. The main objective of this study is to introduce the concept and applications of intellectual capital in Pakistani pharmaceutical industry. Pakistani pharmaceutical industry is one of the major industries and it has 70% of share to fulfill the demand of finished pharmaceutical products. This industry also contributes in economic growth and development. This study is a preliminary in nature and it will also be a milestone for future research on this topic.

Khalique, Muhammad

2012-04-01

56

The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

Sébastien Peyrouse

2011-03-01

57

Challenges of establishing a nursing center in rural eastern Oregon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of the center, in fact its very existence, is the result of cooperation among many persons and agencies. Financial gifts, loans and grants have given the clinic a three-year time period to learn valuable lessons on how to organize for self-sufficiency. Staff have learned how to market to increase patient visit and have obtained Federal Rural Health Clinic status which will increase revenues substantially. Nurse Practitioners are learning appropriate visit coding and hold regular brainstorming meetings to develop creative business opportunities to assure financial stability. As a result of these experiences, the NP faculty have been able to design learning experiences for the nurse practitioner students which introduce them to entrepreneurial realities. Challenges are being met by the NPs in this rural practice which require vigor, creativity, and vigilance. Once the center reaches the level of self-sufficiency, it is the intent of the community to build a facility which can support a significant increase in patient load and still have room for other social and health services to operate within the facility. Bridges to the medical community are being strengthened through better communication and more community involvement. Educating the public and the medical community about the role of nurse practitioners and the broad base of nursing centers is a continual challenge for both faculty and students at the School of Nursing. PMID:10085859

Pike, M; Bowden, J; Peeples, S

1998-10-01

58

GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

Magdalana Bartosova

2013-09-01

59

Challenging the Inevitability of Rural Decline: Advancing the Policy of Place in Northern British Columbia  

Science.gov (United States)

In current policy discourse, rural decline is often described as an inevitable process associated with such broader structural trends as globalization and urbanization. The purpose of this paper is to challenge the supposed inevitability of rural decline in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. We argue that rural decline in northern BC has been…

Markey, Sean; Halseth, Greg; Manson, Don

2008-01-01

60

Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Study of Different Face Recognition Algorithms and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA or Principal Components Analysis (PCA is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face model developed by PCA technique. Principal Components Analysis method uses eigenface approach to describe face image variation. A face recognition technique that is robust to all situations is not available. Some techniques are better in case of illumination, some for pose problem and some for occlusion problem. This paper presents some algorithms for face recognition.

Uma Shankar Kurmi

2014-03-01

62

Face recognition's grand challenge : uncontrolled conditions under control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this research was to improve the face recognition performance for camera surveillance. Face recognition for camera surveillance is dicult, because of the low resolution of the face in the recording, the uncontrolled illumination conditions, pose variations, and occlusions of the face due to, for instance, caps and sun glasses. In this research, our focus has been on solving the problems that occur due to the low resolution and illumination variations. In order to solve these...

Boom, Bastiaan Johannes

2010-01-01

63

ASF: Facing the Challenges for 15 Years and Counting  

Science.gov (United States)

The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) of the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, has just celebrated its 15th year of experience in satellite remote sensing. ASF is involved in a wide range of activities - - from downlinking satellite data to developing data analysis tools, value-added products, and training for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) users. Satellite remote sensing data are acquired, processed, analyzed, and archived by ASF from several satellites; ASF has built expertise in handling and manipulating the data, SAR in particular. SAR is the only satellite imagery in the world today that can be acquired at any time of the day or night and during adverse weather conditions. It can be used to develop value-added products to aid in global climate change research. Examples include the SAR-derived coastal winds in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea; monitoring of the major ice shelves in the Arctic and Antarctic; and examining the impact on sea level from the Greenland ice sheets and glaciers. The challenges facing the use of remote-sensing data in climate change research can be divided into three major categories: economical, political, and technical. The expense of designing, building, and launching a satellite is substantial. The costs of the ground segment including data management can be substantial and should not be neglected. The US agency funding climate often has the research community pushing for new missions against declining federal budgets in direct competition with ongoing missions. On the political front, data policy, data ownership, and cost recovery are issues often perceived as insurmountable by the user community. The technical issues, while challenging, are often the easiest to solve. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, with the successful launch of the Advanced Land Observing System (ALOS), has embarked on a new way of handling the ground segment with the introduction of international data nodes. ASF will serve with NOAA as the Americas ALOS Data Node. With the success of the ALOS data node structure, it may well be that international cooperation will become the standard method for overcoming the challenges of global climate change research.

La Belle-Hamer, N.; Nicoll, J.; Atwood, D.; Arko, S.

2006-12-01

64

Agente comunitário de saúde: desafios do trabalho na zona rural / Community health agents: the challenges of working in the rural area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo de abordagem qualitativa objetivando conhecer os desafios do trabalho dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde na zona rural de Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar se estes ACS, no atendimento das demandas dos usuários rurais, além de suas atividades instituídas, buscam formas diferenciadas de prod [...] uzir a sua prática. A produção do material do estudo se deu através de entrevistas e da observação. A Análise Institucional norteou a análise deste estudo. O extenso território de abrangência das USF, a grande dispersão demográfica, os acessos distantes e difíceis aos domicílios, as formas de locomoção, os animais e as visitas domiciliares no período da colheita do café foram os principais desafios do cotidiano laboral do ACS rural. Diante destes desafios e na obrigação de cumprir as ações instituídas, os ACS rurais de Jerônimo Monteiro inovam e buscam formas diferenciadas de produzir a sua prática. Abstract in spanish Este estudio cualitativo busca identificar los retos de la labor de los trabajadores de salud comunitarios en las zonas rurales Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar si estos ACS, para satisfacer las demandas de los usuarios rurales y sus actividades instituyó, buscando diferentes maneras de producir [...] su práctica. La producción del material de estudio se recogió a través de entrevistas y observación. El Análisis Institucional guiado el análisis de este estudio. La amplia cobertura de la USF territorio, la gran dispersión demográfica, la distante y difícil de acceder a viviendas, formas de locomoción, los animales y las visitas domiciliarias durante la cosecha de café fueron los principales desafíos de la labor diaria de la campo ACS. Ante estos retos y la obligación de cumplir con las medidas impuestas, la ACS rural Jerônimo Monteiro innovar y buscar diferentes maneras de producir su práctica. Abstract in english The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify the challenges Community Health Workers (CHW) face in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro - ES and assess whether in the course of meeting the demands of rural health service users, CHWs seek different ways of carrying out their activities, over [...] and above institutionalized practice. The study material was collected through interviews and observation, following an Institutional Analysis perspective. The extension of the Family Health Unit (FHU), its large demographic dispersion, the fact that homes are distant and difficult to access, forms of locomotion, animals, and home visits during the coffee harvest constituted the main challenges of the daily work of CHWs in rural areas. Given these challenges and the need to fulfil with their assigned activities, CHWs working in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro innovate and seek different ways to develop their practice.

Renan Almeida, Baptistini; Tulio Alberto Martins de, Figueiredo.

2014-06-01

65

Agente comunitário de saúde: desafios do trabalho na zona rural / Community health agents: the challenges of working in the rural area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo de abordagem qualitativa objetivando conhecer os desafios do trabalho dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde na zona rural de Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar se estes ACS, no atendimento das demandas dos usuários rurais, além de suas atividades instituídas, buscam formas diferenciadas de prod [...] uzir a sua prática. A produção do material do estudo se deu através de entrevistas e da observação. A Análise Institucional norteou a análise deste estudo. O extenso território de abrangência das USF, a grande dispersão demográfica, os acessos distantes e difíceis aos domicílios, as formas de locomoção, os animais e as visitas domiciliares no período da colheita do café foram os principais desafios do cotidiano laboral do ACS rural. Diante destes desafios e na obrigação de cumprir as ações instituídas, os ACS rurais de Jerônimo Monteiro inovam e buscam formas diferenciadas de produzir a sua prática. Abstract in spanish Este estudio cualitativo busca identificar los retos de la labor de los trabajadores de salud comunitarios en las zonas rurales Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar si estos ACS, para satisfacer las demandas de los usuarios rurales y sus actividades instituyó, buscando diferentes maneras de producir [...] su práctica. La producción del material de estudio se recogió a través de entrevistas y observación. El Análisis Institucional guiado el análisis de este estudio. La amplia cobertura de la USF territorio, la gran dispersión demográfica, la distante y difícil de acceder a viviendas, formas de locomoción, los animales y las visitas domiciliarias durante la cosecha de café fueron los principales desafíos de la labor diaria de la campo ACS. Ante estos retos y la obligación de cumplir con las medidas impuestas, la ACS rural Jerônimo Monteiro innovar y buscar diferentes maneras de producir su práctica. Abstract in english The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify the challenges Community Health Workers (CHW) face in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro - ES and assess whether in the course of meeting the demands of rural health service users, CHWs seek different ways of carrying out their activities, over [...] and above institutionalized practice. The study material was collected through interviews and observation, following an Institutional Analysis perspective. The extension of the Family Health Unit (FHU), its large demographic dispersion, the fact that homes are distant and difficult to access, forms of locomotion, animals, and home visits during the coffee harvest constituted the main challenges of the daily work of CHWs in rural areas. Given these challenges and the need to fulfil with their assigned activities, CHWs working in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro innovate and seek different ways to develop their practice.

Renan Almeida, Baptistini; Tulio Alberto Martins de, Figueiredo.

66

On outsourcing and offshoring : Challenges facing management and engineering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the challenges engineering companies face when globalising the product development process through offshoring and outsourcing. Furthermore, to investigate the solutions the companies took to address these and the impact these had on the organisation, the engineering processes and the engineers. The research methodology framework developed by Blessing & Chakrabarti (2009) was employed in this thesis. This framework consists of four phases; (1) Clarifying the research area, (2) Illustrating the current situation and the desired situation, and the gap between these (the descriptive study), (3) Illustrating how to close this gap (the prescriptive study I) and (4) Validating these results (the prescriptive study II). Two descriptive studies were carried out as case studies with seven Danish multinational corporations. A total of 57 semi-structured interviews were conducted with top managers, daily managers and expatriates. In study 1 four areas were investigated: (1) the global product development process in the investigated case companies, (2) the challenges they experienced, (3) the solutions they implemented, and (4) the impact of these solutions. In the descriptive study 2 the use of expatriates were investigated in relation to their role in the organisation when globalising the product development process. Through investigating seven Danish multinationals it became clear that global product development had an impact on both management and engineering projects within the companies. The globalisation of the product development process started with manufacturing activities and later more high value adding activities like product design and R&D were added until some companies had globalised the whole product development process. The globalisation of the product development process seems to consist of four phases: 1. Motivation to move abroad. 2. Preparation phase. 3. Implementation phase. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. 4. Managing the relationship. ? Complications. ? Operational solutions to complications. Only top management was involved in these first two phases. In implementation and managing the new global projects and relationships, the daily managers and expatriates were responsible. In these phases the companies faced organisational problems and complications with the technical and managerial aspects of the engineering projects. The problems within management were similar to those previously reported in literature, mainly related to culture, knowledge sharing and coordination but also change management and organisational structures and processes. The problems within engineering were related to product and process modularity as well as the ii knowledge properties of the product. These problems resulted in delays, misunderstandings and quality issues. The novel aspect of the empirical investigation was the in-depth understanding of how these challenges were addressed in the company to try and maximise the perceived benefits from globalising the product development process. The daily managers implemented a series of initiatives to address these; mainly codification of knowledge, streamlined communication, training, bringing more tasks out to ensure contact between vital elements, make the product development process less complex, make the product less complex and detailed work descriptions. There was, in other words, a focus on control and minimizing risk. The result of these solutions impacted on the product, the product development process and the organisation. Some of these impacts were positive and some were negative. The positive impacts of the solutions were related to a better understanding of work processes and the supply chain whereas globalisation itself provided the possibility for an increased product portfolio and products which were better suited to local markets. The negative impacts were for example, that the product development process became slower and less integrated whereas the organisation became more focused on codified knowledge and writte

Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

2011-01-01

67

Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of the introduction of the nuclear power plants is under investigation taking into account various important changes due to new realities. Therefore, the safety and fuel cycle aspects, especially the long term program on the back-end fuel cycle, utilizing the existing facilities is also maintained. The construction of a laboratory for carrying out research and development on radio-ecology and marine environmental studies is being planned to support the radioactive waste management for the future nuclear power plants. Considering the need to maintain the energy related research and development and the need for clean water, the study on the utilization of a high power research reactor for generating process heat, hot vapour, and producing clean water as well as electricity is being carried out. The possibility of the construction of this research reactor is being studied. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to co-operate with other countries to support her nuclear research and development programme in various fields due to the fact that she has to overcome her chronic challenges that are perhaps also faced by other countries, i.e. to have a better understanding, perception, appreciation, and support from decision makers, social leaders, scholars, and the whole community nationally and internationally on the importance of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. (author)

68

Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students’ presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative content analysis was employed to examine the challenges faced by international undergraduate students in their socialisat...

Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh

2014-01-01

69

Challenges Facing a Deaf Family Member Concerning a Loved One’s Dying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals who are Deaf face challenges both similar and unique from those faced by hearing individuals when a family member is dying. This study was guided by the question “What are the challenges faced by a Deaf family member when a loved one is dying?” Methods - This qualitative study is guided by critical theory and an interpretive perspective. Robert, a college-educated older adult who has been Deaf from birth was interviewed in American Sign Language using a death history format. R...

Kehl, Karen A.; Gartner, Constance M.

2010-01-01

70

Dental laboratory technology in crisis, part II: Potential solutions to the challenges facing the industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dental laboratory industry appears to need immediate change to face many challenges, the four most significant of which are described in this column and in our column in May JADA. The first article on this subject described the current challenges facing the laboratory industry, as determined by conference attendees representing all aspects of the dental industry and related professions. This article reports on the suggestions made by attendees of this conference to solve the identified challenges. PMID:16022044

Christensen, Gordon J; Yancey, William

2005-06-01

71

A Feasible Rural Education System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

Lincy Meera Mathews

2012-01-01

72

A Feasible Rural Education System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES)” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

Lincy Meera Mathews; Dr Bandaru Rama Krishna Rao

2012-01-01

73

Taking on the Motivating Challenge: Rural High School Teachers' Perceptions and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivating high school students is a complex and challenging task. Add the resource shortfall and issues that result from the small size and remoteness of rural districts, and it may seem a nearly impossible undertaking. Motivation theory and research offer potential tools for teachers to use, but what are the needs of rural students, and what…

Hardre, Patricia L.

2008-01-01

74

Facing Today's Exploration Challenges in the Gulf of Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico today, their challenge is to "safely, responsibly and profitably find and produce reduced accumulations in increasingly hostile settings." The GoM serves as the sportsman's playground for a significant population located in and around its waters, and therefore, operating safely and responsibly are unassailable moral and operational standards by which we sustain future development, and maintain our license to operate. With that as a backdrop, today's challenges are driven by the nature of where the business is looking for new reserves in this extremely mature basin. These "Opportunities" encompass the following: 1) large, under-explored, sub-salt areas, characterized by poor seismic imaging, uncertain geologic regimes and potentially dangerous overpressures, 2) deep true-vertical-depth opportunities in older rocks that challenge our understanding of reservoir quality prediction and hydrocarbon systems, and are at the edge of today's drilling technologies, 3) access to sensitive areas including the eastern GoM-Florida shelf, coastal areas and international borders, 4) challenging "small accumulation" discoveries that cannot support expensive appraisal or development options, are remote to infrastructure or inefficiently produce the reservoir, and finally 5) new play development, which is challenged by long maturation cycles, small acreage blocks, intense international competition, and rapid lease rolls. This talk will consider what Shell and the Oil & Gas Industry does today to succeed in this arena, and specifically will show examples of the role of technology in meeting these challenges. I will briefly discuss likely future challenges and emerging and upcoming technologies that might help to meet these challenges.

Detomo, R.

2005-05-01

75

Challenges facing nursing education in Australia: two solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Australia, like many other countries is facing a shortage of qualified nurse educators and this has potential to impact enormously on the quality of nurses working in health services. Methods: This paper discusses the findings of action research recently completed within a Queensland University, involving a range of nurse educators. Results: It ...

Margaret Maura McAllister

2012-01-01

76

Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. PMID:24853629

Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

2014-09-01

77

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED BY ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY. SOME LESSONS FROM ROMANIA AND LITHUANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates the challenges and opportunities that entrepreneurial university faced in the present context, focusing on some characteristics of Romania and Lithuania. Emerged as a concept that is designated to enhance the university’s competitiv

Grundey Dainora

2009-05-01

78

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED BY ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY. SOME LESSONS FROM ROMANIA AND LITHUANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates the challenges and opportunities that entrepreneurial university faced in the present context, focusing on some characteristics of Romania and Lithuania. Emerged as a concept that is designated to enhance the university’s competitiv

Grundey Dainora; Zaharia Razvan

2009-01-01

79

Facing the Challenge in Evaluating Technology Use in Mobile Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of developing innovative mobile approaches to informal and formal learning is challenging, not least in needing to satisfy stakeholders with diverse interests in the technology, the pedagogy and the overall system. Some approaches to evaluation may focus on examining the nature and quality of learning that occurs, while other methods…

McAndrew, Patrick; Taylor, Josie; Clow, Doug

2010-01-01

80

Can-Do Spirit: Facing the Challenges of Budget Cuts  

Science.gov (United States)

In this era of higher student enrollment coupled with budget cuts, some school library professionals are considering retirement, while others are standing up to defend the profession they know has a strong positive impact on student learning. Many school librarians who weather difficulties do so by choosing to find energy in the challenges of…

Edwards, Buffy

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Mental health services in rural India: challenges and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mental health services in India are neglected area which needs immediate attention from the government, policymakers, and civil society organizations. Despite, National Mental Health Programme since 1982 and National Rural Health Mission, there has been a very little effort so far to provide mental health services in rural areas. With increase in population, changing life-style, unemployment, lack of social support and increasing insecurity, it is predicted that there would be a substantial i...

Anant Kumar

2011-01-01

82

Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support. PMID:25363105

Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

2014-06-01

83

Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

Viljoen, C. T.

1998-01-01

84

Problemy razvitija sel'skoj mestnosti Severo-Vostochnoj Germanii [Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

Levchenkov Andrei

2012-01-01

85

Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advan film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

86

Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ?wicked? problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students? attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ?wicked problems?.

Bland Tomkinson

2011-01-01

87

The Ideology of Consumption: The Challenges Facing a Consumerist Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advancements in modern capitalism, significant changes have been made in its goals and instruments. Past crises and the experiences acquired by economic institutions gave rise to the development of a special pattern of consumption rooted in the industrial revolution. In the post-modern period, we can observe the rise of a new ideology which is going through its completing process very quickly and a large mass is gaining a new perspective and prestige in consumerist societies. Understanding a consumerist society helps us to find out what instruments and fighting strategies the ideology of consumption uses and to what it causes damage. The role of the media is very important in this regard because they help to create false needs using virtual methods. On the other hand, due to the close relationship between ideology and politics, the consumerism crisis in society can be politically managed with success. In this regard, it is necessary for the political managers to understand different dimensions of the existing crisis and the challenges of the consumerist society and to find appropriate scientific and practical solutions to the problem. The main purpose of the present study is to shed some light on the challenges of a consumerist society by analyzing the features of the ideology of consumption and to focus on the influential role modern human beings play in this society as consumers and to evaluate the political dimensions of management of consumption pattern.

Ahmad Jansiz

2014-02-01

88

Imaging Challenges for the ITER Plasma Facing Components Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The ITER actively cooled tokamak is the next-generation fusion device which will allow studying the burning plasma during hundreds of seconds. ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) real-time protection will be mandatory to minimize operational risks as critical heat flux leading to degradation of PFCs and eventually to water leak. Thanks to Tore Supra expertise in actively cooled tokamak and long pulse operation, urgent research and development actions are presented and discussed addressing the feasibility and the performances of the PFCs protection function foreseen in ITER using a network of wide angle visible and IR imaging systems (VIS/IR WAVS). Three major steps addressing PFCs protection have been reached. First, the contribution of reflected light that could disturb the measurement of surface temperature has been taken into account through an industrial physic-based Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Secondly, an integrated software and hardware framework validated on existing fusion devices has been proposed. In addition, extended functionalities to analyze and understand in real-time the huge volume of images produced by the VIS/IR WAVS have also been developed. Finally prototypes of ITER first mirrors have been built and tested with successful first results. These results demonstrate that a more precise definition of the functional specifications of the entire imaging system can be obtained addressing both machine protection and plasma performance. (author)

89

Challenges facing NATO in the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the entire post Cold-War era numerous security challenges were pushing NATO in search of a new mission. Although redefined several times in the past, NATO's mission is still not steady and in its final shape. NATO's framework is not final yet for several reasons: lack of internal balance; NATO is moving towards rather 'loose' formula of Trans-Atlantic relations, through a 'Coalition of the Willing', in which countries accept the level and scope of military engagement in war missions (Afghanistan and Iraq according to their own interests. This certainly has influenced the character of NATO mission in the 21st Century. Therefore, NATO countries do not speak with 'one voice' and they do not equally participate in military missions. Instead, specific countries are engaged in specific issues, in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. NATO deepening and widening process is continuing in the 21st Century. .

Simi? Jasminka

2009-01-01

90

Facing the Adaptive Management Challenge: Insights from Transition Management  

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Full Text Available Recent research suggests that transitions toward adaptive water management regimes are needed because current water management regimes cannot adequately respond to uncertainty. The pivotal question is how to understand and manage such transitions. The literature on adaptive management addresses this question in part, but must now move beyond the descriptive toward a prescriptive management framework. Transition management theory could help in meeting this challenge. The similarity of the theoretical starting points yet different applications offer fertile conditions for cross-pollination. We investigate three central concepts from the transition management literature for their potential contribution to adaptive management. In particular, the notions of arenas and shadow networks merit further study through joint research.

Roel van Raak

2007-12-01

91

Challenges to ethics and professionalism facing the contemporary neurologist.  

Science.gov (United States)

Challenges to ethics and professionalism that can harm neurologists and their patients include the commercialization of medicine, poorly designed Medicare regulations, conflicts of interest, physician employment by hospitals, faulty measurement of medical quality care, electronic health records, electronic communications with patients, and the demotion of the role of physician beneficence. These threats can lead to inaccurate medical record-keeping, unnecessary medical care, a decline in the primacy of patients' interests, and damage to the sanctity of the patient-physician relationship. The increasing frequency of physician burnout can be attributed at least partially to unmitigated stresses on practicing physicians, particularly the growing time pressures for patient visits, the mounting daily requirements of documentation, and the increasing burden of time-consuming but unproductive tasks. Recommended correctives include reforming billing documentation regulations, improving electronic health records, designing proper quality indicators integrating physician wellness, and incorporating reasonable physician workflows in the design of accountable care organizations. PMID:25171931

Bernat, James L

2014-09-30

92

Constraints and Challenges Facing the Small Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macro- and micro-structural constraints, including those linked to and exacerbated by historical, natural and financial factors are some of the many stressors facing small-scale farmers in Limpopo Province. The challenge is to co-design ways to effectively manage these constraints with development actions. Small scale farmers in South Africa are still facing major challenges in the agricultural sector. In this paper some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers in the Limpopo Province have been identified. Some of the challenges found during the formal surveys and focus group meetings in the Tshakhuma, Rabali and Tshiombo areas were those linked to financial, assets, land ownership and biophysical factors. Specific constraints included: (a Market information and market access; (b Price of inputs, for example fertilizer and herbicides; (c Availability of inputs; (d Irrigation; (e Cost of transport, and Natural constraint.

Sylvester Mpandeli

2014-03-01

93

Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

94

Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."

Ken Thaxter

2010-01-01

95

U.S. drilling contractors could face stiff challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the outlook for most segments of the contract drilling business is now more optimistic than in the past decade, the increased activity has brought several problems: the availability of fully trained crews, the need for new capital, and the limited number of quality drillstrings. These problems will grow in importance if natural gas deliverability begins to decline visibly and once the scramble to correct this decline begins. As the drilling recovery unfolds, the most important lesson to remember, based on worldwide activity in the past year, is how rapidly conditions can change and how quickly excess capacity can turn into chronic shortages. The various segments of the world wide contract drilling industry's prospects have changed dramatically during the past 12 months, and oddly, some market sectors have improved while others have become worse. These quick changes highlight the unpredictable and volatile nature of the markets for contract drilling and other services needed to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The paper describes the business of well drilling onshore and offshore in the US, drilling activities in Canada, international markets, capacity, the supplies of natural gas, Gulf of Mexico activities, drill pipe shortages, manpower shortages, and challenges offshore

96

Prevention in healthcare: France and Quebec face similar challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SummaryMany issues challenge France and Quebec’s health systems. These issues, similar on both sides of the Atlantic, are characterized by transitions (demographical, epidemiological and technological, which will have an impact on care and prevention practices. Factors like ageing populations, improving quality of life or the deficit projected to certain health professions characterize these issues and put the health system to the test.In this context, acting upstream of health problems and investing efforts in prevention will become even more necessary. Health care professionals are directly involved to initiate or participate in prevention actions.In the context of these two systems transforming, four types of levers or incentives benefit from being put forward: 1 the governance lever, which assures global consistency between the actions by linking the care system’s specific interventions with those developed as part of a health strategy; 2 the professional lever, that targets the recognition of skills in terms of preventionpractices and leadership; 3 the organizational lever, which promotes the development of collective skills oriented towards prevention; 4 the financial lever, which forces to explore new methods of compensation and incentives supporting prevention.Prat Organ Soins 2009;40(4:275-282

Rochon J

2009-12-01

97

Facing the challenges in human resources for humanitarian health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human resources crisis in humanitarian health care parallels that seen in the broader area of health care. This crisis is exacerbated by the lack of resources in areas in which humanitarian action is needed--difficult environments that often are remote and insecure--and the requirement of specific skill sets is not routinely gained during traditional medical training. While there is ample data to suggest that health outcomes improve when worker density is increased, this remains an area of critical under-investment in humanitarian health care. In addition to under-investment, other factors limit the availability of human resources for health (HRH) in humanitarian work including: (1) over-reliance on degrees as surrogates for specific competencies; (2) under-development and under-utilization of national staff and beneficiaries as humanitarian health workers; (3) lack of standardized training modules to ensure adequate preparation for work in complex emergencies; (4) and the draining of limited available HRH from countries with low prevalence and high need to wealthier, developed nations also facing HRH shortages. A working group of humanitarian health experts from implementing agencies, United Nations agencies, private and governmental financiers, and members of academia gathered at Hanover, New Hampshire for a conference to discuss elements of the HRH problem in humanitarian health care and how to solve them. Several key elements of successful solutions were highlighted, including: (1) the need to develop a set of standards of what would constitute "adequate training" for humanitarian health work; (2) increasing the utilization and professional development of national staff; (3) "training with a purpose" specific to humanitarian health work (not simply relying on professional degrees as surrogates); (4) and developing specific health task-based competencies thereby increasing the pool of potential workers. Such steps would accomplish several key goals, such as: (1) more confidently ensuring that individuals hired for a given post would have the capacity to function at a commonly understood level of training; (2) greatly increasing the potential number and types of workers available for humanitarian work; (3) increasing the efficiency of human resources utilization in humanitarian projects; and (4) recognition that humanitarian work is a multi-disciplinary endeavor: these goals will contribute to ensuring that humanitarian health workers have a minimum training in broader humanitarian action, making them more effective team members in the field. Efforts were made to highlight some promising pilot programs for human resource development in humanitarian work, to identify a future vision for humanitarian health as a profession, and to develop a human resources strategy for achieving that vision. PMID:18087902

Mowafi, Hani; Nowak, Kristin; Hein, Karen

2007-01-01

98

Location-Based Intelligent Power Generation and Management Algorithms for Physically Challenging Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climatic change is one of the driving forcesbehind a new wave of energy management systems beingpracticed in different parts of the world today. Powergeneration and Management in disconnected rural villages ischallenging. The situation is even more challenging whenlandscape structures in such environment are irregular. Thispaper describes the implementation of two algorithms used inpower generation and management of rural energy supplies:Location-based Solar Energy Potential Prediction Algori...

Onabajo Olawale Olusegun; Chong Eng Tan

2013-01-01

99

Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical challenges. The study concluded that the women academic leaders are facing challenges between medium and high levels. In addition, there is no difference attributed to the job position in all domains, except for the physical challenges in favor for the principals. There were differences attributed to the academic qualification in all the domains in favor of those who hold BA degrees or higher, except for the organizational challenges domain. Finally, there were no differences related to the years of experience in all domains. The study recommended setting up developmental programs for the women’s academic leaders.

Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad Al-Jaradat

2014-04-01

100

Evaluation of the unique challenges facing family farms in South Africa / Jeanette Robberts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic landscape of most nations remains dominated by family businesses. Therefore, it is fitting that academia has begun to recognise the importance of family business studies. Family businesses are here to stay. Families who work together and live together face certain unique challenges that other families do not face. They have more opportunity for closeness and, at the same time, there is more opportunity for disagreement. Paradoxically, many of their outstanding strengths are also ...

Robberts, Jeannette

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.

Esther W. Dungumaro

2010-12-01

102

Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University  

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Full Text Available This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students’ presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative content analysis was employed to examine the challenges faced by international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse. The results reveal that the major difficulties international undergraduate students face in their oral academic discourse socialisation are related to linguistic knowledge, presentation skills and content-related difficulties. Linguistic difficulties constrain students to express complex concepts and ideas while engaged in oral presentations. Difficulties related to presentation skills are associated with how to prepare PowerPoint slides and how to organise the content of the presentations. This study also reveals that content difficulties may be related to the specific topics the students are asked to prepare presentations on. In this study I argue that understanding the challenges faced by undergraduate international students in their oral academic discourse socialisation can be one of the essential steps to help them overcome the challenges they face.

Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh

2014-01-01

103

Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Discussion Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors’ visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Conclusions Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators. We propose a more balanced way forward that can harness technology to foster mentorship across time and space to support the development of such skills and ideas among new investigators. PMID:24735677

2014-01-01

104

BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs) are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, o...

Arokiasamy, Lawrence; Ismail, Maimunah; Ahmad, Aminah; Othman, Jamilah

2009-01-01

105

Challenges facing women in business - an assessment of women in the South African petroleum industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report focuses on barriers women face within the petroleum industry, with regard to career advancement to senior positions. This research was conducted to identify the challenges that hinder such progression for women, taking key issues and themes raised by women currently at management levels. The primary outcomes were identifying key barriers and/or challenges that exist in the petroleum industry, and juxtaposing them to barriers identified in other industries at both the local and ...

Sephoti, Masego

2010-01-01

106

An Analysis of Business Challenges Faced by Foreign Multinationals Operating the Chinese Market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

China’s rapid economic growth has presented numerous opportunities and challenges for foreign firms there. Many large corporations have established a China centre to coordinate and control their operations in the country. As firms have increased their presence in China, their concerns are increasingly focused on implementing successful management practices and strategies. This article describes the challenges and difficulties that multinational companies faced in Chinese market. It analyses...

Jianlian Wu

2009-01-01

107

Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization Ahmed Al-Ajlouni Abstract This study aims at forming strategic response to assess the ability of Islamic banks in benefiting from the opportunities that may be provided by financial globalization and limits its threats, through assessing the capability of Islamic banks to meet the requirements and challenges of financial globalization, then suggests the suitable strategies that may be ...

Al Ajlouni, Ahmed

2004-01-01

108

Innovations to meet the challenges faced by EDF power plants in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current challenges facing all electricity suppliers essentially result from market requirements, market liberalisation and the requirements for environmental and climate protection. EDF is accordingly focussing its activities on innovative areas in terms of individual generation options - such as nuclear energy, fossil-fired power plants and hydroelectric power generation. The challenges require both technical and organisational solutions, as shown by the grid instability in western Europe on November 4th 2006, for example. (orig.)

109

Challenges that face Kiswahili Usage in ICT in NEPAD Secondary Schools in Kenya  

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Full Text Available Despite the various efforts to enable Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, users of Kiswahili language in ICT have continued to face various challenges. This paper discusses the various challenges that face Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software’s: Chavakali and Maranda Boy’s secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two theories: Use and Gratification theory and Symbolic Interaction theory. Data from the two schools are analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analysis. The Data for this work came from 120 students selected through random sampling and 8 teachers of Kiswahili selected through saturated sampling technique. From the analysis of the responses from the study it is evident that Kiswahili usage in ICT is faced by various challenges. Major challenges included negative attitude towards Kiswahili language, difficult technological terms, limited number of those using Kiswahili in ICT, wrong usage of Kiswahili in ICT, English preference and limited research work written in Kiswahili in the internet. Others were limited Kiswahili programs, being forced to use correct Kiswahili, and Kiswahili not being accepted by English programs. The study notes that these challenges need to be addressed. Therefore, recommendations are made on how to overcome the challenges.

Jagero Juliet Akinyi

2011-10-01

110

GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of expor...

Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

2013-01-01

111

Challenges of preparing allied health professionals for interdisciplinary practice in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meeting the health needs of individuals in rural communities involves addressing the challenges of complex multifaceted health problems, limited local health resources and services, isolation, and distance. Interdisciplinary collaboration can create solutions to health care problems that transcend conventional, discipline-specific methods, procedures, and techniques. This paper reports on the four-pronged approach of the Western Maryland Area Health Education Center used to prepare allied health students to be interdisciplinary team members in rural areas. It describes the development of four interdisciplinary instructional team member training venues (in-class instruction, Web-based modules, service-learning programs, and faculty development workshops) that integrate opportunities to develop and practice interdisciplinary health promotion skills in rural communities. Challenges to implementing the model are described, including developing faculty and student training participation, integrating training venues into existing programs at participating institutions, and designing a unified program evaluation. PMID:16252679

Fertman, Carl I; Dotson, Suzanna; Mazzocco, Gail O; Reitz, S Maggie

2005-01-01

112

Changes to Educational Policy and Management in Wales: Facing the "Cuts" and New Strategic Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Like the rest of the United Kingdom, Wales is facing a new challenge from the implementation of the Coalition Government's cuts. The Welsh Assembly Government [WAG, renamed Welsh Government (WG), in May 2011] budget was reduced by 1.8 billion British Pounds over the next four years. WAG responded by introducing its own revised austerity budget…

Reid, Ken

2011-01-01

113

Global Education: Instructional Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by In-Service Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the result of a study on teachers' reported use of instructional strategies in dealing with the U.S.-Iraq war, the resources that they use, the challenges that they face in implementing a globally oriented curriculum, and the sources of influence on their commitment to global education. A questionnaire was developed and used…

Eslami, Zohreh R.

2005-01-01

114

CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AT THE FACE OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Counter-urban movement is becoming more and more common phenomenon nowadays. Several countries have started loosing population; many other are facing tremendous loss of urban population. This paper has addressed the global and local challenges and issues of counter-urban movement and subsequently their response pattern at the same scale.

Islam, Kazi Saiful

2009-01-01

115

CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AT THE FACE OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION  

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Full Text Available Counter-urban movement is becoming more and more common phenomenon nowadays. Several countries have started loosing population; many other are facing tremendous loss of urban population. This paper has addressed the global and local challenges and issues of counter-urban movement and subsequently their response pattern at the same scale.

Kazi Saiful ISLAM

2009-05-01

116

Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

2006-01-01

117

BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS  

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Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.

Lawrence AROKIASAMY

2009-06-01

118

[Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II].  

Science.gov (United States)

This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded. PMID:17477170

Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira

2007-01-01

119

Implementing and Evaluating a Rural Community-Based Sexual Abstinence Program: Challenges and Solutions  

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Informing both program evaluation and practice research, this paper describes lessons learned during the planning, implementation, and pilot phases of an abstinence education program based in a rural community in a southern state in the USA. Although a number of challenges can emerge in successfully implementing and evaluating such a program in a…

Stauss, Kimberly; Boyas, Javier; Murphy-Erby, Yvette

2012-01-01

120

Acute Stroke Care at Rural Hospitals in Idaho: Challenges in Expediting Stroke Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Thrombolytics are currently the most effective treatment for stroke. However, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for initiation of thrombolytic therapy, most notably the 3-hour time limit from symptom onset, have proven challenging for many rural hospitals to achieve. Purpose: To provide a snapshot of…

Gebhardt, James G.; Norris, Thomas E.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Background and Challenges Faced by the Small Medium Enterprises. A Human Resource Development Perspective  

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Full Text Available In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME’s to future progress and grows. Therefore this article examines the background and challenges face by SME’s which play a vital role in the nation growth. The uniqueness of this paper is the emphasis on the human resource development perspective which is important for SME’s to progress and be competitive. Finally, this article maps out how future research can be more sensitive to how SME’s actually develop their own human resource development for future development.

Siti Sarah bt. Omar

2009-09-01

122

Unsafe CSOM still a challenge in rural areas  

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Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency of complications in unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department Otorhinolaryngology MMIMSR over the time duration of one year from March 2011 to April 2012. Fifty consecutive patients were selected whose clinical diagnosis was CSOM Attico-antral type.Conclusion: The rate of complications, especially more serious intracranial complications ,observed in developing countries is significantly more than those observed in studies from the developed countries. (12. In our study the frequency of extracranial complications excluding ossicular erosion is 22% and the frequency of intracranial complications is 4%. It was observed by Memon et al (13 in 2008 that in a series of 390 patients of chronic discharging ears that the rate of extracranial complications was 4.10% and rate of intracranial complications was 2.3%of the unsafe variety . The high frequency in our study may be explained by the fact that we are sitting in a rural background with very poor socio-economic background patients. Osama U et al (14 from Turkey reveals the rate of 1.35% of extracranial complications and 1.97% of intracranial complications in his study.

Ginni Datta

2014-04-01

123

Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application  

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Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

BUCIU Ioan

2014-05-01

124

The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs. Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. Methods The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.

Tim Scott J

2001-11-01

125

Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

2012-09-01

126

Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi-structured interviews with successful rural school administrators who serve campuses currently rated recognized or higher on the Texas Education Agency accountability system. The qualitative data analysis employed the coding of interviews and observations that allowed for and sought emergent themes and alternative rural perspectives.

Mann, Matthew James

127

Challenges Facing Sustainable Real Estate Marketing and Practice in Emerging Economy: Case Study of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtai...

Ayotunde Olawande Oni; Michael Adedayo Adebayo

2012-01-01

128

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and exp...

Connor, Julie O.; Martha Geiger

2009-01-01

129

Federal Government Funding Reforms: Issues and Challenges Facing Malaysian Public Universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government ob...

Abd. Rahman Ahmad; Alan Farley

2013-01-01

130

The role played by knowledge intensive business services in knowledge economy: New faces and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge is now perceived as the basic core of organizations, is becoming more a role in the recognition and capitalization of entrepreneurial opportunities. A growing number of researches have been show knowledge as basis for creation of new organizations. This study aims to evidence the role played by knowledge intensive businesses services (KIBS) today and to highlight their new faces and challenges for 21st century. More specifically, it highlights how several critical factors are involv...

Ferreira, Joa?o J.; Fernandes, Cristina I.

2011-01-01

131

Management Innovation in Brazilian Technology Companies: The Challenges Faced by Managers in the Practice of Innovation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overall objective of the study was to analyze the process of innovation management in technology companies in an Informatics Nucleus in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was qualitative and by the point of view of its nature was applied. It was also characterized as a descriptive research. In order to face challenges in the market, managers of companies from Informatics Nucleus must continually innovate in their processes by acquiring new organizational knowledge and showing an ent...

Luan Carlos Santos Silva; João Luiz Kovaleski; Silvia Gaia; Pedro Paulo Andrade Júnior

2012-01-01

132

THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working enviro...

Bhawna Pant; Pawan Parashar; Rahul Bansal; Sartaj Ahmad; Kapil Goel; Parul Goel

2012-01-01

133

Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important-rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities

134

Agriculture and rural development challenges in South-Eastern Europe and Turkey with the view to European Union integration process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the overall challenges for agriculture and rural development in South Eastern Europe (SEE) and Turkey, and to assess the concept, importance and policy measures tailored towards improving agricultural competitiveness, rural income diversification and environmental sustainability for overall rural development. The South East Europe region refers to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republi...

Davis, Junior

2007-01-01

135

Standing in the Gap: Research that Informs Strategies for Motivating and Retaining Rural High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural schools face the challenges of motivating and retaining students, often in the face of severe resource constraints. This paper synthesizes fifteen years of the author's rural research on secondary students' school-related motivation, distilling it into strategic principles for rural teachers and administrators. Effective motivational…

Hardre, Patricia L.

2012-01-01

136

Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

Shougang Wei

2011-03-01

137

Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The...

Jovanovic, Verka; Manic, Emilija

2012-01-01

138

The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs play an important role in the Kenyan Economy such as creating jobs however they face serious challenges such as lack of finance, discrimination, problems with the city council, multiple duties, poor access to justice, lack of education, among others. The study established that many stakeholders from both public and private sector are helping empower women entrepreneurs in Kenya: such as formation of women enterprise fund, establishing of women’s university of science and technology, formal and informal financial support, and donor initiatives among others have been put in place. The study recommends that women in entrepreneurs need to be accepted and supported financially, legally and more capacity building should be made available. Further research is recommended in this area.

Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

2012-03-01

139

Identity Issues and Challenges Faced by Russian Immigrants in New Zealand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the processes cosmopolitan societies undergo at the present moment, is the unprecedented increase in mass migration across cultures. What challenges are faced by both immigrants, who have to settle in novel socio-cultural environments, and by the host populations accepting them? The current qualitative study investigates the nature of identity construction among Russian-speaking immigrants in New Zealand, applying thematic analysis for the interpretation of the data collected via 23 in-depth interviews. Among the most common themes articulated by the participants was the feeling of identity loss. A taken-for-granted sense of identity, brought by the participants from their culture of origin, was not validated by their new society of residence, mostly due to the lack of appropriate cultural resources. The participants were faced with a challenge of re-constructing their old identity, or constructing a new one, utilising the available resources in the community around them. At the same time, there was a sub-group for whom this challenge brought the realisation that the nature of their identity is cosmopolitan, rather than located within any particular culture or geographical space.

Elena Maydell

2009-08-01

140

[Education as a means to face challenges posed to the elderly].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses education as a means to face challenges imposed to the elderly by age and by society, thus allowing them to acquire new knowledge and obtain new opportunities to achieve physical and emotional well-being. Educational programmes for the elderly try to address these needs by working with several pedagogical procedures in order to awaken critical awareness in the search for a successful ageing. By means of continued education, these programmes have allowed the elderly to get up-to-date, acquire knowledge and participate in cultural, social, political, and leisure activities. PMID:15535529

Unicovsky, Margarita Ana Rubin

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Management Innovation in Brazilian Technology Companies: The Challenges Faced by Managers in the Practice of Innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overall objective of the study was to analyze the process of innovation management in technology companies in an Informatics Nucleus in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was qualitative and by the point of view of its nature was applied. It was also characterized as a descriptive research. In order to face challenges in the market, managers of companies from Informatics Nucleus must continually innovate in their processes by acquiring new organizational knowledge and showing an entrepreneurial and innovative approach within the market, the execution and maintenance. Expansion of such actions has become fundamental to the further strengthening of technology companies in the State of Bahia.

Luan Carlos Santos Silva

2012-10-01

142

Exploring the Solutions for Overcoming Challenges Facing Peasant Farming System in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vast majority of Iranian farmers are still peasants who farm small plots of land, usually in marginalenvironments, utilizing traditional and subsistence methods. Despite of these characteristics, peasant-farmingsystem has vital role in Iranian agriculture sector. Solutions therefore must be found for empowering peasants todeal with such problems. The main purpose of this study was to identify solutions to deal with challenges facingpeasant farming system in Iran. Seventy one extension experts at headquarter level of Ministry of Agriculturewere selected using random sampling technique. Principal component analysis was applied as main statisticaltechnique to analyze the data. The findings revealed that five factors /components containing 38 variablesdetermined about 63 percent of variations in solutions to deal with challenges facing peasant farming system:extension solutions (19.03 % of variance, economic solutions (16.60% of variance, social solutions (10.234%of variance, political solutions (9.75% of variance and managerial solutions (7.69% of variance.

Seyed Abolhasan Sadati

2010-11-01

143

Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

2010-08-05

144

Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN  

CERN Document Server

An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

Schmidt, Reiner

1999-01-01

145

IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSHIP : Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Title: Immigrant Entrepreneurship - Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city. Purpose: The purpose is to investigate if the challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden differ between large and small cities. Method: Eight case studies, four in Jönköping and four in Stockholm of seven Asian and one Eastern Europe immigrant entrepreneurs in the restaurant business. Result...

Enow, Manyi

2010-01-01

146

School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural

Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

2014-01-01

147

The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural

Jimerson, Lorna

148

Quality of Life of Family Caregivers: Challenges Faced in Care of the Lung Cancer Patient  

Science.gov (United States)

Family caregivers (FCGs) of lung cancer patients face multiple challenges which impact their quality of life and well-being. Whether challenged physically, emotionally, socially or spiritually, distress in one area may compound challenges in other areas. In order to maintain function and health of FCGs as they provide valuable care for the health and well-being of the patient, attention must be given to the needs of FCGs for support and education. The purpose of this article is to describe the multifaceted challenges that FCGs of lung cancer patients experience using case studies selected from a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Program Project Grant “Palliative Care for Quality of Life and Symptom Concerns in Family Caregivers of Lung Cancer Patients.” The cases are discussed in terms of how the FCG’s quality of life is impacted by the caregiver role as well as how stressors in one or more domains of quality of life compound difficulties in coping with the demands of the role. The importance of the oncology nurse’s assessment of FCGs’ needs for support, education, and self-care through the lung cancer illness trajectory is discussed while presenting accessible community resources to meet those needs. PMID:23178364

Fujinami, Rebecca; Otis-Green, Shirley; Klein, Linda; Sidhu, Rupinder; Ferrell, Betty

2013-01-01

149

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other Language learners in the Western Cape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

Julie O'Connor

2009-05-01

150

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area w [...] ho were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

Julie, O' Connor; Martha, Geiger.

2009-05-01

151

Challenges Facing Sustainable Real Estate Marketing and Practice in Emerging Economy: Case Study of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtained through the primary source. Three thousand Estate Surveyors and Valuers across the country were surveyed using the internet-based SurveyMonkey software. The analysis indicated that “topping up”, “gazumping”, “gazundering”, low level of salaries and misdemeanors by the ever-increasing number of charlatans are major challenges facing the profession. In addition, majority of practitioners confessed to involvement in mounting of multiple signboards, collection of double fees, and soliciting for jobs with financial inducements. It was therefore recommended that prosecution of erring members, encouragement of non-professionals to attend formal training, and establishment of a college for such training, enforcement of professional standards, and adoption of proactive stance on laws that are inimical to sustainable real estate practice to ensure an enduring professional practice.

Ayotunde Olawande Oni

2012-01-01

152

Supply Chain Management and Challenges Facing the Food Industry Sector in Tanzania  

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Full Text Available The complexities of food supply chain impose enormous challenges to the processors. As compared to multinational food companies operating in the Tanzania, local firms have been performing inefficiently or going out of the business because they could hardly withstand the competition. SCM in the food industry sector was studied in a qualitative survey covered 23 food processing firms in Tanzania, with the purposes of identifying the existing supply chain operation, knowledge of SCM concept and challenges facing the sector. The findings of this study suggest that a lot of efforts need to be addressed to ensure that processors benefits from the concept of SCM. The understanding of SCM concept among the processors seems to be low, thus, hindering them from taping the opportunity offered by SCM strategies. The sector still faces a number of factors which impede the firms to grow fast and compete in the global market. Such factors include technical know-how, research and development, capital, managerial and physical infrastructures. Keywords Supply chain management; Inventory management; Customer perceived value; food industry.

Juma Makweba Ruteri

2009-11-01

153

Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area w [...] ho were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

Julie, O' Connor; Martha, Geiger.

154

Facing the challenges and building solutions in clinical psychiatric nursing in Iran: a qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychiatric nurses play an important role in the process of caring for mentally ill patients and are continually faced with the numerous challenges and complex issues related to this field. This study aimed to understand the perspectives of psychiatric nurses regarding the issues they face while providing care and examine the possible solutions for improvement of inpatient care in clinical settings. The study adopted a qualitative approach that utilized a content analysis of audio taped, semi-structured interviews that had been conducted with 24 nurses. Two main themes emerged from the data. The first, Challenges in Providing Care within Psychiatric Wards, had the following subthemes: Politics and Rules of Organization, Safety and Security Issues, Uncertainty about the Role, Lack of Trained Staff, and Sociocultural Issues. The second theme, Solutions for Improving Psychiatric Care, had the subthemes of Empowerment across four domains: Psychiatric Nurses, Mentally Ill Patients and their Families, The Psychiatric Mental Health System, and the Cultural Context. The results indicated that if nurses are expected to provide optimal nursing care within a psychiatric ward, then there is a need for a stable and responsible organizational structure, skilled psychiatric nurses, and community-based care along with an anti-stigma program. PMID:23017047

Zarea, Kourosh; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohammadpour, Ali

2012-10-01

155

Challenges on pedagogical mediation in face-to-face and at-a-distance teachers-education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our reflections on pedagogical mediation in face-to-face and at-a-distance teachers-education were here systematized, highlighting, initially, the educational literature and the direction of related public politicies. This principles shown that the insertion of technological-communicative means in the pedagogical mediation in teachers’ education can become a research field related to academic activities, such as the electronical monitoring of distance learning, and the elaboration and implementation of online didactic materials.

Elena Maria Mallmann

2010-07-01

156

Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

Inna Rivkin

2013-08-01

157

Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes00,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, a

158

Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

JOVANOVIC Verka

2012-09-01

159

The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal industry as a whole. Veterinary colleges have changed in response to the increased number of students who are interested in companion animal medicine. These changes have resulted in diminished large animal content in the professional curricula, attrition of the number of faculty teaching food animal medicine, increases in the number of faculty dedicated to small animal curriculum, and an overwhelming sense that the veterinary program is centered around training in preparation for a career in companion animal practice. A multitude of factors likely contribute to the continued gravitation of veterinary students toward small animal practice. Veterinary colleges must strive to maintain a balanced, open-minded view of the profession so that students have an equal opportunity to choose a path that best suits their desires and interests.

David E. Anderson

2010-10-01

160

Teaching in Rural Saskatchewan: First Year Teachers Identify Challenges and Make Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the existing research on rural education, rural teaching, and pre-service rural practicum placements, there is little research on the experiences of beginning teachers in rural schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saskatchewan beginning teachers who obtain employment in rural or northern schools. Eight…

Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; McIntyre, Laureen J.; Prytula, Michelle P.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners  

Science.gov (United States)

Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

2006-01-01

162

Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

came a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of communication. When designing 'Mail-Info' strategy, it was decided that senior experienced staff with both technical and communicational skills should run this service, together with junior apprentices, to guarantee prompt and efficient feedback in the present and in the future. This paper is focused on describing the experience acquired in implementing this tool and the lessons learned up to date. (authors)

163

Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The colloquium organised by the Association of Energy Economists dealing with the theme 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' takes place against a backdrop of ever-increasing initiatives in this field, for example at the World Energy Council or the International Energy Agency Faith in technical progress is widespread but should be supported by studies without any preconceived ideas. Research and development efforts must be fully supported, and in a climate of opening markets and liberalization the public authorities have a major role to pay. Historically, the markets have always been able to meet new needs thanks to technology, but the ambitious targets that the international community has set itself regarding the emission of greenhouse gases imply technical improvements and major investments. (authors)

164

Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

2010-01-01

165

Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

Borsato, J.

2010-09-15

166

Eight challenges faced by general practitioners caring for patients after an acute coronary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general practitioner is essential in the management of the patient who has recently been discharged from hospital following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), particularly as duration of hospital stay is shorter than in previous decades. GPs caring for patients after an ACS face numerous challenges. Often, the first of these is insufficient or delayed documentation from the discharging hospital, although electronic discharge summaries are alleviating this problem. Post-ACS patients often have comorbidities, and GPs play a key role in managing these. Patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy who need surgery, and post-ACS patients with atrial fibrillation, require particular care from GPs. Patients will often approach their GP for advice on the safety of other drugs, such as smoking cessation medication, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction. For patients complaining of persistent lethargy after an ACS, GPs must consider several differential diagnoses, including depression, hypotension, hypovolaemia, and side effects of ?-blockers. GPs play an important ongoing role in ensuring that target cholesterol levels are reached with statin therapy; this includes ensuring long-term adherence. They may also need to advise patients who want to stop statin therapy, usually due to perceived side effects. Many of these challenges can be met with improved and respectful communication between the hospital, the treating cardiologist and the GP. The patient needs to be closely involved in the decision-making process, particularly when balancing the risks of bleeding versus thrombosis. PMID:25390497

Vickery, Alistair; Thompson, Peter L

2014-11-17

167

Fuel cell advances and challenges faced in their implementation within the transportation industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of fuel cell technology for future transportation needs was discussed with reference to how the technology address environmental concerns such as atmospheric pollution and the issue of sustainable energy supplies in the transportation and other energy sectors. In 1997 Ballard Power Systems in alliance with Daimler Chrysler and Ford launched the first vehicular fuel cell initiative with the creation of the Ballard Automotive Inc., XCELLSIS Fuel Cell Engines Inc., and Ecostar Electric Drive Systems. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, unlike an internal combustion engine (ICE), converts energy stored in a chemical form without burning the fuel. In a fuel cell, hydrogen is used in an electrochemical process to generate electricity. Water and heat energy are by products of the reaction. The fundamental components of a PEM fuel cell are the membrane, the electrodes, the catalyst and the bipolar plates. Fuel cell engines have a wide range of applications in stationary and portable power markets. They have also been integrated into prototype passenger cars and buses. There are, however, several challenges that must still be faced before this technology can be commercialized. The biggest challenge is the need for the vehicle to be cost competitive. The success of the product will also depend on the development of new environmentally friendly fuels. The support of the private sector and governments crucial to provide the public with demonstration fleets of fuel cell vehicles. refs., tabs., figs.

Budd, G. [Ballard Automotive Inc., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

2000-07-01

168

Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

Morten Tryland

2013-03-01

169

STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

2010-12-01

170

In search of a face: childbearing decisions among couples living with HIV from rural southern Malawi.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), the issue of childbearing among people living with HIV is important. The little that is known originates from either studies conducted before widespread availability of highly active ART or has focused on women's or men's reproductive behaviours and experiences. This paper therefore explores factors that influence childbearing decisions of married couples living with HIV in patrilineal and matrilineal kinship communities in rural Malawi. Qualitative exploratory research was conducted in two rural districts in the southern part of Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews from 20 couples purposively sampled in matrilineal (Chiradzulu) and patrilineal (Chikhwawa) communities from July to December 2010 and was analysed using the content analysis method. The research findings show that couples living with HIV continue having children despite knowledge of the risk associated with childbearing and resistance from others in the community. Furthermore, the findings suggest that men are driven to have children by the need to cement relationships (patrilineal and matrilineal communities) and to secure position (matrilineal communities) while women do not want to have children because they are afraid of the risks and a heavier childcare burden. Finally, the findings suggest that outcomes of the decisions are dominated by husbands' desires in both communities. This paper therefore extends the discourse on the value of childbearing beyond the question of adulthood expressed in varying ways according to gender and kinship organisation. We therefore recommend that intervention strategies for both reproductive health and HIV and AIDS must focus on husbands and be sensitive to local culture. The antiretroviral clinics must integrate family planning services in their routine activities and condom use must be complemented with other effective family planning methods to prevent future pregnancies. PMID:25174512

Gombachika, Belinda C; Fjeld, Heidi

2014-01-01

171

EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION  

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Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU, income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

MADALINA NEACSU

2009-05-01

172

Nuclear medicine department activity facing major public health challenges in France; Activite des services de medecine nucleaire face aux grands enjeux de sante publique en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health.

Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, Unite de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Mundler, O. [CHU la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

2007-12-15

173

Challenges facing service enterprises in the global knowledge-based economy : lessons from the business services sector.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the challenges arising from the increasing level of international and knowledge-based activity for services sector enterprises. The paper begins with an overview of evidence concerning the internationalisation of services before proceeding to a detailed analysis of the internationalisation of firms in a number of knowledge intensive business service sectors. The paper concludes by summarising the challenges facing service enterprises in a global knowledge-based economy. Th...

Roberts, J.

2001-01-01

174

Finding the 'First Voice' in rural England: the challenges of safeguarding intangible heritage in a national museum  

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Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to explore the challenges of defining intangible heritage and ‘community’ in England. It uses as its case study the Museum of English Rural Life, University of Reading: an urban museum with a rural theme.The paper examines current theoretical discourse around the concept of the ‘first voice’ and debate about the role of museums in the preservation of intangible heritage. It then examines the relevance of these concepts to the identification of ‘rural’ intangible heritage stake holders in England. In this way, it shows the potential for concepts of intangible heritage to influence national museums.However, by applying theory and practice which is designed to support work with well-defined ‘originating communities’ to a national museum, it also highlights the challenges of initiating community engagement in a multicultural society.

Rhianedd Smith

2009-01-01

175

Evidence on Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Informal Sector Micro-Enterprises in Nairobi and Their Relationship with Strategic Choice  

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Full Text Available The study sought to determine the challenges faced by Informal Sector Micro-Enterprises in the manufacturing sector as well as establish what influences, if any, they have on their strategic choice. Porter's competitive business strategy model formed the theoretical framework for strategic choice. A total of 135 enterprises were sampled from six regions in Nairobi, Kenya. From the study, 30 main challenges were identified and ranked. The top three challenges for the sector were Competition, High Cost of Production and Lack of Adequate Capital. A cross-reference with strategic choice found that, enterprises experiencing challenges of High Cost of Production, High Cost of Transport and High Cost of Capital were more likely to adopt focus low cost strategies within Porter's framework. Those experiencing Hard Bargaining Customers were more likely to adopt differentiation focus strategies, while enterprises adopting mixed strategies are more likely to face Consumer Purchasing Power, Dishonest Customers and Theft as their main challenges. The study therefore shows that there does exist a relationship between challenges faced by an informal sector micro-enterprises and their strategic choice.

Madara Ogot

2014-05-01

176

Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

177

Federal Government Funding Reforms: Issues and Challenges Facing Malaysian Public Universities  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government objectives for public universities in order for them to become more dynamic, competitive and productive. Public universities must follow these plans through closely coordinated actions aimed to achieve specific strategic outcomes in teaching and research. It is the most comprehensive plan launched to date, and intends to transform the Malaysian higher education system. It aims to help these institutions achieve world class standards and make Malaysia a hub for higher education in Southeast Asia. Indeed, the government has also introduced a system of categorisations of the Malaysian public universities including research university, comprehensive university, and focused university. These categories determine the area and level of fund allocation according to specialisation of the university and the extent of its operations. Moreover, this paper will discuss the strategies needed for the focused universities in order to enhance educational research and teaching to align with the Federal Government objectives.

Abd Rahman Ahmad

2013-01-01

178

QA/QC: challenges and pitfalls facing the microarray community and regulatory agencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The scientific community has been enthusiastic about DNA microarray technology for pharmacogenomic and toxicogenomic studies in the hope of advancing personalized medicine and drug development. The US Food and Drug Administration has been proactive in promoting the use of pharmacogenomic data in drug development and has issued a draft guidance for the pharmaceutical industry on data submissions. However, many challenges and pitfalls are facing the microarray community and regulatory agencies before microarray data can be reliably applied to support regulatory decision making. Four types of factors (i.e., technical, instrumental, computational and interpretative) affect the outcome of a microarray study, and a major concern about microarray studies has been the lack of reproducibility and accuracy. Intralaboratory data consistency is the foundation of reliable knowledge extraction and meaningful crosslaboratory or crossplatform comparisons; unfortunately, it has not been seriously evaluated and demonstrated in every study. Profound problems in data quality have been observed from analyzing published data sets, and many laboratories have been struggling with technical troubleshooting rather than generating reliable data of scientific significance. The microarray community and regulatory agencies must work together to establish a set of consensus quality assurance and quality control criteria for assessing and ensuring data quality, to identify critical factors affecting data quality, and to optimize and standardize microarray procedures so that biologic interpretation and decision-making are not based on unreliable data. These fundamental issues must be adequately addressed before microarray technology can be transformed from a research tool to clinical practices. PMID:15525219

Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Goodsaid, Federico; Frueh, Felix W; Fang, Hong; Han, Tao; Fuscoe, James C; Casciano, Daniel A

2004-11-01

179

A Reflective Perspective on the Challenges Facing Research-Led Teaching in the Performing and Creative Arts  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a reflective perspective on the role that research-led teaching plays in the development of future arts workers in higher education. It explores the challenges faced by lecturers developing curricula in the performing and creative arts and argues that the increasing focus on employability can conflict with universities'…

Walmsley, Ben

2013-01-01

180

Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Challenges faced in e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Namibia  

Science.gov (United States)

The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period. Storage also poses one of our main challenges. The institution lacks sufficient storage and at present some data are stored externally. Similarly, the back-up storage is limited and outdated, as in some instances storage tapes are used. The Ministry plans to acquire a new storage capacity to enable it to locally host all the data. Subsequently this new storage facility will include back-up storage hosted off-site. The acquisition is in progress and the implementation of the new system is envisaged within the near future. The Ministry is trying its utmost to upgrade its e-infrastructure to support the business of the organisation.

Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada

2014-05-01

182

Prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges faced by HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV-infected prisoners face an inordinate number of community re-entry challenges. In 2007, 102 HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia were surveyed anonymously within six months prior to release to assess the prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges. Staying out of prison (60.8%), remaining off drugs (39.2%), finding employment (35.3%) and obtaining HIV care (32.4%) were the re-entry challenges reported most frequently. Global stigma, negative self-image and public attitudes-re...

Choi, P.; Kavasery, R.; Desai, M. M.; Govindasamy, S.; Kamarulzaman, A.; Altice, F. L.

2010-01-01

183

"Pedogeriatrics": a pediatric nephrologist's outlook on common challenges facing pediatric and geriatric nephrologists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dramatic demographic changes longevity and medical progress helped create a new population made up of the survivors of previously fatal diseases. These trends pose new major social and economic challenges that should be accounted for in health policy making. This paper discusses the similarities between the specialties of pediatrics and geriatrics, especially in the realm of patient care. Children and the elderly share a limited autonomy and dependence on the human environment (i.e., willing and able caregiving persons) due to age or disease. The long-term care of dependent patients (DP) requires caregiving persons who share with dependent persons the risk of losing autonomy, facing burnout, family disruption, and interference with work and educational activities. Families with DPs may face potential losses of income because both patients and caregivers are partially or completely unable to work, the former for medical reasons and the latter due to the new demands on their time and energy. Additionally, new expenses have to be met because while direct medical expenses might be covered by insurance or the State, other expenses have to be financed by the family, such as co-payments for medicines, new water or electricity home installations, and transport and eventual hotel costs if they have to stay overnight near a hospital outside of their town. The main objectives of long-term care should be to maximize patients' independence and prevent their physical and psychological deterioration while minimizing the social, economic and personal costs to caregivers. To achieve these goals, one needs a holistic approach, a multidisciplinary professional team (doctors, nurses, social workers, nutritionists and psychologists) and auxiliary staff (secretaries, electricians, administrators, messengers, cleaning staff, doormen, nursing aids and coordinators of medical appointments and medical procedures). Optimal management of DPs on chronic treatments such as chronic dialysis requires adequate communication skills, respectful attitudes toward patients and caregivers and effective use of communication and information technologies. Auxiliary personnel require specific training to contribute effectively to the DP attention processes. This paper postulates that pediatric and geriatric teams and their patients would benefit from closer training and sharing of experiences and systems. PMID:19517264

Grünberg, Jose

2010-03-01

184

Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

2008-01-01

185

Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

Elias Kiarie Kagira

2012-05-01

186

Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors  

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Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Key words: ESL writing, academic writing, academic voice, disciplinary writing Con base en teorías críticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías más efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de género, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Palabras clave: escritura de inglés como segunda lengua, escritura académica, voz académica, escritura disciplinaria

Correa Doris

2010-05-01

187

THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING  

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Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

Kapil Goel

2012-03-01

188

Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers  

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Full Text Available Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about how they are managing their resources, how they are using new media, and how they envision their future. The results show that most media are struggling, but also find that local media are in a good position to make their new media content viable for their local audiences.

Michael R. Brown

2010-08-01

189

Challenges faced by the HIV health services planning council in Oakland, California, 1991-1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the findings of a case study of the health services planning council established in the Oakland, California, eligible metropolitan area (the Oakland EMA) under Title I of the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of 1990 (the CARE Act). We gathered primary data through observation of planning council meetings, examination of documentary evidence, and in-depth interviews with key participants. An important finding of this study was the inconsistency observed between the rational, linear planning model embedded in the CARE Act legislation and the politicized, emergent, and, at times, chaotic planning process actually observed in the Oakland EMA. The primary reasons for this inconsistency included confusion among council members about the planning council's responsibilities and authority, as well as its relationship with the local health department; limitations on administrative support at the local level; reluctance of program administrators at the federal level to provide advice concerning development of the council; allegations of conflict of interest among members of the council; pre-existing societal tensions and divisions; concerns about the representativeness of the council's membership; competition among providers of services for funding; conflicting demands for services by persons affected by HIV disease; disagreements between the council and providers of services over policies and procedures for administering the services contracts; and concerns about the council's involvement in the selection of specific agencies for funding, its lapses in compliance with rules of order, and its failure to accurately record minutes of all of its meetings. Despite the challenges faced by the Oakland planning council, it was able to meet its Title I obligations, which resulted in significant increases in the availability of medical and social services for persons affected by HIV disease. However, dealing with the confusion and conflicts described above consumed a considerable amount of the planning council's time and energy and eventually required a complete reorganization of the council to assure its stability and the legitimacy of the Title I program at the local level. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): health planning councils; health planning organizations; health care coalitions; organization and administration; organizational innovation; models, organizational. PMID:8874701

Kieler, B W; Rundall, T G; Saporta, I; Sussman, P C; Keilch, R; Warren, N; Black, S; Brinkley, B; Barney, L

1996-01-01

190

HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on nurses in their role as infant feeding counsellors in pMTCT programmes and the urgent need to provide the training and support structure necessary to promote professional confidence and skills. The organisation of counselling services must to a larger extent take into account the local realities in which nurses construct their role as counsellors to HIV-positive childbearing women.

Blystad Astrid

2007-07-01

191

An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study and the expected investment cost of these projects, and the environmental impacts of the renewable energy.

192

Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

Grinnell, Max

2012-03-02

193

Challenge of reducing perinatal mortality in rural Congo: findings of a prospective, population-based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each year, an estimated six million perinatal deaths occur worldwide, and 98% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. These estimates are based on surveys in both urban and rural areas, and they may underrepresent the problem in rural areas. This study was conducted to quantify perinatal mortality, to identify the associated risk factors, and to determine the most common causes of early neonatal death in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were ...

Matendo, R. M.; Engmann, C. M.; Ditekemena, J. D.; Gado, J.; Tshefu, A.; Mcclure, E. M.; Moore, J.; Boelaert, M.; Carlo, W. A.; Wright, L. L.; Bose, C. L.

2011-01-01

194

The value-added approach to business ethics : ethical reflections on the challenges facing international business in developing areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"This essay examines challenges facing international businesses in developing areas in relation to alternative views of development, business strategy, and ethics. It adopts an institutional view of development and favours asset development rather than cost minimization business strategies. The essay contrasts ethical strategies that primarily operate in keeping with benchmarks to those that seek to add value. Using a variety of examples, the essay makes a case for a value-added approach. The...

Bird, Frederick

2003-01-01

195

Study on China's Sustainable Development of Rural Micro-credit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural micro-credit, which has been passed for 15 years in our China, gained great social and economic benefits, while its sustainability is still facing the challenges. This passage reviews the development course of rural micro-credit, points out the problems that existed and puts forward the corresponding suggests.

Lixin Tang

2009-07-01

196

Study on China's Sustainable Development of Rural Micro-credit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural micro-credit, which has been passed for 15 years in our China, gained great social and economic benefits, while its sustainability is still facing the challenges. This passage reviews the development course of rural micro-credit, points out the problems that existed and puts forward the corresponding suggests.

Lixin Tang

2009-01-01

197

Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

Janusz Mindykowski

2013-12-01

198

The Social Ecological Challenges of Rural Victim Advocacy: An Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This article re-centers an ecological model traditionally used to understand the experiences of interpersonal violence victims around the perceptions and experiences of victim advocates. We suggest that the development of such a model might shed light on rural-urban differences in the accessibility and availability of support services in rural

McGrath, Shelly A.; Johnson, Melencia; Miller, Michelle Hughes

2012-01-01

199

Convergence in France facing Big Data era and Exascale challenges for Climate Sciences  

Science.gov (United States)

The presentation will introduce a french national project : CONVERGENCE that has been funded for four years. This project will tackle big data and computational challenges faced by climate modeling community in HPC context. Model simulations are central to the study of complex mechanisms and feedbacks in the climate system and to provide estimates of future and past climate changes. Recent trends in climate modelling are to add more physical components in the modelled system, increasing the resolution of each individual component and the more systematic use of large suites of simulations to address many scientific questions. Climate simulations may therefore differ in their initial state, parameter values, representation of physical processes, spatial resolution, model complexity, and degree of realism or degree of idealisation. In addition, there is a strong need for evaluating, improving and monitoring the performance of climate models using a large ensemble of diagnostics and better integration of model outputs and observational data. High performance computing is currently reaching the exascale and has the potential to produce this exponential increase of size and numbers of simulations. However, post-processing, analysis, and exploration of the generated data have stalled and there is a strong need for new tools to cope with the growing size and complexity of the underlying simulations and datasets. Exascale simulations require new scalable software tools to generate, manage and mine those simulations ,and data to extract the relevant information and to take the correct decision. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a platform capable of running large ensembles of simulations with a suite of models, to handle the complex and voluminous datasets generated, to facilitate the evaluation and validation of the models and the use of higher resolution models. We propose to gather interdisciplinary skills to design, using a component-based approach, a specific programming environment for scalable scientific simulations and analytics, integrating new and efficient ways of deploying and analysing the applications on High Performance Computing (HPC) system. CONVERGENCE, gathering HPC and informatics expertise that cuts across the individual partners and the broader HPC community, will allow the national climate community to leverage information technology (IT) innovations to address its specific needs. Our methodology consists in developing an ensemble of generic elements needed to run the French climate models with different grids and different resolution, ensuring efficient and reliable execution of these models, managing large volume and number of data and allowing analysis of the results and precise evaluation of the models. These elements include data structure definition and input-output (IO), code coupling and interpolation, as well as runtime and pre/post-processing environments. A common data and metadata structure will allow transferring consistent information between the various elements. All these generic elements will be open source and publicly available. The IPSL-CM and CNRM-CM climate models will make use of these elements that will constitute a national platform for climate modelling. This platform will be used, in its entirety, to optimise and tune the next version of the IPSL-CM model and to develop a global coupled climate model with a regional grid refinement. It will also be used, at least partially, to run ensembles of the CNRM-CM model at relatively high resolution and to run a very-high resolution prototype of this model. The climate models we developed are already involved in many international projects. For instance we participate to the CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) project that is very demanding but has a high visibility: its results are widely used and are in particular synthesised in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment reports. The CONVERGENCE project will constitute an invaluable step for the French climate community to prepare and better c

Denvil, Sébastien; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Salas, David; Meurdesoif, Yann; Valcke, Sophie; Caubel, Arnaud; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Servonnat, Jérôme; Sénési, Stéphane; Derouillat, Julien; Voury, Pascal

2014-05-01

200

Challenges and recognizable patterns in the en-face OCT of the retina  

Science.gov (United States)

Using an advanced prototype of en-face OCT/cSLO instrument, an extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. Uniquely specific and reoccurring patterns could be characterized for macular hole ("Chrysanthemum flower"), CME ("Swiss cheese wheel"), Macular Pucker ("Star"), CSR ("Target") and RPE Detachment ("Ring of Light"). Other entities such as polypoidal choroidopathy and diabetic edema residues had easily recognizable features but were variable enough to defy specific descriptive comparison. To facilitate the interpretation of the en-face OCT images, a three dimensional interactive simulation was designed which allows the demonstration of characteristic features and artifacts encountered in the acquisition of transverse images.

Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Lydon, Chris; Dunne, Shane; Dobre, George M.; Cucu, Radu G.; Jackson, David A.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Rosenthal, Jeanne L.; Muldoon, Thomas; Walsh, Joseph B.; Orlock, Dennis A.; Fisher, Yale; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

RURAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ENTREPRENEURSHIP - CASE OF KRIŽEVCI PRI LJUTOMERU MUNICIPALITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this diploma thesis we initially discuss theories of entrepreneurship as an economic force in rural areas. In this context, we first present entrepreneurship in rural areas and challenges that entrepreneurs faced. We summarize the rural development program and give suggestions for promoting rural entrepreneurship. The chapter is concluded with lessons learned. We also present the municipality Križevci pri Ljutomeru according to existing statistics and the current state of entrepreneurship...

Paldauf, Patricija

2013-01-01

202

New challenges facing traditional nature reserves: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional conservation strategies can effectively preserve biodiversity within nature reserves, but may fail to mitigate the conflicts between rural development and wildlife conservation. This paper discusses the magnitude of the conflict and its development over time, focusing on elephant conservation and land resource management within and around nature reserves. We suggest that regulations alone can satisfy neither the demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services nor the demands to achieve human welfare. More innovative tools such as informed land-use planning and integrated conservation development projects are called for to reduce the agricultural interface with elephant range, and therefore to alleviate the damage caused by the conflict. PMID:21396011

Zhang, Li; Ma, Lichao; Feng, Limin

2006-12-01

203

Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S. when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007, the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and elsewhere, practitioners in other sectors who collaborate with government communicators, and academics developing communication theory for the under-researched public sector.

Brooke Fisher Liu

2010-01-01

204

Subspace-based discrete transform encoded local binary patterns representations for robust periocular matching on NIST's face recognition grand challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we employ several subspace representations (principal component analysis, unsupervised discriminant projection, kernel class-dependence feature analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis) on our proposd discrete transform encoded local binary patterns (DT-LBP) to match periocular region on a large data set such as NIST's face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) ver2 database. We strictly follow FRGC Experiment 4 protocol, which involves 1-to-1 matching of 8014 uncontrolled probe periocular images to 16 028 controlled target periocular images (~128 million pairwise face match comparisons). The performance of the periocular region is compared with that of full face with different illumination preprocessing schemes. The verification results on periocular region show that subspace representation on DT-LBP outperforms LBP significantly and gains a giant leap from traditional subspace representation on raw pixel intensity. Additionally, our proposed approach using only the periocular region is almost as good as full face with only 2.5% reduction in verification rate at 0.1% false accept rate, yet we gain tolerance to expression, occlusion, and capability of matching partial faces in crowds. In addition, we have compared the best standalone DT-LBP descriptor with eight other state-of-the-art descriptors for facial recognition and achieved the best performance. The two general frameworks are our major contribution: 1) a general framework that employs various generative and discriminative subspace modeling techniques for DT-LBP representation and 2) a general framework that encodes discrete transforms with local binary patterns for the creation of robust descriptors. PMID:24951691

Juefei-Xu, Felix; Savvides, Marios

2014-08-01

205

fMRI in translation: the challenges facing real-world applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging has increased our understanding of human brain function tremendously and has become a standard tool in clinical and cognitive neuroscience research. We briefly review its methodological foundations and describe remaining challenges for translational research. The application of neuroimaging results to individual subjects, for example in predicting treatment response or determining the veracity of a statement, is limited by these challenges, in particular by the anatomical and statistical procedures commonly employed. We thus argue for sincere caution in the translation of functional neuroimaging to real-world applications.

StephanSchleim

2009-12-01

206

How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

Isola Ajiferuke

2011-01-01

207

Progress and challenges of the rural cooperative medical scheme in China / ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? / Progrès et défis du plan médical coopératif rural en Chine / ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? / ???????????????? / Avances y desafíos del sistema médico cooperativo rural en China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Situación Durante la transición de China hacia una economía de mercado en las décadas de 1980 y 1990, la población rural se enfrentó a importantes barreras para acceder a la atención sanitaria y tuvo que hacer frente a cargas financieras mayores que los residentes urbanos para pagar los ser [...] vicios de salud necesarios. Enfoque En 2003, China comenzó a poner en práctica un sistema médico cooperativo rural (RCMS, en sus siglas en inglés) a través, principalmente, de subsidios del gobierno. El esquema funciona a nivel de condado y ofrece un paquete modesto de beneficios. Marco regional A pesar del rápido crecimiento económico desde comienzos de la década de 1980, las disparidades en los ingresos han aumentado en China, en particular entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas. En respuesta, el gobierno ha puesto un mayor énfasis en el desarrollo social, incluido el desarrollo del sistema de salud. Ejemplos de ello son la priorización de un mejor acceso a los servicios sanitarios y la reducción de la carga de pago por los servicios necesarios. Cambios importantes Tras 10 años de implementación, el RCMS proporciona en la actualidad cobertura para toda la población rural y ha mejorado sustancialmente el acceso a la atención médica. A pesar de una reducción de los pagos directos del gasto total en salud, el pago por servicios necesarios sigue provocando dificultades financieras para muchos residentes rurales. Lecciones aprendidas En su primera década, el RCMS ha logrado avances por medio de la movilización política, los subsidios gubernamentales, la buena disposición del sistema de atención sanitaria y la disponibilidad de un sistema de supervisión y evaluación. Con objeto de seguir mejorando el RCMS, será necesario centrarse en reducir los costes, mejorar la calidad y lograr un sistema móvil. Abstract in english Problem During China’s transition to a market economy in the 1980s and 1990s, the rural population faced substantial barriers to accessing health care and encountered heavier financial burdens than urban residents in paying for necessary health services. Approach In 2003, China started to impleme [...] nt a rural cooperative medical scheme (RCMS), mainly through government subsidies. The scheme operates at the county level and offers a modest benefit package. Local setting In spite of rapid economic growth since the early 1980s, income disparities in China have increased, particularly between rural and urban populations. In response, the government has put greater emphasis on social development, including health system development. Examples are the prioritization of improved access to health services and the reduction of the burden of payment for necessary services. Relevant changes After 10 years of implementation, the RCMS now provides coverage to the entire rural population and has substantially improved access to health care. Yet despite a drop in out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure, paying for necessary services continues to cause financial hardship for many rural residents. Lessons learnt In its first decade, the RCMS made progress through political mobilization, government subsidies, the readiness of the health-care delivery system, and the availability of a monitoring and evaluation system. Further improving the RCMS will require a focus on cost containment, quality improvement and making the scheme portable.

Qingyue, Meng; Ke, Xu.

208

Progress and challenges of the rural cooperative medical scheme in China / ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? / Progrès et défis du plan médical coopératif rural en Chine / ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? / ???????????????? / Avances y desafíos del sistema médico cooperativo rural en China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Situación Durante la transición de China hacia una economía de mercado en las décadas de 1980 y 1990, la población rural se enfrentó a importantes barreras para acceder a la atención sanitaria y tuvo que hacer frente a cargas financieras mayores que los residentes urbanos para pagar los ser [...] vicios de salud necesarios. Enfoque En 2003, China comenzó a poner en práctica un sistema médico cooperativo rural (RCMS, en sus siglas en inglés) a través, principalmente, de subsidios del gobierno. El esquema funciona a nivel de condado y ofrece un paquete modesto de beneficios. Marco regional A pesar del rápido crecimiento económico desde comienzos de la década de 1980, las disparidades en los ingresos han aumentado en China, en particular entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas. En respuesta, el gobierno ha puesto un mayor énfasis en el desarrollo social, incluido el desarrollo del sistema de salud. Ejemplos de ello son la priorización de un mejor acceso a los servicios sanitarios y la reducción de la carga de pago por los servicios necesarios. Cambios importantes Tras 10 años de implementación, el RCMS proporciona en la actualidad cobertura para toda la población rural y ha mejorado sustancialmente el acceso a la atención médica. A pesar de una reducción de los pagos directos del gasto total en salud, el pago por servicios necesarios sigue provocando dificultades financieras para muchos residentes rurales. Lecciones aprendidas En su primera década, el RCMS ha logrado avances por medio de la movilización política, los subsidios gubernamentales, la buena disposición del sistema de atención sanitaria y la disponibilidad de un sistema de supervisión y evaluación. Con objeto de seguir mejorando el RCMS, será necesario centrarse en reducir los costes, mejorar la calidad y lograr un sistema móvil. Abstract in english Problem During China’s transition to a market economy in the 1980s and 1990s, the rural population faced substantial barriers to accessing health care and encountered heavier financial burdens than urban residents in paying for necessary health services. Approach In 2003, China started to impleme [...] nt a rural cooperative medical scheme (RCMS), mainly through government subsidies. The scheme operates at the county level and offers a modest benefit package. Local setting In spite of rapid economic growth since the early 1980s, income disparities in China have increased, particularly between rural and urban populations. In response, the government has put greater emphasis on social development, including health system development. Examples are the prioritization of improved access to health services and the reduction of the burden of payment for necessary services. Relevant changes After 10 years of implementation, the RCMS now provides coverage to the entire rural population and has substantially improved access to health care. Yet despite a drop in out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure, paying for necessary services continues to cause financial hardship for many rural residents. Lessons learnt In its first decade, the RCMS made progress through political mobilization, government subsidies, the readiness of the health-care delivery system, and the availability of a monitoring and evaluation system. Further improving the RCMS will require a focus on cost containment, quality improvement and making the scheme portable.

Qingyue, Meng; Ke, Xu.

2014-06-01

209

21st century challenges faced by nursing faculty in educating for compassionate practice: embodied interpretation of phenomenological data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing faculty are facing challenges in facilitating student learning of complex concepts such as compassionate practice. Compassion is a stated expectation of Registered Nurse (RN) and student nurse practice, and yet how it is enabled and learned within the challenging environments of university and health service provider organisations are not yet understood. There is currently an international concern that student nurses are not being adequately prepared for compassion to flourish and for compassionate practice to be sustained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate the experiences of nursing faculty in their preparation of student nurses for compassionate practice, an exploratory aesthetic phenomenological research study was undertaken using in depth interviews with five nurse teachers in the North of England. Findings from this study were analysed and presented using embodied interpretation, and indicate that nurse teachers recognise the importance of the professional ideal of compassionate practice alongside specific challenges this expectation presents. They have concerns about how the economically constrained and target driven practice reality faced by RNs promotes compassionate practice, and that students are left feeling vulnerable to dissonance between learned professional ideals and the RNs' practice reality they witness. Nurse teachers also experience dissonance within the university setting, between the pressures of managing large student groups and the time and opportunity required for small group discussion with students that enables compassion to develop in a meaningful and emotionally sustainable way. Teachers also express discomfort due to a perceived promotion of an 'unachievable utopia' within practice, identifying how the constraints within practice could be better managed to support professional ideals. The nurse teachers within this exploratory study identify the need for strong nurse leadership in practice to challenge constraints and realign the reality of practice with professional ideals, and the need to foster student resilience for maintaining the professional ideals of compassionate practice. This exploratory study promotes the use of embodied interpretation for shared understanding of phenomenological research findings. PMID:23725910

Curtis, Katherine

2013-07-01

210

Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

2008-01-01

211

Jobs, Jobs, Jobs: Challenges Community Colleges Face to Reach the Unemployed  

Science.gov (United States)

Unemployment rates continued to fall slowly as the economy gains strength following the longest recession in over half a century. This report addressed the challenges of the community colleges attempting to reach the unemployed and underemployed. Responses from a survey conducted by the Education Policy Center at the University of Alabama, were…

Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.

2011-01-01

212

Challenges Facing Community Colleges: Perceptions of Chief Academic Officers in Nine States  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent economic events and constantly-shifting priorities continue to challenge the traditional hallmarks of community colleges: responsiveness, adaptability, and flexibility. Institutional leaders are increasingly questioning whether the comprehensive community college model and, more importantly, open access, are still sustainable in today's…

Cejda, Brent D.; Leist, Jay

2006-01-01

213

Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0% were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%. Down’s syndrome (17.23% was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%. In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes were found in 29.31% children. For mentally challenged children better quality of life should be provided by disability limitation and suitable rehabilitation.

Dr. Nadeem Ahmad

2010-07-01

214

Women and land rights in rural Ethiopia :the case of Wolaita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis dealt with the land rights of women in rural areas of Wolaita Zone, southwestern Ethiopia by taking the case of rural women in Soddo Zuria District. Three questions were thus posed: How do the current modern rural land law and the Wolaita traditional/customary law ascertain the land rights of rural women in SZD? What kind of land rights do rural women enjoy in practice in SZD? What challenges are faced while implementing the land rights of rural women in the district? In order to ...

Qoricho, Yonas Tafesse

2011-01-01

215

Supporting people with AIDS and their carers in rural South Africa: possibilities and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under-served rural areas—home to over half of people in sub-Saharan Africa—bear a heavy HIV/AIDS burden. We present a case study of the existence and quality of support networks available to people with AIDS and their carers in a South African rural area. Drawing on 45 interviews and 13 focus groups, we identify key local HIV/AIDS-relevant actors and agencies in civil society, the public and the private sectors. The most effective support comes from families and neighbours, volunteer heal...

Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi; Maimane, Sbongile; Sibiya, Zweni

2008-01-01

216

Positioning Industrial Design Education within Higher Education: How to face increasingly challenging market forces?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.

André Liem

2014-05-01

217

Practical reality of media freedom: an examination of challenges facing the Namibian media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.
Namibia is vast but sparsely populated, with an estimated population of about 1.9 million which is expected to reach 2.3 million by 2025 and 3.75 million by 2050. It is bordered by Angola and Zambia (north, the Atlantic Ocean (west, South Africa (south and southeast and Botswana (east. Walvis Bay, which covers 434 square miles, is Namibia's main port for imports and exports.
Social challenges in Namibia range from development and health-related issues to the media which has been heavily controlled by government, as is the case elsewhere in Africa.

Fred J. Mwilima

2011-08-01

218

Nuclear power in times of change. Six challenges facing nuclear energy's development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six key challenges that will greatly influence the future of nuclear power are defined as follows: development of a new generation of nuclear power plants; clear global strategies for radioactive waste and spent fuel disposal; the sustainable energy development involving assessment of nuclear energy in relation to other energy options in terms of economic competitiveness, environmental considerations and energy needs of developing countries; international safety regime; preservation of nuclear expertise; and the outreach to civil society involving degree of public understanding of nuclear technologies and the ability to successfully engage civil society in a fair evaluation of the relative merits of these technologies. The paper emphasises the role of the IAEA concerning the mentioned challenges

219

Implementation of a Curriculum Management Tool: Challenges Faced by a Large Australian University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes how a large Australian university implemented a new curriculum management tool ? UNITS. UNITS is an online repository of unit guides and a curriculum mapping tool. We analyze the advantages of using a university-wide curriculum management tool and the change management processes used to develop the bespoke tool. Staff development in the use of the tool has led to more thoughtful use of learning and teaching activities and better linking of learning outcomes with assessment. To ensure a smooth transition, faculty were supported throughout the process of implementation. Drop-in clinics, video clips, discipline-specific implementation guides as well as a UNITS help page were provided. This paper contributes to the understanding of the challenges in setting up and implementing a large-scale curriculum management tool in a university. Challenges including increased workload, intellectual property concerns, impact on academic freedom and technological issues are discussed.

Jennifer Lai

2012-10-01

220

Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation. PMID:24691918

Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Challenges Faced by Ontology Matching Techniques: Case Study of the OAEI Datasets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to review some of the most successful recent techniques in ontology matching and to lay down pending challenges that need to be addressed in this area. Ontologies are essential for the realization of the semantic web, which in turn relies on the ability of systems to identify and exploit relationships that exist between and within ontologies. As ontologies can be used to represent different domains, there is a high need for efficient ontology matching techniques that ...

Yasser Chuttur, M.

2011-01-01

222

Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMin...

Shougang Wei; Lirong Ju; Man Li; Wei Wang,

2011-01-01

223

Facing the challenges of the One-Tablet-Per-Child policy in Thai primary school education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Thailand is currently distributing tablets to all first year primary (Prathom 1 school children across the country as part of the government’s “One Tablet Per Child” (OTPC project to improve education. Early indications suggest that there are many unexplored issues in designing and implementing tablet activities for such a large and varied group of students and so far there is a lack of evaluation on the effectiveness of the tablet activities. In this article, the authors propose four challenges for the improving Thailand’s OTPC project, consisting of: developing contextualised content, ensuring usability, providing teacher support, and assessing learning outcomes. A case study on developing science activities for first year primary school children on the OTPC devices is the basis for presenting possible solutions to the four challenges. In presenting a solution to the challenge of providing teacher support, an architecture is described for collecting data from student interactions with the tablet in order to analysis the current progress of students while in a live classroom setting. From tests in three local Thai schools, the authors evaluate the case study from both student and teacher perspectives. In concluding the paper, a framework for guiding mobile learning innovation is utilised to review the qualities and shortcomings of the case study.

Ratchada Viriyapong

2013-10-01

224

Program of the 1998 Manitoba mining and minerals convention : facing the challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference and exhibition focused on the important issues facing exploration and mining in Manitoba. A total of 30 papers were presented providing insight from industry, mining communities and Aboriginal leaders, government representatives, academia, as well as from mining, exploration and investment specialists. The six sessions of the conference dealt with (1) an overview of Manitoba`s mining industry, (2) exploration techniques, (3) doing business in Manitoba, (4) northern Superior symposium, (5) land as a precious commodity, and (6) Superior boundary zone symposium. A poster session within the Conference attracted 35 presentations, titles of which are included in the Program. At the time of publication 74 exhibitors have confirmed their attendance at the Trade Show. List of confirmed participants is included. trade show

NONE

1998-12-31

225

The challenges of meeting rural Bangladeshi women's needs in delivery care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite initiatives and interventions undertaken at national and international levels, maternal health is still neglected in Bangladesh, and the maternal mortality ratio remains one of the highest in the world. In order to improve rural women's access to maternity care, in 1996 the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) instituted services for birthing women in 21 health facilities in each Thana. This paper reports on research conducted three years later, based on interviews with women who gave birth in one BRAC Health Centre (BHC) and women who gave birth at home, interviews with staff of the BHC and observation of provider-patient relations. Acceptance of delivery in a health facility by rural women is still minimal. Most women only attended the BHC due to complications, yet the BHC was unable to handle most complications and referred women to the district hospital, where they received poor quality care. Cost, fear of hospitals and the stigma of an 'abnormal' birth were also important constraints. Female paramedics who attended normal deliveries were praised for being caring, but made women deliver lying down, did not always use aseptic procedures and were too busy to give information, making birth a passive experience. Recommendations to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care at the BHC and upgrade staff skills, introduce rural health insurance and others have already begun to be implemented. PMID:11765404

Afsana, K; Rashid, S F

2001-11-01

226

Facing the challenge of a changing system: training child welfare workers in a privatized environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The state of Kansas' implementation of a privatized child welfare system is arguably an ambitious shift in child welfare service delivery. In an attempt to drastically improve services to vulnerable families, privatization resulted in intended and unintended consequences for the child welfare workforce. Some of these consequences, including the influx of inexperienced new workers, high worker turnover, and managing relationships with multiple partners, are issues that affect training needs of child welfare professionals. The following paper offers one approach to addressing these needs as well as identifying the challenges involved in training in a privatized environment. PMID:12705471

Ortega, Debora M; Levy, Michelle M

2002-01-01

227

Crisis Management: Challenge or Opportunity for Public and Private Managers Face Economic Disaster  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The strategies adopted are based on a series of simplistic reasoning such as analogy, taking into account the ideas of experts, rigorous debate and experimentation. Napoleon Bonaparte said that "there is nothing more important and more valuable than being able to make decisions." Business leaders today must deal with an avalanche of ambiguity, it must decide on the future of the company. I intend to expose some successful methods by which top managers were able to transform into opportunities, challenges of economic crisis.

Lucean MIHALCEA

2012-11-01

228

Challenges faced by genetics service providers' practicing in a culturally and linguistically diverse population: an Australian experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the perceived challenges facing clinical genetics practitioners in multicultural Australia. Focus groups conducted with 53 practitioners explored: 1) participants' experiences and definitions of cultural diversity; 2) their use of educational resources with clients; 3) their experiences with culturally diverse groups/individuals in practice; 4) their experiences working with interpreters; and 5) the impact culturally specific educational training and/or experiential learning had on their confidence or practice when dealing with culturally diverse clients. Participants viewed culture as extending beyond traditional definitions such as ethnicity, language and religion. Most respondents had experienced positive results working with health care interpreters, although at times, this was a challenge for the family as they preferred privacy and the use of family members as interpreters. Another commonly reported challenge was the limited availability of reliable, culturally appropriate translated resources. Some participants expressed concern that learning theories about specific cultures may lead to stereotypes and that opportunities for formal cultural competence training were limited. Recommendations for practice include the targeting of educational resources to meet the needs of a diverse community and placing cultural competence on the agenda for ongoing training and maintenance of professional standards for clinical genetics practitioners to avoid the current ad hoc approach. PMID:19697111

Saleh, Mona; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Meiser, Bettina; Muchamore, Ian

2009-10-01

229

Facing up to programmatic challenges created by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three decades after the emergence of HIV, we have made great strides in our response to the epidemic, from prevention of transmission to testing and treatment. However, it is still common in high-prevalence settings for people to not know their HIV status, and estimates are that globally, a mere 36% of those eligible for treatment are receiving it. On top of this, for every person with HIV entering treatment, two more are infected. The operational obstacles to overcoming the challenges and fully implementing proven strategies are numerous. The operational research and implementation sciences aim to provide a sound basis for how to maximize the use of limited resources by investigating the best models to deliver services and implement programmes in various settings and contexts. In this special issue, the Journal of the International AIDS Society intends to highlight some of the operational and programmatic challenges that are faced in sub-Saharan Africa, home to the largest population living with HIV. Our hope is that readers gain insight into some of the challenges associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and a changing environment in the region, and become familiar with some applications of operational research and implementation science in HIV healthcare settings. PMID:21967757

Heidari, Shirin; Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony

2011-01-01

230

Facing up to programmatic challenges created by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Three decades after the emergence of HIV, we have made great strides in our response to the epidemic, from prevention of transmission to testing and treatment. However, it is still common in high-prevalence settings for people to not know their HIV status, and estimates are that globally, a mere 36% of those eligible for treatment are receiving it. On top of this, for every person with HIV entering treatment, two more are infected. The operationa obstacles to overcoming the challenges and fully implementing proven strategies are numerous. The operational research and implementation sciences aim to provide a sound basis for how to maximize the use of limited resources by investigating the best models to deliver services and implement programmes in various settings and contexts. In this special issue, the Journal of the International AIDS Society intends to highlight some of the operational and programmatic challenges that are faced in sub-Saharan Africa, home to the largest population living with HIV. Our hope is that readers gain insight into some of the challenges associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and a changing environment in the region, and become familiar with some applications of operational research and implementation science in HIV healthcare settings.

Heidari Shirin

2011-07-01

231

SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

232

Review of the Rural Payments Agency  

The Rural Payments Agency is a complex organisation that is struggling to .... \\This failure of leadership and of management is evidenced by the fact that .... For \\RPA total headcount, we have taken the breakdown provided to us by RPA \\Finance, .... RPA faces a particularly challenging governance task due to the \\complexity ...

233

Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past two decades, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. More recently, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems - Facing Safety and Security Challenges, held in Moscow in 2006. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, because it brought together senior regulators of nuclear safety, radiation safety and security from around the world to discuss how to improve regulatory effectiveness with the objective of improving the protection of the public and the users of nuclear and radioactive material. The International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, from 23 to 27 April 2007. This conference, again, was the first of its kind, because it was the first to address technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), the role they play in supporting either the national regulatory bodies or the industry in making optimum safety decisions and the challenges they face in providing this support. This conference provided a forum for the TSOs to discuss these and other issues with the organizations to which they provide this support - that is, the regulators and the operators/industry - as well as with other stakeholders such as research organizations and public authoas research organizations and public authorities. This conference can also be considered to have a link to the Moscow conference. The Moscow conference concluded that effective regulation of nuclear safety is vital for the safe use of nuclear energy and associated technologies, both now and in the future, and is an essential prerequisite for establishing an effective Global Nuclear Safety Regime. The Moscow conference also highlighted the importance of continued and improved international cooperation in the area of nuclear safety. These conclusions apply equally to TSOs, since their expertise is an integral part of supporting the regulatory decision making process over the entire life cycle of facilities and activities for the continuous improvement of safety. On the basis of the presentations and discussions, the conference developed conclusions as well as recommendations for consideration by TSOs, regulatory authorities, national governments, relevant international and regional organizations, the nuclear industry and other stakeholders. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a summary, the opening speeches, the invited papers, and the conclusions and summary of the conference by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers and the presentations that were submitted with some of the invited papers

234

International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety. Contributed papers and presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past two decades, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. More recently, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems - Facing Safety and Security Challenges, held in Moscow in 2006. The Moscow conference was the first of its kind, because it brought together senior regulators of nuclear safety, radiation safety and security from around the world to discuss how to improve regulatory effectiveness with the objective of improving the protection of the public and the users of nuclear and radioactive material. The International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, from 23 to 27 April 2007. This conference, again, was the first of its kind, because it was the first to address technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), the role they play in supporting either the national regulatory bodies or the industry in making optimum safety decisions and the challenges they face in providing this support. This conference provided a forum for the TSOs to discuss these and other issues with the organizations to which they provide this support - that is, the regulators and the operators/industry - as well as with other stakeholders such as research organizations and public authoas research organizations and public authorities. This conference can also be considered to have a link to the Moscow conference. The Moscow conference concluded that effective regulation of nuclear safety is vital for the safe use of nuclear energy and associated technologies, both now and in the future, and is an essential prerequisite for establishing an effective Global Nuclear Safety Regime. The Moscow conference also highlighted the importance of continued and improved international cooperation in the area of nuclear safety. These conclusions apply equally to TSOs, since their expertise is an integral part of supporting the regulatory decision making process over the entire life cycle of facilities and activities for the continuous improvement of safety. On the basis of the presentations and discussions, the conference developed conclusions as well as recommendations for consideration by TSOs, regulatory authorities, national governments, relevant international and regional organizations, the nuclear industry and other stakeholders. This CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers and the presentations that were submitted with some of the invited papers. A record of the conference including a summary, the opening speeches, the invited papers, and the conclusions and summary of the conference by the President are available in the printed STI/PUB-1301

235

Perception Challenges Faced by Al-Qaeda on the Battlefield of Influence Warfare  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges

James J.F. Forest

2012-03-01

236

Apply Different Techniques to Face Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Challenges for Making Secure Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of VANET is discussed in detail.The different concepts used in VANET are explained with very good style. The applications of VANET are also discussed here. In the near future, most new vehicles will be equipped with short range radios capable of communicating with other vehicles or with highwayinfrastructure at distances of at least one kilometer. The radios will allow new applications that will revolutionize the driving experience, providing everything from instant, localized traffic updates to warning signals when the car ahead abruptly brakes. While resembling traditional sensor and ad hoc networks in some respects, vehicular networks pose a number of unique challenges. The differentchallenges of VANET are explained and explained in detail in this paper.

Parveen Kumar

2012-06-01

237

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

2010-11-01

238

The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures.

Fiore, J. J.; Murphie, W. E.; Meador, S. W.

2002-02-26

239

Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: challenges facing new technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi -slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

240

The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it i [...] s expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.

Kathrin, Knüppe.

 
 
 
 
241

The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures

242

Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: Challenges facing new technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi-slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

243

The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it i [...] s expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.

Kathrin, Knüppe.

2011-01-01

244

Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

Weingart, J.W.

1996-12-31

245

Facing tomorrow's challenges: U.S. Geological Survey science in the decade 2007-2017  

Science.gov (United States)

In order for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to respond to evolving national and global priorities, it must periodically reflect on, and optimize, its strategic directions. This report is the first comprehensive science strategy since the early 1990s to examine critically major USGS science goals and priorities. The development of this science strategy comes at a time of global trends and rapidly evolving societal needs that pose important natural-science challenges. The emergence of a global economy affects the demand for all resources. The last decade has witnessed the emergence of a new model for managing Federal lands-ecosystem-based management. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program predicts that the next few decades will see rapid changes in the Nation's and the Earth's environment. Finally, the natural environment continues to pose risks to society in the form of volcanoes, earthquakes, wildland fires, floods, droughts, invasive species, variable and changing climate, and natural and anthropogenic toxins, as well as animal-borne diseases that affect humans. The use of, and competition for, natural resources on the global scale, and natural threats to those resources, has the potential to impact the Nation's ability to sustain its economy, national security, quality of life, and natural environment. Responding to these national priorities and global trends requires a science strategy that not only builds on existing USGS strengths and partnerships but also demands the innovation made possible by integrating the full breadth and depth of USGS capabilities. The USGS chooses to go forward in the science directions proposed here because the societal issues addressed by these science directions represent major challenges for the Nation's future and for the stewards of Federal lands, both onshore and offshore. The six science directions proposed in this science strategy are listed as follows. The ecosystems strategy is listed first because it has a dual nature. It is itself an essential direction for the USGS to pursue to meet a pressing national and global need, but ecosystem-based approaches are also an underpinning of the other five directions, which all require ecosystem perspectives and tools for their execution. The remaining strategic directions are listed in alphabetical order. - Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change: Ensuring the Nation's Economic and Environmental Future - Climate Variability and Change: Clarifying the Record and Assessing Consequences

2007-01-01

246

Rural Poverty Rate Increases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from Current Population Surveys indicate that rural poverty increased from 1989 to 1993, one quarter of rural children live in poverty, the proportions of people in rural areas living alone and in single-parent families have increased, nonmetropolitan poverty remains highest in the South, and rural minorities continue to face especially…

Nord, Mark

1995-01-01

247

The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanDespite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

Christophe Bellmann

2012-03-01

248

Challenges Faced by Village Health Teams (VHTs in Amuru, Gulu and Pader Districts in Northern Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary health care provision through innovative community level interventions such as the Village Health Team (VHT concept in Uganda can be a rational way of achieving universal access to healthcare. This cross-sectional study interviewed 150 VHT members and 16 key informants in three districts in Northern Uganda to establish the roles of VHTs, the service gaps encountered and the measures in place to address these gaps. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Direct content analysis of themes of transcribed qualitative data was conducted manually for common codes. The majority of the respondents 64.29% (n = 72 reported to have been VHT volunteers for more than 5 years. Among the roles were community mobilization reported by 99.1% (n = 111 and home visiting of individuals reported by 97.3% (n = 109. Lack of transport, motivation, adequate skills and community appreciation with nearly no measures in place to counteract the challenges was reported by almost all respondents. Although the VHT concept can be a significant means of achieving universal access to primary health care, extensive community involvement and motivation of the volunteers are highly needed for a maximum benefit.

Geofrey Kimbugwe

2014-09-01

249

Public Service as an Employer of Choice: Study of Problems or Challenges Faced  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment Human Resource Management has become a valuable part of each organization especially for banks because HRM policies are directly linked with the overall performance. The main purpose of the paper is to study the recruitment and retention policies implied by the public sector of Pakistan.By deep analysis of problems and challenges study suggest the implementation of various policies to become an employer of choice. Previous studies on recruitment and retention have been performed mainly in western context. The distinction of this paper is that it studies recruitment and retention practices merely in public sector of Pakistan. The paper proposes a conceptual framework linking various psychological factors and strategic HRM perspectives, examining how various strategies adopted by firms help in image building and recruiting and retaining talented employees. Hypotheses were developed with the help of framework. The study was conducted in 20 branches of NBP in Faisalabad and a sample size of 100 was selected. Five point likert scales were used to get the responses. Mean and standard deviation were calculated to know the relationships o variables and at last bi variate test was applied to conclude.

Sumaira Aslam

2011-01-01

250

Challenges Faced by Ontology Matching Techniques: Case Study of the OAEI Datasets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review some of the most successful recent techniques in ontology matching and to lay down pending challenges that need to be addressed in this area. Ontologies are essential for the realization of the semantic web, which in turn relies on the ability of systems to identify and exploit relationships that exist between and within ontologies. As ontologies can be used to represent different domains, there is a high need for efficient ontology matching techniques that can allow information to be easily shared between different heterogeneous systems. In this paper, six systems that obtained overall good performance in the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI for the year 2008 and the year 2009 are analyzed based on their underlying techniques, datasets, and matching results. According to the analysis carried out, it is found that although some systems work well for dataset representing a given domain, the same system does not perform well for datasets representing other domains. To assist further research in this area, techniques that work well for particular domains are highlighted and areas for cross-domain ontology matching that still require attention are discussed with recommendations based on lessons learnt from the techniques described.

M. Yasser Chuttur

2011-03-01

251

Aging: the triumph of humanity-are we prepared to face the challenge?  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in medicine have increased the life expectancy resulting in an increase in the geriatric population all over the world, and their proportion will only continue to rise in the coming years. It is known that the elderly bear a significant burden of morbidity, which is why health systems globally spearheaded by the WHO are waking up to the need for better geriatric health services. This includes India, whose health system continues to grapple with the health challenges of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This article enumerates the various government policies and programs, constitutional and legal provisions available for the care of the elderly, and concludes that they are grossly inadequate to deal with the various physical, psychological, and emotional needs of the aging population. Mainstreaming of geriatric health to address the health needs of the elderly at all levels of health care, both in the public and the private sectors, giving due importance to multidimensional rehabilitative services and terminal care, involving NGOs and voluntary organizations, and stepping up social security in old age are the recommended measures for improving geriatric health in India. PMID:23229210

Singh, Zile

2012-01-01

252

Benefits and challenges of the use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long term retention of the radioactive tritium fuel in co-deposited carbon layers may be unacceptable for reasons of fuel supply and safety. Moreover, the erosion yield of low-Z materials will be far too high and their lifetime and their radiation hardness will not be sufficient in a future reactor. These serious concerns caused the reconsideration of high-Z based plasma facing components (PFCs), which show strongly reduced erosion yield especially for the high density, low temperature divertor operation necessary in an ITER-like device or a reactor. Concurrently the T retention is expected to be quite small. Operation with Mo and W is extensively explored in the high field tokamaks FT-U and Alcator C-mod and in the mid-sized devices TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. JT-60 U started investigations installing a divertor segment with W coatings and JET will have a W divertor during its ITER-like Wall project from 2010 on. Since the influxes of high-Z elements are very small and their allowed concentrations in the central plasma are very low (-4), new spectroscopic tools are being developed. Surface analysis techniques are used to support the spectroscopic erosion measurements and to investigate the H retention properties. The W-experiments in the divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade show that most of the relevant discharge scenarios are not hampered and the tungsten concentration remains below some 10-5. Comparison of limiter and divertor operation clearly demonstrates the advantage of the lower plasma temperature at the plasma wall interaction zone in the case of the divertor plasma. There are also regimes not suited for high-Z operation: discharges with very low central anomalous transport favour neoclassical accumulation, discharges with suppressed edge transport show largely increased impurity concentrations. However, the former can be cured by applying central heating, the latter can be overcome by externally controlling the frequency of the instabilities. Nevertheless, the experience with W PFCs obtained so far, leads to a fairly optimistic view for their use in a future reactor. This document is made of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)

253

Double Whammy? Rural Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance and the Transition to Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: All youth, especially those with serious emotional disturbances (SED), face challenges as they transition to adulthood. Little is known about rural youth at risk for transition problems. Purpose: To examine transition-age youth who use publicly funded services in rural and urban/suburban locations in Tennessee in order to describe youth…

Heflinger, Craig Anne; Hoffman, Cheri

2009-01-01

254

Institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage in lesser-developed countries: challenges facing the Lao PDR.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is now widespread acceptance of the universal coverage approach, presented in the 2010 World Health Report. There are more and more voices for the benefit of creating a single national risk pool. Now, a body of literature is emerging on institutional design and organizational practice for universal coverage, related to management of the three health-financing functions: collection, pooling and purchasing. While all countries can move towards universal coverage, lower-income countries face particular challenges, including scarce resources and limited capacity. Recently, the Lao PDR has been preparing options for moving to a single national health insurance scheme. The aim is to combine four different social health protection schemes into a national health insurance authority (NHIA) with a single national fund- and risk-pool. This paper investigates the main institutional and organizational challenges related to the creation of the NHIA. The paper uses a qualitative approach, drawing on the World Health Organization's institutional and Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening health financing (OASIS) conceptual framework for data analysis. Data were collected from a review of key health financing policy documents and from 17 semi-structured key informant interviews. Policy makers and advisors are confronting issues related to institutional arrangements, funding sources for the authority and government support for subsidies to the demand-side health financing schemes. Compulsory membership is proposed, but the means for covering the informal sector have not been resolved. While unification of existing schemes may be the basis for creating a single risk pool, challenges related to administrative capacity and cross-subsidies remain. The example of Lao PDR illustrates the need to include consideration of national context, the sequencing of reforms and the time-scale appropriate for achieving universal coverage. PMID:23433544

Ahmed, Shakil; Annear, Peter Leslie; Phonvisay, Bouaphat; Phommavong, Chansaly; Cruz, Valeria de Oliveira; Hammerich, Asmus; Jacobs, Bart

2013-11-01

255

Intellectual property rights for plant breeding and rural development: challenges for agriculture policymakers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although many developing countries have drafted legislation to address plant variety protection (PVP) requirements, relatively few have begun to implement PVP, and little guidance is available on appropriate strategies. This note looks at some of the key decisions facing agricultural policymakers in establishing a PVP regime, examines the implementation of PVP, assesses some of the impacts and limitations of PVP regimes, and identifies policy priorities that complement the establishment of IP...

Tripp, R.; Eaton, D. J. F.; Louwaars, N. P.

2006-01-01

256

Training needs of general library workers:Part I (challenges facing educators in South African institutions of higher learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent survey by Meyer (2009 on the need for the training of general library workers revealed that employers in library services are often not aware of the conditions affecting the ability of library and information science (LIS educators at South African tertiary institutions to deliver ‘work ready’ general workers to the LIS industry. Simultaneously, LIS educators are not aware of the extent to which changes to learning programmes can affect the appointment and promotions of library staff in practice. The objectives of the study were to determine the need for a formal learning programme for general library workers and how existing study material can be adapted to develop a formal learning programme suitable for general library workers countrywide. Data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire directed at supervisory staff of provincial and municipal libraries in South Africa, interviews with supervisors, and consultation of relevant internal documentation on job descriptions and legislation. The findings revealed that there is a definite need for training general library workers, whether formally or informally. This article, the first of two parts, considers the challenges facing LIS educators of which employers in the LIS industry are seldom aware of. The discussion is based on a literature study regarding training of general library workers in South Africa, as well as personal experience of the impact of various conditions on the relevant learning programmes of the Department of Information Science, University of South Africa before and after merging with the former Technikon SA. It considers the implementation of legislation and policies with regard to LIS training and how LIS educators, involved in open distance learning (ODL cope with the specific challenges for delivering ‘work ready’ general library workers. Part two will deal with aspects concerning the types of task general workers perform, and the specific type of training required to ensure that these workers contribute to efficient service delivery.

Hester W.J. Meyer

2010-01-01

257

Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 
of education.


Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

Quintero Corzo Josefina

2011-11-01

258

Challenges facing young astrophysicists  

CERN Document Server

In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shortage of child care options and design reasonable profession-wide parental leave policies. (4) Streamline the job application and hiring process. We summarize our reasons for bringing these areas to the attention of the committee, and we suggest several practical steps that can be taken to address them.

Zakamska, N L; Heng, K; Juric, M; Kocsis, B; Kuhlen, M; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J L; Pan, M; Rudd, D H; van de Ven, G; Zheng, Z

2009-01-01

259

Challenges Facing Guitar Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The guitar is an extremely versatile instrument. It can produce complex chords and arpeggiated textures as readily as single-note melodies. In the twentieth century alone, it has appeared in a wide range of genres; classical, jazz, blues, rock, and bossa nova compose a partial list. The guitar is also a difficult instrument. Inconsistencies across…

Harrison, Eli

2010-01-01

260

Challenges to Clinical Research in a Rural African Hospital; a Personal Perspective from Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is based on a talk given at the Japanese Society for Tropical medicine Annual Meeting in 2014. The severe febrile illness study was established in 2005. The aim of the project was to define the aetiology of febrile disease in children admitted to a hospital in Tanzania. Challenges arose in many areas: Study design: An initial plan to recruit only the severely ill was revised to enroll all febrile admissions leading to a more comprehensive dataset but much increased costs. Operationally a decision was made to set up a paediatric acute admissions unit (PAAU) in the hospital to facilitate recruitment and to provide appropriate initial care in line with perceived ethical obligations. This had knock on effects relating to the responsibilities that were taken on but also some unexpected positive outcomes. Study personnel: Local research staff were sometimes called upon to make up temporary shortfalls in the hospital staffing. Lack of staff made it impossible to recruit patients around the clock, seven days a week creating the challenge of ensuring representative sampling. Quality control: Studies based on clinical examination create unique quality control challenges—how to ensure that clinical staff are examining in a systematic and reproducible way. We designed a sub-study to both explore this and improve quality. Summary: Setting up clinical research projects is severely resource poor settings creates many challenges including those of an operational, technical and ethical nature. Whilst there are no ‘right answers’ an awareness of these problems can help overcome them. PMID:25425953

Nadjm, Behzad

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Desafios das Ciências Sociais no desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico contemporâneo Challenges facing Social Sciences in contemporary scientific and technological development  

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Full Text Available O artigo procura analisar o contexto amplo do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico que, ao mesmo tempo, torna possível e limita a produção do conhecimento em Ciências Sociais. Para isso, apresenta algumas idéias de estudos contemporâneos sobre as novas tendências do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico e aborda as políticas recentes de ciência e tecnologia, sob a ótica dessas idéias, enfatizando a transição para um modelo misto do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico. Em seguida, mostra resultados de pesquisa que indicam essas novas tendências e, finalmente, discute os desafios das Ciências Sociais diante desse quadro.The article seeks to analyze the broad context of scientific and technological development, which also allows for restraining knowledge production within Social Sciences. In order to do that, it presents some ideas of contemporary studies about new trends in scientific and technological development and approaches recent science and technology policies from the perspective of such ideas, focusing on the transition to a hybrid model of scientific and technological development. Afterwards, it shows research results that indicate those new trends and, finally, it discusses the challenges facing social sciences within this context.

Fernanda Sobral

2004-06-01

262

Desafios das Ciências Sociais no desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico contemporâneo / Challenges facing Social Sciences in contemporary scientific and technological development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo procura analisar o contexto amplo do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico que, ao mesmo tempo, torna possível e limita a produção do conhecimento em Ciências Sociais. Para isso, apresenta algumas idéias de estudos contemporâneos sobre as novas tendências do desenvolvimento científico e [...] tecnológico e aborda as políticas recentes de ciência e tecnologia, sob a ótica dessas idéias, enfatizando a transição para um modelo misto do desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico. Em seguida, mostra resultados de pesquisa que indicam essas novas tendências e, finalmente, discute os desafios das Ciências Sociais diante desse quadro. Abstract in english The article seeks to analyze the broad context of scientific and technological development, which also allows for restraining knowledge production within Social Sciences. In order to do that, it presents some ideas of contemporary studies about new trends in scientific and technological development [...] and approaches recent science and technology policies from the perspective of such ideas, focusing on the transition to a hybrid model of scientific and technological development. Afterwards, it shows research results that indicate those new trends and, finally, it discusses the challenges facing social sciences within this context.

Fernanda, Sobral.

263

Challenges faced by health workers in providing counselling services to HIV-positive children in Uganda: a descriptive study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children remains an uphill task for many health workers in HIV-endemic countries, including Uganda. We conducted a descriptive study to explore the challenges of providing HIV counselling and testing services to children in Uganda. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in the districts of Kampala and Kabarole in Uganda. The data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions with health workers who are involved in the care of HIV-positive children. Key informant interviews were conducted with the administrators of the 10 study healthcare institutions. Quantitative data were summarized using frequency tables, while qualitative data were analyzed using the content thematic approach. Results Counselling children was reported to be a difficult exercise due to some children being unable to express themselves, being dependent on adults for their care, being fearful, and requiring more time to open up during counselling. This was compounded by some caretakers' unwillingness and difficulty to disclose the HIV status of their children. Other issues about the caretakers were: lack of consistency in caretakers; old age; sickness; and poverty. Health workers mentioned the following as some of the challenges they face in the delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children: lack of counselling skills; failure to cope with the knowledge demand; difficulty to facilitate disclosure; heavy work load; and lack of other support services. Institutions were found to be constrained by limited space and lack of antiretrovirals for children. Conclusions The major challenges in the delivery of paediatric HIV services were related to the knowledge gap in paediatric HIV and the lack of counselling skills, as well as health system-related constraints. There is a need to train health workers in child-counselling skills, especially in the issues of disclosure, sexuality and sexual abuse, as well as in addressing fears related to death and an uncertain future, in order to improve paediatric HIV care. Provision of child-friendly services, guidelines and antiretroviral formulations for children may provide a window of hope to improve HIV counselling and testing services for children.

Rujumba Joseph

2010-03-01

264

Confronting the climate change challenge: discussing the role of rural India under cumulative emission budget approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO2) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.

265

The Challenges of Youth Empowerment through Access to Credit in the Rural Areas of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unemployment and poverty are endemic among Nigerian youth in spite of numerousapproaches to curtail the menace Access to credit is critical to enable the poor totransform their production systems and thus exit poverty. It is a well known fact that anefficient financial sector that responds to the needs of the private sector increasesinvestment, enhances economic growth, and creates job opportunities which is one of themajor challenges for developing economies. This paper examines the role of creditdeepening on youth empowerment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The approach of thepaper is qualitative and uses content analysis; literature was reviewed and thereafterconclusion was drawn based on the literature weight. It is however important to note thateconomic empowerment through accessibility to credit could be achieved if and only iffactors like collateral, interest rate, transaction cost and financial literacy, among othersthat pose challenges in accessing credit are remedied Specifically we recommend Indianmodel (Bharatia Yuva Shakti.

Haruna Mohammed Aliero

2013-10-01

266

CHALLENGES FACING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ ICT-BASED MARKET INFORMATION SERVICE (MIS) PROJECTS: THE CASE OF BROSDI AND WOUGNET IN UGANDA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by the smallholder rural farmer is envisaged to improve their welfare due to increased access to input and output markets. This study analyzes the constraints to the use of such tools for market linkage in Uganda and policy implications. The paper draws from a case study of two local organizations ICT-based projects namely, Busoga Rural Open Source Development Initiative (BROSDI), and Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET). The ...

Julius Juma Okello (Corresponding Author); Narathius Asingwire

2011-01-01

267

Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF, assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relatadas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1 incidência de pragas e doenças; (2 aquisição de mudas; (3 custo de embalagens; (4 necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5 custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo.In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF, Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1 incidence of pests and diseases; (2 strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3 packing costs; (4 need of intensive labor; and (5 high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

Gilmar P Henz

2010-09-01

268

Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

269

Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Secations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on the themes of the 2007 conference held in Aix-en-Provence. These topical issues were: the roles, functions and values that guide TSOs in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety; technical and scientific support for nuclear safety infrastructure development and capacity building; the emerging need for nuclear security technical and scientific support; and nuclear safety and nuclear security networking and centres of excellence. The President's report on the conference, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, is included in these proceedings and provides an overview of all the issues addressed. In the presentations and subsequent discussions, the conference highlighted positive outcomes, confronted areas of continuing concern and explored avenues to address those concerns. Among the more salient findings was the determination that a means for continuous dialogue among TSOs was necessary. The need to support the review process for a future IAEA safety publication on external expert support on safety issues was also identified. Finally, consideration of a TSO forum along the lines of the Regulatory Cooperation Forum to develop best practices and promote common values was recommended. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a foreword, a summary, the opening addresses and invited papers, and the conclusions, recommendations and a conference summary by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers, the list of participants and the presentations that were submitted with the invited papers.

270

Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment plants: challenges facing small water treatment plants in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered inc [...] luded ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (

MNB, Momba; CL, Obi; P, Thompson.

271

Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment plants: challenges facing small water treatment plants in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered inc [...] luded ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (

MNB, Momba; CL, Obi; P, Thompson.

2009-07-01

272

CHALLENGES FACING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ ICT-BASED MARKET INFORMATION SERVICE (MIS PROJECTS: THE CASE OF BROSDI AND WOUGNET IN UGANDA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs by the smallholder rural farmer is envisaged to improve their welfare due to increased access to input and output markets. This study analyzes the constraints to the use of such tools for market linkage in Uganda and policy implications. The paper draws from a case study of two local organizations ICT-based projects namely, Busoga Rural Open Source Development Initiative (BROSDI, and Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET. The constraints identified include lack or poor to ICT tools, poor ICT infrastructure, inadequate resources and high levels of poverty, low levels of literacy, inappropriate modes of information transfer, socio-cultural dynamics and sustainability issues. The paper argues that reaching the poor illiterate smallholder farmers requires redesigning the information content and delivery modes so that the information comes in audio form and in ICT tools that do not require literature. Also the government and private sector need to work hand in hand to ensure access and usability of ICT tools in rural areas by the former investing more in making electricity available in rural communities and the latter extending network boosters to remote rural areas

Julius Juma Okello (Corresponding Author

2011-08-01

273

Rural Hispanic populations at risk in developing diabetes: sociocultural and familial challenges in promoting a healthy diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type II diabetes affects Hispanic populations disproportionately and is the fifth leading cause of death for Hispanic people in the United States ( Smith & Barnett, 2005 ). Risk of diabetes is of great concern throughout the United States and is clearly of epidemic proportions for regions such as the Southwest and Texas where the primary minority populations are Mexican American. We conducted four focus groups with a total of 49 Hispanic participants (23 adults and 26 adolescents) from rural West Texas communities to gain insights about participants' eating habits, knowledge of diabetes, and potential barriers to preventive care. From the data, we identified a three-tiered predisposition or vulnerability to diabetes-heredity; preferences for unhealthy, culturally based food; and temptations from U.S. mainstream fast food culture. These vulnerabilities added to the sociocultural concerns that participants identified-importance of parental and familial modeling; challenges to healthy eating based on a culturally based diet and mainstream fast food culture; and a lack of support from the larger sociocultural networks such as teachers, community leaders, and the media. From these data, we have a better understanding of familial and sociocultural factors that need to be addressed in the development of preventive public awareness and educational plans. We outline implications for practitioners and educators from an integrated cultural biomedical approach. PMID:22716086

Heuman, Amy N; Scholl, Juliann C; Wilkinson, Kenton

2013-01-01

274

MAKING TIME FOR STORYTELLING; THE CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY BUILDING AND ACTIVISM IN A RURAL LOCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn to involvement in social action through group workshops without prior personal engagement. This paper considers which other participatory media techniques can be employed to encourage involvement in community digital storytelling workshops to inspire activism, and examines barriers to participation, with emphasis on the necessity of mandate, for project success. To help answer these issues, one particular workshop in a case study in North Yorkshire, UK will be used to identify the importance of place and incorporation of methods when undertaking community digital storytelling.

Sarah Copeland, Clodagh Miskelly

2010-06-01

275

Teacher Training and Transitions in Rural Indonesian Schools: A Case Study of Bogor, West Java  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…

Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida

2012-01-01

276

Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

NONE

2010-07-01

277

Leadership Strategies for Maintaining Success in a Rural School District  

Science.gov (United States)

Success in a PK-12 educational environment begins at the top with school leadership. Due to economic problems, poverty and added responsibilities, leaders in rural communities throughout the United States face sensitive and distinctive challenges. Based on research and years of administrative experience as school and school system leaders, the…

Freeman, Greta G.; Randolph, Ivan

2013-01-01

278

Challenges faced by women of reproductive age (15-49) in accessing family planning services in a post-conflict setting : case of northern Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Family planning service is a public health problem in Uganda faces numerous challenges; however, the experience of war had made it more challenging for women in Northern Uganda to use and access FP services. Civil unrest has caused a state of poverty, rape, health care disruption, high maternal death and child mortality in the region. Unmet need for family planning is high (12%) in the North, twice the national average of 23% (UDHS, 2006). Women in war-torn zones are susceptible t...

Nandudu, H.

2009-01-01

279

Changes in the health situation among the rural population and the challenges to the preventive services in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

80% of China's 1 billion population is rural. In response to the changing situation in rural health care work subsequent to profound economic rural structural reform, appropriate measures in Chinese rural health care work were taken. All levels of leaders in health care and other departments were instructed to continue the rural health care policy of "prevention first," and to expand the functions and tasks of prevention. Rural areas were to given top priority. To reform the current health organizational structure it was necessary to take into account several realities: The rural birth rate has dropped radically since liberation, as has the mortality rate. Life expectancy has increased, the combined effect being a population that is aging rapidly: people 65+ years old comprised 4.91% of the population in 1982. 32.2% of rural families are 1-child families, and the safeguarding of the health of children continues to be a high priority, as does the prevention of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and malignant tumors, which as cause of 54.91% of mortality, has replaced infectious diseases as the main health threat. Occupational disease have become alarmingly more common as the effort to expand rural industry advances. The 3-level health care network is to continue to be reinforced: county facllities for training and care of complicated diseases, integrating multiple functions that were previously separate, township rural health centers for the development of prevention teams, and village level doctors. The rural medical system must, among other things, transform the medical model to a "biological, psychological, and social" medical model, mobilize various social sectors, and attempt to collect funds from various sources to support health care work and the prevention of disease. PMID:3452391

Wang, T G; Chen, Y D; Yang, H; Peng, R C

1987-01-01

280

The prospects and challenges in rural marketing with references to two wheelers - A study of Karad Taluka of Satara District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India’s geo-demographic identity underscores as “India lives in her villages”. Even the economy is progressing day by day very fast but the division between rural and urban has no signs of receding. As for the Indian context where more than three forth of population lives in rural India & the national income generated in rural India is one third of its total. Now it becomes compulsory for researchers to study in-depth the needs and wants of ruler population therefore most of the industries are investing their money for rural marketing. The researcher has taken two wheeler industries for studying the rural marketing. This research paper focuses the objectives, review of literature, scope, research methodology, hypothesis testing, and suggestions.

H G Abhyankar

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

INNOVATION POLICY IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: PROSPECTS FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The future of the rural world has been the subject of much research in Europe and a large number of reports have been written on this subject. For the European Union, which aims to support rural development, it is essential to precisely define what a rural area is and even distinguish several different types of rural area. Rural areas are facing major challenges today which arise mainly from globalization, demographic change and the rural migration of young, well-trained people. Policies for rural areas aim to contribute to recognizing and making use of strengths and opportunities. Innovations have a direct influence on the level of welfare and satisfaction of each rural citizen and whole society. EU policies concerning innovations are aimed at transforming the European Union into a leading economy based on knowledge.

Liudmila TODOROVA

2013-12-01

282

Fragmentation and Unity of Rural Public Governance: A Case Study on Lin’an City in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The township, as the most basic political system in China, a head of which is connected to a city, and the another head connected with the countryside, is the foundation of national economic and social development. In the face of strong intervention of economic globalization, the gradually weakening of local township government, and the increasingly tense of national finance, agricultural and rural development policy, which is presently ubiquitous in the rural area of China, stressed from top to bottom, expert guidance, government-dominated promoting, will face the serious challenges of rural governance under the background of globalization. The rural governance is that the national institutions and other authorities based on the village government provides public service activities to the village society, in order to maintain rural order, promote rural development, according to the laws, regulations, customs and traditions. And rural governance is the process of multi subjects’ collaborative management of rural village. Rural governance quality reflects the ability of government’s rural social mobilization and management, and relates to the stable development and prosperity of rural society. The current problems of township governance, mainly are not the “township”problems of its own, but the “institutions and mechanisms of government”problem. This article takes the Lin’an city of Zhejiang province as the research object, through the development of villages and towns work rules in the process of tracking, puts forward a good example of rural governance in china.

Zhihong ZENG

2013-12-01

283

Rural nurses’ continuing education needs: A U.S. multi-site survey reveals challenges and opportunities  

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Full Text Available Background: Provision of relevant, evidence-based continuing education (CE is an integral part of maintaining a highly competent rural nursing workforce. Numerous tangible and intangible barriers exist to nurses’ participation in CE in rural settings. Major barriers to accessibility and participation in CE for rural nurses include: 1 Geographic isolation, 2 lack of perceived administrative, financial, and/or technological resources and support, 3 lack of time due to workload, inadequate staffing, and/or travel distance, 4 lack of relevance of continuing education topics, and 5 lack of a dedicated on-site nurse educator. Proactive development of academic-practice partnerships is important to support rural care providers regarding CE delivery. The purpose of this study was to assess perceptions of CE needs of nursing unit staff working in a group of health care facilities in a rural region of midwestern U.S. Methods: A cross-sectional CE needs assessment survey was conducted in winter of 2010 with rural health care providers (N=302/1107; response rate 27% working in rural healthcare facilities (N=40, including rural hospitals (n=10 and long-term care (LTC facilities (n=30. A well-validated 72-item Likert-type survey was distributed via a secure online university survey platform, and included assessment of 59 CE need areas. Internal consistency reliability was 0.87. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed a greater number of licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants working in rural LTC’s (27.2% and 62.5%, respectively compared to rural hospital setting (14% and 15%, respectively. There are a large number of associate degree-prepared nurses (63% working in the participating rural hospitals compared to LTC setting (8.4%. Respondents’ priority learning needs included: 1 Review aspects of medication administration/drug interactions; 2 improve skills in patient assessment (physical/mental; 3 increase knowledge of management of patients with comorbidities; 4 promotion of patient safety; 5 enhance communication skills/teamwork; 6 increase lifelong learning. Student’s t tests revealed LTC nursing unit staff reported significantly higher priority learning needs in “manage aggressive behavior (verbal/physical” (t = 2.044, df = 300,  ? = .003, “family participation in care” (t= 2.470, df= 300, ?= .036, and “maintain standards of care” (t= 2.880, df = 300, ?= .042, whilst acute care nursing staff reported a significantly higher priority learning need in “manage a crisis”  (t= 2.122, df = 300, ?= .050. Conclusions: Study results revealed key learning needs related to several aspects of patient care delivery for rural nursing unit staff who are primarily nursing assistants or nurses meeting minimum state educational requirements. Basic health- care workforce training does not typically emphasize continuous quality improvements, or how to recognize and develop an evidence-based practice at the entry level. The potential for nursing knowledge stagnation among entry level nursing unit staff in rural settings needs to be addressed to help break down isolation barriers impacting knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of health care providers practicing in rural health care facilities.

Roseanne Fairchild

2012-12-01

284

Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers. PMID:25208096

Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

2015-01-01

285

Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

2008-01-01

286

Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

287

"They Drag My Marks Down!"--Challenges Faced by Lecturers in the Allocation of Marks for Multicultural Group Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Our university hosts a diverse student cohort and, in certain discipline areas, international students and domestic students whose first language is not English outnumber their English-speaking peers. On the whole, group projects with these cohorts are challenging, and in particular, the allocation of marks is fraught with difficulty. Awarding the…

Strauss, Pat; U-Mackey, Alice; Crothers, Charles

2014-01-01

288

Challenges and Dilemmas Faced by Civil Society Leadership in Conflict and Post Conflict Situations: A Case Study of Civil Society Organization for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1986 violent conflict raged between the government of Uganda and the rebel Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda. The conflict which lasted for over 20 years caused untold suffering characterized by displacement, killings, and exile. After 2009, violence ceased and the conflict became more latent in nature, making it possible for post conflict reconstruction programs to commence in northern Uganda. The prolonged war called for interventions aimed at bringing sustainable peace to northern Uganda. Many civil society organizations such as Acholi Religious Leaders Peace Initiative, Gulu Support the Children Organization, World Vision International, Center for Conflict Resolution, Peoples Voice for Peace, Human Rights Focus, Gulu, Justice and Peace Commission Joint Forum for Peace etc, all sought to forge a way forward for achieving peace in order to alleviate the suffering of civilians in the north. By 2002 participating individual civil society organizations recognized that they could not make a significant impact in bringing lasting peace due to worsening insecurity. Consequently the leaders of the various Civil Society Organizations formed a Coalition of Civil Society Organizations for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU with major aim of finding a ‘just and lasting peace.’ Though now with stronger voice and impact in the peace building process, CSOPNU still face many challenges and dilemmas. Whereas there have been some achievements made by CSOPNU, the return of total peace is yet to be realized. Hence this study seeks to explore the challenges and dilemmas faced by CSOPNU leadership in the context of northern Uganda. The main Objective of the study is to identify the specific challenges and dilemmas faced by leaders of CSOPNU in the struggle to seek alternative methods of bringing about lasting peace in the conflict stricken northern Uganda. This research methodology employed in this study is a case study in combination with desktop research method so as to explore and understand deeply the problems and dilemmas faced by CSOPNU in trying to bring about peace in Northern Uganda. The case study will be used because of its uniqueness. It brings new knowledge about a particular phenomenon. However, findings from a case study cannot be generalized or applied other similar scenarios. The expected outcomes of the study were mainly identifying major bottlenecks to realization of lasting peace in northern Uganda. The study revealed that the leadership of the civil Society organizations (CSOPNU faced serious challenges and dilemmas in their pursuit of lasting peace in war ravaged northern Uganda. The most outstanding challenge was that CSOPNU frequently found itself at crossroads as both the rebels and government of Uganda perceived them as not worthy of trust. From the study, finding further revealed that corruption was yet another challenge and a serious cause of poverty and under development in Uganda. The study made conclusions and recommendations to the government of Uganda and Civil Societies Organizations working in northern Uganda with regard to achieving lasting peace.

Jendia Catherine

2014-05-01

289

Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Companies in Sustaining Conformance to ISO9001:2008 in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of a Textiles Manufacturing Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS has seen many companies willing to implement it and get certification so as to improve quality delivery. Due to the globalization phenomenon, certification to ISO9001 becomes a prerequisite. Many manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe have been certified in a quest to improve their quality delivery. The main certification body in Zimbabwe is the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ. This paper is based on a case study research for KT Textiles and it assesses the challenges that one certified manufacturing company is facing in a bid to sustain conformance to the ISO 9001: 2008QMS. Questionnaires and Interviews were the main research instruments used in the study. There was also reference to archival records and minutes of important meetings from the organization. Using stratified random sampling, questionnaires were administered to both managers and employees drawn from different departments. Employees were also interviewed to provide further information to compliment the questionnaire data. The data was analyzed using statistical graphs and charts. This research identified how the organization applies the 8 principles of ISO 9001:2008 QMS. The research findings revealed that the main challenges faced by the firm in maintaining the QMS are lack of top management involvement and support, lack of employee creativity and innovation, lack of focused internal audits, preventive maintenance schedule and data analysis lack priority.

Eng. William Msekiwa Goriwondo

2012-12-01

290

A prisoner's dilemma with asymmetrical payoffs: revealing the challenges faced by performing arts health and wellness practitioners.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a prisoner's dilemma, constructed narratives are used to demonstrate problems within individual rationality and decision-making. Performing artists can be seen as facing a type of prisoner's dilemma in their careers: they must practice repeated movements for long periods in order to improve, yet despite the short-term perception of gained artistic benefit, the long-term consequences may be playing-related musculoskeletal disorders and injury. To help avoid such an outcome, educators and health and wellness practitioners must function as negotiators, engaging in discussions of artistry as part of establishing credibility and encouraging behaviors that keep artists in efficient, healthy behaviors. By setting practice time limits that are considerate of the intensity of each specific task, performers can improve their performance on a daily basis and become more skilled at planning their future training. PMID:20795379

Shan, Gongbing; Visentin, Peter

2010-03-01

291

O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola / The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compar [...] tilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido. Abstract in english In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) [...] in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

Raquel Maria, Rigotto; Fernando Ferreira, Carneiro; Alice Maria Correia Pequeno, Marinho; Mayara Melo, Rocha; Marcelo José Monteiro, Ferreira; Vanira Matos, Pessoa; Ana Cláudia de Araújo, Teixeira; Maria de Lourdes Vicente da, Silva; Lara de Queiroz Viana, Braga; Maiana Maia, Teixeira.

292

O verde da economia no campo: desafios à pesquisa e às políticas públicas para a promoção da saúde no avanço da modernização agrícola / The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste ensaio, é feita a pergunta de quem deve, pode e quer promover a saúde no campo hoje. Foi eleito, prioritariamente, o campo da ciência e o das políticas públicas como foco de diálogo. Configurou-se oito lições aprendidas sob a perspectiva dos direitos à saúde a um ambiente saudável, aqui compar [...] tilhadas: (1) para além de um risco químico isolado, a relação entre agrotóxicos e saúde deve ser estudada no contexto da modernização agrícola conservadora; (2) é necessário e urgente que se proceda ao desvelamento dos agravos à saúde relacionados aos agrotóxicos; (3) o Estado tem tido significativa eficácia no apoio ao agronegócio e significativa ineficácia nas políticas sociais de garantia de direitos dos trabalhadores e da população; (4) setores da sociedade ligados às organizações do campo vêm desempenhando importante papel na política pública de combate aos agrotóxicos e de proteção da saúde; (5) é importante que os estudos contribuam para a desconstrução dos mitos que sustentam o modelo da Revolução Verde; (6) se está diante do desafio de contribuir na construção de um paradigma emergente de ciência, fundado no compromisso ético-político com os mais vulneráveis; (7) comunidades camponesas vêm construindo alternativas agroecológicas de vida no semiárido. Abstract in english In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) [...] in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

Raquel Maria, Rigotto; Fernando Ferreira, Carneiro; Alice Maria Correia Pequeno, Marinho; Mayara Melo, Rocha; Marcelo José Monteiro, Ferreira; Vanira Matos, Pessoa; Ana Cláudia de Araújo, Teixeira; Maria de Lourdes Vicente da, Silva; Lara de Queiroz Viana, Braga; Maiana Maia, Teixeira.

293

Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part II – Gdynia Maritime University of Experience the 21st Century Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. The maritime education challenges are focused on contribution of the University’s representatives in full implementation of the STCW 1978 as amended in 2010 convention, and on the flexible adoption of the academic specializations and programmes to the European and National Qualifications Frameworks, as well as to the needs of a global and local labour market. The research advancements in the maritime universities are basically oriented to marine transport problems, and their main focus is concentrated on the implementation of new technologies, effective and reliable technical and organizational solutions, friendly for users and environment. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. In this part, firstly the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as the one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. And next, the GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

Janusz Mindykowski

2013-12-01

294

Implementing Mobile Phone Solutions for Health in Resource Constrained Areas: Understanding the Opportunities and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents results from a study on mobile phone use to connect two rural hospitals in Malawi with community health workers (CHWs), the hospitals work with. Mobile phone use at the hospitals has helped reduce the need for face-to-face communication to permit patient information exchange, meetings and appointments scheduling, as well as work coordination. On the other hand mobile phone use has proved paradoxical as it has introduced users to challenges, like recharging of phone batteries, they did not anticipate. The paper highlights use context-centric and solution based opportunities and challenges associated with mobile phone use in rural settings.

Manda, Tiwonge Davis; Herstad, Jo

295

Decentralization and Participatory Rural Development: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the developing nations are still struggling for efficient use of their resources. In order to overcome physical and administrative constraints of the development, it is necessary to transfer the power from the central government to local authorities. Distribution of power from improves the management of resources and community participation which is considered key to sustainable development. Advocates of decentralization argue that decentralized government is source to improve community participation in rural development. Decentralized government is considered more responsive towards local needs and development of poor peoples. There are many obstacles to expand the citizen participation in rural areas. There are many approaches for participatory development but all have to face the same challenges. Current paper highlights the literature about Decentralization and participatory rural development. Concept and modalities of Decentralization, dimensions of participation, types of rural participation and obstacles to participation are also the part of this paper.

Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

2011-12-01

296

Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources in the country. The findings reveal that stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry are largely in favour of formulating and expanding policies that encourage use of solar and wind technologies, at the same time mitigating environmental degradation. The article summarises the findings and duly recommends policies than can be used in Zimbabwe to promote the sustainable use of renewable energy employing solar and wind among others for tourism development.

Marunda, E.

2013-06-01

297

The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

2008-07-01

298

van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those groundstate properties that can be described by density functional theory (DFT). One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B, in print] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromaticmolecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

Berland, Kristian [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Arter, Calvin A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Lee, Dr. Kyuho [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Schroder, Prof. Elsebeth [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Hyldgaard, Per [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

2014-01-01

299

Post-Socialist Fathers ‘At Home’ and ‘Away from Home’ in ‘Old Europe’: Facing the Challenge through Masculine Identity Talk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on those Estonian male migrants to ‘Old Europe’ who spend most of their time in the domestic realm as caring fathers and supportive spouses to their wives, who are meanwhile advancing their transnational careers. In this context, masculine identity talk can be understood in terms of strategies employed in response to the challenge to the men’s masculinity that this atypical life choice is likely to entail. Identity is viewed in this article as a processual phenomenon that is relentlessly, although not always deliberately, (reformulated in discourse, rather than determined by the assigned social roles. Analysis of in-depth interviews reveals that there are varied discourses in use that efficiently reconstruct the interviewees’ sense of personal significance. Interestingly, men predominantly combine ‘alternative’ discourses (‘caring father’, ‘supportive spouse’, ‘civilised adult’, which potentially undermine Estonian idealised masculinity, with the ‘conservative’ discourses (‘professional man’, the ‘well-off’, that reinforce the Estonian male norm. Men draw on a range of potentially oppositional and conflicting resources for constructing masculinity, without much reflexive selection from their part. Hence, the discourses men engage in position the men as much as the men appear to consciously position themselves in the discourses. This poststructuralist account of identity is located within a more structural historical context of transition and change in contemporary Europe.

Marion Pajumets

2012-06-01

300

van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

Berland, Kristian; Arter, Calvin A.; Cooper, Valentino R.; Lee, Kyuho; Lundqvist, Bengt I.; Schröder, Elsebeth; Thonhauser, T.; Hyldgaard, Per

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Energy in a dialog. The challenges facing Germany's power industry as a result of the energy turnaround  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenges posed by the energy turnaround in Germany to the power industry and the national economy after the Fukushima events were the topic of the ''Energy in a Dialog'' meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum in Berlin on December 14, 2011. Dr. Ralf Gueldner, President of the Deutsches Atomforum, opened the conference by drawing attention to the real purposes of the energy turnaround, namely to prevent severe climate changes and, thus, also carbon emissions. Both nationally in Germany and worldwide, nuclear power made major contributions to achieving these goals. Referring to developments in many neighboring countries, he underlined that opting out of the use of nuclear power in Germany was not tantamount to the end of nuclear power. Reality in energy policy had to be accepted, however, namely that nuclear power played, and would go on playing, an important role in Europe. Other contributions by Dr. Juergen Grossmann (Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG), Stefan Kohler (Chairman of the Board of Management of the German Energy Agency - dena), and Prof.Dr. Felix Muesgens (Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus, Chair of Power Economics) dealt with political and other boundary conditions required for the energy turnaround, and with the consequences and burdens on the power industry and the national economy. A final panel discussion chaired by Henning Krumrey (Wirtschaftswoche) was attended by F. Muesgens and Prof. Dr. Hans-Werner Sinn (President of the Munich-based Info Institute) and Prof. Dr. Michael Huether (German Business Institute). (orig.)

302

van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO{sub 3}, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

Berland, Kristian [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Arter, Calvin A.; Thonhauser, T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Cooper, Valentino R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States); Lee, Kyuho [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lundqvist, Bengt I. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

2014-05-14

303

Face Recognition Methods & Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face recognition presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. The security of information is becoming very significant and difficult. Security cameras are presently common in airports, Offices, University, ATM, Bank and in any locations with a security system. Face recognition is a biometric system used to identify or verify a person from a digital image. Face Recognition system is used in security. Face recognition system should be able...

Parmar, Divyarajsinh N.; Mehta, Brijesh B.

2014-01-01

304

From Farm to Rural Hostel: New Opportunities and Challenges Associated with Tourism Expansion in Daxi, a Village in Anji County, Zhejiang, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China has become one of the leading international tourism destinations, ranking third at a world level. A fast expanding domestic tourism offers new development opportunities to rural areas. Our results from Daxi Village of Anji County, a popular tourist destination in East China, show that farmers are seizing this opportunity that currently represents 27% of total household income. The better educated young generation is benefitting most, being particularly relevant for women that can develop off-farm activities around the family hostels (nongjiale and tourist shops. Visitor’s general satisfaction is high, although there is some concern for environmental quality and overcrowding due to the very high number of tourists that come to the village. Our model suggests that tourism will keep growing at least for another decade, which will strain the area, posing potentially severe environmental problems and challenging the long term sustainability of the tourism development model.

Xiaosheng Yang

2011-01-01

305

Critical coping challenges facing caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS and other terminally ill persons: The case of Kanye care program, Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: This article aims to identify and explore the needs, gaps, and coping challenges faced by the Kanye CHBC caregivers. Objective: To provide the Kanye primary caregivers with an opportunity to explore, discuss, and brainstorm the care giving challenges that impede their coping process. Materials and Methods: The study was exploratory in nature and attracted qualitative design. Eighty-two primary caregivers aged between 18 and 85 years were involved in 10 focus group discussions steered by an interview guide; while five CHBC nurses were subjected to one-to-one in-depth interviews still guided by an interview guide that differed only slightly with the one for the caregivers. Results: The following aspects were found detrimental and affecting the productivity and coping capacities of the primary caregivers inadequate counseling and debriefings; lack of motivation and incentives; inadequate supervision visits; and lack of support groups to facilitate information sharing and encouraging one another. Conclusion: This article recommends counseling and debriefings; formation of caregivers support groups; motivation strategies to be put in place; and provisions of adequate care package and food basket.

Kangethe Simon

2009-01-01

306

The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs, particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the innovative ability of the Internet itself. More generally, it creates tension for China’s successful engagement with the international community, decreases the international competitiveness of the Chinese ICT enterprises and stifles the development of global ICTs. China needs to adopt a more sophisticated approach to regulate Internet content and overcome these challenges in the near future. Failure to do so will widen the gap between China and the world’s developed countries in the Information Age.
Key words: the Internet; the regulation of the Internet; content regulation; China
Résumé: Plus d’une dizaine de départements différents en Chine assument les responsabilités variées du contrôle du contenu des publications sur Internet. Cette structure régulatrice séparée a causé beaucoup de défis en face de la convergence des informations, des technologies de communication et surtout de l’Internet. Tous ces défis contiennent un coût de conformité élevé pour les entreprises ICT?Information and communication technologies en anglais?, qui découragent effectivement les startups high-tech et qui sont défavorables pour la capacité innovatrice d’Internet lui-même.Plus généralement, il crée de la tension pour l’engagement de la Chine avec la communauté internationale, diminue la compétitivité internationales des entreprises ICT chinoises et ralentit le développement de l’ICT. La Chine a besoin d’adopter une approche plus sophistiquée pour régulariser le contenu d’Internet et surmonter tous ces défis dans le proche futur. Si l’on faillit faire cela, la distance entre la Chine et les pays développés s’agrandira dans l’Age d’Information.
Mots-Clés: Internet; régularisation d’Internet; contrôle du contenu; la Chine

Wei-guang WU

2009-02-01

307

Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, rural areas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage. PMID:24694262

2014-01-01

308

Saúde do trabalhador no SUS: desafios e perspectivas frente à precarização do trabalho / Workers' health at the Public Unified Health System: challenges and perspectives facing precarious work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Refletir sobre o campo saúde do(a) trabalhador(a) é o objetivo deste estudo. Busca-se sublinhar o significado das condições de trabalho para o ser humano do ponto de vista da saúde. A premissa não é quantificar, mas inferir que as condições de trabalho podem gerar danos à saúde, mas nem sempre apres [...] entam de imediato a sua relação com o trabalho. São discutidas, a partir da abordagem qualitativa, três situações, as quais contemplam os trabalhos rural, informal e infantil e, como resultado, verifica-se a contradição da categoria trabalho, que, se por um lado é sinônimo de sociabilidade, por outro, contraditoriamente, constitui-se em mecanismo de exclusão social na medida em que é realizado sem o reconhecimento dos direitos sociais e trabalhistas. Verifica-se a expansão de formas de trabalho sem regulamentação, tais como o domiciliar e o familiar e os realizados em locais como a rua e o lixo. Encerra-se a reflexão com destaque ao papel do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) na "assistência integral" à saúde dos(as) trabalhadores(as) e ao desafio de atuar na perspectiva de prevenção e promoção da saúde do trabalhador de modo integrado e articulado aos demais órgãos públicos que atuam nesta área. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to ponder on occupational health, searching for the meaning of work to workers' health. The premise is not to quantify, but to infer that the work conditions can generate damages to health, although this relationship is not always immediately apparent. Three situations [...] that contemplate rural and informal work, as well as child labor are discussed, using a qualitative approach. As a result, the contradiction of work is verified. It could be a synonym for sociability, but on the other hand, it is a mechanism for social exclusion, when conducted without the recognition of the workers' social and labor rights. The expansion of jobs without regulation have been observed such as the ones conducted at home or within families, or on the streets and at the waste landfills. The article ends by discussing the role of the Public Unified Health System (SUS) in the "integral assistance" to workers' health and the challenge of acting with a preventive perspective and towards occupational health promotion, in a joint effort with other public organization in this field.

Edvânia Ângela de Souza, Lourenço; Íris Fenner, Bertani.

309

Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism  

Science.gov (United States)

A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

310

'I could never have learned this in a lecture': transformative learning in rural health education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the 'messy swamps' of rural health practice is a growing challenge. This paper examines the process of learning among health science students from several health disciplines from five Western Australian universities during 'Country Week': a one-week intensive experiential interprofessional education program in rural Western Australia. The paper weaves together strands of transformative theory of learning with findings from staff and student reflections from Country Week to explore how facilitated learning in situ can work to produce practitioners better prepared for rural health practice. PMID:23807733

Prout, Sarah; Lin, Ivan; Nattabi, Barbara; Green, Charmaine

2014-05-01

311

Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal / Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

Gilmar P, Henz.

2010-09-01

312

Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal / Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

Gilmar P, Henz.

313

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL YOUTH DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Youth form a large proportion of the global population. They are valuable human resource and are important asset for development for countries in which they constitute the majority of the population. According to United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, there are 1.2 billion adolescents in the world, of which, nine out of ten live in developing countries and 55% reside in rural areas (UNFPA, 2006. Young farmers are the future of agriculture and rural development in all the countries. When compared to aged farmers they have sense of innovation, creativity and dynamism. Young farmers are the future entrepreneurs and can potentially overcome the food security challenge. However, youth are facing unacceptable levels of unemployment in developing countries. In 2009 in North Africa and the Middle East, youth unemployment reached 24.7% and 22.3% respectively. In addition, an estimated 400 million youth worldwide suffer from a deficit of decent work opportunities. The vast majority of jobs available to youth in rural areas are low paid, insecure, and with few benefits or prospects for advancement, particularly. About 25 percent of all employed youth are earning less than the equivalent of US$ 2 per day (ILO, 2010.

N. Parasuraman

2014-07-01

314

CHALLENGES FACED BY ODL INSTITUTIONS IN MEETING QUALITY STANDARDS SET BY UNIVERSITY REGULATORY AUTHORITIES: A CASE FOR THE ZIMBABWE OPEN UNIVERSITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was a cross sectional survey carried out to establish the views of ZOU lecturers on the quality expectations of the Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education (ZIMCHE. Open and closed questions were asked to accord the respondents variety. Documents on the accreditation of institutions of higher education were analysed and items for the questionnaires were derived from these documents. Out of a potential lecturer complement of 200 at the 10 Regional Centres and National Centre, a stratified sample of 100 lecturers was selected. Lecturers were grouped into strata according to the four faculties. Out of the four strata, 100 lecturers were selected through the simple random technique based on proportional representation. The study established that ODL institutions face a number challenges in an attempt to meet the quality standards set by ZIMCHE, the higher and tertiary regulatory body. The challenges include the lack of support in terms of financial, material and physical infrastructure from central government, extra functional and operational activities undertaken by ODL lecturers which affect the quality of service offered, inadequate ICT gadgets for information dissemination as a handicap and staff and student competence in the use of ICTs, among other findings. It was therefore, recommended that there is need for heavy capital investment from government through Public Sector Investment Programme for infrastructure development to cater for building construction. There was also need for change in perceptions towards ODL by all stakeholders among which are the politicians who need to conscientise their constituencies on the important role of ODL in sustainable development. Staff and students needed to be trained thoroughly in ICT usage for communication and research purposes to boost research work and the workload of the lecturers should be reduced so that the lecturers focus more on research and teaching which are their core businesses. There was also need to draft and implement an exclusively ODL policy which takes into consideration the peculiar characteristics of ODL institutions.

Gift Rupande

2013-06-01

315

La educación superior en América Latina ante los desafíos de la globalización / Higher education in Latin America facing the challenges of globalization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Viejos y nuevos desafíos enfrenta la Educación Superior en América Latina. Además de los problemas no resueltos de la modernidad, debemos atender otros planteados por la dinámica de los acontecimientos propios de la globalización. Sin embargo, para aprehender el sentido del propósito de poner a tono [...] la Educación Superior con los desafíos del tiempo presente, es indispensable que tengamos claridad acerca de qué estamos hablando cuando utilizamos la palabra globalización, y de los rasgos dominantes del contexto en el cual ocurren los movimientos del fenómeno al cual alude dicho concepto. Esto es muy importante para entender cómo en la región se ha producido el debilitamiento de la Educación Superior pública; las nuevas relaciones entre la Educación Superior, el mundo laboral y la sociedad; la relativización y enriquecimiento de la cultura de los sujetos y las nuevas exigencias al currículo y a las formas de enseñar y de aprender. Abstract in english Higher Education in Latin America is facing old and new challenges. As well as the unresolved problems of modernity, we must concentrate on other problems that have arisen through the dynamics proper to globalization. Nonetheless, to grasp the sense of purpose of making Higher Education fit for the [...] challenges of the present time, it is necessary that we are clear with regard to what we are talking about when we use the word globalization. And the dominant features of the context in which the actions of the phenomenon alluded to by this concept take place. This is very important to understand how the weakening of public Higher Education has come about in the region; the new relationships among Higher Education, the working world and society; the relativization and enrichment of the culture of the people involved; and the new demands of the curriculum and the ways of teaching and learning.

Eleazar, Narváez.

316

The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

Dodescu Anca

2008-04-01

317

Challenges Facing Amateur Athletics. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer Protection of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

Science.gov (United States)

This hearing examined challenges facing amateur athletics, focusing on several topics identified as relevant to the issue. Witnesses addressed the commercialization of collegiate sports and its impact. They also discussed how gambling affects amateur sports and looked at overall student athlete welfare. Testimony was presented by Michael Aguirre,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

318

Un bosquejo del feminismo/s peruano/s: los múltiples desafíos / A outline on peruvian feminism/s: facing multiple challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo muestra las apuestas del feminismo en el Perú desde sus inicios, a partir de la lucha por el sufragio femenino, y más adelante, en la posguerra, la puesta en escena del cuerpo femenino como núcleo de una nueva forma de pensar lo político. Se muestra que es un movimiento de mujeres de sec [...] tores medios que se gesta bajo iniciativa gubernamental y con poca presencia de las corrientes de pensamiento teórico feminista europeas. Por el contrario, fue un movimiento vinculado a ideologías de izquierda aunque, paradójicamente, sus propuestas no fueron acogidas por los partidos de izquierda. En el actual contexto de cambios que se operan en el Perú, a partir de la democratización del país y con una baja institucionalidad del Estado, los feminismos - sin una aparente organicidad - se enfrentan con varios desafíos, siendo el de la capacidad de responder a la heterogeneidad de los actores emergentes el más relevante. Abstract in english This paper is about the developments of feminism in Peru since the struggle for women's suffrage as the starting point till the post-war, with the positioning of the female body as the center of a new manner of thinking the political. Feminism is shown to be a middle-class women's movement, which st [...] emmed from governmental initiatives and with not much presence of European schools of feminist theoretical thought. On the contrary, it was a movement bound with leftist ideologies whose proposals were paradoxically never considered by leftist parties. In the current changing context, which began with Peru's democratization and its lack of state institutionality, feminism/s - lacking an evident organizational capacity - faces different demands, being the ability to meet diverse emerging actors the most relevant challenge.

Violeta, Barrientos Silva; Fanni, Muñoz Cabrejo.

2014-08-01

319

Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges / ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????-?????: ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????? / Retenir les médecins dans les zones rurales du Timor-Leste: une évaluation critique des opportunités et des défis / ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????- ????: ????? ???? ????? ????????? / ????????????????????? / Cómo conservar a los médicos en las zonas rurales de Timor-Leste: una valoración crítica de las oportunidades y desafíos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Timor-Leste se encuentra en proceso de abordar una cuestión clave para el sector sanitario del país: un personal médico demasiado escaso para proporcionar una atención adecuada. En teoría, un programa bilateral de cooperación médica con Cuba, creado en el año 2003, podría solucionar este pro [...] blema. A finales de 2013, casi 700 médicos nuevos formados en Cuba se unieron al personal médico de Timor-Leste, y se espera que profesionales de la salud nacionales y cubanos formen a otros 328 médicos en el país hasta 2017. En Indonesia y otros lugares han recibido formación algunos médicos más, que se sumarán pronto a este personal. Se espera que el número de médicos en Timor-Leste triplique en el año 2017 el número de médicos existentes en el país en 2003. La mayoría de estos médicos nuevos trabajarán en comunidades rurales y respaldarán el objetivo del gobierno nacional de mejorar los resultados sanitarios de la mayoría rural. Aunque el incremento masivo del personal médico podría cambiar el modo de proporcionar la atención sanitaria y mejorar notablemente los resultados sanitarios en todo el país, hay desafíos que es necesario superar si Timor-Leste pretende obtener el máximo beneficio de dicho crecimiento. Parece fundamental que la mayor parte de los nuevos médicos se despliegue en comunidades rurales y se gestione con gran atención para optimizar su permanencia en dichas zonas. Abstract in english Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doct [...] ors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.

Augustine D, Asante; Nelson, Martins; Michael E, Otim; John, Dewdney.

320

Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges / ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????-?????: ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????? / Retenir les médecins dans les zones rurales du Timor-Leste: une évaluation critique des opportunités et des défis / ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????- ????: ????? ???? ????? ????????? / ????????????????????? / Cómo conservar a los médicos en las zonas rurales de Timor-Leste: una valoración crítica de las oportunidades y desafíos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Timor-Leste se encuentra en proceso de abordar una cuestión clave para el sector sanitario del país: un personal médico demasiado escaso para proporcionar una atención adecuada. En teoría, un programa bilateral de cooperación médica con Cuba, creado en el año 2003, podría solucionar este pro [...] blema. A finales de 2013, casi 700 médicos nuevos formados en Cuba se unieron al personal médico de Timor-Leste, y se espera que profesionales de la salud nacionales y cubanos formen a otros 328 médicos en el país hasta 2017. En Indonesia y otros lugares han recibido formación algunos médicos más, que se sumarán pronto a este personal. Se espera que el número de médicos en Timor-Leste triplique en el año 2017 el número de médicos existentes en el país en 2003. La mayoría de estos médicos nuevos trabajarán en comunidades rurales y respaldarán el objetivo del gobierno nacional de mejorar los resultados sanitarios de la mayoría rural. Aunque el incremento masivo del personal médico podría cambiar el modo de proporcionar la atención sanitaria y mejorar notablemente los resultados sanitarios en todo el país, hay desafíos que es necesario superar si Timor-Leste pretende obtener el máximo beneficio de dicho crecimiento. Parece fundamental que la mayor parte de los nuevos médicos se despliegue en comunidades rurales y se gestione con gran atención para optimizar su permanencia en dichas zonas. Abstract in english Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doct [...] ors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.

Augustine D, Asante; Nelson, Martins; Michael E, Otim; John, Dewdney.

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Rural development limitations at the transitional terms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

European countries have been reaffirtmating the role and the significance of agricultural multifunctionality for rural areas development. The transition countries have to make the assessment of their weaknesses and opportunities before facing the necessary significant investments in agriculture, rural settlements and deprived rural areas. Overall economic development should provide for further agriculture employment reduction, along with taking measures for the agriculture farms modernization...

Nikoli? Marija; Maksin-Mi?i? Marija

2003-01-01

322

An Approach: Modality Reduction and Face-Sketch Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To recognize face sketch through face photo database is a challenging task for todays researchers. Because face photo images in training set and face sketch images in testing set have different modality. Difference between two face photos of difference person is smaller than the difference between same person in a face photo and face sketched. In this paper, for reduction of the modality between face photo and face sketch we first bring face photo and face sketch images in a...

Pramanik, Sourav; Bhattacharjee, Dr Debotosh

2013-01-01

323

Face pain  

Science.gov (United States)

Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or ... Pain that starts in the face may be caused by a nerve problem, ... Face pain may also begin other places in the body. Abscessed ...

324

What Can a Woman Do with a Camera? Turning the Female Gaze on Poverty and HIV and AIDS in Rural South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the use of participatory video in finding solutions to challenges faced by schools and communities in the contexts of poverty and the AIDS pandemic in one rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Locating the analysis within the study of feminist visual culture and the notion of the female gaze, the article focuses on…

Moletsane, Relebohile; Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene; Stuart, Jean; Buthelezi, Thabisile; Taylor, Myra

2009-01-01

325

Facing the Challenges of Accessing, Managing, and Integrating Large Observational Datasets in Ecology: Enabling and Enriching the Use of NEON's Observational Data  

Science.gov (United States)

As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.

Thibault, K. M.

2013-12-01

326

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

Goodman Catherine

2010-07-01

327

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

328

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

329

Teach for America and rural southern teacher labour supply: an exploratory case study of Teach for America as a supplement to teacher labour policies in the Mississippi-Arkansas Delta, 2008-2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recent growth of Teach For America (TFA) has enabled it to substantially expand the teacher labour supply in many rural Southern communities, one of its largest and fastest-growing partnership subsets. Though it is generally accepted that these areas face more severe teacher shortages than most other regions in the country, there is little research as to how these staffing challenges arise or how they might be resolved; TFA’s potential to grow the rural Southern teacher supply thus s...

Dwinal, Mallory A.; Furlong, John; Mayhew, Ken

2012-01-01

330

Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

LisaRBetts

2010-07-01

331

Reducing barriers to care and improving quality of life for rural persons with HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural persons living with HIV disease is a patient group rapidly increasing in size and one that will present America's health-care system with daunting challenges. As the HIV epidemic increasingly affects rural America, it is clear there are many significant barriers to providing adequate care for persons with HIV and AIDS in these smaller communities. The study surveyed 57 attendees of the National Rural AIDS Conference held in early 1995, St. Cloud, MN, to assist in the identification of barriers to care and to examine strategies that may improve their quality of life. Health care professionals were more likely to believe the following circumstances made living with HIV/AIDS in a rural community difficult: long distances to medical facilities and personnel, lack of employment opportunities and unsupportive work environments, and a shortage of psychologists, social workers, and mental health counselors. Health care and nonhealth care personnel also showed high levels of agreement regarding ways to improve the quality of life among rural persons with AIDS. Quality of life strategies rated as most promising included ensuring that instrumental support and daily assistance is readily available, teaching HIV-affected persons coping and problem-solving skills, and conducting weekly face-to-face support groups for persons living with HIV/AIDS. These findings provide useful information for strategies to improve the life circumstances of persons living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas. PMID:11361657

Heckman, T G; Somlai, A M; Kelly, J A; Stevenson, L Y; Galdabini, K

1996-02-01

332

Trabalho rural, saúde e ambiente: as narrativas dos produtores de flor frente aos riscos socioambientais / Rural work, health and the environment: narratives of flower growers in the face of social and environmental risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo insere-se na discussão acerca dos impactos socioambientais gerados pelas práticas agrícolas convencionais, apresentando as principais conclusões de uma pesquisa que analisou o processo produtivo de flores em duas localidades do município de Nova Friburgo (RJ), com ênfase na compreensão das [...] percepções e atitudes dos produtores frente aos riscos associados ao processo de trabalho. Adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa, que priorizou as narrativas dos produtores de flores como o principal meio de aproximação da pluralidade de perspectivas destes sujeitos. Em relação aos procedimentos de coleta de dados, foram utilizadas: entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação descritiva e diário de campo, além do levantamento de dados secundários. As evidências recolhidas indicam que os agrotóxicos se destacam como elemento central da produção e estão permeados por ambiguidades e dilemas. Nesse contexto, os diversos fatores inter-relacionados que atuam como determinantes desta situação são identificados e debatidos. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo trata sobre la discusión de los impactos sociambientales generados por prácticas agrícolas convencionales. Presenta las principales conclusiones de una investigación del proceso productivo de flores en dos localidades del municipio de Nova Friburgo (RJ), haciendo énfasis en la c [...] omprensión de las percepciones y las actitudes de los productores frente a los riesgos en el proceso de trabajo. Fue adoptado un abordaje cualitativo, que priorizo las narrativas de los productores de flores como principal forma de aproximación de la pluralidad de perspectivas de estos sujetos. En relación a los procedimientos de colecta de datos, fueron usados entrevistas semi-estructuradas, observación descriptiva, diarios de campo y el levantamiento de datos secundarios. Las evidencias indican que los plaguicidas son un elemento central de la producción y están permeados por ambigüedades y dilemas. En este contexto, los diversos factores interrelacionados que actúan como determinantes de esta situación son debatidos. Abstract in english The article is part of the discussion about the environmental impacts generated by conventional farming practices. It presents the main conclusions of a research which examined the process of production of flowers in two sites of the city of Nova Friburgo (RJ), with emphasis on the understanding of [...] the perceptions and attitudes of producers face to the risks associated with their work. It was adopted a qualitative approach, that prioritized the narratives of flower producers as the main form of approximation of the plurality of perspectives of these subjects. In relation to data collection procedures were used semi-structured interviews, observation and descriptive field notes and secondary data review. The evidence collected indicates that pesticides stand out as a central element of production and are permeated by ambiguities and dilemmas. In this context, the various interrelated factors that act as determinants of this situation are identified and discussed.

Marina Favrim, Gasparini; Carlos Machado de, Freitas.

333

Summary and conclusions of the conference [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation are currently experiencing a period of unprecedented change. The nature and pace of this change is affected by many factors - technological, economic, environmental, political and social. These factors not only influence the governmental and business environment in which the nuclear industry operates, but they also impact other stakeholders, the media, the public and international organizations. These developments have already resulted in significant changes to how nuclear enterprises are organized and operated. They can be expected to continue and even accelerate as new projects and designs for reactors and other facilities and new approaches to nuclear safety emerge. It is essential that high levels of nuclear and radiation safety be maintained worldwide throughout this period of change and for the lifetime of nuclear facilities, including site and waste management legacies. Effective, efficient and independent regulatory bodies must be established and maintained in all countries utilizing nuclear energy to ensure that nuclear activities are conducted safely and securely, consistent with national standards and international good practices. In this respect, it is of the utmost importance that all countries and expert organizations involved in nuclear related activities participate as active partners in the Global Nuclear Safety Regime [The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldw is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of nuclear safety]. This participation includes uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture and the safe management of radioactive waste and transport of radioactive material. Nuclear and radiation safety are based on technical, managerial, administrative, economic and organizational requirements. In this respect, the role and quality of technical and scientific expertise in the nuclear industry and of regulatory systems are of fundamental importance. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), whether part of a regulatory body or a separate organization, are gaining increased importance in providing the technical and scientific bases for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety. International organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) also rely on the active contribution of TSOs. In the light of the important role played by TSOs, it is essential that these organizations conduct their work consistent with the highest levels of technical competence and transparency, and with the observance of ethical principles. To enhance their capabilities in these areas, TSOs need to foster cooperative activities among themselves and other relevant organizations, whether on an ad hoc basis or in the framework of regional or multilateral arrangements and institutions. Recognizing the need for TSOs to broaden their cooperation, the IAEA has sponsored this first international conference specifically addressing the role TSOs can play and the challenges they face in enhancing nuclear safety. It is hoped that the conference provided a platform for further promoting and strengthening international nuclear and radiation safety cooperation to enhance the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

334

"How effective is in-service training for teachers in rural school contexts?"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research was aimed at determining whether Grade Nine teachers benefited from the training in Curriculum 2005 assessment techniques that was organised by the Department of Education and whether the training contributed to meeting the intellectual and professional challenges facing South Africans in the 21st century. For this purpose a predominantly rural midlands district of the Pietermaritzburg region of the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education was selected. The study followed a qualitat...

Conco, Zamumuzi Paulos

2004-01-01

335

Contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care- does it work in rural India?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural India. Methods Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44) in three heterogeneous districts ...

Randive Bharat; Chaturvedi Sarika; Mistry Nerges

2012-01-01

336

Assessing the impact of airborne outreach to build clinical capacity in rural Botswana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a paucity of research demonstrating how best to address inequalities in health and access to specialist care faced by rural disadvantaged populations in high HIV-prevalent settings in Sub Saharan Africa. Delivering equitable and cost-effective specialist clinical services in many parts of Africa is challenging, given human resource shortages, poor transport infrastructure and competing health priorities. In this report we describe how an airborne outreach program to provide HIV servi...

Reid, Michael J. A.; Kirk, Brianna L.

2013-01-01

337

Handbook of Face Recognition  

CERN Document Server

This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

Li, Stan Z

2011-01-01

338

Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extent and characteristics of parental substance abuse among foster care cases, the difficulties agencies face in making timely permanency decisions for foster children with substance abusing parents, and initiatives that address reunifying families or achieving other permanency outcomes in a timely manner for foster…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

339

Saúde, trabalho e ambiente no meio rural brasileiro / Health, work and environment at the Brazilian rural  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo discute as implicações das mudanças no paradigma produtivo sobre a saúde e o ambiente no meio rural brasileiro. Para tanto, analisa dados de produção, demografia e economia, contrastando os determinantes, de ordem social, estrutural e econômica, com os reflexos na relação saúde, tr [...] abalho e ambiente, desvelando um quadro preocupante, que inclui: a) os impactos ambientais de grandes cadeias produtivas como soja, milho, algodão e cana de açúcar; b) a contaminação química de diversos compartimentos ambientais em razão do uso de agrotóxicos e fertilizantes na agricultura; c) o uso de áreas naturais para o aumento de áreas destinadas à agricultura e pecuária; e d) os reflexos destas ações sobre a saúde de um contingente expressivo de indivíduos, trabalhadores ou não, colocados cada vez mais em situação de extrema vulnerabilidade face aos riscos advindos dos diversos processos produtivos presentes no meio rural brasileiro. Assim, o presente artigo mostra que os macrodeterminantes (ou grandes forças motrizes) acabam por configurar o retrato da saúde dos habitantes do Brasil Rural que, cotidianamente, enfrentam uma série de desafios para a garantia de uma qualidade de vida e de trabalho digna. Abstract in english This manuscript discusses the implications of the productive paradigm changes in health and environment of rural area of Brazil. It analyzes production, economy and demography data, facing social and structural determinants with health and environmental reflexes, revealing a serious panorama that in [...] cludes: a) environmental impacts associated to large productive chains, such as corn, soy-bean, cotton and sugar cane; b) chemical contamination of diverse environment compartments due to pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture; c) the use of natural land in the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming activities; and d) the reflexes of these actions on individuals, workers or not, that are more and more forced to deal with extreme vulnerability situations because of the risk of rural work processes. Thus, the present article points that macro-determinants (or driven-forces) tends to configure the health status of Rural Brazil inhabitants which, day after day, face a series of challenges in order to guarantee dignity in their work and quality of life.

Frederico, Peres.

340

Saúde, trabalho e ambiente no meio rural brasileiro / Health, work and environment at the Brazilian rural  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo discute as implicações das mudanças no paradigma produtivo sobre a saúde e o ambiente no meio rural brasileiro. Para tanto, analisa dados de produção, demografia e economia, contrastando os determinantes, de ordem social, estrutural e econômica, com os reflexos na relação saúde, tr [...] abalho e ambiente, desvelando um quadro preocupante, que inclui: a) os impactos ambientais de grandes cadeias produtivas como soja, milho, algodão e cana de açúcar; b) a contaminação química de diversos compartimentos ambientais em razão do uso de agrotóxicos e fertilizantes na agricultura; c) o uso de áreas naturais para o aumento de áreas destinadas à agricultura e pecuária; e d) os reflexos destas ações sobre a saúde de um contingente expressivo de indivíduos, trabalhadores ou não, colocados cada vez mais em situação de extrema vulnerabilidade face aos riscos advindos dos diversos processos produtivos presentes no meio rural brasileiro. Assim, o presente artigo mostra que os macrodeterminantes (ou grandes forças motrizes) acabam por configurar o retrato da saúde dos habitantes do Brasil Rural que, cotidianamente, enfrentam uma série de desafios para a garantia de uma qualidade de vida e de trabalho digna. Abstract in english This manuscript discusses the implications of the productive paradigm changes in health and environment of rural area of Brazil. It analyzes production, economy and demography data, facing social and structural determinants with health and environmental reflexes, revealing a serious panorama that in [...] cludes: a) environmental impacts associated to large productive chains, such as corn, soy-bean, cotton and sugar cane; b) chemical contamination of diverse environment compartments due to pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture; c) the use of natural land in the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming activities; and d) the reflexes of these actions on individuals, workers or not, that are more and more forced to deal with extreme vulnerability situations because of the risk of rural work processes. Thus, the present article points that macro-determinants (or driven-forces) tends to configure the health status of Rural Brazil inhabitants which, day after day, face a series of challenges in order to guarantee dignity in their work and quality of life.

Frederico, Peres.

 
 
 
 
341

Robust & Accurate Face Recognition using Histograms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large number of face recognition algorithms have been developed from decades. Face recognition systems have been grabbing high attention from commercial market point of view as well as pattern recognition field. It also stands high in researchers community. Face recognition have been fast growing, challenging and interesting area in real-time applications. This face recognition system detects the faces in a picture taken by webcam or a digital camera, and these face images are then checked ...

Sarbjeet Singh; Meenakshi Sharma; Suresh Rao, N.

2012-01-01

342

Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s) in music therapy sessions? ...

Carolyn Ayson

2008-01-01

343

Ditlhohlo tše Malutere a Borwa bja Afrika a lebanego natšo / The challenges facing Lutherans in South(ern) Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Zz Abstract in english This article seeks to discuss what the future appears to hold for Lutheranism in South Africa. In order to do this, it is important to look at the past through the history and involvement of Lutheranism in South Africa. This will show the strengths, weaknesses, challenges, and opportunities for Luth [...] eran theology and the Lutheran churches in South Africa in relation to Lutheranism in its global context. Accordingly the article starts off by providing a brief history of Lutheranism in South Africa, examining the role of missionaries from Germany, Norway and Sweden in establishing Lutheranism in South Africa. The article also looks at how apartheid divided the faithful along racial lines, thereby pointing to the challenges, weaknesses, as well as the strengths of the mission of Lutheran churches in this part of Africa. It then moves on to discuss some challenges before Lutheranism in South Africa today. Some of the challenges discussed in this article are as follows: (1) efforts to unite the Black and White Lutherans have so far not succeeded, (2) the role of Lutheran theological education in equipping ministers to address current societal challenges, (3) financial sustainability, (4) African Religious Pluralism, (5) the promotion of gender sensitivity and equality amongst Lutheran congregants, (6) ethnicity and (7) the role and status of self-supporting ministry. And, finally, the article highlights few issues about the changing world of Lutheranism globally.

Elelwani B., Farisani.

344

Effective at the Margins: Outmigration and Economic Development in Rural North Carolina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the economic and social challenges faced by Enfield, a small town in rural northeastern North Carolina, and the efforts by the Center for Competitive Economies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to assist the community in a strategic economic development plan to address these challenges. In particular, the paper outlines the challenges and tensions between place-based versus people-based economic development approaches and how these tensions are generalizeable to other rural small towns. Lastly, the paper concludes that even the most effective economic development strategies may only impact the community marginally given the larger confluence of events in the broader region, such as general population loss due to outmigration, declining traditional industries, and stagnant regional economies.

Jason Jolley

2012-01-01

345

Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

2012-12-01

346

The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

347

An Analysis of Challenges Faced by Students Learning in Virtual and Open Distance Learning System: A Case of Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)  

Science.gov (United States)

After realizing that the traditional modes of tuition in Zimbabwe's andragogy had either gone obsolete or over-crowded, BUSE ventured into a "virtualised" model of open and distance learning as a way of out-doing other competing universities. However, as the programme was rolled out, there came a myriad of challenges affecting the…

Dodo, Obediah; Makwerere, David; Parwada, Matavire; Parwada, Cosmas

2013-01-01

348

Una introducción a la crítica de los desafíos teóricos y prácticos que enfrentan los integrantes de los repositorios públicos de conocimiento en el fenómeno de la sociedad de la información = An introduction to the critique of the theoretical and practical challenges that the stakeholders of the repositories of public knowledge face in the information society phenomenon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'An Introduction to the critic of the theoric and practical challenges which face the stakeholders of the repositories of public knowledge in the phenomenon of the Information Society'. This essay intends to cover the most critical challenges the public repositories of knowledge face in the Information Society phenomenon. The study pretends to be a proposal for an integral theoretical framework to be used as a reference guide for public repositories of knowledge stakeholders: librarians, rese...

Muela-meza, Zapopan Marti?n

2004-01-01

349

Face description with local binary patterns: application to face recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel and efficient facial image representation based on local binary pattern (LBP) texture features. The face image is divided into several regions from which the LBP feature distributions are extracted and concatenated into an enhanced feature vector to be used as a face descriptor. The performance of the proposed method is assessed in the face recognition problem under different challenges. Other applications and several extensions are also discussed. PMID:17108377

Ahonen, Timo; Hadid, Abdenour; Pietikäinen, Matti

2006-12-01

350

Regional development - rural employment opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate these trends, and build a generic model which can be used to create employment opportunities in the rural areas, based on the specificities of the tertiary sector.

Tamas Forgacs

2010-06-01

351

What's wrong with web2.0?: the challenges facing library staff & students in realising the potential of social media & networking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web2.0 tools (blogs, social bookmarking, feeds, Twitter etc) offer great potential for both libraries and learners and yet usage for academic purposes remains relatively low. This presentation contrasts the possibilities with the reality and looks at some of the challenges that need to be overcome for the wider adoption of these tools. In particular the talk will focus on the need for appropriate staff development for Library staff and will report on digital literacy sessions run by the pres...

Lingard, Matt

2010-01-01

352

TSOs: A bright idea to help meet nuclear safety challenges in a fast changing international environment [Opening address: International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These are four key challenges that will have to be met in the coming years. To meet these four challenges, the use of TSOs may prove to be a flexible and sustainable concept that could provide support on some points to the public, authorities and the industry, at both the national and international levels. The TSOs can, in effect, be a bridge between safety authorities and operators and licensees, from the concept development stage to the licensing process itself. Technical and scientific support organizations maintain the experts and scientific resources that allow the pre-licensing dialogue to take place between the TSOs in an open environment

353

Alternative futures for the rural Intermountain West: Case study of the San Rafael River Basin in southern Utah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Many communities in rural areas of southern Utah face the challenge of making decisions about sustainable landscape development in a time of economic uncertainty, societal shifts and climatic changes, i.e. drought and severe storms. Such decisions must reflect landscape level issues such as extractive energy, residential development, agriculture, wildlife conservation, and tourism. Scenarios for future development must also consider landscape resources such as water quality and qu...

Tomlin, Stephanie; Klein, Carly

2014-01-01

354

Prospective analysis agriculture energy 2030. Agriculture and the challenges of energy - Synthesis; Prospective Agriculture Energie 2030. L'agricuLture face aux defis energetiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present overview document contains the main results of the Agriculture Energy 2030 prospective study, based on the work of the group led by the CEP [Centre d'etudes et de prospective/Centre for studies and strategic foresight] at the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Fisheries, Rural Affairs and Spatial Planning. Energy in agriculture is all too often seen as a purely cyclical problem whereas it is a major issue for the future due to its economic consequences for agricultural holdings, its links with environmental and climatic issues, and its influence on food supply chains and spatial planning. Based on the scenario method, this analysis initially involved describing the whole range of links between agriculture and energy in France and organising them into a system of variables before going on to draw up an inventory of the knowledge available. Starting out from this diagnostic approach, the group constructed four scenarios over the period to 2030: 'Regionalization and sobriety to confront the crisis', 'Twin track agriculture and energy realism', 'Health Agriculture with no major energy constraints' and 'Ecological agriculture and energy savings'. These scenarios do not form an exhaustive panorama of all possible developments of the agriculture-energy system - they are rather formalised images of what the future might hold. However, quantification and comparison of the scenarios has led to the identification of major room for progress in energy efficiency in French farming. By helping gain greater awareness of future difficulties and issues or, conversely, opportunities to be grasped, these scenarios provided input for the strategic analysis phase, the concluding stage of this exercise, and the identification of general objectives and levers for public action. (authors)

Vert, Julien; Portet, Fabienne; Even, Marie-Aude; Herault, Bruno; Laisney, Celine; Mahe, Thuriane

2010-07-01

355

Lutas sociais pela saúde pública no Brasil frente aos desafios contemporâneos / Social struggles for health care in Brazil in the face of contemporary challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica e análise documental sobre a temática de estudo, o presente artigo objetiva contribuir para o debate acerca das lutas sociais no âmbito da saúde frente aos desafios postos na atual conjuntura. Analisa a trajetória dos movimentos sociais pela saúde pública brasi [...] leira desde 1970 e as formas de resistência e luta diante da ofensiva neoliberal. Aponta os conceitos clássicos e contemporâneos sobre a categoria movimento social, resgata os principais elementos expostos na proposta do movimento sanitário, que deu origem ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), e identifica os desafios para a efetivação de uma saúde pública brasileira em um cenário de restrição do papel do Estado e de fortalecimento do mercado. Abstract in english Based on bibliographic research and document analysis, the article contributes to the debate about social struggles in the realm of healthcare in the light of current challenges. It analyzes the trajectory of the social movements for Brazilian healthcare since 1970 and the forms of resistance and st [...] ruggle against the neoliberal offensive. It presents the classic and contemporary concepts about the category of social movement, revives the main elements exposed in the proposal for a public health care movement, which gave origin to Brazil's Single Healthcare System (SUS) and identifies the challenges to implementing a Brazilian healthcare system considering the restricted role of the state and the strengthening of the market.

Marta Alves, Santos.

356

Lutas sociais pela saúde pública no Brasil frente aos desafios contemporâneos / Social struggles for health care in Brazil in the face of contemporary challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica e análise documental sobre a temática de estudo, o presente artigo objetiva contribuir para o debate acerca das lutas sociais no âmbito da saúde frente aos desafios postos na atual conjuntura. Analisa a trajetória dos movimentos sociais pela saúde pública brasi [...] leira desde 1970 e as formas de resistência e luta diante da ofensiva neoliberal. Aponta os conceitos clássicos e contemporâneos sobre a categoria movimento social, resgata os principais elementos expostos na proposta do movimento sanitário, que deu origem ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), e identifica os desafios para a efetivação de uma saúde pública brasileira em um cenário de restrição do papel do Estado e de fortalecimento do mercado. Abstract in english Based on bibliographic research and document analysis, the article contributes to the debate about social struggles in the realm of healthcare in the light of current challenges. It analyzes the trajectory of the social movements for Brazilian healthcare since 1970 and the forms of resistance and st [...] ruggle against the neoliberal offensive. It presents the classic and contemporary concepts about the category of social movement, revives the main elements exposed in the proposal for a public health care movement, which gave origin to Brazil's Single Healthcare System (SUS) and identifies the challenges to implementing a Brazilian healthcare system considering the restricted role of the state and the strengthening of the market.

Marta Alves, Santos.

2013-12-01

357

Facing the challenge of teaching emotions to individuals with low- and high-functioning autism using a new Serious game: a pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background It is widely accepted that emotion processing difficulties are involved in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). An increasing number of studies have focused on the development of training programs and have shown promising results. However, most of these programs are appropriate for individuals with high-functioning ASC (HFA) but exclude individuals with low-functioning ASC (LFA). We have developed a computer-based game called JeStiMulE based on logical skills to teach emotions to individuals with ASC, independently of their age, intellectual, verbal and academic level. The aim of the present study was to verify the usability of JeStiMulE (which is its adaptability, effectiveness and efficiency) on a heterogeneous ASC group. We hypothesized that after JeStiMulE training, a performance improvement would be found in emotion recognition tasks. Methods A heterogeneous group of thirty-three children and adolescents with ASC received two one-hour JeStiMulE sessions per week over four weeks. In order to verify the usability of JeStiMulE, game data were collected for each participant. Furthermore, all participants were presented before and after training with five emotion recognition tasks, two including pictures of game avatars (faces and gestures) and three including pictures of real-life characters (faces, gestures and social scenes). Results Descriptive data showed suitable adaptability, effectiveness and efficiency of JeStiMulE. Results revealed a significant main effect of Session on avatars (ANOVA: F (1,32)?=?98.48, P?

2014-01-01

358

Face to Face with Ants  

Science.gov (United States)

Imagine being the size of an ant. Be careful - a face-to-face encounter with an ant would be scary and potentially life-threatening! But, if you avoided being eaten, you could learn a lot about ant anatomy from a close-up view. Ants have many body parts that are normally hard to see without a magnifying glass or microscope. And each structure has its own special function.

Biology

2009-09-22

359

Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

D. MEHTA

2010-06-01

360

A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recognition all having their respective pros and cons. In this paper, we presented an overview of face recognition techniques and its applications.

R.VINODINI

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Novos desafios das escolas técnicas de saúde do SUS / Noveaux défis addressés aux écoles techniques de santé du SUS / New challengs faced by SUS' technical health schools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As Escolas Técnicas de Saúde do SUS foram criadas para exercer papel estratégico na profissionalização dos trabalhadores de nível médio sem qualificação específica para o Setor Saúde. Apesar do modelo didático-pedagógico flexível, as Escolas Técnicas de Saúde vivem dificuldades expressas em questões [...] de natureza técnico-políticas. Nesse contexto, foi instituído o Projeto Escola de Nível Médio, cujo principal objetivo é o fortalecimento e a consolidação dessas instituições em uma Rede Nacional de Escolas do SUS. Coordenado pela Escola Politécnica de Sàúde Joaquim Venâncio (EPSJV), esse projeto também atua na reorientação das Escolas do SUS, para que estas se integrem às políticas de saúde como atores no processo da reordenação da política de Recursos Humanos em Saúde. Abstract in english SUS' Technical Health Schools were built to play a strategic role for workers in the health sector, who, despite holding an intermediate educational leveI diploma, do not have the specific qualifications the sector requires. Notwithstanding the flexible didactic-pedagogical model, the Technical Heal [...] th Schools face important difficulties related to technical and political issues. ln this context, the Intermediate LeveI School Project was created mainly to support and consolidate such institutions into a National SUS Health School Network. Coordinated by the Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic Health School (EPSJV), the Project also plays an important role in redirecting SUS' Health Schools, aiming particularly at integrating them as players in health policy, in order to redress human resources development policies in the area of health.

Rita, Sório; Isabel, Lamarca.

1998-12-01

362

Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents

Carolyn Ayson

2008-03-01

363

Child-Parent Wellbeing in a Paediatric Ward: The Role of Music Therapy in Supporting Children and Their Parents Facing the Challenge of Hospitalisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report, based on clinical practice on a children’s ward in New Zealand, examines the role of short-term music therapy in supporting children and their parents[1] facing the difficulties of hospitalisation. It endeavours to explore three questions. How might music therapy support hospitalised children? How can it support parents of hospitalised children? Is it important/valuable for music therapists working in a paediatric ward to involve parent(s in music therapy sessions? Three hospitalised children (aged 11 months, 5 and 7 years, who were accompanied by a parent, participated in a single individual music therapy session. From the clinical notes, semi-structured interviews with the children’s parents and a staff member, and my own reflective journal it was indicated that music therapy supported the psychosocial needs of the paediatric patients and their parents in many ways. For the children music therapy: 1 promoted normalisation; and 2 provided emotional/psychological support. For parents, it: 1 elicited positive changes in mood; 2 reduced anxiety; and 3 supported parental learning/parenting. Furthermore, the findings suggested that the wellbeing of the parent-child relationship can be supported during music therapy. The importance of parental involvement varied for each case, and highlighted different views between therapist, staff member and parents regarding this. Factors that may determine parental involvement and the benefits of both parental presence and absence during sessions were elicited. The report suggests that music therapy has the potential positively to support paediatric wards in New Zealand to provide an environment that is responsive to the psychosocial needs of hospitalised children and their parents.

Carolyn Ayson

2008-03-01

364

Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 4: Frequently Asked Questions about Effective Schooling in Rural Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenges of making rural schools more effective vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…

World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

365

Rural Leaders, Rural Places: Problem, Privilege, and Possibility  

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Full Text Available I present a case study of the influence of rurality and a sense of place on leaders’ beliefs about purposes of local schooling and their concomitant theories of action in one rural school district. Interview data show that despite their portrayal of life in the valley as a privilege, most leaders viewed their place as presenting more problems than possibilities in the lives of most students. I conclude with the suggestion that a critical leadership of place may best address the strengths and challenges found in much of rural America.

Budge, K.

2006-12-01

366

Chacal ou Cordeiro? O Brasil frente aos desafios e oportunidades do Sistema Internacional / Jackal or Lamb? Brazil in face of the challenges and opportunities of the International System  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das catego [...] rias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China), e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar. Abstract in english This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categor [...] ies proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China), and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.

Júlio César Cossio, Rodriguez.

367

O ensino médio no Brasil: desafios à matrícula e ao trabalho docente / Secondary education in Brazil: challenges facing student enrollment and teacher work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Problematiza questões relacionadas à natureza da matrícula do ensino médio e ao trabalho docente. Recorre, sobretudo, às informações estatísticas disponibilizadas pelo Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (Inep) para discutir a composição da matrícula, os indicadore [...] s educacionais e o trabalho docente no ensino médio. Destaca as metas relacionadas ao ensino médio regular e ao trabalho docente contidas no Projeto de Lei nº 8.035, de 2010. Os dados empíricos expressam os desafios relativos a matrícula, formação, infraestrutura, remuneração, jornada de trabalho e carreiras docentes e podem contribuir para a discussão sobre a definição de políticas regulares que oportunizem uma formação na escola média para que todos os jovens brasileiros sejam dirigentes. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to discuss issues related to the teacher work and secondary school enrollment. For that purpose, the statistical information provided by the National Institute of Anisio Teixeira Educational Studies (Inep) is used to discuss enrollment issues, educational indicators and the [...] teacher work at high school. Based on discussions held, it highlights the goals related to the regular secondary school and teaching contained in the Draft Law Nº 8035, as of 2010. Empirical data express the challenges relating to enrollment, teacher training, infrastructure, remuneration, work load and teaching careers, and may contribute to the discussion on the definition of policies for secondary school education so that all young Brazilians become managers.

Gilvan Luiz Machado, Costa.

2013-04-01

368

Rural Agrobusiness.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

Treillon, Roland; And Others

1992-01-01

369

A rural perspective: four stories  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english These brief reflections from 4 University of Cape Town (UCT) medical graduates who chose to make their careers in rural practice are written in narrative style to try to capture something of the lived experience of working in rural areas. Although still the career choice of a minority of UCT graduat [...] es, those who have chosen to practise in rural areas have found a solid base of competence and confidence in their clinical skills, that has enabled them to tackle challenges in areas beyond anything that they or their teachers might have anticipated.

Jenny, Nash; Alwyn, Rapatsa; Steve, Reid; Ben, Gaunt.

370

A rural perspective: four stories  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english These brief reflections from 4 University of Cape Town (UCT) medical graduates who chose to make their careers in rural practice are written in narrative style to try to capture something of the lived experience of working in rural areas. Although still the career choice of a minority of UCT graduat [...] es, those who have chosen to practise in rural areas have found a solid base of competence and confidence in their clinical skills, that has enabled them to tackle challenges in areas beyond anything that they or their teachers might have anticipated.

Jenny, Nash; Alwyn, Rapatsa; Steve, Reid; Ben, Gaunt.

2012-06-01

371

Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambézia Province  

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Full Text Available Background: In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. Methods: VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. Results: Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n=380 of the women (9% if age ?30 years (n=3154 and 7% if age <30 years (n=1497; p=0.02. Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% (n=16 had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88% of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58% either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21% were HIV positive. Conclusions: Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV investments, chronic disease screening and management for cervical cancer is feasible even in severely resource-constrained rural Africa.

Alberto J Baptista

2012-06-01

372

Prejudice and misconceptions about tuberculosis and HIV in rural and urban communities in Ethiopia: a challenge for the TB/HIV control program  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, where HIV and tuberculosis (TB are very common, little is known about the prejudice and misconceptions of rural communities towards People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA and TB. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in Gilgel Gibe Field Research area (GGFRA in southwest Ethiopia to assess the prejudice and misconceptions of rural and urban communities towards PLHA and TB. The study population consisted of 862 randomly selected adults in GGFRA. Data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. To triangulate the findings, 8 focus group discussions among women and men were done. Results Of the 862 selected study participants, 750(87% accepted to be interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 31.2 (SD ± 11.0. Of the total interviewed individuals, 58% of them were females. More than half of the respondents did not know the possibility of transmission of HIV from a mother to a child or by breast feeding. For fear of contagion of HIV, most people do not want to eat, drink, and share utensils or clothes with a person living with HIV/AIDS. A higher proportion of females [OR = 1.5, (95% CI: 1.0, 2.2], non-literate individuals [OR = 2.3, (95%CI: 1.4, 3.6], rural residents [OR = 3.8, (95%CI: 2.2, 6.6], and individuals who had poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS [OR = 2.8, (95%CI: 1.8, 2.2] were more likely to have high prejudice towards PLHA than respectively males, literates, urban residents and individuals with good knowledge. Exposure to cold air was implicated as a major cause of TB. Literates had a much better knowledge about the cause and methods of transmission and prevention of TB than non-literates. More than half of the individuals (56% had high prejudice towards a patient with TB. A larger proportion of females [OR = 1.3, (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9] and non-literate individuals [OR = 1.4, (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0] had high prejudice towards patients with TB than males and literate individuals. Conclusion TB/HIV control programs in collaboration with other partners should invest more in social mobilization and education of the communities to rectify the widespread prejudice and misconceptions.

Abdisa Alemseged

2010-07-01

373

El reto de la gestión humana frente a la complejidad y pluralidad cultural / The Challenge of Human Management in the Face of Cultural Complexity and Plurality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La diversidad se traduce en la diferenciación que parte de la condición de género, etnicidad, religión, clase social, habilidad física, orientación sexual y edad. Estas orientaciones emanan producto de los cambios que se ha dado a partir de la globalización e impacto de las tecnologías de la informa [...] ción y comunicación. En consecuencia se asume, que la fuerza laboral tiene carácter diferenciado y plural, que requiere de mecanismos que permitan lograr administrar la diversidad y la cultura como un elemento condicionante y de impacto en las nuevas relaciones laborales y en la gestión de lo humano bajo esquemas de complejidad. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo indagar sobre la complejidad, diversidad, pluralidad y cultura, para establecer algunos de los retos que emergen en las formas de gestionar lo humano. La metodología que se utilizó, fue el análisis documental a través de la triangulación de información sobre las categorías asumidas, para lograr la construcción de una reflexión en relación al tema. La conclusión se enmarcó en la necesidad de lograr fomentar una gestión humana con actitud pluralista, abierta, flexible y de gran sensibilidad transcultural, orientada a la búsqueda de la igualdad de oportunidades y el trato digno del ser humano. Abstract in english Diversity translates into differentiation that begins with conditions of gender, ethnicity, religion, social class, physical ability, sexual orientation and age. These orientations have come out as a product of the changes that have occurred with globalization and the impact of information and commu [...] nication technologies. As a consequence, it is assumed that the labor force has a differentiated and plural character which requires mechanisms that permit administering diversity and culture as a conditioning element that impacts new labor relations and human management under perceptions of complexity. The objective of this article is to investigate complexity, diversity, plurality and culture, to establish some of the challenges that emerge in ways of managing human beings. The methodology used was documentary through triangulation of the information about assumed categories, to construct a reflection related to the theme. The conclusion was framed by the need to foment human management with a pluralist, open, flexible attitude that has great transcultural sensitivity, oriented toward a search for the equality of opportunities and treatment worthy of the human being.

María Candelaria, Rodríguez Pérez.

374

¿Está preparado nuestro país para asumir los retos que plantea el envejecimiento poblacional? / Is our country ready to face the challenges set by the aging population?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fenómeno del envejecimiento de la población es una realidad que enfrenta la humanidad actualmente y a la cual Colombia no es ajena. ¿Qué es el envejecimiento poblacional?, ¿por qué se está envejeciendo la humanidad?, ¿qué tan envejecido está nuestro país en términos comparativos?, ¿cuáles son las [...] condiciones actuales de nuestros adultos mayores en materia de salud, vivienda, educación, esparcimiento, seguridad económica y cuáles son sus perspectivas a futuro? Todas estas son preguntas pertinentes, algunas más sencillas de responder que otras, mas aun, si tenemos en cuenta nuestras grandes restricciones en materia fiscal, y lo que es más grave todavía, la poca importancia que le hemos dado a este cambio demográfico y, por ende, a los desafíos que se avecinan por cuenta del mismo. En este artículo presentamos un panorama general del envejecimiento de la población colombiana, tocando cada uno de los aspectos arriba mencionados, con el fin de llamar la atención acerca de la necesidad de fortalecer la investigación en todas las áreas para buscar respuestas adecuadas y oportunas a este cambio histórico. Abstract in english Aging of the population is an occurrence that has become a reality for all humanity and Colombia is not an exception to it. What is the aging population? Why is humanity aging? How aged is our country in comparative terms? What are the current conditions of our elderly in matters of health, sh