The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations. (author)
The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations
Tebogo M. Mothiba
Full Text Available Background: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa.Aim: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Setting: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province.Methods: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District.Results: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines’ potency.Conclusions: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives.Keywords: Professional nurse, knowledge, EPI-SA, immunisation
Jayeel Serrano Cornelio
Full Text Available This article draws from the experience of Catholic priests based in a rural diocese in the Philippines. It will be argued that their satisfaction as diocesan priests is best understood as a religious emotion in spite of the challenges they face on a daily basis. Their challenges revolve around economic limitation, problems with their bishop and leaders, and relational isolation brought about by social and geographic distance. In spite of these challenges, priest-respondents have asserted that they are satisfied because they are still able to fulfill their vocation as priests and have an impact on the lives of their parishioners. Priesthood satisfaction in this sense is not an individual state of the mind dependent on the environment and circumstances. Instead, priesthood satisfaction can be understood as a religious emotion that allows them to remain faithful to their vocation as Catholic priests. The nuances explored in this article inform and complement the various studies on priesthood in the West.
Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab
Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.
Full Text Available Poor people with disabilities who live in poor rural societies experience unique problems in accessing health services. Their situation is influenced by multiple factors which unfold and interplay throughout the person’s life course. The difficulties do not only affect the person with a disability and his or her family, but also impact on the relevant care unit. The barriers are rooted in a life in poverty, upheld and maintained by poverty-reinforcing social forces of the past and the present, and reinforced by the lack of the person’s perspective of the health services. This article explores how difficulties may interact and influence access to and utilisation of health services, and how this may render health services out of reach even when they are available. The study reveals that non-compliance is not necessarily about neglect but could as well be a matter of lived poverty. The study was based on in-depth interviews with people with disabilities and family members, and semi-structured interviews with health personnel. The data analysis is contextual and interpretive. When offering health services to people with disabilities living in resource-poor settings, services should take into consideration the person’s history, the needs, and the resources and abilities of the family group. Rethinking access to health services should transcend a narrow medical institutionalization of health professional’s training, and include a patient’s perspective and a social vision in understanding and practice. Such rethinking requires health service models that integrate the skills of health professionals with the skills of disabled people and their family members. Such skills lie dormant at community level, and need to be recognized and utilized.
Best, Jane; Cohen, Courtney
While a quarter of all American students are enrolled in rural public schools, many rural teachers and administrators believe that education stakeholders are slow to fully recognize and address the unique challenges facing rural educators. This brief discusses recent steps taken by the federal government and individual states to address the…
In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.
Onyeka Uche Ofili
Entrepreneurship is critical to the development of societies. Entrepreneurs however, cannot work in isolation; they need the right environment to thrive. The judicial system, the educational system, the financial system and generalgovernment policies should be such that encourage and promote entrepreneurship. Basic infrastructures such aspower, water, and transport systems are necessary to boost entrepreneurship. This paper looks at the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria and recomm...
SIMION MINODORA OTILIA
Full Text Available The ESP teacher has to face certain challenges in his profession: One of the biggest challenges of the ESP teacher is the fact that he/she lacks the necessary knowledge of the subject to teach Business English, for instance, some researchers believing that such courses should be taught by subject teachers. The task of teaching ESP by ESL teachers is not an easy one. Dudley- Evans and St. John pointed out its complexity, identifying five key roles of the ESP practitioner: teacher, course designer and materials provider, collaborator, researcher and evaluator and this is probably the biggest challenge of the profession. The ESP practitioner has also to be aware of the fact that using a foreign language for workplace or study purposes requires not only linguistic proficiency and knowledge but also knowledge of work –related and disciplinary concepts.Last but not least, another challenge for the ESP practitioner is the use of technology in class, a valuable tool for helping with traditional forms of teaching and for creating new forms of communicating.Thus, the ESP practitioner has many things in common with the teacher of general English: he has to be familiar with linguistic development and teaching theories ,he has to be aware of contemporary ideas related to his position and role and he has to become familiar with the new technologies which can be used to improve his methodology.However,his role is more complex than that of a General English teacher.
Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.
Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun
Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…
de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves
In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... the “etic”). In our view, two points seem critical: a) are P1 and P2 sufficiently well described to be of use in the broader analytical context that is face analysis today? And b) what contribution does this distinction make towards a greater understanding of the data? From our research on facework in...... macro-level we discuss how P1 and P2 are integrated into the global interpretation of face. While researchers of face analysis work typically consider P1 and P2 as independent categories, we believe the contributions of P1 and P2 cannot be disassociated. Both must be taken into account in the global...
... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Of the approximately ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...
improve the training of medical physicists. To promote research and development in the field of medical physics. To promote appropriate use of technology to the benefit of rural populations. To organize and / or sponsor international conferences, regional and other meetings or courses. To collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations according to article 8 of the constitution. Conclusion a. The challenges identified in the study can be solved by effective execution of FAMPO.s objectives. b. Governments of African countries should support, train, employ and recognize more medical physicists to handle all radiation dose safety issues pertaining to all departments using ionizing radiation in medicine. There is need for training more qualified medical physicists in Africa and their role should not be ignored. d. Effective communication among the family of medical physicists in Africa should improve to solve the challenges faced in our countries. With the establishment of FAMPO, which is a virile regional chapter, the pride of all medical physicists in Africa, support and hard work of all FAMPO members will make medical physics in Africa shine and many lives of Africans saved
Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri
This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.
Aranda, Gabriela N.; Vizcaíno, Aurora; Piattini Velthuis, Mario
The main challenges during global software development projects are related to the lack of face-to-face communication. Since stakeholders satisfaction is crucial as a factor that can infl uence a team performance, we have focused our research on the need of people feeling comfortable with the technology they use. In this article we introduce an approach that proposes a way of choosing the most suitable technology for a given group of people, taking advantage of information about stakeholders...
This purpose of this investigation is to explore the cultural challenges faced by Mexican immigrant students through the study of current literature. Four themes emerged as a result of the investigation: dominant pedagogy, educational skills, deficit model, and student identities. The themes are discussed and suggestions are made as to how these…
British Energy is one of the world's largest nuclear generating companies. This paper describes the business environment in which the company competes, its strategic responses to the challenges it faces, and gives some conclusions regarding the priorities for the nuclear generation industry if it is to thrive as a mainstream source of energy. (author)
Memon, Ismail K.
Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…
Tong, Carl W.; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L.; Bunch, T. Jared; Damp, Julie B.; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A.; Hilliard, Anthony A.; Houser, Steven R.; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M.; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R.; Ryan, John J.
Early-career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology (ACC) completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: (1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists, (2) gene...
While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one r...
Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying
This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…
The amount of water per person in northern China is less than half of that in Egypt, a country with very scarce water resources. Clearly, then, China is one of the regions on our planet that is going to have to face severe problems of water supply in the future. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation growing agricultural output, environmental degradation, climatic instability, a large population density and worsening regional disparities are all factors that will challenge the management and utilisation of China's water resources in the years to come. (orig.)
Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.
Beaulieu, Joyce; Webb, John
Complex community-based prevention programs are being held to scientific evidence of their effectiveness and rural public health departments that implement such programs often are not equipped to evaluate them. Rural public health departments are fettered by small budgets, small staffs, and less access to evaluation experts and similar resources. Community-based health promotion programs can include complex designs that may work differently in rural areas and evaluation of rural programs can be hampered by lack of control groups and the instability of results from small populations. The University of Kentucky has entered into a contract with the state Department for Public Health to implement an internal, participatory model of evaluation. In this model, the university evaluation expert trains local public health department staff in technical skills for program evaluation and acts as mentor and technical consultant to local public health departments on an ongoing basis. Through training and site visits, this model is one approach to addressing the challenges of evaluating rural health promotion programs. PMID:12135148
Abhisek Kumar Tripathi
The rural market in Indian economy can be classified under two broad categories. These are the market for consumer goods that comprise of both durable and non-durable goods and the market for agricultural inputs that include fertilizers, pesticides, seeds Key words: rural marketing, marketing, challenges in rural marketing, rural marketing environment
Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)
M. J. Naude; C. O'Neill
Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implement...
The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.
This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value
This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value
Arnetz, B B
Fundamental changes in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care have added new stressors or opportunities to the medical profession. These new potential stressors are in addition to previously recognized external and internal ones. The work environment of physicians poses both psychosocial, ergonomic, and physico-chemical threats. The psychosocial work environment has, if anything, worsened. Demands at work increase at the same time as influence over one's work and intellectual stimulation from work decrease. In addition, violence and the threat of violence is another major occupational health problem physicians increasingly face. Financial constraint, managed care and consumerism in health care are other factors that fundamentally change the role of physicians. The rapid deployment of new information technologies will also change the role of the physician towards being more of an advisor and information provider. Many of the minor health problems will increasingly be managed by patients themselves and by non-physician professionals and practitioners of complementary medicine. Finally, the economic and social status of physicians are challenged which is reflected in a slower salary increase compared to many other professional groups. The picture painted above may be seen as uniformly gloomy. In reality, that is not the case. There is growing interest in and awareness of the importance of the psychosocial work environment for the delivery of high quality care. Physicians under stress are more likely to treat patients poorly, both medically and psychologically. They are also more prone to make errors of judgment. Studies where physicians' work environment in entire hospitals has been assessed, results fed-back, and physicians and management have worked with focused improvement processes, have demonstrated measurable improvements in the ratings of the psychosocial work environment. However, it becomes clear from such studies that quality of the
This symposium proposes presentations related to nurse educators competencies and the challenges links to their new roles. The evolution of the nurses training at the European level asks the teacher to develop high-level disciplinary skills but also educational skills. There are lots of challenges to develop nurse educator competencies. The role of the teachers is not any more to transmit disciplinary knowledge but to become experts in group management, colleagues teamwork, reflective practic...
Olneck, Michael R.
Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…
The single major challenge for hydroelectric power stations today is the durability of production. Environmental management has to be rethought, climate change integrated, but also the economic role of hydroelectricity reassessed. More generally, the challenge of energy transition in which hydroelectricity will have primary role must be met. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions, underway in some European countries, must be placed in this context. By using as examples Switzerland and France, the author sets out to show that this rethink can be an opportunity to put into practice new ways of management for this sector. (author)
@@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.
Cohen, Thomas D
This paper, written in memory of Manoj Banerjee, takes a critical look at holographic models of QCD focusing on ``practical'' models in which the five dimensional theory is treated classically. A number of theoretical and phenomenological challenges to the approach are discussed.
This article reviews the causes and consequences of adolescent sex behavior and adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. The article opens by noting that adolescents give birth to 15 million babies annually despite their increased risk resulting from biological and social vulnerability. Risky sex behavior is seen to result from gender power imbalances and from "clustering" of high-risk behaviors. Lack of contraceptives, particularly condoms, increases risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease or HIV infection as well as the risk of pregnancy. Adolescent sexual activity also doubles the lifetime risk of acquiring cervical cancer. Pregnant adolescents are more likely than mature women to have eclampsia or obstructed labor with its attendant complication of obstetric fistula. Adolescents are also less likely to seek prenatal care and face a higher risk of death during delivery. Adolescents also account for a large proportion of abortion complications because they undergo illegal or late procedures. Babies born to adolescents risk low birth weight, prematurity, and a higher rate of perinatal mortality. Adolescent mother also face social ostracism and reduced ability to acquire a job or education. Research into adolescent sexuality is best undertaken with the input of adolescents themselves (an example is the World Health Organization's narrative research method). Adolescent health can be promoted by creation of a safe and supportive environment and by provision of 1) information, 2) opportunities for adolescents to develop skills to negotiate sexual encounters, 3) counseling, and 4) youth-friendly adolescent health services. PMID:12292434
Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.
Daňhel, Jaroslav; Ducháčková, Eva; Radová, Jarmila
The authors of the article point out that the theory of economics has failed to yield a solid theoretical background in such critical situations as the transformational period of post-communist economies and the period of the current financial and economic crisis. While classical liberal or Keynesian concepts are failing, theorists cannot look to mathematical modeling for help. The challenge for today’s theoretical economists is to find a new concept for today’s global era.
Full Text Available For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, the Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist policies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.
Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are increasing in their importance to both the nuclear safety regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry. In the changing technological, economic and social environment surrounding TSOs, the scope of their role has also been changing. In particular, TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of nuclear installations over the plant life cycle; at the same time, they are facing managerial challenges such as maintaining technical competence and improving performance. The paper gives an overview of the current challenges faced by TSOs and the future challenges that could be expected, as well as some approaches to or remedies for these identified problems, focusing on safety regulation of nuclear installations. TSOs providing support to nuclear regulators must have strategic plans to cope with these challenges effectively and efficiently, and to provide adequate technical assistance to the regulators for their regulatory decision making and administrative measures. (author)
The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs
Demirel, Turgay; Baydas, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Goktas, Yuksel
The numbers of project competitions and interest in this kind of competition have been steadily increasing in Turkey. Accordingly, it is important to determine what challenges teachers and students may face while preparing themselves for project competitions, so that recommendations may be made to overcome these challenges. This study investigated…
This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing polic...
Full Text Available This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.
Simon D. Ellis; Aurelio Menendez
This paper will review the key elements required for effective decentralized implementation of rural roads programs. It will review the range of options available and the evidence for successful implementation where it exists. Section 2 makes the case for the importance of rural roads and sets out the evidence for the socio-economic benefits. Section 3 addresses the responsibilities for implementation and critical importance of having clarity over network ownership. Section 4 highlights the d...
Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.
Anil K Chillimuntha
Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an upside-down perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Locationallocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82
M. J. Naude
Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.
@@ China's energy development will be confronted with five major challenges in the coming decades, experts said at the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE)Steering Committee in Beijing in late May. The five major challenges include high oil import dependency which threatens the nation's energy security, using coal as the main energy generator, which leads to severe pollution, gigantic energy demands due to growing economic development,global climate change resulting from greenhouse gas emissions, and energy supply and consumption problems in rural areas.
Zomers, Adriaan N.
The earlier research on electricity supply to rural areas has tended to address the technical and financial performance of both grid connected and decentralised power systems and the socio-economic impact of electrification. However, this study has chosen to examine the impact of the developments an
This sector report on Challenges and Priorities for Rural Development analyzes why Upper Egypt has lagged behind the rest of the country and to help the Government of Egypt and stakeholders to define a framework for interventions to promote broad-based economic growth and human development that will reach the poor and improve welfare in rural Upper Egypt. To achieve this objective, the str...
Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven
The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…
Varol, Kemal; Borat, Oğuz; CEVİZ, Emre
Although each higher education system has its own distinctive features, there are also common problems and issues in higher education, such as the funding, quality, coordination, management, etc. In this paper, three challenges facing higher education are discussed:multicultural education, exchange programs, and research and development
Daniel R Terry
Full Text Available Background At the time of recruitment, migration, and placement, international medical graduates (IMGs encounter professional challenges. These challenges may include a loss of status and professional identity, professional isolation in rural practice, restrictions on medical practice, and social isolation. Understanding the nature of these challenges may facilitate the recruitment, placement, and success of international medical graduates within rural Tasmania. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences, challenges,and barriers that IMGs encounter as they work and live in rural Tasmania. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design where data were collected using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews across the south, north, and northwest of Tasmania. IMGs were recruited through purposive snowball and convenience sampling. Results A total of 105 questionnaires were returned (response rate 30.0per cent and 23semi-structured interviews were conducted with IMGs across Tasmania. Questionnaire participants indicated that the majority of IMGs are satisfied in their current employment; however, interview participants indicated there were a number of barriers to practising medicine in Tasmania as well as factors that would influence ongoing employment in the state. Despite these challenges, professional support was recognised as a key contributor to professional satisfaction, particularly among IMGs who had just arrived. Conclusion The study contributes to the current knowledge and understanding of IMGs who live and work in rural areas. The study shows that there are high levels of satisfaction among IMGs with their current position; however, the research also provides insight into the complexities and factors that impact IMGs as they work and live within rural areas such as Tasmania. This study offers an understanding for policy to improve greater retention of IMGs across rural areas.
LeDrew, June; Cummings-Vickaryous, Bonnie
This article describes the practical challenges faced by instructors who must blend a face-to-face laboratory experience into a distance education course. This issue is discussed in the context of an ongoing kinesiology and health course that includes a mandatory physical activity laboratory experience. The challenges that have arisen around this…
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the largest environmental cleanup task ever to confront the US. As a result of >40 yr of defense production activities, throughout the US, numerous problems exist at DOE sites. Just over a year and a half ago, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (OERWM) was created to deal with the environmental problems at 111 sites in 32 states and Puerto Rico. The Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is committed to cleaning up the existing problems at all 111 of these sites by 2019. There are many issues that OER must face successfully if it is to be part of a program that achieves its goal. The five greatest hurdles and challenges facing the program now are technology development, infrastructure constraints, regulatory requirements, pubic credibility, and contracting mechanisms
Brister, J. [CH2M Hill, Engelwood, Colorado (United States)
Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear programme are distilled into four major categories: human resource development, financing, infrastructure and process. In implementing a successful nuclear programme role of the government is key to success. It requires clear and sustained policy support, international and bilateral agreements, developing the depth required of technical skills and infrastructure, proven delivery programme, management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, decommissioning and electricity market regulation.
Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances
E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning technology, categorises it in five challenges that teachers are faced with and suggestions for a successful e-learning outcome. This paper also discus...
@@ After several decades of development the processing capac ity of Chinese refineries has reached 276 million tons per year,ranking the fourth in the world. The refining industry has made great contribution to the growth of national economy in China. With changing times, especially after China's accession to the WTO, significant changes have occurred in economy, politics and petroleum market both at home and abroad. The survival and growth of Chinese refineries has faced new challenges.
Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear programme are distilled into four major categories: human resource development, financing, infrastructure and process. In implementing a successful nuclear programme role of the government is key to success. It requires clear and sustained policy support, international and bilateral agreements, developing the depth required of technical skills and infrastructure, proven delivery programme, management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, decommissioning and electricity market regulation.
Jubin Varghese; Nathan Grills; Kaaren Mathias
Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intell...
Full Text Available This study assesses issues and challenges encountered in a computerization project being carried out by the ARB Apex Bank to connect rural and community banks in Ghana. Computerization of banking has been going on in the country for some time now. Unlike the commercial banks, the rural banks lag behind with regards to computer and networking technologies. The ARB Apex Bank therefore embarked on the project to make the benefits of such technologies available to member rural banks. The study selected some rural banks engaged in the first phase of the project. Fifty respondents sampled from staff of the selected banks and experts involved in the project, were interviewed. The study concluded that, on the whole, the project was well designed and implemented; envisaged challenges were adequately specified and catered for and that the first phase progressed successfully. Staff beneficiaries were found to be actively involved in the project and majority of them agreed that the project was within time and budget. The study identified that, on completion, the project will enable the rural banks compete favourably with the commercial banks in the financial market. This will lead to improved service delivery to customers and greater customer satisfaction. In addition, complete computerization and networking will lead to improved monitoring of rural banks in order to reduce financial malpractices. The project will also promote intra/inter bank transactions, peer interaction and peer monitoring among the networked members. The aggregate returns will bring greater efficiency, lower cost of operation and increased profitability and sustainability to the Ghanaian rural banks.
Carter, Pam; Martin, Graham
This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people's views. PMID:27239869
Carter, Pam; Martin, Graham
This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people’s views. PMID:27239869
Full Text Available This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people’s views.
Full text: Analysis of future domestic electricity demand and supply conducted by official UAE entities has concluded that increasing demand for electricity is fast outstripping the growth in supply. Total electricity demand in the UAE is expected to rise from approximately 15,000 megawatts to 42,000 megawatts by 2020. Significant new generation capacity must be constructed and brought on-line. It was concluded that peaceful nuclear power-generation represents an environmentally promising and commercially competitive option which could make a significant contribution to the UAE's economy and future energy security. To make clear its intentions with regard to nuclear power, the Government of the UAE has prepared and formally endorsed its 'Policy on the Evaluation and Potential Implementation o Peaceful Nuclear Energy' as a reflection of its views on the potential establishment of a peaceful civilian nuclear energy program. The policy defines the framework under which the program will be developed and is based on principles of transparency, highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation , and working directly with the IAEA and responsible nations of expertise. Many challenges face developing countries embarking on the development of a civil nuclear energy program. Challenges include initial questions such as where and when a nation should start planning. Other challenges are related to the development of required infrastructure in legislation, regulatory, human resources, and institutional structure. Further challenges are faced at the time of transforming guidance and recommendations into an implementation plan and the execution of such plan in an effective manner. The UAE has addressed many of these challenges by conventional and sometimes innovative ways in developing the required infrastructure and moving into the implementation phase of the program. Starting from almost no nuclear energy infrastructure, these plans are being conducted today in the
Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.
McDonald, Angelic P
Succession planning is a critical component to ensuring the continual, smooth operation of an organization. An aim of this article is to help current managers inspire staff, like the radiologic technologist, to begin training for a position in radiology management today. This paper discusses the assumptions made when a technically competent radiographer is promoted to the role of manager. It highlights some specific challenges she will face, such as the acquisition and modifications of skill sets, relationships with former peers, communicating with new colleagues, and the emotional uncertainty of new stressors during the assimilation process. This article offers guidance for a successful management career by breaking down these key foundational skills. PMID:18953981
Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) dedicated to supporting national regulatory authorities. At present BAPETEN has internal TSOs. Pertaining to the regulatory control of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards for nuclear power plants (NPPs), independent TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of NPPs. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPP. It is essential that BAPETEN need independent TSOs in order to warrant a sufficient level of safety, security and non proliferation in building and operating of first NPPs. (author)
Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional
Ricroch, Agnès; Harwood, Wendy; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Sági, László; Hundleby, Penelope; Badea, Elena Marcela; Rosca, Ioan; Cruz, Gabriela; Salema Fevereiro, Manuel Pedro; Marfà Riera, Victoria; Jansson, Stefan; Morandini, Piero; Bojinov, Bojin; Cetiner, Selim; Custers, René; Schrader, Uwe; Jacobsen, Hans-Joerg; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Boisron, Audrey; Kuntz, Marcel
Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK and Turkey, for nine major crops (barley, beet, grapevine, maize, oilseed rape, olive, potato, sunflower and wheat). Most biotic stresses (BSs) are related to fungi or insects, but viral diseases, bacterial diseases and even parasitic plants have an important impact on yield and harvest quality. We examine how these challenges have been addressed by public and private research sectors, using either conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, cisgenesis, RNAi technology or mutagenesis. Both national surveys and scientific literature analysis followed by text mining were employed to evaluate genetic engineering (GE) and non-GE approaches. This is the first report of text mining of the scientific literature on plant breeding and agricultural biotechnology research. For the nine major crops in Europe, 128 BS challenges were identified with 40% of these addressed neither in the scientific literature nor in recent European public research programs. We found evidence that the private sector was addressing only a few of these "neglected" challenges. Consequently, there are considerable gaps between farmer's needs and current breeding and biotechnology research. We also provide evidence that the current political situation in certain European countries is an impediment to GE research in order to address these agricultural challenges in the future. This study should also contribute to the decision-making process on future pertinent international consortia to fill the identified research gaps. PMID:26133365
Yettick, Holly; Baker, Robin; Wickersham, Mary; Hupfeld, Kelly
The purpose of this study was to inform the upcoming and overdue reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) by exploring whether rural school districts face disadvantages as they attempt to follow the law's provisions and, if so, if the law's rural-specific section ameliorates these disadvantages. The research…
Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.
This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.
Full Text Available Although the maternal mortality ratio has descended in Bolivia from 416 (1989 to 229 deaths (DHS 2003 per one hundred thousand live births, it is one of the highest in the region. As a national average, the ratio conceals the rural-urban, socio-economics differences and the reality of the indigenous population. Maternal mortality is one of the major challenges at national level. Reduction of maternal mortality, in addition of technical-medical measures offering health services, requires to focus on socio-cultural aspects that hamper the access to health services. This article examines challenges faced by indigenous mothers accessing the health services. In addition to the geographic, economic and administrative barriers that generate delays in access to the health services, there are others that are presented in the context of multiculturalism resulting from discriminatory attitudes exercised in health centers. The testimonies of indigenous mothers show delays faced in health centers because of prejudice and discrimination suffered, threatening the lives of mothers and their babies. The study also suggests the need to deepen the concept of multiculturalism as a successful strategy in health, in order to promote equity and social justice on the horizon of more inclusive societies.
Agno, Christina Farala; Guo, Kristina L
The purpose of this article is to discuss specific challenges faced by hospitals adopting the use of electronic medical records and implementing electronic health record (EHR) systems. Challenges include user and information technology support; ease of technical use and software interface capabilities; compliance; and financial, legal, workforce training, and development issues. Electronic health records are essential to preventing medical errors, increasing consumer trust and use of the health system, and improving quality and overall efficiency. Government efforts are focused on ways to accelerate the adoption and use of EHRs as a means of facilitating data sharing, protecting health information privacy and security, quickly identifying emerging public health threats, and reducing medical errors and health care costs and increasing quality of care. This article will discuss physician and nonphysician staff training before, during, and after implementation; the effective use of EHR systems' technical features; the selection of a capable and secure EHR system; and the development of collaborative system implementation. Strategies that are necessary to help health care providers achieve successful implementation of EHR systems will be addressed. PMID:23903942
Amy Price Azano; Trevor Thomas Stewart
Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teach...
Uma Shankar Kurmi
Full Text Available At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA or Principal Components Analysis (PCA is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face model developed by PCA technique. Principal Components Analysis method uses eigenface approach to describe face image variation. A face recognition technique that is robust to all situations is not available. Some techniques are better in case of illumination, some for pose problem and some for occlusion problem. This paper presents some algorithms for face recognition.
Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.
Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)
This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)
Sangster, Timothy; Oliver, Mike
Timothy Sangster (Charles River Laboratories) and Mike Oliver (Thermo Fisher Scientific) speak to Thomas Payne at Bioanalysis in September 2012 about the challenges faced by the modern bioanalytical laboratory. Timothy Sangster has been with Charles River Laboratories since September 2009. Having worked for Quintiles, Pharmacia, Astrazeneca and Huntingdon Life Sciences, he has gained experience over 17 years in both CRO and pharmaceutical environments, and also in both Europe and the USA. Specific areas of interest over the past years have been microchromatography, sample preparation and matrix effects, to name a few. Mike Oliver has held the position of Global Product Manager for sample preparation at Thermo Fisher Scientific since 2010, being responsible for the development and introduction of new innovative technologies such as SOLA™ to the market place. Prior to this role, Mike has worked for two leading MS vendors over a 9‑year period, being responsible for biotechnology sales within the UK and providing application solutions for proteomic and metabolic workflows based on high-resolution LC-MS platforms, respectively. Mike holds a PhD in MS and Biochemistry from the MS Research Unit, University of Wales, Swansea, UK. PMID:23088459
Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions
Azano, Amy Price; Stewart, Trevor Thomas
Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to…
Amy Price Azano
Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teachers for successful student teaching placements and, ideally, eventual careers in rural schools. In this study, we explore teacher candidates’ perceptions of rurality while examining how specific theory, pedagogy, and practice influence their feelings of preparedness for working in a rural school. Using pre- and post- questionnaire data, classroom observations, and reflections, we assess the effectiveness of deliberate efforts in our teacher preparation program to increase readiness for rural teaching. In our analysis and discussion, we draw on critical and sociocultural theories to understand the experiences of a cohort of teacher candidates as they explore personal histories, the importance of place, expectations, and teaching strategies for rural contexts. While rural education researchers have long lamented the struggle to recruit and retain teachers, there is relatively little known about intentional efforts to prepare teachers specifically for rural classrooms. We conclude our article with recommendations for enhancing teacher preparation programs in ways that might result in significant progress toward the goal of staffing rural schools with the highly skilled teachers all students deserve.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.
Objective The objective of this thesis was to investigate the challenges international graduates face after their graduation from the Finnish universities and if the employment office could help them to achieve their goal. Furthermore, the study provides suggestive solutions to the challenges foreign graduate face in quest of job after graduation. Thesis highlights some of the biggest challenges graduates face in the Finnish job market. The role and help of the employment office, and oth...
Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of
Gender equality has been a topic of discussion throughout my long (now three decade) career. This alone illustrates the complex nature of the issue, and the lack of a simple solution, particularly as many of the daily challenges that women face are institution or discipline-specific. For this reason, I will summarize some of the issues that appear to me to be more general, and therefore ones that may have general solutions. The first and foremost relates to demands on women's time. One way that academic institutions have sought to overcome gender bias has been to require that every university committee have a female member; in departments, schools and faculties where women represent a minority, this necessarily means that women shoulder an inequitable share of the service duties. I have experienced this myself, seen it in promotion files at all levels, and observed it with regard to my female colleagues. Clearly time spent doing service is time not spent doing science. There is also an easy solution to this problem, which is to re-think the underlying assumption that men are necessarily gender-biased if they don't have a woman sitting in the room! Additional time demands can come from informal mentoring of both students and younger colleagues, particularly in cases where senior male colleagues are viewed as too important, or too intimidating, to be consulted on personal issues. Although I suspect that this problem may also be widespread, it is more difficult to quantify, and is therefore more difficult to factor into time allotments of departmental duties. A final thought relates to hiring practices. I have now worked in both the US and UK educational systems, which have very different interview and hiring protocols. I will review both, highlighting components that I think are most likely to promote equitable hiring practices.
In this paper presented at this year's rural conference, Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America, Dr. Pezzini of the OECD explored how many of the challenges facing rural America are the same challenges found in rural areas throughout the world. Although agriculture and other natural resource industries are still important economic sectors, they are creating fewer and fewer rural jobs. Rural areas suffer from the outmigration of both young and highly skilled workers, leaving an agi...
Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.
Brown, Eleanor D.
This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…
Ahmed, Dr. Ashfaque
Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities. Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Improvement in infrastructure and reach promise a bright future for those intending to go rural....
Anthony E. Akinlo
Full Text Available Nigerian financial system has witnessed significant growth over the years. Thephenomenal growth and high financial depth can be attributed in part to the country’s vastnetwork of financial institutions, including rural finance.Improvements in rural finance notwithstanding, the supply of formal finance appears tobe biased against the rural population. Rural communities remain centre of deprivationsinspite of the various efforts at increasing financial services to them by the Governmentand the CBN. This therefore raises the following questions: what are the constraints andchallenges of providing financial services in the rural areas? What are the policy initiativesthat can be introduced to improve rural financial services in Nigeria? Hence the mainobjective of the paper is to examine the challenges and ways to improve rural financialservices in Nigeria.Keywords: rural finance, growth, infrastructure, microfinance institutions.
Raheem Usman Adebimpe
Full Text Available Human populations are exposed to climate change directly through changing weather patterns as manifested in the more frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in ecosystem functions. Rainstorm disasters are common events associated with environmental change and settlements in Kwara state, Nigeria were ravaged by rainstorm events between 2003 and 2006. More than 1000 households were displaced from their habitual homes with consequences for human health and other adjustment challenges. This paper examines the variations in the post-disaster adjustment challenges of rural and urban households so as to identify location specific intervention strategies in the domains of environ- ment and health of the victims. A sample of 200 households was drawn from all households affected by rainstorm disaster as reflected in the FEMA records during the period. A structured questionnaire was administered in addition to the secondary data and analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The findings include that most households required support before replacing the roofs and/or walls of their homes. Sources of support however vary. Urban households received more institutional support but lower than the amount required for the renovation. A signifficant proportion of urban households moved to poorer homes where they faced challenges relating to the quality of environmental services. Many urban respondents also reported increases in the occurrence of water-borne and weather-related diseases and ailments. Rural households indicated no signi$cant ecological differences between their former homes and the areas to which they relocated. The paper concludes that signi$cant variations exist in the adjustment challenges faced by rural and urban dwellers after a disaster. Community efforts hold promise for emergency response particularly during disasters in rural areas.
Adams, Helen; Leu, DaNae; Venuto, Dee Ann
What do school librarians fear most? Hands down, their biggest fear is a formal challenge to a resource in the school library. There are no accurate statistics about the number of challenges to school library resources. The staff of ALA's Office for Intellectual Freedom estimates that only about 20 percent are reported to ALA annually. For the…
The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico today, their challenge is to "safely, responsibly and profitably find and produce reduced accumulations in increasingly hostile settings." The GoM serves as the sportsman's playground for a significant population located in and around its waters, and therefore, operating safely and responsibly are unassailable moral and operational standards by which we sustain future development, and maintain our license to operate. With that as a backdrop, today's challenges are driven by the nature of where the business is looking for new reserves in this extremely mature basin. These "Opportunities" encompass the following: 1) large, under-explored, sub-salt areas, characterized by poor seismic imaging, uncertain geologic regimes and potentially dangerous overpressures, 2) deep true-vertical-depth opportunities in older rocks that challenge our understanding of reservoir quality prediction and hydrocarbon systems, and are at the edge of today's drilling technologies, 3) access to sensitive areas including the eastern GoM-Florida shelf, coastal areas and international borders, 4) challenging "small accumulation" discoveries that cannot support expensive appraisal or development options, are remote to infrastructure or inefficiently produce the reservoir, and finally 5) new play development, which is challenged by long maturation cycles, small acreage blocks, intense international competition, and rapid lease rolls. This talk will consider what Shell and the Oil & Gas Industry does today to succeed in this arena, and specifically will show examples
Montagnat, Johan; Breton, Vincent; Magnin, Isabelle
International audience The availability of digital imagers inside hospitals and their ever growing inspection capabilities have established digital medical images as a key component of many pathologies diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. To face the growing image analysis requirements, automated medical image processing algorithms have been developed over the two past decades. In parallel, medical image databases have been set up in health centers. Some attempts have been made to cross dat...
Pérez, Gimena Castro; Arias, Cintia; Luna, Paula; Sorín, Irene
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor that appears exclusively on the skin. It is a low-grade malignant soft tissue tumor of subcutaneous tissues that has a propensity for local recurrence but seldom metastasizes. It may rarely occur on the head and neck accounting for less than one percent of total head and neck malignancies. We present a man with a giant DFSP on the face. Oncological, functional, and aesthetic aspects are set forth. PMID:27437151
Sharon K. Long; Zuckerman, Stephen
The authors examine the Medicaid Section 1115 Demonstration Project currently underway in Los Angeles County. The waiver was designed as part of a response to a financial crisis the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LACDHS) faced in 1995. It provides financial relief to give the county time to restructure its system for serving the medically indigent population. Los Angeles County's goal is to reduce its traditional emphasis on emergency room and hospital care by building an i...
Low skill levels among rural workers put rural manufacturing at a competitive disadvantage, according to the "skills shortage" theory. Data from the ERS Rural Manufacturing Survey, conducted in 1996, suggest that is not happening. Skill requirements are rising, but manufacturers who reported major problems finding workers with specific skills were relatively rare, among both rural and urban firms. Moreover, the most common problem was in finding reliable workers with an acceptable work attitu...
Llanto, Gilberto M.
The shift to a market-oriented credit and financial policy was expected to spur rural financing by the private sector that would help usher growth in the agriculture and rural areas. However, the rural areas have continued to suffer from the lack of access to financial services of banks. Despite government efforts to increase the flow of credit towards the rural sector, formal financial institutions have largely ignored the sector. Lack of financial depth and very limited access to financial ...
Lincy Meera Mathews; Dr Bandaru Rama Krishna Rao
The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES)” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.
Lincy Meera Mathews
Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.
This paper reports that even though cost-effective in oil fields and some prolific offshore gas fields, horizontal well technology has not yet been successfully transferred to onshore gas fields. The major technical challenges are accurate reservoir characterization, proper well design and placement, and stimulation. The first two of these challenges can be met with the state-of-the-art technologies but the third requires emerging knowledge, tools, and techniques. To determine the application of horizontal wells to typical gas reservoirs in the continental U.S., the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated an applied research and development project in late 1990
Ghada Quaisi Audi
Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.
Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.
Lent, ReLeah Cossett
ReLeah Cossett Lent provides practical advice for ensuring that books are kept on shelves and in classrooms for students to read. She outlines steps for creating professional learning communities that engage with censorship issues and prepare schools to deal with book challenges in thoughtful, supportive ways. (Contains 4 figures.)
Sinkford, Jeanne C.
The status of minority women dentists is reviewed, and initiatives to improve it are noted. Issues and challenges for African-American female dentists are outlined, including negative racial/gender stereotypes, lack of advancement opportunities, difficulties in starting practices and securing professional and social support systems, lack of…
Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Boebinger, Gregory S.; Comment, Arnaud;
of the primary approaches that were considered. Topics discussed included the future of ultrahigh‐field NMR systems, emerging NMR detection technologies, new approaches to nuclear hyperpolarization, and progress in sample preparation. All of these are orthogonal efforts, whose gains could multiply...... optical measurements. These challenges, and the ways by which scientists and engineers are striving to solve them, are also addressed....
Grundey Dainora; Zaharia Razvan
The paper investigates the challenges and opportunities that entrepreneurial university faced in the present context, focusing on some characteristics of Romania and Lithuania. Emerged as a concept that is designated to enhance the university’s competitiv
Margaret Macherera, MSc
Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for
Pam Carter; Graham Martin
This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The artic...
Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.
One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real c...
Vivian E A Eta
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings
The substantial debt load of new dentists is part of the recent trend toward beginning practice as an associate, in a postdoctoral general dentistry program, or in the military. Other reasons include an opportunity to build clinical speed, learning practice management skills, and earning a guaranteed income. While today's new dentists value the same goals of quality, service, and autonomy that motivate established practitioners, they bring new dimensions to the profession. Diversity and a desire for a balanced lifestyle (among both men and women) affect practice decisions and participation in organized dentistry. The new dentist will look for flexibility and responsiveness to personal and social challenges. PMID:16623129
The introduction of liberalization, the increasing share of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, ambitious generation objectives and technological evolution are the key drivers that require substantial investments in the distribution grid. The most urgent challenges are to adapt the network architecture and operation, modernize and improve metering equipment, renovate existing facilities. The Energy Regulatory Commission sets the price to be paid by users of the distribution grid; this price is set rather low, in order to encourage the system operator to make productivity gains. But resultant low income may deprive the operator of the financial resources needed to adapt the system to the new conditions. (authors)
This paper reviews the development of the urban and rural old age security system in China,and discusses the challenges in the process of constructing a sustained old age security system. Although funding gaps and empty individual accounts have imposed a heavy burden on the sustainability of China's urban pension system, there is a relatively high coverage rate of 35.3 percent for urban workers. However, China's pension system provides low coverage rate for rural farmers. The more rapidly aging population and lower incomes in rural areas pose challenges to the vulnerable rural household support system. The separation of the old age security system between rural and urban areas also puts great pressure as a result of urbanization on farmers who lose their farmland. Therefore, it is urgent for China to speed up the reform of its old age security system to provide an institutional support for its economic and social transition.
New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development
Elena Simona Vrânceanu
Full Text Available The project of the European construction has been subject to constant contradictions since the time of its first steps of implementation. Beyond the ideal of economic and political unification, the European Union has to manage more and more cultural, social, and economic challenges, which aren’t at all negligible, and all the more pressing in the context of recent years marked by the global financial crisis and the assault of asylum seekers from Africa and Middle East. Therefore we can launch a series of interrogations: What is the citizens’ level of trust in the European construction project? How does the European Union proceed in order to integrate immigrants? What is the link between good immigrant integration and consolidation of the European construction project? These three interrogations represent the axes of analysis of this article, which aims to highlight some theoretical aspects of the effects of current migration on the structuring or restructuration of the European Union. As a conclusion, we may say that the current challenges of migration have opened the path to a new phase of the European construction project, and the consensus of state actors and the direct involvement of the Community institutions can be decisive in shaping the medium and long term evolution of the European Union.
Kehl, Karen A.; Gartner, Constance M.
Individuals who are Deaf face challenges both similar and unique from those faced by hearing individuals when a family member is dying. This study was guided by the question “What are the challenges faced by a Deaf family member when a loved one is dying?” Methods - This qualitative study is guided by critical theory and an interpretive perspective. Robert, a college-educated older adult who has been Deaf from birth was interviewed in American Sign Language using a death history format. Resul...
Full text: The ITER actively cooled tokamak is the next-generation fusion device which will allow studying the burning plasma during hundreds of seconds. ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) real-time protection will be mandatory to minimize operational risks as critical heat flux leading to degradation of PFCs and eventually to water leak. Thanks to Tore Supra expertise in actively cooled tokamak and long pulse operation, urgent research and development actions are presented and discussed addressing the feasibility and the performances of the PFCs protection function foreseen in ITER using a network of wide angle visible and IR imaging systems (VIS/IR WAVS). Three major steps addressing PFCs protection have been reached. First, the contribution of reflected light that could disturb the measurement of surface temperature has been taken into account through an industrial physic-based Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Secondly, an integrated software and hardware framework validated on existing fusion devices has been proposed. In addition, extended functionalities to analyze and understand in real-time the huge volume of images produced by the VIS/IR WAVS have also been developed. Finally prototypes of ITER first mirrors have been built and tested with successful first results. These results demonstrate that a more precise definition of the functional specifications of the entire imaging system can be obtained addressing both machine protection and plasma performance. (author)
Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin
Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems. PMID:27337850
Andreea Dragoi; Cristina Balgar
At present, the main theoretic dilemma related to the rural development can be formulated as follows: are rural development and agriculture factors that may contribute to the boost of financial crisis or possible solutions to mitigate the negative effects of the crisis and re-launch the economic growth? The economic doctrine shows that agriculture is a vital economic activity for the society and a sector a high contribution in maintaining stability and growth, thus, having the potential to al...
Vuorinen, Maarit; Vos, Marita
The purpose of this article is to explore joint place branding in rural regions, focusing on cooperation between the various stakeholders involved and on the salient features of rural regions that are used in the place branding process. Branding is conceptualized as a social process where brand value is co-created by the stakeholders. Place branding is seen as a participative process, bringing stakeholders together with the aim to strengthen the identity of the place. The fundamental question...
Full Text Available A significant number of economic, social and environmental problems have accumulated in all areas of Ukraine and pose a serious obstacle to sustainable development. Those problems are particularly acute in the rural areas. The local rural communities in Ukraine have the lowest indicators of economic development, significant social problems, including particularly acute demographic and employment problems, and an unfavorable ecological situation caused by poor municipal infrastructure, land degradation, etc. The vast majority of the rural communities in Ukraine have no plans for their own territories’ development. In such circumstances, the introduction of landscape planning tools is an effective means of identifying the existing development problems and environmental management issues, as well as of defining the best ways for the integrated development of the local rural communities. A number of reasons prevents introduction of such planning in Ukraine, including the flaws in the legislation, lack of interest among managers of rural communities and low activity of local people on the issues which determine the future of their settlements. However, there are examples of successful implementation of landscape planning tools in designing of the plans of rural communities’ development. The authors were a part of the team which, for the first time in Ukraine, undertook this research in the Stepanetsky rural council in Cherkassy region. The results of the research have been welcomed by the management, the residence and the members of the village council and they are being practically implemented. The foregoing demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of landscape planning tools implementation in Ukraine directed at addressing and resolving the problems of the rural communities.
Beam, Andrea P.; Claxton, Russell L.; Smith, Samuel J.
Challenges for novice school leaders evolve as information is managed differently and as societal and regulatory expectations change. This study addresses unique challenges faced by practicing school administrators (n = 159) during their first three years in a school leadership position. It focuses on their perceptions, how perceptions of present…
Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin
Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support. PMID:25363105
Roland W. Scholz
Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the benefits, threats, and vulnerabilities related to the digital revolution. It aims to motivate research and its funding regarding digital threats and vulnerabilities related, in particular, to anticipating unintended, undesirable rebound effects, tipping points, critically fast evolutionary change rates, trade-offs, etc. A brief analysis of the history of the mind and technology reveals slow technological development over tens of thousands of years (including the invention of a place-value digital number system. Then, a small series of groundbreaking ideas (e.g., binary logic, Shannon’s symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits, architectures of computing enabled the industry-driven invention of programmable computing machines. Ultimately, the mastery of electron and semiconductor physics allowed for economical and seemingly unlimited storage capacity that made digital tools available to all domains of society. Based on the historical analysis, a coupled human-environment systems perspective (that includes a hierarchy assumption ranging from the human cell to the human species enables the identification of several potential challenges to society and science. First, digital nano-engineering promotes genetic modifications (i.e., directed evolution, and synthetic biology enables a new level of the appropriation of nature. The understanding of cell-based biocomputers may call for new forms of logic. These and other challenges require thorough sustainability research in order to anticipate major changes on all levels of human systems. Second, the human individual is exposed to new forms of vulnerability. In particular, the potential epigenetic effects resulting from the excessive use of digital information of historically unknown speed, density, and contents and the loss of (the Western common-law right to privacy resulting from big data (whose ownership is often unknown should become subjects of
Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.
María Elena Villafuerte-Castrejón
Full Text Available The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry.
Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."
Fujinami1, Rebecca; Otis-Green, Shirley; Klein, Linda; Sidhu, Rupinder; Ferrell, Betty
Family caregivers (FCGs) of lung cancer patients face multiple challenges which impact their quality of life and well-being. Whether challenged physically, emotionally, socially or spiritually, distress in one area may compound challenges in other areas. In order to maintain function and health of FCGs as they provide valuable care for the health and well-being of the patient, attention must be given to the needs of FCGs for support and education. The purpose of this article is to describe th...
It’s not a secret that trade unions have been experiencing insurmountable challenges related to globalisation. Although the levels of impact differ greatly, the challenges faced by trade unions in Nordic and Western European countries show similarities; high unemployment rates, economic crisis, diverse workforce, escalated immigration, among others. Studies show that trade unions are trying to combat these challenges by adopting organising model elements which involves social unionism movemen...
Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole
The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)
There is a long way to go for sustainable development of rural tourism. It is necessary to strengthen the planning for training rural tourism talents, and establish sustainable reserve tourism service personnel; innovate upon the promotion mode of rural tourism and open the tourist source market; strengthen the building of characteristic brand of rural tourism, and create sustainable development core of tourism; give play to the role of government in guiding rural tourism, strengthen the opti...
Dionne, Hughes; Horth, Raynald
Nearly half of Quebec's municipalities have fewer than 800 inhabitants and are struggling with conditions of economic decline, outmigration of youth, and political marginalization. In 1991, a regional coalition called Coalition Urgence Rurale was formed in the Lower Saint Lawrence area to support initiatives that promote community empowerment,…
Romeo Cătălin CREŢU
Full Text Available As an alternative of Romania’s sustainable development, rural tourism is considered to be an assembly of productprice- consumption, which awards the country multiple opportunities for integration into European structures. Taking into consideration the Government Decision no. 20/2012 on the approval of multi-annual programmer for destinations, forms and tourism products development, the 3rd article, the 1st line, e item “actions regarding a specialized ranking of reception structures with accommodation in the hydropathical (spa and rural tourism in Romania”, as well as the measures covered in the Strategic and Operational Marketing Plan for Romania during 2011-2015, the National Authority for Tourism together with the National Organization for Rural, Ecological and Cultural Tourism, The Partnership Federation in Romanian Tourism and the Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development at the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine in Bucharest launch the pilot project: “A thematic specialization of tourism and agritourism guest houses in Romania”.
The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a "vaccine" against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of the fight…
Truscott, Diane M.; Truscott, Stephen D.
The shared struggles facing urban and rural schools, such as changing cultural and linguistic classroom profiles, increased childhood poverty, and residential segregation patterns, influence financial inequities between people and communities thus contributing to gaps in academic achievement and teacher shortages in both settings. The…
Harcourt-Heath, Michèle Jean
Abstract Schools operate in a multitude of different contexts, with some facing more difficult situations than others. The central question this research seeks to investigate is, ‘What happens in primary schools facing challenging circumstances that results in their improvement or decline?’ It reports on a study of three English primary schools either subject to an Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) improvement category following inspection and/or coping without a permanent head...
The economic landscape of most nations remains dominated by family businesses. Therefore, it is fitting that academia has begun to recognise the importance of family business studies. Family businesses are here to stay. Families who work together and live together face certain unique challenges that other families do not face. They have more opportunity for closeness and, at the same time, there is more opportunity for disagreement. Paradoxically, many of their outstanding strengths are also ...
Automated person recognition (APR) based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry), or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement). The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as ...
Full Text Available This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will also make a short review of the competition on the market of the pastry food products and we will present the marketing strategy and policies the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.
Full Text Available This article intends to outline the challenges faced by a local IT company in his battle to stay on the market on medium-term. There will be revealed the challenges the company is facing and also the ways to adapt to the changing world of the internet sells and e-commerce. There will be presented a short history of the founding and the evolution of the company on the local IT market in Covasna county pointing out the relevant events which have marked the life of the company during the years. There will be presented a short review of the competition on the market and the marketing strategy and policies which the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.
There is a long way to go for sustainable development of rural tourism.It is necessary to strengthen the planning for training rural tourism talents,and establish sustainable reserve tourism service personnel;innovate upon the promotion mode of rural tourism and open the tourist source market;strengthen the building of characteristic brand of rural tourism,and create sustainable development core of tourism;give play to the role of government in guiding rural tourism,strengthen the optimization of management of rural tourism market environment,and enhance the rural tourism safety;expand the rural tourism industry chain,and strengthen the management planning of sales market of rural tourism product.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. The panel was asked the question, what do you think are the top ten ethical challenges that Canadians may face in health care? The panel was asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout the Delphi process and consensus was reached after three rounds. Discussion The top challenge ranked by the group was disagreement between patients/families and health care professionals about treatment decisions. The second highest ranked challenge was waiting lists. The third ranked challenge was access to needed resources for the aged, chronically ill, and mentally ill. Summary Although many of the challenges listed by the panel have received significant public attention, there has been very little attention paid to the top ranked challenge. We propose several steps that can be taken to help address this key challenge.
Lóránt BUCS; Evelina GRĂDINARU; Gabriel BRĂTUCU
This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will ...
Teilmann, Kasper Aalling
The dissertation ‘Interactive Approaches to Rural Development’ gives new theoretical and empirical knowledge in the collaboration on development of rural areas and landscapes. From a perspective about the development and the challenges faced, the study analyses which functions that are demanded by the rural areas. Furthermore, the study makes an analysis of the collaboration in an EU financed rural development association; the Local Action Group (LAG). The overall objective ...
Lee, Sung-Jae; LI Li; Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Le Anh
It is hypothesized that persons who use drugs (PWUD) in Vietnam who are also HIV-positive may face additional challenges in psychosocial outcomes, and these challenges may extend to their family members. In this study, we examined depressive symptoms, stigma, social support, and caregiver burden of HIV-positive PWUD and their family members, compared to the outcomes of HIV-negative PWUD and their family members. Baseline, 3-month, and 6-month assessment data were gathered from 83 PWUD and 83 ...
Glasmeier, Amy; Salant, Priscilla
Global economic competition and other factors have cost rural America 1.5 million jobs in the past six years. This brief analyzes job displacement figures from around the country between 1997 and 2003. The loss of rural jobs was particularly large in the manufacturing sector, and the rate of loss was higher in the rural Northeast than in the rest…
Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities
Esther W. Dungumaro
Full Text Available In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite
Logie, Carmen; Dimaras, Helen; Fortin, Anny; Ramón-García, Santiago
Background The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an ‘Integrated Innovation™’ approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the ‘Rising Stars in Global Health’ award from Grand Challe...
This study examined the academic, social and economic challenges faced by Latino students to attain a college degree. In addition, of prime importance was the need for improvement and persistence, which led to retention in college enrollment rates for Latino students both at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Findings from this study…
As the twentieth anniversary of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda approaches, Mark Gudgel argues that we should face the challenges posed by teaching about Rwanda. Drawing on his experience as a history teacher in the US, his experience researching and supporting others' classrooms in the US and UK, his training in Holocaust education and his…
Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo
The study sought to provide an understanding of the quality assurance challenges and opportunities faced by private universities in Zimbabwe. The study analyzed the factors determining provision of quality higher education in private universities and the resultant effects of failing to achieve the minimum acceptable standards. The author employed…
Brown, Jason D.
The purpose of the study was to describe the needs of newly released Canadian federal offenders as perceived by community parole supervisors. Seventy-four Canadian parole supervisors were asked to answer the following question: "What challenges do parolees face in the first 90 days after release?" The data were analyzed using multidimensional…
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) new or existing, often face challenges when approach products providers for both enterprise fixed capital investment and market standards. The insufficient supply of microloans is a major issue, particularly where business creators are unemployed persons. This study aims to assess challenges facing Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) towards international marketing standards. Study findings show that SME’s face challenges to access international marketing unawa...
Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday
The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of...
D. D. Kadam; Shrikrishna Chandanshiv
Food processing industry is of enormous significance for India’s development because of the vital linkages and synergies that it promotes between the two pillars of the economy; namely, ‘industry’ and ‘agriculture’. India is the second largest producer of food in the world and has the potential to become a leading producer of food. Food-processing industry is facing constraints like non-availability of adequate infrastructural facilities, lack of adequate quality control & testing infrastruct...
Chipp, Cody; Dewane, Sarah; Brems, Christiane; Johnson, Mark E.; Warner, Teddy D.; Roberts, Laura W.
Purpose: Health care providers face challenges in rural service delivery due to the unique circumstances of rural living. The intersection of rural living and health care challenges can create barriers to care that providers may not be trained to navigate, resulting in burnout and high turnover. Through the exploration of experienced rural…
Marco Aurélio de Souza Rodrigues
Full Text Available The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazil to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.
Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.
Full Text Available Background: Until recently, procurement was seen as a necessity only. In fact, in many developing economies the profession is still being treated as a ‘back-office’ function. However, not much has been done to explore and address challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies.Objectives: The purpose of this article was to examine the critical role played by the procurement function in business and to reveal the challenges faced by procurement professionals in developing economies as well as to suggest solutions to these challenges.Method: A sequential literary analysis was used, complemented by cross-country qualitative data gathered from one hundred diverse procurement practitioners from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. These were primarily participants in a series of procurement workshops run by the researchers from January to June 2014.Results: Findings suggested that limited recognition, increasing unethical behaviour, poor supplier service delivery, poor regulatory environment, varying supplier standards and poor corporate governance are the main challenges faced by the procurement profession in these countries.Conclusion: The study’s findings imply that there is limited understanding regarding the role procurement plays in both government and non-government institutions in developing economies. The article suggests solutions which procurement professionals and organisations can implement in order to unlock the potential value in the procurement function.
Ben-David, Brenda; Nel, Norma
Children with visible physical disabilities (CWPDs) living in rural areas of South Africa are a matter of particular concern. While all children living in rural areas face negative influences such as poverty and the high incidence of HIV/AIDS, this situation is exacerbated for CWPDs who are more vulnerable to these influences (Human Sciences…
Cooke Graham S
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.
Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency of complications in unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department Otorhinolaryngology MMIMSR over the time duration of one year from March 2011 to April 2012. Fifty consecutive patients were selected whose clinical diagnosis was CSOM Attico-antral type.Conclusion: The rate of complications, especially more serious intracranial complications ,observed in developing countries is significantly more than those observed in studies from the developed countries. (12. In our study the frequency of extracranial complications excluding ossicular erosion is 22% and the frequency of intracranial complications is 4%. It was observed by Memon et al (13 in 2008 that in a series of 390 patients of chronic discharging ears that the rate of extracranial complications was 4.10% and rate of intracranial complications was 2.3%of the unsafe variety . The high frequency in our study may be explained by the fact that we are sitting in a rural background with very poor socio-economic background patients. Osama U et al (14 from Turkey reveals the rate of 1.35% of extracranial complications and 1.97% of intracranial complications in his study.
Miller, Norman N., Ed.; Spitzer, Manon L., Ed.
The multidisciplinary film project focuses attention on what is happening to rural populations of the world, particularly among developing countries. The roles of women, education, social and economic systems, and the effects of modernization on values are themes explored in each of five rural settings--Bolivian highlands, northern Kenya, northern…
Whitfield, R.P.; McGranahan, J.R.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the largest environmental cleanup task ever to confront the US. As a result of >40 yr of defense production activities, throughout the US, numerous problems exist at DOE sites. Just over a year and a half ago, the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (OERWM) was created to deal with the environmental problems at 111 sites in 32 states and Puerto Rico. The Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is committed to cleaning up the existing problems at all 111 of these sites by 2019. There are many issues that OER must face successfully if it is to be part of a program that achieves its goal. The five greatest hurdles and challenges facing the program now are technology development, infrastructure constraints, regulatory requirements, pubic credibility, and contracting mechanisms.
Full Text Available Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it into a link between museums and visitors. This article attempts to give current insights into museum marketing as part of the arts marketing field. Its aim is also to identify and explain some of the major challenges and opportunities facing everyday museum business, in order to provide insight into the complex world of museum marketing. Former findings about the development of museum marketing and its biggest changes and challenges are presented, summarized and analyzed.
Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia
The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women¡¯s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) p...
Phetlhu, Deliwe; Watson, Mada
Caring for orphans who have lost their parents due to AIDS, and some of whom are infected, is an enormous challenge. This immense responsibility often resides with the grandparents, who are in most cases sickly and not financially capable to undertake the task. The objectives of this study were to explore and describe challenges faced by such grandparents and their needs while caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West province, South Africa. Maslow’s theory of human needs was used as a th...
Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth has presented numerous opportunities and challenges for foreign firms there. Many large corporations have established a China centre to coordinate and control their operations in the country. As firms have increased their presence in China, their concerns are increasingly focused on implementing successful management practices and strategies. This article describes the challenges and difficulties that multinational companies faced in Chinese market. It analyses roles played by the human resource function in these China, culture differences, social environment and other factors.
Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.
The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.
There are over 100 000 nonprofit organizations registered in Poland that constitute a growingly important actor in the economic area and for the public administration. The sector has been growing, yet there are many factors that distract nonprofit organizations from carrying out many of their missions and goals and from playing many of the important functions in a society that are or were expected from them. This paper presents the main challenges and opportunities faced by the nonprofit sect...
This thesis explores the challenges facing minority background pupils in the process of acquiring English as an L3 in Norwegian primary schools. However, in order to investigate English as an L3, English needs to be seen in relation to the learners’ L1 and L2. The research is primarily qualitative, based on observations in two classes, interviews with EFL teachers, introductory course teachers, a headmistress and councillors at three schools. In addition, the research includes a case study...
Facing the Challenge: Applying Codes of Practice in the Smallholder Sector was the third in a series of workshops organised by the Ethical Trade and Export Horticulture Research Project of the Natural Resources and Ethical Trade Programme (NRET). The Project was set up nearly 4 years ago, with the primary aim of making codes of practice more effective. In the last couple of years, the Project has focused on developing practical tools for implementing codes of practice, aiming to combine real ...
Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals w...
Guarneri, Erminia; King, Rauni Prittinen
Biofield therapies (BTs) are increasingly employed in contemporary healthcare. In this white paper, we review specific challenges faced by biofield practitioners resulting from a lack of (1) a common scientific definition of BT; (2) common educational standards for BT training (including core competencies for clinical care); (3) collaborative team care education in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and in integrative health and medicine (IHM); (4) a focused agenda in BT research; a...
Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to...
Roč. 14, č. 2 (2010), s. 67-78. ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : classification * geographical research * identification method * landscape structure Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://studiacrescent.com/images/02_2010/09_jaromir_kolejka_post_industrial_landscape_its_identification_and_classification_as_contemporary_challenges_faced_by_geographic_.pdf
Abd Rahman Ahmad; Alan Farley
The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government ob...
Kapil Goel; Sartaj Ahmad; Rahul Bansal; Pawan Parashar; Bhawna Pant; Parul Goel
Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environm...
Ganle, John Kuumuori; Otupiri, Easmon; Obeng, Bernard; Edusie, Anthony Kwaku; Ankomah, Augustine; Adanu, Richard
Background While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana. Methods and Findings A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling’s thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers’ insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability. Conclusions Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and
John Kuumuori Ganle
Full Text Available While a number of studies have examined the factors affecting accessibility to and utilisation of healthcare services by persons with disability in general, there is little evidence about disabled women's access to maternal health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and the challenges they face in accessing skilled maternal health services. The objective of this paper is to explore the challenges women with disabilities encounter in accessing and using institutional maternal healthcare services in Ghana.A qualitative study was conducted in 27 rural and urban communities in the Bosomtwe and Central Gonja districts of Ghana with a total of 72 purposively sampled women with different physical, visual, and hearing impairments who were either lactating or pregnant at the time of this research. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to gather data. Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that although women with disability do want to receive institutional maternal healthcare, their disability often made it difficult for such women to travel to access skilled care, as well as gain access to unfriendly physical health infrastructure. Other related access challenges include: healthcare providers' insensitivity and lack of knowledge about the maternity care needs of women with disability, negative attitudes of service providers, the perception from able-bodied persons that women with disability should be asexual, and health information that lacks specificity in terms of addressing the special maternity care needs of women with disability.Maternal healthcare services that are designed to address the needs of able-bodied women might lack the flexibility and responsiveness to meet the special maternity care needs of women with disability. More disability-related cultural competence and patient-centred training for
Mann, Matthew James
Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi
Sitienei, Isaac; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo
A survey was conducted to determine U.S. grass-fed beef producer perceptions of important challenges facing the industry. The most important challenges facing grass-fed beef producers were shortage of processors, lack of a clear marketing system, pasture management problems, and the long period of time required to get animals to the desired market weight. Key words: Grass-fed beef, grain-fed beef, challenge, industry
McGranahan, David A.
The economic health of many rural towns and regions depends on their ability to maintain a competitive manufacturing sector. In a recent ERS survey, rural manufacturers reported that, more than any other factor, the quality of local labor hindered their competitiveness. Other frequently cited local problems included State and local taxes, environmental regulations, the attractiveness of the area to managers and professionals, and the quality of local schools. The extent of these problems vari...
Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.
Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Boothe, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Montgomery, M. T.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Tallapragada, V.; Tanelli, S.; Trahan, S.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.
Despite recent progress in hurricane track forecasts, we still lack understanding of the multi-scale interactions that sometimes lead to cylogenesis or rapid intesification and other times do not. To improve hurricane forecasts we need to understand the physical processes that control hurricane evolution and to evaluate whether the models represent them properly. This is where we face Big Data challenges in three different ways: dealing with a multitude of observations; extracting relevant information from voluminous model forecast; and performing carefully designed diagnostics to evaluate the models. Satellite observations provide invaluable information. However, needed are long-term observations of multiple parameters, from a multitude of instruments. These data come from disparate sources, in different formats, with varying latency. Bringing all these observations to bear on addressing the hurricane problem presents the observational side of the Big Data challenges. Hurricane evolution is sensitive to the storm internal dynamics as well as environmental characteristics. This is why accurate forecasting requires the use of regional models, with higher resolution and better parameterizations, as well as the use of global models that better depict the large-scale environment, necessary for properly capturing the important scale interactions. Extracting relevant information from the extremely voluminous model forecasts, we face the model-related side of the Big Data challenges. To properly evaluate the models we need to go beyond the comparison of the geophysical fields and use instrument simulators to compute synthetic observations from the model fields for a more direct comparison. Producing realistic synthetic data requires the use of complex, computationally intensive, instrument simulators. This demand, in addition to developing on-line analytics to support model evaluation, is where we face the analytics side of the Big Data challenges. We are now developing a
The small goat holders to face food security, poverty and environmental challenges: conditions for experiencing successful projects : Lessons from a comparative analysis in different regions of the world (governance, markets, production systems)
Farming and agri-food systems have to face urgent social and environmental issues linked between them within the Millennium Development Goals firmed by the International Community. Poverty reduction and food safety is considered as a major challenge as at least 800 million people are suffering hunger and extreme poverty particularly in rural areas. The development of livestock for small holders is often seen as a solution to reduce poverty To explore and document the operational articulation ...
Full Text Available Background: Small-bus operators (SBOs in South Africa operate on the periphery of the economic mainstream of scheduled subsidised commuter transport, and little progress has been made in getting these operators into the more formal subsidised industry. There is also a lack of information about the challenges these operators face in participating in the public transport industry.Objectives of the research: The main objective of the research was to conduct a survey among SBOs to obtain a better understanding of the challenges that they face in participating in the public transport industry.Method: A telephone survey of operators was undertaken to ensure an adequate response to a structured questionnaire. In analysing the data, we made use of Factor Analysis and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS to undertake general statistical analysis.Results: The main results of the survey indicate that SBOs face significant financial and operational challenges. There is also a perceived lack of government support for SBOs. Major conclusions are that the Department of Transport (DoT ought to address issues related to the complex governmental reporting and legal requirements for small business. In addition, government ought to be creating ‘space’ for SBOs in the design of contracts and actively encouraging the formation of consortia’s or partnerships, among the SBOs and/or between SBOs and established bus companies. Government, and especially the DoT, ought to more actively market the governments’ small-business support systems and procedures together with financial aid schemes to assist SBOs in acquiring or replacing buses.
Peter G. Spooner
Full Text Available Roads corridors are a conspicuous part of most landscapes, which are gaining greater recognition for their role in nature conservation. However roads cause wildlife mortality, alter water and nutrient flows, change local microclimatic conditions, act as vectors for weeds and pest animals, and have other far-reaching effects. Not surprisingly, there is much attention from both road and conservation managers to lessen these impacts, with an emphasis on developing solutions to mitigate the barrier effects of major roads to wildlife movements. However in many anthropogenic landscapes, road corridors can also provide key habitat and connectivity for local biodiversity. In particular, where traffic volumes are low, minor roads often provide critical habitat and refuge for many native species. Knowledge of the ecology and biodiversity conservation values of minor rural road verges has been underpinned by studies in various contexts, such as sunken roads, field margins and hedgerow networks in Europe, to stock routes in Spain and Australia. Despite their different histories and management constructs, important commonalties have been highlighted in terms of their biodiversity values, and the factors which influence these values. As such, minor rural road networks can be vital in providing connected, functioning ecosystems within rural landscapes. The importance of vegetated minor rural road networks will only become more pressing with future climate change. In Australia, road management authorities are tasked with the dual roles of maintaining road transport needs (i.e. priorities for road maintenance and safety concerns, whilst maintaining the environmental values of roads. This paper reviews the biodiversity values of minor rural roads, discusses the challenges and constraints in managing these values, and describes the case of identifying historic roads as an example of enhancing conservation management of these important habitats in rural landscapes.
J. O. Adefila
The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformat...
An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....
Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory
Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.
Fujinami, Rebecca; Otis-Green, Shirley; Klein, Linda; Sidhu, Rupinder; Ferrell, Betty
Family caregivers (FCGs) of patients with lung cancer face multiple challenges that affect their quality of life and well-being. Whether challenged physically, emotionally, socially, or spiritually, distress in one area may compound challenges in other areas. To maintain function and health of FCGs as they provide valuable care for the health and well-being of the patient, attention must be given to the needs of FCGs for support and education. The purpose of this article is to describe the multifaceted challenges that FCGs of patients with lung cancer experience using case studies selected from a National Cancer Institute-funded program project. The cases are discussed in terms of how the FCG's quality of life is impacted by the caregiver role, as well as how stressors in one or more domains of quality of life compound difficulties in coping with the demands of the role. The importance of the oncology nurse's assessment of FCGs' needs for support, education, and self-care through the lung cancer illness trajectory is discussed while presenting accessible community resources to meet those needs. PMID:23178364
Zarea, Kourosh; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohammadpour, Ali
Psychiatric nurses play an important role in the process of caring for mentally ill patients and are continually faced with the numerous challenges and complex issues related to this field. This study aimed to understand the perspectives of psychiatric nurses regarding the issues they face while providing care and examine the possible solutions for improvement of inpatient care in clinical settings. The study adopted a qualitative approach that utilized a content analysis of audio taped, semi-structured interviews that had been conducted with 24 nurses. Two main themes emerged from the data. The first, Challenges in Providing Care within Psychiatric Wards, had the following subthemes: Politics and Rules of Organization, Safety and Security Issues, Uncertainty about the Role, Lack of Trained Staff, and Sociocultural Issues. The second theme, Solutions for Improving Psychiatric Care, had the subthemes of Empowerment across four domains: Psychiatric Nurses, Mentally Ill Patients and their Families, The Psychiatric Mental Health System, and the Cultural Context. The results indicated that if nurses are expected to provide optimal nursing care within a psychiatric ward, then there is a need for a stable and responsible organizational structure, skilled psychiatric nurses, and community-based care along with an anti-stigma program. PMID:23017047
Full Text Available Objective. This study explores the challenges faced by the research implementation team in engaging new mothers in a community oral health prevention intervention in an American Indian (AI reservation community. Methods. Qualitative methods in the form of in-depth interviews were used in the study. Qualitative data were collected from research staff workers at a field site, who were involved in the implementation of a culturally tailored, randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention utilizing Motivational Interviewing (MI. Results. Several challenges were described by the field staff in engaging new mothers, including low priority placed on oral health, lack of knowledge, and distractions that reduced their ability to engage in learning about oral health of their child. Other difficulties faced in engaging the mothers and the AI community at large were distrust related to racial differences and physical and environmental barriers including poor road conditions, lack of transportation and communication, and remoteness of data collection sites. The field staff developed and applied many strategies, including conducting home visits, applying new communication strategies, and interacting with the community at various venues. Conclusion. Prevention interventions for ECC need to target AI mothers. Strategies developed by the field staff were successful for engaging mothers in the study.
Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners′ educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs. Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. METHODS: The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. RESULTS: In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. CONCLUSIONS: Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so
Baskin, Jonathan; Delja, Jolie R; Mogil, Catherine; Gorospe, Clarissa M; Paley, Blair
BackgroundThere is a notable absence of evidence based early interventions for young children with FASD. ObjectiveThis study examines clinicians' perspectives regarding the needs of caregivers of children with FASD and how such perspectives informed the development of a family-centered early intervention for young children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Method19 professionals who work with children with prenatal alcohol exposure and / or in out-of-home care were recruited to participate in focus groups. The facilitator used a semi-structured topic guide to elicit feedback from participants. These data were transcribed, coded, and categorized to reflect themes in a manner informed by a grounded theory approach. A second investigator repeated the process. Codes were chosen and assigned to data by consensus. ResultsThe coded data yielded five distinct perceived challenges faced by caregivers: (1) seeking and possibly receiving a diagnosis; (2) processing emotions and coming to terms with the child's difficulties; (3) seeking support and belonging within a knowledgeable community; (4) developing a new understanding of the child's behavior; and (5) becoming an educator, advocate, and expert on the child and FASD. ConclusionProfessionals believe specific capacities are essential insofar as the human service systems that caregivers engage are perceived to be under-equipped to respond to the distinct set of challenges faced by children with FASD and their families. Findings are discussed in terms of how the proposed intervention was designed to address such challenges and to cultivate those key capacities in order for families to meet their children's needs. PMID:27462878
weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of
Wang, Lamei; Mesman, Judi
In the last 30 years, China has undergone one of the largest rural-to-urban migrations in human history, with many children left behind because of parental migration. We present a meta-analytic review of empirical studies on Chinese children's rural-to-urban migration and on rural children left behind because of parental migration. We examine how these events relate to children's emotional, social, and academic developmental outcomes. We include publications in English and in Chinese to uncover and quantify a part of the research literature that has been inaccessible to most Western scholars in the field of child and family studies. Overall, both migrant children and children left behind by migrant parents in China show significantly less favorable functioning across domains than other Chinese children. It appears that, similar to processes found in other parts of the world, the experience of economic and acculturation stress as well as disrupted parent-child relations constitute a risk for nonoptimal child functioning in the Chinese context. Further, we found evidence for publication bias against studies showing less favorable development for migrant children and children left behind. We discuss the results in terms of challenges to Chinese society and to future empirical research on Chinese family life. PMID:26581737
Guarneri, Erminia; King, Rauni Prittinen
Biofield therapies (BTs) are increasingly employed in contemporary healthcare. In this white paper, we review specific challenges faced by biofield practitioners resulting from a lack of (1) a common scientific definition of BT; (2) common educational standards for BT training (including core competencies for clinical care); (3) collaborative team care education in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and in integrative health and medicine (IHM); (4) a focused agenda in BT research; and (5) standardized devices and scientifically validated mechanisms in biofield research. We present a description of BT and discuss its current status and challenges as an integrative healthcare discipline. To address the challenges cited and to enhance collaboration across disciplines, we propose (1) standardized biofield education that leads to professional licensure and (2) interprofessional education (IPE) competencies in BT training required for licensed healthcare practitioners and encouraged for other practitioners using these therapies. Lastly, we discuss opportunities for growth and a potential strategic agenda to achieve these goals. The Academy of Integrative Health and Medicine (AIHM) provides a unique forum to facilitate development of this emerging discipline, to facilitate IPE, and to further increase the availability of BT to patients. PMID:26665047
Leonilde Servolo de Medeiros
El artículo busca describir la diversidad de protagonistas de la lucha por la tierra en Brasil y las nuevas preguntas que los resultados de sus reivindicaciones han producido en la problematización de los parámetros clasificatorios por medio de los cuales se ha tratado de definir lo rural y lo urbano, el campo y la ciudad. A lo largo del texto, se muestran las transformaciones de los grupos humanos quedemandan tierra, los efectos de esa demanda sobre las políticas públicas y la dinámica de re...
Leonilde Servolo de Medeiros
Full Text Available El artículo busca describir la diversidad de protagonistas de la lucha por la tierra en Brasil y las nuevas preguntas que los resultados de sus reivindicaciones han producido en la problematización de los parámetros clasificatorios por medio de los cuales se ha tratado de definir lo rural y lo urbano, el campo y la ciudad. A lo largo del texto, se muestran las transformaciones de los grupos humanos quedemandan tierra, los efectos de esa demanda sobre las políticas públicas y la dinámica de reivindicaciones que desencadenan.
Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.
Underdevelopment of bond markets is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of financial systems in Asian countries. Due to over-reliance on bank loans, it has not been possible for savings in Asia to be invested directly in enterprises rather than being funneled to international financial centers in theU.S, and Europe and then back to Asia. When there is a crisis, enterprises and financial institutions are faced with both “mismatch in maturity of loans” and “mismatch in currency denomination” in their funding positions. The risks inherent in the dual mismatches are sources offinancial instability in Asia. Therefore there has been a consensus among major Asian countries to foster Asian bond markets in order to reduce these risks. For China, developing its domestic bond market has become an important part of effort to participate in fostering Asian bond markets. Based on proposals and recent development of Asian bond markets, this paper discusses the problems and challenges faced by China in developing domestic bond markets.
Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires
Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros
Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.
Quinlan, Philip R; Groves, Martin; Jordan, Lee B; Stobart, Hilary; Purdie, Colin A; Thompson, Alastair M
The challenges facing biobanks are changing from simple collections of materials to quality-assured fit-for-purpose clinically annotated samples. As a result, informatics awareness and capabilities of a biobank are now intrinsically related to quality. A biobank may be considered a data repository, in the form of raw data (the unprocessed samples), data surrounding the samples (processing and storage conditions), supplementary data (such as clinical annotations), and an increasing ethical requirement for biobanks to have a mechanism for researchers to return their data. The informatics capabilities of a biobank are no longer simply knowing sample locations; instead the capabilities will become a distinguishing factor in the ability of a biobank to provide appropriate samples. There is an increasing requirement for biobanking systems (whether in-house or commercially sourced) to ensure the informatics systems stay apace with the changes being experienced by the biobanking community. In turn, there is a requirement for the biobanks to have a clear informatics policy and directive that is embedded into the wider decision making process. As an example, the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank in the UK was a collaboration between four individual and diverse biobanks in the UK, and an informatics platform has been developed to address the challenges of running a distributed network. From developing such a system there are key observations about what can or cannot be achieved by informatics in isolation. This article will highlight some of the lessons learned during this development process. PMID:26418270
Weragala, D. K. Neelanga
This dissertation evaluates the water allocation challenges in the rural river basins of the developing world, where demands are growing and the supply is limited. While many of these basins have yet to reach the state of closure, their water users are already experiencing water shortages. Agricultural crop production in rural river basins of the developing world plays a major role in ensuring food security. However, irrigation as the major water consumer in these basins has low water use eff...
events illustrate some of the challenges facing the world of insurance following the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime: - Will the insurance industry be able to find funds corresponding to the new amounts that have been set? - Do the additional damages covered by the revised conventions provide adequate cover for existing risks and will private insurance be able and willing to cover such risks? Nevertheless, the insurance world has changed a great deal since 2004 and there are many additional issues that have arisen since that time. For example, the economic crisis and the introduction of the European Solvency II Directive require insurers to take a more stringent line with their commitments. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a number of questions have resurfaced: are the new insurance amounts sufficient? The age of 'nuclear renaissance' has long gone and some countries are distancing themselves from nuclear power in light of its questionable costs; are operators paying a fair price in light of the risks incurred? Finally, Europe is keen to play its part and impose its own rules; what will be the consequences of this development? This article reconsiders these challenges in light of the 2004 Protocol (which has not entered into force), by focusing in particular on the situation in Europe. Section I looks back at the history behind the conventions and the key principles they set down. Section II highlights the changes made to the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol and the problems facing the insurance industry. Section III provides an overview of the various actors involved in the insurance industry and redefines the necessary insurance foundations to cover the challenges described in Section IV. Finally, Section IV covers all the challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime. (author)
This paper examines the challenges faced by Islamic banks in making financing decisions toward Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia by analyzing three sets of applications used by banks, which are: (1) processes used by banks in assessing SMEs’ applications, (2) problems faced by banks during application process, and (3) monitoring the SME clients after financing has been granted. Small-and-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are considered as the backbone of the national economy. They have e...
Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, Unite de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Mundler, O. [CHU la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)
A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health.
Hardré, Patricia L.
Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning and motivation from the fields of educational psychology, human neuroscience and rural education, to present an integrated systemic view of motivation for learning math in rural schools.
El-Shazly, A. K.
Small geoscience departments with 5 faculty members or less in undergraduate institutions are facing serious challenges that will have a profound impact on their future, as well as the future of geoscience education. In addition to past and future budget cuts that affect all departments, small departments are more vulnerable to such problems as (i) decreased enrollments in introductory level classes, (ii) small number of geology majors, (iii) small number of graduates per year (iv) lack or paucity of equipment necessary for faculty and student research, (v) limited opportunities for external funding, (vi) need to offer upper division classes on an alternate year basis, (vii) difficulty in recruiting and retaining students, (viii) high teaching loads for faculty, and (ix) designing rigorous curricula based on 120 credit hours with a significant component of liberal art classes. These problems pose new challenges for faculty, department chairs and administrators. Faculty need to design curricula tailored to the need of the job market, without compromising rigor or the quality of the program. New classes/ concentrations in environmental science, hydrogeology and geographical information systems should be offered, and traditional classes in petrology, geophysics and tectonics should be maintained. Classes in Physics, Chemistry and Math should be core requirements. Student involvement in research should be encouraged at an early stage (sophomore/ junior levels). Department chairs need to assign duties in their department carefully to capitalize on the strengths of their faculty: faculty with strong research backgrounds should be helped in their efforts to pursue external funding opportunities, whereas those with strong teaching abilities should be evaluated primarily on their performance in the classroom. Student credit hour production should not be used as a criterion for evaluating faculty. Administrators should evaluate programs and departments based on the success
Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.
Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture
Full Text Available Innovations in Information technology have changed the way financial transactions are done in banking industry globally. Online banking uses today’s computer technology to give user the ability to manage their finances more quickly and efficiently, from anywhere around the world, and with just a click of the mouse. Banks perceive online banking as a powerful ‘value-added’ tool to attract and retain new customers while helping to eliminate costly paper handling and teller interactions. Online banking has managed to provide customers the convenience, efficiency, effe ctiveness, and most importantly, the speed needed in today’s dynamic world. As more banks around the world are offering online banking to its customers, it is becoming a rather popular trend. Online banking is an asset both to the bank and the customer. However, countries like Sudan are yet to join the frenzy of this new innovation in an effective manner. This paper will investigate what are the challenges faced by Sudanese banks in implementing online banking.
Maier, Shana L
Even though Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began over 30 years ago, and there is currently greater awareness of sexual violence, the question regarding the financial security of SANE prgrams remains a contemporary concern. Data from interviews with 40 SANEs', many of whom were also directors, from programs located in four states indicated that lack of funding continues to present challenges. Most (72%) directors revealed that there are problems with funding. Directors voiced concerns about program sustainability, as well as the ability to provide education in the community and training and continuing education opportunities for SANEs. Even though funding of programs is not the responsibility of SANEs not serving as directors, approximately one-third of regular SANEs were aware of budget cuts or financial struggles faced by their program. These SANEs also expressed concern about the sustainability of programs, the ability to train additional nurses, purchasing their equipment of choice, and lack of compensation. All suggestions for program improvements, directly or indirectly, required more funding. PMID:22621666
Hanna, W; Barnes, P; Berendt, R; Chang, M; Magliocco, A; Mulligan, A M; Rees, H; Miller, N; Elavathil, L; Gilks, B; Pettigrew, N; Pilavdzic, D; Sengupta, S
This review is designed to highlight several key challenges in the diagnosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)-positive breast cancer currently faced by pathologists in Canada: Pre-analysis issues affecting the accuracy of her2 testing in non-excision sample types: core-needle biopsies, effusion samples, fine-needle aspirates, and bone metastasesher2 testing of core-needle biopsies compared with surgical specimensCriteria for retesting her2 status upon disease recurrenceLiterature searches for each topic were carried out using the medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and biosis databases. In addition, the congress databases of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2005-2011) and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (2007-2011) were searched for relevant abstracts.All authors are expert breast pathologists with extensive experience of her2 testing, and several participated in the development of Canadian her2 testing guidelines. For each topic, the authors present an evaluation of the current data available for the guidance of pathology practice, with recommendations for the optimization or improvement of her2 testing practice. PMID:23300357
Seibel, Hans Dieter
Why does IFAD need rural finance guidelines? With its exclusive emphasis on rural poverty alleviation, IFAD enjoys a competitive advantage over other development agencies, and should strengthen its role by providing support for the development of rural finance as an important instrument. The goal of IFAD?s support for rural finance is the sustainable improvement of the livelihood of the rural poor. This paper offers guiding principles to IFAD?s staff and partner institutions to stimulate inno...
As the problem of urban-rural inequality in China becomes increasingly severe, urban-rural integration has become a hot topic among both researchers and policymakers. However, to achieve urban-rural integration faces the challenges from dualism in institutional arrangements, diversity in territorial contexts, and uncertainty in development environments. In response to these challenges, this research employs the idea of ‘economic linkages of small towns’ to develop a rural-centred, place-based...
Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada
The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period
McElhinney, James H.; Nasseh, Bizhan
This study reports faculty members' and students' responses to the technological and pedagogical challenges they faced in completing computer-based distance education. Topics include the need for adequate faculty training, the need for adequate student training, and the need for technical support available 24 hours a day. (Author/LRW)
Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia
The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…
As the number of international students in post-secondary education institutions in Canada and the United States continues to increase substantially, much scholarly attention is being paid to the wide variety of transitional challenges that international students face. At the same time frequent controversial conversations are occurring about…
Depczynski Julie C
professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the context of greater perceived workload. Conclusions Older health workers are managing a range of issues, on top of the general challenges of rural practice. Personal health, wellbeing and other realms of life appear to take on increasing importance for older health workers when faced with increasing difficulties at work. Solutions need to address difficulties at personal, workplace and system wide levels.
Dramatic demographic changes longevity and medical progress helped create a new population made up of the survivors of previously fatal diseases. These trends pose new major social and economic challenges that should be accounted for in health policy making. This paper discusses the similarities between the specialties of pediatrics and geriatrics, especially in the realm of patient care. Children and the elderly share a limited autonomy and dependence on the human environment (i.e., willing and able caregiving persons) due to age or disease. The long-term care of dependent patients (DP) requires caregiving persons who share with dependent persons the risk of losing autonomy, facing burnout, family disruption, and interference with work and educational activities. Families with DPs may face potential losses of income because both patients and caregivers are partially or completely unable to work, the former for medical reasons and the latter due to the new demands on their time and energy. Additionally, new expenses have to be met because while direct medical expenses might be covered by insurance or the State, other expenses have to be financed by the family, such as co-payments for medicines, new water or electricity home installations, and transport and eventual hotel costs if they have to stay overnight near a hospital outside of their town. The main objectives of long-term care should be to maximize patients' independence and prevent their physical and psychological deterioration while minimizing the social, economic and personal costs to caregivers. To achieve these goals, one needs a holistic approach, a multidisciplinary professional team (doctors, nurses, social workers, nutritionists and psychologists) and auxiliary staff (secretaries, electricians, administrators, messengers, cleaning staff, doormen, nursing aids and coordinators of medical appointments and medical procedures). Optimal management of DPs on chronic treatments such as chronic dialysis
Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating pow...
The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on n wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants addressed the following points: the conciliation between landscape protection and wind power development, the definition of landscape environmental quality criteria, the needs and usages of the departments in charge of the treatment of landscape studies in France, the socio-psychological approach of the local acceptability of wind farm projects, the re-powering tool for the improvement of the wind farm integration in the landscape, and the conciliation between the monuments maintenance and wind power development. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Conciliating landscape protection and wind power development goals in France (Marie Villot); 2 - Wind turbines: Conflicts between development goals, landscape and acceptance - Perception and criteria (Guenter Ratzbor); 3 - Bayern's wind power atlas: a planning tool which takes into account the landscape aspects (Christian Tausch); 4 - Landscape assessment in wind farms projects: what and how to do in French administrative procedures? (Bertrand Cagneaux); 5 - Methods for evaluation of landscape for wind farms projects - A French project developer's feedback (Agathe Jouneau); 6 - Landscape Assessment: Methods from German Landscape Practice (Boris Stemmer); 7 - Acceptance of Wind Turbines - Social Psychological Research (Gundula Huebner); 8 - Local consultation: who to involve, when and how? (Paola Orozco-Souel); 9 - Local acceptability: what dialogue concepts and strategies, and how to manage wind energy objection (Charles Lhermitte); 10 - Re-powering and landscape: chances and limits (Elisabeth Ferus); 11 - Wind power and cultural heritage: consultation and dialogue to succeed (Philippe Benezech); 12
桑吉·古普塔; 本尼迪克特·克莱门茨; 戴维·科迪; 王宇(译)
当前，许多国家仍存在医疗服务可得性差、医疗成本高昂、公共卫生支出效率低下等问题，医保改革面临重大挑战。医保改革目标存在两难—既要改善人们的健康状况，又要控制支出成本，因而提高公共卫生支出效率是改善社会健康状况的最优选择。各国政府的干预形式和公共卫生支出水平因国别、时间等的不同而变化。财政状况较好的新兴经济体需在保证财政可持续的前提下扩大基本医保覆盖面；发达经济体则应注重提升公共卫生支出的效率并限制支出增长速度。%At present, poor medical service availability, high health care costs and inefficient of public health spending are exsiting in many countries, and health care reform still faces big challenges. To improve people's health and to make a control of the costs are dilemma of health-care reform, and thus improving the efficiency of public health expenditure is the optimal choice to improve social health. The forms of government intervention and the level of public health expenditure are different due to different countries and period. Emerging economies should expand basic health care coverage on the premise of fiscal sustainable development while developed economies should pay attention to improve the public health spending efficiency and limit the spending growth.
Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.
Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie
Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.
Wenger, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Allen, G.
Estimating the anthropogenic component of carbon dioxide emissions from direct atmospheric measurements is difficult, due to the large natural carbon dioxide fluxes. One way of determining the fossil fuel component of atmospheric carbon dioxide is the use of radiocarbon measurements. Whilst carbon reservoirs with a reasonably fast carbon exchange rate all have a similar radiocarbon content, fossil fuels are completely devoid of radiocarbon due to their age. Previous studies have 14CO2 (UK) this approach is compromised by the high density of 14CO2 emitting nuclear power plants. Of the 16 nuclear reactors in the UK, 14 are advanced gas cooled reactors, which have one of the highest 14CO2 emission rates of all reactor types. These radiocarbon emissions not only lead to a serious underestimation of the recently added fossil fuel CO2, by masking the depletion of 14C in CO2, but can in fact overshadow the depletion by a factor of 2 or more. While a correction for this enhancement can be applied, the emissions from the nuclear power plants are highly variable, and an accurate correction is therefore not straightforward. We present the first attempt to quantify UK fossil fuel CO2 emissions through the use of 14CO2. We employ a sampling strategy that makes use of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, in combination with nuclear industry emission estimates, to forecast "good" sampling times, in an attempt to minimize the correction due to emissions from the nuclear industry. As part of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project, 14CO2measurements are performed at two measurement sites in the UK and Ireland, as well as during science flights around the UK. The measurement locations have been chosen with a focus on high emitting regions such as London and the Midlands. We discuss the unique challenges that face the determination of fossil fuel emissions through radiocarbon measurements in the UK and our sampling strategy to deal with them. In addition we
Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study and
Projecting the future evolution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets is a problem of enormous societal importance, as ice sheet influence our future sea levels. This crucial issue is however a non trivial task, as demonstrated by the Sea level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) effort: prescribing simple external forcings to a group of ice sheet models results in a spread in responses. Understanding the source of the diversity in the model results is therefore crucial in order to reduce the uncertainty in the projection. Just as in any future climate simulation, the analysis presented here demonstrates that the model spread in the SeaRISE effort is due to a number of factors. First is the problem of obtaining an initial configuration for the projection. The two commonly used methods, interglacial spin-up or data assimilation, have both advantages and drawbacks, and will affect the determination of fields that cannot be measured (such as basal slipperiness). Second is the uncertainty in actual observations, which includes but is not limited to surface mass balance, basal topography, ice thickness, and surface velocities. An additional issue with these observations is that they can be transient quantities which are not measured at the same time, but ice sheet models require them to be simultaneous. Third is the uncertainty in the models' physics and discretization, which is limited by our understanding (or lack of understanding) of crucial processes that often occur at subgrid scale relative to the resolution used by continental ice sheet models, and thus require parameterization. Grounding line migration and sliding laws are such an example. Fourth is the determination of the future forcing scenarios and their implementation as the external forcing. Unfortunately, as demonstrated in this analysis, all ice sheet models face these limitations to some degree, so that it is extremely difficult to identify a set of models and projections that should be
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on
The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of
Full Text Available Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Key words: ESL writing, academic writing, academic voice, disciplinary writing Con base en teorías críticas, socioculturales y sociolingüísticas sobre escritura académica, texto y voz, este estudio etnográfico explora los retos que enfrentan una estudiante hablante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores de un curso de Medios de Comunicación en Lengua Española al construir conjuntamente los conceptos de literacias académicas y de voz en un curso de pregrado en estudios generales ofrecido por una universidad en Massachusetts. El análisis intertextual de los datos recogidos muestra que algunos métodos tradicionales dirigidos a la elaboración de productos pueden resultar poco efectivos para apoyar el desarrollo de la escritura académica. Sin embargo, se concluye que para usar metodologías más efectivas, como las propuestas por las teorías de género, es indispensable que tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias como los tutores reciban el entrenamiento adecuado. Palabras clave: escritura de inglés como segunda lengua, escritura académica, voz académica, escritura disciplinaria
Keefover, R W; Rankin, E D; Keyl, P M; Wells, J C; Martin, J; Shaw, J
Expansion of the world's elderly populations has increased concerns about aging-related medical disorders like Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In the United States, one fourth of those older than age 65 and at greatest risk for developing dementia live in rural environments that may influence its manifestation. The objectives of this study were to determine the need for and potential benefits of further epidemiological research concerning dementia and similar disorders in rural U.S. populations and to identify pertinent methodological issues related to rural dementia research. This study employed a National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) document search based on the key words "cognitive disorders," "dementia," "Alzheimer's disease," and "rural," followed by recovery of literature resources references in the bibliographies of selected articles. Nineteen studies focusing on dementia or related disorders in rural settings have been reported from around the world. While four of these were conducted in the United States, only one rural dementia prevalence study has been undertaken in this country. Because of methodological variability, comparisons of prevalence estimates between these rural studies, as well as with those from urban investigations, is difficult. Nonetheless, there is reason to believe that certain potentially dementing illnesses are more common in rural populations. There is also evidence to suggest that the screening instruments commonly used in such studies tend to misclassify rural elders as "false positive" dementia cases. Information regarding dementing disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease, in rural populations is scarce. Preliminary observations that dementia may be more common in rural settings and that rural families are more likely to maintain their dementing elders in the community imply that further rural dementia research could yield important insights into the risk factors for these illnesses, the variables influencing their
Tomola M Obamuyi
Full Text Available This paper examines the Nigerian economy and the tendency for its growth in the face of several socio-political challenges facing the country, which have hampered the rate of economic development in spite of the tremendous human and material resources inherent. The paper identifies the socio-political challenges to include corruption, poverty, unemployment, insecurity, politics and governance, among others. The central argument of the paper is that steady economic growth can be achieved and financial crisis mitigated in Nigeria, if the effects of socio-political challenges, which are the key factors that have contributed to the high poverty, unemployment and economic instability in the country, are minimised. To ensure economic growth and move the country forward politically and economically, government must be more accountable in managing the nation’s resources in order to avoid wastage, poverty and unemployment. Close attention should be given to those socio-political challenges in the formulation of policies that aimed at maintaining economic growth at a level commensurate with the country’s growth rate. This study put forward that government must be proactive in all issues relating to the socio-political challenges to prevent resource mismanagement, poverty, unemployment, insecurity and slow economic growth in future.
Full Text Available Uganda has experienced a major policy shift from a supply-driven to a demand-driven approach in rural water provision since 1990. The article sheds light on the rural population’s access to safe water within the changing institutional frameworks. We analysed individual and group interviews with key informants from national to community levels and relevant official documents with the ‘Social-Ecological Systems’ framework. Since the implementation of the demand-driven approach, rural safe water coverage has slightly improved but operation and maintenance of water sources pose a great challenge hampering, long-term access to safe water. The abrupt and top-down imposed policy shift has resulted in competing signals from old and new policies creating uncertainty and ambiguity about responsibilities, rules and incentives. The analysis shows the importance of taking into account the implications of national institutional disturbances on local collective action for long-term access to safe water.
Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen
Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contribut...
Rozenveld, Marc; Heinonen, Tapio
Date: June 7th of 2013 Level: Master thesis in marketing, 15 ECTS Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Authors: Tapio Heinonen & Marc Rozenveld 18 thof November 1988 & 16th of June 1990 Title: Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era. Subtitle: A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies. Tutor: Peter Selegård Keywords: media logic, advertising industry, advertising agencies, advertising and digital ma...
@@ The millions of medical and health care professionals in China celebrate with great pleasure and confidence the 60th birthday of the people's republic. In this issue of the journal, our readers will see a part of what fruitful achievements have been obtained by the government, health and medical professionals and researchers in various fields of health and medical care and research as well as what challenges the Chinese medical professionals face.
Gupta, Babita; Prasad, Arunima; Ramchandani, Sarita; Singhal, Maneesh; Mathur, Purva
Background: Maxillofacial trauma is an apt example of a difficult airway. The anesthesiologist faces challenges in their management at every step from airway access to maintenance of anesthesia and extubation and postoperative care. Methods: A retrospective study was done of 288 patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial trauma over a period of five years. Demographic data, detailed airway assessment and the method of airway access were noted. Trauma scores, mechanism of injury, duration o...
The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database
Kipling, Richard P.; Bannink, André; Bellocchi, Gianni; Dalgaard, Tommy; Naomi J Fox; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Kjeldsen, Chris; Lacetera, Nicola; Sinabell, Franz; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Oijen, Marcel van; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Nigel D Scollan
Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while intensification of production has driven biodiversity and nutrient loss, and soil degradation. Modeling can offer insights into the complexity underlying the relationshi...
Howley, Aimee; Howley, Craig B.; Rhodes, Megan Eliason; Yahn, Jacqueline J.
The school district is the fundamental administrative unit of schooling in the United States and the superintendent the lead official. The nature and the challenges of this position, however, vary across the landscape. Because most superintendents lead rural districts, the challenges facing those districts are the ones that typically bedevil the…
Speer, Johanna; Vásquez, William F.
The purpose of the research summarized in this paper is to provide policy-relevant knowledge on the governance of rural services in Guatemala and thus to contribute to improving the provision of services that are essential for agricultural and rural development. Based on quantitative and qualitative primary data, we examine how services are actually provided today and how community preferences and participation affect service provision in rural Guatemala. Our main finding is that the provisio...
Denvil, Sébastien; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Salas, David; Meurdesoif, Yann; Valcke, Sophie; Caubel, Arnaud; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Servonnat, Jérôme; Sénési, Stéphane; Derouillat, Julien; Voury, Pascal
The presentation will introduce a french national project : CONVERGENCE that has been funded for four years. This project will tackle big data and computational challenges faced by climate modeling community in HPC context. Model simulations are central to the study of complex mechanisms and feedbacks in the climate system and to provide estimates of future and past climate changes. Recent trends in climate modelling are to add more physical components in the modelled system, increasing the resolution of each individual component and the more systematic use of large suites of simulations to address many scientific questions. Climate simulations may therefore differ in their initial state, parameter values, representation of physical processes, spatial resolution, model complexity, and degree of realism or degree of idealisation. In addition, there is a strong need for evaluating, improving and monitoring the performance of climate models using a large ensemble of diagnostics and better integration of model outputs and observational data. High performance computing is currently reaching the exascale and has the potential to produce this exponential increase of size and numbers of simulations. However, post-processing, analysis, and exploration of the generated data have stalled and there is a strong need for new tools to cope with the growing size and complexity of the underlying simulations and datasets. Exascale simulations require new scalable software tools to generate, manage and mine those simulations ,and data to extract the relevant information and to take the correct decision. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a platform capable of running large ensembles of simulations with a suite of models, to handle the complex and voluminous datasets generated, to facilitate the evaluation and validation of the models and the use of higher resolution models. We propose to gather interdisciplinary skills to design, using a component-based approach, a
Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.
Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…
Hardre, Patricia L.
Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning…
O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. PMID:26900774
The paper explores the role of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and the challenges it has faced as the primary voice for Australian rural educators. The paper charts the origins of SPERA, and the contributions of key people involved in its foundation. The paper then examines the advocacy and impact of SPERA…
Morrison, Tracy; Brown, James; Bryant, Melanie; Nestel, Debra
Background General practices vary in the provision of training and education. Some practices have training as a major focus with the presence of multi-level learners and others host single learner groups or none at all. This study investigates the educational benefits and challenges associated with ‘multi-level learner’ practices. Methods This paper comprised three case studies of rural general practices with multiple levels of learners. Qualitative data were collected from 29 interviews with...
Rass, Ruwaida Abu
This study aimed to investigate problems facing Palestinian Arab students from Israel who are majoring in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in developing well-written paragraphs in English. They usually transfer the stylistic features of their first language, Arabic to the target language, English. For example, they tend to write long…
Mobegi, Florence Osiri; Ondigi, Benjamin A.
Since independence, the Kenyan government has demonstrated its commitment to the provision of quality secondary school education through allocation of financial resources, provision of trained teachers and establishment of quality assurance department. However, despite the substantial allocation of resources, secondary schools still face major…
Taking as its starting point that the adjective international is an inadequate, but unavoidable, label to describe the content of a contemporary international education, this article sets out to explore some of the issues facing international education in a post-international world. It draws mainly on writings in French as a deliberate…
Within sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS is becoming a greater threat to rural communities due to the high numbers of urban dwellers and migrant labourers who return to their rural villages when they fall ill and due to the lack of information and health services. Previous studies have found a reduced rate of infection among people who have high…
Full Text Available Paper discusses about the main changes of the EU Rural Development policy and highlights the open issues that refer to its financing and implementation in the period 2007-2013. The paper presents the implications of the recent EU enlargement for implementation of rural development policy in countries aspiring for EU membership.
Wijaya, Ni Made Sofia
At present there are significant challenges in developing tourism in rural areas related to degradation problems. The challenging are common problems such as decline in the economic infrastructure, aging society and depopulation. Despite this, there are hopes for the potential of Yamashiro District, which faces similar problems in developing rural tourism. Rural tourism was first positioned as an important measure to realize positive changes in depopulated farm villages with the initiative of...
This article explores the academic and social challenges experienced by students from the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (glbt) community on campus at a South African university. A qualitative study to investigate some of these academic and social challenges experienced by glbt students at a university campus was conducted. The population of the study was all students from glbt community on campus and a purposive sample of twelve (12) respondents was constituted and a s...
Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter
This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....
The present movement toward globalisation has posed a tremendous challenge to traditional international law and, in fact, its various branches including international economic law. The challenge is both horizontal and vertical. It is horizontal in the sense that various new actors such as multinationals, civil society and other non-state actors are increasingly playing an important role in international life and society which is not recognized in traditional international law. (Jessica T Matt...
Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment) and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it int...
Continuing medical education is one of the many challenges facing rural family physicians. In addition to the education needed for office practice, rural family physicians must develop and maintain a special knowledge base and technical skills applicable to their major hospital roles. This study of full-time rural family physicians' CME patterns and preferences illustrates how useful and enjoyable they find various CME options.
Over the past 16 years, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety, for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. This series was initiated in 1991 with the International Conference on the Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future. The conference marked the beginning of a global safety regime based on international conventions and legal instruments that was supported by a set of nuclear and radiation safety standards and related review services. The very successful Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) resulted from this effort and now has 56 Contracting Parties. Currently, regulatory authorities and the nuclear industry are facing significant new challenges, which require new strategies and oversight. The key challenges are the result of the following factors: Renewed global interest in the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation and, consequently, its likely expansion; - Increased threats to the security of nuclear installations and the need to link closely security and safety issues and response capabilities; - Increased global use of radioactive materials and the need to ensure their safety and security, similar to the issues faced with the use of nuclear energy; - New safety and security challenges from existing nuclear facilities associated with ageing and extensions of their operating lifetimes. To address these challenges, the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Facing Safety and Security Challenges, was held in Moscow, Russian Federation, from 27 February to 3 March 2006. The IAEA invited global leaders to this conference, including both government regulators and industry representatives, to share their perspectives and experience in addressing these challenges that transcend national boundaries. Participants were asked to make their contributions in the context of global safety and security standards and methods by which
Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.
Full Text Available In 2004 Poland entered the EU. This paper investigates the performance of the Polish banking industry over the period 1999–2004, by looking specifically at its comparative efficiency in relation to one of the largest banking sectors in the EU namely, that of the UK. Based on a range of efficiency measures, the empirical results reveal a surprising degree of relative efficiency in the Polish banking industry, no doubt reflecting the substantial economic changes introduced in Poland since 1989. The findings suggest that the Polish banking sector should be able to withstand the new competitive pressures that it faces following entry into the banking sector of the EU.
One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact ...
Durazo, Eva; Jones, Melissa; Wallace, Steven; Van Arsdale, Jessica; Aydin, May; Stewart, Connie
Despite living in the countryside where open space is plentiful and there is often significant agricultural production, rural older adults have higher rates of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and food insecurity than older adults living in suburban areas. All three conditions are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and repeated falls. This policy brief examines the health of rural elders and, by contrast, their urban counterparts, and finds that both groups lmost one in five Cali...
Critical choices must now be made if growth is to be sustained. Significant potential exists for future growth, but bringing out this potential poses a major challenge for government policy. Agricultural strategy must shift its focus towards support for continuous productivity growth by peasant farms in a conducive marketing environment. Key priorities include completion of land reforms (e...
After Hong Kong returned to China in 1997, those in the Chinese migrant community in the UK who anticipated returning to China saw the significant benefits of learning Mandarin. The challenges are not only related to the social and cultural differences between the Cantonese and Mandarin migrant groups, but also the intrinsic linguistic differences…
Jang, Yoo Jin; Woo, Hongryun; Henfield, Malik S.
Using consensual qualitative research methodology, this study examines the challenges doctoral-level international students encountered in counselor education programs, during supervisor training, specifically. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants and revealed a variety of difficulties. Despite the wide variability in…
As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…
Fernandez Laris, Georgette A; Charles S. Gascon
Springfield, Mo., a city with a common name, has an economy with familiar successes and challenges. The health care sector is booming, and the cost of living is somewhat low, as are wages. But labor productivity seems to be subpar, and the poverty rate is above average.
This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through…
Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.
Unemployment rates continued to fall slowly as the economy gains strength following the longest recession in over half a century. This report addressed the challenges of the community colleges attempting to reach the unemployed and underemployed. Responses from a survey conducted by the Education Policy Center at the University of Alabama, were…
Verma, Roshan K.; Sourabha Kumar Patro; Shivaprakash, M R; Debajyoti Chaterjee; Panda, Naresh K.
Cutaneous mycoses are common in immune compromised individuals but in immune competent individuals these become a diagnostic challenge due to the rarity of the incidence and dubious clinical picture. We present three cases of cutaneous mycoses in immune competent adults. Case 1: 62 year old immune competent male presented with right sided cheek swelling with induration. Malignancy was considered and a biopsy was done which showed entomophthoromycosis. Case 2: 77 year old immune competen...
Hagen, Øyvind; Larssæther, Stig
Commercial organisations are the foundation walls of our modern economy. More than 200 years of industrial activity and the recent trend of globalisation have made them the most powerful institutions when it comes to resources, knowledge and ability to influence their surroundings. In spite of their strong position, business is not doing enough to meet the environmental challenge. The suggested ‘solution’ of eco-efficiency initiatives is a product of the same thinking that has created the pro...
Halimeh Khatoon Habiba; Farshad Gouranourimi
Physician job satisfaction is essential for ensuring the quality of health care services. It is vital to address physicians' problems and try to redesign their working patterns as it is closely associated with patients and health care systems as a whole. However it has been reported in related studies that physician especially female physicians encounter different challenges. Hence, this study is aimed at exploring the factors relating to female physician problems and providing some solutions...
Greco, Francesco Antonio; Coletti, Alice; Camaioni, Emidio; Carotti, Andrea; Marinozzi, Maura; Gioiello, Antimo; Macchiarulo, Antonio
Inhibition of IDO1 is a strategy pursued to develop novel therapeutic treatments for cancer. Recent years have witnessed growing evidence that the enzyme plays a pivotal role in viral, bacterial and fungal infections. These studies have underscored the Janus-faced nature of IDO1 in the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and commensalism. Starting with an outlook on the advances in the structural features of IDO1, herein we report recent findings that pinpoint the involvement of IDO1 in infectious diseases. Then, we present an overview of IDO1 inhibitors that have been enrolled in clinical trials as well as other distinct modulators of the enzyme that may enable further investigations of IDO1 and its role in infectious disease. PMID:26692277
Qoricho, Yonas Tafesse
This thesis dealt with the land rights of women in rural areas of Wolaita Zone, southwestern Ethiopia by taking the case of rural women in Soddo Zuria District. Three questions were thus posed: How do the current modern rural land law and the Wolaita traditional/customary law ascertain the land rights of rural women in SZD? What kind of land rights do rural women enjoy in practice in SZD? What challenges are faced while implementing the land rights of rural women in the district? In order to ...
Bamidele A. OJO
Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.
Reimers, Jeffrey R; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bruce, Douglas; Coker, David F; Frankcombe, Terry J; Hashimoto, Hideki; Hauer, Jürgen; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Kramer, Tobias; Linnanto, Juha; Mamedov, Fikret; Müh, Frank; Rätsep, Margus; Renger, Thomas; Styring, Stenbjörn; Wan, Jian; Wang, Zhuan; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; Weng, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Chunhong; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Freiberg, Arvi; Krausz, Elmars
While the majority of the photochemical states and pathways related to the biological capture of solar energy are now well understood and provide paradigms for artificial device design, additional low-energy states have been discovered in many systems with obscure origins and significance. However, as low-energy states are naively expected to be critical to function, these observations pose important challenges. A review of known properties of low energy states covering eight photochemical systems, and options for their interpretation, are presented. A concerted experimental and theoretical research strategy is suggested and outlined, this being aimed at providing a fully comprehensive understanding. PMID:27372198
Full Text Available A brief review of the main empirical research about Latin-American rurality in the early twenty-first century, show us at least four different ways of transformation at Latin American Rural Territories: agribusiness headed process, family farming headed process, several diversification of activities and incomes linked by the new quality of relations between country and urban places, the kind of processes experienced by those territories where peasants or ethnical minorities prevail (native american or afro descendents as an example.The main objective is to identify the theoretical background’s that may help us explaining such processes, while implies a re-construction booth of the rural sociologist space dimension’s and the interdisciplinary focus.
Dr. Nadeem Ahmad
Full Text Available The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0% were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%. Down’s syndrome (17.23% was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%. In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes were found in 29.31% children. For mentally challenged children better quality of life should be provided by disability limitation and suitable rehabilitation.
Ruston, Annmarie; Shortall, Orla; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet
The farm animal veterinary profession in the UK has faced a number of challenges in recent decades related to the withdrawal of government funding and a contraction of the agricultural sector. They have come under pressure to respond by developing skills and focusing on disease prevention advisory services. However, this puts veterinarians in competition with other providers of these services, and moves in this direction have only been partial. Failure to respond to these challenges puts the veterinary profession at risk of de-professionalisation-a loss of their monopoly over knowledge, an erosion of client beliefs in their service ethos and a loss of work autonomy. This paper explores how farm animal veterinarians in England perceive these challenges and are responding to them. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices. Veterinarians were chosen from high, medium and low density cattle farming regions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes identified through the constant comparison method. The majority of respondents recognised the challenges facing the veterinary profession. Most believed their role had changed, moving towards that of a disease prevention adviser who was part of the farm management team. In terms of maintaining and redefining their professional status, farm animal veterinarians do have a defined body of knowledge and the ability to develop trusting relationships with clients, which enhances their competitiveness. However, while they recognise the changes and challenges, moves towards a disease prevention advisory model have only been partial. There seem to be little effort towards using Farm accreditation status or other strategies to promote their services. They do not appear to be finding effective strategies for putting their knowledge on disease prevention into practice. Disease prevention appears to be delivered on farm on an ad
Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.
The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.
Full Text Available This article reports on a 2008 study of non-indigenous principals working in indigenous Yukon contexts. It examines the policy contexts in which Yukon principals are embedded, giving attention to how they address the tensions that exist as a result of operating at the intersections of multiple policy levels. The application of critical ethnography generates the opportunity to reveal and examine the tensions, distinctions, and contradictions underpinning their practice. The principals identify fragmented curricular policy; the competition between instructional time, mandated external curricula, and locally developed curricula; and field trip and hiring policies as being problematic. The principals also describe how they cope with the challenges and tensions that arise as a result of being responsible and accountable to balance competing educational ends, to the satisfaction of multiple external levels of control. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the deployment of externally mandated curricula in the Yukon.
James J.F. Forest
Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges
Lefèvre, Åsa; Pia, Lundqvist; Eva, Drevenhorn; Inger, Hallström
The purpose of this study was to describe child health centre (CHC) nurses' views of managing parental groups during early childhood. All 311 CHC nurses working within the Swedish CHC system in one county were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire. Findings showed that although the CHC nurses were experienced, several found group leadership challenging and difficult. The need for specialized groups for young parents, single parents and parents whose first language was not Swedish was identified by 57% of the nurses. The CHC nurses found the participation of fathers in their parental groups to be low (an estimate of 10-20%), and 30% of the nurses made special efforts to make the fathers participate. Education in group dynamics and group leadership can strengthen CHC nurses in managing parental groups. It is recommended that specialized parental groups are organized by a few family centres so CHC nurses can develop their skill in managing such groups. PMID:24298189
Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi-slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)
Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi -slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)
Vītola, A; Baltiņa, I.
Rural territories face significant challenges in a globalised world as the number of jobs in traditional rural sectors are decreasing. At the same time, information and communication technologies as well as the changes in professional duties allow the rural community to participate in the knowledge economy distantly. In order to evaluate the potential of telework 1335 inhabitants (0.07% of the population) were surveyed in Latvia. A detailed analysis was conducted in two rural municipalities (...
In the frame of EU rural policy, always more oriented towards environmental concerns and green livelihoods, Romania stands out for the predominance of rural areas and high nature value farming. The country has to face the challenge of joining the modernization process of rural farming systems with the valorization of local assets. Tourism has emerged as one of the main drivers of change and contributors for a sustainable exploitation of local resources. Rural tourism (RT) can foster the en...
National Univ. Continuing Education Association, Washington, DC.
The report presents summaries of presentations given at a December 1986 University Forum in which leaders from government, higher education, and the private sector examined trends behind the current decline in the rural economy and identified areas offering potential for revitalization. An introductory paper by William H. Gray is titled,…
American Youth Policy Forum, 2010
This brief summarizes the lessons learned during a February 2010 AYPF study mission to North Carolina that examined how rural education systems are providing high quality instruction and improving the readiness of young people for life beyond high school. Participants learned about how federal and state policies and funding streams affect rural…
Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed
The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…
Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan
The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…
Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil; Qi, Jiaguo
foci emerged in discussions within the NEESPI community during the past 20 months. Presentation will provide justification of these foci and approach examples addressing them. The societal challenges, particularly the socio-economic challenges are the top priority in most of them. Throughout the NEESP Initiative duration, support for it studies has been provided by different national and international Agencies of the United States (in particular, the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program), the Russian Federation (in particular, the Ministry of Education and Science, e.g., mega-grant 14.B25.31.0026), European Union, Japan, and China. After the NEFI White Paper release, we anticipate a similar kind of support for this new Initiative.
When distance learning supported by digital technologies was introduced in firefighter training in Sweden some years ago, training exercise instructors accustomed to face-to-face teaching in the field had to adapt their professional roles to an electronic landscape with a number of new opportunities and constraints. Based on activity theory and…
Yantzi, Nicole M; Rosenberg, Mark W; McKeever, Patricia
In most industrialised countries, the care needs of those who are sick, disabled and frail are increasingly met in peoples' homes. One of the implications of this shift in the site of care is that individuals with long-term care needs and their family care providers experience social and spatial isolation. Many are housebound and most face considerable challenges in getting out of the house. This paper illuminates these challenges as they are experienced by mothers of children with long-term care needs, and the resulting isolation and disconnection that they experience. Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted in two regions of Ontario, Canada. Grounded theory informed the analysis of the mothers' accounts of their experiences of getting out of the house. The present findings are derived from a larger investigation of the meanings and experiences of the home as a place of caring for families with children who have long-term care needs. Secondary analysis of the data found that three main challenges restricted the mothers' abilities to leave their houses. Mothers experienced difficulties getting out of the house when they attempted to leave with the child, and when the child was left with an alternative care provider. Physical challenges were associated with the work and planning required in moving the child's equipment and supplies, meticulous planning of the outing within the daily schedule, and navigating barriers in the built and natural environments. Social challenges reflected the lack of people within the mothers' social network of family and friends who have the knowledge and expertise to care for the child. Service challenges resulted from the gaps between the policies and practices of paid respite, and the conditions that must be satisfied in order for mothers to be able and/or willing to leave the house. The authors also examined the reasons why some of the mothers worked from home, and the strategies that they used to get out of the house for
Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.
Zhi-Jian; Lu; Su-Jun; Deng; Da-Gang; Huang; Yun; He; Ming; Lei; Li; Zhou; Pei; Jin
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have become an important class of modern medicines.The established technologies for therapeutic antibody discovery such as humanization of mouse antibodies,phage display of human antibody libraries and transgenic animals harboring human IgG genes have been practiced successfully so far,and many incremental improvements are being made constantly.These methodologies are responsible for currently marketed therapeutic antibodies and for the biopharma industry pipeline which are concentrated on only a few dozen targets.A key challenge for wider application of biotherapeutic approaches is the paucity of truly validated targets for biotherapeutic intervention.The efforts to expand the target space include taking the pathway approach to study the disease correlation.Since many new targets are multi-spanning and multimeric membrane proteins there is a need to develop more effective methods to generate antibodies against these difficult targets.The pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic antibodies are an active area for study concentrating on biophysical characteristics such as thermal stability and aggregation propensity.The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics in humans is a very complex issue and there are no truly predictive animal models to rely on.The in silico and T-cell response approaches identify the potential for immunogenicity;however,one needs contingency plans for emergence of antiproduct antibody response for clinical trials.
Issues relating to energy are among the most important and difficult challenge s confronting the world today. Providing sufficient energy to meet the requirements of a growing world population with rising living standards will require major advances in energy supply and efficiency. Given the dynamic and unpredictable form of supply and demand for energy in a global and globalized context, creating long - term policies as well as regional interior is vital to ensure energy security. Europe is emerging from a deep financial and economic crisis and it is widely agreed that stronger European industrial competitiveness is vital as a driver for economic growth and job creation. In this context, the European Union, - as a main global actor - throughout the reform of the energy sector, wants to be on the cutting edge in the use of new technologies and the creation of a single energy market , not only inside the twenty eight member countries . Balkan countries have an important role in this process, which takes place inside the Energy Community. In these conditions, this article aims to analyse the recent transformation on European Union energy policy and provide an analysis of the commitments undertaken by Albania as a member of the Energy Community. Key words : energy, global context, long-term policies, European Union energy, Energy Community, Albania energy sector
Full Text Available Advances in medicine have increased the life expectancy resulting in an increase in the geriatric population all over the world, and their proportion will only continue to rise in the coming years. It is known that the elderly bear a significant burden of morbidity, which is why health systems globally spearheaded by the WHO are waking up to the need for better geriatric health services. This includes India, whose health system continues to grapple with the health challenges of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. This article enumerates the various government policies and programs, constitutional and legal provisions available for the care of the elderly, and concludes that they are grossly inadequate to deal with the various physical, psychological, and emotional needs of the aging population. Mainstreaming of geriatric health to address the health needs of the elderly at all levels of health care, both in the public and the private sectors, giving due importance to multidimensional rehabilitative services and terminal care, involving NGOs and voluntary organizations, and stepping up social security in old age are the recommended measures for improving geriatric health in India.
Full Text Available Mary Ellen Pavone,1 Brianna M Lyttle2 1Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition characterized by specific histological, molecular, and clinical findings. It affects 5%–10% of premenopausal women, is a cause of infertility, and has been implicated as a precursor for certain types of ovarian cancer. Advances in technology, primarily the ability for whole genome sequencing, have led to the discovery of new mutations and a better understanding of the function of previously identified genes and pathways associated with endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs that include PTEN, CTNNB1 (β-catenin, KRAS, microsatellite instability, ARID1A, and the unique role of inflammation in the development of EAOC. Clinically, EAOCs are associated with a younger age at diagnosis, lower stage and grade of tumor, and are more likely to occur in premenopausal women when compared with other ovarian cancers. A shift from screening strategies adopted to prevent EAOCs has resulted in new recommendations for clinical practice by national and international governing bodies. In this paper, we review the common histologic and molecular characteristics of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, risks associated with EAOCs, clinical challenges and give recommendations for providers. Keywords: clinical, molecular, pathways, inflammation, premenopausal
Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.A.
The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Peng, Wei; Liu, Shiyang; Nielsen, Chris P.; Wang, Haikun
In the 21st Conference of the Parties held in Paris in December 2015, China pledged to peak its carbon emissions and increase non-fossil energy to 20% by 2030 or earlier. Expanding renewable capacity, especially wind power, is a central strategy to achieve these climate goals. Despite greater capacity for wind installation in China compared to the US (145.1 versus 75.0 GW), less wind electricity is generated in China (186.3 versus 190.9 TWh). Here, we quantify the relative importance of the key factors accounting for the unsatisfactory performance of Chinese wind farms. Different from the results in earlier qualitative studies, we find that the difference in wind resources explains only a small fraction of the present China‑US difference in wind power output (‑17.9% in 2012); the curtailment of wind power, differences in turbine quality, and delayed connection to the grid are identified as the three primary factors (respectively ‑49.3%, ‑50.2%, and ‑50.3% in 2012). Improvements in both technology choices and the policy environment are critical in addressing these challenges.
Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen
The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110
Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca
Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The
Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders
Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... concrete suggestions for network activities had been made, but overall the development is at an early stage....
Kikuchi, R. K.; Elliff, C. I.
to increase resilience and guarantee the adaptation of this ecosystem to climate change. Thus, considering that the majority of the marine ecosystem services we benefit from are provided from coastal habitats, of which coral reefs play an important role, the challenge at hand is in fact the interaction between local factors and climate change
Pinto, Ana Sofia Rodrigues
Tese de mestrado, Psicologia (Secção de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde, Núcleo de Psicologia Clínica Dinâmica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia, 2015 A presente investigação refere-se ao estudo da personalidade, resiliência e atitudes face ao envelhecimento, numa amostra de indivíduos idosos. Os objetivos são: (1) analisar a influência do meio ecológico na resiliência e nas atitudes face ao envelhecimento; (2) analisar a relação da personalidade com a resiliência e ...
This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.
Singh, Nandita; Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun
Women are universally recognized as domestic water managers, concerned with both domestic water provision and use. This multi-facetted role of women, particularly in the rural setting, has been a cause of significant global concern, seen as constrained by factors like inaccessibility and non-reliability of water sources, arising primarily from problems with water quantity and quality. Assuming the universality of these constraints, the strategic water related need of women has been identified...
Since the colonial era, the expansion of the Senegalese economy was greatly sustained by the agricultural sector in which more than three-fourths of the total population were involved. A 2.3 percent average annual growth of total production during the sixties matched the speed at which the agricultural population was growing and the rural economy was engaged in a kind of equilibrium path. During the late sixties and early seventies, the situation began to change with an agricultural productio...
Mridha, Mannan; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik; et al, ...
AbstractInadequate educational resources,insufficient and unqualified teachers and health care providers,and lack of community involvement, are some of the causes that contribute to the oor state of education and health in rural Bangladesh. This is although, it is well known that,access to quality education and scientific knowledge is essential for creating economic rowth and sustainable human development, including poverty alleviation and improvement of human health. In all countries and in ...
Jackson, Vanessa P.; Wesley, Scarlett C.
The purpose of this paper is to describe an educational partnership experience between rural retailers and graduate students in a Merchandising, Apparel and Textiles program. Students were afforded an opportunity to work with small business owners in rural communities, giving them real world exposure to the actual challenges being faced by…
Heflinger, Craig Anne; Hoffman, Cheri
Context: All youth, especially those with serious emotional disturbances (SED), face challenges as they transition to adulthood. Little is known about rural youth at risk for transition problems. Purpose: To examine transition-age youth who use publicly funded services in rural and urban/suburban locations in Tennessee in order to describe youth…
Background: Health care givers, particularly midwives, perinatal and neonatal nurses, face ethical issues possibly because of their interactions with patients and clients in the reproductive age groups. These issues are multiple and quite complex. Aim: To identify the ethical issues related to maternal and child care, the challenges faced by the nurses and to profer strategies for decision making. Methods: This is a literature review on ethical issues in maternal and child heal...
Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS) is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. A...
Serrão, José Vicente; Freire, Dulce; Fernández Prieto, Lourenzo; Santos, Rui
Nos últimos anos, a História Rural tem vindo a abandonar quer o seu foco analítico predominantemente nacional e local, quer uma perspectiva interpretativa demasiado centrada na Europa e no Ocidente. É uma evolução muito positiva, que nós pretendemos reforçar com este congresso, ao escolhermos como temática central a relação entre os velhos e os novos mundos. Essa relação entre civilizações e culturas de diferentes partes do globo tem produzido ao longo dos últimos 500 anos múltiplos efeito...
Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
El primer objetivo de esta tesis es la identificación y análisis de aspectos clave para la gobernanza de los servicios de agua rural en países que adolecen de bajos niveles de cobertura, altos índices de pobreza, se encuentran en procesos de descentralización, reciben un importante apoyo de donantes internacionales. Esta situación es común para muchos países de África Sub-sahariana. Por ello, se eligió Tanzania como objeto de estudio. El segundo objetivo de esta tesis ha sido el e...
Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) continues to remain high in our country without showing any declining trend over a period of two decades. The proportions of maternal deaths contributed by direct obstetric causes have also remained more or less the same in rural areas. There is a strong need to improve coverage of antenatal care, promote institutional deliveries and provide emergency obstetric care. Delays occur in seeking care for obstetric complications and levels of 'met obstetric need' continue to be low in many parts of the country. Most of the First Referral Units (FRUs) and CHCs function at sub-optimal level in the country. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) offers institutional mechanism and strategic options to reduce high MMR. 'Janani Suraksha Yojna', strengthening of CHCs (as per Indian Public Health standards) to offer 24 hours quality services including that of anesthetists and Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) are important proposals in this regard. District Health Mission can play an important role in monitoring maternal deaths occurring in hospitals or in community and thus create a social momentum to prevent and reduce maternal deaths. NRHM, however, depends largely on Panchayati Raj Institutions for effective implementation of proposed interventions and utilization of resources. In most parts of our country, State Governments have not empowered PRIs with real devolution of power. Therefore, much needs to be done locally to build the capacity of PRIs and develop state-specific guidelines in operational terms to implement interventions under NRHM for reducing maternal mortality ratio. PMID:16468281
Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto
Optics is the branch of physics that deals with visible light and other electromagnetic waves. Light has a “dual personality” since it sometimes behaves like a wave and other times like corpuscles or discrete packets of energy called photons. This is known as its “wave-corpuscle duality”. Just as the term electronics was derived from electron, in recent years the term Photonics has been coined from photon. Although the terms optics and photonics are often used indiscriminately, the latter is ...
The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) played an important role in setting up of nuclear power plants (two) and development of fuel technology. However, with no current plans for expansion of this programme, the Institute is looking mainly into multi-cycle fuel management and life extension issues. The Institute focuses on programmes related to radioisotope and radiation applications and on the use of nuclear technologies for non-nuclear applications. The ININ is the major provider of radioisotopes for medical uses. It also promotes and uses nuclear analytical techniques for addressing a variety of problems. In non-nuclear areas some R and D examples include: the use of thermal plasma for hazardous waste incineration, biodegradation of polymers and development of separation techniques for treating industrial effluents. For preservation of knowledge, the Institute has instituted PhD. programmes in materials science, medical physics and nuclear science in collaboration with a university. (author)
The guitar is an extremely versatile instrument. It can produce complex chords and arpeggiated textures as readily as single-note melodies. In the twentieth century alone, it has appeared in a wide range of genres; classical, jazz, blues, rock, and bossa nova compose a partial list. The guitar is also a difficult instrument. Inconsistencies across…
India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raisedthe urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradationof the environmel condition. For India besides landand soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibilityof water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestionare the major environmental issues of priority. Theindustries that generate huge quantities ofwaste are thermal power station, Iron and SteelPlants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.
@@ INTRODUCTION India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raised the urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradation of the environmel condition. For India besides land and soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibility of water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestion are the major environmental issues of priority. The industries that generate huge quantities of waste are thermal power station, Iron and Steel Plants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.
ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...
Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling
Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Havin...
Ebata, Ayako; Velasco, Pamela; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
While smallholder market participation is seen as a catalyst for poverty alleviation, farmers in rural areas face a number of challenges in doing so. One of the most important factors is considered transaction costs related to transportation. Our study quantifies the benefits associated with improvement of rural road infrastructure by scrutinizing farm-gate prices of beans in rural Nicaragua. We find that the longer the distance and traveling time are to major commercial centers from farming ...
Full Text Available Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. AKMCS was established in 1992 to provide emergency and common elective surgical care. It has strengthened the primary health service through training, education and referral mechanism. It also provided an opportunity for family physicians to be trained in common surgical operations with special emphasis on emergency obstetric care. In addition it offers elective rotations for the residents and medical students to see the spectrum of diseases and to understand the concept of optimal care with limited resources. Methods and Results: The clinical data was collected prospectively using international classification of diseases ICD -9 coding and the database was developed on a desktop computer. Information about the operative procedures and outcome was separately collected on an Excel worksheet. The data from January 1998 to December 2001 were retrieved and descriptive analysis was done on epi info-6. Thirty-one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two patients were seen during this period, 53% were medical, 24% surgical, 16% obstetric and 7% with psychiatric illness. Out of 1990 surgical operations 32% were general surgery, 31% orthopedic, 21% pediatric, 12% obstetric and 4% urological cases; 42% of operations were done under general anesthesia, 22% spinal, 9% intravenous (IV ketamine, 6% IV sedation and 21% under local anesthesia. Six hundred and sixty-two were done in the main operation room including general surgery 337, obstetric 132, urological 67, pediatric 66
Maxwell D. Murphy
Full Text Available Current research in brain computer interface (BCI technology is advancing beyond preclinical studies, with trials beginning in human patients. To date, these trials have been carried out with several different types of recording interfaces. The success of these devices has varied widely, but different factors such as the level of invasiveness, timescale of recorded information, and ability to maintain stable functionality of the device over a long period of time all must be considered in addition to accuracy in decoding intent when assessing the most practical type of device moving forward. Here, we discuss various approaches to BCIs, distinguishing between devices focusing on control of operations extrinsic to the subject (e.g., prosthetic limbs, computer cursors and those focusing on control of operations intrinsic to the brain (e.g. using stimulation or external feedback, including closed-loop or adaptive devices. In this discussion, we consider the current challenges facing the translation of various types of BCI technology to eventual human application.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children remains an uphill task for many health workers in HIV-endemic countries, including Uganda. We conducted a descriptive study to explore the challenges of providing HIV counselling and testing services to children in Uganda. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in the districts of Kampala and Kabarole in Uganda. The data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions with health workers who are involved in the care of HIV-positive children. Key informant interviews were conducted with the administrators of the 10 study healthcare institutions. Quantitative data were summarized using frequency tables, while qualitative data were analyzed using the content thematic approach. Results Counselling children was reported to be a difficult exercise due to some children being unable to express themselves, being dependent on adults for their care, being fearful, and requiring more time to open up during counselling. This was compounded by some caretakers' unwillingness and difficulty to disclose the HIV status of their children. Other issues about the caretakers were: lack of consistency in caretakers; old age; sickness; and poverty. Health workers mentioned the following as some of the challenges they face in the delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children: lack of counselling skills; failure to cope with the knowledge demand; difficulty to facilitate disclosure; heavy work load; and lack of other support services. Institutions were found to be constrained by limited space and lack of antiretrovirals for children. Conclusions The major challenges in the delivery of paediatric HIV services were related to the knowledge gap in paediatric HIV and the lack of counselling skills, as well as health system-related constraints. There is a need to train health workers in child-counselling skills, especially in the
Louw, Arnt Vestergaard
The findings of the expert group detail the role of youth work and its specific contribution to addressing the challenges young people face, in particular the transition from education to employment. In this context, youth work is defined as 'actions directed towards young people regarding...
Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su
Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…
Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.
This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…
Fonseca, Fernando Pereira da; Ramos, Rui A. R.
Nowadays in Portugal some rural areas are facing the challenges resulting from the reform of traditional economic activities and new markets’ characteristics. These challenges promote new local development policies that result in mobilising local resources and in expanding rural activities. In this context, tourism is considered, in many cases, a key sector for the economic growth of these territories. In rural areas tourism can include different types of tourist activiti...
Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim
Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus
This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)
Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO2) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.
To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on
Quintero Corzo Josefina
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Jones, Ian; López-Carr, David; Dalal, Pamela
The paper focuses on the need to address territorial inequalities in American healthcare services. It shows how much the situation has become critical in the United States. It discusses to what extent telemedicine is a sustainable option to reduce the negative consequences of the economic, professional and physical barriers to care in rural areas. As far as healthcare is concerned, rural and urban environments in the United States do not have to face the same barriers and challenges. The arti...
30 years of rapid economic development in China has brought about prosperity as well as enlarged disparity, among which is the dramatic cleavage between rural and urban, a challenge that many developing countries have to face. In order to achieve a more balanced and integrated development between rural an urban, since late 2008, the Chengdu Municipality has allocated budget for village level public services projects, and entitle local villagers the right to decide, monitor evaluate the projec...
Haruna Mohammed Aliero
Full Text Available Unemployment and poverty are endemic among Nigerian youth in spite of numerousapproaches to curtail the menace Access to credit is critical to enable the poor totransform their production systems and thus exit poverty. It is a well known fact that anefficient financial sector that responds to the needs of the private sector increasesinvestment, enhances economic growth, and creates job opportunities which is one of themajor challenges for developing economies. This paper examines the role of creditdeepening on youth empowerment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The approach of thepaper is qualitative and uses content analysis; literature was reviewed and thereafterconclusion was drawn based on the literature weight. It is however important to note thateconomic empowerment through accessibility to credit could be achieved if and only iffactors like collateral, interest rate, transaction cost and financial literacy, among othersthat pose challenges in accessing credit are remedied Specifically we recommend Indianmodel (Bharatia Yuva Shakti.
Amundsveen, Roar; Solvoll, Gisle
This article reviews Norwegian farmers’ and companies’ strategies and experience with the use of direct distribution and e-commerce when selling agriculture products. Based on the opportunities and pitfalls resulting from the use of Internet and e-commerce in consumer marketing, the article discusses the commercial possibilities emerging from direct distribution of agricultural products to end-consumers. The focus on direct distribution is brought up to date through studying the challenges fa...
Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev
The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it. PMID:21505773
This research study investigates some of the problems or challenges faced by SMMEs in the Mafikeng and Mmabatho area of the North West province. It strives to find out the extent as to which these problems occur and the impact they have on these businesses. The research focuses on two major problems considered to be hindering the growth of SMMEs in this area, namely the lack of entrepreneurial management and financial skills. The lack of these skills in the running of small bus...
Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke
higher among older people and people with no education beyond primary school. Conclusions: As the rural population in Denmark, as well as in other countries, tends to be older and less educated than the national average, the introduction of telehealth services faces special challenges in rural areas.......Context: Rural communities tend to be underserved by medical services. Low access to medical services affects quality of life and may also affect settlement decisions. The use of telehealth has often been mentioned as an alternative way to provide health care services in remote, underserved areas...... rural area. Method: A representative sample from the island of Ærø (n=1000) was selected and attitudes toward two telehealth applications were examined by structured telephone interviews regarding: 1) video consultation between patient and specialist, and 2) transfer of work tasks from local hospital to...
Eddy, Pamela L.
Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…
Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.
Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida
As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…
Bolsinger, V; Schmelcher, P
Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies finite range potentials are adequate resulting in the need of large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges which include also the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab-initio Multi-Layer Multi-Configurational Time- Dependent Hartee method for Bosons (ML-MCTDHB) [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134103 (2013)] can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps...
阐述了当前我国石化产业面临着原油低价格、市场化进程加快、科技革命兴起等新形势,同时也面临着市场竞争加剧、环保要求日益严格等严峻挑战,指出我国石化工业面对新的机遇和挑战,必须走创新驱动、转型升级、绿色发展之路.%The article expounds on the new situation facing China's petrochemical industry such as low oil price, continuously accelerated commercialization process and accelerated advances in science & technological revolution, as well as severe challenges facing it such as aggravated market competition and increasingly strict environmental protection requirements. It points out that, being faced with new chances and challenges, China's petrochemical industry must walk along the road of innovation drive, transformation and upgrading as well as green development.
Gilmar P Henz
morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo.In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF, Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1 incidence of pests and diseases; (2 strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3 packing costs; (4 need of intensive labor; and (5 high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY, ACADEMIC BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: This study focuses on the process of introducing the trendy GRI G4 sustainability reporting standard in a Finnish chemical company and how this is done. The purpose of this single case study is to deepen our understanding on the challenges and tensions that actors dealing with reporting must handle and turn to their advantages. What empowers them to tackle these challenges, who are they exactly, and how have they baked the MA-...
Based on a survey conducted by our research team at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the present paper reports on the development of China's new rural cooperative medical system set up in late 2002. The new rural cooperative medical system is different from the old system in that it is organized, guided and supported by the government but that rural residents voluntarily participate in its administration. It is financed by individuals,collectives and the government. The new cooperative medical system focuses on serious disease planning and mutual aid and fraternity between rural residents in health care. The results of our survey indicate that the new rural medical system has been successful up to now but that it also has some problems. China needs to pay more attention to overcoming the difficulties and challenges it faces in terms of future medical needs so that a mechanism for its sustainable development can be established.
Women have borne the brunt of the coalition government’s cut programme, facing reduced public services and diminished employment opportunities. And while the Occupy and other protests movements have highlighted inequality in the UK, they continue to be dominated by white men. Amanda Conroy argues that feminists should take a cue from the OccupyPatriarchy movement and turn their attention toward the values underpinning maledominated capitalism.
Full Text Available The township, as the most basic political system in China, a head of which is connected to a city, and the another head connected with the countryside, is the foundation of national economic and social development. In the face of strong intervention of economic globalization, the gradually weakening of local township government, and the increasingly tense of national finance, agricultural and rural development policy, which is presently ubiquitous in the rural area of China, stressed from top to bottom, expert guidance, government-dominated promoting, will face the serious challenges of rural governance under the background of globalization. The rural governance is that the national institutions and other authorities based on the village government provides public service activities to the village society, in order to maintain rural order, promote rural development, according to the laws, regulations, customs and traditions. And rural governance is the process of multi subjects’ collaborative management of rural village. Rural governance quality reflects the ability of government’s rural social mobilization and management, and relates to the stable development and prosperity of rural society. The current problems of township governance, mainly are not the “township”problems of its own, but the “institutions and mechanisms of government”problem. This article takes the Lin’an city of Zhejiang province as the research object, through the development of villages and towns work rules in the process of tracking, puts forward a good example of rural governance in china.
Full Text Available The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This paper aims at presenting the organizational and human resources challenges that have been faced by the library in this context, and those that are still awaiting us.The library has been facing these challenges through a variety of actions at different levels: organizational changes, training sessions, dedicated working group and task forces, analysis of skills and processes, etc. The results of these actions provide insights on how a national library is going digital, and what is needed to reach this longstanding goal.
The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)
Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed
This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...
This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.
Cook, Joanne; Liu, Jieyu
This article addresses debates on modernisation, ageing and intergenerational support in developing/emerging economies. By examining the impact of rural to urban migration on elder support in Chinese rural families, it examines how support is being renegotiated and the implications this holds for experiences of growing older. It is positioned critically within the Chinese rural families literature, both drawing on research that reveals the continued influence of familial culture (Silverstein 2009; Lin and Yi 2011, 2013; Guo, Chi and Silverstein 2011) while arguing that this research has under-examined the strain this places on rural families, emerging conflicts and the potentially negative implications for gender and ageing. A gendered intergenerational lens is adopted to examine how generations experience and interpret these changes in the form and delivery of intergenerational support. The article focuses on the experiences and lives of the older parents, and older women in particular, to address some of the oversights in existing literature. PMID:27131276
The study examined the challenges that pre-school teachers encounter in the implementation of the early childhood curriculum; exploring teaching methods employed by pre-schools teachers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. The study employed descriptive survey as the research design. A convenient sample of 62 pre-school teachers were selected from a…
Strauss, Pat; U-Mackey, Alice; Crothers, Charles
Our university hosts a diverse student cohort and, in certain discipline areas, international students and domestic students whose first language is not English outnumber their English-speaking peers. On the whole, group projects with these cohorts are challenging, and in particular, the allocation of marks is fraught with difficulty. Awarding the…
Erick P. Massami
Full Text Available Transportation is a key to the economy and social welfare; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. On the other hand, the increase of urban population, pollution and other negative impacts has directly affected the existing transportation system in Dar es Salaam City - Tanzania. As the transportation challenges cannot be overcome simultaneously due to the scarcity of financial resources, a decision support tool is needed to prioritize these challenges. In this study, a composite model of Vague Set Theory (VST and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is applied to appraise the challenges. The Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process (VAHP uses opinions of experts collected from a survey questionnaire. The computational results reveal the ranking in descending order of the urban transportation challenges as poor traffic management, inadequacy of proper public transit service and inadequacy of road transport infrastructure. The results also depict that the VAHP model is a useful decision support tool for transport planners, transport policy makers and other industry stakeholders.
This study investigates the challenges sixteen non-native preservice ESL teachers in a Bachelor of Education (English Language) (BEdEL) programme from Hong Kong experienced in an eight-week teaching practicum. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were collected from all 16 participants to obtain a detailed…
Schlindwein, Ana Flora
Adopting the multiliteracy concept and embracing the challenge of developing meaningful and captivating classes for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil, this paper proposes an approach which includes the use of different technologies to learn and teach Portuguese, the reading of graphic novel adaptations of Brazilian literature classics and…
Full Text Available Since 1986 violent conflict raged between the government of Uganda and the rebel Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda. The conflict which lasted for over 20 years caused untold suffering characterized by displacement, killings, and exile. After 2009, violence ceased and the conflict became more latent in nature, making it possible for post conflict reconstruction programs to commence in northern Uganda. The prolonged war called for interventions aimed at bringing sustainable peace to northern Uganda. Many civil society organizations such as Acholi Religious Leaders Peace Initiative, Gulu Support the Children Organization, World Vision International, Center for Conflict Resolution, Peoples Voice for Peace, Human Rights Focus, Gulu, Justice and Peace Commission Joint Forum for Peace etc, all sought to forge a way forward for achieving peace in order to alleviate the suffering of civilians in the north. By 2002 participating individual civil society organizations recognized that they could not make a significant impact in bringing lasting peace due to worsening insecurity. Consequently the leaders of the various Civil Society Organizations formed a Coalition of Civil Society Organizations for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU with major aim of finding a ‘just and lasting peace.’ Though now with stronger voice and impact in the peace building process, CSOPNU still face many challenges and dilemmas. Whereas there have been some achievements made by CSOPNU, the return of total peace is yet to be realized. Hence this study seeks to explore the challenges and dilemmas faced by CSOPNU leadership in the context of northern Uganda. The main Objective of the study is to identify the specific challenges and dilemmas faced by leaders of CSOPNU in the struggle to seek alternative methods of bringing about lasting peace in the conflict stricken northern Uganda. This research methodology employed in this study is a case study in combination with
Abstract Grandparents throughout sub-Saharan Africa have shown immense courage and fortitude in providing care and support for AIDS-affected children. However, growing old comes with a number of challenges which can compromise the care and support given to children affected by AIDS, particularly for children infected by HIV and enrolled on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) programmes. For ART to have an impact, and for children not to develop drug-resistance, a rigid treatment regimen...
Martins, Jacobus Johannes
Windblown dust remains a persistent problem within South African urban and peri-urban areas due to the prevailing dry climatic conditions, extensive surface mining and mineral processing. Despite deposition monitoring guidelines and national dust regulations, South Africa still has persistent dust problems in especially gold mining districts. The main aim of the research is to critically evaluate all the potential challenges within dust management which could be responsible for persistent dus...
The history of telecom industry development can be said to be the history of communications technology development and advance in a sense. Especially in the new century, information technology develops and changes quickly out of our imagination. Innovation in new services makes the limit among all services becoming not clear any more. Also the integration of telecom network, internet and TV net becomes a trend. All those bring new challenges for telecom administration.
Shan, Gongbing; Visentin, Peter
In a prisoner's dilemma, constructed narratives are used to demonstrate problems within individual rationality and decision-making. Performing artists can be seen as facing a type of prisoner's dilemma in their careers: they must practice repeated movements for long periods in order to improve, yet despite the short-term perception of gained artistic benefit, the long-term consequences may be playing-related musculoskeletal disorders and injury. To help avoid such an outcome, educators and health and wellness practitioners must function as negotiators, engaging in discussions of artistry as part of establishing credibility and encouraging behaviors that keep artists in efficient, healthy behaviors. By setting practice time limits that are considerate of the intensity of each specific task, performers can improve their performance on a daily basis and become more skilled at planning their future training. PMID:20795379
Brewer, Rena; Goble, GiGi; Guy, Paula
This article presents Georgia's telehealth response to some of the significant healthcare challenges and disparities facing the rural citizens of this state. When compared to their urban and suburban counterparts, rural communities have fewer healthcare providers, and residents must travel longer distances to reach them. Georgia's statewide telemedicine network, the Georgia Partnership for TeleHealth (GPT), uses information technology to improve the efficiency and quality of healthcare and he...
Paulo Duarte; Ana Rita Pais
Businesses and communities in rural areas face increased challenges to compete in the globalized tourism market. Rural areas and small communities often have rich endogenous natural resources, which may appeal to a stressed urban public, however, simply possessing these attributes is not sufficient, the must be communicated and promoted to the right people. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of Internet and online marketing tools to improve the competitiveness of small-scale rura...
Kopeva, Diana Ilieva; Peneva, Mariya Marinova; Madjarova, Svetla Ivanova
The sustainable development of rural areas faces nowadays the challenges of global changes. The need to adapt land and landscape use to the new social, economic and ecological demands (non-farm activities, employment in rural areas, forest and agro- related tourism, real estate pressure, etc.) requires an analysis of the land multifunctionality and of the multipurpose land management strategies. The paper aims to review the concept of land use and landscape multifunctionality and to review th...
Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.; Stefanov, Jim
Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and debris flows, wildfires, hurricanes, and intense storm-induced flash floods threaten communities to varying degrees all along the United States–Mexican border. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with Federal, State, and local agencies to minimize the effects of natural hazards by providing timely, unbiased science information to emergency response officials, resource managers, and the public to help reduce property damage, injury, and loss of life. The USGS often mobilizes response efforts during and after a natural hazard event to provide technical and scientific counsel on recovery and response, and it has a long history of deploying emergency response teams to major disasters in both domestic and international locations. This chapter describes the challenges of natural hazards in the United States–Mexican border region and the capabilities of the USGS in the fields of hazard research, monitoring, and assessment, as well as preventative mitigation and post-disaster response.
This report identifies the social-environmental challenges associated with climate change for French overseas territories, proposes an analysis of the impact of activities of the different economic sectors on the environment, and proposes some principles for action. After an introduction which outlines the importance of addressing climate change and adaptation, and describes the situation of French overseas territories in front of climate change, a first part identifies and discusses the main social-environmental challenges associated with climate change (climate evolution, role of climate change in a context of economic development, the territory as a resource system, climate change considered as an impact chain, the relative weight of climatic uncertainties). Then, the report analyses the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity, on tourism, on fishing and aquaculture, on agriculture and breeding, on forestry, on health, and on the energy sector. For each of them, the economic weight is indicated and commented, expected impacts are discussed, and adaptation possibilities and implementation modalities are commented. The issue of coastal planning and risks related to climate change is also addressed
Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend
Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...
Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.
Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.
TUBIELLO FRANCESCO; Rahman, Atiqur; Mann, Wendy; SCHMIDHUBER Josef; KOLEVA Marieta; Mueller, Alexander
Three-fourths of the world’s 1.2 billion poor live and work in rural areas; they directly depend on land, water and genetic resources, and the vagaries of climate, for their livelihoods. Their vulnerability and food security situation is expected to worsen under climate change. For instance, it has been suggested that increased climate variability and more frequent extreme events such as droughts and floods could significantly increase risk of production failures in poor regions as early as t...
Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; William, Ravi Raj; Heravian, Anisa; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Greengold, Barbara; Ekstrand, Maria; Rao, Pantangi Venkata Rama
Researchers explored the barriers to AIDS care for rural women living with AIDS, and investigated alternative delivery models to increase the women’s adherence to anti-retroviral therapy. Community-based participatory research focus groups were conducted by the researchers with a convenience sample of 39 women living with AIDS from a Primary Health Center near Chennai, India and with nurses, physicians and Accredited Social Health Activists (Ashas), lay health care workers. The most prevalent...
Maddali, Madan Mohan; Al Balushi, Faisal Khalfan Ahmed; Waje, Niranjan Dilip
Large head and neck teratomas are very rare. Depending on their site of origin, they can produce varying degrees of airway compromise and can interfere with the conduct of general anesthesia. Large space-occupying lesions of the face may even interfere with the simple task of mask ventilation rendering inhaled induction of general anesthesia and maintenance of spontaneous ventilation difficult. If these neoplasms coexist with cardiac lesions necessitating corrective or palliative procedures, the task of oxygenation, ventilation, and securing a definitive airway becomes challenging especially in the presence of underlying unstable hemodynamics. We report on the anesthetic management of a female infant with a facial teratoma and single-ventricle physiology undergoing a cardiac palliative procedure where securing a definitive airway with minimal hemodynamic instability was the immediate requirement. PMID:26599737
Background In many non-malarious countries, imported malaria disproportionately affects Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most previous research has focused on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these travellers, but has not examined the quality of prevention, diagnosis and treatment services provided. The aim of this study was to understand the perspective of providers of malaria-related healthcare services to VFRs about factors impacting on the quality of these and to make recommendations about improvements. Methods Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with practice nurses providing pre-travel health advice (n = 10), general practitioners (GPs) (n = 10), hospital consultants (n = 3), and community pharmacists (n = 7) working in areas of London with large African communities and a relatively high burden of imported malaria. A thematic analysis of the results was undertaken. Results Time constraints in GPs’ surgeries and competing priorities, lack of confidence in issuing advice on mosquito avoidance, the cost of chemoprophylaxis and travel at short notice prevented the provision of adequate malaria prevention advice. Long GP waiting times, misdiagnoses, lack of disclosure by VFRs about recent travel, and the issue of where malaria treatment should be provided were raised as potential barriers to diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions Some issues raised by respondents are relevant to all travellers, irrespective of their reason for travel. The challenge for healthcare providers to reduce the burden of imported malaria in VFRs is to provide services of sufficient quality to persuade them to adopt these in preference to those with which they may be familiar in their country of birth. Although no single intervention will significantly lower the burden of imported malaria, addressing the issues raised in this research could make a significant impact. PMID:24405512
Prieto Gonzalez, Jose Manuel
Full Text Available The current “Barrio Antiguo” (Old Quarter of Monterrey (Mexico, formerly known as "Cathedral Quarter", is a postmodern product arising from the intervention between 1988 and 1994 in a sector called First Square, shortly after the construction of the “Macroplaza” (1979-1985 destroyed a significant part of that same sector. Thus, “Barrio Antiguo” became an example of consciousness cleansing experience. The area is a part of what would become the center of Monterrey, whose physical and conceptual boundaries are still undefined. After a harsh period of degradation in the quarter, especially profound in the context of organized crime and its resulting violence in recent years, the Municipal Institute for Planning and Coexistence of Monterrey (IMPLANC has undertaken the task of regenerating the area. The aim of this lecture is to reveal the difficulties faced by the previously mentioned regeneration, starting with the "inferiority complex" that stirs up among the Monterrey population –traditionally-identified with the official discourse of "greatness"– due to the humility of both the architecture and the vernacular northeastern atmosphere of the quarter, especially when comparisons are made with national historic centers which are World Heritage Sites. El actual Barrio Antiguo de Monterrey, antaño conocido como “Barrio de Catedral”, es un producto posmoderno que surge de la intervención realizada entre 1988 y 1994 en un sector del llamado Primer Cuadro de la ciudad, poco después de que las obras de la Macroplaza (1979-85 destruyeran una parte importante de ese mismo sector. Barrio Antiguo vino a ser así una especie de lavado de conciencia. La zona es una parte de lo que sería el centro histórico de Monterrey, cuyos límites físicos y conceptuales aún están sin definir. Después de una dura etapa de degradación del Barrio, especialmente intensa en el contexto de la ola de violencia de los últimos años, el Instituto
Cortina, Melissa A; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Hlungwani, Tintswalo Mercy; Holmes, Emily A; Fazel, Mina
Adverse childhood experiences can show lasting effects on physical and mental health. Major questions surround how children overcome adverse circumstances to prevent negative outcomes. A key factor determining resilience is likely to be cognitive interpretation (how children interpret the world around them). The cognitive interpretations of 1025 school children aged 10-12 years in a rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged area of South Africa were examined using the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children (CTI-C). These were examined in relation to psychological functioning and perceptions of the school environment. Those with more positive cognitive interpretations had better psychological functioning on scales of depression, anxiety, somatization and sequelae of potentially traumatic events. Children with more negative cognitions viewed the school-environment more negatively. Children living in poverty in rural South Africa experience considerable adversity and those with negative cognitions are at risk for psychological problems. Targeting children's cognitive interpretations may be a possible area for intervention. PMID:26994348
Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta
This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…
Cho, Eun Ji
China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…
Miller, Judith; Graham, Lorraine; Al-Awiwe, Azhar
Previous research related to this study explored early career female leaders' experiences in rural school settings, and probed the personal and professional challenges they faced and their motivations to accept formal and informal leadership roles ahead of the usual timeframes (e.g., Graham, Miller & Paterson, 2009). This study set out to…
Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed
The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure. This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health. The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region. This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions. This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health. PMID:23801552
Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico
In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)
Turner, Robin L.
This paper explores the policy environment surrounding livestock policy improvements in Uganda, with a view to identify opportunities for pro-poor interventions and reforms. The paper reviews challenges facing livestock producers and analyzes the broad political economic context in which livestock sector dynamics are situated. A review of the livestock sector highlights the constraints facing poor rural livestock producers based on: missing or inadequate infrastructure; the small size of the ...
Qianna, Wang; Lin, Peng; Martin Mwirigi, M’ikiugu; Isami, Kinoshita; Zhicong, Zhao
The use of Renewable Energy (RE) is becoming popular for its clean and safe characteristics. The development of RE is also one of the crucial steps for the future sustainable development of energy resources. Nowadays, rural areas are facing issues such as depopulation and economic decline. How to find solutions to these issues while aiming to achieve sustainable development is a challenging task. Rural areas with RE in Japan and China have been established recently, and there are a few practi...
The new curriculum, new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching, such as outdated teaching equipment, unreasonable curriculum design, insufficient teaching staff, asymmetrical teaching content, family education and students' personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data, it is found that in terms of English re...
Laursen, Lea Holst; Eilertzen, Freja Nissen; Repsdorph, Helene Reck; Gerelsaikhan, Gerelmaa; Otkjær, Mia Jo; Søndergaard, Ditte Klerens
The face-to-face (F2F) strategy is a method which entails groups of so-called ‘facers’ standing in a public space trying to recruit people to the organisation and informing about the organisation’s work. In combination with the possibility of reaching large numbers of people, this technique provides a steady and ongoing flow of money, something which is vital for the NGO’s when planning future activities. In spite of ethical regulations the use of facers is a very controversial strat...
Zeng, Douglas Zhihua
Although China has made impressive progress in economic development and improving social well-being, it is facing many daunting challenges while transforming toward a knowledge and service-based economy and further opening up to international competition after its WTO accession in the context of knowledge revolution. One of the biggest challenges is how to create 100-300 million new jobs in the coming decade to absorb the millions of laid-offs, rural emigrants and newly added labor force. Chi...
In this century,China started facing five major challenges in the energy field:energy supply,shortage of liquid fuel,environmental pollution,green house gas (GHG)emission,and energy supply in rural areas.In this paper,the Chinese energy development strategy and general technical scheme (including energy conservation,utilization of coal,alternative fuel and renewable energy) are discussed,and some key scientific problems in the fundamental research of energy are put forward.
Acker, David; Gasperini, Lavinia
Nearly one out of six people in the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimension...
Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J
While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. PMID:26940303
Toledo, Chelsea E.; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C.; Ottesen, Eric A.; Lammie, Patrick J.
While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)—lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma—are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. PMID:26940303
Beckie, Mary Anne; Midmore, Peter; Foster, Carolyn
This paper was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference of the Colloquium of Organic Researchers (COR). European rural policy faces economic, environmental and demographic challenges. Its recent development has shifted emphasis towards agri-environmental schemes and support for organic farming, refinement of structural funding programmes, and Community Initiatives such as LEADER. At the same time, a transformation and refinement in consumer demand for food is leading to greater...
Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill
This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…
This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...
At present, SINOPEC’s brand building is facing certain problems and challenges. The brand image needs to be reshaped and optimized to enhance its appeal to domestic and international consumers; the brand positioning needs to be more clear to highlight value propositions that are globally consistent; the marketing tools need to be integrated to help with brand communication and promotion; designing at the top level needs to be improved to align brand building and management systems.%当前，中国石化品牌建设面临问题和挑战。品牌形象需优化重塑，以增强品牌对国内外消费者的吸引力；品牌定位应加以明确，突出全球一致的价值主张；营销手段需进一步整合，以助力品牌传播推广；顶层设计待完善，应抓紧统一品牌建设和管理体系。
The authors address three main questions: how are structured the network of actors and the tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, what are the specific data challenges faced by the actors and the possible responses, and which lessons can be learned for the governance of energy transition in its whole. After a presentation of the context of fuel poverty (analysis of tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, the use of social-energetic data), this study, based on about forty interviews of various actors and on a workshop, proposes an analysis framework which distinguishes six steps in the definition and implementation of policies of struggle against fuel poverty. After a description of the current status and an identification of required improvements for each step, the authors propose a set of recommendations, draw lessons for urban policies aimed at an ecologic transformation and a modernisation of the social protection system in terms of level of intervention, scope of actions, and ownership and access to data bases. These recommendations more particularly address the definition of fuel poverty, its diagnosis at the national and at the territorial level, a better identification of concerned households, and an assessment of existing arrangements
Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.
Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.
Madhurita Singh; Rebecca Jacob; Vibhavari Naik; David Baines
Providing anaesthesia for the separation surgery of conjoined twins presents unique challenges to the managing anaesthesiologists. The low incidence of such surgeries and anatomical variations in each type of conjoined twins makes each separation surgery a unique experience. This report features the anaesthetic plan and challenges faced in performing the separation surgery of a set of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital in a remote location in India.
Full Text Available Providing anaesthesia for the separation surgery of conjoined twins presents unique challenges to the managing anaesthesiologists. The low incidence of such surgeries and anatomical variations in each type of conjoined twins makes each separation surgery a unique experience. This report features the anaesthetic plan and challenges faced in performing the separation surgery of a set of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital in a remote location in India.
Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...
Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)
Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…
Montemayor, David; Kupczynski, Lori; Mundy, Marie-Anne
Hispanic immigrant students face several challenges to academic success. The purpose of this sequential explanatory research was to identify academic differences that existed between first and second generation Hispanic immigrant students on the 10th grade Geometry End of Course scores in a public, rural high school in south Texas and to focus on…
de la Garza, Katy
This study analyzed challenges faced by teachers in rural and Indigenous schools, and the impact of pedagogical mentorship in contributing towards more culturally and linguistically relevant education. Using a case from Guatemala, this article explored pedagogical mentorship as an in-service teacher training resource for multi-lingual and…
Camaioni, Beatrice; Esposti, Roberto; Lobianco, Antonello; Pagliacci, Francesco; Franco SOTTE
Rural areas still play a major role within the EU, as Europe is still a fairly rural continent. Moreover, EU rural areas are going through greater challenges and major transformations. After the Eastern enlargements of the EU (in 2004 and 2007), they are getting more and more heterogeneous, in terms of their main socio-economic features as well as of agricultural activities. According to this increasing heterogeneity, the traditional urban-rural divide can be now considered almost outdated (O...
Egypt which has more advanced higher education in the Arab world has cultivated several Nobel Prize winners. The last century in the late 1980s, Egypt had early realized higher education popularity while many serious problems and challenges are facing its higher education system. Such as the contradiction between centralized management system of higher education and University autonomy, as well as the confusion and inequality which are brought about by two paralleling education system: the secular system and the religious ,or Al-Azhar system. Facing its history and current situation of higher education, Egyptian government persists in implementing the education development strategy to explore the way to cope with and get rid of dilemma. However, it is still a difficult problem for Egyptian government to realize the coordination between education and economy society.%埃及是阿拉伯世界高等教育比较发达的国家,相继培养出多位诺贝尔奖获得者.20世纪八十年代中后期,在埃及较早进入高等教育大众化阶段的同时,其高等教育系统也面临着许多严重的问题与挑战,如高等教育中央集权管理体制与大学自治的矛盾,以世俗教育和宗教教育为中心的双轨教育体制所带来的不平等和混乱等.针对其高等教育的历史与现状,埃及政府坚持实施教育兴国的现代化发展战略,积极探索应对之道,努力摆脱困境.但如何使教育和经济社会协调发展,依然是摆在埃及政府面前的一道难题.
Full Text Available Dans cet article, on cherche à comprendre le sens de l'engagement de certains syndicalistes du Pernambouc dans les actions d'occupation des terres ainsi que les conséquences de cette nouvelle pratique observée dans d'autres États brésiliens sous l'égide du MST (Mouvement des Sans-Terre pour le syndicalisme rural vu comme le plus dynamique du pays. À l'aide d'une analyse centrée surtout sur le suivi systématique des événements organisés par la FETAPE (Fédération des travailleurs de l'agriculture à Pernambouc, on a pu percevoir que l'adhésion de ce traditionnel pôle de défense des travailleurs ruraux au modèle fabriqué par le MST a été dictée, en grande partie, par les structures internes elles-mêmes de la formation syndicale, par leurs conditions historiques de reproduction et surtout par un conflit de générations entre ses membres.
Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa,1 Vicky Manyanga21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented.Aim: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants' PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV register books for the past 2 years were reviewed to obtain information regarding the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. One hundred and twenty-six health care workers were interviewed to identify success stories and challenges in the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children. In addition, 321 parents and guardians of children born to HIV-infected mothers were interviewed in the health facilities.Results: Approximately 80% of children were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis within 2 months after birth. Two hundred and ninety-one (58.4% children started using co-trimoxazole within 4 weeks after birth. Majority (n=458, 91.8% of the children were prescribed 120 mg of co-trimoxazole per day, whereas 39 (7.8% received 240 mg per day. Only a small proportion (n=1, 0.2% of children received 480 mg/day. Dose determination was based on the child's age rather than body weight. Parents and guardians reported that 42 (13.1% children had missed one or more doses of co
Meschi, Tiziana; Ticinesi, Andrea; Prati, Beatrice; Montali, Arianna; Ventura, Antonio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Borghi, Loris
Continuous increase of elderly patients with multimorbidity and Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding are great challenges for modern medicine. Traditional hospital organizations are often too rigid to solve them without consistently rising healthcare costs. In this paper we present a new organizational model achieved at Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit of Parma University Hospital, Italy, a 106-bed internal medicine area organized by intensity of care and specifically dedicated to such patients. The unit is partitioned into smaller wards, each with a specific intensity level of care, including a rapid-turnover ward (mean length of stay <4 days) admitting acutely ill patients from the ED, a subacute care ward for chronic critically ill subjects and a nurse-managed ward for stable patients who have socio-economic trouble preventing discharge. A very-rapid-turnover ("come'n'go") ward has also been instituted to manage sudden ED overflows. Continuity, effectiveness, safety and appropriateness of care are guaranteed by an innovative figure called "flow manager," with skilled clinical experience and managerial attitude, and by elaboration of an early personalized discharge plan anticipating every patient's needs according to lean methodology principles. In 2012-2014, this organizational model, compared with other peer units of the hospital and of other teaching hospitals of the region, showed a better performance, efficacy and effectiveness indexes calculated on Regional Hospital Discharge Records database system, allowing a capacity to face a massive (+22 %) rise in medical admissions from the ED. Further studies are needed to validate this model from a patient outcome point of view. PMID:26846233
<正> 子非 1.“We know that we’ve alreadybeaten Chelsea and that we can doit again if we perform at our bestds We‘ve shown that before.They havealways been hard games againstChelsea but maybe we’ve had theDsyChlongical advantage.All runseventually have to come to an end!We will treat it as a normal game,1ike the semi-finals of the FA Cup.The good thing is that there willbe an Engllsh team 1n the semi-finals.But the negative thing isthat 1t takes a bit of the charmaway from a European CUP tie.Youexpect to Play a team from anothercountry.No matter which team doesit,they are worthy winners.Butat the moment,we have a big taskin the Quarter-finals and it’S notsure that the winners will faceReal Madrid."
Johnson Cassandra M; Sharkey Joseph R; Dean Wesley R
Abstract Background Although the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption to health has been well established, few studies have focused on access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas; even fewer examined the relationship between food access and fruit and vegetable consumption among seniors. Methods To examine the spatial challenges to good nutrition faced by seniors who reside in rural areas and how spatial access influences fruit and vegetable intake. A cross-sectional analysis using...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of Canadian induced abortions are performed in large urban areas. For unknown reasons the number of rural abortion providers in Canadian provinces, such as British Columbia (BC, has declined substantially. This study explored the experiences of BC rural and urban physicians providing abortion services. METHODS: The mixed methods BC Abortion Providers Survey employed self-administered questionnaires, distributed to all known current and some past BC abortion providers in 2011. The optional semi-structured interviews are the focus of this analysis. Interview questions probed the experiences, facilitators and challenges faced by abortion providers, and their future intentions. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using cross-case and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty interviews were completed and transcribed, representing 13/27 (48.1% rural abortion providers, and 7/19 (36.8% of urban providers in BC. Emerging themes differed between urban and rural providers. Most urban providers worked within clinics and reported a supportive environment. Rural physicians, all providing surgical abortions within hospitals, reported challenging barriers to provision including operating room scheduling, anesthetist and nursing logistical issues, high demand for services, professional isolation, and scarcity of replacement abortion providers. Many rural providers identified a need to "fly under the radar" in their small community. DISCUSSION: This first study of experiences among rural and urban abortion providers in Canada identifies addressable challenges faced by rural physicians. Rural providers expressed a need for increased support from hospital administration and policy. Further challenges identified include a desire for continuing professional education opportunities, and for available replacement providers.
The paper analyses potentials, challenges and problems of the rural tourism from the point of view of its impact on sustainable rural development. It explores alternative sources of income for rural people by means of tourism and investigates effects of the rural tourism on agricultural production in local rural communities. The aim is to identify the existing and potential tourist attractions within the rural areas in Southern Russia and to provide solutions to be introduced in particular ru...
Pinto, Meredith; Rochat, Roger; Hennink, Monique; Zertuche, Adrienne D; Spelke, Bridget
Objectives In 2011, a workforce assessment conducted by the Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group found that 52 % of Primary Care Service Areas outside metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, had an overburdened or complete lack of obstetric care services. In response to that finding, this study's aim was twofold: to describe challenges faced by providers who currently deliver or formerly delivered obstetric care in these areas, and to identify essential core components that can be integrated into alternative models of care in order to alleviate the burden placed on the remaining obstetric providers. Methods We conducted 46 qualitative in-depth interviews with obstetricians, maternal-fetal medicine specialists, certified nurse midwives, and maternal and infant health leaders in Georgia. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, uploaded into MAXQDA software, and analyzed using a Grounded Theory Approach. Results Providers faced significant financial barriers in service delivery, including low Medicaid reimbursement, high proportions of self-pay patients, and high cost of medical malpractice insurance. Further challenges in provision of obstetric care in this region were related to patient's late initiation of prenatal care and lacking collaboration between obstetric providers. Essential components of effective models of care included continuity, efficient use of resources, and risk-appropriate services. Conclusion Our analysis revealed core components of improved models of care that are more cost effective and would expand coverage. These components include closer collaboration among stakeholder populations, decentralization of services with effective use of each type of clinical provider, improved continuity of care, and system-wide changes to increase Medicaid benefits. PMID:27090413
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the need to address territorial inequalities in American healthcare services. It shows how much the situation has become critical in the United States. It discusses to what extent telemedicine is a sustainable option to reduce the negative consequences of the economic, professional and physical barriers to care in rural areas. As far as healthcare is concerned, rural and urban environments in the United States do not have to face the same barriers and challenges. The article first details what specific health issues have to be dealt with in rural areas. The case of emergency care in Vermont is then developed to illustrate what could be the benefits of using ICTs to improve access to care.
王志涛; 苏经宇; 刘朝峰
为保障城乡一体化进程中的防灾安全,从灾害系统论角度出发,剖析了我国城乡建设防灾减灾所面临的挑战.同时,在总结近几年典型城乡灾害启示基础上,探讨了城乡建设防灾减灾基本对策,提出以灾害风险理论为基础,将防灾规划、工程防御、预警处置和救灾恢复为支撑点的城乡防灾减灾体系框架.%To guarantee the disaster prevention and safety in the process of urban-rural integration, this paper analyzes the challenges of disaster prevention and reduction in the urban-rural construction from the perspective of disaster system theory. Based on revelations from urban-rural disasters in recent years, the paper explores the basic countermeasures for disaster prevention and reduction in the urban-rural construction process, and proposes a framework for the urban-rural disaster prevention and reduction system which is based on risk theory and supported by disaster prevention planning, engineering precaution, early-warning disposal, and rescue and post-disaster reconstruction.
Full Text Available We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention.This study was conducted in October 2011 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 2 years after couples tested and received results together. Fourteen couples were purposively sampled: discordant, concordant negative and concordant positive couples.Learning about each other's status together challenged relationships of the couples in different ways depending on HIV status and gender. The mutual information confirmed suspected infidelity that had not been discussed before. Negative women in discordant partnerships remained with their positive partner due to social pressure and struggled to maintain their HIV negative status. Most of the couple relationships were characterized by silence and mistrust. Knowledge of sero-status also led to loss of sexual intimacy in some couples especially the discordant. For most men in concordant negative couples, knowledge of status was an awakening of the importance of fidelity and an opportunity for behaviour change, while for concordant positive and discordant couples, it was seen as proof of infidelity. Although positive HIV status was perceived as confirmation of infidelity, couples continued their relationship and offered some support for each other, living and managing life together. Sexual life in these couples was characterized by conflict and sometimes violence. In the concordant negative couples, trust was enhanced and behaviour change was promised.Findings suggest that testing together as couples challenged relationships in both negative and positive ways. Further, knowledge of HIV status indicated potential to influence behaviour change especially among concordant negatives. In the discordant and concordant positive couples, traditional gender roles exposed
Thibault, K. M.
of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.
蒋平; 胡宇翔; 汤绍林
Aiming at the challenge faced by traditional manufacturingtechnology,this paper discusses order-oriented flexible manufacture,integrated manufacture mode,as well as the production process of overall qualities and cost controls which are adopted by the modern manufacturing technology in order to meet the requirements of modern times.At the same time,the opinion is presented that the manufacturing product in the information society should have the two different category manifestation forms which are the information model of product and substantial product.Moreover,because the most innovative and valuable parts in the product manufacturing are embodied by the product information model,the manufacturing in the information age should put the acquisition of product information model into an important position.Mass Customization production mode can embody and satisfy the characteristics of the modern manufacturing,so it is the primary production mode in the 21st century.Finally,the feature and supported technologies of Mass Customization are disserted on the basis of the above points.%针对传统制造技术所面临的挑战，讨论了现代制造技术应当采用面向订单的柔性生产、集成协同的生产形式，以及全面质量和成本控制的生产过程，以满足现代市场的需求；同时论述了信息社会中制造业的产品将有着产品信息模型和物质产品2种不同范畴的表现形式，并且由于产品生产中最具创新和价值的部分被包含在产品信息模型中，所以信息时代的制造业应当把产品信息模型的获取置于生产活动的重要地位。最后对大规模定制生产的特点和支撑技术群展开了论述。
Kulkarni Preeti M.
Marketing Management always deals in the ever changing marketing environment. The rural environment is in paradigm shifts and management needs to deal with the changing consumer behavior. The basic challenge in front of the rural marketer is to deal with the rural consumer who is undergoing transformation. Many marketers perceive that the rural markets are the protrusions of the urban slums or poor markets. The truth is that the rural consumer’s concept of value is different from the urban co...
Mekonnen, Addis Bezabih
The study was designed to explore Food security, gender and community relations. Challenges and strategies of rural women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda,Ethiopia, and the role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in empowering women. The research applied qualitative methods such as in- depth interviews, Focused Group Discussions and observation to address issues from a gender perspective. The livelihood approach and empowerment approach have been the theoretical frameworks that underpin this s...
Toledo, Chelsea E.; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C.; Eric A Ottesen; Patrick J Lammie
While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)—lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma—are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, resear...
Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores
Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to...
Full Text Available Although representing less than 20% of total CAP expenditure, the Rural Development Policy (RDP 2007-2013 is supposed to support rural areas which are facing new challenges. Currently, many EU rural areas are experiencing major transformations and the traditional urban-rural divide seems outdated (OECD, 2006. Going beyond dichotomous definitions and approaches, the paper applies at EU NUTS 3 level a new composite and comprehensive measure of rurality and peripherality (the PeripheRurality Indicator, PRI: the higher this index, the more rural and peripheral a given region is. Within a Principal Component Analysis (PCA approach, this indicator takes into account both conventional socio-economic indicators and the relevant geographical characteristics of the region. On the basis of this analysis, the paper also puts forward a clusterisation of NUTS 3 regions across Europe and assesses the correlation between the RDP expenditure intensity, the PRI and the different regional clusters. This analysis is aimed at assessing the coherence of RDP fund allocation with the real characteristics of EU rural space.
David F Nichols
Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.
The ethical barriers seem to pose the greatest challenge to performing facial transplantation with proponents and critics fiercely debating their positions. Chapter 1 outlines the main ethical issues and events that have preluded clinical facial transplantation. In particular, human hand transplantation programs and their impact on face transplantation have been reviewed. Although the first face transplants already have been performed, the social and psychological debates concerning the ethic...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location
Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z
Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent. PMID:24356350
Moletsane, Relebohile; Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene; Stuart, Jean; Buthelezi, Thabisile; Taylor, Myra
This article explores the use of participatory video in finding solutions to challenges faced by schools and communities in the contexts of poverty and the AIDS pandemic in one rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Locating the analysis within the study of feminist visual culture and the notion of the female gaze, the article focuses on…
Li, Stan Z
This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems
V.Basil Hans; Jayasheela
In the rural economy land is the site of production. Our villagers live and work with close relationship with nature; they love and adore nature. Intensification of resource use and diversification of occupation (even if we call it as technological advancement) pose serious challenges to balanced economic development in India. Villagers are facing the growing needs of food, fodder and fuel on the one hand, and fast encroaching urbanisation on the other. Both have disastrous consequences on na...
. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), whether part of a regulatory body or a separate organization, are gaining increased importance in providing the technical and scientific bases for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety. International organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) also rely on the active contribution of TSOs. In the light of the important role played by TSOs, it is essential that these organizations conduct their work consistent with the highest levels of technical competence and transparency, and with the observance of ethical principles. To enhance their capabilities in these areas, TSOs need to foster cooperative activities among themselves and other relevant organizations, whether on an ad hoc basis or in the framework of regional or multilateral arrangements and institutions. Recognizing the need for TSOs to broaden their cooperation, the IAEA has sponsored this first international conference specifically addressing the role TSOs can play and the challenges they face in enhancing nuclear safety. It is hoped that the conference provided a platform for further promoting and strengthening international nuclear and radiation safety cooperation to enhance the Global Nuclear Safety Regime
大气二氧化碳浓度升高、温度上升、降雨分布不均、灾害性天气出现频次增加等全球气候变化,深刻改变着农林生态系统昆虫群落的组成结构、功能和演替,使昆虫分布区域扩大、发生世代增多、生态适应性变异,从而影响了原有的植物-害虫-天敌间内在联系和各营养层间的固有平衡格局,最终导致一些害虫暴发成灾,一些昆虫种群数量下降,甚至一些昆虫物种灭绝.本文在综述昆虫对温度升高、干旱、温室气体(CO2、O3)变化响应研究的基础上,提出我国未来应围绕害虫对全球气候变化的响应特征、适应机制及其控制新方法3个关键的科学问题,通过长期监测、控制试验和模型预测结合,重点开展4个领域的研究工作,以应对全球气候变化下昆虫发生、控制与保护的新挑战.%Global climate change, such as elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations, rising temperature and the uneven distribution of rainfall has a profound impact on insect community composition and the interaction between host plants, and pest insects and their natural enemies. Insect responses to global climate change are frequently "species-specific" and can be negative, positive or neutral. Global climate change has been associated with an increase in the number of pest insect outbreaks, a decline in some insect populations, and even the extinction of some insect species. This review examines the effects of climate change including those in temperature, rainfall and greenhouse gases (CO2, O3), on insects. There are still many challenges facing entomologists in predicting and monitoring the impacts of climate change on insects. Future research needs to focus on the response characteristics and adaptive mechanisms of insects, and developing new control methods for insect pests through long - term monitoring, control experiments and predictive modeling.
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the
Harries, Mike [Bob Harries Engineering Ltd., Kijito Wind Pumps, Thika (Kenya)
Around half the population in rural sub-Saharan Africa does not have access to reliable and clean water sources (World Bank, 2000). The use of wind energy for water pumping provides a valuable opportunity for meeting rural water needs. Bobs Harries Engineering Ltd. (BHEL), a local company in Kenya, is involved in the manufacture of Kijito wind pumps. With over 20 years experience in the manufacture and installation of over 300 wind pumps (both in Kenya and abroad), BHEL has developed a range of reliable and sturdy machines capable of withstanding storms and pumping water for years, with only minimal maintenance and attention. This article presents a historical review of the design, field-testing and manufacturing experiences of BHEL in the development of wind pumps for water pumping in remote rural areas. Using case studies of wind pump installation projects, the article outlines the challenges facing the dissemination of wind pumps in Africa and the benefits of wind pumps to rural and remote areas. Policy options that may improve the dissemination and use of wind pumps are proposed. (Author)
Hugh-Jones, David; Reinstein, David
When person A makes an offer to person B and B rejects it, then A may “lose face.” This loss of face is assumed to occur only if B knows for sure of A’s offer. While under some circumstances loss of face can be rationalized by the consequences for future reputation, it may also enter directly into the utility function. Loss of face concerns can lead to fewer offers and inefficiency in markets that involve matching, discrete transactions, and offers/proposals in both directions, su...
... Programs Overview State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health Fellows Program Application Volunteer Options NRHA Social Media Rural Health Students Education Liason Program National Rural Task Force NRHA Internships Government Affairs Save Rural ...
More physicians are stepping forward to buy their own hospitals, often aging or faltering facilities that need some special attention. Kamlesh Gosai, left, led a group that helped keep open Brownsville (Pa.) General Hospital, saving 250 jobs. Often such doc investors are confident they'll suceed in managing their fellow physicians. But others warn they'll face some tough decisions. PMID:15700571
seen as a permanent panacea, but be reconsidered in the light of new agricultural and societal challenges. The overall objective of this PhD thesis is to explore the capacity of privatized Danish agricultural extension to handle contemporary agricultural challenges and related innovation support needs...... management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation as an...... analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...
Andrews, Timothy J.; Thompson, Peter
The perception and recognition of familiar faces are thought to depend critically on an analysis of the internal features of the face. However, other studies have shown that combining highly familiar internal features with an inappropriate set of familiar external features produces a composite face whose identity is dominated by the external features. Here, we show that this illusion depends on the distinctiveness of the external features.
Wurie, Haja R.; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie
Background Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. Methods This article is based on participatory life histories...
Full Text Available For students who are actively engaged in social justice efforts on their college/university campuses, the transition from a relatively easy platform for engagement to the “real world” can pose significant challenges and create new realities for negotiation. Little is known, however, about the nature of these transitions into post-graduate social justice experiences. Drawing on an open-ended survey of recent graduates (92 respondents, 50% response rate from a social justice minor in a school of social work, we explore the ways in which respondents described their transitions into social justice work, focusing on a set of key challenges that emerged from our analysis and reflecting on the implications of these challenges for social work practice and future research. Understanding some of the challenges in making this transition will help social work and non-profit administrators to better support this population’s future volunteer, service, and employment needs.
... it was, and then I just had a flood of emotions. Because of my history, I was ... Fibromyalgia: medlineplus.gov/fibromyalgia.html Read More "Fibromyalgia" Articles Fibromyalgia: A Puzzling and Painful Condition / Facing Fibromyalgia ...
Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...
基于农户资金的内在需求,结合城乡统筹背景下涉农金融机构的功能,分析了农村金融面临的机遇与挑战,从而基于既定架构通过优化组织体系,增强农村金融机构对农户资金要求的适应性.%Based on the internal demand for rural finance, and combining with the function of agriculture-related financial institutions under the background of the urban-rural planning, the opportunity and challenge faced by rural finance were analyzed, thereby, to optimize its organization system on the basis of its established framework in order to strengthen the adaptability of rural financial institutions to the fanners' demand.
The new curriculum,new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching,such as outdated teaching equipment,unreasonable curriculum design,insufficient teaching staff,asymmetrical teaching content,family education and students’ personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data,it is found that in terms of English reading,English speaking or English writing,the current English level of China’s rural residents is lagging behind. From the average,the reading level of rural residents is better than the speaking and writing level,but the paired T-test results show that there are no significant differences between them,suggesting that under the current system of rural English teaching,the English level of rural residents is constrained to a low level. To improve the rural English teaching in the future,it is necessary to pay close attention to the following aspects: stabilizing the investment in rural education; optimizing the English teaching content; converting the philosophy of education; increasing teacher training; establishing the new linkage system.
... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...
Tao Ran; Ray Brooks
A more market-oriented labor market has emerged in China in the past twenty years with growing importance of the urban private sector, as state-owned enterprises have downsized. Despite the progress on reforms, a sizable surplus of labor still exists in the rural sector and state-owned enterprises. The main challenge facing China’s labor market in coming years is to absorb the surplus labor into quality jobs while adjusting to World Trade Organization (WTO) accession. This paper estimates tha...
Dodo, Obediah; Makwerere, David; Parwada, Matavire; Parwada, Cosmas
After realizing that the traditional modes of tuition in Zimbabwe's andragogy had either gone obsolete or over-crowded, BUSE ventured into a "virtualised" model of open and distance learning as a way of out-doing other competing universities. However, as the programme was rolled out, there came a myriad of challenges affecting the…
Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova;
unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...... performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...
The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate...
Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K. MEHTA
Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...
Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recogni...
In this report we first review important publications in the field of face recognition; geometric features, templates, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), pseudo-2D Hidden Markov Models, Elastic Graph Matching, as well as other points are covered; important issues, such as the effects of an illumination direction change and the use of different face areas, are also covered. A new feature set (termed DCT-mod2) is then proposed; the feature set utilizes polynomial coefficients derived from 2D D...
Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.
This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…
Emmanuelle Bermès; Louise Fauduet
The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This pape...
Batoul Ahmadi; Mohammad Keshvari; Abbas Homauni; Hojat Gharaei
Introduction: This study aimed to identify the challenges of risk management in the context of clinical governance in selected hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods:This study was implemented in two phases: qualitative step and quantitative step (survey). The first step was conducted using in-depth interviews and the second was carried out through a survey by questionnaire. Data were collected in hospitals through in-depth interviews with hospitals managers...
Full Text Available The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate these trends, and build a generic model which can be used to create employment opportunities in the rural areas, based on the specificities of the tertiary sector.
Heaton, Lisa J; Smith, Timothy A; Raybould, Ted P
Individuals' utilization of dental services depends upon an array of factors, including access to care, financial restrictions, attitudes toward dental care, and dental fear. These factors, in turn, may vary across geographic locations and demographic groups. The goals of this study were to assess the use of dental services in both rural and urban areas of Kentucky and to examine challenges facing practitioners in rural areas. Individuals sampled from a rural population and patients in rural and urban dental clinics completed questionnaires about use of dental services, self-rated dental health, and dental fear. While these variables were strongly interrelated, differences emerged across locations. Patients in the urban area reported having more dental insurance but not better dental health. Patients in more rural areas reported seeking more emergency dental treatment but not more dental fear. While these factors are important considerations across locations, dental practitioners in rural areas in particular should be aware of barriers to dental care facing individuals in these areas. They have unique opportunities to provide education to their patients regarding the importance of dental care and the role of oral health in overall physical health. PMID:15466058
Salinas Ventalló, Xènia
[ANGLÈS] The Face Diarization project is a comparative analysis between two methods already developed. This project aims to determine if, using this procedure, the video sequence scenes limits can be determined. For face detection a 69.78% recall and a 65.78% precision are achieved. Using the LBPH classification system a 74.34% of detections are correctly classified; while, using the system algorithm that also considers the cloth, a 62.57% are classified. For the scenes separation system, usi...
Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len
Objectives To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Setting Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. Participants 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. Results In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Conclusions Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. PMID:26515687
Rural schools are long accustomed to meeting challenges in innovative ways. For them, the challenge is not so much a lack of technology as it is adequate internet access, which affects both teachers and students. In this article, the author discusses how to keep rural schools up to full speed. The author suggests that the best approach when…
Jan H Kroeze; Philip D. Pretorius; Gilliland, Sonja; Kirlidog, Melih; Seymour, Lisa,
The audience will be informed about the process of establishing a new research niche area in a School of Information Technology situated on the Vaal Triangle Campus (VTC) of the North-West University (NWU). The School covers all aspects of IT as well as Operational Research. Since the topics of postgraduate studies and other research endeavours are very divergent it is a challenge to form a cohesive group with a central research focus. The panel will be enriched by the sharing of experiences ...
... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... chap 18. Digre KB. Headaches and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...
MOOC is renowned as"the biggest education innovation since the invention of printing"and"dawn of the future education". It breaks the fence of university and promotes new learning revolution. The massive open online course not only makes up for the shortcoming of traditional teaching, at the same time brings changes and shocks to the education and also great opportunities and challenges to colleges and universities teachers. How to deal with challenges, to look for opportunities, to seek for development through innovation and change has become an important topic for college and university teachers to think and practice.%席卷全球的"MOOC"被誉为"印刷术发明以来教育最大的革新"、"未来教育"的曙光."慕课""打破了大学的围墙",催生了新的"学习革命".MOOC的大规模,开放,泛在性、网络化等特点在有效弥补传统教学不足之处的同时,也给教育教学带来变革与冲击,给高校教师带来了巨大的机遇和挑战.如何应对挑战,寻找机遇,在创新与变革中求发展,已经成为高校教师目前急需思考与实践的一大课题.
Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.
Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recognition all having their respective pros and cons. In this paper, we presented an overview of face recognition techniques and its applications.
Mélanie Plazy; Kamal El Farouki; Collins Iwuji; Nonhlanhla Okesola; Joanna Orne-Gliemann; Joseph Larmarange; France Lert; Marie-Louise Newell; François Dabis; Rosemary Dray-Spira
Introduction: We aimed to quantify and identify associated factors of linkage to HIV care following home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) in the ongoing ANRS 12249 treatment-as-prevention (TasP) cluster-randomized trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: Individuals ≥16 years were offered HBHCT; those who were identified HIV positive were referred to cluster-based TasP clinics and offered antiretroviral treatment (ART) immediately (five clusters) or according to national ...
Samrat Pravin Patel; Sumeet S. Deshmukh; Anil R. Rajbhar
An innovative ,cost effective and eco friendly approach for the implementation of wide area wireless network coverage forsurveillance, remote wireless sensing , monitoring and other usage in dense forest and rural areas in developing countries like India andAfrica .The paper gives an simplified layout for the network implementation for bridging the digital divide and the knowledge flowbetween the urban areas and the remote locations where telecom companies cannot reach easily or deploy networ...
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve
Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap using household survey data collected from 571 households in three rural and peri-urban sites in Nepal in 2012. Questions encompassed household socioeconomic characteristics, illness characteristics,...
Singh, Balraj; Kinne, Hannah E; Milligan, Ryan D; Washburn, Laura J; Olsen, Mark; Lucci, Anthony
We have previously shown that only 0.01% cells survive a metabolic challenge involving lack of glutamine in culture medium of SUM149 triple-negative Inflammatory Breast Cancer cell line. These cells, designated as SUM149-MA for metabolic adaptability, are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, and they efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. We hypothesized that obesity-related molecular networks, which normally help in cellular and organismal survival under metabolic challenges, may help in the survival of MA cells. The fat mass and obesity-associated protein FTO is overexpressed in MA cells. Obesity-associated cis-acting elements in non-coding region of FTO regulate the expression of IRX3 gene, thus activating obesity networks. Here we found that IRX3 protein is significantly overexpressed in MA cells (5 to 6-fold) as compared to the parental SUM149 cell line, supporting our hypothesis. We also obtained evidence that additional key regulators of energy balance such as ARID5B, IRX5, and CUX1 P200 repressor could potentially help progenitor-like TNBC cells survive in glutamine-free medium. MO-I-500, a pharmacological inhibitor of FTO, significantly (>90%) inhibited survival and/or colony formation of SUM149-MA cells as compared to untreated cells or those treated with a control compound MO-I-100. Curiously, MO-I-500 treatment also led to decreased levels of FTO and IRX3 proteins in the SUM149 cells initially surviving in glutamine-free medium as compared to MO-I-100 treatment. Interestingly, MO-I-500 treatment had a relatively little effect on cell growth of either the SUM149 or SUM149-MA cell line when added to a complete medium containing glutamine that does not pose a metabolic challenge. Importantly, once selected and cultured in glutamine-free medium, SUM149-MA cells were no longer affected by MO-I-500 even in Gln-free medium. We conclude that panresistant MA cells contain interconnected molecular networks that govern developmental status and
Karen Louise Kelly
Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong hig...
Despite the growth of the IT industry and the high demand for IT skills university departments seem unable to attract enough student to cater for the needs of the profession. There seems to be a misconception about the difference between IT user skills and the discipline of Computing. This article attempts to do three things: 1) reinforce the view that a crisis of IT skills shortage is looming; 2) reiterate the fact that computing science is an exciting discipline that is central to the knowledge economy and that career prospects in IT-related jobs are very good despite the fears surrounding outsourcing and 3) suggest that HE computing departments must be flexible enough to embrace a two-facetted challenge: a) the changing landscape of IT Skills and b) the high hopes and aspirations of the first generation of our digital-native student community.
Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenou...