WorldWideScience

Sample records for challenges facing rural

  1. Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations

  2. Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

  3. Priesthood Satisfaction and the Challenges Priests Face: A Case Study of a Rural Diocese in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Jayeel Serrano Cornelio

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from the experience of Catholic priests based in a rural diocese in the Philippines. It will be argued that their satisfaction as diocesan priests is best understood as a religious emotion in spite of the challenges they face on a daily basis. Their challenges revolve around economic limitation, problems with their bishop and leaders, and relational isolation brought about by social and geographic distance. In spite of these challenges, priest-respondents have asserted that...

  4. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pholoho, Morojele.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive anal [...] ysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

  5. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  6. Challenges Facing the Emerging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lozi, Basem M.; Al-ziod, Dr A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges that Jordanian economy may have to face based on different scenarios in his macro-environment. Specifically, the study focused on the development in the Palestinians and the Iraqi fronts and their impact on the Jordanian economy. Approach: An exploratory research method was utilized. Results: The study findings revealed that the majority of Jordanians believed that the level of conflicts at both fro...

  7. El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* / Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Pacheco Contreras; Gonzalo, Gómez Vásquez; Gabriel, Barrero Tapias.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivam [...] ente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal. Abstract in english An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challeng [...] es of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

  8. El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pacheco Contreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal.An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

  9. Challenges facing European Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lachman, Desmond; Grauwe, Paul; Ko?sters, Wim; Mabbett, Deborah; Schelkle, Waltraud; Matthes, Ju?rgen; Pisani-ferry, Jean; Sapir, Andre?; Ha?de, Ulrich; Gros, Daniel; Mayer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    While past discussions on EMU tended to emphasise its role in limiting the impact of the global financial crisis on the euro area countries, the focus has now shifted to the destabilising effects threatening the entire euro zone as a consequence of the dire fiscal situation in some weaker member countries, notably Greece. Will the EMU be able to pass the first serious challenge it faces or is it a fair-weather construction with basic design flaws? What options are available to policymakers?

  10. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Of the approximately ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  11. Challenges facing the UK nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing the UK nuclear industry. The major challenges to the nuclear industry are the deregulation of the electricity market leading to new electricity trading arrangements and the methods for dealing with liabilities. It is suggested that the electricity market needs restructuring in order to secure supplies and meet with Kyoto requirements

  12. Middle Managers : Facing Everyday Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerman, Moa; Pietila?, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    Many industries have gone through changes in the last decades, everyone involved have been affected but few have encountered the same amount of changes as the middle managers. Being in the centre of the organisation, torn between wills, middle managers have struggled during the last years to redefine their job. There exists research describing their workdays, what they do and how they spend their time, but we have not found any study that has tried to investigate what challenges the middle ma...

  13. Exploring the challenges faced by polytechnic students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.

  14. Facing the Challenges of a Turbulent Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Pamela B.

    2009-01-01

    As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…

  15. Facing the challenges of a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is one of the world's largest nuclear generating companies. This paper describes the business environment in which the company competes, its strategic responses to the challenges it faces, and gives some conclusions regarding the priorities for the nuclear generation industry if it is to thrive as a mainstream source of energy. (author)

  16. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  17. Cultural Challenges Faced by Mexican Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugel, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This purpose of this investigation is to explore the cultural challenges faced by Mexican immigrant students through the study of current literature. Four themes emerged as a result of the investigation: dominant pedagogy, educational skills, deficit model, and student identities. The themes are discussed and suggestions are made as to how these…

  18. Challenges facing the South African nursing profession

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Poggenpoel; Marie Muller

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a study that was conducted to identify challenges facing the nursing profession in a post-apartheid South Africa.

    Opsomming
    Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die resultate te beskryf van 'n studie wat onderneem is om uitdagings te identifiseer wat die Suid-Afrikaanse verpleegberoep in die gesig staan. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full t...

  19. Challenges facing early career academic cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Carl W; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T Jared; Damp, Julie B; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A; Hilliard, Anthony A; Houser, Steven R; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J; Rzeszut, Anne K; Sivaram, Chittur A; Valente, Anne Marie; Freeman, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Early career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: 1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists; 2) general challenges to all categories and specific challenges to each category; 3) obstacles as identified by a survey of current early career members of the American College of Cardiology; 4) major reasons for the failure of physician-scientists to receive funding from National Institute of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute career development grants; 5) potential solutions; and 6) a call to action with specific recommendations. PMID:24703919

  20. Challenges of urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing and child rearing

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanaara Razick

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was earned out to explore the challenges faced by urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing & child rearing. Arandom sample 200 working women from urban (100) & rural (100) area of (Chennai), Kundrathur, Gudiyatham were selected. A questionnaire was formulated by the investigator consisting of fifty questions with five domains, having 10 questions, in each domain, which was administered to the subjects and responses were collected. The collected ...

  1. Challenges facing water management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of water per person in northern China is less than half of that in Egypt, a country with very scarce water resources. Clearly, then, China is one of the regions on our planet that is going to have to face severe problems of water supply in the future. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation growing agricultural output, environmental degradation, climatic instability, a large population density and worsening regional disparities are all factors that will challenge the management and utilisation of China's water resources in the years to come. (orig.)

  2. Rapid Urbanization and the Aspiration and Challenge of Second-Generation Urban-Rural Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialing, Han

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the features of second-generation rural migrants and the challenges facing them in terms of schooling and employment. There is a gap that is hard for them to step over: barriers against social inclusion. The article concludes that poverty tends to pass on to the next generation and fossilize. Therefore, it is vital to…

  3. Plasma facing components: Challenges for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current fusion devices, the components located in front of plasma, the so-called plasma facing components (PFCs), sustain severe constraints such as high thermal flux (several MW/m2), erosion, flux of particles. The management of this first material interface is critical from a plasma performance point of view. ITER, as nuclear facility, is initiating a new era for fusion, which will be reinforced for a future fusion power plant which will add specific requirements (sufficient lifetime, a cooling system to produce energy, use of low activation material) while increasing nuclear constraints. The talk will recall in a first part the main requirements of an actively plasma facing components and the main results obtained with low-Z carbon based PFCs (mainly CFC). Experimental feedback from these challenging components is an essential step for the success of the next generation of components, in particular in term of manufacturing or handling intense heat loads. Nuclear safety requirements mainly drive the need of new materials for the nuclear phase of ITER. The tritium retention in carbon based PFCs and the strong erosion are expected to be too high in the Deuterium-Tritium phase with CFC targets, justifying the use of high-Z materials. The evolution toward high-Z materials, with tungsten the most promising, becomes a major challenge for fusion research. Large scale experiences with W have only been obtained recently with the operation of ASDEX-upgrade and J with the operation of ASDEX-upgrade and JET tokamaks but with non-actively cooled PFCs. ASDEX-upgraded is equipped with W coated carbon PFCs while JET includes W coated carbon PFC and inertially cooled solid W, using in all cases a technology not relevant for ITER. Extensive R and D programmes have been performed in Europe to develop reliable actively PFCs for ITER [1-5]. The state of the art will be presented including specific devices needed to fully qualify, at laboratory scale, designs foreseen for ITER. In order to reduce the risks and anticipate any difficulties ITER may face in terms of manufacturing or operation, it is proposed to update Tore Supra with a full W first wall and divertor, benefiting from the unique long pulse capabilities of the Tore Supra platform, the high installed power and the long history of operation with actively cooled high heat flux components [6]. The main goals of the 'WEST' project (W - for tungsten -Environment in Steady-state Tokamak, figure 1) will be presented. The talk will also address acknowledged gaps in PFCs developments for DEMO, which require extensive studies in different topics, from plasma-surface interaction to engineering including material sciences. Further challenges address simultaneously the higher power density, high-temperature wall, bulk (neutron) and surface (charged particle) accumulated damage. The high neutron fluence expected in a fusion reactor (more than 10 dpa/year) will affect erosion and tritium retention properties of materials. Near-surface material properties will be for instance altered by the neutron damage. Such synergistic effects are expected to be important in the DEMO environment and are difficult to be addressed experimentally. A more robust coupling of materials development, including fundamentally studies, with advanced design is required. If tungsten is the most promising material for the plasma-facing, tungsten also offers less favorable properties (recrystallization, which influences the mechanical properties, embrittlement as a result of neutron-induced damages, He-induced sputtering..) that have to be resolved. Only a global approach, including fundamental science, material development, joining/welding techniques, design innovation and a close link with plasma physics is able to reach the necessary level of credibility for operating such components in a fusion environment in an economically reasonable way. (authors)

  4. Early psoriatic arthritis: facing the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Deborah; El Miedany, Y

    Early diagnosis and initiation of therapy has become a primary objective in clinical rheumatology. As psoriatic arthritis causes deformities and joint damage leading to impaired quality of life and function as well as increased mortality risk, there was an urgent call for action aiming at inducing remission of the active inflammatory process. Until the year 2000 there were no treatments that led to a reduction in progression of joint damage. However, with the advent of anti-tumour necrosis factor agents, it is now possible to arrest the progression of damage in these patients. Therefore, the concept of window of opportunity, that is early assessment and management in specialist clinics, has been extended to psoriatic arthritis with successful outcomes among psoriatic arthritis patients similar to those with rheumatoid arthritis. Although all this sounds plausible, early psoriatic arthritis assessment remains limited to research as setting up this type of service in standard clinical practice faces several challenges that would need tackling. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of these challenges and suggest a paradigm for use in standard clinical practice to identify early psoriatic arthritis patients. PMID:24067311

  5. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  6. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  7. Droughts and water scarcity: facing challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luis S.

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity characterizes large portions of the world, particularly the Mediterranean area. It is due to natural causes - climate aridity, which is permanent, and droughts, that are temporary - and to human causes - long term desertification and short term water shortages. Droughts aggravate water scarcity. Knowledge has well developed relative to all processes but management tools still are insufficient as well as the tools required to support appropriate planning and management. Particularly, new approaches on tools for assessing related impacts in agriculture and other economic and social activities are required. Droughts occur in all climates but their characteristics largely differ among regions both in terms frequency, duration and intensity. Research has already produced a large number of tools that allow appropriate monitoring of droughts occurrence and intensity, including dynamics of drought occurrence and time evolution. Advances in drought prediction already are available but we still are far from knowing when a drought will start, how it will evolve and when it dissipates. New developments using teleconnections and GCM are being considered. Climate change is a fact. Are droughts occurrence and severity changing with global change? Opinions are divided about this subject since driving factors and processes are varied and tools for the corresponding analysis are also various. Particularly, weather data series are often too short for obtaining appropriate answers. In a domain where research is producing improved knowledge and innovative approaches, research faces however a variety of challenges. The main ones, dealt in this keynote, refer to concepts and definitions, use of monitoring indices, prediction of drought initiation and evolution, improved assessment of drought impacts, and possible influence of climate change on drought occurrence and severity.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities of Indian Rural Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pardeep Kumar1

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior to globalisation of Indi...

  9. What are the challenges facing our industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  10. Disadvantaged Rural Health ? Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ?upside-down? perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location?allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  11. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

  12. An Exploration of Challenges Facing Division III Athletic Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a basic understanding of the challenges associated with directing athletic programs at NCAA Division III Institutions. Specifically, this study identified the frequency, intensity, and time allocated to common challenges facing the position of the NCAA Division III AD. The challenges were examined using…

  13. How Can Rural China Respond to the Challenges of Globalization?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Wing Wa Edwina

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is an irreversible development and the main purpose of this paper is to rethink how Mainland China responds to the challenges of globalization in rural area. To achieve this aim, this study will be divided into three parts. First of all, it will examine the phenomenon of privatization and dumping in rural China as a result of globalization. It will then try to consider the feasible top-down administrative changes of Chinese government. The last part will explore the new modaliti...

  14. Facing the challenges in exporting in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Tulinen, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the specific and concrete logistical problems that small- and medium sized enterprises face as they export their manufactures to Russia. Another aim is to name some of the benefits achieved from Russia’s future membership to WTO that might ease exporting to Russia. The theoretical part of the thesis discusses the topics of international trade and exporting. The international trade part explains the fundamentals of the international business environme...

  15. CONSTRAINTS FACED BY RURAL WOMEN DAIRY FARMERS IN VIRUDHUNAGAR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Marichamy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of women entrepreneurship is largely confined to metropolitan cities and big towns in India. Most of the women entrepreneurs operate small scale units. However, women entrepreneurs are found in rural areas also. A rural women entrepreneur is a women or group of women who undertake to organize and run an farm in rural area. The women folk can easily be considered as backbone of any nation and better half of the man in almost all spheres of community exception. Rural women, who constitute about 50% of total rural population, play an active role in all spheres of economic life and contribute richly towards national income. Of the major rural enterprise, dairy enterprise has been regarded as an important instrument of economic and social change to supplement in income and employment to rural sector in general and rural women in particular.

  16. Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are increasing in their importance to both the nuclear safety regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry. In the changing technological, economic and social environment surrounding TSOs, the scope of their role has also been changing. In particular, TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of nuclear installations over the plant life cycle; at the same time, they are facing managerial challenges such as maintaining technical competence and improving performance. The paper gives an overview of the current challenges faced by TSOs and the future challenges that could be expected, as well as some approaches to or remedies for these identified problems, focusing on safety regulation of nuclear installations. TSOs providing support to nuclear regulators must have strategic plans to cope with these challenges effectively and efficiently, and to provide adequate technical assistance to the regulators for their regulatory decision making and administrative measures. (author)

  17. The challenges facing hydroelectric power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single major challenge for hydroelectric power stations today is the durability of production. Environmental management has to be rethought, climate change integrated, but also the economic role of hydroelectricity reassessed. More generally, the challenge of energy transition in which hydroelectricity will have primary role must be met. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions, underway in some European countries, must be placed in this context. By using as examples Switzerland and France, the author sets out to show that this rethink can be an opportunity to put into practice new ways of management for this sector. (author)

  18. Challenges Faced by Project Competition Participants and Recommended Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Turgay; Baydas, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Goktas, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The numbers of project competitions and interest in this kind of competition have been steadily increasing in Turkey. Accordingly, it is important to determine what challenges teachers and students may face while preparing themselves for project competitions, so that recommendations may be made to overcome these challenges. This study investigated…

  19. Current Challenges Facing Planet Transit Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonneau, David

    2003-01-01

    The initial task that confronted extrasolar-planet transit surveys was to monitor enough stars with sufficient photometric precision and complete phase coverage. Numerous searches have been pursued over the last few years. Among these projects are shallow, intermediate, and deep surveys of the Galactic plane, and monitoring of open clusters, and a globular cluster. These projects have all defeated the initial technical challenge, but a new obstacle has risen in its place: Si...

  20. European Analytical Column : Analytical chemistry faces challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect to new research projects and sponsorship of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we maintain our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences.

  1. Facing Nursing Shortage: a Complex Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Negarandeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   The results of several studies show the relationship between the ratio of nurses/patients with quality of care and patient outcomes (1-3. This means that less the ratio, more expected adverse outcomes for patients. These findings have led some institutions to establish mandated nurse-patient ratios (4. Establishing standard ratios could potentially improve patients' outcomes such as patients' safety (5, 6, decrease length of stay (3 and readmission rates (7, and improve recruitment and retention of nurses in the system and reduce their burnouts (8.   According to Mohammad Aqajani, Deputy of the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME, the country is facing a serious nursing shortage; as about 80 thousand nurses serve 80 thousand beds in public hospitals, i.e. one nurse per hospital bed. However, the national standards suggest at least two nurses per bed. Now each year there are nine thousand graduates of nursing baccalaureate program; thus, even if no nurse is retired or leave the system and all graduates could be recruited to work in the nursing field, still at least nine years will be needed to provide adequate nurses. In fact, a significant number of nurses leave their job due to retirement, early retirement, turnover and migration; so achieving the standard of nursing staffing in a ten-year timeframe seems impossible. ...

  2. S. Africa's metallurgists face great challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium could pose one of the greatest challenges to South African metallurgy in the coming years. South Africa has the advantage of a good supply of uranium which occur as a by-product of gold mining. Looking at ore reserves, in the case of most metals and minerals it is unlikely that many spectacular new large high-grade deposits will be found. What metallurgists would have to do is to concentrate on the development of techniques related to existing processes and others completely different, which would enable the treatment of low-grade mineral deposits. Southern Africa's mineral resources will continue to be exploited and in the absence of complete change throughout the area there will be an important place for South Africans properly trained and prepared to give all they can do to this continued development

  3. Environmental challenges facing military base closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerleau, N.M.; Cunanan, P.P.; Lingo, R. [U.S. Army Material Command, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental remediation activities at military bases mandated for closure or realignment pose unique technical and managerial challenges to meet statutory requirements and community interests. Past industrial activities at Department of Army installations involving weapons development, testing, and repairs present extremely diverse problems for cleanup. The combination of environmental and defense statutory requirements present even greater challenges to assure that remediation activities are accelerated to render bases available for early re-use. The inclusion of bases on the National Priorities List and the need to consider socio-economic factors in identifying alternative uses of military bases and public involvement become significant factors in environment decisionmaking. Specific statutory authorities enable military facilities to identify uncontaminated parcels and allow property to be deeded, upon demonstration that an approved remedy is operating properly and successfully, while long-term cleanup of the entire installation continues. Successful cleanup strategies also require effective communication with public and disparate community interest groups. To speed the economic recovery of communities with closing military bases, the Clinton Administration has pledged to reduce the delays normally associated with environmental remediation activities. This article examines four core issues in the decontamination process: complexities associated with accelerating remediation activities at Army installations; managing the process within the constraints of limited resources; the public`s early involvement in shaping environmental contamination. The complexities presented by closing military bases and assuring environmental compliance have resulted in the development and implementation of several innovative methods that may prove useful to non-defense environmental situations. Examples of these methods and a discussion of strategies will be presented.

  4. Computerization of Rural Banks in Ghana-Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses issues and challenges encountered in a computerization project being carried out by the ARB Apex Bank to connect rural and community banks in Ghana. Computerization of banking has been going on in the country for some time now. Unlike the commercial banks, the rural banks lag behind with regards to computer and networking technologies. The ARB Apex Bank therefore embarked on the project to make the benefits of such technologies available to member rural banks. The study selected some rural banks engaged in the first phase of the project. Fifty respondents sampled from staff of the selected banks and experts involved in the project, were interviewed. The study concluded that, on the whole, the project was well designed and implemented; envisaged challenges were adequately specified and catered for and that the first phase progressed successfully. Staff beneficiaries were found to be actively involved in the project and majority of them agreed that the project was within time and budget. The study identified that, on completion, the project will enable the rural banks compete favourably with the commercial banks in the financial market. This will lead to improved service delivery to customers and greater customer satisfaction. In addition, complete computerization and networking will lead to improved monitoring of rural banks in order to reduce financial malpractices. The project will also promote intra/inter bank transactions, peer interaction and peer monitoring among the networked members. The aggregate returns will bring greater efficiency, lower cost of operation and increased profitability and sustainability to the Ghanaian rural banks.

  5. NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBE Claudia-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  6. Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jin-zhao

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key tren...

  7. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya : Outstanding challenges and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school education. However, while a great deal of consideration is given to the technical issues surrounding computer implementation, government policy makers, administrators, aid organizations and individuals participating in school computerization programs often have not carefully considered the contextual questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might there be better avenues for implementing access to the benefits of the digital age? These questions and the issue of school computerization are considered via results from a survey of thirtyseven rural Kenyan primary public schools. Results indicate that, while all schools had low ICT status making them primary targets for computerization, only eleven percent had at least one ICT compliant teacher, of which all were considered to require further training. In addition we found inadequate infrastructural preparedness - lack of access to electricity, internet; no classroom computer space, few desks, secure walls and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome many of the technical challenges found.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  9. Challenges School Principals Facing in the Context of Technology Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincar, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the challenges school principals facing in the context of technology leadership. This is a qualitative case study guided by the National Educational Technology Standards for Administrators (NETS*A). Six elementary school principals working in a large city in southeastern Turkey participated into the study.…

  10. Current challenges facing nuclear energy and safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents the challenges facing the nuclear industry and safety authorities as a result of deregulation of electricity market worldwide. The concept of risk-informed regulation, a new approach to reactor safety regulation by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is introductorily described. Finally, the international discussion on goals of generation IV reactors is also briefly presented

  11. Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key trends that, taken together, we believe will shape the hospitality sector this year and for years to come include rapid growth in vacation ownership, integration & globalization, new management.
    Key words: Issues; Challenges; Trends; Hospitality Industry

  12. Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

  13. Boom or Bust: Opportunities and Challenges of Aging in Rural Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bolender

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Population aging is gaining a great deal of attention as we move toward the retirement of the Baby Boom generation. However, few studies have examined the processes and consequences of these aging trends in rural Kansas-and by extension, the Great Plains-at the community level. To that end, this project examines the community level impacts of population aging in rural Kansas. Primary methods included statistical community profile comparisons, site visits, and key informant interviews with local area leaders. The research team examined three non-metropolitan Kansas counties, two that were aging in place and one that is the single officially defined retirement migration destination in Kansas. Results indicate that areas that are aging in place also face significant challenges sustaining their population and economic structure. The retirement destination, on the other hand, has managed to slow population loss and economic decline through a certain combination of economic structure, family relations, local culture, and appropriate services.

  14. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Macherera, Msc; Lindani Moyo, Bsc; Mkhanyiseli Ncube, Bsc; Angella Gumbi, Msc

    2012-01-01

    Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key populatio...

  15. Facing the challenges: The Department of Energy's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the largest environmental cleanup task ever to confront the US. As a result of >40 yr of defense production activities, throughout the US, numerous problems exist at DOE sites. Just over a year and a half ago, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (OERWM) was created to deal with the environmental problems at 111 sites in 32 states and Puerto Rico. The Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is committed to cleaning up the existing problems at all 111 of these sites by 2019. There are many issues that OER must face successfully if it is to be part of a program that achieves its goal. The five greatest hurdles and challenges facing the program now are technology development, infrastructure constraints, regulatory requirements, pubic credibility, and contracting mechanisms

  16. Scenario of Rural Electrification in India- Challenges and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the present scenario of rural electrification in India is taken into account. Basically, the electrification in this country is facing a lot of problem and is a growing matter of concern for all. The development in production is not reaching the one who need them. Also taking into picture the present sources of energy it is difficult to make the electricity available to the people belonging to rural areas who don’t have much source of income. To overcome this drawback we can utilise renewable sources of energy which is easily available and accessible. Also harvesting this will not cost much except the initial cost of setting up the device to utilise this type of energy. Many projects have been initiated by the government of India to provide subsidy and equipments like solar lantern and solar cooker etc. to the rural population but this didn’t turn out to be effective as the follow could not be done by the people to maintain the devices. This can be overcome by implementing off-grid projects which can be initiated at small levels so that people don’t have burden to maintain them and it even don’t have any adverse effect to environment or society.

  17. Environmental Challenges in China: From Rural Villages to Big Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about the wonderful and fascinating country of China, and its environmental challenges that require engineering solutions, many in the form of increased energy efficiency, the incorporation of renewable energy, and new engineering developments for urban and rural areas. China is fast becoming an extremely influential factor in our world today, and will likely have a large role in shaping the decades ahead. China is the world's largest energy consumer and the largest producer of carbon dioxide emissions, leading engineers and scientists to be concerned about the role these emissions play in rural and urban public and environmental health, as well as in global climate change. Through exploring some sources of air pollution, appropriate housing for different climate zones, and the types of renewable energy, the lessons and activities of this unit present ways that engineers are helping people in China, using an approach to cleaner, smarter, healthier and more-efficient ways of living that apply to people wherever they live.

  18. Challenges faced by Pakistani pharmaceutical industry: An intellectual capital perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Khalique, Muhammad; Md Isa, Abu Hassan Bin; Shaari, Jamal Abdul Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual capital is recognized as one of the most critical factors for the success of organizations in a knowledge-based economy. In a knowledge-based economy high tech organizations are facing tremendous challenges to gain competitive advantage. The main objective of this study is to introduce the concept and applications of intellectual capital in Pakistani pharmaceutical industry. Pakistani pharmaceutical industry is one of the major industries and it has 70% of share to fulfill the de...

  19. Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Maybery

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

  20. Challenges Faced by Expatriate Workers in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Naithani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last six decades, reliance of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries’ economy on expatriate workforce has increased incessantly. Majority of private sector workforce in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries are expatriates. Recent attempts by governments in GCC countries to localise the workforce, through their workforce nationalisation programmes, have offered limited results. Thus dependence on expatriate workforce will continue in near future and GCC countries, short of professionally and technically qualified local workers will need to employee a large number of expatriates to support their economic and social developments plans. This calls for a systematic approach to understand the specific challenges faced by expatriates of different nationalities in GCC countries, so that these challenges can be addressed to enable GCC countries to become a preferred destination for technically and professionally qualified expatriate workers. This paper presents an overview of GCC countries; reasons for their dependence on expatriate workforce; key current challenges faced by expatriates in GCC countries and suggestions for facilitating adjustment of expatriate workers in GCC countries.

  1. Surveying Education : Facing the Challenges of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a relevant discipline to surveying. But it does imply that the focus of the surveying profession is changing from being very much related to doing measurements´to now being increasingly related to management of the measurement processes, the geospatial data, and the property and land-use regimes. In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong learning perspective. This paper looks into the challenges in some details. It is stated that facing these challenges requires an innovative and adaptable approach to both curriculum design and course delivery within the framework of an overall quality culture. The success will eventually depend on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.

  2. Challenges faced by developing countries in nuclear power deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Analysis of future domestic electricity demand and supply conducted by official UAE entities has concluded that increasing demand for electricity is fast outstripping the growth in supply. Total electricity demand in the UAE is expected to rise from approximately 15,000 megawatts to 42,000 megawatts by 2020. Significant new generation capacity must be constructed and brought on-line. It was concluded that peaceful nuclear power-generation represents an environmentally promising and commercially competitive option which could make a significant contribution to the UAE's economy and future energy security. To make clear its intentions with regard to nuclear power, the Government of the UAE has prepared and formally endorsed its 'Policy on the Evaluation and Potential Implementation o Peaceful Nuclear Energy' as a reflection of its views on the potential establishment of a peaceful civilian nuclear energy program. The policy defines the framework under which the program will be developed and is based on principles of transparency, highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation , and working directly with the IAEA and responsible nations of expertise. Many challenges face developing countries embarking on the development of a civil nuclear energy program. Challenges include initial questions such as where and when a nation should start planning. Other challenges are related to the development of required infrastructure in legislation, regulatory, hfrastructure in legislation, regulatory, human resources, and institutional structure. Further challenges are faced at the time of transforming guidance and recommendations into an implementation plan and the execution of such plan in an effective manner. The UAE has addressed many of these challenges by conventional and sometimes innovative ways in developing the required infrastructure and moving into the implementation phase of the program. Starting from almost no nuclear energy infrastructure, these plans are being conducted today in the UAE with an expanding number of domestic and international stakeholders. (author)

  3. Console to council: challenges facing new radiologic managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2008-01-01

    Succession planning is a critical component to ensuring the continual, smooth operation of an organization. An aim of this article is to help current managers inspire staff, like the radiologic technologist, to begin training for a position in radiology management today. This paper discusses the assumptions made when a technically competent radiographer is promoted to the role of manager. It highlights some specific challenges she will face, such as the acquisition and modifications of skill sets, relationships with former peers, communicating with new colleagues, and the emotional uncertainty of new stressors during the assimilation process. This article offers guidance for a successful management career by breaking down these key foundational skills. PMID:18953981

  4. Challenges facing AIDs orphans in Nairobi Kibera slums : descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Togom, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges faced by HIV orphans in Kibera slums. The study was prompted by the presence of many orphans within Kibera and other slums in Nairobi city where many parents have died due to HIV/AIDS and related complications. The pandemic has brought social and economic disaster with far reaching implications to the communities. The methods used to collect the data were literature review and semi structured interviews. With the help of a community s...

  5. Ethical Issues in Rural Counselling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Janet A.

    1998-01-01

    Counselors in rural areas face unique challenges in striving to practice ethically and meet the needs of clients and communities. These challenges lead rural counselors to examine and question their daily practice and lives in an attempt to balance ethical codes with the realities of rural life. Describes these challenges and suggestions to…

  6. Lautenbacher will face challenges as new NOAA Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With a non-controversial confirmation hearing on November 8 before the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee, retired U.S. Navy Vice Admiral Conrad Lautenbacher, Jr. is gearing up to soon take over the helm at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). His nomination by the Bush administration also includes serving as undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere.A number of sources familiar with Lautenbacher indicated that his Navy and managerial skills will be useful in these posts, as he likely will face a number of science, budget, and administrative challenges in running this $3.2-billion agency, which comprises 63% of the Commerce Department budget. These sources also sited Lautenbacher's integrity; his ability to listen to different sides of issues and to consult broadly; his connections to both the scientific and political worlds; and his persuasive ability to get things done.

  7. Challenges facing PBL tutors: 12 tips for successful group facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-12-01

    One of the main tasks of a problem-based learning (PBL) tutor is to facilitate group discussion. Group facilitation is about process rather than content. In this process, a tutor helps the group increase their skills and progress in their discussion. Several studies have highlighted strategies and training used in preparing PBL tutors. However, PBL tutors usually feel that it is not that easy to change their teaching style to the PBL format. They are sometimes unsure about their role or what strategy they might use to facilitate their students' discussion. This article in the '12 Tips' series is a detailed description of, and provides answers to, common challenges faced by PBL tutors. The tips provided in this manuscript should help tutors with practical answers. The article may be useful to PBL tutors, medical and health educators and those responsible for PBL training workshops. PMID:16451886

  8. Challenges faced by Pakistani pharmaceutical industry: An intellectual capital perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalique, Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital is recognized as one of the most critical factors for the success of organizations in a knowledge-based economy. In a knowledge-based economy high tech organizations are facing tremendous challenges to gain competitive advantage. The main objective of this study is to introduce the concept and applications of intellectual capital in Pakistani pharmaceutical industry. Pakistani pharmaceutical industry is one of the major industries and it has 70% of share to fulfill the demand of finished pharmaceutical products. This industry also contributes in economic growth and development. This study is a preliminary in nature and it will also be a milestone for future research on this topic.

  9. Challenges facing nursing education in Australia: two solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Maura McAllister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia, like many other countries is facing a shortage of qualified nurse educators and this has potential to impact enormously on the quality of nurses working in health services. Methods: This paper discusses the findings of action research recently completed within a Queensland University, involving a range of nurse educators. Results: It explores some of the challenges to role satisfaction and suggests two strategies to build capacity, connection, satisfaction and productivity in Australian nurse educators, that may be relevant for international colleagues. Conclusions: The first solution is to establish a self-sustaining, solution-focused Community of Practice for nurse educators. The second solution is to disseminate an effective, easy to remember teaching framework that draws upon principles of Transformative learning, a pedagogy that is relevant for nurses, because they will need to work with vulnerable populations and graduates need to be equipped with skills, compassion and be committed to social action.

  10. Urban and rural dimensions in post-disaster adjustment challenges in selected communities in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Usman Adebimpe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human populations are exposed to climate change directly through changing weather patterns as manifested in the more frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in ecosystem functions. Rainstorm disasters are common events associated with environmental change and settlements in Kwara state, Nigeria were ravaged by rainstorm events between 2003 and 2006. More than 1000 households were displaced from their habitual homes with consequences for human health and other adjustment challenges. This paper examines the variations in the post-disaster adjustment challenges of rural and urban households so as to identify location specific intervention strategies in the domains of environ- ment and health of the victims. A sample of 200 households was drawn from all households affected by rainstorm disaster as reflected in the FEMA records during the period. A structured questionnaire was administered in addition to the secondary data and analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The  findings include that most households required support before replacing the roofs and/or walls of their homes. Sources of support however vary. Urban households received more institutional support but lower than the amount required for the renovation. A signifficant proportion of urban households moved to poorer homes where they faced challenges relating to the quality of environmental services. Many urban respondents also reported increases in the occurrence of water-borne and weather-related diseases and ailments. Rural households indicated no signi$cant ecological differences between their former homes and the areas to which they relocated. The paper concludes that signi$cant variations exist in the adjustment challenges faced by rural and urban dwellers after a disaster. Community efforts hold promise for emergency response particularly during disasters in rural areas.

  11. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND LABOUR SUPPLY CHALLENGES IN THE UK: THE ROLE OF NON-UK MIGRANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Anne E.; Hoyos, Maria; Owen, David; Jones, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Characteristic features of the demographic structure of rural areas in the UK include net out-migration of young adults and an older than average age profile. These features pose a labour supply challenge for rural areas. However, many rural areas are experiencing in-migration (from other parts of the UK and overseas) and there has been considerable policy emphasis on capturing the skills of migrants to enhance local economic development. To date, the role of non-UK mig...

  12. International Graduates Journey to Finnish Job Market : The Challenges International Graduates Face In Finnish Job Market

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkarim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this thesis was to investigate the challenges international graduates face after their graduation from the Finnish universities and if the employment office could help them to achieve their goal. Furthermore, the study provides suggestive solutions to the challenges foreign graduate face in quest of job after graduation. Thesis highlights some of the biggest challenges graduates face in the Finnish job market. The role and help of the employment office, and oth...

  13. Conducting Community Research in Rural China -Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F K; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country's economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. METHODS: This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16-34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. RESULTS: 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make "on-the-ground" adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  14. Challenges facing HMOs: the views of four experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Three years ago the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) industry was flush. HMOs were making good money off their Medicare contracts. They were the darling of major corporations who relied on their managed care approach to health services delivery to control corporate health benefits costs. Consumers extolled the benefits of HMO membership as a less costly but high quality alternative to fee-for-service medicine. And even hospital chains jumped into the HMO business as what seemed at the time a guaranteed venture to increase hospital occupancy and therefore revenues. But now the industry is in a period of reassessment and realignment. Rocked by a scandal involving a big Miami HMO serving a predominantly Medicare population, federal health policy leaders are rethinking total reliance on HMOs as the answer for managing care for Medicare beneficiaries. Depressed Medicare payments have suddenly made Medicare patients unattractive to HMOs. State regulation of HMOs is being tightened. States relying on these managed care providers to care for Medicaid recipients are fine-tuning their relationships. In an effort to provide HEALTHSPAN readers with the current thinking about where the HMO industry is headed, four presentations on challenges facing the HMO industry today are summarized below. The presentations were included in a recently released book, "HMOS & Beyond: New Health Care Systems," published by the Group Health Association of America. PMID:10302008

  15. ASF: Facing the Challenges for 15 Years and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle-Hamer, N.; Nicoll, J.; Atwood, D.; Arko, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) of the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, has just celebrated its 15th year of experience in satellite remote sensing. ASF is involved in a wide range of activities - - from downlinking satellite data to developing data analysis tools, value-added products, and training for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) users. Satellite remote sensing data are acquired, processed, analyzed, and archived by ASF from several satellites; ASF has built expertise in handling and manipulating the data, SAR in particular. SAR is the only satellite imagery in the world today that can be acquired at any time of the day or night and during adverse weather conditions. It can be used to develop value-added products to aid in global climate change research. Examples include the SAR-derived coastal winds in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea; monitoring of the major ice shelves in the Arctic and Antarctic; and examining the impact on sea level from the Greenland ice sheets and glaciers. The challenges facing the use of remote-sensing data in climate change research can be divided into three major categories: economical, political, and technical. The expense of designing, building, and launching a satellite is substantial. The costs of the ground segment including data management can be substantial and should not be neglected. The US agency funding climate often has the research community pushing for new missions against declining federal budgets in direct competition with ongoing missions. On the political front, data policy, data ownership, and cost recovery are issues often perceived as insurmountable by the user community. The technical issues, while challenging, are often the easiest to solve. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, with the successful launch of the Advanced Land Observing System (ALOS), has embarked on a new way of handling the ground segment with the introduction of international data nodes. ASF will serve with NOAA as the Americas ALOS Data Node. With the success of the ALOS data node structure, it may well be that international cooperation will become the standard method for overcoming the challenges of global climate change research.

  16. Logistic support in rural areas – the idea and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.

  17. Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of the introduction of the nuclear power plants is under investigation taking into account various important changes due to new realities. Therefore, the safety and fuel cycle aspects, especially the long term program on the back-end fuel cycle, utilizing the existing facilities is also maintained. The construction of a laboratory for carrying out research and development on radio-ecology and marine environmental studies is being planned to support the radioactive waste management for the future nuclear power plants. Considering the need to maintain the energy related research and development and the need for clean water, the study on the utilization of a high power research reactor for generating process heat, hot vapour, and producing clean water as well as electricity is being carried out. The possibility of the construction of this research reactor is being studied. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to co-operate with other countries to support her nuclear research and development programme in various fields due to the fact that she has to overcome her chronic challenges that are perhaps also faced by other countries, i.e. to have a better understanding, perception, appreciation, and support from decision makers, social leaders, scholars, and the whole community nationally and internationally on the importance of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. (author)

  18. Challenges in responding to the ebola epidemic - four rural counties, Liberia, August-November 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Aimee; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Montgomery, Joel M; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; T, Nyenswah; M, Fahnbulleh; M, Massaquoi

    2014-12-19

    The first cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa were identified in Guinea on March 22, 2014. On March 30, the first Liberian case was identified in Foya Town, Lofa County, near the Guinean border. Because the majority of early cases occurred in Lofa and Montserrado counties, resources were concentrated in these counties during the first several months of the response, and these counties have seen signs of successful disease control. By October 2014, the epidemic had reached all 15 counties of Liberia. During August 27-September 10, 2014, CDC in collaboration with the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare assessed county Ebola response plans in four rural counties (Grand Cape Mount, Grand Bassa, Rivercess, and Sinoe, to identify county-specific challenges in executing their Ebola response plans, and to provide recommendations and training to enhance control efforts. Assessments were conducted through interviews with county health teams and health care providers and visits to health care facilities. At the time of assessment, county health teams reported lacking adequate training in core Ebola response strategies and reported facing many challenges because of poor transportation and communication networks. Development of communication and transportation network strategies for communities with limited access to roads and limited means of communication in addition to adequate training in Ebola response strategies is critical for successful management of Ebola in remote areas. PMID:25522089

  19. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad Al-Jaradat

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical challenges. The study concluded that the women academic leaders are facing challenges between medium and high levels. In addition, there is no difference at...

  20. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  1. The Challenges Facing School Governing Bodies in England: A "Perfect Storm"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Chris; Brammer, Steve; Connolly, Michael; Spicer, David Eddy; James, Jane; Jones, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The governing bodies of publicly funded schools in England are currently facing a number of substantive challenges of various kinds. Many of the challenges are long-standing, while others relate to the current context for governing wrought by recent education policy developments initiated by central government. A number of the challenges are…

  2. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal elimination of HIV/AIDS.

  3. Kentucky Homeplace Defeat Diabetes Screening Test: an analysis of rural Kentucky's challenge to overcome the growing diabetes epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitler, Elmer T; Feltner, Fran; Owens, Judy; Gross, David A

    2005-07-01

    The University of Kentucky Center for Rural Health original research note, "Kentucky Homeplace Defeat Diabetes Screening Test: An Analysis of Rural Kentucky's Challenge to Overcome the Growing Diabetes Epidemic," provides the results of a yearlong diabetes risk survey that included more than 3,000 participants in rural Kentucky. It is well known that diabetes poses serious health threats across our country. For various reasons, that is especially true in Kentucky, with rural Kentucky having the highest prevalence for the disease. From September 2002 through August 2003, lay health workers with the nationally recognized Kentucky Homeplace program distributed and processed 3,092 diabetes self-test surveys to their clients across five regions of the state to get a better picture of the diabetes epidemic. The screening test was developed as an educational and public awareness tool by the Defeat Diabetes Foundation Inc, a nonprofit organization based in Madeira Beach, FL. It was distributed to various health agencies across the country. Each survey contained 16 questions, ranging from determining participants' urinary frequency and family medical history to their age and weight. Zero, five, or 10 points were allotted depending on respondents' degree of incidence for each question. A score of 0-15 points suggested a low risk for having diabetes, 20-25 points suggested that a respondent was at medium risk and should be tested for the disease, and a score of 30 points or higher suggested that he/she was at very high risk and "should seek (a) medical evaluation right away." Several months of analysis of the data collected indicated that 74.6% of the Kentucky Homeplace clients who participated in the survey were at moderate to significant risk of having or developing diabetes, a much higher rate than the approximately 50% of Kentucky adults in the general population that previous studies indicated were at risk. While findings from the survey of more than 3,000 Kentucky Homeplace clients cannot be generalized to Kentucky's population as a whole, they further confirm other evidence indicating that diabetes will continue to be one of the most serious health threats facing the state's rural populations. The research note further offered some recommendations for curbing rural Kentucky's diabetes epidemic, including increasing the number of certified diabetes educators serving rural Kentucky, expanding lay health worker programs within the rural portions of the Commonwealth, and studying the method and effectiveness of diabetes education between physicians and patients. PMID:16095261

  4. Economic Development: A Community College Faces the Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Jackie; Boatright, Joyce

    1988-01-01

    Faced with a changing economy, the Houston Community College System (Texas) set goals and objectives to pull together its resources in response to the crisis in the Houston area. This article describes successful strategies and approaches used to network, market, and develop company partnerships and training activities to meet local needs. (Author)

  5. China's public health-care system: facing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanli

    2004-07-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crisis in China revealed not only the failures of the Chinese health-care system but also some fundamental structural deficiencies. A decentralized and fragmented health system, such as the one found in China, is not well-suited to making a rapid and coordinated response to public health emergencies. The commercial orientation of the health sector on the supply-side and lack of health insurance coverage on the demand-side further exacerbate the problems of the under-provision of public services, such as health surveillance and preventive care. For the past 25 years, the Chinese Government has kept economic development at the top of the policy agenda at the expense of public health, especially in terms of access to health care for the 800 million people living in rural areas. A significant increase in government investment in the public health infrastructure, though long overdue, is not sufficient to solve the problems of the health-care system. China needs to reorganize its public health system by strengthening both the vertical and horizontal connections between its various public health organizations. China's recent policy of establishing a matching-fund financed rural health insurance system presents an exciting opportunity to improve people's access to health care. PMID:15500285

  6. Challenges when electricity markets face the investment phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of electricity industry in Europe has tended to start with a grace period of energy surplus inherited from the previously expansive coordinated economies and further amplified by better resource utilisation from extended international trade. The regulatory challenge has therefore primarily been to allocate existing generation to consumers in an efficient way. However, as energy demand increases, due to economic growth, the challenge of providing new capacity surfaces. The Nordic region, which has been a pioneer in internationalising and deregulating electricity, is now approaching this stage, ahead of most of the rest of Europe. While the Nordic case is characterised by specificities related to hydropower it also raises the more general challenge of capacity expansion under a deregulated market economy. The article therefore discusses how the Nordic investment challenges of today shed light on more generic challenges that may become more general European challenges of tomorrow. In a final section, the article discusses policy options available to address the investment/price-hike challenge. The argument is put forward that recursion to some degree of coordinated governance might seem necessary if solutions are confined within large-scale technical systems. However, within the context of a small-scale decentralised technological development, one may be more confident of competitive solutions. (Author)

  7. Challenges when electricity markets face the investment phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of electricity industry in Europe has tended to start with a grace period of energy surplus inherited from the previously expansive coordinated economies and further amplified by better resource utilisation from extended international trade. The regulatory challenge has therefore primarily been to allocate existing generation to consumers in an efficient way. However, as energy demand increases, due to economic growth, the challenge of providing new capacity surfaces. The Nordic region, which has been a pioneer in internationalising and deregulating electricity, is now approaching this stage, ahead of most of the rest of Europe. While the Nordic case is characterised by specificities related to hydropower it also raises the more general challenge of capacity expansion under a deregulated market economy. The article therefore discusses how the Nordic investment challenges of today shed light on more generic challenges that may become more general European challenges of tomorrow. In a final section, the article discusses policy options available to address the investment/price-hike challenge. The argument is put forward that recursion to some degree of coordinated governance might seem necessary if solutions are confined within large-scale technical systems. However, within the context of a small-scale decentralised technological development, one may be more confident of competitive solutions

  8. Facing Today's Exploration Challenges in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detomo, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico today, their challenge is to "safely, responsibly and profitably find and produce reduced accumulations in increasingly hostile settings." The GoM serves as the sportsman's playground for a significant population located in and around its waters, and therefore, operating safely and responsibly are unassailable moral and operational standards by which we sustain future development, and maintain our license to operate. With that as a backdrop, today's challenges are driven by the nature of where the business is looking for new reserves in this extremely mature basin. These "Opportunities" encompass the following: 1) large, under-explored, sub-salt areas, characterized by poor seismic imaging, uncertain geologic regimes and potentially dangerous overpressures, 2) deep true-vertical-depth opportunities in older rocks that challenge our understanding of reservoir quality prediction and hydrocarbon systems, and are at the edge of today's drilling technologies, 3) access to sensitive areas including the eastern GoM-Florida shelf, coastal areas and international borders, 4) challenging "small accumulation" discoveries that cannot support expensive appraisal or development options, are remote to infrastructure or inefficiently produce the reservoir, and finally 5) new play development, which is challenged by long maturation cycles, small acreage blocks, intense international competition, and rapid lease rolls. This talk will consider what Shell and the Oil & Gas Industry does today to succeed in this arena, and specifically will show examples of the role of technology in meeting these challenges. I will briefly discuss likely future challenges and emerging and upcoming technologies that might help to meet these challenges.

  9. Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…

  10. Challenges that face Kiswahili Usage in ICT in NEPAD Secondary Schools in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jagero Juliet Akinyi; Peter Maina Matu

    2011-01-01

    Despite the various efforts to enable Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), users of Kiswahili language in ICT have continued to face various challenges. This paper discusses the various challenges that face Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software’s: Chavakali and Maranda Boy’s secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two ...

  11. Mitigation strategies to Major challenges Faced in Market Driven Development Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjith Engu; Sairam Vakkalanka

    2012-01-01

    This report explains about three major challenges that are faced in market driven requirement engineeringwith feasible solutions. Also, discusses the circumstances and implications organizations face due to thesechallenges. Validation and analysis of the solutions is provided with our own experiences from industryand literature study, discussing the merits and demerits.

  12. Mitigation strategies to Major challenges Faced in Market Driven Development Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Engu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This report explains about three major challenges that are faced in market driven requirement engineeringwith feasible solutions. Also, discusses the circumstances and implications organizations face due to thesechallenges. Validation and analysis of the solutions is provided with our own experiences from industryand literature study, discussing the merits and demerits.

  13. The rural nurse practitioner: a challenge and a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J A; Dachelet, C Z; Sultz, H A; Henry, M

    1978-10-01

    From a cohort of 525 employed nurse practitioners (NPs) who graduated between May 1975 and June 1976, 85 (16 per cent) reported practicing in rural areas. While 91 per cent of the rural NPs chose the short-term certificate programs rather than the master's degree for their NP preparation, 47 per cent had already earned a baccalaureate or master's degree prior to NP training. Family NPs comprised the most frequent specialty area chosen, followed by pediatric and adult specialties. Of the 85, 99 per cent were actually providing a broad array of primary care services to clients over a wide age range. Physicians were periodically available on site in about 80 per cent of the practices, by telephone in 97 per cent of the practices, and in 60 per cent of the practices provided additional consulation by record review. Major motivations of the NPs for entering rural practice were to participate in a creative approach to health care delivery (50 per cent of the practice setting were less than five years old), and for the opportunity for role autonomy. Over 95 per cent of these NPs and employers were satisfied with the NP role. PMID:717607

  14. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration), and employment. The paper concludes w...

  15. Facing the Challenge in Evaluating Technology Use in Mobile Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Patrick; Taylor, Josie; Clow, Doug

    2010-01-01

    The process of developing innovative mobile approaches to informal and formal learning is challenging, not least in needing to satisfy stakeholders with diverse interests in the technology, the pedagogy and the overall system. Some approaches to evaluation may focus on examining the nature and quality of learning that occurs, while other methods…

  16. Problemas enfrentados por extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural / Problems faced by Brazilian rural extensionists and their relationship with their conception of rural extension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Pablo, Landini.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanto na América Latina como no Brasil assistimos a um retorno e fortalecimento do interesse público pela extensão rural. Neste trabalho, são analisados os problemas enfrentados na sua prática por uma amostra de extensionistas rurais brasileiros e sua relação com suas concepções de extensão rural. C [...] inquenta e dois extensionistas rurais de diferentes estados responderam a uma enquete enviada por e-mail. Concluiu-se que (1) as dificuldades associadas com o trabalho grupal ou em parceria entre agricultores são o problema mais mencionado, (2) nos técnicos, tende a persistir uma perspectiva difusionista da extensão rural, mesmo contra as diretrizes participativas e dialógicas estabelecidas pela política pública e (3) existe um olhar autocrítico limitado dos extensionistas, os quais tendem a ver os produtores como problema. Abstract in english In both, Latin America and Brazil, rural extension is recovering acknowledgment in the context of public policy. In this paper, the problems faced in their practice by a sample of Brazilian rural extensionists are described and how they relate to their conception of rural extension is analyzed. 52 r [...] ural extensionists of different Brazilian states were surveyed via email. It is concluded that (1) difficulties related to group or associate work among farmers are the most mentioned, (2) a diffusionist conception of rural extension tend to persist, even against the participatory and dialogical principles established by public policy and (3) rural extensionists have a limited self-critical attitude and tend to perceive the farmers as a problem.

  17. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real c...

  18. The geotechnical challenges facing the offshore wind sector

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Paul; Gavin, Kenneth; Casey, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The offshore wind sector is undergoing rapid expansion across Europe, driven by the demand for renewable energy and the uncertainty regarding fossil fuel supplies. The proposed wind farm developments are creating significant geotechnical challenges, particularly in terms of efficient foundation design. The majority of wind farms constructed to date have been founded in water depths of less than thirty meters. However 70% of the proposed turbines over the next 10 years will be located in water...

  19. Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Viljoen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

  20. IT Project Portfolio Management; Challenges faced by Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Pedersen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Increasing the organizational benefits from IT projects is a key concern in most organizations. The use of Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is generally recommended by consultants (e.g. Kaplan 2005) and researchers (e.g. De Reyck et al 2005) as one way of increasing the organizational benefits from IT investments. This article reports from an action research project aiming at understanding and improving IT PPM practices in Danish municipalities, thereby contributing to the general body of knowledge concerning PPM of IT projects. Our findings suggest that the participating organizations might benefit from a structured approach as suggested by the literature (e.g. Kaplan 2005), but also that the prescriptive PPM literature in some areas is too simplistic when compared to the reality faced by the participating practitioners. Especially, our research suggests that different PPM elements should be prioritized differently depending on the IT-management maturity and role of IT in the organization.

  1. Acute Stroke Care at Rural Hospitals in Idaho: Challenges in Expediting Stroke Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, James G.; Norris, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Thrombolytics are currently the most effective treatment for stroke. However, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for initiation of thrombolytic therapy, most notably the 3-hour time limit from symptom onset, have proven challenging for many rural hospitals to achieve. Purpose: To provide a snapshot of…

  2. Constraints and Challenges Facing the Small Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Mpandeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and micro-structural constraints, including those linked to and exacerbated by historical, natural and financial factors are some of the many stressors facing small-scale farmers in Limpopo Province. The challenge is to co-design ways to effectively manage these constraints with development actions. Small scale farmers in South Africa are still facing major challenges in the agricultural sector. In this paper some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers in the Limpopo Province have been identified. Some of the challenges found during the formal surveys and focus group meetings in the Tshakhuma, Rabali and Tshiombo areas were those linked to financial, assets, land ownership and biophysical factors. Specific constraints included: (a Market information and market access; (b Price of inputs, for example fertilizer and herbicides; (c Availability of inputs; (d Irrigation; (e Cost of transport, and Natural constraint.

  3. Power distribution faced with the challenges posed by competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of liberalization, the increasing share of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, ambitious generation objectives and technological evolution are the key drivers that require substantial investments in the distribution grid. The most urgent challenges are to adapt the network architecture and operation, modernize and improve metering equipment, renovate existing facilities. The Energy Regulatory Commission sets the price to be paid by users of the distribution grid; this price is set rather low, in order to encourage the system operator to make productivity gains. But resultant low income may deprive the operator of the financial resources needed to adapt the system to the new conditions. (authors)

  4. Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Tomkinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ?wicked? problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students? attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ?wicked problems?.

  5. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advan film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  6. Imaging Challenges for the ITER Plasma Facing Components Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ITER actively cooled tokamak is the next-generation fusion device which will allow studying the burning plasma during hundreds of seconds. ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) real-time protection will be mandatory to minimize operational risks as critical heat flux leading to degradation of PFCs and eventually to water leak. Thanks to Tore Supra expertise in actively cooled tokamak and long pulse operation, urgent research and development actions are presented and discussed addressing the feasibility and the performances of the PFCs protection function foreseen in ITER using a network of wide angle visible and IR imaging systems (VIS/IR WAVS). Three major steps addressing PFCs protection have been reached. First, the contribution of reflected light that could disturb the measurement of surface temperature has been taken into account through an industrial physic-based Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Secondly, an integrated software and hardware framework validated on existing fusion devices has been proposed. In addition, extended functionalities to analyze and understand in real-time the huge volume of images produced by the VIS/IR WAVS have also been developed. Finally prototypes of ITER first mirrors have been built and tested with successful first results. These results demonstrate that a more precise definition of the functional specifications of the entire imaging system can be obtained addressing both machine protection and plasma performance. (author)

  7. Challenges facing NATO in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi? Jasminka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the entire post Cold-War era numerous security challenges were pushing NATO in search of a new mission. Although redefined several times in the past, NATO's mission is still not steady and in its final shape. NATO's framework is not final yet for several reasons: lack of internal balance; NATO is moving towards rather 'loose' formula of Trans-Atlantic relations, through a 'Coalition of the Willing', in which countries accept the level and scope of military engagement in war missions (Afghanistan and Iraq according to their own interests. This certainly has influenced the character of NATO mission in the 21st Century. Therefore, NATO countries do not speak with 'one voice' and they do not equally participate in military missions. Instead, specific countries are engaged in specific issues, in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. NATO deepening and widening process is continuing in the 21st Century. .

  8. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad Al-Jaradat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical challenges. The study concluded that the women academic leaders are facing challenges between medium and high levels. In addition, there is no difference attributed to the job position in all domains, except for the physical challenges in favor for the principals. There were differences attributed to the academic qualification in all the domains in favor of those who hold BA degrees or higher, except for the organizational challenges domain. Finally, there were no differences related to the years of experience in all domains. The study recommended setting up developmental programs for the women’s academic leaders.

  9. Mars can wait: facing the challenges of our civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoffrey; Gershwin, M Eric; Bercovich, Dani

    2014-12-01

    We are overwhelmed by warnings about inevitable geophysical and human problems. Earth is beset by escalating, manmade, environmental crises and our exploding population will eventually lack water, food and vital materials. This suggests, together with increasing poverty, deepening social unrest and advanced techniques for mass killing, that civilization will break down long before atmospheric CO2 or resistant microbes become catastrophic. Despite intensive searching, life has not been found in space, even though thousands of planets have been found and life there may be as problematic and unpredictable as on Earth. The human brain is already a 'universe', with 85 billion neurons and a hundred trillion synapses, more than the stars in our galaxy. Understanding consciousness, the brain, its aging and pathologies, and eliminating the propensity for human aggression are urgent challenges. During 1958-2012, NASA spent $800 billion. In contrast, the annual cost of brain disease in the U.S. is $600 billion, more than cardiovascular disease and cancer combined. We suggest that a massive switching of financial and human resources is required to explore the full potential of the human brain. Visiting Mars can wait. We further propose a novel Two-Brain Hypothesis: the animal 'brain' evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs: one electroionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access)--a relatively independent, stable, structured and functional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting EM fields. PMID:25630201

  10. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannaga AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anxiety

  12. U.S. drilling contractors could face stiff challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the outlook for most segments of the contract drilling business is now more optimistic than in the past decade, the increased activity has brought several problems: the availability of fully trained crews, the need for new capital, and the limited number of quality drillstrings. These problems will grow in importance if natural gas deliverability begins to decline visibly and once the scramble to correct this decline begins. As the drilling recovery unfolds, the most important lesson to remember, based on worldwide activity in the past year, is how rapidly conditions can change and how quickly excess capacity can turn into chronic shortages. The various segments of the world wide contract drilling industry's prospects have changed dramatically during the past 12 months, and oddly, some market sectors have improved while others have become worse. These quick changes highlight the unpredictable and volatile nature of the markets for contract drilling and other services needed to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The paper describes the business of well drilling onshore and offshore in the US, drilling activities in Canada, international markets, capacity, the supplies of natural gas, Gulf of Mexico activities, drill pipe shortages, manpower shortages, and challenges offshore

  13. Prevention in healthcare: France and Quebec face similar challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochon J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SummaryMany issues challenge France and Quebec’s health systems. These issues, similar on both sides of the Atlantic, are characterized by transitions (demographical, epidemiological and technological, which will have an impact on care and prevention practices. Factors like ageing populations, improving quality of life or the deficit projected to certain health professions characterize these issues and put the health system to the test.In this context, acting upstream of health problems and investing efforts in prevention will become even more necessary. Health care professionals are directly involved to initiate or participate in prevention actions.In the context of these two systems transforming, four types of levers or incentives benefit from being put forward: 1 the governance lever, which assures global consistency between the actions by linking the care system’s specific interventions with those developed as part of a health strategy; 2 the professional lever, that targets the recognition of skills in terms of preventionpractices and leadership; 3 the organizational lever, which promotes the development of collective skills oriented towards prevention; 4 the financial lever, which forces to explore new methods of compensation and incentives supporting prevention.Prat Organ Soins 2009;40(4:275-282

  14. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  15. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi-structured interviews with successful rural school administrators who serve campuses currently rated recognized or higher on the Texas Education Agency accountability system. The qualitative data analysis employed the coding of interviews and observations that allowed for and sought emergent themes and alternative rural perspectives.

  16. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    OpenAIRE

    Buciu, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Automated person recognition (APR) based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry), or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement). The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics a...

  17. Evaluation of the unique challenges facing family farms in South Africa / Jeanette Robberts

    OpenAIRE

    Robberts, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    The economic landscape of most nations remains dominated by family businesses. Therefore, it is fitting that academia has begun to recognise the importance of family business studies. Family businesses are here to stay. Families who work together and live together face certain unique challenges that other families do not face. They have more opportunity for closeness and, at the same time, there is more opportunity for disagreement. Paradoxically, many of their outstanding strengths are also ...

  18. Standing in the Gap: Research that Informs Strategies for Motivating and Retaining Rural High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Rural schools face the challenges of motivating and retaining students, often in the face of severe resource constraints. This paper synthesizes fifteen years of the author's rural research on secondary students' school-related motivation, distilling it into strategic principles for rural teachers and administrators. Effective motivational…

  19. Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students’ presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative content analysis was employed to examine the challenges faced by international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse. The results reveal that the major difficulties international undergraduate students face in their oral academic discourse socialisation are related to linguistic knowledge, presentation skills and content-related difficulties. Linguistic difficulties constrain students to express complex concepts and ideas while engaged in oral presentations. Difficulties related to presentation skills are associated with how to prepare PowerPoint slides and how to organise the content of the presentations. This study also reveals that content difficulties may be related to the specific topics the students are asked to prepare presentations on. In this study I argue that understanding the challenges faced by undergraduate international students in their oral academic discourse socialisation can be one of the essential steps to help them overcome the challenges they face.

  20. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr SM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole system and together improve service user outcomes.Keywords: strategic aims, planning processes, productive working, reducing waste, primary care, service user outcomes.

  1. Challenges to improving maternal health in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, S

    1996-05-01

    In the remote village of Martadi, in Bajura district of western Nepal, the total fertility rate is 7. 20% of newborns die before they reach age 1. Temporary migration, mainly to India, is common due to the inability of the rugged and rocky terrain to supply enough food. The existence of temporary migration and a high frequency of remarriage suggest a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases. The relatively new hospital is very much under used (e.g., only 35 patients in 1995). The office in Kolti that supplies vaccines to Martadi has gone at least six months without receiving any new child immunization drugs, despite the presence of an air service. During and after delivery, no one, not even family members or traditional birth attendants, can touch a woman, who is confined to a cow-shed to deliver and care for her child and herself alone. Yet sick animals receive care. A new mother also is required to bathe herself, often requiring a walk of many hours. Women often identify access to water as their top priority. Pregnant or postpartum women are forbidden from eating green vegetables because of the belief that they cause diarrhea. Sanitation is better now in Martadi than in the past. Diarrhea and vomiting were once very prevalent. The international organization, CARE, along with the Ministry of Local Development operate the Remote Area Basic Needs Project, which revolves around community organization, agroforestry, rural infrastructure, and primary health care. The project has helped villagers construct low-cost toilets. It provides training in basic hygiene. Households have kitchen-gardens. Many families are now eating green vegetables regularly. Fruit trees are being introduced. Villagers recognize the value of child immunization. Some small-scale drinking water systems are operating. Villagers are trained in repair and management of these systems. About 33% of women aged 15-49 want no more children. A first-ever outreach program for female sterilization services is planned for Martadi and Kolti. PMID:8622462

  2. Ethical challenges facing Zimbabwean media in the context of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Tendai Chari

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has fundamentally transformed the practice of journalism in Africa. It has spawned enormous opportunities and challenges for the African media, and Zimbabwe is no exception. Not only has the concept of news changed but also the manner in which it is gathered and disseminated. Journalists no longer feel compelled to adhere to the ethical cannons of their profession owing to certain qualities of the Internet. This paper investigates ethical challenges faced by the Zimbabwean media ...

  3. Innovations to meet the challenges faced by EDF power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current challenges facing all electricity suppliers essentially result from market requirements, market liberalisation and the requirements for environmental and climate protection. EDF is accordingly focussing its activities on innovative areas in terms of individual generation options - such as nuclear energy, fossil-fired power plants and hydroelectric power generation. The challenges require both technical and organisational solutions, as shown by the grid instability in western Europe on November 4th 2006, for example. (orig.)

  4. The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David E.; Brad White; Robert Larson

    2010-01-01

    Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal indu...

  5. Challenges that face Kiswahili Usage in ICT in NEPAD Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagero Juliet Akinyi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the various efforts to enable Kiswahili usage in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, users of Kiswahili language in ICT have continued to face various challenges. This paper discusses the various challenges that face Kiswahili usage in ICT in two New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD sponsored schools in Kenya that use Microsoft software’s: Chavakali and Maranda Boy’s secondary schools. This study is guided by a model developed from a combination of two theories: Use and Gratification theory and Symbolic Interaction theory. Data from the two schools are analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analysis. The Data for this work came from 120 students selected through random sampling and 8 teachers of Kiswahili selected through saturated sampling technique. From the analysis of the responses from the study it is evident that Kiswahili usage in ICT is faced by various challenges. Major challenges included negative attitude towards Kiswahili language, difficult technological terms, limited number of those using Kiswahili in ICT, wrong usage of Kiswahili in ICT, English preference and limited research work written in Kiswahili in the internet. Others were limited Kiswahili programs, being forced to use correct Kiswahili, and Kiswahili not being accepted by English programs. The study notes that these challenges need to be addressed. Therefore, recommendations are made on how to overcome the challenges.

  6. Challenges facing developers of CAD/CAM models that seek to predict human working postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiker, Steven F.

    2005-11-01

    This paper outlines the need for development of human posture prediction models for Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) design applications in product, facility and work design. Challenges facing developers of posture prediction algorithms are presented and discussed.

  7. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  8. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

  9. BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence AROKIASAMY

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.

  10. The Background and Challenges Faced by the Small Medium Enterprises. A Human Resource Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah bt. Omar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME’s to future progress and grows. Therefore this article examines the background and challenges face by SME’s which play a vital role in the nation growth. The uniqueness of this paper is the emphasis on the human resource development perspective which is important for SME’s to progress and be competitive. Finally, this article maps out how future research can be more sensitive to how SME’s actually develop their own human resource development for future development.

  11. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVANOVIC Verka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

  12. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine?s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners? educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

  13. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Julie O.; Martha Geiger

    2009-01-01

    We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and exp...

  14. Federal Government Funding Reforms: Issues and Challenges Facing Malaysian Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Abd. Rahman Ahmad; Alan Farley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government ob...

  15. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Goel; Sartaj Ahmad; Rahul Bansal; Pawan Parashar; Bhawna Pant; Parul Goel

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working enviro...

  16. Challenges Facing Sustainable Real Estate Marketing and Practice in Emerging Economy: Case Study of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayotunde Olawande Oni; Michael Adedayo Adebayo

    2012-01-01

    The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtained...

  17. Management Innovation in Brazilian Technology Companies: The Challenges Faced by Managers in the Practice of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Luan Carlos Santos Silva; João Luiz Kovaleski; Silvia Gaia; Pedro Paulo de Andrade Júnior

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to analyze the process of innovation management in technology companies in an Informatics Nucleus in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The research was qualitative and by the point of view of its nature was applied. It was also characterized as a descriptive research. In order to face challenges in the market, managers of companies from Informatics Nucleus must continually innovate in their processes by acquiring new organizational knowledge and showing an ent...

  18. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    OpenAIRE

    Viáfara John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that thei...

  19. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  20. Opportunities and challenges for solar home systems in Tanzania for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, John P. [Mbeya Institute of Science and Technology (Tanzania). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering; Mkumbwa, Moses [Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2011-07-01

    The cost of delivering Energy from PV cells to a household is a fundamental characteristic in energy generation technologies. It can be influenced by the PV system design, performance, size, and the technology of the system components. The aim of this paper is to present opportunities and challenges identified on the study conducted for solar home systems (SHS). The study was conducted in Kondoa rural area where 7 out of 177 villages were considered with a total sample of 61 households. The research involved field visits, inspection of PV Systems, observation, interviewing end users and questionnaires. The study considered both economic and technical parameter influences. On the other hand economic viability of solar PV system was evaluated using replacement cost of kerosene, small petrol generators and disposable dry batteries. The life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of the components was employed as well as the effect of discount and inflation rate sensitivity analysis. The research findings show that kerosene is the most dominant source of energy for lighting in Kondoa rural area while electric energy use is characterized by low consumption. Wrong system sizing and installation was the major cause of poor performance. Nevertheless, comparison between solar PV systems with other mentioned alternatives indicated to be more cost effective than others at the smallest scale. This study revealed that not only economic parameters but also technical parameters have major impact on the viability and sustainability of SHS for rural electrification. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear medicine department activity facing major public health challenges in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health

  2. Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Rivkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

  3. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Acculturation Challenges Faced by Saudi Female Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Samah Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the major acculturation challenges faced by Saudi female students who study in the U.S. and to develop a scale to measure potential acculturation challenges. The construction of the scale was based on a table of specification that included nine domains of possible acculturation challenges: (a)…

  4. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougang Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

  5. Teaching in Rural Saskatchewan: First Year Teachers Identify Challenges and Make Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; McIntyre, Laureen J.; Prytula, Michelle P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the existing research on rural education, rural teaching, and pre-service rural practicum placements, there is little research on the experiences of beginning teachers in rural schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saskatchewan beginning teachers who obtain employment in rural or northern schools. Eight…

  6. Ethical challenges facing Zimbabwean media in the context of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendai Chari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has fundamentally transformed the practice of journalism in Africa. It has spawned enormous opportunities and challenges for the African media, and Zimbabwe is no exception. Not only has the concept of news changed but also the manner in which it is gathered and disseminated. Journalists no longer feel compelled to adhere to the ethical cannons of their profession owing to certain qualities of the Internet. This paper investigates ethical challenges faced by the Zimbabwean media as a result of the Internet. In particular the paper discusses ethical challenges in the Zimbabwean media that are either directly or indirectly linked to the Internet. The main argument advanced in this paper is that while the Internet has brought about a number of opportunities for the Zimbabwean media, the same technology has been the root of unethical reporting.

  7. EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADALINA NEACSU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU, income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

  8. Urban and rural groundwater use in Zhengzhou, China: challenges in joint management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ronglin; Jin, Menggui; Giordano, Mark; Villholth, Karen G.

    2009-09-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in the total water supply of much of China, particularly in the north. It has contributed substantially to both agricultural growth and urban and industrial expansion. However, overexploitation and poor management have contributed to infamous groundwater depletion problems and less publicized groundwater quality deterioration. One of the key challenges for China will be how to make groundwater use sustainable while still meeting increased food needs as well as the industrial and domestic demands of a rapidly urbanizing society. Zhengzhou City, one of China’s test cities for building a “water saving society” highlights both the difficulties and potential solutions to northern China’s joint rural and urban groundwater challenges. Based on secondary data and a primary survey of groundwater management in the region, this report provides an overview of Zhengzhou’s groundwater development and use as well as the ongoing institutional and policy reform processes within the water sector. The results highlight how a deepening of ongoing reforms, which simultaneously consider groundwater as an integral rural and urban issue and a fundamental economic and social asset, may improve groundwater outcomes, not only in Zhengzhou but in China, as the country’s economy and demography continue to change.

  9. The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Anderson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal industry as a whole. Veterinary colleges have changed in response to the increased number of students who are interested in companion animal medicine. These changes have resulted in diminished large animal content in the professional curricula, attrition of the number of faculty teaching food animal medicine, increases in the number of faculty dedicated to small animal curriculum, and an overwhelming sense that the veterinary program is centered around training in preparation for a career in companion animal practice. A multitude of factors likely contribute to the continued gravitation of veterinary students toward small animal practice. Veterinary colleges must strive to maintain a balanced, open-minded view of the profession so that students have an equal opportunity to choose a path that best suits their desires and interests.

  10. [Political challenges facing the consolidation of the Sistema Único de Saúde: a historical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the circumstances in which Brazil’s sanitation reform was conceived and the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) was constructed. A brief analysis is conducted of Brazil’s political transition to democracy, focusing on three political challenges facing the consolidation of SUS: its weak support base amongst workers, competition with the private sector, and the fragmentation of its administration caused by its municipalization. Finally, the changes in the scenario caused by the weakening of neoliberalism since the 2008 crisis, the reemergence of a multipolar political scenario internationally, and the financing conditions of the Brazilian State are described. PMID:24789485

  11. Sustainable energy for Europe. towards 2020 and beyond. Addressing the challenges facing the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European electricity sector is currently facing a number of important challenges with the ultimate objective of achieving a carbon-neutral, secure and integrated European electricity market. After 61 CEOs signed a declaration in 2009 setting out their objective of carbon-neutral electricity by 2050, the subsequent analysis within EURELECTRIC's 'Power Choices study' demonstrated that this goal was technically and economically feasible, provided the right economic and policy framework is put in place. The process has paved the way for the power industry's latest document '20 Steps Towards 2020'. (orig.)

  12. IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSHIP : Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city

    OpenAIRE

    Enow, Manyi

    2010-01-01

    Title: Immigrant Entrepreneurship - Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city. Purpose: The purpose is to investigate if the challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden differ between large and small cities. Method: Eight case studies, four in Jönköping and four in Stockholm of seven Asian and one Eastern Europe immigrant entrepreneurs in the restaurant business. Result...

  13. Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

  14. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  15. Pharmacist Staffing, Technology Use, and Implementation of Medication Safety Practices in Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michelle M.; Moscovice, Ira S.; Davidson, Gestur

    2006-01-01

    Context: Medication safety is clearly an important quality issue for rural hospitals. However, rural hospitals face special challenges implementing medication safety practices in terms of their staffing and financial and technical resources. Purpose: This study assessed the capacity of small rural hospitals to implement medication safety…

  16. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczynski Julie C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the context of greater perceived workload. Conclusions Older health workers are managing a range of issues, on top of the general challenges of rural practice. Personal health, wellbeing and other realms of life appear to take on increasing importance for older health workers when faced with increasing difficulties at work. Solutions need to address difficulties at personal, workplace and system wide levels.

  17. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other) Language learners in the Western Cape

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julie, O' Connor; Martha, Geiger.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL) learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area w [...] ho were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home) language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

  18. Challenges Facing Sustainable Real Estate Marketing and Practice in Emerging Economy: Case Study of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde Olawande Oni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges facing estate surveying and valuation practice across the world are enormous, and the future of the profession is being questioned, especially in Nigeria. There are pressures for practitioners to secure instructions and at same time meet increasingly complex and stringent standards of professional practice. This study provides a perspective of issues confronting the profession across the globe relying on a review of literature, while data on the Nigerian situation were obtained through the primary source. Three thousand Estate Surveyors and Valuers across the country were surveyed using the internet-based SurveyMonkey software. The analysis indicated that “topping up”, “gazumping”, “gazundering”, low level of salaries and misdemeanors by the ever-increasing number of charlatans are major challenges facing the profession. In addition, majority of practitioners confessed to involvement in mounting of multiple signboards, collection of double fees, and soliciting for jobs with financial inducements. It was therefore recommended that prosecution of erring members, encouragement of non-professionals to attend formal training, and establishment of a college for such training, enforcement of professional standards, and adoption of proactive stance on laws that are inimical to sustainable real estate practice to ensure an enduring professional practice.

  19. Supply Chain Management and Challenges Facing the Food Industry Sector in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Makweba Ruteri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of food supply chain impose enormous challenges to the processors. As compared to multinational food companies operating in the Tanzania, local firms have been performing inefficiently or going out of the business because they could hardly withstand the competition. SCM in the food industry sector was studied in a qualitative survey covered 23 food processing firms in Tanzania, with the purposes of identifying the existing supply chain operation, knowledge of SCM concept and challenges facing the sector. The findings of this study suggest that a lot of efforts need to be addressed to ensure that processors benefits from the concept of SCM. The understanding of SCM concept among the processors seems to be low, thus, hindering them from taping the opportunity offered by SCM strategies. The sector still faces a number of factors which impede the firms to grow fast and compete in the global market. Such factors include technical know-how, research and development, capital, managerial and physical infrastructures. Keywords Supply chain management; Inventory management; Customer perceived value; food industry.

  20. Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes00,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, a

  1. Developing a Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural Kenya: Challenges in Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research

    OpenAIRE

    Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating pow...

  2. Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colloquium organised by the Association of Energy Economists dealing with the theme 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' takes place against a backdrop of ever-increasing initiatives in this field, for example at the World Energy Council or the International Energy Agency Faith in technical progress is widespread but should be supported by studies without any preconceived ideas. Research and development efforts must be fully supported, and in a climate of opening markets and liberalization the public authorities have a major role to pay. Historically, the markets have always been able to meet new needs thanks to technology, but the ambitious targets that the international community has set itself regarding the emission of greenhouse gases imply technical improvements and major investments. (authors)

  3. Issues and challenges facing school libraries in selected primary schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margie, Paton-Ash; Di, Wilmot.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no national policy for school libraries which compels school governing bodies and principals to have a library in their schools. It is thus not surprising that in 2011, only 21% of state schools had libraries, only 7% had stocked libraries and 79% of schools had no library at all (Departmen [...] t of Basic Education (DBE) Republic of South Africa, 2011a:23). This article forms part of a broader qualitative study which investigated 10 primary schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa that had libraries, or were in the process of setting up a library, with the intention of providing a rich description of the issues and challenges facing these schools. The 10 schools used in this study were chosen on the basis of their location and fee structures. They represented the full continuum of fees within the state structure. In this article, we discuss three core categories of predicaments faced by primary school libraries. These were resourcing the library, operating the library and the role of the library. Our main contention is that school libraries are not playing an effective role in supporting and enabling quality education for all South African children. This needs to be addressed by government as a matter of urgency.

  4. Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangi Jyoti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

  5. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  6. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Alias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special needs students in gaining work experiences during their internships. Two students were selected and trained to acquire work-related skills as preparation for their internships. Findings from this study revealed that, at the beginning of the internships, both of the students have to overcome several challenges, working in their respective work places. The students were having problem in adjusting to their new work environment, interacting with co-workers, understanding instructions and also displaying negative attitudes. Fortunately with the assistance from special education teachers, supervisors and co-workers, both special needs students have proven that they were able to gain valuable work experience at the end of their transition program.

  7. Challenging pathways to safe water access in rural Uganda: From supply to demand-driven water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resty Naiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uganda has experienced a major policy shift from a supply-driven to a demand-driven approach in rural water provision since 1990. The article sheds light on the rural population’s access to safe water within the changing institutional frameworks. We analysed individual and group interviews with key informants from national to community levels and relevant official documents with the ‘Social-Ecological Systems’ framework. Since the implementation of the demand-driven approach, rural safe water coverage has slightly improved but operation and maintenance of water sources pose a great challenge hampering, long-term access to safe water. The abrupt and top-down imposed policy shift has resulted in competing signals from old and new policies creating uncertainty and ambiguity about responsibilities, rules and incentives. The analysis shows the importance of taking into account the implications of national institutional disturbances on local collective action for long-term access to safe water.

  8. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These events illustrate some of the challenges facing the world of insurance following the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime: - Will the insurance industry be able to find funds corresponding to the new amounts that have been set? - Do the additional damages covered by the revised conventions provide adequate cover for existing risks and will private insurance be able and willing to cover such risks? Nevertheless, the insurance world has changed a great deal since 2004 and there are many additional issues that have arisen since that time. For example, the economic crisis and the introduction of the European Solvency II Directive require insurers to take a more stringent line with their commitments. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a number of questions have resurfaced: are the new insurance amounts sufficient? The age of 'nuclear renaissance' has long gone and some countries are distancing themselves from nuclear power in light of its questionable costs; are operators paying a fair price in light of the risks incurred? Finally, Europe is keen to play its part and impose its own rules; what will be the consequences of this development? This article reconsiders these challenges in light of the 2004 Protocol (which has not entered into force), by focusing in particular on the situation in Europe. Section I looks back at the history behind the conventions and the key principles they set down. Section II highlights the changes made to the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol and the problems facing the insurance industry. Section III provides an overview of the various actors involved in the insurance industry and redefines the necessary insurance foundations to cover the challenges described in Section IV. Finally, Section IV covers all the challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime. (author)

  9. Bridging innovation, nature and tradition: assessment of strategies for rural tourism development in Maramure? (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Regoli, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of EU rural policy, always more oriented towards environmental concerns and green livelihoods, Romania stands out for the predominance of rural areas and high nature value farming. The country has to face the challenge of joining the modernization process of rural farming systems with the valorization of local assets. Tourism has emerged as one of the main drivers of change and contributors for a sustainable exploitation of local resources. Rural tourism (RT) can foster the en...

  10. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Depczynski Julie C; Fragar Lyn J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects...

  11. Nuclear medicine department activity facing major public health challenges in France; Activite des services de medecine nucleaire face aux grands enjeux de sante publique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, Unite de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Mundler, O. [CHU la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2007-12-15

    A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health.

  12. Les maires des petites communes face aux enjeux de la diversification du monde rural, une enquête auprès de 436 élus de Midi-Pyrénées.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevers, Jean-yves; Bages, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The mayors of the small communes face to the stakes of the diversification of the rural areas, a survey of 436 mayors elected in the “Région Midi-Pyrénées”. This study presents the results of a survey using a postal questionnaire addressed to a sample representative of the mayors of the communes less than 2500 inhabitants in the “Région Midi-Pyrénées”. This document describes successively: 1) municipal teams, 2) electoral elections, competitions and renewal of the elected offici...

  13. Evidence on Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Informal Sector Micro-Enterprises in Nairobi and Their Relationship with Strategic Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara Ogot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to determine the challenges faced by Informal Sector Micro-Enterprises in the manufacturing sector as well as establish what influences, if any, they have on their strategic choice. Porter's competitive business strategy model formed the theoretical framework for strategic choice. A total of 135 enterprises were sampled from six regions in Nairobi, Kenya. From the study, 30 main challenges were identified and ranked. The top three challenges for the sector were Competition, High Cost of Production and Lack of Adequate Capital. A cross-reference with strategic choice found that, enterprises experiencing challenges of High Cost of Production, High Cost of Transport and High Cost of Capital were more likely to adopt focus low cost strategies within Porter's framework. Those experiencing Hard Bargaining Customers were more likely to adopt differentiation focus strategies, while enterprises adopting mixed strategies are more likely to face Consumer Purchasing Power, Dishonest Customers and Theft as their main challenges. The study therefore shows that there does exist a relationship between challenges faced by an informal sector micro-enterprises and their strategic choice.

  14. Challenges of using English as a medium of instruction in the upper part of primary schools in rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Namuchwa, Cissy Edith

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The study explored the challenges of using English as a medium of instruction in the upper part of primary schools in rural Uganda. The sample consisted of the head teacher; pupils and teachers of upper primary school grades (five to seven), from one selected primary school in Mpigi district. The research questions used were: How do teachers use English as a medium of instruction in the upper part of primary schools in Mpigi district? How are teachers facilitated by the government i...

  15. Professional Development for Teachers of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Facing the Assessment Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Teachers of students with "low-incidence" disabilities, such as students who are deaf or hard of hearing, face unique challenges in putting education policy into practice. The present article presents professional development findings from the Third Annual National Survey of Accommodations and Assessment for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of…

  16. A Reflective Perspective on the Challenges Facing Research-Led Teaching in the Performing and Creative Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a reflective perspective on the role that research-led teaching plays in the development of future arts workers in higher education. It explores the challenges faced by lecturers developing curricula in the performing and creative arts and argues that the increasing focus on employability can conflict with universities'…

  17. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena

    2006-07-01

    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing. PMID:16863105

  18. Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, afications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

  19. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viáfara John Jairo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    As an EFL Student teachers’ advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history as learners, their teaching context and preparation influenced their decisions. Moreover, it was possible to identify the strategies they implemented to interact in English with their students.

    En mi labor como tutor de estudiantes practicantes del inglés como lengua extranjera, he percibido constantemente que, para ellos, la utilización del inglés como medio de comunicación con sus estudiantes dentro de la clase es un reto. Por esta razón, me interesé por investigar cómo trece estudiantes practicantes en colegios públicos de Tunja afrontaban esta circunstancia. Mientras los participantes se involucraban en un modelo reflexivo de preparación docente, utilicé notas de campo, entrevistas y sus portafolios para explorar sus actitudes y estrategias. Los hallazgos revelan que sus decisiones fueron influenciadas por su trayectoria como estudiantes, su contexto de enseñanza y su preparación. Además, se pudieron identificar las estrategias que utilizaron para interactuar por medio del inglés con sus estudiantes.

  20. Challenges faced in e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada

    2014-05-01

    The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period. Storage also poses one of our main challenges. The institution lacks sufficient storage and at present some data are stored externally. Similarly, the back-up storage is limited and outdated, as in some instances storage tapes are used. The Ministry plans to acquire a new storage capacity to enable it to locally host all the data. Subsequently this new storage facility will include back-up storage hosted off-site. The acquisition is in progress and the implementation of the new system is envisaged within the near future. The Ministry is trying its utmost to upgrade its e-infrastructure to support the business of the organisation.

  1. Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Kiarie Kagira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, this paper identifies the special role of supplier and customer relationships, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility in internal operations/processes, upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization, policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing in new markets through partnership, and civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies.

  2. Women and land rights in rural Ethiopia :the case of Wolaita

    OpenAIRE

    Qoricho, Yonas Tafesse

    2011-01-01

    This thesis dealt with the land rights of women in rural areas of Wolaita Zone, southwestern Ethiopia by taking the case of rural women in Soddo Zuria District. Three questions were thus posed: How do the current modern rural land law and the Wolaita traditional/customary law ascertain the land rights of rural women in SZD? What kind of land rights do rural women enjoy in practice in SZD? What challenges are faced while implementing the land rights of rural women in the district? In order to ...

  3. Women and land rights in rural Ethiopia : the case of Wolaita

    OpenAIRE

    Qoricho, Yonas Tafesse

    2011-01-01

    This thesis dealt with the land rights of women in rural areas of Wolaita Zone, southwestern Ethiopia by taking the case of rural women in Soddo Zuria District. Three questions were thus posed: How do the current modern rural land law and the Wolaita traditional/customary law ascertain the land rights of rural women in SZD? What kind of land rights do rural women enjoy in practice in SZD? What challenges are faced while implementing the land rights of rural women in the district? In order to ...

  4. "Pedogeriatrics": a pediatric nephrologist's outlook on common challenges facing pediatric and geriatric nephrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Jose

    2010-03-01

    Dramatic demographic changes longevity and medical progress helped create a new population made up of the survivors of previously fatal diseases. These trends pose new major social and economic challenges that should be accounted for in health policy making. This paper discusses the similarities between the specialties of pediatrics and geriatrics, especially in the realm of patient care. Children and the elderly share a limited autonomy and dependence on the human environment (i.e., willing and able caregiving persons) due to age or disease. The long-term care of dependent patients (DP) requires caregiving persons who share with dependent persons the risk of losing autonomy, facing burnout, family disruption, and interference with work and educational activities. Families with DPs may face potential losses of income because both patients and caregivers are partially or completely unable to work, the former for medical reasons and the latter due to the new demands on their time and energy. Additionally, new expenses have to be met because while direct medical expenses might be covered by insurance or the State, other expenses have to be financed by the family, such as co-payments for medicines, new water or electricity home installations, and transport and eventual hotel costs if they have to stay overnight near a hospital outside of their town. The main objectives of long-term care should be to maximize patients' independence and prevent their physical and psychological deterioration while minimizing the social, economic and personal costs to caregivers. To achieve these goals, one needs a holistic approach, a multidisciplinary professional team (doctors, nurses, social workers, nutritionists and psychologists) and auxiliary staff (secretaries, electricians, administrators, messengers, cleaning staff, doormen, nursing aids and coordinators of medical appointments and medical procedures). Optimal management of DPs on chronic treatments such as chronic dialysis requires adequate communication skills, respectful attitudes toward patients and caregivers and effective use of communication and information technologies. Auxiliary personnel require specific training to contribute effectively to the DP attention processes. This paper postulates that pediatric and geriatric teams and their patients would benefit from closer training and sharing of experiences and systems. PMID:19517264

  5. Virtues and challenges in using the community based participatory research (cbpr) approach by the delta nutrition research initiative (delta niri) in developing rural community walking studies to lower obesity risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To discuss the CBPR approach in development, implementation, and evaluation of rural community walking and nutrition studies. Background: The current obesity epidemic, especially among rural and low-income minority populations, presents challenges in designing interventions that are effec...

  6. Progress and challenges of the rural cooperative medical scheme in China / ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? / Progrès et défis du plan médical coopératif rural en Chine / ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? / ???????????????? / Avances y desafíos del sistema médico cooperativo rural en China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Qingyue, Meng; Ke, Xu.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Situación Durante la transición de China hacia una economía de mercado en las décadas de 1980 y 1990, la población rural se enfrentó a importantes barreras para acceder a la atención sanitaria y tuvo que hacer frente a cargas financieras mayores que los residentes urbanos para pagar los ser [...] vicios de salud necesarios. Enfoque En 2003, China comenzó a poner en práctica un sistema médico cooperativo rural (RCMS, en sus siglas en inglés) a través, principalmente, de subsidios del gobierno. El esquema funciona a nivel de condado y ofrece un paquete modesto de beneficios. Marco regional A pesar del rápido crecimiento económico desde comienzos de la década de 1980, las disparidades en los ingresos han aumentado en China, en particular entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas. En respuesta, el gobierno ha puesto un mayor énfasis en el desarrollo social, incluido el desarrollo del sistema de salud. Ejemplos de ello son la priorización de un mejor acceso a los servicios sanitarios y la reducción de la carga de pago por los servicios necesarios. Cambios importantes Tras 10 años de implementación, el RCMS proporciona en la actualidad cobertura para toda la población rural y ha mejorado sustancialmente el acceso a la atención médica. A pesar de una reducción de los pagos directos del gasto total en salud, el pago por servicios necesarios sigue provocando dificultades financieras para muchos residentes rurales. Lecciones aprendidas En su primera década, el RCMS ha logrado avances por medio de la movilización política, los subsidios gubernamentales, la buena disposición del sistema de atención sanitaria y la disponibilidad de un sistema de supervisión y evaluación. Con objeto de seguir mejorando el RCMS, será necesario centrarse en reducir los costes, mejorar la calidad y lograr un sistema móvil. Abstract in english Problem During China’s transition to a market economy in the 1980s and 1990s, the rural population faced substantial barriers to accessing health care and encountered heavier financial burdens than urban residents in paying for necessary health services. Approach In 2003, China started to impleme [...] nt a rural cooperative medical scheme (RCMS), mainly through government subsidies. The scheme operates at the county level and offers a modest benefit package. Local setting In spite of rapid economic growth since the early 1980s, income disparities in China have increased, particularly between rural and urban populations. In response, the government has put greater emphasis on social development, including health system development. Examples are the prioritization of improved access to health services and the reduction of the burden of payment for necessary services. Relevant changes After 10 years of implementation, the RCMS now provides coverage to the entire rural population and has substantially improved access to health care. Yet despite a drop in out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure, paying for necessary services continues to cause financial hardship for many rural residents. Lessons learnt In its first decade, the RCMS made progress through political mobilization, government subsidies, the readiness of the health-care delivery system, and the availability of a monitoring and evaluation system. Further improving the RCMS will require a focus on cost containment, quality improvement and making the scheme portable.

  7. Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vigano, Laura; Bonomo, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ pr...

  8. Boom or Bust: Opportunities and Challenges of Aging in Rural Kansas

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Bolender

    2010-01-01

    Population aging is gaining a great deal of attention as we move toward the retirement of the Baby Boom generation. However, few studies have examined the processes and consequences of these aging trends in rural Kansas-and by extension, the Great Plains-at the community level. To that end, this project examines the community level impacts of population aging in rural Kansas. Primary methods included statistical community profile comparisons, site visits, and key informant interviews with loc...

  9. The Challenge of Bottom-Up Paradigm and Popular Participation in Sustainable Rural Development of Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEFILA J. O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformation inspite of the attendant difficulties. It examined popular participation as a concept relating to gaining political accessibility through democratic process, mobilizing and educating the masses to support government programmes and policies as in the case of present removal of fuel subsidy which generated hot debate and resulted in industrial action by labour unions with a view to changing government decision. But popular participation is being confronted with serious challenge of control in Nigeria. There is corruption in the high places, armed robbery attacks, religious intolerance, political violence, tribal discrimination and insecurity of life and properties thereby threatening corporate existence of the country. The paper advocates for the strengthening of a bottom-up strategy instead of top-down through decentralization of sufficient powers, functions and resources in favour of rural majority at the grassroot and by doing so, it will foster a balanced development between the centre and the subordinate local administrative units. Moreover, democratic governance must be allowed to reign supreme not only to attain the national goals of 2020 but also enable Nigeria to assume her rightful position in the world. One concludes that if the local communities are given the opportunities to get involved in the decision-making process that often affect their condition of living, engage in productive ventures, self-help communal projects, and harnessing the creative potentials, talents, skills combined with physical and human resources, it would go a long way to reduce not only the over-dependence of the people on the government to provide everything they need but also help to improve socio-economic well-being in the backward, under-privileged and disadvantaged rural areas.

  10. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)…

  11. Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era :  A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenveld, Marc; Heinonen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Date: June 7th of 2013 Level: Master thesis in marketing, 15 ECTS Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Authors: Tapio Heinonen & Marc Rozenveld 18 thof November 1988 & 16th of June 1990 Title: Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era. Subtitle: A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies. Tutor: Peter Selegård Keywords: media logic, advertising industry, advertising agencies, advertising and digital ...

  12. Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke Fisher Liu; Abbey Blake Levenshus

    2010-01-01

    This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S.) when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007), the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and ...

  13. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. The Background and Challenges Faced by the Small Medium Enterprises. A Human Resource Development Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Sarah bt. Omar; Lawrence Arokiasamy; Maimunah Ismail

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, a number of emerging issues are posing serious challenges to the small and medium sized enterprises (SME’s) in Malaysia. Hence, these enterprises enter the new era, dramatic challenges begun such as establishing new enterprises, globalization, financial constraints, high turnover, low motivation among employees, lack of human capital building, and more challenges ahead. Thus understanding the problems and challenges are fundamental solutions to expand and strategize SME...

  15. Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN facame a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of communication. When designing 'Mail-Info' strategy, it was decided that senior experienced staff with both technical and communicational skills should run this service, together with junior apprentices, to guarantee prompt and efficient feedback in the present and in the future. This paper is focused on describing the experience acquired in implementing this tool and the lessons learned up to date. (authors)

  16. An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study and the expected investment cost of these projects, and the environmental impacts of the renewable energy.

  17. HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blystad Astrid

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on nurses in their role as infant feeding counsellors in pMTCT programmes and the urgent need to provide the training and support structure necessary to promote professional confidence and skills. The organisation of counselling services must to a larger extent take into account the local realities in which nurses construct their role as counsellors to HIV-positive childbearing women.

  18. SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

  19. Children in urban areas around the world continue to face tremendous challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Max

    2012-03-02

    Make children the cornerstone of urban decision-making, urges UNICEFhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/feb/28/unicef-children-central-urban-planning?newsfeed=trueCities are failing children, UNICEF warnshttp://www.unicef.org/media/media_61839.htmlWorld's slum children in desperate need, UNICEF sayshttp://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/02/unicef-report-says-worlds-slum-children-in-desperate-need.htmlChildren in an Urban World: The State of the World's Children 2012http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/Declaration of the Rights of The Childhttp://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources/child.aspCommittee on the Rights of the Childhttp://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/In 1959, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to complement the Declaration of Human Rights approved in 1948. The hope was that this declaration would secure certain basic rights for children across the globe, regardless of nation origin, ethnicity, or other factors. Over the intervening five decades, much progress has been made, but according to a report released by UNICEF this Tuesday, many children in urban areas still face tremendous challenges. Commenting on the report, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake noted that "Today an increasing number of children living in slums and shantytowns are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in the world, deprived of the most basic services and denied the right to thrive." While cities often offer children the advantages of a diverse set of schools, health care and playgrounds, they do not work very well for the majority of those children living in poverty. For example, in some poor neighborhoods, a basic necessity like water can cost 50 times more than in wealthier neighborhoods, where residents are connected directly to water mains. The report is worth reading, and the hope is that it will inspire a broad coalition to tackle some of these challenges head on.The first link will take visitors a piece from this Tuesday's Guardian which offers commentary on this recently released report. Moving on, the second link will whisk users away to the official report press release from UNICEF's press center. The third link will take interested parties to a post from the Los Angeles Times' World Now blog which includes a short video about the report and its basic findings. The fourth link leads to the entire State of the World's Children Report, along with interviews with experts, infographics, and figures. The fifth link leads to the full text of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. The last link leads to the homepage of the UN's Committee on the Rights of the Child. Here visitors can learn about this independent body, their work, and also read their press releases and papers.

  20. Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

  1. Skilled Care at Birth among Rural Women in Nepal: Practice and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Sulochana; Teijlingen, Edwin; Raja, Edwin Amalraj; Dhakal, Keshar Bahadur

    2011-01-01

    In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess health problems during delivery and seeking care. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two Village Development Committees in Nepal in 2006. In total, 150 women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the...

  2. Creating an Educational Partnership Environment between Rural Retailers and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vanessa P.; Wesley, Scarlett C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an educational partnership experience between rural retailers and graduate students in a Merchandising, Apparel and Textiles program. Students were afforded an opportunity to work with small business owners in rural communities, giving them real world exposure to the actual challenges being faced by…

  3. Digital Revolution or Digital Divide: Will Rural Teachers Get a Piece of the Professional Development Pie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Tania

    2010-01-01

    In order to sustain the rural education community, access to high quality professional development opportunities must become a priority. Teachers in rural areas face many challenges in order to access professional learning equitable to their city counterparts. In the current climate, the Federal government of Australia is committed to initiatives…

  4. Physicians Who Treat the Elderly in Rural Florida: Trends Indicating Concerns regarding Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Anne; Menachemi, Nir; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Brooks, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Context: Rural elderly patients are faced with numerous challenges in accessing care. Additional strains to access may be occurring given recent market pressures, which would have significant impact on this vulnerable population. Purpose: This study focused on the practice patterns and future plans of rural Florida physicians who routinely see…

  5. State-level employment, accessibility and rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Abington

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

  6. All Things to All People: Challenges and Innovations in a Rural Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rosemary Ann; Casados, Felicia; Sheski, Harry

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the context in which rural community colleges seek to serve diverse constituencies of adult learners. A variety of innovative approaches to serving diverse adult learners are being undertaken by New Mexico State University at Grants, a two-year college in the New Mexico State University system serving a culturally diverse…

  7. The Linkage Model for Delivering Mental Health Services in Rural Communities: Benefits and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Mary P.; Ford, Marvella E.

    1998-01-01

    Studies linkages between mental and general health care with mental health staff in rural health centers. Staff identified roles, benefits, and barriers to linkages. Benefits included increased access; coordination; promotion of more holistic sense of health care. Barriers were lack of space, differences among health disciplines, and…

  8. Diversity on the rural hospital board: challenges for today and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Philip

    2007-06-01

    Rural boards don't have to be a collection of the usual suspects--and they shouldn't be. Just as in larger hospitals and health systems, there are ways to make sure your board reflects the full scope of your patient population. PMID:17608089

  9. New challenges facing traditional nature reserves: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Lichao; Feng, Limin

    2006-12-01

    Traditional conservation strategies can effectively preserve biodiversity within nature reserves, but may fail to mitigate the conflicts between rural development and wildlife conservation. This paper discusses the magnitude of the conflict and its development over time, focusing on elephant conservation and land resource management within and around nature reserves. We suggest that regulations alone can satisfy neither the demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services nor the demands to achieve human welfare. More innovative tools such as informed land-use planning and integrated conservation development projects are called for to reduce the agricultural interface with elephant range, and therefore to alleviate the damage caused by the conflict. PMID:21396011

  10. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Distinguishing Challenges Faced by Mid-Life Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanksley, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The United States public education system is facing a possible shortage of several hundred thousand teachers over the next decade. To overcome the projected shortfall in teacher supply, schools of education of state university and college systems may need to look to the fastest growing segment of the college student population, the non-traditional…

  12. The Challenges facing Professional Education and Practice of Academic Librarianship in the HE Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilce Sandra Rees

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the challenges facing professional education and practice of academic librarianship in a changing Higher Education world. Librarians in the UK, like all the professionals in the academic sector, are faced with changes in organisational mission within the university, and the changing role of information within society. Inter alia, they have to be accountable inside and outside the university and are in competition for resource allocation and funding. Against this socio-political background, the following eight challenges have been isolated: 1. recognition of librarianship as a profession (and the accreditation of library and information studies; 2. ethical professional responsibilities in a changing organisational world, and how they can be weaved into the librarian’s professional education; 3. the librarian in a changing (HE world; 4. the “assault” on professionalism; 5. the user’s centrality: fact or fiction?; 6. the librarian in an era of global challenge: is resistance futile?; 7. Potemkin villages: fabrication and performance in the academy, and 8. feminisation of the HE professions and patterns of employment. 9. Lastly, I’ll examine future scenarios for librarians and the implications of present practices, which affect all sectors.

  13. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  14. INCLUSION OF YOUTH WITH DISABILITIES - FACING THE CHALLENGES AND UTILIZING THE OPPORTUNITIES : The experiences of young people with physical disabilities in Thika, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Hasari, Henna

    2011-01-01

    Henna Elina Hasari. Inclusion of Youth With Disabilities – Facing the Challenges and Utilizing the Opportunities. The experiences of young people with physical disabilities in Thika, Kenya. Järvenpää. Autumn 2011. P. 66. 2 appendices. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Diak South. Järvenpää Unit. Degree Program in Social Services, Bachelor of Social Sciences. The aim of the study is to understand the everyday challenges Persons With Disabilities (PWD) face in the Kenyan...

  15. Health literacy, health communication challenges, and cancer screening among rural Native Hawaiian and Filipino Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sentell, Tetine; Cruz, May Rose Dela; Heo, Hyun Hee; Braun, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and Filipinos are disproportionately impacted by cancer, and are less likely to participate in cancer screening than whites. Limited information exists about health information pathways and health communication challenges as they relate to cancer screening in these groups. Six focus groups (n=77) of Native Hawaiian and Filipino women age 40+ years were conducted to investigate these research gaps. Participants noted many health information challenges. Challenges were both pra...

  16. How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isola Ajiferuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

  17. The challenge of multi-functional land use in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Dijst, M. J.; Elbersen, B.; Willis, K.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between cities and rural areas is subject to continual change. This was true in the past, but particularly in the last two centuries. The latter period showed a mass movement towards the cities in Western countries followed by the rest of the world, especially by the end of the century. Based on figures from the World Resource Institute, Weier (2000) concluded that in the year 2000 50% of the world’s population lived in urban areas, while a decade ago it was ...

  18. Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

  19. Privileging Practice: Facing the Challenge of Integrated Working for Outcomes for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, John; Coen, Liam; Dolan, Pat; Whyte, Liam

    2009-01-01

    Integrated working for outcomes is complex and challenging in theory and practice. Yet, outcomes and integrated working are central to the policy goals for children and families in Ireland. In this article, the authors present two main arguments: first, that reflective practice offers a useful general methodology for engaging with the theoretical…

  20. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  1. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.

  2. Facing the Challenge of Teaching and Learning EFL Reading: Beyond the Language of Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlaoui, Abdelilah Salim

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes challenges in teaching English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) reading in Morocco. Argues that teachers are needed who can change and reconstruct their own identities through sound pedagogical practice and effective leadership. Provides an example of such leadership by describing how and why classroom libraries were created and a regional…

  3. Understanding Educators as Adult Learners in Transformation: Facing the Professional Development Challenges of Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathleen P.

    2004-01-01

    School leaders can benefit by considering their faculty as adult learners in transformation while they are learning educational technology. In this article a Journey of Transformation model is presented to assist school leaders in meeting the challenges of the postinformation age. The model is grounded in transformational learning research and…

  4. Challenges Facing the Polish Banking Industry: A Comparative Study with UK Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Figueira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Poland entered the EU. This paper investigates the performance of the Polish banking industry over the period 1999–2004, by looking specifically at its comparative efficiency in relation to one of the largest banking sectors in the EU namely, that of the UK. Based on a range of efficiency measures, the empirical results reveal a surprising degree of relative efficiency in the Polish banking industry, no doubt reflecting the substantial economic changes introduced in Poland since 1989. The findings suggest that the Polish banking sector should be able to withstand the new competitive pressures that it faces following entry into the banking sector of the EU.

  5. Young women face gender-specific challenges that limit their political participation

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    Young women aged 18-24 are likely less to take part in elections than their male counterparts. As part of our new series on youth participation, Jacqui Briggs explores the reasons for this, showing how women face specific barriers because of their gender and are under-represented throughout the system. She argues that politicians need to address issues that affect women’s lives such as the gender pay gap and domestic violence to show young women that politics is relevant to them.

  6. China's new cooperative medical scheme for rural residents: popularity of broad coverage poses challenges for costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuqin; Zhang, Lulu; Chen, Qian

    2012-05-01

    One of the components in China's massive health reform effort is the New Cooperative Medical Scheme, which is intended to provide affordable health insurance, especially to the rural poor. This program offers three options with different benefits and costs to county health officials, who select one of the options to make available to local residents. Data were obtained from the New Cooperative Medical Scheme survey conducted by the Chinese Ministry of Health and the World Bank in 2005, which covered more than 47,000 people living in twenty-seven counties, to determine participation levels, identify which option was most attractive, and characterize the impact that each option had on care and costs. Our study found that those participants with the most limited coverage might have delayed seeking care, while the broadest coverage--the "Cadillac option"--was the most popular. Yet if this generous package were to be broadly offered, health costs would become unsustainable. Therefore, the Chinese government must consider which costs to cover for people in economically depressed rural areas. PMID:22566447

  7. DISTANCE EDUCATION POTENTIAL FOR A CANADIAN RURAL ISLAND COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning....

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of Common Concerns about Challenges Facing Pharmacy Experiential Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jennifer; Craddick, Karen; Eccles, Dayl; Kwasnik, Abigail; O'Sullivan, Teresa A

    2015-02-17

    Objective. To qualitatively analyze free-text responses gathered as part of a previously published survey in order to systematically identify common concerns facing pharmacy experiential education (EE) programs. Methods. In 2011, EE directors at all 118 accredited pharmacy schools in the US were asked in a survey to describe the most pressing issues facing their programs. Investigators performed qualitative, thematic analysis of responses and compared results against demographic data (institution type, class size, number of practice sites, number and type of EE faculty member/staff). Expert and novice investigators identified common themes via an iterative process. To check validity, additional expert and novice reviewers independently coded responses. The Cohen kappa coefficient was calculated and showed good agreement between investigators and reviewers. Results. Seventy-eight responses were received (66% response rate) representing 75% of publicly funded institutions and 71% of schools with class sizes 51-150. Themes identified as common concerns were site capacity, workload/financial support, quality assurance, preceptor development, preceptor stipends, assessment, onboarding, and support/recognition from administration. Good agreement (mean percent agreement 93%, ? range=0.59-0.92) was found between investigators and reviewers. Conclusion. Site capacity for student placements continues to be the foremost concern for many experiential education programs. New concerns about preceptor development and procedures for placing and orienting students at individual practice sites (ie, "onboarding") have emerged and must be addressed as new accreditation standards are implemented. PMID:25741022

  9. Positioning Industrial Design Education within Higher Education: How to face increasingly challenging market forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Liem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.

  10. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shougang Wei; Lirong Ju; Man Li; Wei Wang,

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMin...

  11. Strategies Used and Challenges Faced by a Breast Cancer Patient Navigator in an Urban Underserved Community

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, Jeanne M.; Wu, Justine; Dicicco-bloom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Patient navigation has been widely implemented by cancer care programs across the United States. While activities of navigators have been described elsewhere, little has been documented regarding specific strategies used or challenges experienced by navigators from their own perspectives. We describe the experience of an African American patient navigator who promoted breast cancer screening and facilitated diagnosis and treatment among inner-city mostly African American women in Newark, New ...

  12. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Bamidele A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the ef...

  13. Computerized provider order entry systems – Research imperatives and organizational challenges facing pathology services

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are contributing to major changes taking place in pathology and within health services more generally. In this article, we draw on our research experience for over 7 years investigating the implementation and diffusion of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems to articulate some of the key informatics challenges confronting pathology laboratories. The implementation of these systems, with their improved information management and deci...

  14. The European Picture: Ten Challenges Facing EU Public Law in the Coming Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    This chapter’s objective is to reflect on existing and impending challenges to European Union (EU) public law from both a constitutional and an administrative angle. The background to such an overview is that the EU law has radically changed in the past decades. Next to several Treaty amendments enlarging the scope of EU policies, the EU has grown substantially in size. European administrative law has evolved over time and has become an important factor shaping the reality of policy impleme...

  15. Facing the challenges of the One-Tablet-Per-Child policy in Thai primary school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchada Viriyapong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Education in Thailand is currently distributing tablets to all first year primary (Prathom 1 school children across the country as part of the government’s “One Tablet Per Child” (OTPC project to improve education. Early indications suggest that there are many unexplored issues in designing and implementing tablet activities for such a large and varied group of students and so far there is a lack of evaluation on the effectiveness of the tablet activities. In this article, the authors propose four challenges for the improving Thailand’s OTPC project, consisting of: developing contextualised content, ensuring usability, providing teacher support, and assessing learning outcomes. A case study on developing science activities for first year primary school children on the OTPC devices is the basis for presenting possible solutions to the four challenges. In presenting a solution to the challenge of providing teacher support, an architecture is described for collecting data from student interactions with the tablet in order to analysis the current progress of students while in a live classroom setting. From tests in three local Thai schools, the authors evaluate the case study from both student and teacher perspectives. In concluding the paper, a framework for guiding mobile learning innovation is utilised to review the qualities and shortcomings of the case study.

  16. Overcoming methodological challenges in evaluating health communication campaigns: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilkey, David K; Hutchinson, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the Smiling Sun multimedia health communication campaign in encouraging women to use family health services in rural Bangladesh. We control for endogenous program placement and address the potential endogeneity of self-reported campaign exposure in health-behavior equations by estimating a set of exposure, contraceptive-use, and antenatal-care equations by full information maximum likelihood (FIML). We find that evaluation methods that do not take into account these nonrandom characteristics of communication and program exposure may produce underestimates of program benefits. Relative to the exposure effect of 3.7 percentage points in the simple model of contraceptive use, the exposure effect in the FIML model is a larger 5.5 percentage points, corresponding to as many as 40,000 additional contraceptive users. We conclude that evaluations of health communication campaigns would benefit from methods such as estimation by FIML that address nonrandom exposure and program targeting. PMID:21834411

  17. Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin

    2015-03-16

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692

  18. Facing the Challenges : ASEAN’s Institutional Responses to China’s Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from the previous ones. ASEAN can potentially make a great contribution to a peaceful transformation of the international system. How to resolve the South China Sea disputes peacefully will be a critical task for both the ASEAN and Chinese leaders in the next decade or two.

  19. Barriers to the care of HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamangaba Francis; Munsanje Bornface; Sutcliffe Catherine G; van Dijk Janneke H; Thuma Philip E; Moss William J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barriers to care, and treatment responses of HIV-infected children seeking care in rural Zambia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural southern Zambia. Information was collected from caretakers and medical records. ...

  20. Health literacy, health communication challenges, and cancer screening among rural Native Hawaiian and Filipino Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, Tetine; Cruz, May Rose Dela; Heo, Hyun Hee; Braun, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and Filipinos are disproportionately impacted by cancer, and are less likely to participate in cancer screening than whites. Limited information exists about health information pathways and health communication challenges as they relate to cancer screening in these groups. Six focus groups (n=77) of Native Hawaiian and Filipino women age 40+ years were conducted to investigate these research gaps. Participants noted many health information challenges. Challenges were both practical and interpersonal and included both written and oral health communication. Practical challenges included “big” words, complexity of terms, and lack of plain English. Interpersonal issues included doctors rushing, doctors not assessing comprehension, and doctors treating respondents as patients not people. Women noted that they would often not ask questions even when they knew they did not understand because they did not want the provider to think negatively of them. Overarching themes to improve cancer communication gaps included: (1) the importance of family and community in health information dissemination; (2) the key role women play in interpreting health information for others; (3) the importance of personal experience and relationships to the salience of health information; and (4) the desire for local cultural relevance in health communication. Findings are discussed in light of the 2010 National Action Plan for Health Literacy. PMID:23536194

  1. Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural Mexican-American mothers: the challenge of attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n?=?26, attention control [AC] n?=?27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (??=?0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus providing an opportunity to reduce their children's risk of multiple diseases and obesity. Only when we address these considerations will we have an opportunity to decrease health disparities, promote healthy behaviors, and be trusted health care partners. PMID:25373565

  2. Juggling educational ends: Non-Indigenous Yukon principals and the policy challenges that they face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blakesley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a 2008 study of non-indigenous principals working in indigenous Yukon contexts. It examines the policy contexts in which Yukon principals are embedded, giving attention to how they address the tensions that exist as a result of operating at the intersections of multiple policy levels. The application of critical ethnography generates the opportunity to reveal and examine the tensions, distinctions, and contradictions underpinning their practice. The principals identify fragmented curricular policy; the competition between instructional time, mandated external curricula, and locally developed curricula; and field trip and hiring policies as being problematic. The principals also describe how they cope with the challenges and tensions that arise as a result of being responsible and accountable to balance competing educational ends, to the satisfaction of multiple external levels of control. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the deployment of externally mandated curricula in the Yukon.

  3. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  4. Perception Challenges Faced by Al-Qaeda on the Battlefield of Influence Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J.F. Forest

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges

  5. The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologiesuch as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures

  6. Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: Challenges facing new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi-slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patieal situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

  7. The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiore, J. J.; Murphie, W. E.; Meador, S. W.

    2002-02-26

    The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures.

  8. Computerized provider order entry systems - Research imperatives and organizational challenges facing pathology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are contributing to major changes taking place in pathology and within health services more generally. In this article, we draw on our research experience for over 7 years investigating the implementation and diffusion of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems to articulate some of the key informatics challenges confronting pathology laboratories. The implementation of these systems, with their improved information management and decision support structures, provides the potential for enhancing the role that pathology services play in patient care pathways. Beyond eliminating legibility problems, CPOE systems can also contribute to the efficiency and safety of healthcare, reducing the duplication of test orders and diminishing the risk of misidentification of patient samples and orders. However, despite the enthusiasm for CPOE systems, their diffusion across healthcare settings remains variable and is often beset by implementation problems. Information systems like CPOE may have the ability to integrate work, departments and organizations, but unfortunately, health professionals, departments and organizations do not always want to be integrated in ways that information systems allow. A persistent theme that emerges from the research evidence is that one size does not fit all, and system success or otherwise is reliant on the conditions and circumstances in which they are located. These conditions and circumstances are part of what is negotiated in the complex, messy and challenging area of ICT implementation. The solution is not likely to be simple and easy, but current evidence suggests that a combination of concerted efforts, better research designs, more sophisticated theories and hypotheses as well as more skilled, multidisciplinary research teams, tackling this area of study will bring substantial benefits, improving the effectiveness of pathology services, and, as a direct corollary, the quality of patient care. PMID:20805962

  9. The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kathrin, Knüppe.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term population growth and economic development are placing ever-increasing pressure on South Africa's freshwater supply. On the basis of the current climate change predictions, which often entail uncertain consequences for aquifer systems and the associated groundwater goods and services, it i [...] s expected that the stress on water will increase even further. Currently, South Africa's groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper presents the results of a qualitative assessment of interviews conducted with experts in South Africa. Four key challenges are identified to the development of adaptive and sustainable groundwater management and the successful implementation of current water legislation in South Africa. These are: the undervaluation of groundwater importance and significance; the need for expertise and information at all scales; the centralisation of power; and the disregard of ecosystems and the associated goods and services. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of adaptive water management represents a suitable approach to governing groundwater resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socio-economic and environmental domains. Supporting principles, such as tools for cooperation, participation and information networks, have been developed to facilitate the implementation of adaptive water management approaches and hence to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.

  10. Expansão das licenciaturas em Educação do Campo: desafios e potencialidades / Expansion of the degree in rural education: challenges and potentialities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monica Castagna, Molina.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo integra a Pesquisa realizada a partir do Observatório da Educação da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), intitulada "Políticas da Expansão da Educação Superior no Brasil". Uma das frentes da expansão da Educação Superior tem se dado no âmbito da formação [...] de educadores do campo, com a implementação de 42 cursos de uma nova modalidade de graduação, intitulada "Licenciatura em Educação do Campo". Se considerados os aspectos relativos à ampliação concreta da oferta de formação de educadores e a conquista dos fundos públicos do Estado para manutenção destas graduações esta expansão destes cursos permanentes pode ser tomada como vitória dos movimentos sociais. Porém, esta expansão também impõe uma série de desafios à manutenção dos princípios originais do Movimento da Educação do Campo. Quais os riscos e potencialidades desta ampliação? Com a perspectiva de apresentar elementos de reflexão sobre estas questões, este artigo elenca os riscos da descaracterização de aspectos estruturantes desta política e as potencialidades que se julgam conter neste processo de ampliação, que estão sendo analisadas na pesquisa "Políticas de Expansão da Educação Superior no Brasil". Abstract in english This article is part of the research conducted from the Centre for Education of CAPES, entitled "Expansion of Higher Education Policies in Brazil". One of the important development in the expansion of higher education, has been the training of rural educators, with the implementation of 42 courses o [...] f a new type of degree, entitled "Degree in Rural Education." If we consider the aspects relating to the concrete enlargement of places for teacher training and the achievement of gaining public funds from the State to fund these courses, this expansion of these permanent courses can be taken as a victory for the social movements. However, this expansion also imposes a number of challenges to maintain the original principles of the Rural Education Movement. What are the risks and potentialities of this expansion? With the prospect of presenting thoughts on these issues, this article lists the risks of disfiguration of fundamental aspects of this policy and potentialities that are deemed to be contained within this expansion process, which are being analysed in the research "Political Expansion of Higher Education in Brazil".

  11. Confronting the climate change challenge: discussing the role of rural India under cumulative emission budget approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO2) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.

  12. Scaling up proven public health interventions through a locally owned and sustained leadership development programme in rural Upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Joan; Mansour Morsi; Swesy Abdo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In 2002, the Egypt Ministry of Health and Population faced the challenge of improving access to and quality of services in rural Upper Egypt in the face of low morale among health workers and managers. From 1992 to 2000, the Ministry, with donor support, had succeeded in reducing the nationwide maternal mortality rate by 52%. Nevertheless, a gap remained between urban and rural areas. Case description In 2002, the Ministry, with funding from the United States Agency for ...

  13. The Challenges of Youth Empowerment through Access to Credit in the Rural Areas of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Mohammed Aliero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment and poverty are endemic among Nigerian youth in spite of numerousapproaches to curtail the menace Access to credit is critical to enable the poor totransform their production systems and thus exit poverty. It is a well known fact that anefficient financial sector that responds to the needs of the private sector increasesinvestment, enhances economic growth, and creates job opportunities which is one of themajor challenges for developing economies. This paper examines the role of creditdeepening on youth empowerment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The approach of thepaper is qualitative and uses content analysis; literature was reviewed and thereafterconclusion was drawn based on the literature weight. It is however important to note thateconomic empowerment through accessibility to credit could be achieved if and only iffactors like collateral, interest rate, transaction cost and financial literacy, among othersthat pose challenges in accessing credit are remedied Specifically we recommend Indianmodel (Bharatia Yuva Shakti.

  14. Small-scale farming in rural areas :logistical challenges with direct distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsveen, Roar; Solvoll, Gisle

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews Norwegian farmers’ and companies’ strategies and experience with the use of direct distribution and e-commerce when selling agriculture products. Based on the opportunities and pitfalls resulting from the use of Internet and e-commerce in consumer marketing, the article discusses the commercial possibilities emerging from direct distribution of agricultural products to end-consumers. The focus on direct distribution is brought up to date through studying the challenge...

  15. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  16. Teacher Training and Transitions in Rural Indonesian Schools: A Case Study of Bogor, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…

  17. Frontier of therapeutic antibody discovery: The challenges and how to face them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhi-Jian; Deng, Su-Jun; Huang, Da-Gang; He, Yun; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Li; Jin, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines. The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies, phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far, and many incremental improvements are being made constantly. These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets. A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention. The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation. Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets. The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on. The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity; however, one needs contingency plans for emergence of anti-product antibody response for clinical trials. PMID:23275803

  18. Potential challenges facing distributed leadership in health care: evidence from the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Beech, Nic; MacIntosh, Robert; Bushfield, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of leaderism in health care has been a subject of much academic and practical debate. Recently, distributed leadership (DL) has been adopted as a key strand of policy in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, there is some confusion over the meaning of DL and uncertainty over its application to clinical and non-clinical staff. This article examines the potential for DL in the NHS by drawing on qualitative data from three co-located health-care organisations that embraced DL as part of their organisational strategy. Recent theorising positions DL as a hybrid model combining focused and dispersed leadership; however, our data raise important challenges for policymakers and senior managers who are implementing such a leadership policy. We show that there are three distinct forms of disconnect and that these pose a significant problem for DL. However, we argue that instead of these disconnects posing a significant problem for the discourse of leaderism, they enable a fantasy of leadership that draws on and supports the discourse. PMID:25529349

  19. Desafios do Serviço Social na atualidade em Portugal / Challenges faced by Social Work in Portugal nowadays

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Irene, Carvalho; Carla, Pinto.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este texto pretendemos contribuir para a compreensão do Serviço Social e da profissão de assistente social em Portugal, desde a sua emergência até a atualidade, destacando os desafios em contexto de globalização e do risco social. Para efetuar esta análise situamo-nos na inter-relação Estado-soc [...] iedade, em que o Serviço Social, enquanto corpo de saber específico, se destaca entre o mundo da vida e mundo dos sistemas. Tivemos em conta o contexto social, político e econômico e os valores, assim como as influências teóricas, as organizações e as orientações das políticas públicas e sociais que determinam o modelo de profissão e o modelo de formação prosseguido em Portugal. Abstract in english We intended to contribute to the understanding the social work profession in Portugal since its emergence to the present day, highlighting the challenges in the context of globalization and social risk. To perform this analysis are situating in the interrelationship State-society, where the Social W [...] ork, as a body of specific knowledge stands between the world of the living and the world of systems. We consider the social, political and economic context and values ??as well as the theoretical influences, organizations and guidelines of social and public policies that determine the model of profession and training model being pursued in Portugal.

  20. Challenges Faced by Village Health Teams (VHTs in Amuru, Gulu and Pader Districts in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geofrey Kimbugwe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary health care provision through innovative community level interventions such as the Village Health Team (VHT concept in Uganda can be a rational way of achieving universal access to healthcare. This cross-sectional study interviewed 150 VHT members and 16 key informants in three districts in Northern Uganda to establish the roles of VHTs, the service gaps encountered and the measures in place to address these gaps. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Direct content analysis of themes of transcribed qualitative data was conducted manually for common codes. The majority of the respondents 64.29% (n = 72 reported to have been VHT volunteers for more than 5 years. Among the roles were community mobilization reported by 99.1% (n = 111 and home visiting of individuals reported by 97.3% (n = 109. Lack of transport, motivation, adequate skills and community appreciation with nearly no measures in place to counteract the challenges was reported by almost all respondents. Although the VHT concept can be a significant means of achieving universal access to primary health care, extensive community involvement and motivation of the volunteers are highly needed for a maximum benefit.

  1. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  2. Aging: the triumph of humanity-are we prepared to face the challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Zile

    2012-01-01

    Advances in medicine have increased the life expectancy resulting in an increase in the geriatric population all over the world, and their proportion will only continue to rise in the coming years. It is known that the elderly bear a significant burden of morbidity, which is why health systems globally spearheaded by the WHO are waking up to the need for better geriatric health services. This includes India, whose health system continues to grapple with the health challenges of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This article enumerates the various government policies and programs, constitutional and legal provisions available for the care of the elderly, and concludes that they are grossly inadequate to deal with the various physical, psychological, and emotional needs of the aging population. Mainstreaming of geriatric health to address the health needs of the elderly at all levels of health care, both in the public and the private sectors, giving due importance to multidimensional rehabilitative services and terminal care, involving NGOs and voluntary organizations, and stepping up social security in old age are the recommended measures for improving geriatric health in India. PMID:23229210

  3. Frontier of therapeutic antibody discovery: The challenges and how to face them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines. The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies, phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far, and many incremental improvements are being made constantly. These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets. A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention. The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation. Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets. The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on. The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity; however, one needs contingency plans for emergence of anti-product antibody response for clinical trials.

  4. International Cooperation and Internal displacement in Colombia: facing the challenges of the largest humanitarian crisis in South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuela Trindade, Viana.

    Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this article is to understand the interaction between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Colombian government in their attempts to mitigate forced internal displacement, as well as the main challenges faced in addressing this problem. This article focu [...] ses on the interpretation adopted by the forementioned actors, who link this displacement to the armed conflict the country that has endured for more than forty years. Although this issue has been discussed for decades, the formulation of national policies intended to mitigate its effects came late, in the mid-1990s. Similarly, the UNHCR began paying more attention only in the late 1990s. The article concludes that there is a significant disparity between the development of norms regarding the internally displaced and the execution of such norms. For example, there needs to be greater coordination between national and local organizations, and national and international organizations. With respect to the prevention of internal displacement and the evaluation of the impact of these policies, the challenge is even greater; as such efforts are in the beginning stages. The UNHCR has used the same criteria as the Colombian government in executing its tasks; these criteria should be rethought and redefined in light of the High Commissioner's experience.

  5. The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei-guang

    2009-01-01


    More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the inno...

  6. How Waldorf School graduates cope with the challenges they face during military service: a ten-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Goldshmidt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews part of a study that dealt with how graduates of the Waldorf School integrate into Israeli society, as seen from their perspective. The purpose of the study was to explore how Waldorf School graduates integrate into society on completing high school, and examine the nature and quality of life readiness that the Waldorf educational method provides its graduates. Three main areas of life were reviewed in the study: graduates in the one-year volunteer framework, in the regular military framework, and in academic studies. Of these, the current study reviews only the area of military service. The study applied qualitative methodology, including semi-structured interviews with 46 graduates of the Waldorf School in Harduf, Israel, following twelve full years of study. This is the first study of Waldorf-educated graduates ever conducted worldwide relying solely qualitative methodology, and the only study conducted in Israel thus far. The study’s main conclusion is that the Waldorf School, as an education system emphasizing artistic and creative manifestation, hands-on work, a connection with nature, warm personal relationships, and an absence of exams and grades, can produce graduates who see themselves as successfully cope with the challenges they face following completion of school, and in this particular case, the challenges of coping with military service in the IDF. One of the questions surfacing from the study is whether it is possible to implement Waldorf School methods and approaches fully or partially also in the framework of other governmental education systems.

  7. Facing the airway challenges in maxillofacial trauma: A retrospective review of 288 cases at a level i trauma center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Babita; Prasad, Arunima; Ramchandani, Sarita; Singhal, Maneesh; Mathur, Purva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maxillofacial trauma is an apt example of a difficult airway. The anesthesiologist faces challenges in their management at every step from airway access to maintenance of anesthesia and extubation and postoperative care. Methods: A retrospective study was done of 288 patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial trauma over a period of five years. Demographic data, detailed airway assessment and the method of airway access were noted. Trauma scores, mechanism of injury, duration of hospital stay, requirement of ventilator support were also recorded. Complications encountered during perioperative anaesthetic management were noted. Results: 259 (89.93%) of the patients were male and 188 (62.85%) were in the 21-40 year range. 97.57% of the cases were operated electively. 206 (71.53%) patients were injured in motor vehicular accidents. 175 (60.76%) had other associated injuries. Mean Glasgow coma scale score (GCS), injury severity score (ISS) and revised trauma score (RTS) were 14.18, 14.8 and 12, respectively. Surgery was performed almost nine days following injury. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days. ICU admission was required in 22 patients with mean duration of ICU stay being two days. Majority of patients had difficult airway. 240 (83.33%) patients were intubated in the operating room and fibreoptic guided intubation was done in 159 (55.21%) patients. Submental intubation was done in 45 (14.93%) cases. Conclusions: Maxillofacial injuries present a complex challenge to the anaesthesiologist. The fibreoptic bronchoscope is the main weapon available in our arsenal. The submental technique scores over the time-honored tracheostomy. Communication between the anaesthesiologist and the surgeon must be given paramount importance.

  8. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero Corzo Josefina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 
    of education.


    Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

  9. Construction and Validation of a Survey Instrument to Determine the Gender-Related Challenges Faced by Pre-Service Male Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Vaughan; Pedersen, Scott; Hill, Allen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The gender-related challenges facing males entering the primary-school teaching profession have been well documented in the academic literature over recent decades. The majority of these data have come about through qualitative reports. Whilst qualitative methods provide important perspectives into these issues, the use of valid and reliable…

  10. Ethical Disparities: Challenges Encountered by Multidisciplinary Providers in Fulfilling Ethical Standards in the Care of Rural and Minority People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Warner, Teddy D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Health care disparities are well documented for people living in rural areas and for people who are members of ethnic minorities. Purpose: Our goal was to determine whether providers report greater difficulty in providing care for rural than urban residents and for ethnic minorities than patients/clients in general in 4 practice areas of…

  11. CHALLENGES FACING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ ICT-BASED MARKET INFORMATION SERVICE (MIS) PROJECTS: THE CASE OF BROSDI AND WOUGNET IN UGANDA

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Juma Okello (Corresponding Author); Narathius Asingwire

    2011-01-01

    Access and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by the smallholder rural farmer is envisaged to improve their welfare due to increased access to input and output markets. This study analyzes the constraints to the use of such tools for market linkage in Uganda and policy implications. The paper draws from a case study of two local organizations ICT-based projects namely, Busoga Rural Open Source Development Initiative (BROSDI), and Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET). The ...

  12. Challenges faced by NRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) played an important role in setting up of nuclear power plants (two) and development of fuel technology. However, with no current plans for expansion of this programme, the Institute is looking mainly into multi-cycle fuel management and life extension issues. The Institute focuses on programmes related to radioisotope and radiation applications and on the use of nuclear technologies for non-nuclear applications. The ININ is the major provider of radioisotopes for medical uses. It also promotes and uses nuclear analytical techniques for addressing a variety of problems. In non-nuclear areas some R and D examples include: the use of thermal plasma for hazardous waste incineration, biodegradation of polymers and development of separation techniques for treating industrial effluents. For preservation of knowledge, the Institute has instituted PhD. programmes in materials science, medical physics and nuclear science in collaboration with a university. (author)

  13. Challenges Facing Guitar Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The guitar is an extremely versatile instrument. It can produce complex chords and arpeggiated textures as readily as single-note melodies. In the twentieth century alone, it has appeared in a wide range of genres; classical, jazz, blues, rock, and bossa nova compose a partial list. The guitar is also a difficult instrument. Inconsistencies across…

  14. Challenges facing young astrophysicists

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, N L; Heng, K; Juric, M; Kocsis, B; Kuhlen, M; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J L; Pan, M; Rudd, D H; van de Ven, G; Zheng, Z

    2009-01-01

    In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shortage of child care options and design reasonable profession-wide parental leave policies. (4) Streamline the job application and hiring process. We summarize our reasons for bringing these areas to the attention of the committee, and we suggest several practical steps that can be taken to address them.

  15. Challenging logics of complex intervention trials: Community perspectives of a health care improvement intervention in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwaro, Ferdinand M; Chandler, Clare I R; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Nabirye, Christine; Taaka, Lilian; Kayendeke, Miriam; Nayiga, Susan; Staedke, Sarah G

    2015-04-01

    Health systems in many African countries are failing to provide populations with access to good quality health care. Morbidity and mortality from curable diseases such as malaria remain high. The PRIME trial in Tororo, rural Uganda, designed and tested an intervention to improve care at health centres, with the aim of reducing ill-health due to malaria in surrounding communities. This paper presents the impact and context of this trial from the perspective of community members in the study area. Fieldwork was carried out for a year from the start of the intervention in June 2011, and involved informal observation and discussions as well as 13 focus group discussions with community members, 10 in-depth interviews with local stakeholders, and 162 context descriptions recorded through quarterly interviews with community members, health workers and district officials. Community members observed a small improvement in quality of care at most, but not all, intervention health centres. However, this was diluted by other shortfalls in health services beyond the scope of the intervention. Patients continued to seek care at health centres they considered inadequate as well as positioning themselves and their children to access care through other sources such as research and nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects. These findings point to challenges of designing and delivering interventions within a paradigm that requires factorial (reduced to predictable factors) problem definition with easily actionable and evaluable solutions by small-scale projects. Such requirements mean that interventions often work on the periphery of a health system rather than tackling the murky political and economic realities that shape access to care but are harder to change or evaluate with randomized controlled trials. Highly projectified settings further reduce the ability to genuinely 'control' for different health care access scenarios. We argue for a raised consciousness of how evaluation paradigms impact on intervention choices. PMID:25748110

  16. Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

  17. Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Secations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on the themes of the 2007 conference held in Aix-en-Provence. These topical issues were: the roles, functions and values that guide TSOs in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety; technical and scientific support for nuclear safety infrastructure development and capacity building; the emerging need for nuclear security technical and scientific support; and nuclear safety and nuclear security networking and centres of excellence. The President's report on the conference, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, is included in these proceedings and provides an overview of all the issues addressed. In the presentations and subsequent discussions, the conference highlighted positive outcomes, confronted areas of continuing concern and explored avenues to address those concerns. Among the more salient findings was the determination that a means for continuous dialogue among TSOs was necessary. The need to support the review process for a future IAEA safety publication on external expert support on safety issues was also identified. Finally, consideration of a TSO forum along the lines of the Regulatory Cooperation Forum to develop best practices and promote common values was recommended. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a foreword, a summary, the opening addresses and invited papers, and the conclusions, recommendations and a conference summary by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers, the list of participants and the presentations that were submitted with the invited papers.

  18. Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment plants: challenges facing small water treatment plants in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MNB, Momba; CL, Obi; P, Thompson.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered inc [...] luded ownership and design capacity of the plants, water sources, and various methods of disinfection, equipment currently employed and performance of the treatment plants. In general, the majority (over 80%) of the SWTPs surveyed in the designated provinces were owned by the district municipalities. The designed capacities of these plants varied between 1 and 60 M?/d; the smallest capacity was 100 m³/d and the largest 120 M?/d. The small water treatment plants abstracted their raw water from either surface or groundwater or a combination of both water sources with greater preponderance for surface water sources (over 86%). Water treatment practices were noted to be the conventional types mainly coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. Two types of coagulants namely polyelectrolyte (66%) and alum (18%) were commonly used by the water treatment plants across the provinces studied. Rapid gravity filtration, pressure filter and slow sand filtration systems accounted for 60%, 23% and 9% of the filtration systems across the provinces, respectively. The predominant types of disinfectants employed were chlorine gas (69%) followed by sodium (15%) and calcium (14%) hypochlorite. Over 50% of the various SWTPs did not comply with the SANS 241 Class I (

  19. Rural Economy and Land Use Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rural landscape of England has been greatly transformed over the past few decades, and this particular research initiative based at the University of Newcastle was created in order "to investigate the social, economic, environmental and technological challenges faced by rural areas." Visitors to the site should note the main divisions, which include "Research", "Events", and "Publications/Press". For researchers and scientists, the "Publications/Press" area will be a special treat, as it features briefing papers, annual reports, and their policy series. The topics covered here are quite diverse and recent paper titles include "Eating Biodiversity: An Investigation of the Links Between Quality Food Production and Biodiversity Protection" and "The Role of Regulation in Developing Biological Alternatives to Pesticides". Policy practitioners and others working in the areas of land use planning and rural economic development will want to return to the site and check up on future developments, and it may even help those looking at comparative studies in these areas.

  20. Rural nurses’ continuing education needs: A U.S. multi-site survey reveals challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseanne Fairchild

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Provision of relevant, evidence-based continuing education (CE is an integral part of maintaining a highly competent rural nursing workforce. Numerous tangible and intangible barriers exist to nurses’ participation in CE in rural settings. Major barriers to accessibility and participation in CE for rural nurses include: 1 Geographic isolation, 2 lack of perceived administrative, financial, and/or technological resources and support, 3 lack of time due to workload, inadequate staffing, and/or travel distance, 4 lack of relevance of continuing education topics, and 5 lack of a dedicated on-site nurse educator. Proactive development of academic-practice partnerships is important to support rural care providers regarding CE delivery. The purpose of this study was to assess perceptions of CE needs of nursing unit staff working in a group of health care facilities in a rural region of midwestern U.S. Methods: A cross-sectional CE needs assessment survey was conducted in winter of 2010 with rural health care providers (N=302/1107; response rate 27% working in rural healthcare facilities (N=40, including rural hospitals (n=10 and long-term care (LTC facilities (n=30. A well-validated 72-item Likert-type survey was distributed via a secure online university survey platform, and included assessment of 59 CE need areas. Internal consistency reliability was 0.87. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed a greater number of licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants working in rural LTC’s (27.2% and 62.5%, respectively compared to rural hospital setting (14% and 15%, respectively. There are a large number of associate degree-prepared nurses (63% working in the participating rural hospitals compared to LTC setting (8.4%. Respondents’ priority learning needs included: 1 Review aspects of medication administration/drug interactions; 2 improve skills in patient assessment (physical/mental; 3 increase knowledge of management of patients with comorbidities; 4 promotion of patient safety; 5 enhance communication skills/teamwork; 6 increase lifelong learning. Student’s t tests revealed LTC nursing unit staff reported significantly higher priority learning needs in “manage aggressive behavior (verbal/physical” (t = 2.044, df = 300,  ? = .003, “family participation in care” (t= 2.470, df= 300, ?= .036, and “maintain standards of care” (t= 2.880, df = 300, ?= .042, whilst acute care nursing staff reported a significantly higher priority learning need in “manage a crisis”  (t= 2.122, df = 300, ?= .050. Conclusions: Study results revealed key learning needs related to several aspects of patient care delivery for rural nursing unit staff who are primarily nursing assistants or nurses meeting minimum state educational requirements. Basic health- care workforce training does not typically emphasize continuous quality improvements, or how to recognize and develop an evidence-based practice at the entry level. The potential for nursing knowledge stagnation among entry level nursing unit staff in rural settings needs to be addressed to help break down isolation barriers impacting knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of health care providers practicing in rural health care facilities.

  1. Office of Rural Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... identify common successes and challenges. Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program Funding to reduce the morbidity associated ... Grants.gov by March 27 HRSA-15-063 Rapid Response Rural Data Analysis and Issue Specific Rural ...

  2. International Relations and Cooperation facing the evolution of societies and challenges of living processes : Open Strategies for action : the added-value of patrimonial strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartingh, Franc?ois-vadim

    2008-01-01

    Facing challenges of a planetary dimension especially regarding the living systems and the man in the biosphere, the system of international relations and cooperation is being put in question. The international organizations and their mode of cooperation are being questioned as far as their methods and their fundamentals are concerned. If the universal values are recognized by all, the complexity of the problems in the biosphere and the urgency they reach now do not appear to be dealt with in...

  3. Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development

    OpenAIRE

    Marunda, E.; Sai, J. P.; Muchenje, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources...

  4. Clinicians' concerns about decision support interventions for patients facing breast cancer surgery options: understanding the challenge of implementing shared decision-making.

    OpenAIRE

    Caldon, Lj; Collins, Ka; Reed, Mw; Sivell, S.; Austoker, J.; Clements, Am; Patnick, J.; Elwyn, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is interest in interventions that provide support for patients facing challenging decisions, such as the choice between mastectomy and breast conservation surgery for breast cancer. However, it is difficult to implement these interventions. One potential source of resistance is the attitudes of clinicians. OBJECTIVE: To examine specialist breast clinicians' opinions about the provision of decision support interventions (DesIs) for patients. METHODS: As part of the developmen...

  5. Rural populations and early periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment services: challenges and opportunities for local public health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan L; Smith, Michael; Hardin, James; Brock-Martin, Amy

    2015-04-01

    Objectives. We examined geographic differences in Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) visits as the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) transitioned from direct service provision (DSP) to assuring delivery within the larger health care system. Methods. We examined infant cohorts with continuous Medicaid coverage and normal birth weights from 1995 to 2010. Outcome variables included any EPSDT visit and the ratio of observed to expected visits. Change in SCDHEC market share over time by residence was the primary variable of interest. We used growth curve models to examine changes in EPSDT visits by rural areas and levels of DSP over time. Results. A small proportion of the study population (10%) resided in rural counties that were more dependent on SCDHEC for DSP. The trajectory of not having visits among counties with high DSPs was steeper in rural areas (0.208; P?=?.001) compared with urban areas (0.145; P?=?.002). In counties with high DSPs, the slope of the predicted ratio in rural areas (-0.033; P?rural communities. Health care reform provides opportunities for health departments to work with community partners to facilitate DSP from public to private sectors. PMID:25689205

  6. Information and Communications Technology Development Products Towards Strengthening Rural Communities in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the extent of development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT ability to empower rural communities and enhance their economic productivity. ICT is a core catalyst for the development of a country to achieve developed nation status. However, rural communities are still exposed to the challenges and constraints in order to promote ICT development in rural areas. To address this issue, the government has established various objectives to ensure that rural communities are not marginalized. In an effort to take advantage of ICT development in rural areas, governments and agencies have developed various ICT-based products in rural areas. Programs such as Center of Telecenter, Rural Internet Centre (PID, Medan Info Desa, e-Village/e-Community, K-TRAK, PKIT and others are among the products introduced to the rural community. The purpose of the introduction of this product is to focus on the government’s efforts in ensuring the development of balanced urban and rural areas from different angles. Through ICT products, a rural community not just only follows the development of the ICT revolution, but to create a knowledgeable society and helps to boost the quality of life of rural communities. Thus, this paper will discuss ICT products developed in the rural areas of Malaysia, the purpose and prospects of the product development and the challenges faced during its implementation. Hopefully, the discussion and recommendations given could trigger the opportunity and space in making ICT as a driving force to economic development in rural areas.Key words: ICT products; Rural communities; The use of ICT; Economic catalyst

  7. There exists a disjunction between Tory preoccupations in Birmingham and the more fundamental challenges the party actually faces

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Tim Bale describes the typical party conference atmosphere and argues the Conservatives’ obsession with issues like Europe, visa restrictions and Boris only distract from far greater and more pressing concerns facing the party.

  8. Rural School Districts and the Fight for Funding Adequacy: The Legal Challenge of "CASFG v. State of Georgia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Luke M.; Robinson, Charlotte Bunn

    2006-01-01

    On June 23, 2005, oral arguments were heard in the Fulton County Superior Court in the first round of Georgia's current school finance litigation, "CASFG v. State of Georgia." The hearing was on the state's motion to dismiss the action by a coalition of rural school districts, parents, and students. Four months later Senior Judge Elizabeth Long…

  9. Fast Track, Bush Track: Late Career Female Rural School Leaders Taking the Slow Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Al-Awiwe, Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Previous research related to this study explored early career female leaders' experiences in rural school settings, and probed the personal and professional challenges they faced and their motivations to accept formal and informal leadership roles ahead of the usual timeframes (e.g., Graham, Miller & Paterson, 2009). This study set out to…

  10. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  11. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  12. Implementing Mobile Phone Solutions for Health in Resource Constrained Areas: Understanding the Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Tiwonge Davis; Herstad, Jo

    This paper presents results from a study on mobile phone use to connect two rural hospitals in Malawi with community health workers (CHWs), the hospitals work with. Mobile phone use at the hospitals has helped reduce the need for face-to-face communication to permit patient information exchange, meetings and appointments scheduling, as well as work coordination. On the other hand mobile phone use has proved paradoxical as it has introduced users to challenges, like recharging of phone batteries, they did not anticipate. The paper highlights use context-centric and solution based opportunities and challenges associated with mobile phone use in rural settings.

  13. Challenges Experienced by Rural Women in India Living with AIDS and Implications for the Delivery of HIV/AIDS Care

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; William, Ravi Raj; Heravian, Anisa; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Greengold, Barbara; Ekstrand, Maria; Rao, Pantangi Venkata Rama

    2011-01-01

    Researchers explored the barriers to AIDS care for rural women living with AIDS, and investigated alternative delivery models to increase the women’s adherence to anti-retroviral therapy. Community-based participatory research focus groups were conducted by the researchers with a convenience sample of 39 women living with AIDS from a Primary Health Center near Chennai, India and with nurses, physicians and Accredited Social Health Activists (Ashas), lay health care workers. The most prevale...

  14. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers. PMID:25208096

  15. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  16. An investigation into the challenges facing the future provision of continuing professional development for allied health professionals in a changing healthcare environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.

  17. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  18. Development of a rural palliative care program in the Calgary Zone of Alberta Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spice, Ron; Read Paul, Linda; Biondo, Patricia D

    2012-05-01

    Specialized rural models of palliative care are greatly needed to address the challenges rural communities face in providing palliative care services and to ensure that their unique strengths and needs are considered. In late 2005, a Rural Palliative Care Program was developed to support primary care providers in delivering palliative care to patients in rural communities outside of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The program was grounded in the needs of individual communities, incorporated integral roles for local champions, and adopted pre-existing, accepted rural structures and processes. Needs and gaps in rural palliative care service delivery were identified and prioritized. The following actions were taken to address the top six priorities: 1) more accessible palliative care education opportunities with a rural focus were provided to health care professionals; 2) linkages with rural and urban resources were strengthened and access to specialists and procedures was improved; 3) strategies were implemented to improve psychosocial support for patients and families; 4) resources were developed to facilitate rural home deaths; 5) opportunities were expanded for education and utilization of volunteers; and 6) a mobile specialist consultation team was developed to support rural health care professionals and their patients in their rural communities. In its first four years, the team consulted on 640 patients, nearly three-quarters of whom died in their rural communities. Rather than imposing an urban outreach strategy, the development of a rural-based program through respectful engagement of local providers has proven to be crucial to the success of this rural palliative care program. PMID:22560359

  19. 'I could never have learned this in a lecture': transformative learning in rural health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Sarah; Lin, Ivan; Nattabi, Barbara; Green, Charmaine

    2014-05-01

    Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the 'messy swamps' of rural health practice is a growing challenge. This paper examines the process of learning among health science students from several health disciplines from five Western Australian universities during 'Country Week': a one-week intensive experiential interprofessional education program in rural Western Australia. The paper weaves together strands of transformative theory of learning with findings from staff and student reflections from Country Week to explore how facilitated learning in situ can work to produce practitioners better prepared for rural health practice. PMID:23807733

  20. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  1. Challenges and Dilemmas Faced by Civil Society Leadership in Conflict and Post Conflict Situations: A Case Study of Civil Society Organization for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendia Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1986 violent conflict raged between the government of Uganda and the rebel Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda. The conflict which lasted for over 20 years caused untold suffering characterized by displacement, killings, and exile. After 2009, violence ceased and the conflict became more latent in nature, making it possible for post conflict reconstruction programs to commence in northern Uganda. The prolonged war called for interventions aimed at bringing sustainable peace to northern Uganda. Many civil society organizations such as Acholi Religious Leaders Peace Initiative, Gulu Support the Children Organization, World Vision International, Center for Conflict Resolution, Peoples Voice for Peace, Human Rights Focus, Gulu, Justice and Peace Commission Joint Forum for Peace etc, all sought to forge a way forward for achieving peace in order to alleviate the suffering of civilians in the north. By 2002 participating individual civil society organizations recognized that they could not make a significant impact in bringing lasting peace due to worsening insecurity. Consequently the leaders of the various Civil Society Organizations formed a Coalition of Civil Society Organizations for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU with major aim of finding a ‘just and lasting peace.’ Though now with stronger voice and impact in the peace building process, CSOPNU still face many challenges and dilemmas. Whereas there have been some achievements made by CSOPNU, the return of total peace is yet to be realized. Hence this study seeks to explore the challenges and dilemmas faced by CSOPNU leadership in the context of northern Uganda. The main Objective of the study is to identify the specific challenges and dilemmas faced by leaders of CSOPNU in the struggle to seek alternative methods of bringing about lasting peace in the conflict stricken northern Uganda. This research methodology employed in this study is a case study in combination with desktop research method so as to explore and understand deeply the problems and dilemmas faced by CSOPNU in trying to bring about peace in Northern Uganda. The case study will be used because of its uniqueness. It brings new knowledge about a particular phenomenon. However, findings from a case study cannot be generalized or applied other similar scenarios. The expected outcomes of the study were mainly identifying major bottlenecks to realization of lasting peace in northern Uganda. The study revealed that the leadership of the civil Society organizations (CSOPNU faced serious challenges and dilemmas in their pursuit of lasting peace in war ravaged northern Uganda. The most outstanding challenge was that CSOPNU frequently found itself at crossroads as both the rebels and government of Uganda perceived them as not worthy of trust. From the study, finding further revealed that corruption was yet another challenge and a serious cause of poverty and under development in Uganda. The study made conclusions and recommendations to the government of Uganda and Civil Societies Organizations working in northern Uganda with regard to achieving lasting peace.

  2. Separation of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital: Perioperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhurita; Jacob, Rebecca; Naik, Vibhavari; Baines, David

    2012-09-01

    Providing anaesthesia for the separation surgery of conjoined twins presents unique challenges to the managing anaesthesiologists. The low incidence of such surgeries and anatomical variations in each type of conjoined twins makes each separation surgery a unique experience. This report features the anaesthetic plan and challenges faced in performing the separation surgery of a set of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital in a remote location in India. PMID:23293382

  3. Taking gender and development seriously: supporting Pakistani women who work for rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Gru?nenfelder, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Development projects in Pakistan are hiring increasing numbers of Pakistani female professionals to work on rural projects that target women in addition to men. However, women development practitioners face many challenges in their work in remote areas. Many of the challenges relate to their gender, such as mobility restrictions placed on women and questions raised about their morality if they take up employment, in particular a job that includes fieldwork. This discourages qualified women fr...

  4. Challenges facing successful development of long life, high temperature, high efficiency/power AMTECs for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical challenges confronting development of Alkali Metal Thermal-to Electric Converters (AMTEC) for up to 15 year life on NASA Mars and outer planetary missions are significant, although approaches to solutions are understood by many investigators. The technical challenges include material issues, specifically involving decomposition of materials or chemical reaction between materials in contact; electrical issues, including electrical shunts that reduce output power and possibly plasma discharges within AMTEC converter units in which potentials in excess of 5.25 Volts exist; and heat and mass transport issues which can have major effects on the converter unit's power and efficiency

  5. Dryland Resource Management Technology Adoption in South–Eastern Kenya: Successes, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nyariki, Dickson; Musimba, Nashon K.; Ikutwa, Charles K.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...

  6. From Farm to Rural Hostel: New Opportunities and Challenges Associated with Tourism Expansion in Daxi, a Village in Anji County, Zhejiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosheng Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available China has become one of the leading international tourism destinations, ranking third at a world level. A fast expanding domestic tourism offers new development opportunities to rural areas. Our results from Daxi Village of Anji County, a popular tourist destination in East China, show that farmers are seizing this opportunity that currently represents 27% of total household income. The better educated young generation is benefitting most, being particularly relevant for women that can develop off-farm activities around the family hostels (nongjiale and tourist shops. Visitor’s general satisfaction is high, although there is some concern for environmental quality and overcrowding due to the very high number of tourists that come to the village. Our model suggests that tourism will keep growing at least for another decade, which will strain the area, posing potentially severe environmental problems and challenging the long term sustainability of the tourism development model.

  7. Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Companies in Sustaining Conformance to ISO9001:2008 in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of a Textiles Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. William Msekiwa Goriwondo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS has seen many companies willing to implement it and get certification so as to improve quality delivery. Due to the globalization phenomenon, certification to ISO9001 becomes a prerequisite. Many manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe have been certified in a quest to improve their quality delivery. The main certification body in Zimbabwe is the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ. This paper is based on a case study research for KT Textiles and it assesses the challenges that one certified manufacturing company is facing in a bid to sustain conformance to the ISO 9001: 2008QMS. Questionnaires and Interviews were the main research instruments used in the study. There was also reference to archival records and minutes of important meetings from the organization. Using stratified random sampling, questionnaires were administered to both managers and employees drawn from different departments. Employees were also interviewed to provide further information to compliment the questionnaire data. The data was analyzed using statistical graphs and charts. This research identified how the organization applies the 8 principles of ISO 9001:2008 QMS. The research findings revealed that the main challenges faced by the firm in maintaining the QMS are lack of top management involvement and support, lack of employee creativity and innovation, lack of focused internal audits, preventive maintenance schedule and data analysis lack priority.

  8. Future Sex Educator Perceptions of Rural versus Urban Instruction: A Case for Community-Centered Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina L.; Jensen, Robin E.; Selzer King, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Instructors of sexual health courses in rural areas face unique challenges as they are often forced to use school-based prevention curricula field-tested in urban areas. Research has yet to consider what future sex educators' regional expectations are for their profession and how those expectations might have an impact on the classroom.…

  9. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    OpenAIRE

    Berme?s, Emmanuelle; Fauduet, Louise

    2011-01-01

    The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This pap...

  10. Emerging Luxury : - An Explorative Study of the Major Current Challenges Facing International Luxury Fashion Companies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Holmsa?ter, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase in growth of the Asian luxury market, of which China has clearly come to make up the new major market. As the strategic considerations for international companies differ between countries, an individual approach needs to be adopted to customize operations. With this master’s thesis, the author aims to map out the key current challenges for international luxury fashion companies in China. Through in-depth interviews with industry experts, the stu...

  11. Challenge theme 6: natural hazard risks in the Borderlands: Chapter 8 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.; Stefanov, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and debris flows, wildfires, hurricanes, and intense storm-induced flash floods threaten communities to varying degrees all along the United States–Mexican border. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with Federal, State, and local agencies to minimize the effects of natural hazards by providing timely, unbiased science information to emergency response officials, resource managers, and the public to help reduce property damage, injury, and loss of life. The USGS often mobilizes response efforts during and after a natural hazard event to provide technical and scientific counsel on recovery and response, and it has a long history of deploying emergency response teams to major disasters in both domestic and international locations. This chapter describes the challenges of natural hazards in the United States–Mexican border region and the capabilities of the USGS in the fields of hazard research, monitoring, and assessment, as well as preventative mitigation and post-disaster response.

  12. Overseas territories facing the challenge of climate change - Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies the social-environmental challenges associated with climate change for French overseas territories, proposes an analysis of the impact of activities of the different economic sectors on the environment, and proposes some principles for action. After an introduction which outlines the importance of addressing climate change and adaptation, and describes the situation of French overseas territories in front of climate change, a first part identifies and discusses the main social-environmental challenges associated with climate change (climate evolution, role of climate change in a context of economic development, the territory as a resource system, climate change considered as an impact chain, the relative weight of climatic uncertainties). Then, the report analyses the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity, on tourism, on fishing and aquaculture, on agriculture and breeding, on forestry, on health, and on the energy sector. For each of them, the economic weight is indicated and commented, expected impacts are discussed, and adaptation possibilities and implementation modalities are commented. The issue of coastal planning and risks related to climate change is also addressed

  13. Trends, challenges and opportunities in tuberculosis control in rural Ethiopia : Epidemiological and operational studies in a resource-constrained setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru

    2007-01-01

    Many people still die of tuberculosis (TB). One-third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis, and the poor suffer most. More than 95% of TB cases and deaths are in developing countries and TB is closely linked to poverty. The prevalence of TB increases globally, mainly because of the worsening HIV pandemic. Emerging drug-resistant TB poses another challenge to efforts to control TB. In 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a comprehensive ap...

  14. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  15. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Kristian [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Arter, Calvin A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Lee, Dr. Kyuho [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Schroder, Prof. Elsebeth [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem; Hyldgaard, Per [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those groundstate properties that can be described by density functional theory (DFT). One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B, in print] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromaticmolecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  16. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Kristian [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Arter, Calvin A.; Thonhauser, T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Cooper, Valentino R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States); Lee, Kyuho [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lundqvist, Bengt I. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-05-14

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO{sub 3}, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  17. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions

  18. [Team work and interdiciplinarity: challenges facing the implementation of comprehensive outpatient care for people with HIV/Aids in Pernambuco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Maria Jucineide Lopes; Sampaio, Aletheia Soares; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids) in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry recommendations in terms of basic infrastructure, though none of them had a team of appropriate size. These services have shown signs of fragmentation and difficulty in establishing a systematic intersectorial and interdisciplinary practice, with failings in ensuring the reference and counter-reference flow. It was seen that there was little appreciation of the role of the manager as team leader. The need to perceive the user as a whole was identified, as well as for the team to work in a coordinated manner in order to ensure communicative and relational activities. PMID:22218548

  19. Gender-based challenges faced by older Sikh women as immigrants: recognizing and acting on the risk of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pam; Sanguins, Julianne; Mather, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Gender and ethnocultural affiliation can influence people's health beliefs and their ability to make behavioural changes associated with risk reduction. The authors undertook a series of grounded theory studies aimed at describing and explaining how gender and ethnocultural affiliation influence the process that people undergo when faced with the need to make behavioural changes to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, they describe the gender-based influences associated with managing CAD risk in a small sample of older Sikh immigrants to Canada. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, using an interpreter when necessary. Interviews were audiotaped to enable verification of interpretation and transcription. Data were analyzed using constant comparative methods. The core variable that emerged in the series of studies was "meeting the challenge." The process of managing CAD risk included pre-diagnosis or event, liminal or changing self, and living with CAD. Intra-, inter-, and extrapersonal factors as well as sociodemographic characteristics influenced the participants' ability to meet the challenge of managing CAD risk. Health-care providers and policy-makers have a responsibility to work with ethnocultural communities in order to (1) enhance the ability of health-care providers to provide ethnoculturally sensitive care, and (2) develop ethnoculturally relevant resources to enable health promotion and disease prevention. The ultimate aim is to improve health outcomes for Sikh immigrants as vulnerable members of society. PMID:16671279

  20. Critical coping challenges facing caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS and other terminally ill persons: The case of Kanye care program, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangethe Simon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article aims to identify and explore the needs, gaps, and coping challenges faced by the Kanye CHBC caregivers. Objective: To provide the Kanye primary caregivers with an opportunity to explore, discuss, and brainstorm the care giving challenges that impede their coping process. Materials and Methods: The study was exploratory in nature and attracted qualitative design. Eighty-two primary caregivers aged between 18 and 85 years were involved in 10 focus group discussions steered by an interview guide; while five CHBC nurses were subjected to one-to-one in-depth interviews still guided by an interview guide that differed only slightly with the one for the caregivers. Results: The following aspects were found detrimental and affecting the productivity and coping capacities of the primary caregivers inadequate counseling and debriefings; lack of motivation and incentives; inadequate supervision visits; and lack of support groups to facilitate information sharing and encouraging one another. Conclusion: This article recommends counseling and debriefings; formation of caregivers support groups; motivation strategies to be put in place; and provisions of adequate care package and food basket.

  1. Energy in a dialog. The challenges facing Germany's power industry as a result of the energy turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges posed by the energy turnaround in Germany to the power industry and the national economy after the Fukushima events were the topic of the ''Energy in a Dialog'' meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum in Berlin on December 14, 2011. Dr. Ralf Gueldner, President of the Deutsches Atomforum, opened the conference by drawing attention to the real purposes of the energy turnaround, namely to prevent severe climate changes and, thus, also carbon emissions. Both nationally in Germany and worldwide, nuclear power made major contributions to achieving these goals. Referring to developments in many neighboring countries, he underlined that opting out of the use of nuclear power in Germany was not tantamount to the end of nuclear power. Reality in energy policy had to be accepted, however, namely that nuclear power played, and would go on playing, an important role in Europe. Other contributions by Dr. Juergen Grossmann (Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG), Stefan Kohler (Chairman of the Board of Management of the German Energy Agency - dena), and Prof.Dr. Felix Muesgens (Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus, Chair of Power Economics) dealt with political and other boundary conditions required for the energy turnaround, and with the consequences and burdens on the power industry and the national economy. A final panel discussion chaired by Henning Krumrey (Wirtschaftswoche) was attended by F. Muesgens and Prof. Dr. Hans-Werner Sinn (President of the MunDr. Hans-Werner Sinn (President of the Munich-based Info Institute) and Prof. Dr. Michael Huether (German Business Institute). (orig.)

  2. Trends, challenges and opportunities in tuberculosis control in rural Ethiopia :Epidemiological and operational studies in a resource-constrained setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru

    2007-01-01

    Many people still die of tuberculosis (TB). One-third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis, and the poor suffer most. More than 95% of TB cases and deaths are in developing countries and TB is closely linked to poverty. The prevalence of TB increases globally, mainly because of the worsening HIV pandemic. Emerging drug-resistant TB poses another challenge to efforts to control TB. In 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a comprehensive approach to TB co...

  3. Efficient scarf detection prior to face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Rui D. Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Face occlusion is a very challenging problem in face recognition. The performance of face recognition system can decrease drastically due to the presence of partial occlusion on the face. One approach to overcome this problem is to first pre-classify faces into two classes: the clean face and the occluded face; then faces in different classes are treated by different recognition systems. In this case an algorithm which is able to automatically detect the presence of occlusions on the face wil...

  4. The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies? The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guang WU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available
    More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs, particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the innovative ability of the Internet itself. More generally, it creates tension for China’s successful engagement with the international community, decreases the international competitiveness of the Chinese ICT enterprises and stifles the development of global ICTs. China needs to adopt a more sophisticated approach to regulate Internet content and overcome these challenges in the near future. Failure to do so will widen the gap between China and the world’s developed countries in the Information Age.
    Key words: the Internet; the regulation of the Internet; content regulation; China
    Résumé: Plus d’une dizaine de départements différents en Chine assument les responsabilités variées du contrôle du contenu des publications sur Internet. Cette structure régulatrice séparée a causé beaucoup de défis en face de la convergence des informations, des technologies de communication et surtout de l’Internet. Tous ces défis contiennent un coût de conformité élevé pour les entreprises ICT?Information and communication technologies en anglais?, qui découragent effectivement les startups high-tech et qui sont défavorables pour la capacité innovatrice d’Internet lui-même.Plus généralement, il crée de la tension pour l’engagement de la Chine avec la communauté internationale, diminue la compétitivité internationales des entreprises ICT chinoises et ralentit le développement de l’ICT. La Chine a besoin d’adopter une approche plus sophistiquée pour régulariser le contenu d’Internet et surmonter tous ces défis dans le proche futur. Si l’on faillit faire cela, la distance entre la Chine et les pays développés s’agrandira dans l’Age d’Information.
    Mots-Clés: Internet; régularisation d’Internet; contrôle du contenu; la Chine

  5. Qui est rural ou comment être rural ? Regard sociologique

    OpenAIRE

    Mormont, Marc

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis is put forward that a specific concept or category of 'the rural' has evolved. This occurred in the 1920s and 1930s in a manner specific to each country, although in all cases there was an attempt to reformulate both the relationship between town and country and the definition of agriculture, as a result of the changes facing the countryside and its inhabitants. The concept of the rural evolved by distinguishing the rural and the agricultural, and by defining the rural in relat...

  6. Poverty, inequality and health: the challenge of the double burden of disease in a non-profit hospital in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Sandro; Kedir, Nejmudin; Farese, Pasquale; Dhaba, Shallo; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Seifu, Abera; Manenti, Fabio

    2009-05-01

    This study was aimed at describing disease patterns in a rural zone of Oromiya region, Ethiopia through a retrospective analysis of discharge records for 22,377 inpatients of St. Luke Hospital, Wolisso, Ethiopia in the period 2005-2007. The leading cause of admission was childbirth, followed by injuries, malaria and pneumonia. Injuries were the leading cause of in-hospital deaths, followed by pneumonia, malaria, cardiovascular disease and AIDS. Vulnerable groups (infants, children and women) accounted for 73.3% of admissions. Most of the disease burden resulted from infectious diseases, the occurrence of which could be dramatically reduced by cost-effective preventive and curative interventions. Furthermore, a double burden of disease is already emerging at the early stage of the epidemiological transition, with a mix of persistent, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and increasing prevalence of chronic conditions and injuries. This will lead to fundamental changes in the volume and composition of demand for healthcare, with a more complex case mix and more costly service utilization patterns. The challenge is to address the double burden of disease, while focusing on poverty-related conditions and targeting vulnerable groups. Monitoring disease and service utilization patterns through routine hospital information systems can provide sustainable, low-cost support for evidence-based health practice. PMID:19157475

  7. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina Quintero Corzo; Odilia Ramírez Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodol...

  8. Food Security, Gender and Community Relations. Challenges and Strategies of Rural Women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda, Ethiopia, and the Role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in Empowering Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Addis Bezabih

    2013-01-01

    The study was designed to explore Food security, gender and community relations. Challenges and strategies of rural women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda,Ethiopia, and the role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in empowering women. The research applied qualitative methods such as in- depth interviews, Focused Group Discussions and observation to address issues from a gender perspective. The livelihood approach and empowerment approach have been the theoretical frameworks that underpin this s...

  9. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

  10. Challenges Faced by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for Activities related to U.S. Department of Energy Waste Determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the Department of Energy (DOE) can determine that certain material resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is not high-level waste (HLW), and therefore does not need to be disposed of in a geologic repository in order to manage the risks that the waste poses. Reprocessing wastes can take a variety of forms including, but not limited to, liquid and sludge waste stored in underground tanks, waste removed from tanks and disposed of elsewhere after processing, and equipment that was utilized in waste processing which has been prepared for disposal. Section 3116 of the NDAA requires DOE to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding DOE's non-HLW determinations performed pursuant to the NDAA. The NDAA also requires the NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions to assess compliance with 10 CFR 61, Subpart C. The NDAA applies only to the States of Idaho and South Carolina. Although the NDAA applies only to the States of Idaho and South Carolina, similar waste determinations may be performed at DOE's Hanford site and West Valley Demonstration Project. The NRC expects to perform similar technical reviews for waste determinations performed at those sites. The Commission directed the staff to take the time necessary to complete its reviews to ensure protection of public health and safety, to make decisions that are transparent, traceable, complete, and as open to the public as e, complete, and as open to the public as practical, and to inform the Commission on how the staff intends to implement its monitoring responsibilities. NRC's waste determination reviews under the NDAA are watched closely by many stakeholders, including environmental groups, other Federal and State agencies, and the public. The complexity associated with the key aspects of making a non-HLW determination imposes significant challenges on the NRC staff. This paper provides an overview of the technical challenges faced by the NRC after passage of the NDAA and describes how those challenges are being addressed. The main challenge addressed in this paper is the differences between disposal of non-HLW and traditional low-level waste. Secondarily, this paper briefly addresses how to ensure consistency of technical reviews, and how to develop risk insights for a complicated system including estimating the impact of real-world features and complexity with simplified computer models. (authors)

  11. Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal / Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmar P, Henz.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1) incidência de pragas e doenças; (2) aquisição de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5) custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a) produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

  12. Teach for America and rural southern teacher labour supply: an exploratory case study of Teach for America as a supplement to teacher labour policies in the Mississippi-Arkansas Delta, 2008-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Dwinal, Mallory A.; Furlong, John; Mayhew, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The recent growth of Teach For America (TFA) has enabled it to substantially expand the teacher labour supply in many rural Southern communities, one of its largest and fastest-growing partnership subsets. Though it is generally accepted that these areas face more severe teacher shortages than most other regions in the country, there is little research as to how these staffing challenges arise or how they might be resolved; TFA’s potential to grow the rural Southern teacher supply thus sign...

  13. Parental perceptions of information needs and service provision for children with developmental disabilities in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rafat; Tait, Kathleen

    2014-10-21

    Abstract Purpose: Rural Australians comprise a third of the population. However, there are relatively few research studies that have focused on issues for children with developmental disabilities in rural regions. In particular, there is very limited research that gives voice to parents regarding challenges faced by them due to their location in rural regions. Methods: This article is based on the qualitative component of a mixed-methods study undertaken in rural settings. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 17 parents yielding 30?h of information rich taped data. Thematic analysis techniques were used to identify major issues. Results: Three core themes emerged from analysis of the qualitative data regarding information and support needs: an ongoing lack of timely and relevant information about disabilities and support services; inadequacies in interactions with service providers particularly doctors and allied health staff; and considerable challenges and barriers to access and use of health services. Conclusions: Within the constraints of limited rural service provision, there are still opportunities for considerable improvements, through focussed in-service training to narrow the information gap, improve provider-client interaction around attitudinal issues and uptake of tele-health to minimise the long waiting times and the need to regularly travel long distances to access services and setting up online support groups. Implications for Rehabilitation There is limited information on challenges faced by parents of children with developmental disabilities in rural Australia. The challenges around lack of information about support systems available add to parental stress as does limited experience, frequent staff turnover and poor attitude of many service providers. There is a need to improve rural service provision. Feasible options within resource constraints include focussed in-service training to narrow the information gap, improve provider-client interaction around attitudinal issues, and uptake of tele-health services. Setting up of parent-professional support groups as well peer support groups using digital technologies will help reduce the sense of isolation for rural carers and minimise impediments related to travelling long distances. PMID:25332090

  14. La educación superior en América Latina ante los desafíos de la globalización / Higher education in Latin America facing the challenges of globalization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleazar, Narváez.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Viejos y nuevos desafíos enfrenta la Educación Superior en América Latina. Además de los problemas no resueltos de la modernidad, debemos atender otros planteados por la dinámica de los acontecimientos propios de la globalización. Sin embargo, para aprehender el sentido del propósito de poner a tono [...] la Educación Superior con los desafíos del tiempo presente, es indispensable que tengamos claridad acerca de qué estamos hablando cuando utilizamos la palabra globalización, y de los rasgos dominantes del contexto en el cual ocurren los movimientos del fenómeno al cual alude dicho concepto. Esto es muy importante para entender cómo en la región se ha producido el debilitamiento de la Educación Superior pública; las nuevas relaciones entre la Educación Superior, el mundo laboral y la sociedad; la relativización y enriquecimiento de la cultura de los sujetos y las nuevas exigencias al currículo y a las formas de enseñar y de aprender. Abstract in english Higher Education in Latin America is facing old and new challenges. As well as the unresolved problems of modernity, we must concentrate on other problems that have arisen through the dynamics proper to globalization. Nonetheless, to grasp the sense of purpose of making Higher Education fit for the [...] challenges of the present time, it is necessary that we are clear with regard to what we are talking about when we use the word globalization. And the dominant features of the context in which the actions of the phenomenon alluded to by this concept take place. This is very important to understand how the weakening of public Higher Education has come about in the region; the new relationships among Higher Education, the working world and society; the relativization and enrichment of the culture of the people involved; and the new demands of the curriculum and the ways of teaching and learning.

  15. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

  16. The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

  17. Current Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Information Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Li; Kui Yang; Juan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Rural informatization is an important part of the national informatization. China’s rural informatization has been paid full attention and attached great importance by the whole society. rural informatization construction has been a certain amount of base, but the full implementation of rural informatization construction is still a long way to go, both facing integration, specialization, practical, universalization significant trends, but also facing the contradictions of the majority of fa...

  18. Challenges of Implementing HIV and AIDS Education in Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lungo, Tatu Sultan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine challenges teachers face in delivering HIV and AIDS education in secondary schools. Both rural and urban schools were sampled to gain understanding of the possible differences in respondent views depending on their geographical location. Methods: Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observations, focus group discussions and review of documents. Key informants included teachers, students, parents, educational of...

  19. Transmission reliability faces future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently published Washington International Energy Group's 1993 Electric Utility Outlook states that nearly one-third (31 percent) of U.S. utility executives expect reliability to decrease in the near future. Electric power system stability is crucial to reliability. Stability analysis determines whether a system will stay intact under normal operating conditions, during minor disturbances such as load fluctuations, and during major disturbances when one or more parts of the system fails. All system elements contribute to reliability or the lack of it. However, this report centers on the transmission segment of the electric system. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) says the transmission systems as planned will be adequate over the next 10 years. However, delays in building new lines and increasing demands for transmission services are serious concerns. Reliability concerns exist in the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool and the Mid-America Interconnected Network regions where transmission facilities have not been allowed to be constructed as planned. Portions of the transmission systems in other regions are loaded at or near their limits. NERC further states that utilities must be allowed to complete planned generation and transmission as scheduled. A reliable supply of electricity also depends on adhering to established operating criteria. Factors that could complicate operations include: More interchange schedules resulting from increased transmischedules resulting from increased transmission services. Increased line loadings in portions of the transmission systems. Proliferation of non-utility generators

  20. Gas giant facing big challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief analysis of the Russian state-controlled company Gazprom is provided. Many European countries are highly dependent on Russian gas, and in total about 25 to 30 percent of Europe's gas demand is covered by Russian gas. After the gas dispute with Ukraine, questions on how reliable the Russian delivery is have been asked. With Gazprom's increasing interest in China and other Asian countries, and insufficient exploration activities and development of new fields, there is a concern that the European market will suffer consequences (ml)

  1. Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Ehrami; Hassan Houshyar

    2013-01-01

    Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnair...

  2. Desafios enfrentados por professores na implementação de atividades investigativas nas aulas de ciências / Challenges faced by teachers in the implementation of inquiry activities in science classes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Santos, Gouw; Fernanda, Franzolin; Marcela Elena, Fejes.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apesar da associação entre investigação e Ensino de Ciências ser idealizada desde o início do século XX, não necessariamente consiste em uma prática amplamente utilizada nas escolas, nem aplicada com os mesmos objetivos. Desse modo, considera-se relevante que pesquisadores se debrucem sobre o contex [...] to brasileiro e verifiquem como essa união ocorre. Este trabalho investigou quais são os desafios enfrentados e as estratégias utilizadas, por dois professores diferentes, durante a implementação de um único projeto investigativo, para se adequarem à realidade da escola, nível de ensino e ao contexto cultural existente. Os dados que subsidiaram esta pesquisa foram obtidos através de fontes primárias (entrevistas, questionários) e secundárias (portfólios, produções dos alunos, fichas, relatórios e observações). Percebeu-se que o mesmo projeto foi implementado de maneira bastante distinta entre um professor e outro, que realizaram adaptações de acordo com sua experiência profissional e com o nível de ensino de seus alunos. Abstract in english Although the association between inquiry and science education has existed since the beginning of the 20th century, there is no guarantee that this practice frequently occurs in science classes and neither that it can also be used with the same purposes. Therefore, we think it is relevant that resea [...] rchers investigate how this works in the Brazilian context. In this research, we investigated the challenges faced and the strategies used by two different teachers during the implementation of a single inquiry based project equating it to school reality, grade level and cultural context. Data collection was based on primary sources (interviews, questionnaires), and secondary sources (portfolios, student's assignments, cards, reports and observations). We noticed that both teachers implemented the same project in very different ways. The adaptations according to their professional experience and the students' grade level are presented here.

  3. Un bosquejo del feminismo/s peruano/s: los múltiples desafíos / A outline on peruvian feminism/s: facing multiple challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Violeta, Barrientos Silva; Fanni, Muñoz Cabrejo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo muestra las apuestas del feminismo en el Perú desde sus inicios, a partir de la lucha por el sufragio femenino, y más adelante, en la posguerra, la puesta en escena del cuerpo femenino como núcleo de una nueva forma de pensar lo político. Se muestra que es un movimiento de mujeres de sec [...] tores medios que se gesta bajo iniciativa gubernamental y con poca presencia de las corrientes de pensamiento teórico feminista europeas. Por el contrario, fue un movimiento vinculado a ideologías de izquierda aunque, paradójicamente, sus propuestas no fueron acogidas por los partidos de izquierda. En el actual contexto de cambios que se operan en el Perú, a partir de la democratización del país y con una baja institucionalidad del Estado, los feminismos - sin una aparente organicidad - se enfrentan con varios desafíos, siendo el de la capacidad de responder a la heterogeneidad de los actores emergentes el más relevante. Abstract in english This paper is about the developments of feminism in Peru since the struggle for women's suffrage as the starting point till the post-war, with the positioning of the female body as the center of a new manner of thinking the political. Feminism is shown to be a middle-class women's movement, which st [...] emmed from governmental initiatives and with not much presence of European schools of feminist theoretical thought. On the contrary, it was a movement bound with leftist ideologies whose proposals were paradoxically never considered by leftist parties. In the current changing context, which began with Peru's democratization and its lack of state institutionality, feminism/s - lacking an evident organizational capacity - faces different demands, being the ability to meet diverse emerging actors the most relevant challenge.

  4. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, D.; Garg, Anand; Mehta, Naveen K.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...

  5. Regional development - rural employment opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-01-01

    The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate...

  6. Trabalho rural, saúde e ambiente: as narrativas dos produtores de flor frente aos riscos socioambientais / Rural work, health and the environment: narratives of flower growers in the face of social and environmental risks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Favrim, Gasparini; Carlos Machado de, Freitas.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo insere-se na discussão acerca dos impactos socioambientais gerados pelas práticas agrícolas convencionais, apresentando as principais conclusões de uma pesquisa que analisou o processo produtivo de flores em duas localidades do município de Nova Friburgo (RJ), com ênfase na compreensão das [...] percepções e atitudes dos produtores frente aos riscos associados ao processo de trabalho. Adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa, que priorizou as narrativas dos produtores de flores como o principal meio de aproximação da pluralidade de perspectivas destes sujeitos. Em relação aos procedimentos de coleta de dados, foram utilizadas: entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação descritiva e diário de campo, além do levantamento de dados secundários. As evidências recolhidas indicam que os agrotóxicos se destacam como elemento central da produção e estão permeados por ambiguidades e dilemas. Nesse contexto, os diversos fatores inter-relacionados que atuam como determinantes desta situação são identificados e debatidos. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo trata sobre la discusión de los impactos sociambientales generados por prácticas agrícolas convencionales. Presenta las principales conclusiones de una investigación del proceso productivo de flores en dos localidades del municipio de Nova Friburgo (RJ), haciendo énfasis en la c [...] omprensión de las percepciones y las actitudes de los productores frente a los riesgos en el proceso de trabajo. Fue adoptado un abordaje cualitativo, que priorizo las narrativas de los productores de flores como principal forma de aproximación de la pluralidad de perspectivas de estos sujetos. En relación a los procedimientos de colecta de datos, fueron usados entrevistas semi-estructuradas, observación descriptiva, diarios de campo y el levantamiento de datos secundarios. Las evidencias indican que los plaguicidas son un elemento central de la producción y están permeados por ambigüedades y dilemas. En este contexto, los diversos factores interrelacionados que actúan como determinantes de esta situación son debatidos. Abstract in english The article is part of the discussion about the environmental impacts generated by conventional farming practices. It presents the main conclusions of a research which examined the process of production of flowers in two sites of the city of Nova Friburgo (RJ), with emphasis on the understanding of [...] the perceptions and attitudes of producers face to the risks associated with their work. It was adopted a qualitative approach, that prioritized the narratives of flower producers as the main form of approximation of the plurality of perspectives of these subjects. In relation to data collection procedures were used semi-structured interviews, observation and descriptive field notes and secondary data review. The evidence collected indicates that pesticides stand out as a central element of production and are permeated by ambiguities and dilemmas. In this context, the various interrelated factors that act as determinants of this situation are identified and discussed.

  7. APPRI International Workshop:Learning, producing and sharing innovations. Tools for co-construction and sustainable implementation of innovations in dryland Africa Atelier International APPRI : Apprentissage, Production et Partage d'Innovations : quels outils pour le renforcement des capacités, les mesures d'accompagnement, la co-construction et la mise en œuvre durable d'innovations dans les zones rurales sèches en Afrique?

    OpenAIRE

    Danie?le, Clavel

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...

  8. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LisaRBetts

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  9. Social Determinants of Health in Very Poor Ruralities. Striving and Thriving in Dire Conditions: Is It Possible? A Qualitative Study with Women in a Poor Rural District of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Andvik, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Women living in very poor rural regions of developing countries are among those in the world facing the largest, avoidable risk for early illness, disability and death. Yet, some women in very poor areas are healthier than other women living in the same communities. Identification of factors that protect the health of women of childbearing age is a priority in the UN Millennium Development Goals. This is challenging as previous research shows that the standard protective factors higher income...

  10. Social Determinants of Health in Very Poor Ruralities. Striving and Thriving in Dire Conditions:Is It Possible? A Qualitative Study with Women in a Poor Rural District of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Andvik, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    Women living in very poor rural regions of developing countries are among those in the world facing the largest, avoidable risk for early illness, disability and death. Yet, some women in very poor areas are healthier than other women living in the same communities. Identification of factors that protect the health of women of childbearing age is a priority in the UN Millennium Development Goals. This is challenging as previous research shows that the standard protective factors higher income...

  11. Nicotine Dependence among Rural-Urban Migrants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuyan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes it challenging to evaluate dependence or progress towards dependence. The aim of this study was to estimate nicotine dependence levels and identify determinants of dependence among Chinese rural-urban migrants. Methods Multi-stage systematic sampling was used to select 4,198 rural-urban migrants aged 18 years or older from three metropolises in China. A structured questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Mandarin Chinese Version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (CFTND. Determinants of dependence were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results Among 4,198 participants, estimated current, daily, and occasional smoking rates were 28.3%, 21.2%, and 7.1%, respectively. The CTFND score for the 894 daily smokers was 3.39(SD: 2.32. MANOVA showed that work type, age at first migration, length of migration, and number of cities ever lived were associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusion A migratory lifestyle is associated with nicotine dependence. Results could inform the design of tobacco control programs that target Chinese rural-urban migrant workers as a special at-risk population.

  12. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. Important challenges remain with implementation

  13. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  14. Attitudes to telehealth use among rural residents : A Danish survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities tend to be underserved by medical services. Low access to medical services affects quality of life and may also affect settlement decisions. The use of telehealth has often been mentioned as an alternative way to provide health care services in remote, underserved areas. One prerequisite for successful delivery of health care by means of telehealth is the existence of positive attitudes toward telehealth solutions among the potential end beneficiaries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward telehealth use among residents in a Danish rural area. Method: A representative sample from the island of Ærø (n=1000) was selected and attitudes toward two telehealth applications were examined by structured telephone interviews regarding: 1) video consultation between patient and specialist, and 2) transfer of work tasks from local hospital to hospital outside Denmark. Findings: As many as 58% did not like the idea of having a consultation with a specialist carried out by video consultation, whereas 26% did not like the idea of having their X-rays assessed by a hospital outside Denmark. The reluctance regarding both telehealth solutions was higher among older people and people with no education beyond primary school. Conclusions: As the rural population in Denmark, as well as in other countries, tends to be older and less educated than the national average, the introduction of telehealth services faces special challenges in rural areas.

  15. Rural Leaders, Rural Places: Problem, Privilege, and Possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budge, K.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I present a case study of the influence of rurality and a sense of place on leaders’ beliefs about purposes of local schooling and their concomitant theories of action in one rural school district. Interview data show that despite their portrayal of life in the valley as a privilege, most leaders viewed their place as presenting more problems than possibilities in the lives of most students. I conclude with the suggestion that a critical leadership of place may best address the strengths and challenges found in much of rural America.

  16. From Farm to Rural Hostel: New Opportunities and Challenges Associated with Tourism Expansion in Daxi, a Village in Anji County, Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaosheng Yang; Geriletu; Manuel Ruiz Perez; Lucas Gutierrez Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    China has become one of the leading international tourism destinations, ranking third at a world level. A fast expanding domestic tourism offers new development opportunities to rural areas. Our results from Daxi Village of Anji County, a popular tourist destination in East China, show that farmers are seizing this opportunity that currently represents 27% of total household income. The better educated young generation is benefitting most, being particularly relevant for women that can develo...

  17. A rural perspective: four stories

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jenny, Nash; Alwyn, Rapatsa; Steve, Reid; Ben, Gaunt.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available These brief reflections from 4 University of Cape Town (UCT) medical graduates who chose to make their careers in rural practice are written in narrative style to try to capture something of the lived experience of working in rural areas. Although still the career choice of a minority of UCT graduat [...] es, those who have chosen to practise in rural areas have found a solid base of competence and confidence in their clinical skills, that has enabled them to tackle challenges in areas beyond anything that they or their teachers might have anticipated.

  18. Challenges and Community Development: A Case Study of Homestay in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Kamisan Pusiran; Honggen Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Homestay programme, which was introduced in 1988, has become the iconic rural tourism product highlighting Malaysian cultural and traditional ways of life. The concept of Homestay is whereby a tourist stays together with the host family and interacts with the local community for a reasonable charge. This paper presents a review of community development through the Homestay programme in Malaysia as well as to review challenges facing the Homestay operators and community. Due to the potential o...

  19. De lo urbano a lo rural y viceversa / From urban to rural and back again

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Hugo, Molina.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El posicionamiento de la categoría “originario indígena campesino” desde el Estado ha marcado una etapa de recuperación de territorios y valores que mantuvieron su identidad, ignorada por la fuerza de una ideología urbana. Luego de esta etapa necesaria, y a la luz de los datos del Censo 2012, reapar [...] ece lo urbano como categoría universal. Queda en evidencia la debilidad institucional y conceptual en torno a las ciudades y el reto que deben enfrentar por la migración y el crecimiento. Abstract in english The positioning of the “rural indigenous aboriginal” category by the state coincided with a period of recovery of territories and values which had maintained an identity that was ignored by the powerful urban ideology. After this necessary stage, and in light of the results of the 2012 census, the u [...] rban is reappearing as a universal category. The institutional and conceptual weakness around cities is evident, as is the challenge they face due to migration and growth.

  20. The Truth About Operating In Syria : The opportunities and challenges companies face upon entering and operating in the emerging market of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Moukbel, Maya; Bergqvist, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Emerging markets are playing a significant role in the ongoing process of economical and political globalisation. Due to the fall of international trade and investment barriers, a wider range of opportunities has risen for companies of the developed countries seeking to further enhance their international business potentials. Nonetheless, many hurdles still facing the integration process due to the existing political and cultural polarity, between emerging markets and their potential business...

  1. A proposed rural healthcare ethics agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, W.; Pomerantz, A.; Howard, K.; Bushy, A.

    2007-01-01

    The unique context of the rural setting provides special challenges to furnishing ethical healthcare to its approximately 62 million inhabitants. Although rural communities are widely diverse, most have the following common features: limited economic resources, shared values, reduced health status, limited availability of and accessibility to healthcare services, overlapping professional–patient relationships and care giver stress. These rural features shape common healthcare ethical issues...

  2. Losing face

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-jones, David; Reinstein, David

    2010-01-01

    When person A makes an offer to person B and B rejects it, then A may lose face. This loss of face is assumed to occur only if B knows for sure of A's offer. While under some circumstances loss of face can be rationalized by the consequences for future reputation, it may also enter directly into the utility function. Loss of face concerns can lead to fewer offers and ineffeciency in markets that involve matching, discrete transactions, and offers/proposals in both directions, such as the marr...

  3. Collaborative Rural Healthcare Network: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Raja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare is a critical issue in rural communities throughout the world. Provision of timely and cost effective health care in these communities is a challenge since it is coupled with a lack of adequate infrastructure and manpower support. Twenty percent of the United States of America‘s population resides in rural communities, i.e., 59 million people; however, only nine percent of the nation’s physicians practice in rural communities. Shortage of health care personnel and the lack of equipment and facilities often force rural residents to travel long distances to receive needed medical treatment. Researchers and practitioners are in search of solutions to address these unique challenges. In this research, we present a proposed collaborative model of a health information system for rural communities and the challenges and opportunities of this global issue.

  4. Ebola Survivors Face Critical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015) By Robert Preidt Tuesday, December 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Ebola TUESDAY, Dec. 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Many Ebola survivors in West Africa face major challenges and need support to help them cope, two ...

  5. Challenges, Strategies, and Lessons Learned from a Participatory Community Intervention Study to Promote Female Condoms among Rural Sex Workers in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer; He, Bin; He, Qiya; Feng, Weiping; Wang, Yanhong

    2010-01-01

    China faces a rapidly emerging HIV epidemic and nationwide resurgence of sexually transmitted infections associated with a growing sex industry. Community empowerment and capacity building through community-based participatory research partnerships show promise for developing, testing, and refining multilevel interventions suited to the local…

  6. Empowerment in the process of health messaging for rural low-income mothers: an exploratory message design project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoory, Linda; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost; Duggal, Mili; Briones, Rowena Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Rural, low-income mothers face challenges to their health equal to or greater than those of low-income mothers from urban areas. This study put health message design into the hands of low-income rural mothers. The current study filled a research gap by analyzing a participatory process used to design health messages tailored to the everyday lives of rural low-income mothers. A total of forty-three mothers participated in nine focus groups, which were held from 2012 to 2013, in eight states. The mothers were from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Participants discussed food security, physical activity, and oral health information. They created messages by considering several elements: visuals, length of message, voice/perspective, self-efficacy and personal control, emotional appeals, positive and negative reinforcements, and steps to health behavior change. This study was innovative in its focus on empowerment as a key process to health message design. PMID:25738660

  7. Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking Towards the Sky for an Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T Ishaku

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to safe water supply has great influence on the health, economic productivity and quality of life of the people. But meeting this need is one of the major challenges facing the rural communities of Nigeria today. The purpose of this review paper is to determine whether water supply have contributed effectively to health, social, and cultural development of Nigerian rural communities. Over 70% of households in rural communities do not have access to improved water supply. They rely solely on self-water supply (free source such as rivers, perennial streams, water ponds and unprotected wells which is susceptible to water borne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, malaria parasites etc. These rural populations are engaged in farming activities with low income level living in small scattered settlements thus, making provision of piped water supply very difficult. Governments’ interventions towards rural water supply have been through the provision of hand-operated boreholes and wells. These sources yield little or no water during the dry season and are prone to frequent breakdown; leading water crisis and shortages. This situation forces households especially the women and children to spend more time walking longer distances during the dry season to trot water for domestic purposes. Given the fact that the publicly operated water supply have not been able to cope with increasing demand, there is a need for a paradigm shift from the public monopoly of water supply to an innovative approach. Rainwater harvesting technology appears to be one of such alternative approaches.

  8. When a Practitioner Becomes a University Faculty Member: A Review of Literature on the Challenges Faced by Novice Ex-Practitioner Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke

    2013-01-01

    It is challenging for ex-practitioners beginning to teach in higher education settings due to their long experience in other fields. In this paper, as an example of a nexus of practitioners and academics, the focus is the issues of novice teacher educators at the beginning of their careers and support programmes for them. Three factors were…

  9. Challenges of basic public health services provided by village doctors in guizhou, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Minxing; Shi, Xiu-Quan

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken to uncover the challenges faced by village doctors in providing basic public health services (BPHS) in western rural areas of China. This field research for BPHS, with 12 managers and 82 village doctors of county Y in Guizhou province, was conducted in July 2012 using a combination of random and purposive sampling methods. Quantitative and qualitative methods were applied for data collection. EpiData 3.1, SPSS 15.0, and NVivo 10.0 were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the main challenges in delivering BPHS include heavy workload, poor working conditions, low income, lack of social security, and insufficient cooperation from rural residents. The Chinese government officials and policy makers can consider these challenges and focus on improving the quality and equity of BPHS by developing relevant strategies. PMID:25673280

  10. Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambézia Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Baptista

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. Methods: VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. Results: Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n=380 of the women (9% if age ?30 years (n=3154 and 7% if age <30 years (n=1497; p=0.02. Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% (n=16 had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88% of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58% either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21% were HIV positive. Conclusions: Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV investments, chronic disease screening and management for cervical cancer is feasible even in severely resource-constrained rural Africa.

  11. Robust Face Detection in Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust face detection in complex airport environment is a challenging task. The complexity in such detection systems stems from the variances in image background, view, illumination, articulation, and facial expression. This paper presents the S-AdaBoost, a new variant of AdaBoost developed for the face detection system for airport operators (FDAO. In face detection application, the contribution of the S-AdaBoost algorithm lies in its use of AdaBoost's distribution weight as a dividing tool to split up the input face space into inlier and outlier face spaces and its use of dedicated classifiers to handle the inliers and outliers in their corresponding spaces. The results of the dedicated classifiers are then nonlinearly combined. Compared with the leading face detection approaches using both the data obtained from the complex airport environment and some popular face database repositories, FDAO's experimental results clearly show its effectiveness in handling real complex environment in airports.

  12. Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural

  13. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Prytherch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective: To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design: Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion: This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated.

  14. Web-Based vs. Face-to-Face MBA Classes: A Comparative Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Barry; Brownstein, Deborah; Gerlowski, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of online learning include ensuring that the learning outcomes are at least as robust as in the face-to-face sections of the same course. At the University of Baltimore, both online sections and face-to-face sections of core MBA courses are offered. Once admitted to the MBA, students are free to enroll in any combination of…

  15. Rural School Psychology: Re-Opening the Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Clopton, K. L.; Knesting, K.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of school psychology in rural areas is a topic that has been fairly absent from the literature since the 1980s. A needs assessment of school psychologists practicing in rural counties in a midwestern state was conducted to explore current issues for rural school psychologists. The response rate for usable surveys was 72% (N = 106). Respondents answered questions regarding travel, supervision, professional development, practice, and the rewards and challenges of working in rural c...

  16. PERFORMANCE OF RURAL CREDIT SCHEMES: INITIATIVES OF FINANCIAL INCLUSION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raja Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian economy agriculture sector plays a vital role and majority of the people depends on agriculture. Developing countries like India 70% of the people are living in rural areas. Rural credit is very important for the development of rural economyand alleviation of poverty by providing credit facility to the poor and weaker section of the society. It is also helpful to meet their needs improving their standard of life and greater access to financial activities. There are many agencies providing rural credit. In India the delivery structure such as Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks (RRBs, Co-operative Banks and District Rural Credit Development Agency (DRDA etc. These Institutions are having more than 1, 53,000 outlets have been serving rural people. One for every outlet is serving 4,100 populations to deliver credit for poverty alleviation. The main objective of this study is to identify the reasons for financial exclusion in rural areas and to estimate the factors influencing informal borrowings of rural households. At present, the main challenges before rural credit institutions are poverty alleviation, flow of rural credit and build-up the strength of co-operatives and regional rural banks.

  17. Understanding the benefits and challenges of community engagement in the development of community mental health services for common mental disorders: lessons from a case study in a rural South African subdistrict site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Baillie, Kim; Bhana, Arvin

    2012-07-01

    Against the backdrop of a large treatment gap for mental disorders in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), the 2007 Lancet series on global mental health calls for a scaling up of mental health services. Community participation is largely harnessed as one strategy to facilitate this call. Using a participatory implementation framework for the development of mental health services for common mental disorders (CMDs) in a rural subdistrict in South Africa as a case study, this study sought to understand the benefits and challenges of community participation beyond that of scaling up. Qualitative process evaluation involving interviews with service providers and users was employed. The results suggest that in addition to promoting mobilization of resources and actions for scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially contribute to more culturally competent services and personal empowerment of recipients of care. In addition, community participation holds promise for engendering community-led public health actions to ameliorate some of the social determinants of mental ill health. Challenges include that community members involved in these activities are mainly marginalized women, who have limited power to achieve structural change, including cultural practices that may be harmful to the mental health of women and children. We conclude that in addition to contributing to scaling up mental health services, community participation can potentially promote the development of culturally competent mental health services and greater community control of mental health. PMID:23008351

  18. A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.VINODINI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recognition all having their respective pros and cons. In this paper, we presented an overview of face recognition techniques and its applications.

  19. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  20. Adecuarse al nuevo entorno empresarial o asumir el desafío de modelarlo / Adapting to the New Context of Companies or Facing the Challenge of Shaping it?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Italo, Pizzolante Negrón.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el entorno competitivo actual, se hace una invitación a las organizaciones a ir más allá buscando no sólo adaptarse al entorno, sino intervenir en él y modelarlo. De ahí la necesidad de un nuevo modelo de gestión basado en la construcción de confianza y reputación: “El desafío de modelar” [...] Abstract in english In the present milieu characterized by strong competitiveness, companies and organizations are invited to move ahead not only to adapt to the context but also to participate in and to shape it. Therefore, a new management model based on confidence building and a good reputation becomes necessary; th [...] at is, “The Challenge of Shaping”

  1. How can “gender planning” contribute to tackle the challenges of demographic change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankiewicz Heidrun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.

  2. Lutas sociais pela saúde pública no Brasil frente aos desafios contemporâneos / Social struggles for health care in Brazil in the face of contemporary challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta Alves, Santos.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica e análise documental sobre a temática de estudo, o presente artigo objetiva contribuir para o debate acerca das lutas sociais no âmbito da saúde frente aos desafios postos na atual conjuntura. Analisa a trajetória dos movimentos sociais pela saúde pública brasi [...] leira desde 1970 e as formas de resistência e luta diante da ofensiva neoliberal. Aponta os conceitos clássicos e contemporâneos sobre a categoria movimento social, resgata os principais elementos expostos na proposta do movimento sanitário, que deu origem ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), e identifica os desafios para a efetivação de uma saúde pública brasileira em um cenário de restrição do papel do Estado e de fortalecimento do mercado. Abstract in english Based on bibliographic research and document analysis, the article contributes to the debate about social struggles in the realm of healthcare in the light of current challenges. It analyzes the trajectory of the social movements for Brazilian healthcare since 1970 and the forms of resistance and st [...] ruggle against the neoliberal offensive. It presents the classic and contemporary concepts about the category of social movement, revives the main elements exposed in the proposal for a public health care movement, which gave origin to Brazil's Single Healthcare System (SUS) and identifies the challenges to implementing a Brazilian healthcare system considering the restricted role of the state and the strengthening of the market.

  3. The Borderlands and climate change: Chapter 10 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Joan; Gray, Floyd; Dubiel, Russell; Langman, Jeff; Moring, J. Bruce; Norman, Laura M.; Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of global climate change in response to both natural forces and human activity is one of the defining issues of our times. The unprecedented observational capacity of modern earth-orbiting satellites coupled with the development of robust computational representations (models) of the Earth’s weather and climate systems afford us the opportunity to observe and investigate how these systems work now, how they have worked in the past, and how they will work in the future when forced in specific ways. In the most recent report on global climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Solomon and others, 2007), analyses using multiple climate models support recent observations that the Earth’s climate is changing in response to a combination of natural and human-induced causes. These changes will be significant in the United States–Mexican border region, where the process of climate change affects all of the Borderlands challenge themes discussed in the preceding chapters. The dual possibilities of both significantly-changed climate and increasing variability in climate make it challenging to take full measure of the potential effects because the Borderlands already experience a high degree of interannual variability and climatological extremes.

  4. Innovating for Rural Development : The case of Danish Agricultural Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the primary challenge for agriculture after World War II was improving food security by increasing productivity, the challenges faced by today’s agriculture are more complex and diverse. In this context it is interesting to investigate Danish agricultural extension. Firstly, the more complex and diverse a situation that farmers have to deal with, the more support farmers may need. Secondly, agricultural extension is important to Danish farmers, pointing to a significant arena for learning and change. Thirdly, privatizing agricultural extension (in Denmark since 1994) should not be seen as a permanent panacea, but be reconsidered in the light of new agricultural and societal challenges. The overall objective of this PhD thesis is to explore the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs so as to point to critical aspects of concern to research and policy makers, and to Danish agricultural extension. In total three papers deal with the overall objective, each from a different perspective. The papers examine the capacity of agricultural extension at consultant level, project level and management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural extension agencies in Denmark. All papers show that financial structural aspects critically affect the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs. The most significant conclusion from this PhD thesis is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal conformity with new tendencies. Supportive financial structures in extension agencies extend the range of innovation intermediary roles taken by individual extension agents, and the overall performance of such agents. However, strong professional identity as innovation intermediary also plays a role in that. Finally, ‘urban impact’ positively affects extension capacity.

  5. An equine pain face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  6. IMPEDIDOS DE “TRATAR DA VIDA”: OS DESAFIOS ENFRENTADOS PELOS LIBERTOS NA SOCIEDADE COLONIAL / PREVENTED FROM “MINDING THEIR LIVES”: THE CHALLENGES FACED BY FREE PEOPLE OF COLOR IN THE BRAZILIAN COLONIAL SOCIETY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Domingos, Pinheiro.

    Full Text Available As possibilidades de acesso à alforria e sua frequência proporcionaram a formação de um importante contingente de libertos na América portuguesa. Porém, a essa camada da sociedade colonial foram impostos muitos e diferentes desafios. Perceber os riscos e as limitações que embaraçaram ou impediram o [...] gozo de uma liberdade plena é o propósito deste artigo. Abstract in english The variety of possibilities as well as the high frequency of manumissions contributed to the creation of an important number of free blacks in the Portuguese America. Despite their free condition, however, these former slaves had to face a variety of different challenges in their daily lives in col [...] onial society. The purpose of this article is to discuss the threats and constrains of their lives as free people of color, and to analyze how these obstacles limited or prevented them from the enjoyment of freedom.

  7. Population Trends in Rural Downstate Illinois. Rural Research Report. Volume 22, Issue 4, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Norman; Harger, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural areas are undergoing a significant transition with both opportunities and challenges that will require effective management and investment strategies by all levels of government. Since 2007, the recession has magnified long-term shifts in employment and economic activity, especially in rural areas. The employment structure continues to…

  8. Novos desafios das escolas técnicas de saúde do SUS / Noveaux défis addressés aux écoles techniques de santé du SUS / New challengs faced by SUS' technical health schools

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita, Sório; Isabel, Lamarca.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As Escolas Técnicas de Saúde do SUS foram criadas para exercer papel estratégico na profissionalização dos trabalhadores de nível médio sem qualificação específica para o Setor Saúde. Apesar do modelo didático-pedagógico flexível, as Escolas Técnicas de Saúde vivem dificuldades expressas em questões [...] de natureza técnico-políticas. Nesse contexto, foi instituído o Projeto Escola de Nível Médio, cujo principal objetivo é o fortalecimento e a consolidação dessas instituições em uma Rede Nacional de Escolas do SUS. Coordenado pela Escola Politécnica de Sàúde Joaquim Venâncio (EPSJV), esse projeto também atua na reorientação das Escolas do SUS, para que estas se integrem às políticas de saúde como atores no processo da reordenação da política de Recursos Humanos em Saúde. Abstract in english SUS' Technical Health Schools were built to play a strategic role for workers in the health sector, who, despite holding an intermediate educational leveI diploma, do not have the specific qualifications the sector requires. Notwithstanding the flexible didactic-pedagogical model, the Technical Heal [...] th Schools face important difficulties related to technical and political issues. ln this context, the Intermediate LeveI School Project was created mainly to support and consolidate such institutions into a National SUS Health School Network. Coordinated by the Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic Health School (EPSJV), the Project also plays an important role in redirecting SUS' Health Schools, aiming particularly at integrating them as players in health policy, in order to redress human resources development policies in the area of health.

  9. Health system through the eyes of a doctor from rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, P K; Shrimal, S R; Khadka, M; Sapkota, B; Thapa, J; Pariyar, J; Magar, A

    2011-10-01

    Its almost 30 years of declaration of Alma-Ata for primary healthcare policy the health system in Nepal still facing shortage of trained medical doctors and health professionals reaching remote and rural part of the country to provide quality health services. There are number of issues such as financial or non-financial incentives, professional advancements, educational opportunities and workplace environment. Healthcare delivery system in Nepal is failing to meet the healthcare need of the general public and needs discussion and revision. However, despite of so many challenges more doctors are willing to work in the remote and rural Nepal. The government has to come out with effective planning and policy regarding health system and human resource for health. In this context, an attempt has been made for a analytical perspective from a medical doctor point of view to highlight some of the pertinent local and policy related issues to improve Health System in Nepal. PMID:22929854

  10. Rural-Urban Migration and Its Consequences on Rural Children: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imran Ali Meerza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural-urban adult migration, mainly adult male migration makes heavy demand on all family members, but especially on children who are left behind in rural area to shoulder the responsibility of agriculture production and food security. Labor shortage due to rural-urban adult migration may mean that children in rural area often have to face tighter time schedules and patterns of time use and human energy inputs required in agriculture production.  The study revealed the impact of rural-urban migration on rural children. In the study, sample was restricted to households that own and/or operate agricultural land in rural area. A purposive sampling was adopted to select villages and covered 500 sample households. The study was based on link between rural-urban migration of adult persons and child labor in rural area. The empirical result showed that an additional rural migrant of a household increases the probability of having child worker in that household by approximately 51%. However, it was found that children of migrant households receive less preventive health care in their infancy. The study also showed that an additional adult worker of a household increases the probability of having child worker in that household by 29%.  For this reason, this study supports the hypothesis that children are the last economic resource of a household.

  11. A Study on the Challenges Faced By Health Systems in Establishing Risk Management in Selected Hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Ahmadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to identify the challenges of risk management in the context of clinical governance in selected hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods:This study was implemented in two phases: qualitative step and quantitative step (survey. The first step was conducted using in-depth interviews and the second was carried out through a survey by questionnaire. Data were collected in hospitals through in-depth interviews with hospitals managers and the experts involved in clinical governance who had been introduced by the hospital manager. All professionals affiliated with clinical governance in Baharloo, Firoozgar, Farabi, Shahid Rajai, Ziaeian, Motahari and Sina hospitals were selected. Results: 35 experts involved in clinical governance were interviewed. According to these experts, the main obstacles in hospital risk management were: Lack of an error reporting culture, exaggerated fear of the consequences, and physicians' lack of interest in this domain. High workloads in this area have led to a reduction in employees' contributions. Conclusion: Establishing clinical governance in health care organizations has had many benefits, such as improving patient care, increased level of patients' satisfaction, establishment of a risk management system, improvement in staff and health-care personnel cooperation, and achieving a more successful organizational management. Appropriate changes in the organizational culture are necessities for the successful establishment of risk management. Human and cultural obstacles that hinder the implementation of risk management in hospitals are evident; thus, major actions are necessary to implement risk management properly in a disciplined manner.

  12. Chacal ou Cordeiro? O Brasil frente aos desafios e oportunidades do Sistema Internacional / Jackal or Lamb? Brazil in face of the challenges and opportunities of the International System

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Júlio César Cossio, Rodriguez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as configurações da política externa brasileira pós-2002 para relacionar os ganhos e perdas com as mudanças estruturais do sistema internacional. O intuito e realizar um balanço das capacidades materiais do Brasil, assim como dos seus desafios e oportunidades, a partir das catego [...] rias propostas por Randall Schweller. Chacal ou Cordeiro? Como se comporta o Brasil num sistema internacional em transição e quais podem ser as consequências? Ou seja, atua como chacal na busca de ganhos relativos ao seguir o ator mais revisionista (China), e como cordeiro na associação direta com a potência unipolar. Abstract in english This article analyzes the configurations of Brazilian foreign policy after 2002 in order to relate to gains and losses the structural changes of the international system. The aim is to achieve a balance of material capabilities of Brazil, as well as its challenges and opportunities, from the categor [...] ies proposed by Randall Schweller. Jackal or Lamb? How does Brazil behave in the international system in transition, and what can be the consequences? That is, while Jackal it acts in pursuit of relative gains by following the more revisionist actor (China), and as Lamb in direct association with the unipolar power.

  13. Telerehabilitation Clinical and Vocational Applications for Assistive Technology: Research, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Betz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telepractice

  14. Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes. PMID:21726264

  15. Retos del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo: Colombia Bilingüe Desafios do Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo: Colômbia Bilíngue The Challenges Facing the National Program for Bilingualism: Bilingual Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamith José Fandiño-Parra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En 2004 el Ministerio de Educación de Colombia diseñó el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB y estipuló los lineamientos y objetivos para su desarrollo en todo el país. El presente artículo hace parte de un proyecto investigativo sobre bilingüismo financiado por la Universidad de La Salle y su objetivo es analizar los pro y los contra del Programa para presentar los dos retos principales que se deben enfrentar: la formación bilingüe de los estudiantes colombianos y la educación bilingüe de niños. En este análisis teórico fueron utilizados principios de la investigación documental y se presentan algunas reflexiones que la comunidad colombiana de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera debería tener en cuenta para desarrollos futuros.Em 2004, o Ministério da Educação da Colômbia desenhou o Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo (PNB e estipulou os lineamentos e objetivos para seu desenvolvimento em todo o país. O presente artigo faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa sobre bilinguismo financiado pela Universidade La Salle e seu objetivo é analisar os prós e contras do Programa para apresentar os dois desafios principais que se devem enfrentar: a formação bilíngue dos estudantes colombianos e a educação bilíngue de crianças. Nesta análise teórica, foram utilizados princípios da pesquisa documental e se apresentam algumas reflexões que a comunidade colombiana de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira deveria considerar para desenvolvimentos futuros.In 2004, the Colombian Ministry of Education designed the National Program for Bilingual Education (GNP and specified the guidelines and objectives for its implementation throughout the country. This article is part of a research project on bilingual education funded by La Salle University, the primary objective of which is to analyze the pros and cons of the program in light of its two main challenges: bilingual education for Colombian students and bilingual education for children. Documentary research principles were used in this theoretical analysis and several considerations for teachers of English as foreign language in Colombia are raised in the interest of future developments.

  16. School Consolidation in Nebraska: Economic Efficiency vs. Rural Community Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Anderson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine the factors driving rural school consolidations, focusing our analysis on Nebraska. We consider statutory and case law, the school financing formulas that drive consolidation and the efforts by rural citizens to challenge those financing formulas in courts. We analyze how rural school consolidations have been framed in newspaper coverage, in order to see the dominant understandings of the cost-benefit tradeoffs in consolidating rural schools. Finally, we study three cases of rural Nebraska school districts for the insights these cases provide as to the challenges of sustaining rural community schools and the effects of consolidation on the students and the communities. Our conclusion is that schools play a vital role in sustaining rural community life, although the costs to the community when schools are consolidated are more difficult to quantify than the economies of scale that motivate those consolidations.

  17. Recruitment and Retention Issues in Rural Labour Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…

  18. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent w...

  19. Challenge and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffy, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past twenty years, various industries have been forever altered by technology: newspapers, book publishing, the photography business, and many more. Higher education too faces unprecedented challenges primarily driven by rapid changes in technology. To meet these challenges and adapt to these changes, new models are needed. Six challenges

  20. Fast Multi-Scale Face Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Fasel, B.

    1998-01-01

    Computerized human face processing (detection, recognition, synthesis) has known an intense research activity during the last few years. Applications involving human face recognition are very broad with an important commercial impacts. Human face processing is a difficult and challenging task: the space of different facial patterns is huge. The variability of human faces as well as their similarity and the influence of other features like beard, glasses, hair, illumination, background etc., m...

  1. Deep Learning Face Attributes in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ziwei; Luo, Ping; Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2014-01-01

    Predicting face attributes from web images is challenging due to background clutters and face variations. A novel deep learning framework is proposed for face attribute prediction in the wild. It cascades two CNNs (LNet and ANet) for face localization and attribute prediction respectively. These nets are trained in a cascade manner with attribute labels, but pre-trained differently. LNet is pre-trained with massive general object categories, while ANet is pre-trained with ma...

  2. There Are No Subways in Lickingville: Metropolitan Models Don't Work for Rural People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Arnold

    This book presents an overview of the problems facing rural America and offers solutions at the national, state, and local levels. The combination of public lack of awareness and metropolitan-centered authority has created a view of rural America and its people that is contrary to both the data and actual living conditions. Rural education has…

  3. Retos del Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo: Colombia Bilingüe / The Challenges Facing the National Program for Bilingualism: Bilingual Colombia / Desafios do Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo: Colômbia Bilíngue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yamith José, Fandiño-Parra; Jenny Raquel, Bermúdez-Jiménez; Víctor Elías, Lugo-Vásquez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, o Ministério da Educação da Colômbia desenhou o Programa Nacional de Bilinguismo (PNB) e estipulou os lineamentos e objetivos para seu desenvolvimento em todo o país. O presente artigo faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa sobre bilinguismo financiado pela Universidade La Salle e seu objetivo [...] é analisar os prós e contras do Programa para apresentar os dois desafios principais que se devem enfrentar: a formação bilíngue dos estudantes colombianos e a educação bilíngue de crianças. Nesta análise teórica, foram utilizados princípios da pesquisa documental e se apresentam algumas reflexões que a comunidade colombiana de ensino de inglês como língua estrangeira deveria considerar para desenvolvimentos futuros. Abstract in spanish En 2004 el Ministerio de Educación de Colombia diseñó el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) y estipuló los lineamientos y objetivos para su desarrollo en todo el país. El presente artículo hace parte de un proyecto investigativo sobre bilingüismo financiado por la Universidad de La Salle y su ob [...] jetivo es analizar los pro y los contra del Programa para presentar los dos retos principales que se deben enfrentar: la formación bilingüe de los estudiantes colombianos y la educación bilingüe de niños. En este análisis teórico fueron utilizados principios de la investigación documental y se presentan algunas reflexiones que la comunidad colombiana de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera debería tener en cuenta para desarrollos futuros. Abstract in english In 2004, the Colombian Ministry of Education designed the National Program for Bilingual Education (GNP) and specified the guidelines and objectives for its implementation throughout the country. This article is part of a research project on bilingual education funded by La Salle University, the pri [...] mary objective of which is to analyze the pros and cons of the program in light of its two main challenges: bilingual education for Colombian students and bilingual education for children. Documentary research principles were used in this theoretical analysis and several considerations for teachers of English as foreign language in Colombia are raised in the interest of future developments.

  4. ¿Está preparado nuestro país para asumir los retos que plantea el envejecimiento poblacional? / Is our country ready to face the challenges set by the aging population?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario Leonardo, Nieto Antolínez Eco; Luz Marina, Alonso Palacio.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fenómeno del envejecimiento de la población es una realidad que enfrenta la humanidad actualmente y a la cual Colombia no es ajena. ¿Qué es el envejecimiento poblacional?, ¿por qué se está envejeciendo la humanidad?, ¿qué tan envejecido está nuestro país en términos comparativos?, ¿cuáles son las [...] condiciones actuales de nuestros adultos mayores en materia de salud, vivienda, educación, esparcimiento, seguridad económica y cuáles son sus perspectivas a futuro? Todas estas son preguntas pertinentes, algunas más sencillas de responder que otras, mas aun, si tenemos en cuenta nuestras grandes restricciones en materia fiscal, y lo que es más grave todavía, la poca importancia que le hemos dado a este cambio demográfico y, por ende, a los desafíos que se avecinan por cuenta del mismo. En este artículo presentamos un panorama general del envejecimiento de la población colombiana, tocando cada uno de los aspectos arriba mencionados, con el fin de llamar la atención acerca de la necesidad de fortalecer la investigación en todas las áreas para buscar respuestas adecuadas y oportunas a este cambio histórico. Abstract in english Aging of the population is an occurrence that has become a reality for all humanity and Colombia is not an exception to it. What is the aging population? Why is humanity aging? How aged is our country in comparative terms? What are the current conditions of our elderly in matters of health, shelter, [...] education, economic security, and what are their future perspectives? All of these are pertinent questions, some easier to answer than others, however, we do keep in mind our great restrictions in fiscal matters and what's worse, the lack of importance we have given to this demographical change and the challenges that it brings. In this article we present a general view of aging in the Colombian population, pointing out each one of the aspects mentioned above, with the purpose of warning about the necessity to strengthen investigation in all areas to find proper answers to this historic change.

  5. Robust E-Health Communication Architecture for Rural Communities in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Idachaba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of access to quality healthcare and the lack of sufficient manpower, especially doctors, in rural areas is a major healthcare challenge faced by dwellers in rural communities in most developing countries. The intervention of governments, which range from the introduction of training programs aimed at producing health workers from schools of health technology and nursing to the recalling and deployment of retired nurses to rural areas, has still not been able to generate the desired improvement in healthcare delivery, as outbreaks of epidemics are still being reported in such areas. This work presents an E-Health architecture which utilizes low cost sensors and communication devices to link the doctors in the urban areas with the patients in rural areas enabling doctors-patients interaction. The system enables accurate and timely diagnosis of the patients and facilitates proper treatment plans. It also incorporates an epidemic alert which enables the tracking of diseases and the early detection and control of epidemics.

  6. Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ehrami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnaire. Based on this approach explain the descriptive statistical analysis and test results show Comments on the conditions the quality of life of society have been evaluated (education and leisure as moderate and less of it. Meanwhile, can be seen the most difficult aspects of environmental and economic conditions that the calculated T statistic shows Frequency deviation than average So that more rural areas are located the quality of the environment at a disadvantage. Findings show that the distribution of all the components influencing the quality of life in rural Shahindezh is observed significant differences in terms of location or distance of the rural population.

  7. Assessing the impact of airborne outreach to build clinical capacity in rural Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna L. Kirk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research demonstrating how best to address inequalities in health and access to specialist care faced by rural disadvantaged populations in high HIV-prevalent settings in Sub Saharan Africa. Delivering equitable and cost-effective specialist clinical services in many parts of Africa is challenging, given human resource shortages, poor transport infrastructure and competing health priorities. In this report we describe how an airborne outreach program to provide HIV services to high HIV burden health facilities in rural Botswana has been an important catalyst for improving specialist service delivery across the spectrum of clinical care. The success of Botswana’s airborne program is a consequence of many country-specific determinants as well as external funding support. We argue that lessons learned from the experience in Botswana are normative for other African settings. Specialist medical airborne outreach to rural hospitals can improve access to and quality of care, when part of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary intervention. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HIV funded program can be a vehicle for enhanced access to essential sub-specialist clinicians in rural Botswana.

  8. Collaborative innovations with rural and regional secondary teachers: enhancing student learning in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

    2011-06-01

    When questioned, secondary mathematics teachers in rural and regional schools in Australia refer to their limited opportunities to engage and share experiences with peers in other schools as an under-utilised and cost-effective mechanism to support their professional learning and enhance their students' learning. The paper reports on the creation and evaluation of a network of learning communities of rural secondary mathematics teachers around a common purpose—enhancement and increased engagement of student learning in mathematics. To achieve this goal, teams of teachers from six rural schools identified an issue hindering improved student learning of mathematics in their school. Working collaboratively with support from university personnel with expertise in curriculum, assessment and quality pedagogy, teachers developed and implemented strategies to address an identified issue in ways that were relevant to their teaching contexts. The research study identifies issues in mathematics of major concern to rural teachers of mathematics, the successes and challenges the teachers faced in working in learning communities on the issue they identified, and the efficacy of the professional learning model.

  9. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. M. Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

  10. Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Liv Merete; Olavsbra?ten, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Machine based face recognition has been a popular research area for several years, and has numerous applications. This technology has now reached a point where there already exists good algorithms for recognition for standardized still images - which have little variation in e.g. lighting, facial expression and pose. We are however in lack of good algorithms that are able to do recognition from live video. The low quality of most surveillance cameras, together with non-standardized imaging c...

  11. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  12. The concept of cluster- villages as planning tool in the rural districts of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; MØller, JØrgen

    The Danish rural districts are transforming; structural and demographical changes are influencing the rural villages, and the contemporary rural districts can be characterized by both well-functioning and growing villages as well as declining and decaying villages. In addition to this, the merger of municipalities in 2007 has resulted in geographical larger municipalities in which the distance between the lived lives in the rural villages seem increasingly alienated from the municipal government and civil service. These challenges require new methods and approaches that address the reality of the rural villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together and uses each other’s strengths, as well as developing the individual village in addition to the specific potentials of that village. In recent years, rural Denmark has been undergoing a sweeping and very noticeable process of adjustment, Development in municipal service provision plays a particular important role to play in both the popular and the political debate and in relation to everyday living conditions. The debate about the future of rural Denmark is also very much a debate about the kind of welfare model we choose in self-governing, municipal Denmark. The centralised, specialised model based on economies of scale, or the decentralised model based on proximity. In the developments and debate relating to these matters, strategic and visionary planning is back in the municipal arena as the only tool capable of handling the many different challenges facing the municipalities. Mellem disse to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfoldthe concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks to inscribe the concept into the existing debate regarding villages in the rural districts.

  13. The concept of cluster : villages as planning tool in the rural districts of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; MØller, JØrgen

    2013-01-01

    The Danish rural districts are transforming; structural and demographical changes are influencing the rural villages, and the contemporary rural districts can be characterized by both well-functioning and growing villages as well as declining and decaying villages. In addition to this, the merger of municipalities in 2007 has resulted in geographical larger municipalities in which the distance between the lived lives in the rural villages seem increasingly alienated from the municipal government and civil service. These challenges require new methods and approaches that address the reality of the rural villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together and uses each other’s strengths, as well as developing the individual village in addition to the specific potentials of that village. In recent years, rural Denmark has been undergoing a sweeping and very noticeable process of adjustment, Development in municipal service provision plays a particular important role to play in both the popular and the political debate and in relation to everyday living conditions. The debate about the future of rural Denmark is also very much a debate about the kind of welfare model we choose in self-governing, municipal Denmark. The centralised, specialised model based on economies of scale, or the decentralised model based on proximity. In the developments and debate relating to these matters, strategic and visionary planning is back in the municipal arena as the only tool capable of handling the many different challenges facing the municipalities. Mellem disse to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfoldthe concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks to inscribe the concept into the existing debate regarding villages in the rural districts.

  14. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Career Center NRHA Career Center 3RNet - National Rural Recruitment and Retention Network Networking & Programs NRHA Programs Overview ... Rural Roads Magazine Rural Lens photo contest NRHA Online Media Partnership Program NRHA Partnership Program Skip special ...

  15. Rural Assistance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bring Healthcare Classes to Rural Areas Highlights three university programs that are embracing distance education to allow professionals to stay in their rural communities while earning a degree. Rural Spotlight An Interview with Craig Kennedy The Executive Director of the ...

  16. Configurações curriculares mediante o enfoque CTS: desafios a serem enfrentados na educação de jovens e adultos / Curricular configurations through the CTS approach: challenges to be faced in EJA (the education of youths and adults)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane, Muenchen; Décio, Auler.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, são analisados desafios a serem enfrentados no âmbito de intervenções curriculares que buscam enfocar interações entre Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade (CTS), mediante a abordagem de temáticas contemporâneas, marcadas pela componente científico-tecnológica. Tais encaminhamentos estão bal [...] izados por uma aproximação entre pressupostos do educador brasileiro Freire (1987) e referenciais ligados ao denominado movimento CTS. No âmbito destas intervenções situa-se o problema investigado: Quais os possíveis desafios a serem enfrentados/investigados quando se buscam configurações curriculares que contemplem o enfoque CTS por meio da abordagem de problemas de relevância social junto à Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)? Os objetivos da pesquisa são: identificar e discutir posicionamentos de professores da EJA quanto à utilização de temas/problemas de relevância social em suas aulas, e identificar e discutir estrangulamentos a serem enfrentados nas instituições escolares. Esta pesquisa é de cunho qualitativo e os instrumentos utilizados foram: registros escritos, sob a forma de diários; questionário e entrevista. Como síntese dos resultados da investigação, foram definidas quatro categorias, as quais constituem desafios a serem enfrentados: a) superação do reducionismo metodológico, ou seja, ao professor atribui-se o papel de "vencer programas"; b) o trabalho interdisciplinar; c) suposta resistência dos alunos à abordagem temática, e d) desenvolvimento de temas polêmicos que envolvem conflitos/contradições locais. No presente trabalho, são discutidas as categorias "a" e "d". Abstract in english In this work, challenges are analyzed to be faced with the range of curricular interventions which aim to approach the interaction between Science, Technology and Society (CTS) through the setting down of contemporary themes, notably science and technology. Such curricular routings are marked by the [...] approximation of the presuppositions of the Brazilian pedagogue Freire (1987) and references to the movement known as CTS. In the context of such curricular interventions, is raised the problem of investigation: What are the possible challenges to be faced / investigated in the search for curricular configurations which look at the CTS approach through the laying out of socially relevant problems together with EJA? The objectives of the research are: to identify and discuss the position of EJA teachers in relation to the use, in class, of themes/problems of social relevance and to identify and discuss complications to be confronted in schools. This project is of a qualitative nature and the instruments used were: written registers in the form of diaries; questionnaires and interviews. As a synthesis of the results of the investigation, four categories are defined and discussed which constitute challenges to be faced: a) the excess of methodological reductionism, this being the teacher giving himself the role of "program beater"; b) interdisciplinary work; c) the supposed student resistance to the themed approach and d) the development of polemic themes which involve local conflicts/contradictions. In the present work, the categories are argued "a" and "d".

  17. Multimodal face-to-face interaction with a talking face: mutual attention and deixis

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, Ge?rard; Elisei, Fre?de?ric; Raidt, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to build an embodied conversational agent able to maintain realistic face-to-face communication with a human interlocutor. This conversational agent is embodied by a videorealistic talking head. While most researchers focus on discourse interpretation and generation, the main challenge here is to provide the interlocutor with implicit and explicit signs of mutual interest and attention as well as with an awareness of environmental conditions in which interaction takes pl...

  18. Sustainable Rural Development though Women Participation in SMEs Business Growth in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Ram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research paper is focused is focused on the sustainable development through women participation in SMEs business growth in Sindh. The main objective of current research is to examine the sustainable development through women participation in Small and medium enterprises in upper Sindh. The data were collected from 300 respondents from five Districts Dadu, Nawabshah, Shikarpur, Jacobabad and Kashmore district by using simple random technique. It was further revealed that the rural women is less confident and their husbands were always given them hard time once they are exposing them selves to out side the boundaries of the house. It was revealed the rural women is innovate designs of toppi (Sindhi Caps as well as other SMEs products which are the only source of earning. They are also paid 60% less value of their products because of lack of marketing and other facilities. The biggest challenges which they were facing they were doing all business in house, lack of marketing facilities, Karo Kari criminal activities and they were deprived from the basic rights. This study contributes and explores the Rural Women challenges in SMEs business and how these critical unethical problems we can overcome like KARO KARI, and other various social issues growth.

  19. Trends in rural water supply: Towards a service delivery approach

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Moriarty; Stef Smits; John Butterworth; Richard Franceys

    2013-01-01

    Behind headline successes in providing first-time access to water lie a number of pressing challenges to the dominant approach to rural water supply in developing countries, namely community management following a demand-responsive approach. These challenges manifest themselves in poor performance of service providers, high rates of hardware failure, and very low levels of service.The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water...

  20. 75 FR 30113 - Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...markets as a result of the recession, microlenders face increased...reversing the economic and financial crisis in rural communities...scoring 10 out of 10 on financial statements versus scoring...unplanned medical bills, housing crisis, or credit crisis. Small credit builder...

  1. David Baines: Rural Doctor, Lecturer, Dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecarver, Charmaine

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the career of David Baines, an American Indian doctor who successfully integrates traditional and modern medicine. Describes problems faced by American Indian doctors, the tremendous amount of work involved in medical training, and problems associated with working in rural areas and trying to straddle two opposing cultures when…

  2. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools / Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josefina, Quintero Corzo; Odilia, Ramírez Contreras.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razon [...] es que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación. Abstract in english Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discip [...] line problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.

  3. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality of education.Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

  4. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms? (¿Cómo enfrentan los docentes practicantes de inglés como lengua extranjera el reto de usar una segunda lengua en las aulas de clase de la escuela pública?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viáfara, John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers' advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching…

  5. Assessment of arsenic, nitrate and phosphorus pollutions in shallow groundwater of the rural area in Kurdistan province (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed Sharifi; Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2012-01-01

    Quality of water resources in the rural area of Qorveh Plain (Kurdistan Iran) is facing a serious challenge due to arsenic (As) pollution and agricultural development. Therefore, 25 shallow groundwater samples (from 14 households and 11 farms) were collected from this area with aim of evaluating their quality as drinking purposes. The water samples were analyzed for pH, water electrical conductivity (Ecw), As, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO3, P, Cl, HCO3, SO4, Si, total hardness (TH), and total di...

  6. Ontario's capacity challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Ontario electrical power generating capacity and the demand for electric power. It outlines the challenges faced by Ontario Power Generation, to meet the market demands in the face of aging generating resources and limited power distribution and transmission infrastructures

  7. A formação profissional frente aos desafios da intervenção e das atuais configurações do ensino público, privado e a distância / The professional background facing the challenges of both intervention and configurations of public, private and distance education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda, Guerra.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A crise atual do capital, com suas novas e antigas determinações, impõe metamorfoses ao mundo do trabalho, o que exige um perfil de profissional funcional a essa etapa do capitalismo. Parto da hipótese de que as atuais configurações do ensino respondem às exigências da atual fase do capitalismo e se [...] orienta pelas demandas do mercado de trabalho. Nesta direção, a formação profissional tem um duplo desafio: desvelar e enfrentar a crise do capital e nela as diversas formas de precarização das relações e condições de trabalho, flexibilização dos direitos e focalização das políticas sociais, que, como parte da mesma racionalidade, se expressam e condicionam exercício e formação profissionais. Abstract in english The current crisis of the capital, together with its new and old determinations, demands metamorphoses from the world of work, which requires a professional profile that serves to this phase of capitalism. My hypothesis is that the current configurations of education are adequate to the demands of t [...] he present phase of capitalism, and that such education is guided by the requirements of the labor market. So, the professional background has a double challenge: to unveil and to face the crisis of the capital, as well as the several ways making the working relations and conditions precarious, the flexibility of rights and the emphasis of the social policies that, as a part of the same reasoning, express and influence the professional activity and background.

  8. A formação profissional frente aos desafios da intervenção e das atuais configurações do ensino público, privado e a distância The professional background facing the challenges of both intervention and configurations of public, private and distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Guerra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crise atual do capital, com suas novas e antigas determinações, impõe metamorfoses ao mundo do trabalho, o que exige um perfil de profissional funcional a essa etapa do capitalismo. Parto da hipótese de que as atuais configurações do ensino respondem às exigências da atual fase do capitalismo e se orienta pelas demandas do mercado de trabalho. Nesta direção, a formação profissional tem um duplo desafio: desvelar e enfrentar a crise do capital e nela as diversas formas de precarização das relações e condições de trabalho, flexibilização dos direitos e focalização das políticas sociais, que, como parte da mesma racionalidade, se expressam e condicionam exercício e formação profissionais.The current crisis of the capital, together with its new and old determinations, demands metamorphoses from the world of work, which requires a professional profile that serves to this phase of capitalism. My hypothesis is that the current configurations of education are adequate to the demands of the present phase of capitalism, and that such education is guided by the requirements of the labor market. So, the professional background has a double challenge: to unveil and to face the crisis of the capital, as well as the several ways making the working relations and conditions precarious, the flexibility of rights and the emphasis of the social policies that, as a part of the same reasoning, express and influence the professional activity and background.

  9. Rural households in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Ba?ez Rami?rez, Javier Eduardo; Kronick, Dorothy; Mason, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that climate change poses two distinct, if related, sets of challenges for poor rural households: challenges related to the increasing frequency and severity of weather shocks and challenges related to long-term shifts in temperature, rainfall patterns, water availability, and other environmental factors. Within this framework, we examine evidence from existing empirical literature to compose an initial picture of household-level strategies for adapting to climate change in ...

  10. PERFORMANCE OF REGIONAL RURAL BANKS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridevi Sharanappa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regional Rural Banks plays a pivotal role in the agriculture and rural development of India. The RRBS have more reached to the rural area of India, through their huge network. The success of rural credit in India is largely depends on their financial strength. RRBs are key financing institution at the rural level which shoulders responsibility of meeting credit needs of different types of agriculture credit in rural areas. At present, most of the regional rural banks are facing the problems of overdue, recovery, nonperforming assets and other problems. Therefore, it is necessary to study financial performance of RRBs in India. This paper attempts to analyze the financial performance of RRBs in India during the period 2008-09 to 2010- 2011. The study is based on secondary data collected form annual reports of NABARD and RBI. An analytical research design of Key Performance Indicators Analysis such as deposits, loans, investments and growth rate index is followed in the present study. The study finds and concludes that performance of RRBs has significantly improved.

  11. The Crises Management faced with new Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaescu, Liviu; Mihaescu, Diana

    2008-01-01

    We witness an economic crisis without precedent that affects every area of our existence, rich and poor, at a global scale. The noise of financial crisis makes us no longer perceive other crises, which no one seems ready to accept them, namely a crisis of values that proliferate in our society. The experience of the past crises shows that the recession affecting mainly local companies, multinational companies managed to make profits during hard times for the economy of the host country, and t...

  12. Facing online challenges using learning classifier systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho Asensio, Andreu

    2014-01-01

    Los grandes avances en el campo del aprendizaje automático han resultado en el diseño de máquinas capaces de aprender y de extraer información útil y original de la experiencia. Recientemente alguna de estas técnicas de aprendizaje se han aplicado con éxito para resolver problemas del mundo real en ámbitos tecnológicos, médicos, científicos e industriales, los cuales no se podían tratar con técnicas convencionales de análisis ya sea por su complejidad o por el gran volumen de da...

  13. Facing the challenges of the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Renaissance is stumbling at the very same time it should speed up in order to help control the climate change and meet a fast growing energy need in a large part of the world. Rising costs of projects, uncertainties about their completion, rocketing safety requirements, and financial constraints are key factors which slow down the Nuclear Renaissance. Furthermore, the legal infrastructure required from any country to enter a commercial nuclear programme (safety authorities, fuel cycle, and waste disposal) is a major hurdle s which impedes consideration for small to mid size reactors, well suited for many countries. The paper prepared and presented by Alain Bugat (Chairman of NucAdvisor and former Head of the French Atomic Energy Commission), Dominique Vignon (CEO of NucAdvisor and former President and CEO of AREVA NP) and Michel Lecomte (Co-founder NucAdvisor) reviews the present status of the Nuclear Renaissance. Based on an analysis of initial versus actual plans for all projects announced during the last three years, it scrutinizes some key factors behind the postponements of start-up dates of construction, and cost increases. On each of the issues which jeopardize new projects, the paper will propose an adequate course of actions, to be taken by vendors, operators, governments and safety authorities as well as investors, financial institutions and banks. - Recommendations are developed with respect to: - A needed coordination between the Kyoto and posted coordination between the Kyoto and post Kyoto mechanisms, and the nuclear industry; a financial assessment of the potential of such coordination will be presented; - A transformation of the national licensing processes, under a common International framework; it will take into consideration the experience of the Airspace industry, and a systematic mutual acceptance of licensing certificates; - An easier access for nuclear projects to the financial markets, based on the support of major Financial institutions (World Bank; BEI; etc..). (authors)

  14. Time to face the healthcare challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Edward

    2012-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is upon us. The success, extent, and quality of the resulting care is not fully under our control. That is surely an understatement. Healthcare is one-fifth of the United States' Gross National Product, and it is no longer ours to control. Nonetheless, we have all taken an oath, the Hippocratic Oath, and in 2012, that oath includes being advocates for our patients and helping insure that we, as a nation, "do no harm." PMID:22900244

  15. DISTANCE EDUCATION POTENTIAL FOR A CANADIAN RURAL ISLAND COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom JONES

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning. A unique set of considerations confront many of these isolated communities if they wish to engage in distance education and training. This set ranges from internet access to excessive travel by secondary students to the lack of centralized facility. For this study, a group of 48 participants were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the potential for distance education to impact on the community's educational, both academic and vocational, life-long learning and economic needs. The results indicated that there were four general areas of purported benefit: academic advancement, an improved quality of life, support for young families and a stabilizing affect on the local economy. Suggestions for the implementation of a suitable distance education resource are noted.

  16. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  17. RURAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAMOD PATIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Indian rural market with its enormous size and heterogeneous demand base offers great lucrative opportunities to organizations. After all, seventy percent of India's population, 56% of income, 64% of expenditure and 33% of savings come from rural India. The rural share of popular consumer goods and durables ranges from 30% to 60% and also sales to rural India are steadily growing. For the first time since economic reforms began two decades ago, consumption in rural India is growing faster than in urban India.. Understanding the importance of rural market this paper is an attempt to study the Indian rural marketing environment and its features.

  18. Rural transport and dreight governance crossroads in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chakwizira, James; Mashiri, Mac

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses rural transport and freight governance crossroad issues in South Africa’s district municipalities. Making use of case studies, focus groups and reflective learning techniques, critical gaps in the rural transport and freight set-up are discussed. The findings confirm the existence of rural transport and freight challenges in district municipalities. The findings suggest the need to align and coordinate more strongly freight transport and integrated transport plans (ITPs)...

  19. Multitasking in the rural world: technological change and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Teresa; Nijkamp, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The rural world offers a heterogeneous picture caused by a rich past and varied responses to a diversity of socio-economic, demographic and political challenges. The present paper aims to trace new opportunities for rurality in the context of a metamorphosis of current production and consumption systems. Addressing issues like diversification, local competition or networking, rural firms are adapting to new conditions by segmenting and moving towards less concentrated forms,...

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Water Supply in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Quin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Many nations in Sub-Saharan Africa, supported by donors, have increased efforts in their rural water supply programmes within the last few decades. However, these programmes suffer from a range of challenges and problems and, according to recent figures, over half of rural inhabitants in Sub-Saharan Africa lack access to safe water supplies. In order to improve the delivery of rural water services, effective monitoring and evaluation can provide support. Uganda has recently been recognised fo...

  1. Rural development policy and food industry development : investigation of small firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence of power buyers). Further investigation was carried out on the topic of firms' formation of networks, and the use of available assistance in doing so. Firms' evaluations of support received in satisfying specified objectives are not correlated with their views on which objectives should be addressed. Some concrete suggestions for network activities had been made, but overall the development is at an early stage.

  2. RURAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    PRAMOD PATIL

    2013-01-01

    The Indian rural market with its enormous size and heterogeneous demand base offers great lucrative opportunities to organizations. After all, seventy percent of India's population, 56% of income, 64% of expenditure and 33% of savings come from rural India. The rural share of popular consumer goods and durables ranges from 30% to 60% and also sales to rural India are steadily growing. For the first time since economic reforms began two decades ago, consumption in rural India is growing faster...

  3. Rural deprivation: reflecting reality.

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, J. C.; Baird, A. G.; Iversen, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK) there is currently an upsurge of interest in rural affairs. This brings the potential to address some of the gaps in rural health care research. The appropriate description and measurement of rural deprivation is one area consistently identified by UK rural practitioners and policymakers as urgently requiring evidence. Appropriate identification and measurement of deprivation within a rural context is important so that primary care resources can be targeted at those...

  4. Red face revisited: Flushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?kizo?lu, Güliz

    2014-01-01

    The term red face is reserved for lesions located exclusively or very predominantly on the face that result from changes in cutaneous blood flow triggered by multiple different conditions. Facial erythema may not only present clinically as a distinct entity, but can also be a sign of other diseases. Patients with a red face challenge clinicians to consider a broad differential diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on date and mode of appearance, characteristics of the erythema, functional signs, and associated systemic manifestations. In most cases, the cause is a benign disease such as rosacea, contact dermatitis, photodermatosis, and climacterium, and a thorough history and physical examination is enough to make a diagnosis; facial erythema may also present as a symptom of drug allergies, cardiac disease, carcinoid syndrome, pheochromocytoma, mastocytosis, and anaphylaxis, as well as some rare causes such as medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pancreatic cell tumor, and renal carcinoma where further laboratory, radiologic, or histopathologic studies are required. In this review, the mechanisms of flushing, its clinical differential diagnosis, and management of various conditions that cause flushing are discussed. PMID:25441473

  5. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh D. Parmar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

  6. Social networks and rural non-farm enterprise development and implication for poverty reduction among rural households in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Zuwarimwe, J.; Kirsten, Johann F.

    2011-01-01

    Poverty remains a greatest challenge for the rural households of the sub Saharan Africa and a number of interventions are proposed to alleviate poverty. Rural non-farm enterprises are seen as a possible partner to farm enterprises to reduce poverty as there are robust production linkages between the two. On the other hand social networks have been seen to play an important role in the development of small-scale rural non-farm enterprises. This paper explores the social networks an...

  7. Strengthening Rural Schools: Training Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Stott, Kathryn A.

    The long-term effects of crisis and tragedy can be improved significantly by immediate intervention and emergency mental health services. Providing crisis intervention in rural schools poses challenges related to lack of financial resources, community resources, and trained personnel; isolation of rural schools; and long distances between school…

  8. Land affairs and rural development ; agriculture : 2009 (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Pienaar, Juanita; Olivier, N. J. J.

    2009-01-01

    According to a recent announcement (‘Achievements and challenges: Rural development’), the ANC is committed to a ‘comprehensive and clear rural development strategy linked to land and agrarian reform’. In this regard the post April 2009 government will intensify the land reform programme.

  9. Challenges and Roadblocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Gifted education has many challenges, and gifted programs sometimes throw up significant roadblocks. But passionate teachers can still make a difference in developing the gifts of the children. In this article, the author summarizes the challenges teachers face in serving gifted students and the roadblocks preventing a strong, supportive gifted…

  10. Once an Outsider, Always an Outsider? The Accessibility of the Dutch Rural Housing Market among Locals and Non-Locals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Carola; Daalhuizen, Femke B. C.; van Dam, Frank; Mulder, Clara H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most pressing questions in the rural gentrification literature is whether rural residents face difficulties in finding a home within their locality due to the influx of more wealthy newcomers. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which intended local movers and intended non-local movers have realised their rural residential…

  11. Handsets Malware Threats and Facing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Elfattah, Marwa M A; Sarhan, Ebada

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a new approach to group the different malware containment systems according to their typologies.

  12. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors / Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Doris, Correa.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Con base en teorías criticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al constr [...] uir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías mas efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de genero, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Abstract in english Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic lit [...] eracy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training.

  13. O controle do câncer do colo do útero: desafios para implementação de ações programáticas no Amazonas, Brasil / Cervical cancer prevention: challenges facing the implementation of program actions in Amazonas, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dina Albuquerque Duarte, Corrêa; Wilza Vieira, Villela.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar alguns desafios para a implementação de ações programáticas visando ao controle do câncer do colo do útero no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados os relatórios do Programa Viva Mulher do Amazonas referentes à coleta e qualidade das lâminas e os dados de [...] mortalidade por esta causa registrados no DATASUS para os períodos 2001 a 2005. Os resultados apresentam que no período não houve o aumento na cobertura da coleta de exames de Papanicolaou, embora tenha havido uma discreta melhora na qualidade das lâminas; as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero estão aumentando, e situam-se em patamares acima dos encontrados no país e na região norte. A análise desses resultados sugere a necessidade de haver um esforço, por parte da gestão do Programa no Amazonas, na capacitação de profissionais e dos gerentes dos serviços, visando aumentar a captação das mulheres sob maior risco. Abstract in english The purpose of this study is to present a number of challenges facing the implementation of program actions regarding the control of cervical cancer in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Reports of the Viva Mulher program in Amazonas on Papanicolaou screening tests and the quality of cervical samples an [...] d mortality rates from this disease taken from DATASUS were analyzed for the 2001 to 2005 period. The results show no increase in the population covered by the Papanicolaou screening test in this period, although there was a small improvement in the quality of cervical samples. However, mortality rates for cervical cancer are increasing in this reason, and are higher than the rates for Brazil as a whole and for the North region of the country. Analysis of these results suggests the need for local program managers, to make efforts to build the capacity of health-care professionals and service managers, with a view to increasing Papanicolaou screening test coverage for high-risk women.

  14. 25 años de estudios rurales / 25 years of rural studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Bengoa.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analizan los desplazamientos que han ocurrido en las cuestiones referidas a la agricultura y el mundo rural, en América Latina, en los últimos veinte y cinco años. En pocos ámbitos del conocimiento social, los temas referidos a estas áreas se han desplazado muy profundamente, tan [...] to es así que la lectura de textos que fueron de la mayor trascendencia en los años sesenta hoy en día no son, con excepciones, otra cosa que asuntos de interés para el análisis de la historia de las ideas. Al revisar la literatura uno se encuentra ante debates que hoy suenan pasados de moda, sin importancia actual e incluso desmedidos. Más aún la inercia de los estudios actuales conduce a pensar en una falta de renovación y ausencia de nuevas miradas, por lo que es necesario el ejercicio de la crítica. En este artículo se ensaya la hipótesis, que en este período se ha producido la pérdida de autonomía de la cuestión y sociedad rural y que surge, o debiera surgir, una nueva mirada hacia estas temáticas en busca de comprender el sentido que aún tiene y seguirá teniendo "lo rural" en nuestras sociedades. La cuestión rural sigue siendo importante, y lo será crecientemente, pero ahora no quizá como sistema de producción o como sociedad diferenciada, sino como fuente y fuerza simbólica e identitaria para las sociedades que se encaminan a un proceso de globalización acelerado, anclándolas en sus profundidades culturales. Probablemente será una referencia a relaciones de convivencia, sistemas de pertenencia, sustrato de relaciones primarias, quizá las únicas proveedoras de sentido frente a la acción colectiva globalizada. Abstract in english This article examines the displacements that have taken place in issues regarding agriculture and the rural world in Latin America in the last 25 years. In a few areas of social knowledge the theme related to such matters has been greatly displaced. Reading the 1960s' highly transcendent texts is re [...] levant almost only to the analysis of the history of ideas - an indication of the aforesaid displacement. In reviewing literature one faces outmoded-sounding debates, with no current importance and sometimes even pointless. Besides, the inertia of current studies points to the lack of renovation and the absence of new approaches. That is why critique has to be exercised. This article assays the hypothesis that in this period the rural issue as well as the rural society have lost their autonomy and there emerges - or there should emerge - a new approach towards those subjects in order to understand the meaning that "rural" still has and will have in our societies. The rural issue is still relevant and it will be increasingly relevant, but perhaps not as a production system or a distinct society, but rather as a symbolic identitarian source and force to societies that are heading to a speedy process of globalization, anchoring them in their cultural profundities. It will probably refer to sociability relations, systems of belonging, an essence of basic relations, perhaps the only one to provide meaning in face of collective globalized action.

  15. Methamphetamine Exposure: A Rural Early Intervention Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Derauf, Christian; Grant, Penny; LaGasse, Linda; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Stewart, Sara; Wouldes, Trecia

    2006-01-01

    In the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study of methamphetamine (MA) effects on children, the authors screened approximately 27,000 newborn infants for MA exposure, and from that pool derived a sample of in utero MA-exposed children as well as a comparison group matched for other drug use and other factors. IDEAL measures…

  16. “Embracing the present and fearing the future”: The meaning of being an oldest old woman in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove M. Ness

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Western countries, the number of older people receiving home nursing care is increasing, and in rural areas they are at additional risk because of the distance between people and health care facilities. The aim of this study was therefore to illuminate the meaning of being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area and receiving home nursing care. A sample of 11 oldest old women living in rural areas in the middle of Norway was chosen for this study. Narrative interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutic method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified four themes: being satisfied with life, being thankful, feeling vulnerable, and feeling secure. The comprehensive understanding implied that being an oldest old woman living alone in a rural area meant living in the intersection between embracing the present in solitude and fearing the future with additional declining health. Living in this complex situation meant to enjoy the present, but still fear the future, as the oldest old women knew their present life situations were limited. This challenging emotional situation meant using their inner strength by trying to be optimistic and seeing opportunities in present life, even if losses were many and extensive. By using their inner strength in facing losses and declining health, the oldest old women managed to appreciate aloneness as solitude, and find new meaning in life.

  17. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  18. An Automatic Face Recognition Technique Based on Face Contours and Face Profile Characterization Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar Jha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is such a challenging yet interesting problem that it has attracted researchers with different backgrounds: psychology, pattern recognition, neural networks, computer vision, and computer graphics.In this paper, an improved algorithm for automatic face recognition, based on the characterization of faces by their contours and profiles, is proposed. The main aim of this paper is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. Experiments show that the central vertical profile and the contour are both very useful features for face recognition. Illumination and pose remains a largely unsolved problem. Hence the pose compensation and illumination compensation are discussed in order to avoid their effects. Current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system. Hence the solutions for the problems of face recognition are also considered. Image morphing technique was introduced to get the better efficiency for the recognition of faces. A comparison to the principle component analysis was made to prove our algorithm is more robust, simpler and less computationally intensive.

  19. The Academy of Rural Veterinarians: Grassroots Innovation to Address the Rural Veterinarian Shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Shelley J.; Brian Buff

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, a group of dedicated rural veterinarians met while taking the Beef Cattle Production Management Course at the Great Plains Veterinary Education Center at Clay Center, NE.  Upon finding an a common belief in the value of rural practice, this group began visiting each other's practices and offered critiques about ways that the practice could work more efficiently.  One thing became almost immediately noticeable through these visits-the challenge of finding qualified associat...

  20. RURAL MARKETING SCENARIO FOR SELLING PRODUCTS & SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Nangre

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities Improvement in infrastructure and reach a bright future for those intending to go rural. Any macro-level strategy for these markets should focus on availability, accessibility and affordability. Focused attention needs to be paid to market research that goes on to reduce the uncertainly in dealing with these markets. More specifically, in relation to rural areas, demand is seen to a very highly price elastic. There is no doubt that divides do exist between urban India and rural India. This paper discuss the rural marketing and its scenario and also focus on issues and challenges for selling products & services.

  1. ATTRIBUTE ENHANCED SPARSE CODING FOR FACE IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    OpenAIRE

    MILU SAYED; LIYA NOUSHEER

    2014-01-01

    Content based face image retrieval is an emerging technology. It’s mainly used for face image verification technique. It’s a challenging technique since all the faces will be similar due to its similar geometrical configuration of face structure. In this paper we discuss about two types of face image retrieval technique: Attribute enhanced sparse coding and Attribute embedded sparse coding. In attribute enhanced sparse coding enhancement of attributes is done. Attribute en...

  2. The Academy of Rural Veterinarians: Grassroots Innovation to Address the Rural Veterinarian Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley J. Lenz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In 2000, a group of dedicated rural veterinarians met while taking the Beef Cattle Production Management Course at the Great Plains Veterinary Education Center at Clay Center, NE.  Upon finding an a common belief in the value of rural practice, this group began visiting each other's practices and offered critiques about ways that the practice could work more efficiently.  One thing became almost immediately noticeable through these visits-the challenge of finding qualified associates interested in joining a rural practice.

  3. The coming vitality of rural places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B. HOWLEY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn many parts of the world, whether “developing” or “developed,” the concept of a rural sort of education is largely ignored by national ministries. The United States is just one notable example of silence at the bureaucratic center, despite scholarly interest in provincial universities. The future may change the “terms of engagement,” however, and this essay considers the leadership of rural schools and communities from the vantage of the daunting, but clearly visible, challenges of the future. The challenges described in the essay relate to a variety of visible, perhaps even familiar, economic, environmental, political, and cultural threats confronting life in the coming century. Though increasingly important and relevant to education, these threats are not a common part of discussions in education policy. The essay explains why, and why the threats are important to rural villages and districts. Discussion concludes with five rurally appropriate shifts of thinking that might help rural citizens and subjects around the world engage the challenges and counter the threats.

  4. Rural development limitations at the transitional terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Marija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available European countries have been reaffirtmating the role and the significance of agricultural multifunctionality for rural areas development. The transition countries have to make the assessment of their weaknesses and opportunities before facing the necessary significant investments in agriculture, rural settlements and deprived rural areas. Overall economic development should provide for further agriculture employment reduction, along with taking measures for the agriculture farms modernization and changes in the structure of agriculture production, within the process of integrated rural development. Declining population at mountain areas might be a prerequisite for intensified farm restructuring, namely through development reorientation, achieving more balanced agriculture economy, along with rediscovering comparative advantages in the development of new activities linked to social changes and changes in lifestyle - green tourism, leisure activities, health care, as well as to forestry, traditional crafts etc. Subsequent to European experience in maintenance of the necessary level of spatial development in sparsely populated and neglected rural areas, the development of priority mountain areas in Serbia should be defined at national level, and the new system of support should facilitate the preparation and the implementation of different projects for integrated rural development of this priority areas.

  5. Moving away from Erindi-roukambe : Transferability of a rural community-based co-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that situated design and contextualized research needs to undergo a validation phase to determine transferability. Within our longitudinal research project in rural Namibia, we have reached a maturity of methods and product. Yet little do we know about their validity beyond the limited context in the absence of cross-contextual verification. In Erindi-roukambe, the site of our community-based co-design, we have learned to understand and include local perspectives and structures within the dialogic of a participatory action research approach. By engaging with the community over a long period of time local research findings, as well as mutual knowledge have fostered and enriched design decisions. Recognizing that indigenous rural communities in the regional and globally face similar challenges with inappropriate mainstream technology we are currently investigating the applicability of our findings, processes and prototype in other contexts. We have introduced our approach at three other rural sites, two in Namibia and one in East Malaysia. The communities responded well to the technology demonstrating intuitive use and engagement. However, although we have gained promising results we wish to caution pre-mature conclusions on transferability without a more profound understanding of the depth of community engagement, transformation, contextual similarities, and cross-contextual validation.

  6. The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed J.F. Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

  7. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  8. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  9. Accomplishing rural electrification for over a billion people: Approaches towards sustainable solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mizanur Md

    2014-01-01

    Access to electricity appears to be a prerequisite to materialize social, economic, and human development in the underprivileged rural areas. However, 1.1 billion rural people in the world, almost all of them living in developing countries, still do not have access to electricity. Although the rural electrification process poses more challenges than urban electrification, rural areas are blessed with abundant and relatively evenly distributed renewable energy resources. To facilitate electric...

  10. From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry / Del papel a la pantalla: cambios y retos de la industria editorial brasileña / Do papel à tela: as transformações e os desafios da indústria editorial brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Aurélio de Souza, Rodrigues; Paula, Chimenti; Antonio Roberto Ramos, Nogueira; Luiz Felipe, Hupsel; Andrea, Repsold.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As novas tecnologias mudam drasticamente o modo como livros são produzidos e consumidos, evidenciando uma quebra de paradigma na indústria editorial. Neste estudo, procura-se compreender como a indústria editorial brasileira está enfrentando essas transformações, capazes de alterar profundamente seu [...] modelo de negócios. Entrevistas em profundidade com os principais executivos de alguns dos principais atores da indústria editorial foram realizadas a fim de coletarem-se dados sobre como esses gestores percebem as mudanças em seu ambiente de negócios e como vão responder a essas transformações. Os resultados sugerem um panorama caracterizado por novos players chegando ao mercado brasileiro e por grande ansiedade decorrente da chegada dos livros digitais, que podem alterar de forma significativa questões relativas à gestão de direitos autorais e à precificação, potencialmente redefinindo o papel de um editor no processo de publicação. Como reflexo, os editores vêm construindo alianças como uma tentativa de preservar seu valor no mercado, ainda que se mantenham firmemente agarrados aos modelos de negócio tradicionais. Abstract in spanish Las nuevas tecnologías han cambiado drásticamente el modo de producción y consumo de libros, lo que señala un claro cambio de paradigma en la industria editorial. En este estudio se busca entender cómo la industria editorial en Brasil está haciendo frente a estos cambios que afectan significativamen [...] te su modelo de negocio. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas en profundidad con ejecutivos de los principales actores de la industria editorial y se recopilaron datos sobre cómo perciben los cambios en su ambiente de negocios y cómo responderán a estas transformaciones. Los resultados sugieren un panorama que se caracteriza por los nuevos jugadores que llegan al mercado brasileño y por la ansiedad que produce el advenimiento de los libros digitales, lo que puede cambiar de manera significativa cómo tratar cuestiones que se relacionan con la de gestión de derechos de autor y la fijación de precios, y redefinir el mismo papel del editor en el proceso de publicación. Como resultado, los editores están forjando asociaciones que tratan de mantener su valor en el mercado, aunque se aferren firmemente a los modelos de negocio tradicionales. Abstract in english The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazi [...] l to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

  11. Accommodating Limited English Proficient Spanish Speakers in Rural Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Parker; Paula Cupertino, A

    2014-05-17

    Hospital accreditation policies mandate adequate accommodation of Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients. Rural hospitals with limited resources face several barriers to providing such care. This study assesses strategies used by rural hospitals to provide care for LEP Spanish speakers. A self-administered survey was sent to 153 rural hospitals in Kansas and Missouri. The survey featured 10 items developed to assess LEP services demand, translation services, interpretation methods used, signage, satisfaction with provided services, barriers, and innovative methods of providing care. Forty-eight surveys (31.4 %) were returned. Hospitals with higher LEP demand were more likely to have translated documents; however, not all hospitals with high demand had key paperwork available in Spanish. Telephonic interpreting services, family members, and clinical staff were reported as primary methods of interpretation. Rural hospitals across the nation are facing the rapidly increasing LEP Latino population. This research provides important findings for future policies and interventions. PMID:24838926

  12. Ethiopia: Diversifying the Rural Economy. An Assessment of the Investment Climate for Small and Informal Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Loening, Josef; Mikael Imru, Laketch

    2009-01-01

    The Rural Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is one of the first studies of small and informal firms in rural and semi-urban areas in Ethiopia. Little was known about the nature and size distribution of small, rural firms, the constraints they face when trying to expand or even to survive, the significance of their impact on the broader rural economy, and the policies, reforms and public investments that could spur investment by rural non-farm enterprises. One quarter of all households in ru...

  13. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  14. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms? ¿Cómo enfrentan los docentes practicantes de inglés como lengua extranjera el reto de usar una segunda lengua en las aulas de clase de la escuela pública?

    OpenAIRE

    John Jairo Viáfara

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers' advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history a...

  15. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in ?ódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in ?ódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in ?ódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  16. Face recognition based on dense correspondences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenke; Liu, Rui; Shuai, Jianmei; Zhu, Ming

    2013-10-01

    Face recognition under changing lighting conditions and facial expression are a challenging problem in computer vision. The variations in illumination and facial expressions can dramatically reduce the performance of face recognition. In this paper, an efficient method for face recognition which is robust under illumination and facial expressions variations. The core of the algorithm based on dense correspondence which we used is characterized by LBP and regional gradient between images. Our experiment on the AR databases and ORL face databases, ORL databases as a supplement in this framework. The results show that the proposed approach is not only efficient but also outperforms the comparative methods.

  17. 3D Face Recognition: Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökberk, Berk; Salah, Albert Ali; Alyüz, Ne?e; Akarun, Lale

    3D face recognition has received a lot of attention in the last decade, leading to improved sensors and algorithms that promise to enable large-scale deployment of biometric systems that rely on this modality. This chapter discusses advances in 3D face recognition with respect to current research and technology trends, together with its open challenges. Five real-world scenarios are described for application of 3D face biometrics. Then we provide a comparative overview of the currently available commercial sensors, and point out to research databases acquired with each technology. The algorithmic aspects of 3D face recognition are broadly covered; we inspect automatic landmarking and automatic registration as sine qua non parts of a complete 3D facial biometric system. We summarize major coordinated actions in evaluating 3D face recognition algorithms, and conclude with a case study on a recent and challenging database.

  18. Mercantilização do ensino superior: os desafios da universidade diante do atual cenário educacional = The commodification of higher education: the challenges of university education in face of the present scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bechi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por propósito refletir sobre o atual contexto da Educação Superior no Brasil, propiciando o conhecimento de diferentes aspectos que comprovam a importância da ética na formação universitária e a necessidade de contrapô-la à tecnificação do Ensino Superior. Para isso, no primeiro momento, são analisadas as transformações socioculturais ocorridas nas últimas décadas. A apresentação dessas transformações possibilita conhecer as atuais tendências da Educação Superior a partir do processo de globalização, da urbanização, do predomínio do conhecimento e da internacionalização da educação. Com a passagem da "sociedade do trabalho" para a "sociedade do conhecimento", influenciada pelo desenvolvimento das tecnologias da informação, iniciado em meados do século XX, o conhecimento tornou-se uma mercadoria altamente comercializável. A partir de então, os cursos superiores passaram a ser criados sob a ótica do mercado. A abertura do mercado educacional obteve respaldo na década de 1990, após a implementação de políticas educacionais de cunho neoliberal. Tais iniciativas proporcionaram expressivo aumento do número de IES particulares ou privado/mercantis. Ao compreender essa nova dinâmica que configura o mundo contemporâneo e a influência das políticas públicas no âmbito educacional, são apresentadas as consequências do processo de mercantilização do Ensino Superior e os desafios a serem enfrentados pela Universidade.The purpose of this work is to reflect on the current context of higher education in Brazil, providing knowledge of different aspects that prove the importance of ethics in university education and the need to contrast it to the technological development of higher education. For this, at first, we analyze the socio-cultural transformations that occurred in recent decades. The presentation of these transformations makes it possible to know the current trends in higher education from the process of globalization, urbanization, the prevalence of knowledge and internationalization of education. With the passage from the “society of work” to the “knowledge society”, influenced by the development of information technology, started in the mid-twentieth century, knowledge has become a highly marketable commodity. Since then, higher education majors began to be created from the perspective of the market. The opening of the educational market got support in the 1990s, after the implementation of neoliberal educational policies. These initiatives have provided a significant increase in the number of private or private/ commercial HEIs. By understanding this new dynamic that shapes the contemporary world and the influence of public policies in education, this work presents the consequences of the process of commodification of higher education and the challenges faced by universities.

  19. Rural Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lewis W.

    The following rural sociological research needs were identified: (1) acceptance of general sociological theory and methodology for use in "Rural" research; (2) recognition of bench marks and probable base lines in rural sociological research; (3) collection of widely scattered reports for examination and perhaps respecification; (4) establishment…

  20. Applying ERNEUERBAR KOMM. in the context of rural development in north eastern Bavaria (Mittelfranken); ERNEUERBAR KOMM. Anwendung im Rahmen der Laendlichen Entwicklung Mittelfranken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumberg, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Amt fuer Laendliche Entwicklung Mittelfranken, Ansbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Rural areas in Bavaria are faced with the same challenges as everywhere: Demographic chane, structural changes in agriculture and in small industries and trade, global climate change, and the requirements of the intended energy turnaround. This requires regional solutions. The contribution outlines the research project 'Integrative potential analysis for renewable energy sources' (ERNEUERBAR KOMM.) led by Prof. Dr. Klaerle (Ms.). Currently, the Mittelfranken regional development authority is carrying out two potential analyses in 12 communities, and five more regions with a total of 40 communities intend to participate as well.

  1. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial ... the type and severity of deformity, and the patient's condition. ...

  2. Quality of life in rural areas: A topic for the Rural Development policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer René

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary transformations of rural areas involve changes in land uses, economic perspectives, connectivity, livelihoods, but also in lifestyles, whereupon a traditional view of ‘the rural’ and, consequently, of ‘rural development’ no longer holds. Accordingly, EU’s 2007-2013 Rural Development policy (RDP is one framework to incorporate aspects labelled as quality of life (QOL alongside traditional rural tenets. With a new rendition of the RDP underway, this paper scopes the content and extent of the expired RDP regarding its incorporation of QOL, in order to better identify considerations for future policy making. Using novel methodology called topic modelling, a series of latent semantic structures within the RDP could be unravelled and re-interpreted via a dual categorization system based on RDP’s own view on QOL, and on definitions provided by independent research. Corroborated by other audits, the findings indicate a thematic overemphasis on agriculture, with the focus on QOL being largely insignificant. Such results point to a rationale different than the assumed one, at the same time reinforcing an outdated view of rurality in the face of the ostensibly fundamental turn towards viewing rural areas in a wider, more humanistic, perspective. This unexpected issue of underrepresentation is next addressed through three possible drivers: conceptual (lingering productionist view of the rural, ideological (capitalist prerogative preventing non-pecuniary values from entering policy and material (institutional lock-ins incapable of accommodating significant deviations from an agricultural focus. The paper ends with a critical discussion and some reflections on the broader concept of rurality.

  3. Universities: Facing Change and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Stanit Alexandra; Popa Liliana Mihaela; Mihai Indres

    2014-01-01

    The growing importance of international competition is well recognized both in the business and academic environment. This article’s aim is to discusses the issue of how universities must learn to compete, given that national institutional context and everchanging environment facing many and different challenges. This means that, in some ways, the university has a central place and becomes more integrated into state’s economic activities and companies, than they were before. In the knowle...

  4. POTENTIAL OF RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan, Ildiko; Hincu, Daniela; Bran, Florina

    2010-01-01

    The tourism industry plays a more and more important role in the world economy, and is generally acknowledged to represent a significant source of economic growth for the European Union. In the present Romanian tourism losing the competitiveness face to demand of international market, moreover tourism contribution to the growth of the national economy is very low. This paper presents aspects of the rural tourism and analyses the Romanian tourism potential that holds a giant attractive heritag...

  5. La empresa rural en el largo plazo: Cambios en la explotación de una gran estancia rioplatense entre el orden colonial y el nacimiento del capitalismo, 1780-1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schmitt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la trayectoria secular de una gran estancia rioplatense entre el fin del orden colonial y el inicio de la década de 1870, intentando comprender los cambios en la gestión, sus motivaciones y su racionalidad, así como los distintos factores que restringieron o ampliaron las opciones de inversión. El resultado muestra una empresa racionalmente orientada y dirigida, que sin embargo, debió enfrentar desafíos muy fuertes para mantener su competitividad durante la compleja y larga construcción del capitalismo rural.This article aims to analyze the secular way of a great River Plate cattle ranch, between late colonial period and the beginnings of the 1870's, trying to understand management changes, their motivations and rationality, as well as the different factors which narrowed or enlarged investment options. Results show a rationally-oriented and managed company; which, anyway, faced strong challenges to enhance his competitiveness during a complex rural capitalism construction process.

  6. Framing community forestry challenges with a broader lens: case studies from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Reem; McGrath, David G; Kozak, Robert A; Innes, John L

    2011-09-01

    Community forestry initiatives have been shown to reduce rural poverty while promoting the conservation and sustainable use of forests. However, a number of challenges face communities wanting to initiate or maintain formal, community-based forest management. Through a grounded theory approach, this paper uses three case studies of community forest management models in the eastern Amazon to create a framework showing challenges faced by communities at different phases of formal management. The framework shows that, in the development phase, four root problems (land ownership, knowledge acquisition, community organization, and adequate capital) need to be addressed to obtain legal management permission. With this permission in hand, further challenges to operationalization are presented (deterring illegal loggers, maintaining infrastructure, obtaining necessary managerial skills and accessing markets). The interrelatedness of these challenges emphasizes that all challenges need to be addressed in a holistic manner for communities to maintain a profitable and self-sufficient operation. This contradicts current development approaches that only address part of this framework. The framework proposed here can be used as a starting point for community forestry initiatives in other regions. PMID:21550165

  7. Pushing Personhood into Place : Situating Media in the Transfer of Rural Knowledge in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bidwell, Nicola J.; Winschiers-theophilus, Heike; Kapuire, Gereon K.; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Designing interactions with technologies compatible with rural wisdom and skills can digitally enfranchise rural people and contribute to community cohesion in the face of Africa's urbanization. Oral information, contextualized in material settings, has sustained rural identity and livelihood for generations; but technology-use can inadvertently displace knowledge for communities with knowledge traditions that differ from those of technology-design. Devices which are sensitive to users' locat...

  8. E-commerce and the Rural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardikkumar V. Desai , Marolia Jamshid R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the modern times E-commerce is giving a tough competition to the traditional trade and business. Due to the advancement of technology the world has became a global village. E-commerce has reached most of the consumers in the urban sector but the challenge lies in front of the companies so that it reaches the rural sector also. The rural population of India has to go at distant places or nearby cities to purchase luxury products. Here E-commerce can come to their help by widening its area of operations. A profound understanding of people, their behavior and their community is critical within the digital marketplace. If you can’t connect to your customers’ wants and needs, you’re going nowhere fast – and so is your investment. That’s why every great piece of digital starts with a deep understanding of who you’re trying to reach [1].E-bay Census reveals E-commerce trends across all 28 States & 7 Union Territories. Consumers & Entrepreneurs from Rural India are increasingly plugged into E-commerce. This is supported by the fact that over 1,267 Rural Hubs are transacting online with 1 out of every 10 purchases from Rural India as well as 1 out of every 20 sales from Rural India. Metros (India have a dominant share of purchases, with Tier 2 & 3 cities (Bharat catching up fast: Metros (India contributes 51% of all ecommerce Transactions while Tier 2&3 Cities (Bharat contribute about 40% of transactions & Rural India contributing to 9% of transactions [2]. To get a deep insight into the problem the researchers conducted a survey in the rural sector by the opinion poll method and found out that yet much has to be done by the dot-com companies to take advantage of these untapped opportunities by reaching the villages of India.

  9. Investigating Rural Library Usage among Rural Youth in Malaysia: Its Corresponding Determinants and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zobidah Omar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The demands for information are increasing nowadays, providing adequate sources of information for the community is a crucial agenda as it is an essential part of community development particularly the youth; the future leader of our community. As information and communication technology (ICT play significant roles as sources of information, similarly, the rural library in Malaysia can play the same roles in offering updated and needed information of the community. The main objective of this paper is to know the potential factors, benefits and problems in using the services provided in the rural library. Discussion of this paper is based on applied documents and literature analysis. Based on the analyses done, a number of potential benefits offered by the rural community have been identified and certainly information offered is the main benefit available. Potential problems faced by the rural community in using the rural library services need to be overcome to ensure the rural community will profits from the benefits offered. Besides, a number of related factors and theories have been further discussed.

  10. E-commerce and the Rural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hardikkumar V Desai, Marolia Jamshid R.

    2012-01-01

    In the modern times E-commerce is giving a tough competition to the traditional trade and business. Due to the advancement of technology the world has became a global village. E-commerce has reached most of the consumers in the urban sector but the challenge lies in front of the companies so that it reaches the rural sector also. The rural population of India has to go at distant places or nearby cities to purchase luxury products. Here E-commerce can come to their help by widening its area o...

  11. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  12. Best face forward: crystal-face competition at the ice-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Bisson, Patrick J; Brumberg, Alexandra

    2014-07-17

    The ice-water interface plays an important role in determining the outcome of both biological and environmental processes. Under ambient pressure, the most stable form of ice is hexagonal ice (Ih). Experimentally probing the surface free energy between each of the major faces of Ih ice and the liquid is both experimentally and theoretically challenging. The basis for the challenge is the near-equality of the surface free energy for the major faces along with the tendency of water to supercool. As a result, morphology from crystallization initiated below 0 °C is kinetically controlled. The reported work circumvents supercooling consequences by providing a polycrystalline seed, followed by isothermal, equilibrium growth. Natural selection among seeded faces results in a single crystal. A record of the growth front is preserved in the frozen boule. Crystal orientation at the front is revealed by examining the boule cross section with two techniques: (1) viewing between crossed polarizers to locate the optical axis and (2) etching to distinguish the primary-prism face from the secondary-prism face. Results suggest that the most stable ice-water interface at 0 °C is the secondary-prism face, followed by the primary-prism face. The basal face that imparts the characteristic hexagonal shape to snowflakes is a distant third. The results contrast with those from freezing the vapor where the basal and primary-prism faces have comparable free energy followed by the secondary-prism face. PMID:24784996

  13. Rural Districts REAP New Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusler, Mary Conk

    2003-01-01

    Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) grants give rural districts a new source of federal funds. REAP has two separate programs that address the specific needs of rural districts. The first is the Small and Rural Schools Achievement Program; the second is the Rural and Low Income Schools Program. Explains the differences in the programs and…

  14. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  15. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseth, S. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  16. Managing competition in the countryside: Non-profit and for-profit perceptions of long-term care in rural Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    This paper contributes to the current debates surrounding private delivery of health care services by addressing the distinctive challenges, constraints and opportunities facing for-profit and non-profit providers of long-term care in rural and small town settings. It focuses on the empirical case of Ontario, Canada where extensive restructuring of long-term care, under the rubric of managed competition, has been underway since the mid-1990s. In-depth interviews with 72 representatives from local governments, public health institutions and authorities, for-profit and non-profit organisations, and community groups during July 2003 to December 2003 form the platform for a qualitative analysis of the implications of managed competition as it relates to the provision of long-term care in the countryside. The results suggest that the introduction and implementation of managed competition has accentuated the problems of service provision in rural communities, and that the long-standing issues of caregiving in rural situations transcend the differences, perceived or otherwise, between for-profit and non-profit provision. Understanding the implications of market-oriented long-term care restructuring initiatives for providers, and their clients, in rural situations requires a re-focussing of research beyond the for- versus non-profit dichotomy. PMID:16959392

  17. Chad: rural policy note

    OpenAIRE

    Loening, Josef L.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Rural Policy Note builds on the findings of a rural sector stocktaking exercise. An initial draft of the note was prepared as a just-in-time study designed to contribute to the preparation of the Chad Interim Strategy Note. This finalized version of the note intended mainly to establish a knowledge baseline. In that context, the objectives of the note are to summarize existing information about the rural sector in Chad, identify knowledge gaps, and highlight key policy issues around ...

  18. Repositioning Educational Research on Rurality and Rural Education in South Africa: Beyond Deficit Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2012-01-01

    Almost two decades after the demise of apartheid, rural communities in South Africa are still plagued by seemingly insurmountable challenges, with no change in sight for those who need it most. In spite of the many interventions that have been implemented, real transformation remains elusive. This position paper is premised on the notion that this…

  19. Barriers to the implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: A cross-sectional survey in rural and urban Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajunirwe Francis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV faces a variety of barriers and challenges. The assessment of these challenges has generally been conducted in large urban health facilities. As programs expand into rural areas, the potential barriers that may be encountered there also need to be assessed. This study examines potential barriers that might affect the acceptability of interventions for PMTCT in rural and urban settings. Results Four hundred and four women at a large urban hospital and three rural clinics that had recently started implementing PMTCT were interviewed. Level of knowledge of MTCT and preference for rapid HIV testing were equally high in both areas, but rural women had a higher tendency to think that they should consult their husbands before testing, with borderline statistical significance (72% vs. 64% p = 0.09. Health facility-based deliveries were significantly lower among mothers in rural areas compared to those in the urban setting. Overall, significant predictors of willingness to test for HIV were post-primary education (OR = 3.1 95% CI 1.2, 7.7 and knowledge about rapid HIV tests (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.01, 3.4. The strongest predictor of willingness to accept an HIV test was the woman's perception that her husband would approve of her testing for HIV. Women who thought their husbands would approve were almost six times more likely to report a willingness to be tested compared to those who thought their husbands would not approve (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 2.8, 11.2. Conclusion Lessons learned in large urban hospitals can be generalized to rural facilities, but the lower proportion of facility-based deliveries in rural areas needs to be addressed. Same-day results are likely to ensure high uptake of HIV testing services but male spousal involvement should be considered, particularly for rural areas. Universal Primary Education will support the success of PMTCT programs.

  20. A review on face recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Kritika; Goel, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the review of certain face recognition techniques. Although the existing methods perform well under certain conditions but illumination, occlusion, pose, structural components, facial expression and quality of images are still the challenging problems. In reviewing these techniques we have compared the performance of various techniques used for face recognition. The performances are compared in order to state advantages and limitations of each technique discussed.