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Sample records for challenges facing rural

  1. Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme

    The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations

  2. Emerging regulatory challenges facing the Indian rural electrification programme

    The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the regulatory issues emerging from the newly launched programme of rural electricity access in India. We focus on two broad areas, namely regulatory issues related to the organisation/structuring of the activities and issues related to subsidy and tariffs. The paper looks into the alternative organisational arrangements being used by the programme and identifies problem areas through a responsibility mapping. The tariff principle being followed by the programme is then analysed considering the alternative organisational forms and issues related to such pricing policies are identified. Possible alternative pricing options are then suggested. The paper finds that while the franchisee model is an innovative idea, it raises issues that the regulators should be concerned with. The programme has so far relied on the simplest franchisee model because of its ease of implementation but a transition to more complex alternatives would require careful considerations. (author)

  3. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Pholoho, Morojele.

    Full Text Available This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive anal [...] ysis offered makes use of the data generated from semi-structured interviews with 12 teachers in three primary schools. Basotho culture, superstitious symbolism, and family dynamics are found to be some of the factors that reinforce inequitable gender relations. The findings indicate how teachers exploited these factors to promote the polarisation of gender qualities, and to exalt masculinities at the expense of femininities. The paper argues for the promotion of counter-hegemonic discourses of gender, with an emphasis on conceptions of gender as multiple and fluid human qualities. It explains how paying attention to the cultural architecture of gender formations in localised contexts could become an effective strategy in promoting gender equality in schools.

  4. Challenges facing production grids

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  5. Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities

    Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina

    2013-01-01

    According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuniti...

  6. Building virtual bridges: how rural micro-enterprises develop social capital in online and face-to-face settings

    Townsend, Leanne; Wallace, Claire; Smart, Alison; Norman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    In rural UK, businesses are often isolated and have much to gain from healthy networks, yet studies show that many rural business owners fail to network effectively. Information communications technologies offer new ways to network that might benefit rural businesses by expanding their reach. This study looked at online and face-to-face networking behaviour among rural micro-enterprises in Scotland in relation to the development of bonding and bridging social capital. Given the challenges of ...

  7. The Double Disparity Facing Rural Local Health Departments.

    Harris, Jenine K; Beatty, Kate; Leider, J P; Knudson, Alana; Anderson, Britta L; Meit, Michael

    2016-03-18

    Residents of rural jurisdictions face significant health challenges, including some of the highest rates of risky health behaviors and worst health outcomes of any group in the country. Rural communities are served by smaller local health departments (LHDs) that are more understaffed and underfunded than their suburban and urban peers. As a result of history and current need, rural LHDs are more likely than their urban peers to be providers of direct health services, leading to relatively lower levels of population-focused activities. This review examines the double disparity faced by rural LHDs and their constituents: pervasively poorer health behaviors and outcomes and a historical lack of investment by local, state, and federal public health entities. PMID:26735428

  8. Challenges Facing Entrepreneurship in Nigeria

    Onyeka Uche Ofili

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is critical to the development of societies. Entrepreneurs however, cannot work in isolation; they need the right environment to thrive. The judicial system, the educational system, the financial system and generalgovernment policies should be such that encourage and promote entrepreneurship. Basic infrastructures such aspower, water, and transport systems are necessary to boost entrepreneurship. This paper looks at the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria and recomm...

  9. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-01-01

    The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that ...

  10. CHALLENGES FACING THE ESP PRACTITIONER

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ESP teacher has to face certain challenges in his profession: One of the biggest challenges of the ESP teacher is the fact that he/she lacks the necessary knowledge of the subject to teach Business English, for instance, some researchers believing that such courses should be taught by subject teachers. The task of teaching ESP by ESL teachers is not an easy one. Dudley- Evans and St. John pointed out its complexity, identifying five key roles of the ESP practitioner: teacher, course designer and materials provider, collaborator, researcher and evaluator and this is probably the biggest challenge of the profession. The ESP practitioner has also to be aware of the fact that using a foreign language for workplace or study purposes requires not only linguistic proficiency and knowledge but also knowledge of work –related and disciplinary concepts.Last but not least, another challenge for the ESP practitioner is the use of technology in class, a valuable tool for helping with traditional forms of teaching and for creating new forms of communicating.Thus, the ESP practitioner has many things in common with the teacher of general English: he has to be familiar with linguistic development and teaching theories ,he has to be aware of contemporary ideas related to his position and role and he has to become familiar with the new technologies which can be used to improve his methodology.However,his role is more complex than that of a General English teacher.

  11. El desafo de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnolgica para una artesana sostenible* Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Juan Carlos Pacheco Contreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnolgico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacur del Departamento de Atlntico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran mscaras en madera y artesanas en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalizacin. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinmica econmica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de produccin y utilizacin excesiva de recursos naturales, conducindolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnolgica y el balance ecolgico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de anlisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnolgica y ecolgica de la produccin artesanal.An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacur, located in the Department of Atlntico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacur, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the model. Based on the results obtained, a tool was designed for decision-making processes regarding the cultural, technological, and ecological productivity of handcraft production.

  12. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

  13. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Klter H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all positive development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  14. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  15. Building healthy cities: the experience and challenges faced by China

    Li, Bingqin

    2011-01-01

    Cities are crucial for China’s economic development. Further urbanisation is one of the key elements of post-central planning reform and is seen as the solution to rural poverty. However, as people concentrate in cities, they face various health challenges. These concern not only the provision of good health care services but also the prevention of disease, improving the quality of living environments and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

  16. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Of the approximately ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  17. Facing the challenge of multimorbidity

    Azaïs, Boris; Bowis, John; Wismar, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Multimorbidity is a major public health challenge that is rising up the political and health agenda at an accelerated rate. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity increases with age, more than half of the population with multimorbidity are under the age of 65 years [1], with social deprivation a key determinant of multimorbidity in young and middle-aged adults [2,3].From an individual’s perspective, multimorbidity reduces life expectancy [4–6], decreases physical functioning and quality of...

  18. Medical physics and challenges faced in Africa

    Individual medical physicists have presented many challenges which have greatly inhibited their input in patient care and management. To improve the role and recognition of medical physicists in Africa, FAMPO was established. This is the Federation of African Medical Physics Organisations. Its main role is to bridge the gap between individual medical physicists, existing medical physicist bodies and the International Organisation of Medical Physics (IOMP). It is a non profit making organisation. A qualified medical physicist is an individual who is competent to practice independently one or more of the sub fields of medical physics. i.e. therapeutic radiological, diagnostic radiological, medical nuclear and medical health. Their time should on average be distributed equally among three areas, clinical service and consultation, research and development, and teaching. All diagnostic and radiotherapy centres should have a well established comprehensive quality assurance programme in place, which should involve machine installation and calibration, source delivery and safety, operational procedures, clinical dosimetry and the whole treatment planning process. This should be followed according to national and international recommendations. A study was carried out to identify the challenges faced by medical physicists in Africa and the objectives of the study were; To identify the number of qualified medical physicists and their working experience in hospitals in African countries. To identify the level of involvement of medical physicists in the three areas of Nuclear medicine, Radiology and Radiotherapy in hospitals in African countries.To identify countries with recognised professional bodies governing medical physicists in African countries.To identify the challenges faced by medical physicists in African countries Methods and materials The study was conducted on thirteen medical physicists from seven African countries. i.e. Nigeria, Kenya, Libya, Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda and Ghana. A questionnaire was used to collect data inline with the objectives. The data collected was analysed to identify the correlation between the challenges identified and the objectives of FAMPO. Results and discussions Challenges faced by medical physicists in African countries There is shortage of qualified skilled medical physicists to man all the activities the three areas of Radiotherapy, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 5 The cost involved to obtain clinical training from the recognized training centres is high and there no local training centres. Training of qualified medical physicists has been done by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as little or no support is given to training medical physicists by individual governments. Lack of recognized bodies governing medical physicists, hence lack of coordination among medical physicists in a particular country and between countries in Africa. The law governing the use ionizing radiation is still weak in some African countries. Ignorance about the role of a medical physicist from the hospital managers and health ministries, hence limitation of their participation in research and publication. Lack of equipment has inhibited execution of their duties especially in areas of dosimetry, dose assessment and radiation monitoring. Hospitals have no budget for continuous education to fund conferences or congress attendance. Most of these conferences are commonly supported by international organizations like IAEA, WHO. Aims and Functions of FAMPO To promote improved quality service to patients and the community in the region. To promote the co-operation and communication between medical physics organization in the region, and where such organizations do not exist between individual medical physicists. To promote the profession and practice of medical physics and related activities in the region. To promote the advancement in status and standard of practice of medical physics profession. To promote and improve the training of medical physicists. To promote research and development in the field of medical physics. To promote appropriate use of technology to the benefit of rural populations. To organize and / or sponsor international conferences, regional and other meetings or courses. To collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations according to article 8 of the constitution. Conclusion a. The challenges identified in the study can be solved by effective execution of FAMPO.s objectives. b. Governments of African countries should support, train, employ and recognize more medical physicists to handle all radiation dose safety issues pertaining to all departments using ionizing radiation in medicine. There is need for training more qualified medical physicists in Africa and their role should not be ignored. d. Effective communication among the family of medical physicists in Africa should improve to solve the challenges faced in our countries. With the establishment of FAMPO, which is a virile regional chapter, the pride of all medical physicists in Africa, support and hard work of all FAMPO members will make medical physics in Africa shine and many lives of Africans saved

  19. Exploring the challenges faced by polytechnic students

    Matore, Mohd Effendi @ Ewan Mohd; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to identify other challenges besides those already faced by students, in seven polytechnics in Malaysia as a continuation to the previous research that had identified 52 main challenges faced by students using the Rasch Model. The explorative study focuses on the challenges that are not included in the Mooney Problem Checklist (MPCL). A total of 121 polytechnic students submitted 183 written responses through the open questions provided. Two hundred fifty two students had responded from a students' perspective on the dichotomous questions regarding their view on the challenges faced. The data was analysed qualitatively using the NVivo 8.0. The findings showed that students from Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP) gave the highest response, which was 56 (30.6%) and Politeknik Metro Kuala Lumpur (PMKL) had the lowest response of 2 (1.09%). Five dominant challenges were identified, which were the English language (32, 17.5%), learning (14, 7.7%), vehicles (13, 7.1%), information technology and communication (ICT) (13, 7.1%), and peers (11, 6.0%). This article, however, focus on three apparent challenges, namely, English language, vehicles, as well as computer and ICT, as the challenges of learning and peers had been analysed in the previous MPCL. The challenge of English language that had been raised was regarding the weakness in commanding the aspects of speech and fluency. The computer and ICT challenge covered the weakness in mastering ICT and computers, as well as computer breakdowns and low-performance computers. The challenge of vehicles emphasized the unavailability of vehicles to attend lectures and go elsewhere, lack of transportation service in the polytechnic and not having a valid driving license. These challenges are very relevant and need to be discussed in an effort to prepare polytechnics in facing the transformational process of polytechnics.

  20. Facing communication challenges in global software development

    Aranda, Gabriela N.; Vizcaíno, Aurora; Piattini Velthuis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The main challenges during global software development projects are related to the lack of face-to-face communication. Since stakeholders satisfaction is crucial as a factor that can infl uence a team performance, we have focused our research on the need of people feeling comfortable with the technology they use. In this article we introduce an approach that proposes a way of choosing the most suitable technology for a given group of people, taking advantage of information about stakeholders...

  1. Challenges Beginning Teachers Face in Hong Kong

    Lam, Bick-Har

    2014-01-01

    By conducting in-depth interviews with new teachers who are about to become full-time teachers and then reinterviewing them two years later, the author of this article presents how beginning teachers think and feel about teaching and describes the challenges they face as beginning teachers in the context of Hong Kong. The stories of the teachers,…

  2. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  3. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and

  4. Facing the challenges of a competitive market

    British Energy is one of the world's largest nuclear generating companies. This paper describes the business environment in which the company competes, its strategic responses to the challenges it faces, and gives some conclusions regarding the priorities for the nuclear generation industry if it is to thrive as a mainstream source of energy. (author)

  5. Challenges Facing Early Career Academic Cardiologists

    Tong, Carl W.; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T. Jared; Damp, Julie B.; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A.; Hilliard, Anthony A.; Houser, Steven R.; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M.; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Early-career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology (ACC) completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: (1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists, (2) gene...

  6. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Dumitriu, Diana-Luiza

    2015-01-01

    While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one r...

  7. Challenges facing early career academic cardiologists.

    Tong, Carl W; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T Jared; Damp, Julie B; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A; Hilliard, Anthony A; Houser, Steven R; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J; Rzeszut, Anne K; Sivaram, Chittur A; Valente, Anne Marie; Freeman, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Early career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: 1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists; 2) general challenges to all categories and specific challenges to each category; 3) obstacles as identified by a survey of current early career members of the American College of Cardiology; 4) major reasons for the failure of physician-scientists to receive funding from National Institute of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute career development grants; 5) potential solutions; and 6) a call to action with specific recommendations. PMID:24703919

  8. Challenges facing water management in China

    The amount of water per person in northern China is less than half of that in Egypt, a country with very scarce water resources. Clearly, then, China is one of the regions on our planet that is going to have to face severe problems of water supply in the future. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation growing agricultural output, environmental degradation, climatic instability, a large population density and worsening regional disparities are all factors that will challenge the management and utilisation of China's water resources in the years to come. (orig.)

  9. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Diana-Luiza DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.

  10. Plasma facing components: Challenges for nuclear materials

    In current fusion devices, the components located in front of plasma, the so-called plasma facing components (PFCs), sustain severe constraints such as high thermal flux (several MW/m2), erosion, flux of particles. The management of this first material interface is critical from a plasma performance point of view. ITER, as nuclear facility, is initiating a new era for fusion, which will be reinforced for a future fusion power plant which will add specific requirements (sufficient lifetime, a cooling system to produce energy, use of low activation material) while increasing nuclear constraints. The talk will recall in a first part the main requirements of an actively plasma facing components and the main results obtained with low-Z carbon based PFCs (mainly CFC). Experimental feedback from these challenging components is an essential step for the success of the next generation of components, in particular in term of manufacturing or handling intense heat loads. Nuclear safety requirements mainly drive the need of new materials for the nuclear phase of ITER. The tritium retention in carbon based PFCs and the strong erosion are expected to be too high in the Deuterium-Tritium phase with CFC targets, justifying the use of high-Z materials. The evolution toward high-Z materials, with tungsten the most promising, becomes a major challenge for fusion research. Large scale experiences with W have only been obtained recently with the operation of ASDEX-upgrade and JET tokamaks but with non-actively cooled PFCs. ASDEX-upgraded is equipped with W coated carbon PFCs while JET includes W coated carbon PFC and inertially cooled solid W, using in all cases a technology not relevant for ITER. Extensive R and D programmes have been performed in Europe to develop reliable actively PFCs for ITER [1-5]. The state of the art will be presented including specific devices needed to fully qualify, at laboratory scale, designs foreseen for ITER. In order to reduce the risks and anticipate any difficulties ITER may face in terms of manufacturing or operation, it is proposed to update Tore Supra with a full W first wall and divertor, benefiting from the unique long pulse capabilities of the Tore Supra platform, the high installed power and the long history of operation with actively cooled high heat flux components [6]. The main goals of the 'WEST' project (W - for tungsten -Environment in Steady-state Tokamak, figure 1) will be presented. The talk will also address acknowledged gaps in PFCs developments for DEMO, which require extensive studies in different topics, from plasma-surface interaction to engineering including material sciences. Further challenges address simultaneously the higher power density, high-temperature wall, bulk (neutron) and surface (charged particle) accumulated damage. The high neutron fluence expected in a fusion reactor (more than 10 dpa/year) will affect erosion and tritium retention properties of materials. Near-surface material properties will be for instance altered by the neutron damage. Such synergistic effects are expected to be important in the DEMO environment and are difficult to be addressed experimentally. A more robust coupling of materials development, including fundamentally studies, with advanced design is required. If tungsten is the most promising material for the plasma-facing, tungsten also offers less favorable properties (recrystallization, which influences the mechanical properties, embrittlement as a result of neutron-induced damages, He-induced sputtering..) that have to be resolved. Only a global approach, including fundamental science, material development, joining/welding techniques, design innovation and a close link with plasma physics is able to reach the necessary level of credibility for operating such components in a fusion environment in an economically reasonable way. (authors)

  11. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  12. What are the challenges facing our industry

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  13. What are the challenges facing our industry

    This presentation relates to the changing business climate of the petroleum industry worldwide. The author gives a touch on the changes of what the industry is facing and the response together with the keys to long-term shareholder value

  14. Rapid Urbanization and the Aspiration and Challenge of Second-Generation Urban-Rural Migrants

    Jialing, Han

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the features of second-generation rural migrants and the challenges facing them in terms of schooling and employment. There is a gap that is hard for them to step over: barriers against social inclusion. The article concludes that poverty tends to pass on to the next generation and fossilize. Therefore, it is vital to

  15. Psychosocial challenges facing physicians of today.

    Arnetz, B B

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental changes in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care have added new stressors or opportunities to the medical profession. These new potential stressors are in addition to previously recognized external and internal ones. The work environment of physicians poses both psychosocial, ergonomic, and physico-chemical threats. The psychosocial work environment has, if anything, worsened. Demands at work increase at the same time as influence over one's work and intellectual stimulation from work decrease. In addition, violence and the threat of violence is another major occupational health problem physicians increasingly face. Financial constraint, managed care and consumerism in health care are other factors that fundamentally change the role of physicians. The rapid deployment of new information technologies will also change the role of the physician towards being more of an advisor and information provider. Many of the minor health problems will increasingly be managed by patients themselves and by non-physician professionals and practitioners of complementary medicine. Finally, the economic and social status of physicians are challenged which is reflected in a slower salary increase compared to many other professional groups. The picture painted above may be seen as uniformly gloomy. In reality, that is not the case. There is growing interest in and awareness of the importance of the psychosocial work environment for the delivery of high quality care. Physicians under stress are more likely to treat patients poorly, both medically and psychologically. They are also more prone to make errors of judgment. Studies where physicians' work environment in entire hospitals has been assessed, results fed-back, and physicians and management have worked with focused improvement processes, have demonstrated measurable improvements in the ratings of the psychosocial work environment. However, it becomes clear from such studies that quality of the leadership and the physician team impact on the overall work atmosphere. Physicians unaware of the goals of the department as well as the hospital, that do not receive management performance feedback, and who do not get annual performance appraisals and career guidance, rate their psychosocial environment as more adverse than their colleagues. There is also a great need to offer personally targeted competence development plans. Heads of department and senior physicians rate their work environment as of higher quality than more junior and mid-career physicians. More specifically, less senior physicians perceive similar work demands as their senior colleagues but rate influence over work, skills utilization, and intellectual stimulation at work as significantly worse. In order to combat negative stressors in the physicians' work environment, enhancement initiatives should be considered both at the individual, group, and structural level. Successful resources used by physicians to manage the stress of everyday medicine should be identified. Physicians are a key group to ensure a well-functioning health care system. In order to be able to change and adapt to the ongoing evolution of the Western health care system, more focus needs to be put on the psychosocial aspects of physicians' work. PMID:11144776

  16. Major Challenges of Iranian Rural Communities for Achieving Sustainable Development

    Khalil Kalantari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural population in Iran live in an unstable environment and geographically, villages are extremely diverse and more than 65% of them have population less than 250 persons, which do not provide sufficient population threshold for most of services and sustainable economic and job creation activities. Only 7.5% of rural areas have population more than 1000 persons. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out major challenges of Iranian rural communities for achieving sustainable development. Approach: To fulfill this objective, 60 rural development experts who are engaged in government organizations relevant to rural development, were randomly selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbachs alpha of 0.83. To arrive to consensus of experts opinion, factor analysis was used to achieve data reduction and extract factors. Results: In total, 5 factors, including "economic", "management and planning", "environmental", "social" and "physical challenges" were identified. These factors explained 65.52% of challenges to achieving sustainable development in rural areas in Iran. Conclusion: Diversification of rural economy, supporting job creation activities, promoting sustainable rural tourism, business and industrial activities, establishing a stable urban-rural network are among important agenda which can create an appropriate condition for sustainable development in Iranian rural communities.

  17. Facing Multiculturalism's Challenges in Korean Education and Society

    Olneck, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are "dilemmas of difference," "variable terms of inclusion," and "legitimacy." In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and…

  18. Nurse educator's competencies: facing the challenges

    Dury, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    This symposium proposes presentations related to nurse educators competencies and the challenges links to their new roles. The evolution of the nurses training at the European level asks the teacher to develop high-level disciplinary skills but also educational skills. There are lots of challenges to develop nurse educator competencies. The role of the teachers is not any more to transmit disciplinary knowledge but to become experts in group management, colleagues teamwork, reflective practic...

  19. Facing the challenges in exporting in Russia

    Tulinen, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the specific and concrete logistical problems that small- and medium sized enterprises face as they export their manufactures to Russia. Another aim is to name some of the benefits achieved from Russia’s future membership to WTO that might ease exporting to Russia. The theoretical part of the thesis discusses the topics of international trade and exporting. The international trade part explains the fundamentals of the international business environment...

  20. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  1. Lessons on rural development, challenges and approaches

    Absalón Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, the Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist policies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.

  2. The challenges facing hydroelectric power in Europe

    The single major challenge for hydroelectric power stations today is the durability of production. Environmental management has to be rethought, climate change integrated, but also the economic role of hydroelectricity reassessed. More generally, the challenge of energy transition in which hydroelectricity will have primary role must be met. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions, underway in some European countries, must be placed in this context. By using as examples Switzerland and France, the author sets out to show that this rethink can be an opportunity to put into practice new ways of management for this sector. (author)

  3. Challenges facing holographic models of QCD

    Cohen, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    This paper, written in memory of Manoj Banerjee, takes a critical look at holographic models of QCD focusing on ``practical'' models in which the five dimensional theory is treated classically. A number of theoretical and phenomenological challenges to the approach are discussed.

  4. Facing the LISA data analysis challenge

    By being the first observatory to survey the source rich low frequency region of the gravitational wave spectrum, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. For the first time we will be able to detect the gravitational radiation from millions of galactic binaries, the coalescence of two massive black holes, and the inspirals of compact objects into massive black holes. The signals from multiple sources in each class, and possibly others as well, will be simultaneously present in the data. To achieve the enormous scientific return possible with LISA, sophisticated data analysis techniques must be developed which can mine the complex data in an effort to isolate and characterize individual signals. This proceedings paper very briefly summarizes the challenges associated with analyzing the LISA data, the current state of affairs, and the necessary next steps to move forward in addressing the imminent challenges

  5. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  6. Challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations

    Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are increasing in their importance to both the nuclear safety regulatory bodies and the nuclear industry. In the changing technological, economic and social environment surrounding TSOs, the scope of their role has also been changing. In particular, TSOs providing support to the safety regulatory bodies are facing a number of technical challenges to ensuring the safety of nuclear installations over the plant life cycle; at the same time, they are facing managerial challenges such as maintaining technical competence and improving performance. The paper gives an overview of the current challenges faced by TSOs and the future challenges that could be expected, as well as some approaches to or remedies for these identified problems, focusing on safety regulation of nuclear installations. TSOs providing support to nuclear regulators must have strategic plans to cope with these challenges effectively and efficiently, and to provide adequate technical assistance to the regulators for their regulatory decision making and administrative measures. (author)

  7. Face up to challenge of virology world.

    Pang, Xiaoli Lilly

    2012-02-12

    Welcome to the World Journal of Virology (WJV), a new member of the World Journal Series. The World Journal Series was first launched as a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering aspects of research, diagnostics and clinical practice in biomedicine in 1995. WJV is an online and open-access peer-reviewed periodical focusing on virology. WJV covers a variety of topics in different areas of virology, including advances in basic research, updates in nomenclature, the development of novel diagnostic assays, the epidemiology of viral disorders and, new developments in the clinical management of viral diseases, including new vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. The purpose in launching the WJV is to promote knowledge exchange related to the classic human viruses as well as newly emerging viruses and their associated clinical disorders. Continually updating knowledge in a timely manner in this field where information related to the unceasing evolution of viruses is becoming available at a rapid pace is challenging. Thanks to the World-Wide-Web we are able to provide a podium for all authors and readers of WJV to address this challenge. I would like to acknowledge the Baishideng publisher, the members of the editorial board, and all contributing authors involved in this inaugural issue of the WJV. I sincerely hope all readers, i.e. future contributing authors, will like WJV and we look forward to your input in assisting WJV to grow and mature. PMID:24175205

  8. CONSTRAINTS FACED BY RURAL WOMEN DAIRY FARMERS IN VIRUDHUNAGAR DISTRICT

    K. Marichamy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of women entrepreneurship is largely confined to metropolitan cities and big towns in India. Most of the women entrepreneurs operate small scale units. However, women entrepreneurs are found in rural areas also. A rural women entrepreneur is a women or group of women who undertake to organize and run an farm in rural area. The women folk can easily be considered as backbone of any nation and better half of the man in almost all spheres of community exception. Rural women, who constitute about 50% of total rural population, play an active role in all spheres of economic life and contribute richly towards national income. Of the major rural enterprise, dairy enterprise has been regarded as an important instrument of economic and social change to supplement in income and employment to rural sector in general and rural women in particular.

  9. S. Africa's metallurgists face great challenges

    Uranium could pose one of the greatest challenges to South African metallurgy in the coming years. South Africa has the advantage of a good supply of uranium which occur as a by-product of gold mining. Looking at ore reserves, in the case of most metals and minerals it is unlikely that many spectacular new large high-grade deposits will be found. What metallurgists would have to do is to concentrate on the development of techniques related to existing processes and others completely different, which would enable the treatment of low-grade mineral deposits. Southern Africa's mineral resources will continue to be exploited and in the absence of complete change throughout the area there will be an important place for South Africans properly trained and prepared to give all they can do to this continued development

  10. Environmental challenges facing military base closures

    Pomerleau, N.M.; Cunanan, P.P.; Lingo, R. [U.S. Army Material Command, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental remediation activities at military bases mandated for closure or realignment pose unique technical and managerial challenges to meet statutory requirements and community interests. Past industrial activities at Department of Army installations involving weapons development, testing, and repairs present extremely diverse problems for cleanup. The combination of environmental and defense statutory requirements present even greater challenges to assure that remediation activities are accelerated to render bases available for early re-use. The inclusion of bases on the National Priorities List and the need to consider socio-economic factors in identifying alternative uses of military bases and public involvement become significant factors in environment decisionmaking. Specific statutory authorities enable military facilities to identify uncontaminated parcels and allow property to be deeded, upon demonstration that an approved remedy is operating properly and successfully, while long-term cleanup of the entire installation continues. Successful cleanup strategies also require effective communication with public and disparate community interest groups. To speed the economic recovery of communities with closing military bases, the Clinton Administration has pledged to reduce the delays normally associated with environmental remediation activities. This article examines four core issues in the decontamination process: complexities associated with accelerating remediation activities at Army installations; managing the process within the constraints of limited resources; the public`s early involvement in shaping environmental contamination. The complexities presented by closing military bases and assuring environmental compliance have resulted in the development and implementation of several innovative methods that may prove useful to non-defense environmental situations. Examples of these methods and a discussion of strategies will be presented.

  11. Challenges IT Instructors Face in the Self-Education Process

    Ruzic-Dimitrijevic, Ljiljana; Dimitrijevic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Every few years, there is a breakthrough in information technology, introducing a new concept that becomes widely used. This paper deals with the challenges IT (information technology) instructors face due to these rapid developments in the IT industry. More specifically, we are interested in the challenges instructors of the introductory IT…

  12. Challenges and Opportunities of Indian Rural Market

    Pardeep Kumar1

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the growth of the Indian economy after starting of liberalization and globalisation policy in 1991 hasbeen substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural habitants. Since Green revolution in India, the ruralareas are started to use a large quantity of consumable and non-consumable products. In this way, ruralmarketing has been used as a strategy to combat against the competition by the marketers. The rural marketingand agricultural marketing prior to globalisation of Indi...

  13. Rural Roads: The Challenge of Decentralized Implementation

    Simon D. Ellis; Aurelio Menendez

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the key elements required for effective decentralized implementation of rural roads programs. It will review the range of options available and the evidence for successful implementation where it exists. Section 2 makes the case for the importance of rural roads and sets out the evidence for the socio-economic benefits. Section 3 addresses the responsibilities for implementation and critical importance of having clarity over network ownership. Section 4 highlights the d...

  14. Disadvantaged Rural Health – Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ‘upside-down’ perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location–allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  15. CONSTRAINTS FACED BY RURAL WOMEN DAIRY FARMERS IN VIRUDHUNAGAR DISTRICT

    K. Marichamy; N. Aananthi; S. Lakshmanamoorthy

    2014-01-01

    The phenomena of women entrepreneurship is largely confined to metropolitan cities and big towns in India. Most of the women entrepreneurs operate small scale units. However, women entrepreneurs are found in rural areas also. A rural women entrepreneur is a women or group of women who undertake to organize and run an farm in rural area. The women folk can easily be considered as backbone of any nation and better half of the man in almost all spheres of community exception....

  16. Rural Recreation: Concepts, Concerns and Challenges.

    Neal, Larry L.; Long, Patrick T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses seven factors that impact upon the establishment/support of recreation/leisure services in rural environments: scale, recreation economics, community customs/traditions, work cycle, program delivery, focus on family, attitudinal variances. Examines how each factor has been used to justify limiting recreational opportunities and provides

  17. NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS

    BOBE Claudia-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  18. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    M. J. Naude

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  19. Major Challenges of Iranian Rural Communities for Achieving Sustainable Development

    Khalil Kalantari; Hossein S. Fami; Ali Asadi; Iraj Qasemi; Shahla Chubchian

    2008-01-01

    Problem statement: Rural population in Iran live in an unstable environment and geographically, villages are extremely diverse and more than 65% of them have population less than 250 persons, which do not provide sufficient population threshold for most of services and sustainable economic and job creation activities. Only 7.5% of rural areas have population more than 1000 persons. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to find out major challenges of Irani...

  20. Upper Egypt--Challenges and Priorities for Rural Development

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This sector report on Challenges and Priorities for Rural Development analyzes why Upper Egypt has lagged behind the rest of the country and to help the Government of Egypt and stakeholders to define a framework for interventions to promote broad-based economic growth and human development that will reach the poor and improve welfare in rural Upper Egypt. To achieve this objective, the str...

  1. Challenges of urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing and child rearing

    Jahanaara Razick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was earned out to explore the challenges faced by urban & rural working women with regard to their child bearing & child rearing. Arandom sample 200 working women from urban (100 & rural (100 area of (Chennai, Kundrathur, Gudiyatham were selected. A questionnaire was formulated by the investigator consisting of fifty questions with five domains, having 10 questions, in each domain, which was administered to the subjects and responses were collected. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis and the results were interpreted. The results revealed that both urban and rural pregnant working women experienced the discomforts of pregnancy alike. The support services available to urban pregnant women were less compared to the rural pregnant working women. Urban pregnant women enjoyed the privilege of availing 6 months maternity leave, whereas the rural working women, resorts to work after a month or 40 days after delivery. It is interesting to note that rural women get the opportunity to breast feed their babies till 2 or 2-1/2 years, than the urban working ladies. With regard to stress experienced at work accompanied by feeling of guilt in child rearing, rural women were at ease at their work place than the urban women, who work in shifts and are away from home, spending less time with the growing child.

  2. Issues, Challenges, and Trends, that Facing Hospitality Industry

    WANG Jing; Jin-zhao WANG

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: This article presents findings of issues, challenges and trends that hospitality industry might fact in the year ahead respectively. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key tren...

  3. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  4. Strategies for the Challenges Facing Women in Higher Education Administration.

    Rehnke, Mary Ann

    Women administrators in higher education must deal not only with the usual challenges facing administrators (decision-making, resolving conflict, and advancing professionally), but also with the effects of sex stereotyping. Women are not seen as decision-makers, nor as conflict-resolvers, and are often viewed as supporting personnel rather than…

  5. Scenario of Rural Electrification in India- Challenges and Impact

    Nidhi verma; Ishaan dua; Naresh kumari

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the present scenario of rural electrification in India is taken into account. Basically, the electrification in this country is facing a lot of problem and is a growing matter of concern for all. The development in production is not reaching the one who need them. Also taking into picture the present sources of energy it is difficult to make the electricity available to the people belonging to rural areas who don’t have much source of income. To overcome this drawba...

  6. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Jubin Varghese; Nathan Grills; Kaaren Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intell...

  7. The Challenges of Blending a Face-to-Face Laboratory Experience with a Televised Distance Education Course

    LeDrew, June; Cummings-Vickaryous, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the practical challenges faced by instructors who must blend a face-to-face laboratory experience into a distance education course. This issue is discussed in the context of an ongoing kinesiology and health course that includes a mandatory physical activity laboratory experience. The challenges that have arisen around this…

  8. Computerization of Rural Banks in Ghana-Issues and Challenges

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses issues and challenges encountered in a computerization project being carried out by the ARB Apex Bank to connect rural and community banks in Ghana. Computerization of banking has been going on in the country for some time now. Unlike the commercial banks, the rural banks lag behind with regards to computer and networking technologies. The ARB Apex Bank therefore embarked on the project to make the benefits of such technologies available to member rural banks. The study selected some rural banks engaged in the first phase of the project. Fifty respondents sampled from staff of the selected banks and experts involved in the project, were interviewed. The study concluded that, on the whole, the project was well designed and implemented; envisaged challenges were adequately specified and catered for and that the first phase progressed successfully. Staff beneficiaries were found to be actively involved in the project and majority of them agreed that the project was within time and budget. The study identified that, on completion, the project will enable the rural banks compete favourably with the commercial banks in the financial market. This will lead to improved service delivery to customers and greater customer satisfaction. In addition, complete computerization and networking will lead to improved monitoring of rural banks in order to reduce financial malpractices. The project will also promote intra/inter bank transactions, peer interaction and peer monitoring among the networked members. The aggregate returns will bring greater efficiency, lower cost of operation and increased profitability and sustainability to the Ghanaian rural banks.

  9. Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship

    Darryl Maybery

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

  10. Solutions to challenges facing a university digital library and press.

    D'Alessandro, M P; Galvin, J R; Colbert, S I; D'Alessandro, D M; Choi, T A; Aker, B D; Carlson, W S; Pelzer, G D

    2000-01-01

    During the creation of a university digital library and press intended to serve as a medical reference and education tool for health care providers and their patients, six distinct and complex digital publishing challenges were encountered. Over nine years, through a multidisciplinary approach, solutions were devised to the challenges of digital content ownership, management, mirroring, translation, interactions with users, and archiving. The result is a unique, author-owned, internationally mirrored, university digital library and press that serves as an authoritative medical reference and education tool for users around the world. The purpose of this paper is to share the valuable digital publishing lessons learned and outline the challenges facing university digital libraries and presses. PMID:10833161

  11. Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England

    Pam Carter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The article describes these new organisational structures for PPI and shows how those who seek to influence planning and delivery of services or comment or complain about aspects of their care face considerable complexity. This is due, in part, to the ambiguous remit set out for newly instigated Healthwatch organisations by government. Drawing on governance theory, we show that it can also be understood as a function of an increasingly polycentric governance arena. Challenges that flow from this include problems of specifying jurisdictional responsibility, accountability, and legitimacy. We review Healthwatch progress to date, then we set out four challenges facing local Healthwatch organisations before discussing the implications of these for patients and the public. The first challenge relates to non-coterminous boundaries and jurisdictional integrity. Secondly, establishing the unique features of Healthwatch is problematic in the crowded PPI arena. The third challenge arises from limited resources as well as the fact that resources flow to Healthwatch from the local authorities that Healthwatch are expected to hold to account. The fourth challenge we identify is how local Healthwatch organisations negotiate the complexity of being a partner to statutory and other organisations, while at the same time being expected to champion local people’s views.

  12. Challenges Faced by Expatriate Workers in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Pranav Naithani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last six decades, reliance of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries economy on expatriate workforce has increased incessantly. Majority of private sector workforce in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries are expatriates. Recent attempts by governments in GCC countries to localise the workforce, through their workforce nationalisation programmes, have offered limited results. Thus dependence on expatriate workforce will continue in near future and GCC countries, short of professionally and technically qualified local workers will need to employee a large number of expatriates to support their economic and social developments plans. This calls for a systematic approach to understand the specific challenges faced by expatriates of different nationalities in GCC countries, so that these challenges can be addressed to enable GCC countries to become a preferred destination for technically and professionally qualified expatriate workers. This paper presents an overview of GCC countries; reasons for their dependence on expatriate workforce; key current challenges faced by expatriates in GCC countries and suggestions for facilitating adjustment of expatriate workers in GCC countries.

  13. Challenges faced by developing countries in nuclear power deployment

    Full text: Analysis of future domestic electricity demand and supply conducted by official UAE entities has concluded that increasing demand for electricity is fast outstripping the growth in supply. Total electricity demand in the UAE is expected to rise from approximately 15,000 megawatts to 42,000 megawatts by 2020. Significant new generation capacity must be constructed and brought on-line. It was concluded that peaceful nuclear power-generation represents an environmentally promising and commercially competitive option which could make a significant contribution to the UAE's economy and future energy security. To make clear its intentions with regard to nuclear power, the Government of the UAE has prepared and formally endorsed its 'Policy on the Evaluation and Potential Implementation o Peaceful Nuclear Energy' as a reflection of its views on the potential establishment of a peaceful civilian nuclear energy program. The policy defines the framework under which the program will be developed and is based on principles of transparency, highest standards of safety, security and non-proliferation , and working directly with the IAEA and responsible nations of expertise. Many challenges face developing countries embarking on the development of a civil nuclear energy program. Challenges include initial questions such as where and when a nation should start planning. Other challenges are related to the development of required infrastructure in legislation, regulatory, human resources, and institutional structure. Further challenges are faced at the time of transforming guidance and recommendations into an implementation plan and the execution of such plan in an effective manner. The UAE has addressed many of these challenges by conventional and sometimes innovative ways in developing the required infrastructure and moving into the implementation phase of the program. Starting from almost no nuclear energy infrastructure, these plans are being conducted today in the UAE with an expanding number of domestic and international stakeholders. (author)

  14. Objective 3D face recognition: Evolution, approaches and challenges.

    Smeets, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Clement, John Gerald

    2010-09-10

    Face recognition is a natural human ability and a widely accepted identification and authentication method. In modern legal settings, a lot of credence is placed on identifications made by eyewitnesses. Consequently these are based on human perception which is often flawed and can lead to situations where identity is disputed. Therefore, there is a clear need to secure identifications in an objective way based on anthropometric measures. Anthropometry has existed for many years and has evolved with each advent of new technology and computing power. As a result of this, face recognition methodology has shifted from a purely 2D image-based approach to the use of 3D facial shape. However, one of the main challenges still remaining is the non-rigid structure of the face, which can change permanently over varying time-scales and briefly with facial expressions. The majority of face recognition methods have been developed by scientists with a very technical background such as biometry, pattern recognition and computer vision. This article strives to bridge the gap between these communities and the forensic science end-users. A concise review of face recognition using 3D shape is given. Methods using 3D shape applied to data embodying facial expressions are tabulated for reference. From this list a categorization of different strategies to deal with expressions is presented. The underlying concepts and practical issues relating to the application of each strategy are given, without going into technical details. The discussion clearly articulates the justification to establish archival, reference databases to compare and evaluate different strategies. PMID:20395086

  15. A STUDY ON CHALLENGES FACED BY CHILDREN OF HIV PATIENTS

    P.KANIMOZHI; A. Sajitha Qadir

    2012-01-01

    The present study strives to find the challenges faced by children of HIVpatients. The samples were taken from a NGO organization in Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu. A random sample of 80 children of HIV patients who were distributed as 40 infected children and 40 affected children were chosen for the study. Each of these 40 children were further divided into 20 boys and 20 girls. The tool used for the study was formulated by the investigator.The result of the study revealed that boys of HIV patie...

  16. Facing the challenges. New structures in the energy business

    The utility sector is facing big challenges over the short, mid and long term. All utilities have to meet three challenges, a so-called trilemma: They must optimise between security of supply, profitability and the environment while dealing with the liberalisation and the parallel integration of energy markets as well as the huge need for modernisation and investment in the asset base. The role of the utility sector in climate protection is evident. The same applies to the European-wide need for modernisation of grid and generation assets. The possible answer for integrated utilities could be a structural change with a turn to cross-regional focussing along the whole value chain. (orig.)

  17. Boom or Bust: Opportunities and Challenges of Aging in Rural Kansas

    Ben Bolender

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Population aging is gaining a great deal of attention as we move toward the retirement of the Baby Boom generation. However, few studies have examined the processes and consequences of these aging trends in rural Kansas-and by extension, the Great Plains-at the community level. To that end, this project examines the community level impacts of population aging in rural Kansas. Primary methods included statistical community profile comparisons, site visits, and key informant interviews with local area leaders. The research team examined three non-metropolitan Kansas counties, two that were aging in place and one that is the single officially defined retirement migration destination in Kansas. Results indicate that areas that are aging in place also face significant challenges sustaining their population and economic structure. The retirement destination, on the other hand, has managed to slow population loss and economic decline through a certain combination of economic structure, family relations, local culture, and appropriate services.

  18. Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

  19. OS CAMPONESES FACE À EXTENSÃO RURAL

    Joel Orlando Marin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O artigo aponta que as práticas sociais dos camponeses frente à Extensão Rural são ambíguas e contraditórias, resultando em conformismo e resistên-cia. Por um lado, a supremacia do conhecimento científico, o caráter impositivo das práticas educacionais extensionistas, o controle através do crédito agrícola e dos pacotes tecnológicos são mecanismos de imposição de novos conhecimentos e tecnologias que, assi-milados pêlos camponeses, conformam-nos à hegemonia da sociedade capitalista. Por outro lado, os camponeses resistem à essa racionalidade tecnológica, fundamentando-se em sua forma própria de organizar a produção agrícola, na sua cultura e saberes adquiridos em suas experiências de vida.

  20. Environmental Sustainability: The Challenge for the Rural Women in Nigeria

    Aluko, T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given our settlement pattern as evident in Nigeria, it is expedient to note that the country's population spread has shown considerably that we have older women and children dwelling within the rural areas of the country and doing subsistence job on their respective farms so as to keep them going. Given this trend, their quest for survival at the face of the eminent economic pressures has sent many into pursuing vigorously the best option in survival strategy with utmost aim of making life bearable for them within the changing society of ours by their subsisting on nature. The consequences of such effort demonstrated the government's total neglect of women's need. Therefore, this study looked at these issues from the feminist perspective as they relate to women's need. Also, the plight of the rural dwelling women, their survival strategy, the poverty syndrome and the planned action of the government in the effect to salvage the impending problems which women's quest for survival in the rural areas will cause the Nation as a whole have been studied. Our submission is arrived at as a result of our observations in villages such as Eye-Korin, Gambari, Lasoju, Gbede and Ote among others in Asa Local Government are of Kwara State in Nigeria. Consequently, this study proposes a premise for the re-awakening of all parties to the needs of not just women alone, but the environment that all must collectively preserve lest the consequential effects which such neglect will cause will be enormous.

  1. Scenario of Rural Electrification in India- Challenges and Impact

    Nidhi verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the present scenario of rural electrification in India is taken into account. Basically, the electrification in this country is facing a lot of problem and is a growing matter of concern for all. The development in production is not reaching the one who need them. Also taking into picture the present sources of energy it is difficult to make the electricity available to the people belonging to rural areas who don’t have much source of income. To overcome this drawback we can utilise renewable sources of energy which is easily available and accessible. Also harvesting this will not cost much except the initial cost of setting up the device to utilise this type of energy. Many projects have been initiated by the government of India to provide subsidy and equipments like solar lantern and solar cooker etc. to the rural population but this didn’t turn out to be effective as the follow could not be done by the people to maintain the devices. This can be overcome by implementing off-grid projects which can be initiated at small levels so that people don’t have burden to maintain them and it even don’t have any adverse effect to environment or society.

  2. Challenges Faced by Refugee New Parents from Africa in Canada.

    Stewart, M; Dennis, C L; Kariwo, M; Kushner, K E; Letourneau, N; Makumbe, K; Makwarimba, E; Shizha, E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines challenges faced by refugee new parents from Africa in Canada. Refugee new parents from Zimbabwe (n=36) and Sudan (n=36) were interviewed individually about challenges of coping concurrently with migration and new parenthood and completed loneliness and trauma/stress measures. Four group interviews with refugee new parents (n=30) were subsequently conducted. Participants reported isolation, loneliness, and stress linked to migration and new parenthood. New gender roles evoked marital discord. Barriers to health-related services included language. Compounding challenges included discrimination, time restrictions for financial support, prolonged immigration and family reunification processes, uncoordinated government services, and culturally insensitive policies. The results reinforce the need for research on influences of refugees' stressful experiences on parenting and potential role of social support in mitigating effects of stress among refugee new parents. Language services should be integrated within health systems to facilitate provision of information, affirmation, and emotional support to refugee new parents. Our study reinforces the need for culturally appropriate services that mobilize and sustain support in health and health related (e.g., education, employment, immigration) policies. PMID:24989494

  3. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  4. Survive or thrive?: Challenges facing the minerals industry

    Stewart, D. [Pasminco Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    Challenges facing the Australian minerals industry include the passage of Native Title legislation, increasing pressure to adopt a Code of Practice, declining profitability, the changing nature of employment, and community demands for greater disclosure and accountability. For the industry to thrive, expectations of the major stakeholders, customers, shareholders, communities and employees must be balanced. The relationship with the community includes local communities, indigenous communities and the broader community, particularly in relation to environmental performance. Pressure to adopt a Code of Practice has arisen as a result of media coverage of environmental incidents at mining operations in Australia and overseas. By seeking a greater level of communication and debate, and responding to changing expectations, the minerals industry will ensure a secure future in Australia. (author). 4 figs.

  5. Electronic health systems: challenges faced by hospital-based providers.

    Agno, Christina Farala; Guo, Kristina L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss specific challenges faced by hospitals adopting the use of electronic medical records and implementing electronic health record (EHR) systems. Challenges include user and information technology support; ease of technical use and software interface capabilities; compliance; and financial, legal, workforce training, and development issues. Electronic health records are essential to preventing medical errors, increasing consumer trust and use of the health system, and improving quality and overall efficiency. Government efforts are focused on ways to accelerate the adoption and use of EHRs as a means of facilitating data sharing, protecting health information privacy and security, quickly identifying emerging public health threats, and reducing medical errors and health care costs and increasing quality of care. This article will discuss physician and nonphysician staff training before, during, and after implementation; the effective use of EHR systems' technical features; the selection of a capable and secure EHR system; and the development of collaborative system implementation. Strategies that are necessary to help health care providers achieve successful implementation of EHR systems will be addressed. PMID:23903942

  6. Facing the challenges of nuclear power at Ontario Power Generation

    Nuclear power represents a major portion of Ontario Power Generation's generation mix and it will be the bedrock upon which we build a successful, competitive company. Our nuclear units offer many environmental and economic benefits, the one most relevant to this meeting is their significant contribution to the relatively low carbon intensity of Ontario's and Canada's electricity supply. In recent weeks, we have listened with great interest to the endorsement by our federal Minister of the Environment of nuclear technology as a means of reducing global warming. But endorsements of this type alone are not sufficient to ensure that nuclear remains an acceptable option for managing greenhouse gas emissions. Without public acceptance and support, the entire nuclear investment is endangered. At OPG we face three challenges to building this public support: we must continue to improve our safety margins and operating performance; we must continue to improve the environmental performance at our stations; and we must increase our community outreach. Today I would like to focus on the last two challenges and the actions that we are taking to maintain our social and environmental 'licence to operate.' But before I describe these initiatives, I will tell you about: the new company - Ontario Power Generation; the changes in store for Ontario's electricity sector; and our greenhouse gas emissions - the legacy from Ontario Hydro. (author)

  7. Study of Different Face Recognition Algorithms and Challenges

    Uma Shankar Kurmi; Dheeraj Agrawal; R.K Baghel

    2014-01-01

    At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA) or Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face...

  8. Stroke care challenges in rural India: Awareness of causes, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke among the rural communities

    Kanaga Lakshmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.

  9. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Azano, Amy Price; Stewart, Trevor Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to…

  10. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Amy Price Azano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teachers for successful student teaching placements and, ideally, eventual careers in rural schools. In this study, we explore teacher candidates’ perceptions of rurality while examining how specific theory, pedagogy, and practice influence their feelings of preparedness for working in a rural school. Using pre- and post- questionnaire data, classroom observations, and reflections, we assess the effectiveness of deliberate efforts in our teacher preparation program to increase readiness for rural teaching. In our analysis and discussion, we draw on critical and sociocultural theories to understand the experiences of a cohort of teacher candidates as they explore personal histories, the importance of place, expectations, and teaching strategies for rural contexts. While rural education researchers have long lamented the struggle to recruit and retain teachers, there is relatively little known about intentional efforts to prepare teachers specifically for rural classrooms. We conclude our article with recommendations for enhancing teacher preparation programs in ways that might result in significant progress toward the goal of staffing rural schools with the highly skilled teachers all students deserve.

  11. Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Akhakpe Ighodalo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One major index of social change and development today is indeed rural development. No nation can boast of having achieved development if a large percentage of her rural inhabitants are still wallowing under abject poverty, want and adepth in socio-economic penury. However, in Nigeria, empirical evidence shows that underdevelopments have continued to wage on as people are either ignorant of, or indifferent to the reasons for which local governments are created. This paper examines the impact of local government on community and rural development in Nigeria, challenges and the way forward. To scientifically and analytically interrogate the issues raised, the paper traversed conceptualizations and theoretical terrain; utilizing system and rural development theories. Yet, because of the dearth of data, it did content analysis of 466 newspapers and magazines in Nigeria published between 2007 and 2011, to determine people’s feelings about the local governments’ development efforts in communities. It is the position of this paper that the creation of local government in most cases were not based on viability and developmental purposes as required by the constitution but on administrative conveniences to score cheap political goals and legitimacy especially by the military rulers. The paper concludes that while the basic rationale behind the creation of local government is to meet the peculiar needs of the people at the grassroots, it is however pathetic to note that local government has demonstrated incompetence in this regard. Given the catalogue of challenges facing local government, it recommends among other measures, that while local government should remain as a third tier of government, it should be given more powers, resources and enabling environment for the development of localities.

  12. Study of Different Face Recognition Algorithms and Challenges

    Uma Shankar Kurmi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present face recognition has wide area of applications such as security, law enforcement. Imaging conditions, Orientation, Pose and presence of occlusion are huge problems associated with face recognition. The performance of face recognition systems decreases due to these problems. Discriminant Analysis (LDA or Principal Components Analysis (PCA is used to get better recognition results. Human face contains relevant information that can extracted from face model developed by PCA technique. Principal Components Analysis method uses eigenface approach to describe face image variation. A face recognition technique that is robust to all situations is not available. Some techniques are better in case of illumination, some for pose problem and some for occlusion problem. This paper presents some algorithms for face recognition.

  13. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  15. Material Challenges For Plasma Facing Components in Future Fusion Reactors

    Increasing attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO2-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible materials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PFMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm-2; the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm-2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat sink materials as well as reliable fabrication processes for actively cooled plasma facing components. The technical solutions which are considered today are mainly based on the PFMs beryllium, carbon or tungsten joined to copper alloys or stainless steel heat sinks. In addition to the above mentioned quasi-stationary heat loads, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities up to several tens of MJm-2 are a serious concern for next step tokamak devices. The most frequent events are so-called Edge Localized Modes (type I ELMs) and plasma disruptions. Here a considerable fraction of the plasma energy is deposited on a localized surface area in the divertor strike zone; the time scale of these events is typically in the order of 1 ms. As a consequence, thermal shock induced crack formation, vaporization, surface melting and droplet ejection as well as particle emission induced by brittle destruction processes will limit the lifetime of the components. This is also valid for instabilities in the plasma positioning (vertical displacement events) which cause irreversible damage to plasma facing components, particularly to the metallic wall armour. Moreover, dust particles (neutron activated or toxic metals or tritium enriched carbon) are a serious concern form a safety point of view. In order to investigate the thermally induced plasma wall interaction under fusion specific thermal loads, high heat flux simulation tests are performed routinely in electron or ion beam test facilities as well as in quasi stationary plasma devices. These experiments cover thermal fatigue loads and/or thermal shock tests with relevant operational loading conditions. Furthermore, the wall bombardment with 14 MeV neutrons in D-T-burning plasma devices and the resulting material damage are another critical issue, both, from a safety point of view, but also under the aspect of the component lifetime. While the integrated neutron fluence in ITER will be only in the order of 1 dpa (displacements per atom), future devices such as DEMO or commercial fusion reactors will experience integrated neutron wall loads of 80 to 150 dpa. Therefore the development of new radiation resistant materials and their testing under realistic conditions is required. Due to the lack of an intense 14 MeV neutron source, complex neutron irradiation experiments are performed in material test reactors to quantify the neutron-induced material damage. These tests provide a valuable data base on the degradation of thermal and mechanical parameters. (author)

  16. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries Challenges and Policy Options

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  17. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  18. Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia

    Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of the introduction of the nuclear power plants is under investigation taking into account various important changes due to new realities. Therefore, the safety and fuel cycle aspects, especially the long term program on the back-end fuel cycle, utilizing the existing facilities is also maintained. The construction of a laboratory for carrying out research and development on radio-ecology and marine environmental studies is being planned to support the radioactive waste management for the future nuclear power plants. Considering the need to maintain the energy related research and development and the need for clean water, the study on the utilization of a high power research reactor for generating process heat, hot vapour, and producing clean water as well as electricity is being carried out. The possibility of the construction of this research reactor is being studied. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to co-operate with other countries to support her nuclear research and development programme in various fields due to the fact that she has to overcome her chronic challenges that are perhaps also faced by other countries, i.e. to have a better understanding, perception, appreciation, and support from decision makers, social leaders, scholars, and the whole community nationally and internationally on the importance of peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. (author)

  19. Rural Marketing Strategies for Selling Products & Services: Issues & Challenges

    Ahmed, Dr. Ashfaque

    2013-01-01

    Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities. Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Improvement in infrastructure and reach promise a bright future for those intending to go rural....

  20. Policy Choices and Challenges in Expanding Access to Finance for Growth in Rural Nigeria

    Anthony E. Akinlo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigerian financial system has witnessed significant growth over the years. Thephenomenal growth and high financial depth can be attributed in part to the countrys vastnetwork of financial institutions, including rural finance.Improvements in rural finance notwithstanding, the supply of formal finance appears tobe biased against the rural population. Rural communities remain centre of deprivationsinspite of the various efforts at increasing financial services to them by the Governmentand the CBN. This therefore raises the following questions: what are the constraints andchallenges of providing financial services in the rural areas? What are the policy initiativesthat can be introduced to improve rural financial services in Nigeria? Hence the mainobjective of the paper is to examine the challenges and ways to improve rural financialservices in Nigeria.Keywords: rural finance, growth, infrastructure, microfinance institutions.

  1. Persistence in the Face of Academic Challenge for Economically Disadvantaged Children

    Brown, Eleanor D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined persistence in the face of academic challenge for economically disadvantaged children. Participants included 103 children attending Head Start preschools, as well as their caregivers and teachers. Child tasks measured persistence in the face of academic challenge as well as emergent implicit theories of intelligence. Caregiver…

  2. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. PMID:24853629

  3. The challenges facing leaders and managers in the independent special school sector: a changing agenda

    Roberts, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges facing leaders and managers of independent special schools during the period during when inclusion of SEN students in mainstream schools has been government policy. The challenges investigated centre around ascertaining the key role of these schools at this time, the general challenges they have faced, and the implications for them in the years ahead. This has included research on how independent special schools respond to external demands and expectatio...

  4. Rural Finance and Developments in Philippine Rural Financial Markets: Issues and Policy Research Challenges

    Llanto, Gilberto M.

    2004-01-01

    The shift to a market-oriented credit and financial policy was expected to spur rural financing by the private sector that would help usher growth in the agriculture and rural areas. However, the rural areas have continued to suffer from the lack of access to financial services of banks. Despite government efforts to increase the flow of credit towards the rural sector, formal financial institutions have largely ignored the sector. Lack of financial depth and very limited access to financial ...

  5. Standing by Their Principles: Two Librarians Who Faced Challenges

    Adams, Helen; Leu, DaNae; Venuto, Dee Ann

    2015-01-01

    What do school librarians fear most? Hands down, their biggest fear is a formal challenge to a resource in the school library. There are no accurate statistics about the number of challenges to school library resources. The staff of ALA's Office for Intellectual Freedom estimates that only about 20 percent are reported to ALA annually. For the…

  6. A Feasible Rural Education System

    Lincy Meera Mathews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a Feasible Rural Education System (FRES based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

  7. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND LABOUR SUPPLY CHALLENGES IN THE UK: THE ROLE OF NON-UK MIGRANTS

    Anne E Green; DE HOYOS Maria; OWEN David; Jones, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Characteristic features of the demographic structure of rural areas in the UK include net out-migration of young adults and an older than average age profile. These features pose a labour supply challenge for rural areas. However, many rural areas are experiencing in-migration (from other parts of the UK and overseas) and there has been considerable policy emphasis on capturing the skills of migrants to enhance local economic development. To date, the role of non-UK mig...

  8. Challenges when electricity markets face the investment phase

    Deregulation of electricity industry in Europe has tended to start with a grace period of energy surplus inherited from the previously expansive coordinated economies and further amplified by better resource utilisation from extended international trade. The regulatory challenge has therefore primarily been to allocate existing generation to consumers in an efficient way. However, as energy demand increases, due to economic growth, the challenge of providing new capacity surfaces. The Nordic region, which has been a pioneer in internationalising and deregulating electricity, is now approaching this stage, ahead of most of the rest of Europe. While the Nordic case is characterised by specificities related to hydropower it also raises the more general challenge of capacity expansion under a deregulated market economy. The article therefore discusses how the Nordic investment challenges of today shed light on more generic challenges that may become more general European challenges of tomorrow. In a final section, the article discusses policy options available to address the investment/price-hike challenge. The argument is put forward that recursion to some degree of coordinated governance might seem necessary if solutions are confined within large-scale technical systems. However, within the context of a small-scale decentralised technological development, one may be more confident of competitive solutions. (Author)

  9. Facing Today's Exploration Challenges in the Gulf of Mexico

    Detomo, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico today, their challenge is to "safely, responsibly and profitably find and produce reduced accumulations in increasingly hostile settings." The GoM serves as the sportsman's playground for a significant population located in and around its waters, and therefore, operating safely and responsibly are unassailable moral and operational standards by which we sustain future development, and maintain our license to operate. With that as a backdrop, today's challenges are driven by the nature of where the business is looking for new reserves in this extremely mature basin. These "Opportunities" encompass the following: 1) large, under-explored, sub-salt areas, characterized by poor seismic imaging, uncertain geologic regimes and potentially dangerous overpressures, 2) deep true-vertical-depth opportunities in older rocks that challenge our understanding of reservoir quality prediction and hydrocarbon systems, and are at the edge of today's drilling technologies, 3) access to sensitive areas including the eastern GoM-Florida shelf, coastal areas and international borders, 4) challenging "small accumulation" discoveries that cannot support expensive appraisal or development options, are remote to infrastructure or inefficiently produce the reservoir, and finally 5) new play development, which is challenged by long maturation cycles, small acreage blocks, intense international competition, and rapid lease rolls. This talk will consider what Shell and the Oil & Gas Industry does today to succeed in this arena, and specifically will show examples of the role of technology in meeting these challenges. I will briefly discuss likely future challenges and emerging and upcoming technologies that might help to meet these challenges.

  10. Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.

    Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business

  11. Challenges Facing Contemporary Associative Approaches to Acquired Behavior.

    Miller, Ralph R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the considerable success of contemporary associative models of learning in stimulating new behavioral research and modest success in providing direction to both neuroscience and psychotherapy, these models are confronted with at least three challenges. The first challenge is to the assumption that animals encode only one or a few summary statistics to capture what has been experienced over many training trials. This assumption is contrary to overwhelming evidence that the brain retains episodic information. The second challenge is that the learning-performance distinction has been largely ignored. Most models erroneously assume that behavior is a nearly perfect reflection of what has been encoded. The third challenge is to account for interactions between stimuli that have been presented separately (e.g., stimulus interference) as well as between stimuli that have been presented together (e.g., stimulus competition). PMID:19768131

  12. Challenges Faced by Financial Accounting and Suggested Solutions

    Hou, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Benefiting from economic globalization, China has stepped up its economy, which is especially shown by the continuous development of internet technology in the 20 century. The trend of informatization has seeped into every aspect of life, including financial accounting. It has broken the limitation of traditional accounting, bringing financial accounting new opportunities and challenges. This paper analyzesthe situation of financial accounting in China, explains the challenges from economic e...

  13. Why Rural Matters 2009: State and Regional Challenges and Opportunities

    Johnson, Jerry; Strange, Marty

    2009-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of biennial reports analyzing the contexts and conditions of rural education in each of the 50 states and calling attention to the need for policymakers to address rural education issues in their respective states. While it is the fifth in a series, this report is not simply an updating of data from earlier…

  14. Challenges of Recruitment and Retention in Rural Areas.

    Collins, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There have long been rural health care workforce shortages; however, the urgency to find real solutions has increased with the changing health care landscape. The evidence makes a compelling case to be intentional in the candidates we support and to align educational resources across multiple systems. Programs need to continually evolve, utilizing workforce data, best practices, and new technological advances. This leads the Office of Rural Health (ORH) to secure funding for therapists practicing in integrated settings and to expand loan repayment to general surgeons and providers creating access through telehealth. While access is ORH's core mission, North Carolina's rural health plan reframed the discussion around creating healthy rural communities. This will require further refinement of the critical workforce definition, and it brings to the forefront the fact that a variety of new partnerships will be key to achieving the objective of healthy rural communities. PMID:26961829

  15. Horizontal drilling for onshore gas faces many challenges

    This paper reports that even though cost-effective in oil fields and some prolific offshore gas fields, horizontal well technology has not yet been successfully transferred to onshore gas fields. The major technical challenges are accurate reservoir characterization, proper well design and placement, and stimulation. The first two of these challenges can be met with the state-of-the-art technologies but the third requires emerging knowledge, tools, and techniques. To determine the application of horizontal wells to typical gas reservoirs in the continental U.S., the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated an applied research and development project in late 1990

  16. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis--vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  17. Facing the Issues: Challenges, Censorship, and Reflection through Dialogue

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett

    2008-01-01

    ReLeah Cossett Lent provides practical advice for ensuring that books are kept on shelves and in classrooms for students to read. She outlines steps for creating professional learning communities that engage with censorship issues and prepare schools to deal with book challenges in thoughtful, supportive ways. (Contains 4 figures.)

  18. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED BY ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY. SOME LESSONS FROM ROMANIA AND LITHUANIA

    Grundey Dainora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the challenges and opportunities that entrepreneurial university faced in the present context, focusing on some characteristics of Romania and Lithuania. Emerged as a concept that is designated to enhance the universitys competitiv

  19. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal elimination of HIV/AIDS.

  20. Oral Academic Discourse Socialisation: Challenges Faced by International Undergraduate Students in a Malaysian Public University

    Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a qualitative study which examines the challenges faced by six international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral academic discourse in a Malaysian public university. Data were collected employing interviews. Students’ presentations were also collected. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative content analysis was employed to examine the challenges faced by international undergraduate students in their socialisation of oral acade...

  1. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Carr SM; Pearson P; Young-Murphy L; Cleghorn B

    2012-01-01

    Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiti...

  2. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real c...

  3. Facing the educational challenges in South Africa: an educophilosophical reflection

    C.T. Viljoen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The educational challenge in South Africa is currently demonstrated by the fact that education is seen as a priority on all agendas, be they national, provincial or local. Developments in society compel educational thinkers to rethink the role and status of education in a democratic society. In this article an educo-philosophical perspective is applied in an attempt to analyse some of the developments that might have an influence on educational thought and practice.

  4. Challenges Facing Healthwatch, a New Consumer Champion in England

    Pam Carter; Graham Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with debates about the conceptualisation and practical challenges of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services. Policy in this area in England has shifted numerous times but increasingly a consumerist discourse seems to override more democratic ideas concerning the relationship between citizens and public services. Recent policy change in England has seen the creation of new consumer champion bodies in the form of local Healthwatch. The artic...

  5. Landscape planning for Ukrainian rural communities: challenges, outputs, prospects

    Leonid Rudenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of economic, social and environmental problems have accumulated in all areas of Ukraine and pose a serious obstacle to sustainable development. Those problems are particularly acute in the rural areas. The local rural communities in Ukraine have the lowest indicators of economic development, significant social problems, including particularly acute demographic and employment problems, and an unfavorable ecological situation caused by poor municipal infrastructure, land degradation, etc. The vast majority of the rural communities in Ukraine have no plans for their own territories development. In such circumstances, the introduction of landscape planning tools is an effective means of identifying the existing development problems and environmental management issues, as well as of defining the best ways for the integrated development of the local rural communities. A number of reasons prevents introduction of such planning in Ukraine, including the flaws in the legislation, lack of interest among managers of rural communities and low activity of local people on the issues which determine the future of their settlements. However, there are examples of successful implementation of landscape planning tools in designing of the plans of rural communities development. The authors were a part of the team which, for the first time in Ukraine, undertook this research in the Stepanetsky rural council in Cherkassy region. The results of the research have been welcomed by the management, the residence and the members of the village council and they are being practically implemented. The foregoing demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of landscape planning tools implementation in Ukraine directed at addressing and resolving the problems of the rural communities.

  6. Mental health services in rural India: challenges and prospects

    Anant Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Mental health services in India are neglected area which needs immediate attention from the government, policymakers, and civil society organizations. Despite, National Mental Health Programme since 1982 and National Rural Health Mission, there has been a very little effort so far to provide mental health services in rural areas. With increase in population, changing life-style, unemployment, lack of social support and increasing insecurity, it is predicted that there would be a substantial i...

  7. Challenges facing HIV treatment in Guinea-Bissau

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correia, Faustino Gomes; da Silva, Zacarias José; Erikstrup, Christian; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Laursen, Alex Lund; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    HIV researchers. Patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the country's main hospital in the capital Bissau. RELEVANT CHANGES: Between 2005 and 2013, 5514 HIV-positive patients were treated at the clinic. Working together, local health-care workers and international researchers identified the...... HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau identified problems with the delivery of ART by establishing a clinical database and by collaborating with international researchers. LOCAL SETTING: The Bissau HIV cohort study group was established in 2007 as a collaboration between local HIV physicians and international...... clinic. LESSONS LEARNT: The HIV clinic in Bissau faced numerous obstacles in delivering ART at a sufficiently high quality and patients' lives were put in jeopardy. The effectiveness of ART could be enhanced by delivering it as part of an international research collaboration since such collaborations can...

  8. Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon

    Vivian E A Eta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

  9. Unique challenges facing family businesses / Pieter Jakobus Swart

    Swart, Pieter Jakobus

    2005-01-01

    Participating in the dynamics of a family business, whether as owner I manager or non-family employee, active or inactive member of the business, can both be an exhilarating. A daunting life experience that will have a profound impact on their quality of life and work life. Balancing the fine line between family and business harmony is a taxing and intricate art, sure to challenge the reigning family generation to find their way through the history of the family and the future of both the f...

  10. Challenges Facing a Deaf Family Member Concerning a Loved One’s Dying

    Kehl, Karen A.; Gartner, Constance M.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who are Deaf face challenges both similar and unique from those faced by hearing individuals when a family member is dying. This study was guided by the question “What are the challenges faced by a Deaf family member when a loved one is dying?” Methods - This qualitative study is guided by critical theory and an interpretive perspective. Robert, a college-educated older adult who has been Deaf from birth was interviewed in American Sign Language using a death history format. Resul...

  11. Education to Face the Wicked Challenges of Sustainability

    Bland Tomkinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nature of sustainable development requires new paradigms for education. Issues of sustainability are ?wicked problems? that do not lend themselves to conventional didactic approaches. The challenge for higher education is to examine interdisciplinary approaches to global societal responsibility and, within this, issues of education for sustainable development. Approach: A project, sponsored by the Royal Academy of Engineering, developed a course unit in sustainable development across several disciplines. The approach was initially pedagogic in nature, with a strong evaluative theme. At the same time, a Delphi study was undertaken by the same team and this inter-relates with the main project. The focus of the action research was a series of ?wicked? problems that would provide real-world challenges with no simple answers. Results: The project was evaluated in a number of ways, not least the pre-and post-testing of students? attitudes and approaches, but also using nominal group techniques. The project demonstrated that an interdisciplinary PBL approach succeeded in deepening the learning of the students as well as developing key skills. Conclusion: The use of collaborative, group-based approaches, notably PBL, offers a key way of approaching the design of curricula for sustainable development and other areas of global societal responsibility that hinge on ?wicked problems?.

  12. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  13. KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY HIGHER EDUCATION

    Ranjana Kanungo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, more than ever before in human history, Tthe Growth of nations depends on the quality of higher education. Those with a larger collection of skills and a greater capacity for learning can look forward to lifetimes of unmatched economic fulfillment. But in the coming decades the poorly educated face little better than the tedious prospects of lives of quiet desperation. There are no great ideological battles or debates that are confronting the world anymore. The doctrine of liberal democracy has emerged as the most suitable and acceptable form of governance. 20th century broadly redefined the role of the state to provide education, healthcare, rule of law, and infrastructure development to enable every citizen to fulfill their potential, irrespective of their social position. In todays knowledge economy, it is an indisputable fact that quality education is mandatory to fulfilling ones potential and is the key for vertical mobility and economic growth, and an educated population is the precondition for economic prosperity of any nation. The main purpose of a higher education system is to add real value to human resources, and produce wealth creators and leaders in all fields business, professions, politics, administration, and creative pursuits.

  14. Imaging Challenges for the ITER Plasma Facing Components Protection

    Full text: The ITER actively cooled tokamak is the next-generation fusion device which will allow studying the burning plasma during hundreds of seconds. ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) real-time protection will be mandatory to minimize operational risks as critical heat flux leading to degradation of PFCs and eventually to water leak. Thanks to Tore Supra expertise in actively cooled tokamak and long pulse operation, urgent research and development actions are presented and discussed addressing the feasibility and the performances of the PFCs protection function foreseen in ITER using a network of wide angle visible and IR imaging systems (VIS/IR WAVS). Three major steps addressing PFCs protection have been reached. First, the contribution of reflected light that could disturb the measurement of surface temperature has been taken into account through an industrial physic-based Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Secondly, an integrated software and hardware framework validated on existing fusion devices has been proposed. In addition, extended functionalities to analyze and understand in real-time the huge volume of images produced by the VIS/IR WAVS have also been developed. Finally prototypes of ITER first mirrors have been built and tested with successful first results. These results demonstrate that a more precise definition of the functional specifications of the entire imaging system can be obtained addressing both machine protection and plasma performance. (author)

  15. Challenges facing NATO in the 21st century

    Simić Jasminka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the entire post Cold-War era numerous security challenges were pushing NATO in search of a new mission. Although redefined several times in the past, NATO's mission is still not steady and in its final shape. NATO's framework is not final yet for several reasons: lack of internal balance; NATO is moving towards rather 'loose' formula of Trans-Atlantic relations, through a 'Coalition of the Willing', in which countries accept the level and scope of military engagement in war missions (Afghanistan and Iraq according to their own interests. This certainly has influenced the character of NATO mission in the 21st Century. Therefore, NATO countries do not speak with 'one voice' and they do not equally participate in military missions. Instead, specific countries are engaged in specific issues, in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. NATO deepening and widening process is continuing in the 21st Century. .

  16. Challenges to ethics and professionalism facing the contemporary neurologist.

    Bernat, James L

    2014-09-30

    Challenges to ethics and professionalism that can harm neurologists and their patients include the commercialization of medicine, poorly designed Medicare regulations, conflicts of interest, physician employment by hospitals, faulty measurement of medical quality care, electronic health records, electronic communications with patients, and the demotion of the role of physician beneficence. These threats can lead to inaccurate medical record-keeping, unnecessary medical care, a decline in the primacy of patients' interests, and damage to the sanctity of the patient-physician relationship. The increasing frequency of physician burnout can be attributed at least partially to unmitigated stresses on practicing physicians, particularly the growing time pressures for patient visits, the mounting daily requirements of documentation, and the increasing burden of time-consuming but unproductive tasks. Recommended correctives include reforming billing documentation regulations, improving electronic health records, designing proper quality indicators integrating physician wellness, and incorporating reasonable physician workflows in the design of accountable care organizations. PMID:25171931

  17. Challenges for Novice School Leaders: Facing Today's Issues in School Administration

    Beam, Andrea P.; Claxton, Russell L.; Smith, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Challenges for novice school leaders evolve as information is managed differently and as societal and regulatory expectations change. This study addresses unique challenges faced by practicing school administrators (n = 159) during their first three years in a school leadership position. It focuses on their perceptions, how perceptions of present…

  18. The Issues Facing the Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism and the Path Selection

    Zhang, Jianhong

    2013-01-01

    There is a long way to go for sustainable development of rural tourism. It is necessary to strengthen the planning for training rural tourism talents, and establish sustainable reserve tourism service personnel; innovate upon the promotion mode of rural tourism and open the tourist source market; strengthen the building of characteristic brand of rural tourism, and create sustainable development core of tourism; give play to the role of government in guiding rural tourism, strengthen the opti...

  19. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  20. Rural migrant workers in China : scenario, challenges and public policy

    Shi, Li

    2008-01-01

    Examines the working conditions of rural migrant workers in China. The paper first describes the increase in the number of migrants, from an estimated 30 million in 1989 to about 130 million in 2006. It then provides some descriptive statistics on the regions of origin of migrants, their destinations, the sectors in which they are employed, as well as on their age, sex and level of education. The paper goes on to discuss the difficult working conditions of many rural migrant workers in the Ch...

  1. Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge

    María Elena Villafuerte-Castrejón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry.

  2. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  3. Cyber Bullying: Challenges and Strategies Faced by Juvenile Police Officers

    Ken Thaxter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of teaching pre-teens about the internet is their varying degrees and levels of involvement. The juvenile police officer brings a solid understanding of the laws as well as a strong knowledge of safety issues to the classroom, making them an excellent educational resource. Officers can utilize an educational approach with parents and students in which they define what cyber bullying is and, importantly, demonstrate that definition by describing real cases that I and other officers have addressed. This approach focused both on the effect that cyber bullying has on the victims and the impact of the online behavior on the atmosphere and climate at the school. Students and parents also need to learn about the potential consequences for the perpetrator. Finally, an important method for bridging varying degrees of involvement in bullying is to emphasize that all students play a role in cyber bullying prevention-not merely those who perpetrate it or are victimized by it. That lesson is accomplished through discussions about strategies that bystanders can use to intervene."

  4. U.S. drilling contractors could face stiff challenges

    Although the outlook for most segments of the contract drilling business is now more optimistic than in the past decade, the increased activity has brought several problems: the availability of fully trained crews, the need for new capital, and the limited number of quality drillstrings. These problems will grow in importance if natural gas deliverability begins to decline visibly and once the scramble to correct this decline begins. As the drilling recovery unfolds, the most important lesson to remember, based on worldwide activity in the past year, is how rapidly conditions can change and how quickly excess capacity can turn into chronic shortages. The various segments of the world wide contract drilling industry's prospects have changed dramatically during the past 12 months, and oddly, some market sectors have improved while others have become worse. These quick changes highlight the unpredictable and volatile nature of the markets for contract drilling and other services needed to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The paper describes the business of well drilling onshore and offshore in the US, drilling activities in Canada, international markets, capacity, the supplies of natural gas, Gulf of Mexico activities, drill pipe shortages, manpower shortages, and challenges offshore

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease and anxiety: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Bannaga AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayman S Bannaga,1 Christian P Selinger2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD causes severe physical symptoms and is also associated with psychological comorbidities. Abnormal anxiety levels are found in up to 40% of patients with IBD. Anxiety symptoms are often related to flares of IBD but may persist in times of remission. Detection of anxiety disorder (AD in patients with IBD can be challenging. Patients with anxiety may also exhibit symptoms in keeping with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. Evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological therapies for anxiety stems from patients without IBD. Studies in patients with IBD have either been small or shown negative results. In light of this, a combined approach involving IBD physicians to improve disease control and psychologists or psychiatrists to treat anxiety is advised. This review examines the evidence of anxiety issues in IBD with a focus on extent of the problem, risk factors for anxiety, and the effectiveness of interventions. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anxiety

  6. Challenges to Born Global SMEs : A study on overcoming the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs

    Hamza, Aziz; Zulfiqar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the challenges that are faced by born global SMEs and how they overcome these challenges. Method: For literature review and secondary research, data and information has been gathered from disciplines of international entrepreneurship. Primary research has been done on four born global firms; two from Sweden and two from Pakistan. Qualitative research and analysis has been used in the study. Originality: This study contributes to literature by co...

  7. Challenges Facing Trade Unions in the Modern Society: THE CURRENT EXODUS

    Ndiritu, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Its not a secret that trade unions have been experiencing insurmountable challenges related to globalisation. Although the levels of impact differ greatly, the challenges faced by trade unions in Nordic and Western European countries show similarities; high unemployment rates, economic crisis, diverse workforce, escalated immigration, among others. Studies show that trade unions are trying to combat these challenges by adopting organising model elements which involves social unionism movemen...

  8. Sexuality Education in Rural Lesotho Schools: Challenges and Possibilities

    Khau, Mathabo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a "vaccine" against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of the fight…

  9. AIDS in Rural Areas: Challenges to Providing Care.

    Rounds, Kathleen A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined the development and provision of social services to persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and their families in rural areas and barriers to the delivery of care. Subjects (N=15) were persons who coordinated or provided services to AIDS victims. Found structural factors, confidentiality, fear of contagion, and homophobia…

  10. A Region Apart: A Look at Challenges and Strategies for Rural K-12 Schools

    Center for Rural Policy and Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    When this research report was first conceived, the current economic crisis was only just on the verge of revealing its full extent. Economic crisis or no economic crisis, over the years funding for PK-12 education has been a constant struggle. While all schools continue to face difficulties, for various reasons rural schools have different and

  11. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Carr SM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole system and together improve service user outcomes.Keywords: strategic aims, planning processes, productive working, reducing waste, primary care, service user outcomes.

  12. Mutually Dependent Relationships between Rural Community Colleges and Their Communities

    Betz, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The population of rural America has faced changes as the manufacturing industries that once assured jobs for those living in rural areas have moved or closed. Small towns have become smaller as younger residents move away for employment or educational opportunities. As these changes take place rural citizens face increased challenges in the wake

  13. Evaluation of the unique challenges facing family farms in South Africa / Jeanette Robberts

    Robberts, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    The economic landscape of most nations remains dominated by family businesses. Therefore, it is fitting that academia has begun to recognise the importance of family business studies. Family businesses are here to stay. Families who work together and live together face certain unique challenges that other families do not face. They have more opportunity for closeness and, at the same time, there is more opportunity for disagreement. Paradoxically, many of their outstanding strengths are also ...

  14. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    Lóránt BUCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will also make a short review of the competition on the market of the pastry food products and we will present the marketing strategy and policies the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  15. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    Lóránt BUCS; Evelina GRĂDINARU; Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2015-01-01

    This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will ...

  16. Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities Challenges and Opportunities to Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Development Among Tanzanian Rural Communities

    Esther W. Dungumaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.In more recent years climate change impacts have been obvious around the globe. This non-contentious reality has resulted in various global initiatives to reduce climate change impacts. However, differences exist in opportunities and capacity to adaptation. This paper, descriptive in nature, draws heavily from literature and also uses 2002 Tanzanian population and housing census to identify and discuss major challenges and opportunities to climate change adaptation and sustainable development in rural areas of Tanzania. Two groups are of focus; pastoralist herders and smallholder farmers. Analysis indicates that opportunities to climate change adaptation among rural community include their knowledge and experience. Challenges are centered on the pervasive poverty, rapid population increase and high illiteracy rates. Forces beyond their control including funds and governance also present definite limits to climate change adaptation. The paper suggests among others, the effective implementation of two top policies: education and social security funding.

  17. Assessment of Institutional and Personnel-Related Challenges Facing Educational Programme for the Mentally Challenged Persons at Kaimosi Special School, Kenya

    Mmbwanga, Daniel M.; Matemba, Collins K.; Bota, Kennedy N.

    2015-01-01

    The mentally challenged child (MC) can achieve a lot if the right environment and curriculum are designed for him/her. However, the realization of the desirable outcomes faces many challenges. The objective of the study was to examine institutional and personnel-related challenges facing education programs for the MC persons at Kaimosi Special

  18. Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists

    Bell Jennifer; MacRae Susan K; Breslin Jonathan M; Singer Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted with a panel of clinical bioethicists in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the purpose of which was to identify the top ethical challenges facing patients and their families in health care. A modified Delphi study was conducted with twelve clinical bioethicist members of the Clinical Ethics Group of the University of Toronto...

  19. Innovations to meet the challenges faced by EDF power plants in France

    The current challenges facing all electricity suppliers essentially result from market requirements, market liberalisation and the requirements for environmental and climate protection. EDF is accordingly focussing its activities on innovative areas in terms of individual generation options - such as nuclear energy, fossil-fired power plants and hydroelectric power generation. The challenges require both technical and organisational solutions, as shown by the grid instability in western Europe on November 4th 2006, for example. (orig.)

  20. Journalism Education and Rural Newspaper Standards.

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Suggests recruits to the rural press face particular challenges that might inhibit their capacity to work to the professional standards of their metropolitan counterparts. Considers four ways to lift the standards of the rural press through education and training in universities to prepare students for the rural workplace. (RS)

  1. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  2. A Short Twenty Years: Meeting the Challenges Facing Teachers Who Bring Rwanda into the Classroom

    Gudgel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    As the twentieth anniversary of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda approaches, Mark Gudgel argues that we should face the challenges posed by teaching about Rwanda. Drawing on his experience as a history teacher in the US, his experience researching and supporting others' classrooms in the US and UK, his training in Holocaust education and his…

  3. Challenges Facing Women Academic Leadership in Secondary Schools of Irbid Educational Area

    Al-Jaradat, Mahmoud Khaled Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges facing women academic leadership in secondary schools of Irbid Educational Area. A random sample of 187 female leaders were chosen. They responded to a 49-item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. The items were distributed into four domains: organizational, personal, social and physical…

  4. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of

  5. Quality Assurance Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Private Universities in Zimbabwe

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to provide an understanding of the quality assurance challenges and opportunities faced by private universities in Zimbabwe. The study analyzed the factors determining provision of quality higher education in private universities and the resultant effects of failing to achieve the minimum acceptable standards. The author employed…

  6. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.

  7. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of...

  8. 300 Faces in-the-Wild Challenge: the first facial landmark localization challenge

    Sagonas, Christos; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Automatic facial point detection plays arguably the most important role in face analysis. Several methods have been proposed which reported their results on databases of both constrained and unconstrained conditions. Most of these databases provide annotations with different mark-ups and in some cases the are problems related to the accuracy of the fiducial points. The aforementioned issues as well as the lack of a evaluation protocol makes it difficult to compare performance between differen...

  9. BACKGROUND OF MALAYSIAN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ACADEMICS

    Lawrence AROKIASAMY

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Private institutions of higher learning (IHLs are as important as the public ones in preparing Malaysia as an educational hub in the Asian region. This article discusses background of Malaysian private institutions of higher learning and career challenges faced by the academics. The background consists of their account of establishment to the current development. The challenges include uncertain career path of academics, problems of tasks in teaching versus research due to lack of funding, opportunities for sabbatical leave and pursuance of higher education as well as participation in conferences abroad. Thus understanding challenges is important for the academics in private IHLs to prepare, plan and develop their careers.

  10. [Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II].

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded. PMID:17477170

  11. Faces of Change. Five Rural Societies in Transition: Bolivia, Kenya, Afghanistan, Taiwan, China Coast.

    Miller, Norman N., Ed.; Spitzer, Manon L., Ed.

    The multidisciplinary film project focuses attention on what is happening to rural populations of the world, particularly among developing countries. The roles of women, education, social and economic systems, and the effects of modernization on values are themes explored in each of five rural settings--Bolivian highlands, northern Kenya, northern…

  12. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  13. From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry

    Marco Aurélio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazil to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

  14. Challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies: Unlocking value through professional international purchasing

    Marian Tukuta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, procurement was seen as a necessity only. In fact, in many developing economies the profession is still being treated as a ‘back-office’ function. However, not much has been done to explore and address challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies.Objectives: The purpose of this article was to examine the critical role played by the procurement function in business and to reveal the challenges faced by procurement professionals in developing economies as well as to suggest solutions to these challenges.Method: A sequential literary analysis was used, complemented by cross-country qualitative data gathered from one hundred diverse procurement practitioners from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. These were primarily participants in a series of procurement workshops run by the researchers from January to June 2014.Results: Findings suggested that limited recognition, increasing unethical behaviour, poor supplier service delivery, poor regulatory environment, varying supplier standards and poor corporate governance are the main challenges faced by the procurement profession in these countries.Conclusion: The study’s findings imply that there is limited understanding regarding the role procurement plays in both government and non-government institutions in developing economies. The article suggests solutions which procurement professionals and organisations can implement in order to unlock the potential value in the procurement function.

  15. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  16. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi-structured interviews with successful rural school administrators who serve campuses currently rated recognized or higher on the Texas Education Agency accountability system. The qualitative data analysis employed the coding of interviews and observations that allowed for and sought emergent themes and alternative rural perspectives.

  17. A New World for Museum Marketing? Facing the Old Dilemmas while Challenging New Market Opportunities

    Tanja Komarac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Museums are part of a wider cultural and entertainment environment, which is ruled by highly demanding visitors who seek immersive experiences (edutainment and time-saving arrangement. This has encouraged and, in some opinions, forced museums to turn their focus from collections to visitors. In addition, museums have faced competition and new technologies in the form of virtual museums and virtual reality. This has emphasized the need to accept marketing as a survival tool and to make it into a link between museums and visitors. This article attempts to give current insights into museum marketing as part of the arts marketing field. Its aim is also to identify and explain some of the major challenges and opportunities facing everyday museum business, in order to provide insight into the complex world of museum marketing. Former findings about the development of museum marketing and its biggest changes and challenges are presented, summarized and analyzed.

  18. Challenges faced by grandparents caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West Province of South Africa

    Phetlhu, Deliwe; Watson, Mada

    2014-01-01

    Caring for orphans who have lost their parents due to AIDS, and some of whom are infected, is an enormous challenge. This immense responsibility often resides with the grandparents, who are in most cases sickly and not financially capable to undertake the task. The objectives of this study were to explore and describe challenges faced by such grandparents and their needs while caring for AIDS orphans in Koster, North West province, South Africa. Maslow’s theory of human needs was used as a th...

  19. An Analysis of Business Challenges Faced by Foreign Multinationals Operating the Chinese Market

    Jianlian Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth has presented numerous opportunities and challenges for foreign firms there. Many large corporations have established a China centre to coordinate and control their operations in the country. As firms have increased their presence in China, their concerns are increasingly focused on implementing successful management practices and strategies. This article describes the challenges and difficulties that multinational companies faced in Chinese market. It analyses roles played by the human resource function in these China, culture differences, social environment and other factors.

  20. Federal Government Funding Reforms: Issues and Challenges Facing Malaysian Public Universities

    Abd Rahman Ahmad; Alan Farley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the shift in funding reforms currently facing at Malaysian public universities focusing on issues and challenges experienced by the Focused Universities in particular. Previous research has shown that shifts in funding mechanisms to public universities are more likely to result in behavioural changes at such institutions. Under the National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020, the Federal Government has launched a strategic plan of government ob...

  1. WILIP make a difference? Practitioner perspectives of the challenges facing libraries and information services

    Howley, Sue; Ede, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Resource commissioned the Wider Information and Library Issues Project (WILIP) to discover what challenges are facing the library and information domain, what needs to be done to tackle them, and what role Resource should take in helping to develop and promote strategies for action. In the initial consultation phase of WILIP practitioners identified a number of generic themes. Improved access for users was the primary goal with better advocacy, more effective funding – especially to sustain i...

  2. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    Aliza Alias

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special needs students in gaining work experiences during their internships. Two students were selected and trained to acquire work-related skills as prepar...

  3. Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Biofield Practitioners in Global Health and Medicine: A White Paper

    Guarneri, Erminia; King, Rauni Prittinen

    2015-01-01

    Biofield therapies (BTs) are increasingly employed in contemporary healthcare. In this white paper, we review specific challenges faced by biofield practitioners resulting from a lack of (1) a common scientific definition of BT; (2) common educational standards for BT training (including core competencies for clinical care); (3) collaborative team care education in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and in integrative health and medicine (IHM); (4) a focused agenda in BT research; a...

  4. Sustainable agriculture: a review of challenges facing the South African agricultural sector

    S.L. Middelberg

    2013-01-01

    This review paper considers the various challenges facing the South African agricultural sector against the background that agricultural sectors globally are pressurised to provide food security for the estimated nine billion people in 2050, while simultaneously addressing climate change. The use of agricultural land to produce crops for the production of biofuels and the impact of land redistribution in South Africa on food security are contemplated. It is recommended that the So...

  5. The Impact of Routines on Resource Management: Challenges Facing Nonprofit Organisations

    Broughton, Hannah Mary

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the role of routines in the management of resources. Routines are considered a source of change or stability depending on certain factors, including how resources may be transformed by changes in routines. Charities face significant additional challenges in resource management which provide a particularly interesting environment for study. This paper examines the routines and resources of a strongly hierarchical nonprofit organisation currently undergoing significant chang...

  6. How do efl student teachers face the challenge of using l2 in public school classrooms?

    Vifara, John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their history a...

  7. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms?

    Vifara John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching preparation model, I used field notes, interviews and their portfolios to explore their attitudes and strategies. Findings revealed that their ...

  8. HIV and infant feeding counselling:challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

    Blystad Astrid; Leshabari Sebalda C; de Paoli Marina; Moland Karen M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT) programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pM...

  9. An analysis of the language challenges faced by Myanmar refugee students in Norway

    Munthe, Myat

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to increase understanding the level of language proficiency and educational achievement for the first-generation immigrant students. The research provides an obligating account of the lives, dreams, and frustrations of Myanmar refugee students who arrive here at a later stage of their schooling. The intention with this study is to collect information from this particular group in order to understand the challenges they faced in their schooling. Thus, I counted not only on thei...

  10. Multilingualism : challenges facing minority background pupils learning English as a third language in Norwegian primary schools

    Nesse, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the challenges facing minority background pupils in the process of acquiring English as an L3 in Norwegian primary schools. However, in order to investigate English as an L3, English needs to be seen in relation to the learners’ L1 and L2. The research is primarily qualitative, based on observations in two classes, interviews with EFL teachers, introductory course teachers, a headmistress and councillors at three schools. In addition, the research includes a case study...

  11. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    Kapil Goel; Sartaj Ahmad; Rahul Bansal; Pawan Parashar; Bhawna Pant; Parul Goel

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environm...

  12. A Double-Faced Medium? The challenges and opportunities of the Internet for social movements

    Mosca, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    While most of the literature focusing on the Internet and politics tends to assess the positive contribution of Computer-Mediated Communication to political processes, this paper stresses both positive and negative consequences of the Internet for social movements, with special attention paid to the Italian Global Justice Movement. The Internet is presented as a double-faced Janus creating opportunities but also posing new challenges to resource poor actors. This paper is built on data tha...

  13. Post-industrial landscape - its identification and classification as contemporary challenges faced by geographic research

    Kolejka, Jaromír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2010), s. 67-78. ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : classification * geographical research * identification method * landscape structure Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://studiacrescent.com/images/02_2010/09_jaromir_kolejka_post_industrial_landscape_its_identification_and_classification_as_contemporary_challenges_faced_by_geographic_.pdf

  14. Challenges facing the distribution of an artificial-intelligence-based system for nursing.

    Evans, S

    1985-04-01

    The marketing and successful distribution of artificial-intelligence-based decision-support systems for nursing face special barriers and challenges. Issues that must be confronted arise particularly from the present culture of the nursing profession as well as the typical organizational structures in which nurses predominantly work. Generalizations in the literature based on the limited experience of physician-oriented artificial intelligence applications (predominantly in diagnosis and pharmacologic treatment) must be modified for applicability to other health professions. PMID:3839837

  15. Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities

    Wilson, Elizabeth J. [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Plummer, Joseph [Minnesota Office of Energy Security, 85 7th Place East, Suite 500, St. Paul, MN 55101 (United States); Fischlein, Miriam [Natural Resources Science and Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Smith, Timothy M. [Environmental Sciences, Policy and Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important - rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities. (author)

  16. Agriculture and rural development challenges in South-Eastern Europe and Turkey with the view to European Union integration process

    Davis, Junior

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the overall challenges for agriculture and rural development in South Eastern Europe (SEE) and Turkey, and to assess the concept, importance and policy measures tailored towards improving agricultural competitiveness, rural income diversification and environmental sustainability for overall rural development. The South East Europe region refers to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,...

  17. Sustainable Methods of Addressing Challenges Facing Small Holder Tea Sector in Kenya: A Supply Chain Management Approach

    Elias Kiarie Kagira; Sarah Wambui Kimani; Kagwathi Stephen Githii

    2012-01-01

    This Conceptual paper addresses the challenges facing the small holder tea sector in Kenya. It provides background information about tea growing in Kenya, its export performance, and organizational structure. It then categorizes the main challenges into five and provides some solutions to the challenges, borrowing from some supply chain management practices to culminate into competitive strategies. In the face of declining and shifting competitiveness of the small holder tea sector in Kenya, ...

  18. Nuclear medicine department activity facing major public health challenges in France

    A national survey was made at the 2008 la Baule Symposium 'nuclear medicine facing major public health challenges'. The aim was to evaluate the activity in the fields of clinical specialities involved in these challenges : cancerology, cardiology and neurology. The response rate was 62%. The total number of PET scans performed in France during the year 2007 was about 100,000 including 97.5% of cancer indications. The mean number of PET scans per center was 1285, with a maximum of 3500 scans. The first indications were lung cancer (27%), lymphoma (20%) and colorectal cancer (14%). The registered number of cardiac examinations was 170,387 extrapolated to a total number of about 250,000 examinations in one year. The number of registered brain SPECT was 11,215 corresponding to about 100 examinations per center in one year. The survey pointed out large variations of PET activity between centers and suggested potentialities in extending and diversifying the field of PET. Brain scintigraphy appeared as a minor sector out of proportion with the challenge of degenerative brain pathology. Performing again these evaluations in the next years should allow to better describe the capabilities of nuclear medicine to face the major challenges and the evolution of public health

  19. Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China

    Shougang Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.

  20. The small goat holders to face food security, poverty and environmental challenges: conditions for experiencing successful projects : Lessons from a comparative analysis in different regions of the world (governance, markets, production systems)

    Dubeuf, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Farming and agri-food systems have to face urgent social and environmental issues linked between them within the Millennium Development Goals firmed by the International Community. Poverty reduction and food safety is considered as a major challenge as at least 800 million people are suffering hunger and extreme poverty particularly in rural areas. The development of livestock for small holders is often seen as a solution to reduce poverty To explore and document the operational articulation ...

  1. Minor rural road networks: values, challenges, and opportunities for biodiversity conservation

    Peter G. Spooner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Roads corridors are a conspicuous part of most landscapes, which are gaining greater recognition for their role in nature conservation. However roads cause wildlife mortality, alter water and nutrient flows, change local microclimatic conditions, act as vectors for weeds and pest animals, and have other far-reaching effects. Not surprisingly, there is much attention from both road and conservation managers to lessen these impacts, with an emphasis on developing solutions to mitigate the barrier effects of major roads to wildlife movements. However in many anthropogenic landscapes, road corridors can also provide key habitat and connectivity for local biodiversity. In particular, where traffic volumes are low, minor roads often provide critical habitat and refuge for many native species. Knowledge of the ecology and biodiversity conservation values of minor rural road verges has been underpinned by studies in various contexts, such as sunken roads, field margins and hedgerow networks in Europe, to stock routes in Spain and Australia. Despite their different histories and management constructs, important commonalties have been highlighted in terms of their biodiversity values, and the factors which influence these values. As such, minor rural road networks can be vital in providing connected, functioning ecosystems within rural landscapes. The importance of vegetated minor rural road networks will only become more pressing with future climate change. In Australia, road management authorities are tasked with the dual roles of maintaining road transport needs (i.e. priorities for road maintenance and safety concerns, whilst maintaining the environmental values of roads. This paper reviews the biodiversity values of minor rural roads, discusses the challenges and constraints in managing these values, and describes the case of identifying historic roads as an example of enhancing conservation management of these important habitats in rural landscapes.

  2. The Social Organization of Diversity: The Changing Faces in Rural America.

    Brunn, Michael

    Changes in the social organization and context of education were studied in a rural Illinois school district experiencing a rapid influx of Hispanic students. The local meatpacking plant closed, then reopened under a new name and began an aggressive campaign to recruit immigrant and migrant workers who would work for lower wages. In the next 3

  3. The Challenge of Bottom-Up Paradigm and Popular Participation in Sustainable Rural Development of Nigeria: The Way Forward

    J. O. Adefila

    2012-01-01

    The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformat...

  4. China: facing a long-term care challenge on an unprecedented scale.

    Glass, Anne P; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jing

    2013-07-01

    Population ageing is occurring in China at a breathtaking pace and rapidly becoming a major public health issue. Due to the one-child policy, rural/urban migration and other societal changes, the family-dependent long-term care (LTC) of the past will no longer suffice. Barely existent now, both institutional and community-based services will need to expand to meet the growing need. China is still at an earlier stage in economic development and will be challenged to build these services and train staff. Furthermore, many elders are not yet covered by financial and insurance support. This massive demographic transition requires political efforts to develop integrated and sustainable national LTC systems. PMID:23600434

  5. Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges

    Augustine D Asante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doctors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.

  6. Medical education for rural areas: opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies.

    Sargeant, Joan M

    2005-01-01

    Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine's positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs) increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing) to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories) and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure), educational (using ICTs to best meet learners' educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs) and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures). Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education. PMID:16388173

  7. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners′ educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

  8. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  9. Facing new safety-challenges in a large particle accelerator experiment at CERN

    Schmidt, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    An upgraded safety concept for CMS has been adapted to the size of the project and its organisational challenges under today's budgetary constraints, as well as to the increasing levels of risk. Strong magnetic fields and high radiation levels, including neutrons, pose additional hazards to materials, to operators, to maintenance and to ultimate deposit of activated materials. CMS also fits the insurer's risk-description for modern facilities, i.e. characterised by "higher energy density, more combustible materials and unattended operation". The regulatory environment, consisting essentially of CERN's autonomous regulations as well as of those of its host countries, also need to be satisfied with much attention. To face this challenge, seven distinct safety management tools have been identified, which are described in some detail, namely clear safety objectives, documented safety requirements, open items list, safety ( and design)reviews, safety risk analysis, enforcement of compliance and quality management....

  10. The Changing Face of Veterinary Practice: A Special Focus on Rural America

    David E. Anderson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Rural and food animal veterinary practice is evolving in response to changes in society, veterinary student demographics, and business opportunities available in the 21st century. The gravitation of veterinarians toward metropolitan areas has created a perception of under-serviced animal health needs in rural communities.  Many rural communities are heavily reliant on agriculture; therefore, this perceived need for veterinarians influences the food animal industry as a whole. Veterinary colleges have changed in response to the increased number of students who are interested in companion animal medicine. These changes have resulted in diminished large animal content in the professional curricula, attrition of the number of faculty teaching food animal medicine, increases in the number of faculty dedicated to small animal curriculum, and an overwhelming sense that the veterinary program is centered around training in preparation for a career in companion animal practice. A multitude of factors likely contribute to the continued gravitation of veterinary students toward small animal practice. Veterinary colleges must strive to maintain a balanced, open-minded view of the profession so that students have an equal opportunity to choose a path that best suits their desires and interests.

  11. Teacher Motivation : issues and challenges facing School Management Teams (STMs) in motivationg teachers / T.S Tseke

    Tseke, T S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher motivation and the issues and challenges facing school management teams in motivating teachers. The study was guided by research questions, namely: What is the nature and scope of teacher motivation'? What is the relationship between leadership and teacher motivation? What are the challenges that the SMT members face when motivating teachers? How could teachers be assisted to regain their passion regarding their educational w...

  12. Facing the challenges and building solutions in clinical psychiatric nursing in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Zarea, Kourosh; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohammadpour, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Psychiatric nurses play an important role in the process of caring for mentally ill patients and are continually faced with the numerous challenges and complex issues related to this field. This study aimed to understand the perspectives of psychiatric nurses regarding the issues they face while providing care and examine the possible solutions for improvement of inpatient care in clinical settings. The study adopted a qualitative approach that utilized a content analysis of audio taped, semi-structured interviews that had been conducted with 24 nurses. Two main themes emerged from the data. The first, Challenges in Providing Care within Psychiatric Wards, had the following subthemes: Politics and Rules of Organization, Safety and Security Issues, Uncertainty about the Role, Lack of Trained Staff, and Sociocultural Issues. The second theme, Solutions for Improving Psychiatric Care, had the subthemes of Empowerment across four domains: Psychiatric Nurses, Mentally Ill Patients and their Families, The Psychiatric Mental Health System, and the Cultural Context. The results indicated that if nurses are expected to provide optimal nursing care within a psychiatric ward, then there is a need for a stable and responsible organizational structure, skilled psychiatric nurses, and community-based care along with an anti-stigma program. PMID:23017047

  13. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    JOVANOVIC Verka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

  14. Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts

    Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three weeks of age. The area that grows back is bare of wool and therefore reduces the amount of wool and conditions favourable to fly strike. This method showed much promise in reducing mortality in sheep flocks. Many farmers saw mulesing as a bloody and unpalatable technique, and so it took extensive information programs run over 20 years to finally convince farmers it was worth doing to improve the welfare of their animals by reducing deaths from flystrike. In the late 1990s, extensive campaigning by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) led to a growing awareness of this practice by retailers in Europe and the USA. Believing it to be an invasive and painful practice, particularly without pain relief, some companies threaten to boycott Australian wool. In reaction to the growing pressure the Australian wool industry in 2004 agreed to phase out the practice of mulesing by 2010. The wool industry is now intensively seeking a viable and practical alternative to mulesing. Research into various technologies including intradermal injections and modification of the blowfly genome is continuing, and it is likely that a combination of technology and breeding will provide the ultimate solutions. In the short term, control will mean increased applications of chemicals and greater intervention and monitoring. This however, leaves the farmer with more complex decision-making, high labour costs and greater exposure to chemicals and residues. Understandably, some farmers are angry and upset by the reaction of the international retailers, as they believe they are doing the best thing to protect their sheep from a slow and painful death. This situation has lead to small numbers of defiant farmers stating they will continue to mules until a viable alternative is available. This is not the first time Australian farmers have faced challenging times. Australian farmers have an enviable reputation as innovators, and a capacity to adapt, with many recognising the importance of meeting consumer demands by ceasing mulesing. In 2009, at least 35% of Merino lambs born will be unmulesed. Even with this dramatic change in practice well before the agreed deadline, retailers such as Hugo Boss, Pierre Cardin and H and M have publicly stated that they will no longer source any Australian wool. This response indicates that even when the product is of high quality, markets will still be affected by the perception of the product in terms of how it is produced. Australia's experience shows that developed, or developing, countries intending to market animal products are not immune from global consumer perception. For this reason, livestock producers must consider issues such as animal welfare, and its impact on their potential customers, as well as biophysical limitations to production

  15. Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Biofield Practitioners in Global Health and Medicine: A White Paper.

    Guarneri, Erminia; King, Rauni Prittinen

    2015-11-01

    Biofield therapies (BTs) are increasingly employed in contemporary healthcare. In this white paper, we review specific challenges faced by biofield practitioners resulting from a lack of (1) a common scientific definition of BT; (2) common educational standards for BT training (including core competencies for clinical care); (3) collaborative team care education in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and in integrative health and medicine (IHM); (4) a focused agenda in BT research; and (5) standardized devices and scientifically validated mechanisms in biofield research. We present a description of BT and discuss its current status and challenges as an integrative healthcare discipline. To address the challenges cited and to enhance collaboration across disciplines, we propose (1) standardized biofield education that leads to professional licensure and (2) interprofessional education (IPE) competencies in BT training required for licensed healthcare practitioners and encouraged for other practitioners using these therapies. Lastly, we discuss opportunities for growth and a potential strategic agenda to achieve these goals. The Academy of Integrative Health and Medicine (AIHM) provides a unique forum to facilitate development of this emerging discipline, to facilitate IPE, and to further increase the availability of BT to patients. PMID:26665047

  16. Teaching in Rural Saskatchewan: First Year Teachers Identify Challenges and Make Recommendations

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; McIntyre, Laureen J.; Prytula, Michelle P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the existing research on rural education, rural teaching, and pre-service rural practicum placements, there is little research on the experiences of beginning teachers in rural schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saskatchewan beginning teachers who obtain employment in rural or northern schools. Eight

  17. Disseminating research in rural Yup’ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    Inna Rivkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup’ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup’ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup’ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives. Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design. Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results. Challenges included translation between English and Yup’ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have practical value, communicating openly, planning for sustainability and incorporating indigenous knowledge and expertise through a community-guided process. Our research findings will inform continued work within our partnership as we co-develop culturally based strategies for multilevel community interventions to address stress.

  18. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a

  19. Australia versus the world: do we face special opportunities and challenges in restoring Australian streams?

    Rutherfurd, I D; Gippel, C

    2001-01-01

    Australians do face special opportunities and challenges in attempting to restore or rehabilitate their streams, when compared with Western Europe and North America. Some of these differences arise from the physical and ecological character of our streams, particularly in terms of flow variability, stream power, sediment, vegetation interactions, and nutrient levels. We also have modest resources available per-unit-length of stream, and no massive freshwater fishing industry. These, and many other differences, combine to produce an environment in which it can be slower and more difficult to rehabilitate streams, and we have less confidence in the results. International case studies are tremendously useful but in some cases we need to be circumspect in applying the results directly to Australian streams. PMID:11419124

  20. Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future

    The colloquium organised by the Association of Energy Economists dealing with the theme 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' takes place against a backdrop of ever-increasing initiatives in this field, for example at the World Energy Council or the International Energy Agency Faith in technical progress is widespread but should be supported by studies without any preconceived ideas. Research and development efforts must be fully supported, and in a climate of opening markets and liberalization the public authorities have a major role to pay. Historically, the markets have always been able to meet new needs thanks to technology, but the ambitious targets that the international community has set itself regarding the emission of greenhouse gases imply technical improvements and major investments. (authors)

  1. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence : a case study from rural indonesia

    Elli Nur Hayati; Maria Emmelin; Malin Eriksson

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing servic...

  2. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  3. Evaluating success. Strategies and challenges for understanding IT implementation in a rural hospital.

    Spetz, Joanne; Keane, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a small rural hospital in California received a grant for the implementation of an integrated IT system. As part of the grant, the hospital worked with a university team to evaluate the implementation. The evaluation plan emphasized quantitative analysis of medication errors, patient safety and hospital finances. As the implementation progressed, it became clear that the quantitative methods would be marginally useful; qualitative methods gained greater importance. The evaluation team added more interviews and several staff surveys to the evaluation. The results of the surveys helped the hospital team understand how well staff was prepared for the technology and how they were responding to implementation. The best practices emphasized in this paper include: work with independent evaluators who can provide anonymity and lend objectivity; focus on surveys and interviews to understand the difficulties faced by staff and how they might affect outcomes; and collect key outcomes data in advance of beginning the implementation. PMID:19181204

  4. THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  5. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    The modernisation of international conventions governing third-party liability in the nuclear field is essentially an attempt to resolve certain shortcomings whilst setting out higher compensation sums and extending the cover for nuclear damage for which compensation is payable. The latest convention revisions occurred in 2004 and led to the adoption of protocols amending the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention supplementing the Paris Convention. However, the substance of the current regimes is largely the result of conventions drawn up in the 1960's and, in the eyes of the general public, the changes made in 2004 are mainly concerned with increasing the compensation sums. Despite the proposed increases in the compensation amounts, there is certainly no doubt that the potential costs of a major nuclear accident will not be fully covered by the revised Conventions. In other words, the actual compensation amount in the event of nuclear damage is quite low if we refer back to known events. By way of example, the direct cost of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident is estimated to be above EUR 100 billion according to different sources. The accident virtually bankrupted the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) immediately after this event. The economic costs of the Chernobyl accident, however, are difficult to assess even now. But, according to various sources, the costs also exceed USD 100 billion. The Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl accidents share common characteristics. First, the amount of damage could have been even higher had the accident occurred close to major population centres or if the wind direction at the time of the accident had been different. Second, no compensation was provided by the insurance world. Further, these two accidents did not occur within the framework of the new amended conventions (the latest revision of the Paris Convention has still not taken effect). These events illustrate some of the challenges facing the world of insurance following the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime: - Will the insurance industry be able to find funds corresponding to the new amounts that have been set? - Do the additional damages covered by the revised conventions provide adequate cover for existing risks and will private insurance be able and willing to cover such risks? Nevertheless, the insurance world has changed a great deal since 2004 and there are many additional issues that have arisen since that time. For example, the economic crisis and the introduction of the European Solvency II Directive require insurers to take a more stringent line with their commitments. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a number of questions have resurfaced: are the new insurance amounts sufficient? The age of 'nuclear renaissance' has long gone and some countries are distancing themselves from nuclear power in light of its questionable costs; are operators paying a fair price in light of the risks incurred? Finally, Europe is keen to play its part and impose its own rules; what will be the consequences of this development? This article reconsiders these challenges in light of the 2004 Protocol (which has not entered into force), by focusing in particular on the situation in Europe. Section I looks back at the history behind the conventions and the key principles they set down. Section II highlights the changes made to the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol and the problems facing the insurance industry. Section III provides an overview of the various actors involved in the insurance industry and redefines the necessary insurance foundations to cover the challenges described in Section IV. Finally, Section IV covers all the challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime. (author)

  6. Motivation for math in rural schools: student and teacher perspectives

    Hardr, Patricia L.

    2011-06-01

    Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning and motivation from the fields of educational psychology, human neuroscience and rural education, to present an integrated systemic view of motivation for learning math in rural schools.

  7. Teachers Facing the Challenges of Curriculum Change in the Small Rural School in Finland.

    Kimonen, Eija; Nevalainen, Raimo

    Over half of Finnish elementary schools are small schools employing 1-3 teachers. This paper examines the implementation of new national curriculum policies in two small elementary schools. The new policies, adopted in 1994, stress autonomous control of learning and encourage each individual school, in collaboration with the community, to draw up

  8. STaRRS in Yellowstone: Addressing Challenges Facing Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships

    Houseal, A.; Gallagher, R.; Fuhrmann, B.; Sanford, R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature outlines many challenges faced by Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnerships (STSPs) including cultural differences between the scientific research and education communities. For example, shared vocabulary terms with dissimilar definitions can create communication problems. Other issues include accuracy in data collection, meeting the needs of a very diverse group of partners, connecting students with research science in a meaningful way, and maintaining the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain these partnerships. Additionally, evidence, other than anecdotal, of the success of these partnerships is limited, especially as school year and research cycles are often on different schedules or have very different goals. Students, Teachers, and Rangers & Research Scientists: Investigating Systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park (STaRRS) was an STSP developed to address some of these challenges, model some solutions within an STSP, and identify some possible outcomes for participating teachers and their students. Three strategies used to address some of these challenges that will be discussed briefly in this presentation include: (a) embedding the STSP in an already existing National Park Service environmental education program; (b) development of three types of research activities connecting teachers, students, and scientists to the research, and (c) a professional development (PD) model that included all partners in an on-going year-long process. Results from an accompanying research study will also be presented. Using a pretest-intervention-posttest design, this study revealed significant changes in attitude regarding science and scientists of participating STaRRS teachers. Student data gathered using a quasi-experimental pretest-intervention-posttest treatment and comparison group design also demonstrated significant changes in their attitudes and gains in earth science content knowledge.

  9. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Morten Tryland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  10. What are the Challenges Faced by Islamic Banks in Making Financing Decisions toward Small Medium Enterprise (SMEs) in Malaysia?

    Suhaimi, Shadia

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges faced by Islamic banks in making financing decisions toward Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia by analyzing three sets of applications used by banks, which are: (1) processes used by banks in assessing SMEs’ applications, (2) problems faced by banks during application process, and (3) monitoring the SME clients after financing has been granted. Small-and-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are considered as the backbone of the national economy. They have e...

  11. Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale

    Steinhaeuser, Jost; Otto, Petra; Goetz, Katja; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to...

  12. Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers

    Brown, Michael R.; Cindy J. Price

    2010-01-01

    Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about ...

  13. New Challenges Facing Small Undergraduate Departments And The Role Of Faculty And Administrators.

    El-Shazly, A. K.

    2003-12-01

    Small geoscience departments with 5 faculty members or less in undergraduate institutions are facing serious challenges that will have a profound impact on their future, as well as the future of geoscience education. In addition to past and future budget cuts that affect all departments, small departments are more vulnerable to such problems as (i) decreased enrollments in introductory level classes, (ii) small number of geology majors, (iii) small number of graduates per year (iv) lack or paucity of equipment necessary for faculty and student research, (v) limited opportunities for external funding, (vi) need to offer upper division classes on an alternate year basis, (vii) difficulty in recruiting and retaining students, (viii) high teaching loads for faculty, and (ix) designing rigorous curricula based on 120 credit hours with a significant component of liberal art classes. These problems pose new challenges for faculty, department chairs and administrators. Faculty need to design curricula tailored to the need of the job market, without compromising rigor or the quality of the program. New classes/ concentrations in environmental science, hydrogeology and geographical information systems should be offered, and traditional classes in petrology, geophysics and tectonics should be maintained. Classes in Physics, Chemistry and Math should be core requirements. Student involvement in research should be encouraged at an early stage (sophomore/ junior levels). Department chairs need to assign duties in their department carefully to capitalize on the strengths of their faculty: faculty with strong research backgrounds should be helped in their efforts to pursue external funding opportunities, whereas those with strong teaching abilities should be evaluated primarily on their performance in the classroom. Student credit hour production should not be used as a criterion for evaluating faculty. Administrators should evaluate programs and departments based on the success of their graduates in the workplace/ graduate school, not their numbers, and the quality of faculty research and its impact on attracting new majors and acquisition of funds.

  14. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing.

    Hassouneh, Dena

    2006-07-01

    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing. PMID:16863105

  15. Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry

    The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

  16. Reflecting on some of the challenges facing postgraduate nursing education in South Africa.

    Essa, Ilhaam

    2011-04-01

    Considering the dearth of professional nurses in South Africa today, and the fact that postgraduate nursing education can contribute towards enhancing the competences of those in the profession, I shall examine some of the challenges faced by a group of previously enrolled postgraduate nursing students which resulted in their non-completion of a formal qualification. The focus of this investigation was a 2008 cohort of students that did not complete their non-clinical postgraduate diplomas at the institution where I work. Of the 29 students who did not complete their studies, I have selected a group of 8 students through a purposive non-random sample with the objective to ascertain some of the reasons for them not completing their diploma. My aim was to examine some of the reasons as to why postgraduate nursing students do not complete their qualification and to suggest ways as to how the curriculum can be reconstructed as to counteract some of students' pitfalls. Based on my qualitative interpretive analysis, I shall argue that these students did not complete their diplomas on the grounds of, having experienced a lack of institutional and social support; their inability to cope with the demands of academic rigour; their experiences of isolation and exclusion; and, the inability to cope with unimagined realities. My contention is that if postgraduate nursing is not adequately attended to, the possibility that nursing education would not contribute to the transformation of the profession, is highly possible. PMID:21126811

  17. Induced pluripotent stem cell research: a revolutionary approach to face the challenges in drug screening.

    Song, Minjung; Paul, Saswati; Lim, Hyejin; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2012-02-01

    Discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 provided a new path for cell transplantation and drug screening. The iPS cells are stem cells derived from somatic cells that have been genetically reprogrammed into a pluripotent state. Similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, iPS cells are capable of differentiating into three germ layers, eliminating some of the hurdles in ES cell technology. Further progress and advances in iPS cell technology, from viral to non-viral systems and from integrating to non-integrating approaches of foreign genes into the host genome, have enhanced the existing technology, making it more feasible for clinical applications. In particular, advances in iPS cell technology should enable autologous transplantation and more efficient drug discovery. Cell transplantation may lead to improved treatments for various diseases, including neurological, endocrine, and hepatic diseases. In studies on drug discovery, iPS cells generated from patient-derived somatic cells could be differentiated into specific cells expressing specific phenotypes, which could then be used as disease models. Thus, iPS cells can be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of disease progression and in cell-based efficient drug screening. Here, we summarize the history and progress of iPS cell technology, provide support for the growing interest in iPS cell applications with emphasis on practical uses in cell-based drug screening, and discuss some challenges faced in the use of this technology. PMID:22370779

  18. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Levine SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  19. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  20. The Greek-Catholic Church In Romania Facing The Challenges Of The Post-Modern Society

    Ciprian Ghisa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting mostly with the second half of the 20th century, the churches and the religious communities are facing the challenges raised by the process of secularization, which is considered by some sociologists of religion as irreversible. The most affected ones were / are the traditional churches and the most obvious area where this phenomenon has become very visible is the Western Europe. This study aims to analyze the situation of the traditional churches in Romania, with a special focus on the Greek-Catholic Church, from the same perspective: the impact of post-modernity over a church which is very much orientated towards the West, which is becoming more and more urban and is still passing through a complicated process of structuring and transition. The study underlines the fact that one of the answers to the problems raised by the process of secularization is based on the way in which the ecclesiastical community is built and on how deep is the consciousness of the confessional identity rooted in the mind and the soul of the believers.  

  1. Challenges faced in e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Namibia

    Maletzky, Monica; Mhopjeni, Kombada

    2014-05-01

    The e-infrastructure at the Ministry of Mines is undergoing considerable restructuring with most of it in the planning phase. One of the main challenges faced is the Local Area Network that is outdated and not capable to handling the volume of data that is transferred in the network. Most of the Network Interface Cards (NIC) on the servers and all related LAN equipment have a capability of 10/100Mb/s and cannot support the volume of data transported over the network. This is not adequate for the need of high end users such as geoscientists who work with large geological, remote sensing and geophysical datasets. Taking the above into consideration the Ministry has embarked on implementing changes to the network. The initiative involves the acquisition of Cisco Layer3 switches that have the capability of transferring large volumes of data, up to 10Gb/s. Subsequent upgrades of the NICs and small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are planned in the near future. Apart from the internal network, the Ministry's present internet connection is insufficient as the Ministry shares the outbound link with all other Ministries in the Namibian government. The internet provided by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM), which serves as the government's internet service provider (ISP), to our institution is currently 2Mb/s. OPM has embarked on the upgrade of the network infrastructure. The first phase of the involved the upgrade of the national point of presence (POP) to operate at a capacity of 300Mb/s. This would be followed by the expansion of a fibre network to all the government institutions. Upon completion, the internet performance will be improved as it is envisaged that the Ministry of Mines and Energy's bandwidth will be upgraded to 10Mb/s and hopefully alleviate the current strain on the system. This project is expected to be completed by June 2014. However, due to the challenges that our office is faced with, we have acquired a 4Mb/s internet link for the interim period. Storage also poses one of our main challenges. The institution lacks sufficient storage and at present some data are stored externally. Similarly, the back-up storage is limited and outdated, as in some instances storage tapes are used. The Ministry plans to acquire a new storage capacity to enable it to locally host all the data. Subsequently this new storage facility will include back-up storage hosted off-site. The acquisition is in progress and the implementation of the new system is envisaged within the near future. The Ministry is trying its utmost to upgrade its e-infrastructure to support the business of the organisation.

  2. A Reflective Perspective on the Challenges Facing Research-Led Teaching in the Performing and Creative Arts

    Walmsley, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a reflective perspective on the role that research-led teaching plays in the development of future arts workers in higher education. It explores the challenges faced by lecturers developing curricula in the performing and creative arts and argues that the increasing focus on employability can conflict with universities'

  3. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  4. Knowledge Production and Transmission in a Changing Society: Challenges Facing Law Lecturers in a Distance Education Environment in South Africa

    Scott, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in different occupational fields as a professional person. I indicate that the law itself cannot effect change. For this we need properly trained lawyers. For an effective transformation…

  5. Developing a Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural Kenya: Challenges in Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research

    Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating pow...

  6. An overview of the health and management challenges of rural poultry stock in North Central Nigeria

    Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun; Oladapo Oyedeji Oludairo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Poultry production in rural areas is considered as an important source of livelihood for most rural communities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting production of rural poultry in three senatorial districts in North Central Nigeria namely Kwara Central, Kwara South and Kwara North.. Materials and Methods: The major factors affecting production of rural poultry were investigated using structured questionnaire to gather data on heal...

  7. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    Kapil Goel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

  8. Conference on wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on n wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants addressed the following points: the conciliation between landscape protection and wind power development, the definition of landscape environmental quality criteria, the needs and usages of the departments in charge of the treatment of landscape studies in France, the socio-psychological approach of the local acceptability of wind farm projects, the re-powering tool for the improvement of the wind farm integration in the landscape, and the conciliation between the monuments maintenance and wind power development. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Conciliating landscape protection and wind power development goals in France (Marie Villot); 2 - Wind turbines: Conflicts between development goals, landscape and acceptance - Perception and criteria (Guenter Ratzbor); 3 - Bayern's wind power atlas: a planning tool which takes into account the landscape aspects (Christian Tausch); 4 - Landscape assessment in wind farms projects: what and how to do in French administrative procedures? (Bertrand Cagneaux); 5 - Methods for evaluation of landscape for wind farms projects - A French project developer's feedback (Agathe Jouneau); 6 - Landscape Assessment: Methods from German Landscape Practice (Boris Stemmer); 7 - Acceptance of Wind Turbines - Social Psychological Research (Gundula Huebner); 8 - Local consultation: who to involve, when and how? (Paola Orozco-Souel); 9 - Local acceptability: what dialogue concepts and strategies, and how to manage wind energy objection (Charles Lhermitte); 10 - Re-powering and landscape: chances and limits (Elisabeth Ferus); 11 - Wind power and cultural heritage: consultation and dialogue to succeed (Philippe Benezech); 12 - Monument conservation and the expansion of wind power: Not necessarily a contradiction (Thomas Gunzelmann)

  9. Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

    Dangi Jyoti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among referrals for suscipious lesions and to design and pilot test a collaborative community-based effort to identify suspicious lesions for OC. Methods Setting: Community-based cross sectional OC screening. Participants: With help from the Department of Health (DOH, Haryana and the local communities, we visited three villages and recruited 761 participants of ages 45-95 years. Participants received a visual oral cancer examination and were interviewed about their dental/medical history and personal habits. Pregnant women, children and males/females below 45 years old with history of OC were excluded. Main outcome: Presence of a suspicious oral lesion. Results Out of 761 participants, 42 (5.5% were referred to a local dentist for follow-up of suspicious lesions. Males were referred more than females. The referral group had more bidi and hookah smokers than non smokers as compared to non referral group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking bidi and hookah (OR = 3.06 and 4.42 were statistically significant predictors for suspicious lesions. Conclusions Tobacco use of various forms in rural, northern India was found to be quite high and a main risk factor for suspicious lesions. The influence of both the DOH and community participation was crucial in motivating people to seek care for OC.

  10. Challenges Faced by Graduate Business Education in Southern Africa: Perceptions of MBA Participants

    Temtime, Zelealem T.; Mmereki, Rebana N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree of satisfaction and perceived relevance of the Graduate Business Education (GBE) programme at the University of Botswana. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire and face to face interviews were used to collect data from Master of Business Administration (MBA)

  11. Adapting Small Market Rural Media to the Challenges of New Media: Interviews with Small Market Rural Managers

    Michael R. Brown

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Small rural media outlets are key sources of information, provide a site for local advertising, and are an important local voice in their communities. This paper examines how small market rural media are trying to survive under tough economic conditions, and how they are using new media as part of their strategy to remain viable. Interviews were conducted with managers at several small market newspapers, television, and radio groups in order to identify specific concerns and strategies about how they are managing their resources, how they are using new media, and how they envision their future. The results show that most media are struggling, but also find that local media are in a good position to make their new media content viable for their local audiences.

  12. Challenging pathways to safe water access in rural Uganda: From supply to demand-driven water governance

    Resty Naiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uganda has experienced a major policy shift from a supply-driven to a demand-driven approach in rural water provision since 1990. The article sheds light on the rural populations access to safe water within the changing institutional frameworks. We analysed individual and group interviews with key informants from national to community levels and relevant official documents with the Social-Ecological Systems framework. Since the implementation of the demand-driven approach, rural safe water coverage has slightly improved but operation and maintenance of water sources pose a great challenge hampering, long-term access to safe water. The abrupt and top-down imposed policy shift has resulted in competing signals from old and new policies creating uncertainty and ambiguity about responsibilities, rules and incentives. The analysis shows the importance of taking into account the implications of national institutional disturbances on local collective action for long-term access to safe water.

  13. HIV and infant feeding counselling: challenges faced by nurse-counsellors in northern Tanzania

    Blystad Astrid

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding is a subject of worry in prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT programmes in settings where breastfeeding is normative. Nurse-counsellors, expected to counsel HIV-positive women on safer infant feeding methods as defined in national/international guidelines, are faced with a number of challenges. This study aims to explore the experiences and situated concerns of nurses working as infant feeding counsellors to HIV-positive mothers enrolled in pMTCT programmes in the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 25 nurse-counsellors at four pMTCT sites. Interviews were handwritten and FGDs were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the programme Open Code assisted in sorting and structuring the data. Analysis was performed using 'content analysis.' Results The findings revealed a high level of stress and frustration among the nurse-counsellors. They found themselves unable to give qualified and relevant advice to HIV-positive women on how best to feed their infants. They were confused regarding the appropriateness of the feeding options they were expected to advise HIV-positive women to employ, and perceived both exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding as culturally and socially unsuitable. However, most counsellors believed that formula feeding was the right way for an HIV-positive woman to feed her infant. They expressed a lack of confidence in their own knowledge of HIV and infant feeding, as well as in their own skills in assessing a woman's possibilities of adhering to a particular method of feeding. Moreover, the nurses were in general not comfortable in their newly gained role as counsellors and felt that it undermined the authority and trust traditionally vested in nursing as a knowledgeable and caring profession. Conclusion The findings illuminate the immense burden placed on nurses in their role as infant feeding counsellors in pMTCT programmes and the urgent need to provide the training and support structure necessary to promote professional confidence and skills. The organisation of counselling services must to a larger extent take into account the local realities in which nurses construct their role as counsellors to HIV-positive childbearing women.

  14. Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of communication. When designing 'Mail-Info' strategy, it was decided that senior experienced staff with both technical and communicational skills should run this service, together with junior apprentices, to guarantee prompt and efficient feedback in the present and in the future. This paper is focused on describing the experience acquired in implementing this tool and the lessons learned up to date. (authors)

  15. An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt

    Abd El Aziz Mohi El Din, Ehab Mohamed Farouk

    2011-07-01

    Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1{sup st} of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study and the expected investment cost of these projects, and the environmental impacts of the renewable energy.

  16. An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt

    Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study and the expected investment cost of these projects, and the environmental impacts of the renewable energy.

  17. North of the 46° parallel: Obstacles and challenges to recycling in Ontario's rural and northern communities.

    Lakhan, Calvin

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the economic challenges of recycling in Ontario's rural and northern areas. Specifically, this study quantifies the economic and diversion impact of operating recycling programs in these regions. Using a systems based cost model, focus is placed on analyzing: (1) What would happen to provincial recycling costs and diversion levels if recycling programs were eliminated in "high cost" northern and rural communities? (2) Is it possible to increase the provincial recycling rate by focusing investments in low cost, high performance regions (while simultaneously eliminating recycling programs in rural and northern areas)? (3) How would the mix of material recovered change if recycling programs were eliminated in rural and northern areas? The results of this analysis show that eliminating recycling programs in high cost regions significantly decreased system costs without negatively impacting overall recycling rates. This study also found that it was possible to increase the provincial recycling rate while simultaneously reducing program costs by targeting specific regions for recovery. The findings of this study suggest that Ontario reevaluate whether rural and northern municipalities be legislatively required to operate household recycling programs. PMID:26190828

  18. IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSHIP : Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city

    Enow, Manyi

    2010-01-01

    Title: Immigrant Entrepreneurship - Case studies of challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in a large and small Swedish city. Purpose: The purpose is to investigate if the challenges faced by immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden differ between large and small cities. Method: Eight case studies, four in Jönköping and four in Stockholm of seven Asian and one Eastern Europe immigrant entrepreneurs in the restaurant business. Results: The typical Jönköping case and the typical Stockholm case ar...

  19. The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural…

  20. Motivation for Math in Rural Schools: Student and Teacher Perspectives

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning

  1. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  2. Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era :  A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies

    Rozenveld, Marc; Heinonen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Date: June 7th of 2013 Level: Master thesis in marketing, 15 ECTS Institution: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Authors: Tapio Heinonen & Marc Rozenveld 18 thof November 1988 & 16th of June 1990 Title: Challenges facing the advertising world in the digital era. Subtitle: A comparison between Dutch and Swedish advertising agencies. Tutor: Peter Selegård Keywords: media logic, advertising industry, advertising agencies, advertising and digital ma...

  3. Challenges Faced by People Living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa: Issues for Group Risk Reduction Interventions

    Ayanda Nqeketo; Nomvo Henda; Brian van Wyk; Anna Strebel; Leickness Simbayi; Allanise Cloete

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study to investigate the challenges faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The primary goal of the study was to gather data to inform the adaptation of a group risk reduction intervention to the South African context. Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences of PLWHA. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 83 HIV-positive participants and 14 key informants (KIs...

  4. Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector

    Brooke Fisher Liu; Abbey Blake Levenshus

    2010-01-01

    This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S.) when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007), the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and el...

  5. Benefits and challenges of multi-level learner rural general practices – an interview study with learners, staff and patients

    Morrison, Tracy; Brown, James; Bryant, Melanie; Nestel, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Background General practices vary in the provision of training and education. Some practices have training as a major focus with the presence of multi-level learners and others host single learner groups or none at all. This study investigates the educational benefits and challenges associated with ‘multi-level learner’ practices. Methods This paper comprised three case studies of rural general practices with multiple levels of learners. Qualitative data were collected from 29 interviews with...

  6. EU RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE NEW PROGRAMMING PERIOD: CHALLENGES AHEAD AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCEEDING COUNTRIES

    Luka Juvančič

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper discusses about the main changes of the EU Rural Development policy and highlights the open issues that refer to its financing and implementation in the period 2007-2013. The paper presents the implications of the recent EU enlargement for implementation of rural development policy in countries aspiring for EU membership.

  7. Challenges and recognizable patterns in the en-face OCT of the retina

    Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Lydon, Chris; Dunne, Shane; Dobre, George M.; Cucu, Radu G.; Jackson, David A.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Rosenthal, Jeanne L.; Muldoon, Thomas; Walsh, Joseph B.; Orlock, Dennis A.; Fisher, Yale; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2004-07-01

    Using an advanced prototype of en-face OCT/cSLO instrument, an extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. Uniquely specific and reoccurring patterns could be characterized for macular hole ("Chrysanthemum flower"), CME ("Swiss cheese wheel"), Macular Pucker ("Star"), CSR ("Target") and RPE Detachment ("Ring of Light"). Other entities such as polypoidal choroidopathy and diabetic edema residues had easily recognizable features but were variable enough to defy specific descriptive comparison. To facilitate the interpretation of the en-face OCT images, a three dimensional interactive simulation was designed which allows the demonstration of characteristic features and artifacts encountered in the acquisition of transverse images.

  8. Convergence in France facing Big Data era and Exascale challenges for Climate Sciences

    Denvil, Sébastien; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Salas, David; Meurdesoif, Yann; Valcke, Sophie; Caubel, Arnaud; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Servonnat, Jérôme; Sénési, Stéphane; Derouillat, Julien; Voury, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    The presentation will introduce a french national project : CONVERGENCE that has been funded for four years. This project will tackle big data and computational challenges faced by climate modeling community in HPC context. Model simulations are central to the study of complex mechanisms and feedbacks in the climate system and to provide estimates of future and past climate changes. Recent trends in climate modelling are to add more physical components in the modelled system, increasing the resolution of each individual component and the more systematic use of large suites of simulations to address many scientific questions. Climate simulations may therefore differ in their initial state, parameter values, representation of physical processes, spatial resolution, model complexity, and degree of realism or degree of idealisation. In addition, there is a strong need for evaluating, improving and monitoring the performance of climate models using a large ensemble of diagnostics and better integration of model outputs and observational data. High performance computing is currently reaching the exascale and has the potential to produce this exponential increase of size and numbers of simulations. However, post-processing, analysis, and exploration of the generated data have stalled and there is a strong need for new tools to cope with the growing size and complexity of the underlying simulations and datasets. Exascale simulations require new scalable software tools to generate, manage and mine those simulations ,and data to extract the relevant information and to take the correct decision. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a platform capable of running large ensembles of simulations with a suite of models, to handle the complex and voluminous datasets generated, to facilitate the evaluation and validation of the models and the use of higher resolution models. We propose to gather interdisciplinary skills to design, using a component-based approach, a specific programming environment for scalable scientific simulations and analytics, integrating new and efficient ways of deploying and analysing the applications on High Performance Computing (HPC) system. CONVERGENCE, gathering HPC and informatics expertise that cuts across the individual partners and the broader HPC community, will allow the national climate community to leverage information technology (IT) innovations to address its specific needs. Our methodology consists in developing an ensemble of generic elements needed to run the French climate models with different grids and different resolution, ensuring efficient and reliable execution of these models, managing large volume and number of data and allowing analysis of the results and precise evaluation of the models. These elements include data structure definition and input-output (IO), code coupling and interpolation, as well as runtime and pre/post-processing environments. A common data and metadata structure will allow transferring consistent information between the various elements. All these generic elements will be open source and publicly available. The IPSL-CM and CNRM-CM climate models will make use of these elements that will constitute a national platform for climate modelling. This platform will be used, in its entirety, to optimise and tune the next version of the IPSL-CM model and to develop a global coupled climate model with a regional grid refinement. It will also be used, at least partially, to run ensembles of the CNRM-CM model at relatively high resolution and to run a very-high resolution prototype of this model. The climate models we developed are already involved in many international projects. For instance we participate to the CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) project that is very demanding but has a high visibility: its results are widely used and are in particular synthesised in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment reports. The CONVERGENCE project will constitute an invaluable step for the French climate community to prepare and better contribute to the next phase of the CMIP project.

  9. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. PMID:26900774

  10. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the......Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor...

  11. A Review of China’s Rural Water Management

    Xiaoman Yu; Yong Geng; Peter Heck; Bing Xue

    2015-01-01

    With less than 6% of total global water resources but one fifth of the global population, China is facing serious challenges for its water resources management, particularly in rural areas due to the long-standing urban-rural dualistic structure and the economic-centralized developmental policies. This paper addresses the key water crises in rural China including potable water supply, wastewater treatment and disposal, water for agricultural purposes, and environmental concerns, and then anal...

  12. The outcomes of health care process in Iran's rural society

    Eskandari, Manije; ABBASZADEH, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health care systems in rural areas face numerous challenges in meeting the community's needs and adequate attention has not been paid to this problem. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of health care process in rural society. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six participants including twenty-one rural health care providers and five clients were selected according to purposive sampling. The data were collected via semi-structured individual interviews and a mini focus...

  13. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.

  14. Challenges We Face in Understanding Children and War: A Personal Essay.

    Garbarino, James

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of psychological and cultural issues faced by professionals in child abuse dealing with children exposed to war zones stresses the importance of recognizing that the "war" is so powerfully loaded in subjective and ideological meanings for all adults that self-reflection and cultural criticism is a necessary condition of dealing…

  15. Challenges Face Arab Students in Writing Well-Developed Paragraphs in English

    Rass, Ruwaida Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate problems facing Palestinian Arab students from Israel who are majoring in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in developing well-written paragraphs in English. They usually transfer the stylistic features of their first language, Arabic to the target language, English. For example, they tend to write long…

  16. Coping with Quality Assurance Challenges Faced by Secondary Schools' Headteachers in Gucha District, Kenya

    Mobegi, Florence Osiri; Ondigi, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    Since independence, the Kenyan government has demonstrated its commitment to the provision of quality secondary school education through allocation of financial resources, provision of trained teachers and establishment of quality assurance department. However, despite the substantial allocation of resources, secondary schools still face major…

  17. A Teacher Tablet Toolkit to meet the challenges posed by 21st century rural teaching and learning environments

    Adèle Botha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the experiences gained in participating in an Information and Communication Technology for Rural Education (ICT4RED initiative, as part of a larger Technology for Rural Education project (TECH4RED in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation, design and application of an innovative teacher professional development course for rural teachers, enabling them to use tablets to support teaching and learning in their classrooms. The course, as outcome, is presented as a Teacher Tablet Toolkit, designed to meet the challenges inherent to the 21st century rural technology enhanced teaching and learning environment. The paper documents and motivates design decisions, derived from literature and adapted through three iterations of a Design Science Research Process, to be incorporated in the ICT4RED Teacher Professional Development Course. The resulting course aims to equip participating teachers with a toolkit consisting of technology hardware, pragmatic pedagogical and technology knowledge and skills, and practice based experience. The significance of game design elements such as simulation and fun, technology in need rather than in case, adequate scaffolding and a clear learning path with interim learning goals are noted.

  18. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  19. Intelligent CCTV for Mass Transport Security : challenges and Opportunities for Video and Face Processing

    Sanderson, Conrad; Bigdeli, Abbas; Shan, Ting; Chen, Shaokang; Berglund, Erik; Lovell, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    CCTV surveillance systems have long been promoted as being effective in improving public safety. However due to the amount of cameras installed, many sites have abandoned expensive human monitoring and only record video for forensic purposes. One of the sought-after capabilities of an automated surveillance system is “face in the crowd” recognition, in public spaces such as mass transit centres. Apart from accuracy and robustness to nuisance factors such as pose variations, in such surveillan...

  20. The Challenges facing Professional Education and Practice of Academic Librarianship in the HE Sector in the UK

    Emilce Sandra Rees

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the challenges facing professional education and practice of academic librarianship in a changing Higher Education world. Librarians in the UK, like all the professionals in the academic sector, are faced with changes in organisational mission within the university, and the changing role of information within society. Inter alia, they have to be accountable inside and outside the university and are in competition for resource allocation and funding. Against this socio-political background, the following eight challenges have been isolated: 1. recognition of librarianship as a profession (and the accreditation of library and information studies; 2. ethical professional responsibilities in a changing organisational world, and how they can be weaved into the librarians professional education; 3. the librarian in a changing (HE world; 4. the assault on professionalism; 5. the users centrality: fact or fiction?; 6. the librarian in an era of global challenge: is resistance futile?; 7. Potemkin villages: fabrication and performance in the academy, and 8. feminisation of the HE professions and patterns of employment. 9. Lastly, Ill examine future scenarios for librarians and the implications of present practices, which affect all sectors.

  1. Modeling European ruminant prodcuction systems: facing the challenges of climate change

    Kipling, Richard Philip; Bannink, Andre; Bellocchi, Gianni; Dalgaard, Tommy; Fox, Naomi J.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Kjeldsen, Chris; Lacetera, Nicola; Sinabell, Franz; Topp, Cairistiona F.; van Oijen, Marcel; Scollan, Nigel D.

    2016-01-01

    , yield and GHG emissions from mono-specific swards, but modeling multi-species swards, grassland quality and the impact of management changes requires further development. Current livestock models provide a good basis for predicting animal production; linking these with models of animal health and...... changes affect a range of economic and environmental variables at regional, national and European scales. Models at larger scales generally utilise more empirical approaches than those applied at animal, field and farm-scales and include assumptions which may not be valid under climate change conditions......Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse...

  2. Kyrgyz Republic - Agricultural Policy Update : Sustaining Pro-poor Rural Growth, Rural Challenges for Government and Donors

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Critical choices must now be made if growth is to be sustained. Significant potential exists for future growth, but bringing out this potential poses a major challenge for government policy. Agricultural strategy must shift its focus towards support for continuous productivity growth by peasant farms in a conducive marketing environment. Key priorities include completion of land reforms (e...

  3. Boom or Bust: Opportunities and Challenges of Aging in Rural Kansas

    Ben Bolender

    2010-01-01

    Population aging is gaining a great deal of attention as we move toward the retirement of the Baby Boom generation. However, few studies have examined the processes and consequences of these aging trends in rural Kansas-and by extension, the Great Plains-at the community level. To that end, this project examines the community level impacts of population aging in rural Kansas. Primary methods included statistical community profile comparisons, site visits, and key informant interviews with loc...

  4. Progress and challenges of the rural cooperative medical scheme in China / ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? / Progrs et dfis du plan mdical coopratif rural en Chine / ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? / ???????????????? / Avances y desafos del sistema mdico cooperativo rural en China

    Qingyue, Meng; Ke, Xu.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Situacin Durante la transicin de China hacia una economa de mercado en las dcadas de 1980 y 1990, la poblacin rural se enfrent a importantes barreras para acceder a la atencin sanitaria y tuvo que hacer frente a cargas financieras mayores que los residentes urbanos para pagar los ser [...] vicios de salud necesarios. Enfoque En 2003, China comenz a poner en prctica un sistema mdico cooperativo rural (RCMS, en sus siglas en ingls) a travs, principalmente, de subsidios del gobierno. El esquema funciona a nivel de condado y ofrece un paquete modesto de beneficios. Marco regional A pesar del rpido crecimiento econmico desde comienzos de la dcada de 1980, las disparidades en los ingresos han aumentado en China, en particular entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas. En respuesta, el gobierno ha puesto un mayor nfasis en el desarrollo social, incluido el desarrollo del sistema de salud. Ejemplos de ello son la priorizacin de un mejor acceso a los servicios sanitarios y la reduccin de la carga de pago por los servicios necesarios. Cambios importantes Tras 10 aos de implementacin, el RCMS proporciona en la actualidad cobertura para toda la poblacin rural y ha mejorado sustancialmente el acceso a la atencin mdica. A pesar de una reduccin de los pagos directos del gasto total en salud, el pago por servicios necesarios sigue provocando dificultades financieras para muchos residentes rurales. Lecciones aprendidas En su primera dcada, el RCMS ha logrado avances por medio de la movilizacin poltica, los subsidios gubernamentales, la buena disposicin del sistema de atencin sanitaria y la disponibilidad de un sistema de supervisin y evaluacin. Con objeto de seguir mejorando el RCMS, ser necesario centrarse en reducir los costes, mejorar la calidad y lograr un sistema mvil. Abstract in english Problem During Chinas transition to a market economy in the 1980s and 1990s, the rural population faced substantial barriers to accessing health care and encountered heavier financial burdens than urban residents in paying for necessary health services. Approach In 2003, China started to impleme [...] nt a rural cooperative medical scheme (RCMS), mainly through government subsidies. The scheme operates at the county level and offers a modest benefit package. Local setting In spite of rapid economic growth since the early 1980s, income disparities in China have increased, particularly between rural and urban populations. In response, the government has put greater emphasis on social development, including health system development. Examples are the prioritization of improved access to health services and the reduction of the burden of payment for necessary services. Relevant changes After 10 years of implementation, the RCMS now provides coverage to the entire rural population and has substantially improved access to health care. Yet despite a drop in out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure, paying for necessary services continues to cause financial hardship for many rural residents. Lessons learnt In its first decade, the RCMS made progress through political mobilization, government subsidies, the readiness of the health-care delivery system, and the availability of a monitoring and evaluation system. Further improving the RCMS will require a focus on cost containment, quality improvement and making the scheme portable.

  5. Rural water supply corruption in Ethiopia

    Calow, Roger; MacDonald, Alan; Cross, Piers

    2012-01-01

    In Ethiopia, investment in rural water supply underpins the government’s poverty reduction efforts. The challenge is huge: roughly 50 percent of the (mainly rural) population still have no access to safe water, and the country has the highest number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa without access to improved water supply and sanitation. The consequences are dire: every year, roughly 250,000 children die from diseases related to poor water and sanitation, and many others face ...

  6. Public relations professionals’ perspectives on the communication challenges and opportunities they face in the U.S. public sector

    Brooke Fisher Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports common challenges and opportunities 49 government public relations professionals face in the United States of America (U.S. when communicating internally and externally. Following on from the primary public sector attributes proposed by Liu and Horsley (2007, the in-depth interviews revealed 13 common attributes that affected government communication practices. The study’s findings are useful for practitioners entering the government communication field in the U.S. and elsewhere, practitioners in other sectors who collaborate with government communicators, and academics developing communication theory for the under-researched public sector.

  7. How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research

    Isola Ajiferuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

  8. Women and land rights in rural Ethiopia : the case of Wolaita

    Qoricho, Yonas Tafesse

    2011-01-01

    This thesis dealt with the land rights of women in rural areas of Wolaita Zone, southwestern Ethiopia by taking the case of rural women in Soddo Zuria District. Three questions were thus posed: How do the current modern rural land law and the Wolaita traditional/customary law ascertain the land rights of rural women in SZD? What kind of land rights do rural women enjoy in practice in SZD? What challenges are faced while implementing the land rights of rural women in the district? In order to ...

  9. Challenges Facing the Polish Banking Industry: A Comparative Study with UK Banks

    Catarina Figueira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Poland entered the EU. This paper investigates the performance of the Polish banking industry over the period 1999–2004, by looking specifically at its comparative efficiency in relation to one of the largest banking sectors in the EU namely, that of the UK. Based on a range of efficiency measures, the empirical results reveal a surprising degree of relative efficiency in the Polish banking industry, no doubt reflecting the substantial economic changes introduced in Poland since 1989. The findings suggest that the Polish banking sector should be able to withstand the new competitive pressures that it faces following entry into the banking sector of the EU.

  10. Young women face gender-specific challenges that limit their political participation

    Briggs, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    Young women aged 18-24 are likely less to take part in elections than their male counterparts. As part of our new series on youth participation, Jacqui Briggs explores the reasons for this, showing how women face specific barriers because of their gender and are under-represented throughout the system. She argues that politicians need to address issues that affect women’s lives such as the gender pay gap and domestic violence to show young women that politics is relevant to them.

  11. The Challenge of Bottom-Up Paradigm and Popular Participation in Sustainable Rural Development of Nigeria: The Way Forward

    ADEFILA J. O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is entitled ‘The challenge of bottom-up paradigm and popular participation in rural economic development of Nigeria’. There is the clamour for a shift from centre-down to bottom-up paradigm particularly among the rural developers considering the back-wash effects of the latter which tends to undermine the economic growth and development of the rural areas. The paper aims at reinforcing the adoption of bottom-up and popular participation approaches to rural socio-economic transformation inspite of the attendant difficulties. It examined popular participation as a concept relating to gaining political accessibility through democratic process, mobilizing and educating the masses to support government programmes and policies as in the case of present removal of fuel subsidy which generated hot debate and resulted in industrial action by labour unions with a view to changing government decision. But popular participation is being confronted with serious challenge of control in Nigeria. There is corruption in the high places, armed robbery attacks, religious intolerance, political violence, tribal discrimination and insecurity of life and properties thereby threatening corporate existence of the country. The paper advocates for the strengthening of a bottom-up strategy instead of top-down through decentralization of sufficient powers, functions and resources in favour of rural majority at the grassroot and by doing so, it will foster a balanced development between the centre and the subordinate local administrative units. Moreover, democratic governance must be allowed to reign supreme not only to attain the national goals of 2020 but also enable Nigeria to assume her rightful position in the world. One concludes that if the local communities are given the opportunities to get involved in the decision-making process that often affect their condition of living, engage in productive ventures, self-help communal projects, and harnessing the creative potentials, talents, skills combined with physical and human resources, it would go a long way to reduce not only the over-dependence of the people on the government to provide everything they need but also help to improve socio-economic well-being in the backward, under-privileged and disadvantaged rural areas.

  12. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and

  13. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support

  14. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  15. The Delicate Balancing Act: Challenges and Successes Facing College Student Women in Formal Leadership Roles

    Haber-Curran, Paige

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through

  16. 17 Challenges Faced by Cantonese Speakers in a UK University Mandarin Course

    Lo, Lan

    2016-01-01

    After Hong Kong returned to China in 1997, those in the Chinese migrant community in the UK who anticipated returning to China saw the significant benefits of learning Mandarin. The challenges are not only related to the social and cultural differences between the Cantonese and Mandarin migrant groups, but also the intrinsic linguistic differences…

  17. Cerumen impaction: Challenges and management profile in a rural health facility

    Olajide Toye Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerumen impaction is a worldwide problem. It constitutes a significant proportion of health problems in many settings and its prevalence varies. Very few studies were done in this region with none from our center. The aim of this study is to review the challenges and management profile of cerumen impaction in a rural health facility in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a 3-year retrospective study of all patients that were managed for cerumen impaction from June 2008 to May 2011, in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Results: A total of 239 patients, aged 398 years were managed for cerumen impaction. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. The age group 120 years was mostly affected in 29.3%. Major complaints were hearing impairment in 120 cases. Both ears were mostly affected in 48.5% of the patients. Olive oil was a major ceruminolytic agent used in 95.4%. Ear syringing was carried out in 91.2% of cases. Major complications were bruises of external auditory canal and otalgia in 7.3% of cases each. Forty-two (17.8% of our patients were asymptomatic, and they did not complained of ear problem. Out of those patients that were symptomatic, 44.3% had visited general medical practitioners and non-otolaryngologist, while 27.6% had self-medication or visited chemist for their ear complaints. Only 3.7% of them had been seen by ear, nose, and throat (ENT specialist in the past. Conclusion: Cerumen impaction is a common otolaryngological problem that presents to ENT surgeon, children, and elderly are more affected. Hearing impairment is the major complaint which may increase the burden of disability on society. Syringing is the most common mode of treatment of our patients. Continuing medical education, proper otological examination by the non-otolaryngologist and public health education to improve the low level of awareness on danger of self-medication is essential.

  18. The interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC) Assessment: Evaluating the Long-term Community-Based Service and Support Needs of Children Facing Special Healthcare Challenges

    Phillips, Charles D.; Catherine Hawes

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of assessment instruments developed to assess children facing special healthcare challenges were constructed to assess children within a limited age range or children who face specific conditions or impairments. In contrast, the interRAI Pediatric Home Care (PEDS HC) Assessment Form was specifically designed to assess the long-term community-based service and support needs of children and youth aged from four to 20 years who face a wide range of chronic physical or behaviora...

  19. Positioning Industrial Design Education within Higher Education: How to face increasingly challenging market forces?

    André Liem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.

  20. The essence of leadership: facing the challenge of being the new manager.

    Hannah, B A

    1993-02-01

    To meet the challenge of today's work environment, the leader of a professional, technically skilled, and highly diverse work "group must be an enabler of people, a facilitator of groups, as well as know how to be an effective group member" (Blanchard et al, The One Minute Manager Builds High Performance Teams, New York, NY, William Morrow, 1990). To accomplish this the leader must participate as a member of the work group as well as identify areas of needed management support and direction. Creating the climate that allows professional work teams to develop and mature is both challenging and rewarding. Fully mature, high-performance teams require minimal direction from the leader. At this stage empowerment is reached: the leader lets go so that the team can get going. PMID:8478810

  1. Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes.

    Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C

    2014-01-01

    On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation. PMID:24691918

  2. The need for cultural innovation to face the environmental challenge in business

    Hagen, Øyvind; Larssæther, Stig

    2000-01-01

    Commercial organisations are the foundation walls of our modern economy. More than 200 years of industrial activity and the recent trend of globalisation have made them the most powerful institutions when it comes to resources, knowledge and ability to influence their surroundings. In spite of their strong position, business is not doing enough to meet the environmental challenge. The suggested ‘solution’ of eco-efficiency initiatives is a product of the same thinking that has created the pro...

  3. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Morten Tryland

    2013-01-01

    A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time b...

  4. Red Resurrection : The Challenges Faced by Scandinavian Vendors when Marketing the Menstrual Cup

    Coe-Björsell, Emily; Jansson, Linn

    2015-01-01

    It is argued in this thesis that the stigmatization of menstruation and the atypical product features of the menstrual cup constitute a unique marketing challenge for vendors of the menstrual cup. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate these issues and the ways in which Scandinavian vendors approach them. Further, the possible effects of this approach on the rate of adoption of the menstrual cup are analyzed. In order to do so, interviews with four Scandinavian vendors of the m...

  5. Determining mutual challenges faced by opencast mines and their women employees / Marna Roos

    Roos, Marna

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history various discriminatory inequalities have appeared which are based on traditional beliefs and stereotype principles. As with many other social structures, this has brought with it the challenge of overcoming these inequalities in order to empower those afflicted by unfair treatment and to eradicate both the social and economic effects it has had on society at large. Of the many different groups that have been discriminated against, often for reasons of race and belief, one o...

  6. Recent changes in the global rail industry: facing the challenge of increased flexibility

    Cantos, Pedro; Campos, Javier

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses how the current trend towards increased private participation in the rail industry is reshaping the way in which Governments should address the main regulatory challenges arising from the particular economic and technical characteristics of this industry. We review the role of railroads in the last two decades and examine the characteristics of the most relevant processes of private participation around the world. The lessons learned from these changes suggest that many o...

  7. Transformation processes of rural areas in Latin America: the challenges of interdisciplinarity

    Luis Llambí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the main empirical research about Latin-American rurality in the early twenty-first century, show us at least four different ways of transformation at Latin American Rural Territories: agribusiness headed process, family farming headed process, several diversification of activities and incomes linked by the new quality of relations between country and urban places, the kind of pro­cesses experienced by those territories where peasants or ethnical minorities prevail (native american or afro descendents as an example.The main objective is to identify the theoretical background’s that may help us explaining such processes, while implies a re-construction booth of the rural sociologist space dimension’s and the interdisciplinary focus. 

  8. The Janus-faced nature of IDO1 in infectious diseases: challenges and therapeutic opportunities.

    Greco, Francesco Antonio; Coletti, Alice; Camaioni, Emidio; Carotti, Andrea; Marinozzi, Maura; Gioiello, Antimo; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of IDO1 is a strategy pursued to develop novel therapeutic treatments for cancer. Recent years have witnessed growing evidence that the enzyme plays a pivotal role in viral, bacterial and fungal infections. These studies have underscored the Janus-faced nature of IDO1 in the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and commensalism. Starting with an outlook on the advances in the structural features of IDO1, herein we report recent findings that pinpoint the involvement of IDO1 in infectious diseases. Then, we present an overview of IDO1 inhibitors that have been enrolled in clinical trials as well as other distinct modulators of the enzyme that may enable further investigations of IDO1 and its role in infectious disease. PMID:26692277

  9. Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra

    Dr. Nadeem Ahmad; Dr. H. S. Joshi; Dr. Rubeena Bano; Prof. D. B. Phalke

    2010-01-01

    The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0%) were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%). Downs syndrome (17.23%) was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%). In 70.68% children no clinical s...

  10. Study of Health Status and Etiological Factors of Mentally Challenged Children in School for Mentally Challenged in Rural Maharashtra

    Dr. Nadeem Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mental health of the child affects his physical health and the learning process. The present study was conducted to study the health status and etiological factors among 58 mentally challenged children in a school for the mentally challenged at Sangamner. Majority of mentally challenged children (68.0% were in 5-9 years age group. Most of them had moderate retardation (43.0%. Downs syndrome (17.23% was commonest, followed by Fragile X syndrome (6.89%. In 70.68% children no clinical syndrome was associated with mental retardation. 60.35% children were offspring of consanguineous marriages. In 63.8% children the causes for mental retardation were idiopathic, and genetic causes were found in 29.31% children. For mentally challenged children better quality of life should be provided by disability limitation and suitable rehabilitation.

  11. Crisis Management: Challenge or Opportunity for Public and Private Managers Face Economic Disaster

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The strategies adopted are based on a series of simplistic reasoning such as analogy, taking into account the ideas of experts, rigorous debate and experimentation. Napoleon Bonaparte said that "there is nothing more important and more valuable than being able to make decisions." Business leaders today must deal with an avalanche of ambiguity, it must decide on the future of the company. I intend to expose some successful methods by which top managers were able to transform into opportunities, challenges of economic crisis.

  12. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    Bamidele A. OJO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

  13. Opportunities and Challenges Faced by the Trade Cooperation of China and Africa

    Xiaobin TANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the new normal background that the early days macroeconomic stimulation lead to the waste of manufacturability and hasted to find a new trade market, So we use the RCA Index proposed by Balassa in 1965 to compute the RCA Index and RMA Index of the mainly ten products of the export and import trade between China and Africa, Then specifies the competitive industries and the disadvantage industries in two countries, furthermore affirms the high growth potential trading products among the China and Africa. At the end of the paper, several opportunities and challenges are proposed according to the empirical results.

  14. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  15. Organizational Challenges for Schools in Rural Municipalities: Cross-National Comparisons in a Nordic Context

    Lind, Tommy; Stjernstrm, Olof

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the spatial structure of primary schools and alternative organizational frameworks are studied in a number of rural municipalities in the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate how the spatial structure of schools has changed between the years 2008 and 2013 in these municipalities, what

  16. Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.

    Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin

    2015-03-16

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692

  17. Challenges facing the farm animal veterinary profession in England: A qualitative study of veterinarians' perceptions and responses.

    Ruston, Annmarie; Shortall, Orla; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2016-05-01

    The farm animal veterinary profession in the UK has faced a number of challenges in recent decades related to the withdrawal of government funding and a contraction of the agricultural sector. They have come under pressure to respond by developing skills and focusing on disease prevention advisory services. However, this puts veterinarians in competition with other providers of these services, and moves in this direction have only been partial. Failure to respond to these challenges puts the veterinary profession at risk of de-professionalisation-a loss of their monopoly over knowledge, an erosion of client beliefs in their service ethos and a loss of work autonomy. This paper explores how farm animal veterinarians in England perceive these challenges and are responding to them. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices. Veterinarians were chosen from high, medium and low density cattle farming regions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes identified through the constant comparison method. The majority of respondents recognised the challenges facing the veterinary profession. Most believed their role had changed, moving towards that of a disease prevention adviser who was part of the farm management team. In terms of maintaining and redefining their professional status, farm animal veterinarians do have a defined body of knowledge and the ability to develop trusting relationships with clients, which enhances their competitiveness. However, while they recognise the changes and challenges, moves towards a disease prevention advisory model have only been partial. There seem to be little effort towards using Farm accreditation status or other strategies to promote their services. They do not appear to be finding effective strategies for putting their knowledge on disease prevention into practice. Disease prevention appears to be delivered on farm on an ad hoc basis, they are not promoting their disease prevention services to farmers effectively or using their professional position to stave off competition. Farm animals veterinarians will need to realign their veterinary expertise to the demands of the market, work together rather than in competition, improve their skills in preventive medicine, consolidate information given by non-veterinary advisors, develop new business models appropriate to their services and develop entrepreneurial skills to demonstrate their market value if they are to avoid becoming marginalised. PMID:27094145

  18. SMART GROWTH LAND USE PLANNING FOR A COMMUNITY AT THE RURAL URBAN INTERFACE UTILIZING STRUCTURED PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

    A. Simpson County, KY is facing suburban growth pressure like many communities across the country at the rural urban interface. This presents opportunities and challenges to maintain community identity, build economic diversity, protect environmental resources, and imp...

  19. Rural development policy and food industry development

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may be...

  20. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated

  1. Perception Challenges Faced by Al-Qaeda on the Battlefield of Influence Warfare

    James J.F. Forest

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of entities—including terrorists and insurgents—seek to influence perceptions and behavior among various target audiences, and have become increasingly reliant on the Internet in their efforts, incorporating social media, blogging, public video sharing and other online tools. This article is focused on the ideological messages that terrorist groups use to convey with these tools. Drawing from a study of Al-Qaeda, this discussion illustrates how ideologies of violence have certain vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to degrade a terrorist group’s ability to achieve its objectives. While crafting and disseminating counter-narratives can be a critical part of a counterterrorism strategy, it is also important to identify ways in which terrorists undermine their own central narratives and exacerbate pre-existing “influence warfare” challenges

  2. The challenges faced in the design, conduct and analysis of surgical randomised controlled trials

    Cook Jonathan A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Randomised evaluations of surgical interventions are rare; some interventions have been widely adopted without rigorous evaluation. Unlike other medical areas, the randomised controlled trial (RCT design has not become the default study design for the evaluation of surgical interventions. Surgical trials are difficult to successfully undertake and pose particular practical and methodological challenges. However, RCTs have played a role in the assessment of surgical innovations and there is scope and need for greater use. This article will consider the design, conduct and analysis of an RCT of a surgical intervention. The issues will be reviewed under three headings: the timing of the evaluation, defining the research question and trial design issues. Recommendations on the conduct of future surgical RCTs are made. Collaboration between research and surgical communities is needed to address the distinct issues raised by the assessment of surgical interventions and enable the conduct of appropriate and well-designed trials.

  3. Apply Different Techniques to Face Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Challenges for Making Secure Systems

    Parveen Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of VANET is discussed in detail.The different concepts used in VANET are explained with very good style. The applications of VANET are also discussed here. In the near future, most new vehicles will be equipped with short range radios capable of communicating with other vehicles or with highwayinfrastructure at distances of at least one kilometer. The radios will allow new applications that will revolutionize the driving experience, providing everything from instant, localized traffic updates to warning signals when the car ahead abruptly brakes. While resembling traditional sensor and ad hoc networks in some respects, vehicular networks pose a number of unique challenges. The differentchallenges of VANET are explained and explained in detail in this paper.

  4. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  5. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

  6. Computerized provider order entry systems - Research imperatives and organizational challenges facing pathology services

    Andrew Georgiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT are contributing to major changes taking place in pathology and within health services more generally. In this article, we draw on our research experience for over 7 years investigating the implementation and diffusion of computerized provider order entry (CPOE systems to articulate some of the key informatics challenges confronting pathology laboratories. The implementation of these systems, with their improved information management and decision support structures, provides the potential for enhancing the role that pathology services play in patient care pathways. Beyond eliminating legibility problems, CPOE systems can also contribute to the efficiency and safety of healthcare, reducing the duplication of test orders and diminishing the risk of misidentification of patient samples and orders. However, despite the enthusiasm for CPOE systems, their diffusion across healthcare settings remains variable and is often beset by implementation problems. Information systems like CPOE may have the ability to integrate work, departments and organizations, but unfortunately, health professionals, departments and organizations do not always want to be integrated in ways that information systems allow. A persistent theme that emerges from the research evidence is that one size does not fit all, and system success or otherwise is reliant on the conditions and circumstances in which they are located. These conditions and circumstances are part of what is negotiated in the complex, messy and challenging area of ICT implementation. The solution is not likely to be simple and easy, but current evidence suggests that a combination of concerted efforts, better research designs, more sophisticated theories and hypotheses as well as more skilled, multidisciplinary research teams, tackling this area of study will bring substantial benefits, improving the effectiveness of pathology services, and, as a direct corollary, the quality of patient care.

  7. Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: challenges facing new technologies

    Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi -slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

  8. Radiation doses in pediatric computed tomography procedures: Challenges facing new technologies

    Despite the fact that in recent years an increasing number of radiologists and radiological technologists have been applying radiation dose optimization techniques in paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) examinations, dual and multi-slice CT (MSCT) scanners present a new challenge in Radiation Protection (RP). While on one hand these scanners are provided with Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) devices, dose reduction modes and dose estimation software, on the other hand Quality Control (QC) tests and CT Kerma Index (C) measurements and patient dose estimation present specific difficulties and require changes or adaptations of traditional QC protocols. This implies a major challenge in most developing countries where Quality Assurance Programmes (QAP) have not been implemented yet and there is a shortage in the number of medical physicists This paper analyses clinical and technical protocols as well as patient doses in 204 CT body procedures performed in 154 children. The investigation was carried out in a paediatric reference hospital of Uruguay, where are performed an average of 450 paediatric CT examinations per month in a sole CT dual scanner. Besides, CVOL reported from the scanner display was registered in order to be related with the same dosimetric quantity derived from technical parameters and C values published on tables. Results showed that not all the radiologists applied the same protocol in similar clinical situations delivering unnecessary patient dose with no significant differences in image quality. Moreover, it was found that dose reduction modes represent a drawback in order to estimate patient dose when mA changes according to tissue attenuation, in most cases in each rotation. The study concluded on the importance of QAP that must include education on RP of radiologists and technologists, as well as in the need of medical physicists to perform QC tests and patient dose estimations and measurements. (author)

  9. Critical reflections on the New Rurality and the rural territorial development approaches in Latin America

    César Ramírez-Miranda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical approach to the New Rurality and the Rural Territorial Development (RTD perspectives, which nowadays are hegemonic for governmental organizations and Latin American academies. RTD's core requirements, which are functional for neoliberal policies resulting in the loss of food sovereignty, the globalization of agribusinesses, and migration as a consequence of peasant agricultural weakening, were critically reviewed on the basis of the principal challenges faced by Latin American rural areas. In light of the above consequences, it is thought that changes in such areas are based on neoliberal rurality rather than on the purported New Rurality. By stressing the need for a global historical view that reintroduces the Latin American critical thinking tradition, the urgency for public policies that stop neoliberal prescriptions and seek to strengthen peasant and indigenous agriculture in order to encourage rural development based on food sovereignty, democracy, equity and sustainability were established.

  10. Firefighter Training in Sweden: From Face-to-Face Learning in Training Grounds to Distance Learning--A Challenge for Exercise Instructors?

    Holmgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When distance learning supported by digital technologies was introduced in firefighter training in Sweden some years ago, training exercise instructors accustomed to face-to-face teaching in the field had to adapt their professional roles to an electronic landscape with a number of new opportunities and constraints. Based on activity theory and…

  11. Benefits and Challenges of the Use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices

    The use of high-Z plasma facing components requires intensive research in all areas, i.e. in plasma wall-interaction, in the physics of the confined plasma, diagnostic, and in material development. Only a few present day divertor tokamaks - mainly Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade - gained experience with the refractory metals molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. ASDEX Upgrade was stepwise converted from graphite to tungsten PFCs and in parallel a reduction of the deuterium retention by almost a factor of ten has been observed due to the strong suppression of D co-deposition with carbon. The deuterium retained in W is in line with laboratory results. In order to diagnose W sources and the W content in the main plasma adequate spectroscopic methods had to be developed. As expected from the sputtering threshold of Mo and W, negligible erosion by the thermal divertor background plasma is found in ASDEX Upgrade and Alcator C-Mod under low temperature divertor conditions. However, erosion by fast particles and intrinsic impurities, which additionally might be accelerated in rectified electrical fields observed during ion cyclotron frequency heating, plays an important role. The Mo and W concentrations in the plasma centre are strongly affected by plasma transport and variations up to a factor of 50 are observed for similar influxes. However, it could be demonstrated that sawteeth and turbulent transport driven by central heating can suppress central accumulation. The inward transport of high-Z ions at the edge can be efficiently reduced by 'flushing' the pedestal region caused by frequent edge instabilities. Since with metal walls the edge radiation by low-Z impurities is reduced, it has to be substituted in a pure high-Z device by artificially injected low-Z impurities in order to keep the power load at an acceptable level. Experiments at ASDEX Upgrade suggest that a regime with benign erosion and favourable confinement can be achieved. Extrapolations to ITER and DEMO are difficult since the physics of plasma transport is not yet completely understood, the particle and energy fluxes are orders of magnitude higher and the technical boundary conditions in DEMO strongly differ from those of present day devices.

  12. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  13. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Pavone ME

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ellen Pavone,1 Brianna M Lyttle2 1Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition characterized by specific histological, molecular, and clinical findings. It affects 5%–10% of premenopausal women, is a cause of infertility, and has been implicated as a precursor for certain types of ovarian cancer. Advances in technology, primarily the ability for whole genome sequencing, have led to the discovery of new mutations and a better understanding of the function of previously identified genes and pathways associated with endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs that include PTEN, CTNNB1 (β-catenin, KRAS, microsatellite instability, ARID1A, and the unique role of inflammation in the development of EAOC. Clinically, EAOCs are associated with a younger age at diagnosis, lower stage and grade of tumor, and are more likely to occur in premenopausal women when compared with other ovarian cancers. A shift from screening strategies adopted to prevent EAOCs has resulted in new recommendations for clinical practice by national and international governing bodies. In this paper, we review the common histologic and molecular characteristics of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, risks associated with EAOCs, clinical challenges and give recommendations for providers. Keywords: clinical, molecular, pathways, inflammation, premenopausal

  14. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  15. THE FOOD CHALLENGE IN THE SENEGALESE RURAL ECONOMY AN ANALYSIS OF THE DOMESTIC CEREALS PROMOTION POLICY

    Gaye, Matar

    1983-01-01

    Since the colonial era, the expansion of the Senegalese economy was greatly sustained by the agricultural sector in which more than three-fourths of the total population were involved. A 2.3 percent average annual growth of total production during the sixties matched the speed at which the agricultural population was growing and the rural economy was engaged in a kind of equilibrium path. During the late sixties and early seventies, the situation began to change with an agricultural productio...

  16. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs) increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and ...

  17. E-Learning for empowering the rural people in Bangladesh opportunities and challenges

    Mridha, Mannan; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik; et al.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractInadequate educational resources,insufficient and unqualified teachers and health care providers,and lack of community involvement, are some of the causes that contribute to the oor state of education and health in rural Bangladesh. This is although, it is well known that,access to quality education and scientific knowledge is essential for creating economic rowth and sustainable human development, including poverty alleviation and improvement of human health. In all countries and in ...

  18. Financial Challenges Faced by Retail Smes Operating in a Multi- Currency Environment. A Case of Gweru Urban, Zimbabwe

    Ephraim Munanga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out financial challenges encountered by retail SMEs operating in a multi-currency environment with particular reference to Gweru Urban in Zimbabwe. The replacement of the Zimbabwean dollar by foreign currencies gave birth to a multi-currency environment. The adoption of multi-currencies was necessitated by the need to curb inflationary pressures which characterized the economy up to April 2009.Convenience sampling was used to select 150 retail SMEs. The data were collected using questionnaires. The questionnaires were filled either by the owners of the SMEs or their managers. The study established that retail SMEs were facing several financial challenges in a multi- currency environment. The challenges included shortage of liquidity in the economy which resulted in low sales due to depressed consumer demand. In turn low sales negatively affected the profitability of the SMEs. High interest rates constrained the ability of SMEs to raise finance through bank loans and overdrafts. The use of personal savings and retained profits as sources of finance implies that SMEs could only raise limited amounts of capital. The financial position of the SMEs was also worsened by high operating expenses and lack of trade credit. In light of these financial challenges the study recommends that the Zimbabwean government should adopt a long-term policy on the use of the foreign currency. It is also imperative that the government of Zimbabwe swallows its pride and officially makes arrangements with South Africa or the United States of America in order to have an increased supply of the rand or US dollar. The SMEs should also devise survival strategies such as formation of strategic alliances and voluntary chains.

  19. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The internal organization of the soil science discipline is not yet well tuned to the needs of inter- and transdisciplinary approaches.

  20. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the SDG's

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arena's. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDG's focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDG's are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders two approaches are functional, following: (i) the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision, implementation and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science and (ii) the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impacts and responses to land-use change that affect the state of the land in past, present and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDG's and interdisciplinary studies on Ecosystem Services (ES) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ES, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDG's (2, 3, 6, 12, 13 and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDG's have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint-learning". The internal organization of the soil science discipline is not yet well - tuned to the needs of inter - and transdisciplinary approaches.

  1. Double Whammy? Rural Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance and the Transition to Adulthood

    Heflinger, Craig Anne; Hoffman, Cheri

    2009-01-01

    Context: All youth, especially those with serious emotional disturbances (SED), face challenges as they transition to adulthood. Little is known about rural youth at risk for transition problems. Purpose: To examine transition-age youth who use publicly funded services in rural and urban/suburban locations in Tennessee in order to describe youth…

  2. Creating an Educational Partnership Environment between Rural Retailers and Graduate Students

    Jackson, Vanessa P.; Wesley, Scarlett C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an educational partnership experience between rural retailers and graduate students in a Merchandising, Apparel and Textiles program. Students were afforded an opportunity to work with small business owners in rural communities, giving them real world exposure to the actual challenges being faced by…

  3. The importance of health insurance and the safety net in rural communities.

    Irons, Thomas G; Moore, Kellan S

    2015-01-01

    Access to health insurance and health care are critical for people living in rural communities, where the safety net is fragile. However, rural communities face challenges as they enroll uninsured people in the health insurance marketplace, educate newly insured individuals on how to use insurance, and coordinate care for those who remain uninsured. PMID:25621483

  4. The Development of Early Childhood Education in Rural Areas in China

    Zhao, Lin; Hu, Xinyun

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood education has developed greatly in rural areas in China since the 1980s. Recognising the status of early childhood education as "the foundation of basic education", the authorities in China have set up challenging objectives for rural areas. However, the development of early childhood education in these areas has been facing

  5. O museu de arte perante o desafio da memria / The art museum facing the memory challenge

    Maria Isabel Rocha, Roque.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os museus surgiram como sntese representativa de uma realidade, impondo questes sobre a preservao das memrias inerentes funo e simbologia dos objetos. No caso dos museus de arte, o objetivo era constituir um repositrio patrimonial que contribusse para a criao de uma identidade cultura [...] l, pelo que os objetos eram avaliados sobretudo em funo da excelncia dos seus parmetros estticos, em detrimento de outras significaes; tambm a historiografia da arte privilegiava os aspectos formais, estabelecendo atribuies e estilos. Essas circunstncias determinaram a descontextualizao do objeto no espao museolgico. Porm, a partir de meados do sculo XX, os estudos sobre o pblico, enquanto entidade plural e diversificada, e os debates tericos em torno da significao do objeto contriburam para uma redefinio do discurso museolgico. O museu passou a compensar as perdas inerentes ao processo de musealizao por meio de um conjunto de procedimentos e ferramentas que recontextualizam os significados do objeto nas suas mltiplas valncias. Entre ambos os vetores, de descontextualizao e de recontextualizao, o museu desafia a nossa memria pessoal e coletiva. Abstract in english Museums have emerged as a representative synthesis of a reality, so a question rises about the preservation of the memories inherent to the functional and symbolic objects. In the particular case of art museums, the goal was to build a heritage repository which would contribute to the creation of a [...] cultural identity. So, the objects were mainly evaluated in terms of aesthetic excellence of its parameters, to the detriment of other meanings. On the other hand, also the historiography of art favored formal aspects, establishing authorities and styles. These circumstances determined the decontextualization of the object in the museum. In return, from mid-twentieth century onwards, the studies of the public, as a plural and diversified entity, and the theoretical debates around the meaning of the object, contributed to a redefinition of the museological speech. The museum had to offset losses due to the musealisation through a set of procedures and tools that recontextualize the meanings of the object in their multiple valences. Between the two vectors, decontextualization and recontextualization, the museum challenges our personal and collective memory.

  6. Challenges for Ecosystem Services Provided by Coral Reefs In the Face of Climate Change

    Kikuchi, R. K.; Elliff, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs provide many ecosystem services of which coastal populations are especially dependent upon, both in cases of extreme events and in daily life. However, adaptation to climate change is still relatively unknown territory regarding the ecosystem services provided by coastal environments, such as coral reefs. Management strategies usually consider climate change as a distant issue and rarely include ecosystem services in decision-making. Coral reefs are among the most vulnerable environments to climate change, considering the impact that increased ocean temperature and acidity have on the organisms that compose this ecosystem. If no actions are taken, the most likely scenario to occur will be of extreme decline in the ecosystem services provided by coral reefs. Loss of biodiversity due to the pressures of ocean warming and acidification will lead to increased price of seafood products, negative impact on food security, and ecological imbalances. Also, sea-level rise and fragile structures due to carbonate dissolution will increase vulnerability to storms, which can lead to shoreline erosion and ultimately threaten coastal communities. Both these conditions will undoubtedly affect recreation and tourism, which are often the most important use values in the case of coral reef systems. Adaptation strategies to climate change must take on an ecosystem-based approach with continuous monitoring programs, so that multiple ecosystem services are considered and not only retrospective trends are analyzed. Brazilian coral reefs have been monitored on a regular basis since 2000 and, considering that these marginal coral reefs of the eastern Atlantic are naturally under stressful conditions (e.g. high sedimentation rates), inshore reefs of Brazil, such as those in Tinharé-Boipeba, have shown lower vitality rates due to greater impacts from the proximity to the coastal area (e.g. pollution, overfishing, sediment run-off). This chronic negative impact must be addressed to increase resilience and guarantee the adaptation of this ecosystem to climate change. Thus, considering that the majority of the marine ecosystem services we benefit from are provided from coastal habitats, of which coral reefs play an important role, the challenge at hand is in fact the interaction between local factors and climate change

  7. As novas faces do sindicalismo rural brasileiro: a reforma agrria e as tradies sindicais na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco

    Marcelo Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on cherche comprendre le sens de l'engagement de certains syndicalistes du Pernambouc dans les actions d'occupation des terres ainsi que les consquences de cette nouvelle pratique observe dans d'autres tats brsiliens sous l'gide du MST (Mouvement des Sans-Terre pour le syndicalisme rural vu comme le plus dynamique du pays. l'aide d'une analyse centre surtout sur le suivi systmatique des vnements organiss par la FETAPE (Fdration des travailleurs de l'agriculture Pernambouc, on a pu percevoir que l'adhsion de ce traditionnel ple de dfense des travailleurs ruraux au modle fabriqu par le MST a t dicte, en grande partie, par les structures internes elles-mmes de la formation syndicale, par leurs conditions historiques de reproduction et surtout par un conflit de gnrations entre ses membres.

  8. Old and New Worlds: The Global Challenges of Rural History. Conference eBook

    Serrão, José Vicente; Freire, Dulce; Fernández Prieto, Lourenzo; Santos, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, a História Rural tem vindo a abandonar quer o seu foco analítico predominantemente nacional e local, quer uma perspectiva interpretativa demasiado centrada na Europa e no Ocidente. É uma evolução muito positiva, que nós pretendemos reforçar com este congresso, ao escolhermos como temática central a relação entre os velhos e os novos mundos. Essa relação entre civilizações e culturas de diferentes partes do globo tem produzido ao longo dos últimos 500 anos múltiplos efeito...

  9. Key challenges in the governance of rural water supply: lessons learnt from tanzania

    Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    El primer objetivo de esta tesis es la identificación y análisis de aspectos clave para la gobernanza de los servicios de agua rural en países que adolecen de bajos niveles de cobertura, altos índices de pobreza, se encuentran en procesos de descentralización, reciben un importante apoyo de donantes internacionales. Esta situación es común para muchos países de África Sub-sahariana. Por ello, se eligió Tanzania como objeto de estudio. El segundo objetivo de esta tesis ha sido el e...

  10. The impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural areas in Norway

    Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Having developed and teste...

  11. Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking Towards the Sky for an Answer

    H. T Ishaku; Majid, M. R.; Ajayi, A A; A Haruna

    2011-01-01

    Access to safe water supply has great influence on the health, economic productivity and quality of life of the people. But meeting this need is one of the major challenges facing the rural communities of Nigeria today. The purpose of this review paper is to determine whether water supply have contributed effectively to health, social, and cultural development of Nigerian rural communities. Over 70% of households in rural communities do not have access to improved water supply. They rely sole...

  12. Experience of developing rural surgical care in a remote mountainous region of Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities

    R Alvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan is one of the most populated countries with a population of 160 million; 67% are rural population but all the tertiary care facilities are concentrated in large cities. The Northern Areas is the most remote region with difficult terrain, harsh weather conditions and the tertiary care hospital at a distance of 600 km with traveling time of 16 h. The Aga Khan Medical Centre, Singul (AKMCS is a secondary healthcare facility in Ghizer district with a population of 132,000. AKMCS was established in 1992 to provide emergency and common elective surgical care. It has strengthened the primary health service through training, education and referral mechanism. It also provided an opportunity for family physicians to be trained in common surgical operations with special emphasis on emergency obstetric care. In addition it offers elective rotations for the residents and medical students to see the spectrum of diseases and to understand the concept of optimal care with limited resources. Methods and Results: The clinical data was collected prospectively using international classification of diseases ICD -9 coding and the database was developed on a desktop computer. Information about the operative procedures and outcome was separately collected on an Excel worksheet. The data from January 1998 to December 2001 were retrieved and descriptive analysis was done on epi info-6. Thirty-one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two patients were seen during this period, 53% were medical, 24% surgical, 16% obstetric and 7% with psychiatric illness. Out of 1990 surgical operations 32% were general surgery, 31% orthopedic, 21% pediatric, 12% obstetric and 4% urological cases; 42% of operations were done under general anesthesia, 22% spinal, 9% intravenous (IV ketamine, 6% IV sedation and 21% under local anesthesia. Six hundred and sixty-two were done in the main operation room including general surgery 337, obstetric 132, urological 67, pediatric 66 and orthopedic 66 cases; 64% of cases in the main operation room were done under general and 22% under spinal anesthesia. The commonest surgeries were exploratory laparotomy, caesarian sections, open prostatectomy, urological stone surgeries, appendectomy, hernia repairs and surgery for osteomyelitis. There were 21 surgical mortalities including six operative deaths, 15 non-operative deaths and 89% of the mortalities were unavoidable. The crude in-hospital mortality decreased significantly from 5.5% in 1992 to 1.1% in 2001 and the contributing factors were improved structure and process of care. Conclusion: The impact of a secondary care rural medical centre (AKMC is very obvious from the clinical audit including accessibility, sustainability and quality of care. This could be a model of care in rural Pakistan where accessibility, affordability and quality of care is lacking.

  13. Facing the Challenges

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from the...... previous ones. ASEAN can potentially make a great contribution to a peaceful transformation of the international system. How to resolve the South China Sea disputes peacefully will be a critical task for both the ASEAN and Chinese leaders in the next decade or two....

  14. Challenges faced by NRCs

    The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) played an important role in setting up of nuclear power plants (two) and development of fuel technology. However, with no current plans for expansion of this programme, the Institute is looking mainly into multi-cycle fuel management and life extension issues. The Institute focuses on programmes related to radioisotope and radiation applications and on the use of nuclear technologies for non-nuclear applications. The ININ is the major provider of radioisotopes for medical uses. It also promotes and uses nuclear analytical techniques for addressing a variety of problems. In non-nuclear areas some R and D examples include: the use of thermal plasma for hazardous waste incineration, biodegradation of polymers and development of separation techniques for treating industrial effluents. For preservation of knowledge, the Institute has instituted PhD. programmes in materials science, medical physics and nuclear science in collaboration with a university. (author)

  15. Challenges Faced by Optics

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Optics is the branch of physics that deals with visible light and other electromagnetic waves. Light has a “dual personality” since it sometimes behaves like a wave and other times like corpuscles or discrete packets of energy called photons. This is known as its “wave-corpuscle duality”. Just as the term electronics was derived from electron, in recent years the term Photonics has been coined from photon. Although the terms optics and photonics are often used indiscriminately, the latter is ...

  16. Challenges facing young astrophysicists

    Zakamska, N L; Heng, K; Juric, M; Kocsis, B; Kuhlen, M; Mandelbaum, R; Mitchell, J L; Pan, M; Rudd, D H; van de Ven, G; Zheng, Z

    2009-01-01

    In order to attract and retain excellent researchers and diverse individuals in astrophysics, we recommend action be taken in several key areas impacting young scientists: (1) Maintain balance between large collaborations and individual projects through distribution of funding; encourage public releases of observational and simulation data for use by a broader community. (2) Improve the involvement of women, particularly at leading institutions. (3) Address the critical shortage of child care options and design reasonable profession-wide parental leave policies. (4) Streamline the job application and hiring process. We summarize our reasons for bringing these areas to the attention of the committee, and we suggest several practical steps that can be taken to address them.

  17. How Waldorf School graduates cope with the challenges they face during military service: a ten-year overview

    Gilad Goldshmidt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews part of a study that dealt with how graduates of the Waldorf School integrate into Israeli society, as seen from their perspective. The purpose of the study was to explore how Waldorf School graduates integrate into society on completing high school, and examine the nature and quality of life readiness that the Waldorf educational method provides its graduates. Three main areas of life were reviewed in the study: graduates in the one-year volunteer framework, in the regular military framework, and in academic studies. Of these, the current study reviews only the area of military service. The study applied qualitative methodology, including semi-structured interviews with 46 graduates of the Waldorf School in Harduf, Israel, following twelve full years of study. This is the first study of Waldorf-educated graduates ever conducted worldwide relying solely qualitative methodology, and the only study conducted in Israel thus far. The studys main conclusion is that the Waldorf School, as an education system emphasizing artistic and creative manifestation, hands-on work, a connection with nature, warm personal relationships, and an absence of exams and grades, can produce graduates who see themselves as successfully cope with the challenges they face following completion of school, and in this particular case, the challenges of coping with military service in the IDF. One of the questions surfacing from the study is whether it is possible to implement Waldorf School methods and approaches fully or partially also in the framework of other governmental education systems.

  18. The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies: The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China

    Wei-guang WU

    2009-01-01


    More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the inno...

  19. Challenges faced by health workers in providing counselling services to HIV-positive children in Uganda: a descriptive study

    Rujumba Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children remains an uphill task for many health workers in HIV-endemic countries, including Uganda. We conducted a descriptive study to explore the challenges of providing HIV counselling and testing services to children in Uganda. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in the districts of Kampala and Kabarole in Uganda. The data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions with health workers who are involved in the care of HIV-positive children. Key informant interviews were conducted with the administrators of the 10 study healthcare institutions. Quantitative data were summarized using frequency tables, while qualitative data were analyzed using the content thematic approach. Results Counselling children was reported to be a difficult exercise due to some children being unable to express themselves, being dependent on adults for their care, being fearful, and requiring more time to open up during counselling. This was compounded by some caretakers' unwillingness and difficulty to disclose the HIV status of their children. Other issues about the caretakers were: lack of consistency in caretakers; old age; sickness; and poverty. Health workers mentioned the following as some of the challenges they face in the delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children: lack of counselling skills; failure to cope with the knowledge demand; difficulty to facilitate disclosure; heavy work load; and lack of other support services. Institutions were found to be constrained by limited space and lack of antiretrovirals for children. Conclusions The major challenges in the delivery of paediatric HIV services were related to the knowledge gap in paediatric HIV and the lack of counselling skills, as well as health system-related constraints. There is a need to train health workers in child-counselling skills, especially in the issues of disclosure, sexuality and sexual abuse, as well as in addressing fears related to death and an uncertain future, in order to improve paediatric HIV care. Provision of child-friendly services, guidelines and antiretroviral formulations for children may provide a window of hope to improve HIV counselling and testing services for children.

  20. Distance Education Potential For A Canadian Rural Island Community

    Jones, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning....

  1. People with learning disabilities in rural Scotland: review of policy.

    Clapham, Anthony

    2015-10-14

    People with learning disabilities may have additional healthcare needs compared to the general population, and the NHS faces challenges in addressing these needs. Scotland has many remote and rural communities, and residents of these communities can encounter difficulties in accessing healthcare resources. This article considers Scotland's healthcare policy in relation to remote and rural areas, and how effective it is in meeting the needs of people with learning disabilities in these communities. PMID:26463809

  2. "It's Intense, to an Extent": A Qualitative Study of the Emotional Challenges Faced by Staff Working on a Treatment Programme for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…

  3. Mondialisation et exploitation des ressources linguistiques: les defis des communautes francophones de l'Ontario (Globalization and Use of Linguistic Resources: The Challenges Facing Francophone Communities in Ontario).

    Labrie, Normand; Belanger, Nathalie; Lozon, Roger; Roy, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Examines challenges faced by two Canadian francophone communities, one in Niagra Peninsula, and the other in the Simcoe region. Investigates how communities are affected by changes related to globalization and how the members of these two communities use their linguistic resources to adapt socially and professionally. (Author/VWL)

  4. CHALLENGES FACED BY VICE PRINCPALS’ IN SECONDARY SCHOOLADMINISTRATION AND THE STRATEGIES THEY USE TO TACKLE THEM IN VADODARA DISTRICT, GUJARAT STATE

    Bhavna Desai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vice Principals are part of the school administration. They are supposed to effectively assist the school head in all areas of administration including overseeing the discipline and supervision of both the staff and students. In the process Vice Principals are faced with some challenges. The study sought to establish the roles of Vice Principals, the challenges they face in school administration and the strategies they use to address them. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The target population was 260 subjects from 65 public secondary schools in Vadodara District. Data was collected from a sample of 224 respondents comprising of Principals, Vice Principals, senior teachers and head boys/girls. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data collected using questionnaires for the Principals, Vice Principals, senior teachers and head boy(s/ girl(s. The study established that Vice Principals are faced with challenges as they perform their duties. These include lack of adequate training, unclear guidelines on their specific roles in administration of the school, poor relationship with head teacher and teachers, and poor community relations resulting mainly from local politics. As a result Vice Principals have adopted both professional and un-professional strategies to tackle the challenges they face. The Government should come up with clearly roles for Vice Principals and facilitate their training on professional management skills after appointment. This will enable them perform their duties with confidence.

  5. Confronting the climate change challenge: discussing the role of rural India under cumulative emission budget approach

    Current global climate policy architecture does not aim at stabilizing the greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere that may achieve the proclaimed 2 °C guard rail. An alternative approach that targets on limiting the global cumulative emission to accomplish such an outcome is put forward by German Advisory Board of Global Change (WBGU). This research work further elaborates the approach and its flexibility instrument i.e. carbon trading. As the approach visualises sharing of the carbon budget (750Gt CO2) equally to every human being (2.7 t CO2 per capita), India is the country with largest tradable surplus reflecting its low emission per capita and large population. The research work further analyzes the emission profile of rural India and the significance of its future emission pathways within the proposed framework. It also shows how low carbon development in India can assist in cost effective decarbonization of industrialized countries and mitigation of climate change, given a global climate treaty based on the WBGU approach.

  6. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Goodman Catherine; English Michael; Masamo Eunice; Wafula Jackline; Mudhune Sandra; Mullei Kethi; Lagarde Mylene; Blaauw Duane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTC...

  7. Challenges and implementation of a women's breast health initiative in rural Kashmir.

    Erwin, Dallas P; Erwin, Deborah O; Ciupak, Gregory; Hellenthal, Nicholas; Sofi, Mehbooba J; Guru, Khurshid A; Edge, Stephen B

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how to successfully collect demographic, lifestyle and health behavior data, followed by an educational intervention on a culturally sensitive topic, breast cancer, in the politically fragile Kashmir Valley. Survey results of 520 women identified challenges that impact the general health of women, including literacy, hygiene and water safety, as well as a dearth of breast health and educational resources and all cancer services. The study tested culturally sensitive approaches to obtain survey data and provide appropriate breast health education for Kashmiri women at risk for breast cancer, who live within this socially and politically challenging environment. This study provides a foundation for future development of research and clinical programs to identify women at high risk and implement an active health surveillance monitoring program with a focus on breast cancer in Kashmir. PMID:21324696

  8. Expanso das licenciaturas em Educao do Campo: desafios e potencialidades / Expansion of the degree in rural education: challenges and potentialities

    Monica Castagna, Molina.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo integra a Pesquisa realizada a partir do Observatrio da Educao da Coordenao de Aperfeioamento de Pessoal de Nvel Superior (CAPES), intitulada "Polticas da Expanso da Educao Superior no Brasil". Uma das frentes da expanso da Educao Superior tem se dado no mbito da formao [...] de educadores do campo, com a implementao de 42 cursos de uma nova modalidade de graduao, intitulada "Licenciatura em Educao do Campo". Se considerados os aspectos relativos ampliao concreta da oferta de formao de educadores e a conquista dos fundos pblicos do Estado para manuteno destas graduaes esta expanso destes cursos permanentes pode ser tomada como vitria dos movimentos sociais. Porm, esta expanso tambm impe uma srie de desafios manuteno dos princpios originais do Movimento da Educao do Campo. Quais os riscos e potencialidades desta ampliao? Com a perspectiva de apresentar elementos de reflexo sobre estas questes, este artigo elenca os riscos da descaracterizao de aspectos estruturantes desta poltica e as potencialidades que se julgam conter neste processo de ampliao, que esto sendo analisadas na pesquisa "Polticas de Expanso da Educao Superior no Brasil". Abstract in english This article is part of the research conducted from the Centre for Education of CAPES, entitled "Expansion of Higher Education Policies in Brazil". One of the important development in the expansion of higher education, has been the training of rural educators, with the implementation of 42 courses o [...] f a new type of degree, entitled "Degree in Rural Education." If we consider the aspects relating to the concrete enlargement of places for teacher training and the achievement of gaining public funds from the State to fund these courses, this expansion of these permanent courses can be taken as a victory for the social movements. However, this expansion also imposes a number of challenges to maintain the original principles of the Rural Education Movement. What are the risks and potentialities of this expansion? With the prospect of presenting thoughts on these issues, this article lists the risks of disfiguration of fundamental aspects of this policy and potentialities that are deemed to be contained within this expansion process, which are being analysed in the research "Political Expansion of Higher Education in Brazil".

  9. Small-scale farming in rural areas :logistical challenges with direct distribution

    Amundsveen, Roar; Solvoll, Gisle

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews Norwegian farmers’ and companies’ strategies and experience with the use of direct distribution and e-commerce when selling agriculture products. Based on the opportunities and pitfalls resulting from the use of Internet and e-commerce in consumer marketing, the article discusses the commercial possibilities emerging from direct distribution of agricultural products to end-consumers. The focus on direct distribution is brought up to date through studying the challenges fa...

  10. Meeting Cathala-Letort named: the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy; Journee Cathala-Letort intitulee: les defis du genie des procedes face a l'hydrogene-energie

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document provides the presentations proposed during the day Cathala-Letort on the challenges of the processes engineering facing the hydrogen-energy. In the context of the greenhouse effect increase and the fossil energies resources decrease, it brings information on researches on hydrogen technologies, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrogen supply, production, storage and distribution and the thermo-chemical cycles. (A.L.B.)

  11. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it. PMID:21505773

  12. CHALLENGES FACING SMALLHOLDER FARMERS ICT-BASED MARKET INFORMATION SERVICE (MIS PROJECTS: THE CASE OF BROSDI AND WOUGNET IN UGANDA

    Julius Juma Okello (Corresponding Author

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Access and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs by the smallholder rural farmer is envisaged to improve their welfare due to increased access to input and output markets. This study analyzes the constraints to the use of such tools for market linkage in Uganda and policy implications. The paper draws from a case study of two local organizations ICT-based projects namely, Busoga Rural Open Source Development Initiative (BROSDI, and Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET. The constraints identified include lack or poor to ICT tools, poor ICT infrastructure, inadequate resources and high levels of poverty, low levels of literacy, inappropriate modes of information transfer, socio-cultural dynamics and sustainability issues. The paper argues that reaching the poor illiterate smallholder farmers requires redesigning the information content and delivery modes so that the information comes in audio form and in ICT tools that do not require literature. Also the government and private sector need to work hand in hand to ensure access and usability of ICT tools in rural areas by the former investing more in making electricity available in rural communities and the latter extending network boosters to remote rural areas

  13. Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security. Proceedings of an international conference

    To sustain the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Framework, Member States, the IAEA, other international organizations and interested stakeholders have continued to work to strengthen each element of that framework, all of which are critical to its success. To accomplish this task, the IAEA has convened a number of major conferences to address topical issues and key strategies for consideration by the international nuclear community. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) are key stakeholders that play an integral and substantive role in assisting regulatory authorities in establishing and maintaining nuclear and radiological programmes based on a firm, science based foundation for safety and security. In 2007, the first International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety was held in Aix-en-Provence, France, with the objective of providing TSOs from different countries, international organizations and experts with an opportunity to develop a common understanding of the responsibilities, needs and opportunities of TSOs. At the Aix-en-Provence conference, senior regulators, heads of TSOs and other stakeholders concluded that a platform for networking between TSOs for the enhancement of nuclear safety and security was needed. To help realize this vision, an International Conference on Challenges Faced by Technical and Scientific Support Organizations in Enhancing Nuclear Safety and Security was held in Tokyo from 25 to 29 October 2010. This second conference focused on international cooperation and networking among TSOs to enhance nuclear safety and security, especially in terms of their common values and their role in the regulatory process and capacity building in those Member States considering embarking on nuclear power programmes. Thirty-two panel members from across the spectrum of international nuclear activities made presentations addressing topical issues that expanded on the themes of the 2007 conference held in Aix-en-Provence. These topical issues were: the roles, functions and values that guide TSOs in enhancing nuclear and radiation safety; technical and scientific support for nuclear safety infrastructure development and capacity building; the emerging need for nuclear security technical and scientific support; and nuclear safety and nuclear security networking and centres of excellence. The President's report on the conference, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting, is included in these proceedings and provides an overview of all the issues addressed. In the presentations and subsequent discussions, the conference highlighted positive outcomes, confronted areas of continuing concern and explored avenues to address those concerns. Among the more salient findings was the determination that a means for continuous dialogue among TSOs was necessary. The need to support the review process for a future IAEA safety publication on external expert support on safety issues was also identified. Finally, consideration of a TSO forum along the lines of the Regulatory Cooperation Forum to develop best practices and promote common values was recommended. This publication constitutes a record of the conference and includes: a foreword, a summary, the opening addresses and invited papers, and the conclusions, recommendations and a conference summary by the President. The attached CD-ROM contains the unedited contributed papers, the list of participants and the presentations that were submitted with the invited papers.

  14. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools

    Quintero Corzo Josefina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Complying with school regulations and teachers’ instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as varied strategies beginning teachers create and try when coping with those challenges. This article reports an action research study on how this methodology helped a group of teacher-trainees overcome indiscipline in English as a foreign language classrooms at public schools, and align with professional development initiatives which focus on reflection and decision-making processes that the new Colombian policies demand from new teachers seeking a higher quality 
    of education.


    Responder a las normas escolares y a las instrucciones de los profesores es un principio básico de una clase excelente. Tanto los profesores novatos como los experimentados enfrentan situaciones problemáticas en las aulas de clase reales, especialmente en relación con la disciplina. Hay varias razones que explican la indisciplina en los colegios públicos y también estrategias variadas que los profesores principiantes crean y ensayan para superar tal reto. Este artículo reporta un estudio de investigación acción que ayudó a un grupo de profesores principiantes a superar la indisciplina en el aula de inglés en colegios públicos y a responder a iniciativas de desarrollo profesional con base en procesos de reflexión y toma de decisiones que las nuevas políticas educativas colombianas demandan de las nuevas generaciones de profesores para mejorar la calidad de la educación.

  15. Why medical students do not like to join rural health service? An exploratory study in India

    Srinivas Nallala; Subhashisa Swain; Sanju Das; Kasam, Shravan K.; Sanghamitra Pati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inadequate, inequitable distribution of the medical workforce remains a challenge across the globe, and India is no exception. Odisha, a state in India faces a major shortage of doctors particularly in rural and remote areas. In order to address this challenge, it is essential to understand medical students′ career plans, specialization preferences, choices of job location and sector, and views on working in rural and remote areas. This study explored the immediate and long-term...

  16. THE MODERNIZATION OF RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER THE MEASURE 322 OF THE NATIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 2007-2013

    Flavius MIHALACHE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context in which rural areas represent 92% of the EU territory and gather over 50% of the EU population, and many rural areas face significant challenges such as migration and aging, reduced access to services, poor infrastructure or reduced employment opportunities, the concerns for rural development and improved quality of life in these areas have increased. Rural development is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union, which is pointed out by the consistent financial allocations: over a third of the total available funds at EU level between 2007 and 2013, and an estimated 38% for 2014-2020. The main institutional mechanism to support the development of rural areas in Romania was represented by the implementation of the National Rural Development Programme 2007-2013 (NRDP financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development. In the absence of other major government initiatives for rural development, the absorption of EU funds has been the main funding opportunity after 2007, for the initiatives of modernizing the Romanian rural areas. Based on a mix of secondary data analysis and the analysis of official documents provided by The Agency for Financing Rural Investment, the article aims to examine how the public investments program was carried out under the measure 322 of the NRDP, to identify its strong and weak points and its impact on rural infrastructure.

  17. Rural-to-Urban Migrants' Experiences with Primary Care under Different Types of Medical Institutions in Guangzhou, China

    Zeng, Jiazhi; Shi, LeiYu; Zou, Xia; CHEN, WEN; Ling, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objectives China is facing the unprecedented challenge of rapidly increasing rural-to-urban migration. Migrants are in a vulnerable state when they attempt to access to primary care services. This study was designed to explore rural-to-urban migrants’ experiences in primary care, comparing their quality of primary care experiences under different types of medical institutions in Guangzhou, China. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional survey of 736 rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, ...

  18. Rural Hispanic populations at risk in developing diabetes: sociocultural and familial challenges in promoting a healthy diet.

    Heuman, Amy N; Scholl, Juliann C; Wilkinson, Kenton

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes affects Hispanic populations disproportionately and is the fifth leading cause of death for Hispanic people in the United States ( Smith & Barnett, 2005 ). Risk of diabetes is of great concern throughout the United States and is clearly of epidemic proportions for regions such as the Southwest and Texas where the primary minority populations are Mexican American. We conducted four focus groups with a total of 49 Hispanic participants (23 adults and 26 adolescents) from rural West Texas communities to gain insights about participants' eating habits, knowledge of diabetes, and potential barriers to preventive care. From the data, we identified a three-tiered predisposition or vulnerability to diabetes-heredity; preferences for unhealthy, culturally based food; and temptations from U.S. mainstream fast food culture. These vulnerabilities added to the sociocultural concerns that participants identified-importance of parental and familial modeling; challenges to healthy eating based on a culturally based diet and mainstream fast food culture; and a lack of support from the larger sociocultural networks such as teachers, community leaders, and the media. From these data, we have a better understanding of familial and sociocultural factors that need to be addressed in the development of preventive public awareness and educational plans. We outline implications for practitioners and educators from an integrated cultural biomedical approach. PMID:22716086

  19. Rural nurses continuing education needs: A U.S. multi-site survey reveals challenges and opportunities

    Roseanne Fairchild; Marcee Everly; Linda Walters; Renee Bauer; Stephanie Laws; Louise Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Background: Provision of relevant, evidence-based continuing education (CE) is an integral part of maintaining a highly competent rural nursing workforce. Numerous tangible and intangible barriers exist to nurses participation in CE in rural settings. Major barriers to accessibility and participation in CE for rural nurses include: 1) Geographic isolation, 2) lack of perceived administrative, financial, and/or technological resources and support, 3) lack of time due to workload, inadequate s...

  20. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such

  1. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  2. Developing Leaders: The Role of Competencies in Rural Community Colleges

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of…

  3. Advancing Rural Family Resiliency Research, Education, and Policy

    Braun, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Families face trials, tribulations, transitions, and tragedies over time. Some families are better able to get through these challenges than others. Understanding why and how is central to the scientific inquiry known as family resiliency research. This article reports on multiple studies that together advance a rural family risk and resiliency…

  4. Developing Leaders: The Role of Competencies in Rural Community Colleges

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of

  5. Concussion Law Compliance: The Allocation of Time, Resources, and Money in a Rural Western State

    Faure, Caroline; Moffit, Dani M.; Schiess, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Secondary schools across the United States that sponsor extracurricular athletic programs are challenged to comply with recent laws that require concussion education and appropriate concussion management. This study examined one rural state's efforts by illustrating both the successes and challenges that secondary schools faced. The findings…

  6. Teacher Training and Transitions in Rural Indonesian Schools: A Case Study of Bogor, West Java

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Zubaidah, Ida

    2012-01-01

    As one of the world's largest and most diverse countries, Indonesia faces an enormous challenge as it seeks to upgrade the skills and knowledge of its widespread primary teacher workforce. This challenge is even more acute in remote rural areas, where practising teachers require specialized training to work in classrooms with children of different…

  7. The Problems and Challenges of Cambodian Rural Economy. Between New Governances and Peasant’s Realities. The Case of Kampong Thom Province

    Diepart, Jean-Christophe

    2007-01-01

    In Cambodia, agriculture and natural resources constitute a corner stone in the production systems of peasant families, who constitute the large majority of the rural population. Hence, in the perspective of an important demographic growth and an increasing marketing of agricultural inputs and outputs, man-made management of ecosystems represent considerable economic, social and environmental challenges to Cambodian peasants. The study precisely focuses on the peasant’s ways to manage rur...

  8. How does normative excellence information moderate the effect of effort and ability praise on students' intrinsic motivation when they face challenges?

    Lee, Man-wai; 李文慧

    2014-01-01

    The experimental study examined how different types of praise moderated the effect of normative information on students’ self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation when they face challenges. Two hundred and Fifty Form 1 and 2 students (114 females, 136 males) were randomly assigned to six different conditions, using a 2 (Normative information: with normative information, without normative information) X 3 (Praise: ability praise, effort praise, no praise) between-groups design. Students first wor...

  9. The contribution of youth work to address the challenges young people are facing, in particular the transition from education to employment

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    The findings of the expert group detail the role of youth work and its specific contribution to addressing the challenges young people face, in particular the transition from education to employment. In this context, youth work is defined as 'actions directed towards young people regarding activi...... activities where they take part voluntarily, designed for supporting their personal and social development through non-formal and informal learning'....

  10. Challenges facing small, micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs) in the Mafikeng and Mmabatho area of the North West Province / Gladys Serumaga-Zake

    Serumaga-Zake, Gladys

    2005-01-01

    This research study investigates some of the problems or challenges faced by SMMEs in the Mafikeng and Mmabatho area of the North West province. It strives to find out the extent as to which these problems occur and the impact they have on these businesses. The research focuses on two major problems considered to be hindering the growth of SMMEs in this area, namely the lack of entrepreneurial management and financial skills. The lack of these skills in the running of small bus...

  11. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Francesco BONSINETTO; Enzo FALCO

    2013-01-01

    European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint ...

  12. Implementing clinical supervision for Australian rural nurses.

    Kenny, Amanda; Allenby, Ann

    2013-05-01

    In a practice environment characterised by diversity and unpredictability, the role of rural nurses is described as challenging. Developing strategies to support rural nurses is important, for recruitment and retention, and to ensure that nurses provide quality services for rural communities. Most researchers recommend ongoing education as almost a panacea to the challenges that rural nurses face. In this Australian study, there was interest in exploring the potential for clinical supervision as a mechanism for supporting rural nurses. Clinical supervision has been identified as a useful means of reflecting on practice, building resilience, reducing stress and avoiding burnout. A six month clinical supervision programme was developed and implemented with twenty two rural nurses. Using an interpretive descriptive design, a group discussion on participant views of the programme was conducted. Using a thematic network approach, three themes; becoming reflective, understanding and commitment, and losing the client were developed. While in no way devaluing the usefulness of clinical supervision, the findings from this study provide guidance for others introducing similar programmes and indicate that clinical supervision must be focused, well planned and supported. PMID:22980923

  13. The Heart, Not the Face: A Civil-War-Era Tale and the Persistent Challenge of Race in Religious Education

    Shafer, Peter William

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the 1863 pseudo slave narrative entitled "Black and White; Or, the Heart, Not the Face" by white Northerner Jane Dunbar Chaplin. The article sets this tale within the historical and literary context of "domestic abolitionism." The logic behind the story is described as "sympathetic identification," a perspective that,…

  14. Fragmentation and Unity of Rural Public Governance: A Case Study on Lin’an City in China

    Zhihong ZENG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The township, as the most basic political system in China, a head of which is connected to a city, and the another head connected with the countryside, is the foundation of national economic and social development. In the face of strong intervention of economic globalization, the gradually weakening of local township government, and the increasingly tense of national finance, agricultural and rural development policy, which is presently ubiquitous in the rural area of China, stressed from top to bottom, expert guidance, government-dominated promoting, will face the serious challenges of rural governance under the background of globalization. The rural governance is that the national institutions and other authorities based on the village government provides public service activities to the village society, in order to maintain rural order, promote rural development, according to the laws, regulations, customs and traditions. And rural governance is the process of multi subjects’ collaborative management of rural village. Rural governance quality reflects the ability of government’s rural social mobilization and management, and relates to the stable development and prosperity of rural society. The current problems of township governance, mainly are not the “township”problems of its own, but the “institutions and mechanisms of government”problem. This article takes the Lin’an city of Zhejiang province as the research object, through the development of villages and towns work rules in the process of tracking, puts forward a good example of rural governance in china.

  15. Towards an inclusive society in Ghana: An analysis of challenges persons with disabilities face in participating in tourism in Ashanti region

    Sussan Aggrey Mensah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation in tourism brings individuals, families and communities together, making it an important social inclusion strategy. Negative perceptions about persons with disabilities could make it difficult for them to access public places. Therefore, this study served to examine tourism challenges for persons with disabilities (PwDs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A cross sectional study with quantitative data collection was conducted with PwDs. Structured questionnaires were administered to 120 PwDs using a convenience sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were explored using SPSS version 20. The study found that PwDs faced barriers to facilities and structures at tourist destinations. The barriers to tourism included lack of income, negative attitudes of the public and physical barriers such as a lack of adapted toilet facilities, tables and chairs, inaccessible routes for wheel chair users, inability to climb walkways and an absence of canopy walk-ways. The study supports the evidence of challenges faced by PwDs at tourism destinations. Redesigning and resourcing tourism facilities to be more PwD friendly could remove barriers faced by PwDs in tourism, creating greater social inclusion for this population. Keywords: tourism, persons with disabilities, participation, accessibility, inclusion

  16. Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil

    Gilmar P Henz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produção de morango no Distrito Federal (DF, assim como são discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relatadas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importância: (1 incidência de pragas e doenças; (2 aquisição de mudas; (3 custo de embalagens; (4 necessidade de mão-de-obra; e (5 custos de produção elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possíveis alternativas para aprimorar a produção de morango do DF são: (a produção local de mudas com qualidade sanitária e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependência de material propagativo de outros estados; (b melhor uso da concentração de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extensão rural presentes na região para buscar informações técnicas e apoio para o sistema de produção; (c buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produção, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso político das demandas do setor; (d aprimorar o manuseio pós-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigeração; (e implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f adotar as práticas da "Produção Integrada do Morango (PIMo", lançadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padrão de qualidade; (g realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendências para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traçar estratégias de marketing para o morango candango. A pressão cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotóxicos e com certificação, seguramente tornará o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo.In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF, Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited challenges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1 incidence of pests and diseases; (2 strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3 packing costs; (4 need of intensive labor; and (5 high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

  17. Advantages and Challenges of A Village Doctor-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Late-Life Depression in Rural China: A Qualitative Study

    Tang, Tan; Yang, Xuemei; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Xiaohua; Ji, Li; Xiao, Yun; Ma, Kun; Wang, Ying; Kong, Xianglei; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Jun; Xu, Qian; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The delivery of mental health services in rural China has been notably limited due to lack of qualified mental health professionals among other impeding factors. A village doctor-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention may be one way of improving accessibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the advantages and challenges of implementing this intervention, as delivered by trained village doctors, to treat late-life depression in rural China. Methods We conducted one focus group discussion with 10 village doctors, 10 individual interviews with each of the village doctors, and individual interviews with 19 older adults. The topic guides were advantages and challenges of the intervention program from the perspective of the village doctors and older adults. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded using NVivo 8, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The village doctors stressed the importance of role-playing and using instructive manuals in the training. Proper supervision was also a key component of the program. The benefits received from the intervention for the village doctors and the elders were positive such that both the doctors and the older adults were willing to implement/receive this intervention. Cultural and political factors (renqing and perceived policy consideration) facilitated the elders access to mental health services. Challenges included a lack of real therapy (in contrast to role-playing) demonstrated in the training and lack of a step-by-step manual based on different types of problems encountered. Other impediments to the successful implementation of the intervention included the time constraints of village doctors and the presence of other people when conducting the intervention. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that the intervention program is likely to be an acceptable geriatric depression intervention in rural China if several challenges are appropriately addressed. PMID:26371473

  18. The challenges faced when starting from scratch: baking GRI G4 sustainability reporting into existing organizational practices

    Multanen, Juho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY, ACADEMIC BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: This study focuses on the process of introducing the trendy GRI G4 sustainability reporting standard in a Finnish chemical company and how this is done. The purpose of this single case study is to deepen our understanding on the challenges and tensions that actors dealing with reporting must handle and turn to their advantages. What empowers them to tackle these challenges, who are they exactly, and how have they baked the MA-...

  19. Slammed by government cuts and sidelined by the occupy movements, women face an uphill battle to challenge patriarchy in 2012

    Conroy, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Women have borne the brunt of the coalition government’s cut programme, facing reduced public services and diminished employment opportunities. And while the Occupy and other protests movements have highlighted inequality in the UK, they continue to be dominated by white men. Amanda Conroy argues that feminists should take a cue from the OccupyPatriarchy movement and turn their attention toward the values underpinning maledominated capitalism.

  20. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Emmanuelle Bermès

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This paper aims at presenting the organizational and human resources challenges that have been faced by the library in this context, and those that are still awaiting us.The library has been facing these challenges through a variety of actions at different levels: organizational changes, training sessions, dedicated working group and task forces, analysis of skills and processes, etc. The results of these actions provide insights on how a national library is going digital, and what is needed to reach this longstanding goal.

  1. An investigation into the challenges facing the future provision of continuing professional development for allied health professionals in a changing healthcare environment

    This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.

  2. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  3. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  4. A Peach of a Telehealth Program: Georgia Connects Rural Communities to Better Healthcare

    Brewer, Rena; Goble, GiGi; Guy, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article presents Georgia's telehealth response to some of the significant healthcare challenges and disparities facing the rural citizens of this state. When compared to their urban and suburban counterparts, rural communities have fewer healthcare providers, and residents must travel longer distances to reach them. Georgia's statewide telemedicine network, the Georgia Partnership for TeleHealth (GPT), uses information technology to improve the efficiency and quality of healthcare and he...

  5. Application of Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize the Challenges Facing Public Transportation in Dar Es Salaam City-Tanzania

    Erick P. Massami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is a key to the economy and social welfare; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. On the other hand, the increase of urban population, pollution and other negative impacts has directly affected the existing transportation system in Dar es Salaam City - Tanzania. As the transportation challenges cannot be overcome simultaneously due to the scarcity of financial resources, a decision support tool is needed to prioritize these challenges. In this study, a composite model of Vague Set Theory (VST and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is applied to appraise the challenges. The Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process (VAHP uses opinions of experts collected from a survey questionnaire. The computational results reveal the ranking in descending order of the urban transportation challenges as poor traffic management, inadequacy of proper public transit service and inadequacy of road transport infrastructure. The results also depict that the VAHP model is a useful decision support tool for transport planners, transport policy makers and other industry stakeholders.

  6. Learning to Teach English Language in the Practicum: What Challenges do Non-Native ESL Student Teachers Face?

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges sixteen non-native preservice ESL teachers in a Bachelor of Education (English Language) (BEdEL) programme from Hong Kong experienced in an eight-week teaching practicum. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were collected from all 16 participants to obtain a detailed…

  7. Facing the Challenge--Developing an Instructional Plan for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil Based on Multiliteracy

    Schlindwein, Ana Flora

    2013-01-01

    Adopting the multiliteracy concept and embracing the challenge of developing meaningful and captivating classes for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil, this paper proposes an approach which includes the use of different technologies to learn and teach Portuguese, the reading of graphic novel adaptations of Brazilian literature classics and…

  8. New challenges in rural development a multi-scale inquiry into emerging issues, posed by the global land rush /

    Scheidel, Arnim

    2013-01-01

    En los últimos años están surgiendo nuevos retos asociados al desarrollo rural, catalizados por una fiebre mundial por la adquisición de tierras a gran escala. Este fenómeno, conocido como ‘acaparamiento de tierras’, está generando controversia en cuanto a si el interés creciente en estas adquisiciones podría beneficiar a las comunidades rurales empobrecidas del campesinado mundial, o al contrario, incidirá en su marginalización. Esta tesis doctoral presenta una recopilación de cuatro artícul...

  9. Challenges Faced by Manufacturing Companies in Sustaining Conformance to ISO9001:2008 in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of a Textiles Manufacturing Company

    Eng. William Msekiwa Goriwondo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System (QMS has seen many companies willing to implement it and get certification so as to improve quality delivery. Due to the globalization phenomenon, certification to ISO9001 becomes a prerequisite. Many manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe have been certified in a quest to improve their quality delivery. The main certification body in Zimbabwe is the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ. This paper is based on a case study research for KT Textiles and it assesses the challenges that one certified manufacturing company is facing in a bid to sustain conformance to the ISO 9001: 2008QMS. Questionnaires and Interviews were the main research instruments used in the study. There was also reference to archival records and minutes of important meetings from the organization. Using stratified random sampling, questionnaires were administered to both managers and employees drawn from different departments. Employees were also interviewed to provide further information to compliment the questionnaire data. The data was analyzed using statistical graphs and charts. This research identified how the organization applies the 8 principles of ISO 9001:2008 QMS. The research findings revealed that the main challenges faced by the firm in maintaining the QMS are lack of top management involvement and support, lack of employee creativity and innovation, lack of focused internal audits, preventive maintenance schedule and data analysis lack priority.

  10. Facing up to programmatic challenges created by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa

    Heidari Shirin; Harries Anthony D; Zachariah Rony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three decades after the emergence of HIV, we have made great strides in our response to the epidemic, from prevention of transmission to testing and treatment. However, it is still common in high-prevalence settings for people to not know their HIV status, and estimates are that globally, a mere 36% of those eligible for treatment are receiving it. On top of this, for every person with HIV entering treatment, two more are infected. The operationa obstacles to overcoming the challenge...

  11. Challenges faced by health workers in providing counselling services to HIV-positive children in Uganda: a descriptive study

    Rujumba Joseph; Mbasaalaki-Mwaka Cissy L; Ndeezi Grace

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The delivery of HIV counselling and testing services for children remains an uphill task for many health workers in HIV-endemic countries, including Uganda. We conducted a descriptive study to explore the challenges of providing HIV counselling and testing services to children in Uganda. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in the districts of Kampala and Kabarole in Uganda. The data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussion...

  12. Genomics and Biological Big Data: Facing Current and Future Challenges around Data and Software Sharing and Reproducibility

    Gesing, Sandra; Connor, Thomas Richard; Taylor, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Novel technologies in genomics allow creating data in exascale dimension with relatively minor effort of human and laboratory and thus monetary resources compared to capabilities only a decade ago. While the availability of this data salvage to find answers for research questions, which would not have been feasible before, maybe even not feasible to ask before, the amount of data creates new challenges, which obviously need new software and data management systems. Such new solutions have to ...

  13. An analysis of the vocabulary and reading comprehension challenges faced by first year B.Ed. students / Catharina Elisabeth Martens

    Martens, Catharina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    First year students at university level encounter various challenges that might impact on their success or failure. At this level, learning is fairly dependent on extensive and intensive reading, thus the reader should have an adequate vocabulary size to assist with the reading comprehension process. Knowledge of vocabulary (or words) is deemed an essential factor in reading proficiency, mainly because meaning is derived from words and also because of the connection between wor...

  14. Challenges faced by elderly guardians in sustaining the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Grandparents throughout sub-Saharan Africa have shown immense courage and fortitude in providing care and support for AIDS-affected children. However, growing old comes with a number of challenges which can compromise the care and support given to children affected by AIDS, particularly for children infected by HIV and enrolled on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) programmes. For ART to have an impact, and for children not to develop drug-resistance, a rigid treatment regimen...

  15. Research on Rural Financing in China with Reference to Village and Township Banks: An Overview

    Bal Ram Duwal; Shao Yan Sun

    2013-01-01

    The problem of rural financing is one of the major challenges to the emerging China. It is challenging forgovernment authorities to provide adequate financial resources and access to financial institutions in ruralagricultural areas to farmer households. The development of Village and Township Banks (VTBs) hasremarkably increased since 2008 but the deposit collection of VTBs is comparatively weaker than the loandisbursement. Despite of facing numerous challenges, establishing within the frame...

  16. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  17. Los desafíos para el minuto de dios (A The challenges facing minuto de dios

    Diana Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es el caso de la Corporación Minuto de Dios, MD, organización sin ánimo de lucro creada en 1958 para con el fin de tratar de dar solución integral a los problemas sociales de sus afiliados”1. La corporación pertenece a la Organización Minuto de Dios, entidad comprometida con el desarrollo integral de la persona y las comunidades marginadas, tanto urbanas como rurales, a la luz del evangelio cristiano. Su principal línea de trabajo es vivienda de interés social –ha construido cerca de 60.000 soluciones– y además ofrece servicios en atención de desastres, microempresa, atención a la tercera edad, contacto espiritual y desarrollo juvenil. La corporación ha establecido, desde su origen, alianzas con empresas como Manuelita S.A., uno de los ingenios azucareros más grandes de Colombia. En la década del 90 consolidó colaboraciones con Servibanca, entidad colombiana sin ánimo de lucro cuya misión es promover la automatización de la banca colombiana a través de una red de banca electrónica; el banco Davivienda2 y la red de supermercados Carulla Vivero. En estas tres alianzas las empresas privadas ponían al servicio del MD su infraestructura para recaudar donaciones del público que hacía uso de sus servicios.

  18. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  19. Overseas territories facing the challenge of climate change - Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament

    This report identifies the social-environmental challenges associated with climate change for French overseas territories, proposes an analysis of the impact of activities of the different economic sectors on the environment, and proposes some principles for action. After an introduction which outlines the importance of addressing climate change and adaptation, and describes the situation of French overseas territories in front of climate change, a first part identifies and discusses the main social-environmental challenges associated with climate change (climate evolution, role of climate change in a context of economic development, the territory as a resource system, climate change considered as an impact chain, the relative weight of climatic uncertainties). Then, the report analyses the potential impacts of climate change on biodiversity, on tourism, on fishing and aquaculture, on agriculture and breeding, on forestry, on health, and on the energy sector. For each of them, the economic weight is indicated and commented, expected impacts are discussed, and adaptation possibilities and implementation modalities are commented. The issue of coastal planning and risks related to climate change is also addressed

  20. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach as an impact assessment tool for development interventions in rural Tigray, Ethiopia: opportunities & challenges

    Segers, Kaatje; Dessein, Joost; Nyssen, Jan; Behailu, Mintesinot; Deckers, Jozef

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the impact and sustainability of development programmes requires the development of appropriate assessment tools. This paper examines the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach's (SLA) potential to be transformed to and called in as a practical instrument to evaluate the impact of development interventions in rural Tigray (Northern Ethiopia). Fieldwork has been carried out in communities in woreda Dogua Tembien using participant observation and open interviews as methods. Next to mo...

  1. Challenges Experienced by Rural Women in India Living with AIDS and Implications for the Delivery of HIV/AIDS Care

    Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; William, Ravi Raj; Heravian, Anisa; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Greengold, Barbara; Ekstrand, Maria; Rao, Pantangi Venkata Rama

    2011-01-01

    Researchers explored the barriers to AIDS care for rural women living with AIDS, and investigated alternative delivery models to increase the women’s adherence to anti-retroviral therapy. Community-based participatory research focus groups were conducted by the researchers with a convenience sample of 39 women living with AIDS from a Primary Health Center near Chennai, India and with nurses, physicians and Accredited Social Health Activists (Ashas), lay health care workers. The most prevalent...

  2. Cognitive styles and psychological functioning in rural South African school students: Understanding influences for risk and resilience in the face of chronic adversity.

    Cortina, Melissa A; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Hlungwani, Tintswalo Mercy; Holmes, Emily A; Fazel, Mina

    2016-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences can show lasting effects on physical and mental health. Major questions surround how children overcome adverse circumstances to prevent negative outcomes. A key factor determining resilience is likely to be cognitive interpretation (how children interpret the world around them). The cognitive interpretations of 1025 school children aged 10-12 years in a rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged area of South Africa were examined using the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children (CTI-C). These were examined in relation to psychological functioning and perceptions of the school environment. Those with more positive cognitive interpretations had better psychological functioning on scales of depression, anxiety, somatization and sequelae of potentially traumatic events. Children with more negative cognitions viewed the school-environment more negatively. Children living in poverty in rural South Africa experience considerable adversity and those with negative cognitions are at risk for psychological problems. Targeting children's cognitive interpretations may be a possible area for intervention. PMID:26994348

  3. Access to Higher Education for Rural-Poor Students in China

    Yang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    China is now facing significant challenges in funding its rapidly expanding higher education systems, though it has experienced enormous economic growth in recent years. Equity has become a serious concern in Chinese higher education system. This article tries to identify the causes and implications of under-representation of the rural-poor

  4. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    Cho, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  5. Sudanese Young People of Refugee Background in Rural and Regional Australia: Social Capital and Education Success

    Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…

  6. Sudanese Young People of Refugee Background in Rural and Regional Australia: Social Capital and Education Success

    Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese

  7. Instructional Collaboration with Rural Educators in Jamaica: Lessons Learned from an International Interdisciplinary Consultation Project

    Williams, Stacy A. S.; Staulters, Merry L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary to high school student population in Jamaica has become more academically diverse, and schools are experiencing the pressures of implementing reform programs without adequate financial and professional development support. The schools facing the greatest challenges and needs in Jamaica are often those in the rural areas. Researchers…

  8. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  9. Facing the noncommunicable disease (NCD) global epidemic--the battle of prevention starts in utero--the FIGO challenge.

    Roura, Lluis Cabero; Arulkumaran, Sir Sabaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 36 million deaths every year. Of this death toll, nearly 80% (29 million) occur in low- and median-income countries. More than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur in people under 60 years of age. National economies are suffering considerable losses due to premature death or disability to work resulting from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The knowledge that in utero and in early childhood certain processes can affect the risk of developing NCDs provides an opportunity to enforce interventions during this critical time, when they may have the greatest effect. Using appropriate protocols, the health-care provider can educate mothers about the risks of certain nutritional and environmental exposures and integrate health promotion on the agenda, as part of the social and economic development. All this could motivate a substantial reduction in the risk of NCDs. Current and future health challenges demand new and changing competencies that should form the basis for education, training, and workforce planning. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) is aware of that responsibility and has joined hands with other agencies and organizations that make a considerable effort in providing appropriate prenatal care programs to prevent and treat most of the common preconditioning factors, especially in low-income countries. PMID:25248554

  10. Energy in a dialog. The challenges facing Germany's power industry as a result of the energy turnaround

    The challenges posed by the energy turnaround in Germany to the power industry and the national economy after the Fukushima events were the topic of the ''Energy in a Dialog'' meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum in Berlin on December 14, 2011. Dr. Ralf Gueldner, President of the Deutsches Atomforum, opened the conference by drawing attention to the real purposes of the energy turnaround, namely to prevent severe climate changes and, thus, also carbon emissions. Both nationally in Germany and worldwide, nuclear power made major contributions to achieving these goals. Referring to developments in many neighboring countries, he underlined that opting out of the use of nuclear power in Germany was not tantamount to the end of nuclear power. Reality in energy policy had to be accepted, however, namely that nuclear power played, and would go on playing, an important role in Europe. Other contributions by Dr. Juergen Grossmann (Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG), Stefan Kohler (Chairman of the Board of Management of the German Energy Agency - dena), and Prof.Dr. Felix Muesgens (Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus, Chair of Power Economics) dealt with political and other boundary conditions required for the energy turnaround, and with the consequences and burdens on the power industry and the national economy. A final panel discussion chaired by Henning Krumrey (Wirtschaftswoche) was attended by F. Muesgens and Prof. Dr. Hans-Werner Sinn (President of the Munich-based Info Institute) and Prof. Dr. Michael Huether (German Business Institute). (orig.)

  11. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  12. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions

  13. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    Berland, Kristian [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Arter, Calvin A.; Thonhauser, T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Cooper, Valentino R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States); Lee, Kyuho [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lundqvist, Bengt I. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per [Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-05-14

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO{sub 3}, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  14. Elephant Trunk-Like Teratoma of the Face with Compromised Airway in an Infant with Complex Congenital Cardiac Defects: An Anesthetic Challenge.

    Maddali, Madan Mohan; Al Balushi, Faisal Khalfan Ahmed; Waje, Niranjan Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Large head and neck teratomas are very rare. Depending on their site of origin, they can produce varying degrees of airway compromise and can interfere with the conduct of general anesthesia. Large space-occupying lesions of the face may even interfere with the simple task of mask ventilation rendering inhaled induction of general anesthesia and maintenance of spontaneous ventilation difficult. If these neoplasms coexist with cardiac lesions necessitating corrective or palliative procedures, the task of oxygenation, ventilation, and securing a definitive airway becomes challenging especially in the presence of underlying unstable hemodynamics. We report on the anesthetic management of a female infant with a facial teratoma and single-ventricle physiology undergoing a cardiac palliative procedure where securing a definitive airway with minimal hemodynamic instability was the immediate requirement. PMID:26599737

  15. Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development

    Marunda, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources in the country. The findings reveal that stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry are largely in favour of formulating and expanding policies that encourage use of solar and wind technologies, at the same time mitigating environmental degradation. The article summarises the findings and duly recommends policies than can be used in Zimbabwe to promote the sustainable use of renewable energy employing solar and wind among others for tourism development.

  16. A Rural Implementation of a 52 Node Mixed Wireless Mesh Network in Macha, Zambia

    Backens, Jonathan; Mweemba, Gregory; van Stam, Gertjan

    In spite of increasing international and academic attention, there remains many challenges facing real world implementations of developing technologies. There has been considerable hype behind Wireless Mesh Networking as the ubiquitous solution for rural ICT in the developing world. In this paper, we present the real world rural mesh network implementation in the village of Macha, Zambia and draw both performance conclusions as well as overall experiential conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze our low cost solution and extrapolate future trends for rural ICT implementations in Zambia.

  17. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  18. Do patients bypass rural hospitals? Determinants of inpatient hospital choice in rural California

    Escarce, José J.; Kapur, Kanika

    2009-01-01

    Rural hospitals play a crucial role in providing healthcare to rural Americans, a vulnerable and underserved population; however, rural hospitals have faced threats to their financial viability and many have closed as a result. This paper examines the hospital characteristics that are associated with patients choosing rural hospitals, and sheds light on the types of patients who depend on rural hospitals for care and, hence, may be the most impaired by the closure of rural hospitals. Using da...

  19. Reforms and emerging noncommunicable disease: some challenges facing a conflict-ridden country--the case of the Syrian Arab Republic.

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    The past year witnessed considerable turbulence in the Arab world-in this case, Syria, a lower middle-income country with a record of a strong public health infrastructure. This paper explores the current challenges facing its health system from reforms, civil strife and international sanctions all of which we argue have serious implications for population health. The health sector in Syria was little known, and until recently, it was well integrated to provide preventive and specialized care when needed. Regionally, it was one of the few countries ready and capable of addressing the challenges of demographic and epidemiologic transition with a long-standing emphasis on primary care and prevention, unlike most countries of the region. This context has changed dramatically through the recent implementation of reforms and the current civil war. Changes to financing, management and the delivery of health service placed access to services in jeopardy, but now, these are compounded by the destruction from an intractable and violent conflict and international sanctions. This paper explores some of the combined effects of reforms, conflict and sanctions on population health. PMID:23801552

  20. The Separation of Internet Content Regulation in the face of the Convergence of Information and Communication Technologies: The Controversies, Challenges and Solutions for China

    Wei-guang WU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available
    More than ten different departments in China have varying responsibilities for the regulation of the content of publications on the Internet. This separated regulatory structure has caused many challenges in the face of the convergence of information and communication technologies (ICTs, particularly the Internet. These challenges include the high compliance cost to ICT enterprises which effectively reduce incentives for high-tech startup companies and are detrimental to the innovative ability of the Internet itself. More generally, it creates tension for China’s successful engagement with the international community, decreases the international competitiveness of the Chinese ICT enterprises and stifles the development of global ICTs. China needs to adopt a more sophisticated approach to regulate Internet content and overcome these challenges in the near future. Failure to do so will widen the gap between China and the world’s developed countries in the Information Age.
    Key words: the Internet; the regulation of the Internet; content regulation; China
    Résumé: Plus d’une dizaine de départements différents en Chine assument les responsabilités variées du contrôle du contenu des publications sur Internet. Cette structure régulatrice séparée a causé beaucoup de défis en face de la convergence des informations, des technologies de communication et surtout de l’Internet. Tous ces défis contiennent un coût de conformité élevé pour les entreprises ICT(Information and communication technologies en anglais), qui découragent effectivement les startups high-tech et qui sont défavorables pour la capacité innovatrice d’Internet lui-même.Plus généralement, il crée de la tension pour l’engagement de la Chine avec la communauté internationale, diminue la compétitivité internationales des entreprises ICT chinoises et ralentit le développement de l’ICT. La Chine a besoin d’adopter une approche plus sophistiquée pour régulariser le contenu d’Internet et surmonter tous ces défis dans le proche futur. Si l’on faillit faire cela, la distance entre la Chine et les pays développés s’agrandira dans l’Age d’Information.
    Mots-Clés: Internet; régularisation d’Internet; contrôle du contenu; la Chine

  1. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER, Malaysia

    Chamhuri Siwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.

  2. As mulheres perante o desafio de uma carreira internacional / Les femmes face au dfi dune carrire internationale / Women facing the challenge of an international career / Las mujeres ante el desafio de una carrera internacional

    Ana Rita, Nunes; Sara Falco, Casaca.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resulta de uma investigao que procurou compreender as motivaes, as experincias e os desafios enfrentados pelas mulheres envolvidas em processos de mobilidade internacional, tentando simultaneamente apreender o efeito do gnero nas respetivas experincias. Com este intuito, foram rea [...] lizadas 20 entrevistas a gestoras que, durante o seu percurso profissional, participaram em experincias internacionais. A persistncia de esteretipos de gnero e a escassez de mulheres em posies de liderana destacam-se enquanto referncias aos obstculos enfrentados, tanto antes como durante as experincias em anlise. Alm disso, em alguns contextos registaram-se situaes de isolamento e tambm de maior exposio e visibilidade. Por fim, possvel destacar a centralidade assumida pela dimenso familiar enquanto condicionante das decises de mobilidade e do desenvolvimento de uma carreira no plano internacional. Abstract in spanish Este artculo resulta de una investigacin que procur comprender las motivaciones, las experiencias y los desafios enfrentados por las mujeres involucradas en procesos de movilidad internacional, intentando simultneamente apropiarse del efecto de gnero en las respectivas experiencias. Con este pr [...] opsito, fueron realizadas veinte entrevistas a administradoras que, durante su trayecto profesional, participaron en experiencias internacionales. Predominan la persistencia de esteretipos de gnero y la escasez de mujeres en posiciones de liderazgo como referencias a los obstculos enfrentados, tanto antes como durante las experiencias en anlisis. Adems de eso, en algunos contextos se registraron situaciones de aislamiento y tambin de mayor exposicin y visibilidad. Finalmente, es posible destacar la importancia central asumida por la dimensin familiar como condicionante de las decisiones de movilidad y del desarrollo de una carrera en el plan internacional Abstract in english This article resulted from a study designed to understand the motivations and experiences of women involved in international mobility processes and the challenges they face, while simultaneously seeking to gauge the gender effect in their experiences. Twenty female managers with international elemen [...] ts in their career paths were interviewed. The persistence of gender stereotypes and the small number of women in leadership positions stand out as references among the obstacles they faced, both before and during the experiences analysed during the project. In addition, in some contexts the women found themselves both isolated and more exposed and visible. Finally, the authors note the centrality the family dimension assumes as a factor that conditions both the mobility decisions taken during a career at international level and its development.

  3. Community acquired multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a rural setting of North Western Ethiopia: a tough challenge.

    Tibebu, Martha; Embiyale, Wondimagegn

    2014-07-01

    Commnunity acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus species are common causes of skin and soft tissue infections. Foot ulcer of former leprosy patients can be invaded by a multi-microbial infection. Cervicitis is usually caused by certain sexually transmitted agents. Here we report a series of cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from two patients presenting with foot ulcer and cervicitis respectively, both in an outpatient or community setting (community onset) in rural North Western Ethiopia. The strains were resistant to all commonly available drugs such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline but sensitive to clindamycin. This is the first report of CA-MRSA in the study area. PMID:25812289

  4. Dryland Resource Management Technology Adoption in SouthEastern Kenya: Successes, Opportunities and Challenges

    Nyariki, Dickson; Musimba, Nashon K.; Ikutwa, Charles K.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...

  5. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  6. RRR for NNN—a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases

    Toledo, Chelsea E.; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C.; Ottesen, Eric A.; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)—lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma—are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. PMID:26940303

  7. RRR for NNN-a rapid research response for the Neglected Tropical Disease NGDO Network: a novel framework to challenges faced by the global programs targeting neglected tropical diseases.

    Toledo, Chelsea E; Jacobson, Julie; Wainwright, Emily C; Ottesen, Eric A; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    While global programs targeting the control or elimination of five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)-lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and trachoma-are well underway, they still face many operational challenges. Because of the urgency of 2020 program targets, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development devised a novel rapid research response (RRR) framework to engage national programs, researchers, implementers and WHO in a Coalition for Operational Research on NTDs. After 2 years, this effort has succeeded as an important basis for the research response to programmatic challenges facing NTD programs. PMID:26940303

  8. Desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produo de morango no Distrito Federal / Challenges faced by smallholders in strawberry production in the Federal District, Brazil

    Gilmar P, Henz.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo so relatados, a partir de um levantamento realizado em 2009, as dificuldades e os desafios enfrentados por agricultores familiares na produo de morango no Distrito Federal (DF), assim como so discutidas algumas alternativas para mitigar os problemas. As principais dificuldades relat [...] adas pelos produtores foram, por ordem de importncia: (1) incidncia de pragas e doenas; (2) aquisio de mudas; (3) custo de embalagens; (4) necessidade de mo-de-obra; e (5) custos de produo elevados. Considerando-se estes resultados, algumas possveis alternativas para aprimorar a produo de morango do DF so: (a) produo local de mudas com qualidade sanitria e custo adequado, para minimizar a dependncia de material propagativo de outros estados; (b) melhor uso da concentrao de instituies pblicas e privadas de ensino superior, pesquisa e desenvolvimento e extenso rural presentes na regio para buscar informaes tcnicas e apoio para o sistema de produo; (c) buscar uma forma de associativismo para ganhar escala de produo, ter acesso a mercados diferenciados e aumentar o peso poltico das demandas do setor; (d) aprimorar o manuseio ps-colheita do morango, adotando embalagens mais adequadas e refrigerao; (e) implementar ferramentas modernas de rastreabilidade do morango, para aumentar o valor agregado do produto e ter acesso a mercados mais exigentes; (f) adotar as prticas da "Produo Integrada do Morango (PIMo)", lanadas pelo MAPA em 2006, e ingressar oficialmente no programa para obter um produto certificado, com alto padro de qualidade; (g) realizar um estudo de mercado sobre o consumo de morango no DF e suas tendncias para atender melhor os distintos segmentos de consumo e traar estratgias de marketing para o morango candango. A presso cada vez maior dos consumidores por produtos de qualidade, isentos de agrotxicos e com certificao, seguramente tornar o sistema produtivo de morango do DF mais eficiente e seletivo. Abstract in english In this article, I had highlighted the results of a survey carried out in 2009 on the situation and difficulties faced by strawberry growers, characterized as smallholders, in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. In addition, I discuss some alternatives to mitigate these problems. The most cited chall [...] enges identified by smallholders were, in order of importance: (1) incidence of pests and diseases; (2) strawberry plantlet acquisition; (3) packing costs; (4) need of intensive labor; and (5) high production costs. Based on these information, some possible measures to improve the social and economic status of the smallholders involved in the strawberry production in DF are: (a) local production of plantlets, with sanitary quality and affordable costs, to reduce the dependence on other Brazilian States; (b) a more intensive use of the several public and private universities, science and technology institutions and rural extension services available in DF to support the sector; (c) creation of an association or cooperative to scale up production, access distinct market niches and strengthen the political influence of the sector; (d) improve the postharvest handling system by adopting modern packing materials and refrigeration; (e) adopt modern traceability tools, so as to increase the local strawberry added value and, therefore, access more demanding markets; (f) implement and join the "Strawberry Integrated Production Program (PIMo)", officially launched by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in 2006; (g) survey the local strawberry market and consumer demands to develop a strategic marketing plan to serve the distinct market segments. The increasing consumers' demand for fruit quality and certified and residue free products will surely push the strawberry production system in DF into a scenario of efficiency and excellence.

  9. Separation of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital: Perioperative management

    Madhurita Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing anaesthesia for the separation surgery of conjoined twins presents unique challenges to the managing anaesthesiologists. The low incidence of such surgeries and anatomical variations in each type of conjoined twins makes each separation surgery a unique experience. This report features the anaesthetic plan and challenges faced in performing the separation surgery of a set of thoraco-omphalopagus twins in a rural secondary hospital in a remote location in India.

  10. Gas giant facing big challenges

    A brief analysis of the Russian state-controlled company Gazprom is provided. Many European countries are highly dependent on Russian gas, and in total about 25 to 30 percent of Europe's gas demand is covered by Russian gas. After the gas dispute with Ukraine, questions on how reliable the Russian delivery is have been asked. With Gazprom's increasing interest in China and other Asian countries, and insufficient exploration activities and development of new fields, there is a concern that the European market will suffer consequences (ml)

  11. Face To Face

    Robert Leckey

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  12. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for

  13. Pedagogical Mentorship as an In-Service Training Resource: Perspectives from Teachers in Guatemalan Rural and Indigenous Schools

    de la Garza, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed challenges faced by teachers in rural and Indigenous schools, and the impact of pedagogical mentorship in contributing towards more culturally and linguistically relevant education. Using a case from Guatemala, this article explored pedagogical mentorship as an in-service teacher training resource for multi-lingual and…

  14. Future Sex Educator Perceptions of Rural versus Urban Instruction: A Case for Community-Centered Sexual Health Education

    Jones, Christina L.; Jensen, Robin E.; Selzer King, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Instructors of sexual health courses in rural areas face unique challenges as they are often forced to use school-based prevention curricula field-tested in urban areas. Research has yet to consider what future sex educators' regional expectations are for their profession and how those expectations might have an impact on the classroom.

  15. The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context

    Dodescu Anca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

  16. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

  17. Fuel poverty is facing a data challenge - Which strategies to struggle against fuel poverty? Propositions for an ecologic and social transition policy

    The authors address three main questions: how are structured the network of actors and the tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, what are the specific data challenges faced by the actors and the possible responses, and which lessons can be learned for the governance of energy transition in its whole. After a presentation of the context of fuel poverty (analysis of tools for the struggle against fuel poverty, the use of social-energetic data), this study, based on about forty interviews of various actors and on a workshop, proposes an analysis framework which distinguishes six steps in the definition and implementation of policies of struggle against fuel poverty. After a description of the current status and an identification of required improvements for each step, the authors propose a set of recommendations, draw lessons for urban policies aimed at an ecologic transformation and a modernisation of the social protection system in terms of level of intervention, scope of actions, and ownership and access to data bases. These recommendations more particularly address the definition of fuel poverty, its diagnosis at the national and at the territorial level, a better identification of concerned households, and an assessment of existing arrangements

  18. Trends, challenges and opportunities in tuberculosis control in rural Ethiopia :Epidemiological and operational studies in a resource-constrained setting

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru

    2007-01-01

    Many people still die of tuberculosis (TB). One-third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis, and the poor suffer most. More than 95% of TB cases and deaths are in developing countries and TB is closely linked to poverty. The prevalence of TB increases globally, mainly because of the worsening HIV pandemic. Emerging drug-resistant TB poses another challenge to efforts to control TB. In 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a comprehensive appr...

  19. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  20. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools (Comprensin y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas pblicas)

    Quintero Corzo, Josefina; Ramrez Contreras, Odilia

    2011-01-01

    Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as

  1. Pitfalls with the "chest compression-only" approach: the challenge of an unusual cause

    Reid Bjørn; Skogvoll Eirik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chest compression-only (CC-only) is now incorporated in the Norwegian protocol for dispatch guided CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) in cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac aetiology. We present a case that is unique and instructive as well as unusual. It reminds us of the challenges that face bystanders, dispatch centres and ambulance services when faced with possible cardiac arrest. This case report describes a 50 year old man in a rural community. He had suffered a heart attack 8 ...

  2. An Approach: Modality Reduction and Face-Sketch Recognition

    Pramanik, Sourav; Bhattacharjee, Dr. Debotosh

    2013-01-01

    To recognize face sketch through face photo database is a challenging task for todays researchers. Because face photo images in training set and face sketch images in testing set have different modality. Difference between two face photos of difference person is smaller than the difference between same person in a face photo and face sketched. In this paper, for reduction of the modality between face photo and face sketch we first bring face photo and face sketch images in a new dimension usi...

  3. Face to Face

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artculo utiliza la teora Queer, ms concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislacin propuesta en Quebec en relacin al velo. La teora Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carcter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prcticas sociales; legislacin frente a estado; mayora versus minora; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradiccin no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace ms fuerte y ms gil.

  4. Fortune in Rural India -An Overview

    Kulkarni Preeti M.

    2011-01-01

    Marketing Management always deals in the ever changing marketing environment. The rural environment is in paradigm shifts and management needs to deal with the changing consumer behavior. The basic challenge in front of the rural marketer is to deal with the rural consumer who is undergoing transformation. Many marketers perceive that the rural markets are the protrusions of the urban slums or poor markets. The truth is that the rural consumer’s concept of value is different from the urban co...

  5. How rural is the EU RDP? An analysis through spatial fund allocation

    Beatrice Camaioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although representing less than 20% of total CAP expenditure, the Rural Development Policy (RDP 2007-2013 is supposed to support rural areas which are facing new challenges. Currently, many EU rural areas are experiencing major transformations and the traditional urban-rural divide seems outdated (OECD, 2006. Going beyond dichotomous definitions and approaches, the paper applies at EU NUTS 3 level a new composite and comprehensive measure of rurality and peripherality (the PeripheRurality Indicator, PRI: the higher this index, the more rural and peripheral a given region is. Within a Principal Component Analysis (PCA approach, this indicator takes into account both conventional socio-economic indicators and the relevant geographical characteristics of the region. On the basis of this analysis, the paper also puts forward a clusterisation of NUTS 3 regions across Europe and assesses the correlation between the RDP expenditure intensity, the PRI and the different regional clusters. This analysis is aimed at assessing the coherence of RDP fund allocation with the real characteristics of EU rural space.

  6. Rural Education and Urbanization: Experiences and Struggles in China Since the Late 1970s

    Shuqin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available China has adopted an unbalanced policy for economic development to improve its domestic economy and international competiveness for more than three decades. During this process, rural education has undergone a series of reforms. With reference to compulsory education, this article argues that rural education in China is a pragmatic instrument for the state to expand and improve the quality of urbanization. Rural education can be used to serve urbanization, is influenced by the rural-urban disparities brought about by urbanization, and receives urban aid and support in exchange for following state guidelines. Due to deep-rooted disparities and long-standing inequalities, effectively financing rural education, rural education still faces challenges and difficulties related to handling urban-based curricula and evaluation standards, recruiting, and keeping qualified teachers, and the outflow of original rural residents. This article concludes by offering an explanation of Chinese policy implications for the functions and constraints of state-directed rural education in serving urbanization.

  7. Rural youth in northern Zambia: straddling the rural-urban divide

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    , young people are not relying solely on farming, but are also engaging in nonfarm activities. Some young people are shown to be highly entrepreneurial, managing to set up and run businesses despite facing constant and changing challenges. Whether they are based in the village or in the nearby small town...... reported for sub-Saharan Africa, young people are increasingly turning their backs on agriculture, seeing it as an occupation that is back-breaking and only fit for old people (FAO, 2014). The aim of this chapter is to explore the livelihood strategies and aspirations of young people living in a rural area...... chapter shows how, contrary to the trend in much of sub-Saharan Africa, many young people are choosing to stay in their rural villages and engage in farming. This is partly due to the availability of land and government programmes that have been introduced to stimulate agriculture. Increasingly, however...

  8. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Goodman Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

  9. ROLE OF CO-OPERATIVES POLICES IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF RAICHUR DISTRICT

    Chandrashekhar Patil,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives, credit cooperatives in particular, are an integral part of the Indian rural economy. They are having far reaching direct and indirect impacts on agricultural growth and rural development. In the changing scenario characterized by globalisation, structural adjustment programmes, transition from a centrally planned to a market oriented economy, processes of democratisation and decentralisation, agricultural industrialisation and rural out-migration, cooperative are facing new challenge. But they must succeed and have to be resilient to weather the transition. They need to reevaluate and reinvent themselves, adapt to the changing paradigm and reestablish their relevance as effective rural institutions. This paper reviews the evolution of cooperative movement, examines its role and problems, and highlights its potential to adjust to the new perspectives in the context of Raichur, India. It concludes with some policy suggestions reposing great hope on the cooperative sector.

  10. Facing the Challenges of Accessing, Managing, and Integrating Large Observational Datasets in Ecology: Enabling and Enriching the Use of NEON's Observational Data

    Thibault, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.

  11. What Can a Woman Do with a Camera? Turning the Female Gaze on Poverty and HIV and AIDS in Rural South Africa

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene; Stuart, Jean; Buthelezi, Thabisile; Taylor, Myra

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the use of participatory video in finding solutions to challenges faced by schools and communities in the contexts of poverty and the AIDS pandemic in one rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Locating the analysis within the study of feminist visual culture and the notion of the female gaze, the article focuses on…

  12. What Can a Woman Do with a Camera? Turning the Female Gaze on Poverty and HIV and AIDS in Rural South Africa

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene; Stuart, Jean; Buthelezi, Thabisile; Taylor, Myra

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the use of participatory video in finding solutions to challenges faced by schools and communities in the contexts of poverty and the AIDS pandemic in one rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Locating the analysis within the study of feminist visual culture and the notion of the female gaze, the article focuses on

  13. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    LisaRBetts

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  14. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

  15. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

  16. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by A Mature esl Student and Her Instructors Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores

    Doris Correa

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to...

  17. Handbook of Face Recognition

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  18. Challenges of Implementing HIV and AIDS Education in Secondary Schools

    Lungo,Tatu Sultan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine challenges teachers face in delivering HIV and AIDS education in secondary schools. Both rural and urban schools were sampled to gain understanding of the possible differences in respondent views depending on their geographical location. Methods: Data collection methods included key informant interviews, observations, focus group discussions and review of documents. Key informants included teachers, students, parents, educational of...

  19. Summary and conclusions of the conference [International conference on challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations in enhancing nuclear safety

    The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation are currently experiencing a period of unprecedented change. The nature and pace of this change is affected by many factors - technological, economic, environmental, political and social. These factors not only influence the governmental and business environment in which the nuclear industry operates, but they also impact other stakeholders, the media, the public and international organizations. These developments have already resulted in significant changes to how nuclear enterprises are organized and operated. They can be expected to continue and even accelerate as new projects and designs for reactors and other facilities and new approaches to nuclear safety emerge. It is essential that high levels of nuclear and radiation safety be maintained worldwide throughout this period of change and for the lifetime of nuclear facilities, including site and waste management legacies. Effective, efficient and independent regulatory bodies must be established and maintained in all countries utilizing nuclear energy to ensure that nuclear activities are conducted safely and securely, consistent with national standards and international good practices. In this respect, it is of the utmost importance that all countries and expert organizations involved in nuclear related activities participate as active partners in the Global Nuclear Safety Regime [The Global Nuclear Safety Regime is the framework for achieving the worldwide implementation of a high level of nuclear safety]. This participation includes uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture and the safe management of radioactive waste and transport of radioactive material. Nuclear and radiation safety are based on technical, managerial, administrative, economic and organizational requirements. In this respect, the role and quality of technical and scientific expertise in the nuclear industry and of regulatory systems are of fundamental importance. Technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs), whether part of a regulatory body or a separate organization, are gaining increased importance in providing the technical and scientific bases for decisions and activities regarding nuclear and radiation safety. International organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) also rely on the active contribution of TSOs. In the light of the important role played by TSOs, it is essential that these organizations conduct their work consistent with the highest levels of technical competence and transparency, and with the observance of ethical principles. To enhance their capabilities in these areas, TSOs need to foster cooperative activities among themselves and other relevant organizations, whether on an ad hoc basis or in the framework of regional or multilateral arrangements and institutions. Recognizing the need for TSOs to broaden their cooperation, the IAEA has sponsored this first international conference specifically addressing the role TSOs can play and the challenges they face in enhancing nuclear safety. It is hoped that the conference provided a platform for further promoting and strengthening international nuclear and radiation safety cooperation to enhance the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

  20. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

    Hossain, Md. M.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladeshs main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural&...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production in rural area of Algeria, the case of Chemini (Kabylie)

    Moula, Nassim; Salhi, A.; Touazi, L.; Philippe, Franois-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The Algerian agricultural sector faces the challenge to meet the food needs of its population despite low agricultural capacity, resulting in increasing pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to inventory the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to livestock sector in the rural area of Chemini (province of Bejaia), taking into account the emissions due to enteric fermentation, in the form of methane, and manure management, in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. Emi...

  2. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories

    Wurie, Haja R.; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. Methods This article is based on participatory life histories...

  3. A Study on Application of Spatial Data Mining Techniques for Rural Progress

    Kanagavalli, V. R.; Raja, K

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of Spatial Data mining Techniques to efficiently manage the challenges faced by peripheral rural areas in analyzing and predicting market scenario and better manage their economy. Spatial data mining is the task of unfolding the implicit knowledge hidden in the spatial databases. The spatial Databases contain both spatial and non-spatial attributes of the areas under study. Finding implicit regularities, rules or patterns hidden in spatial databases is an...

  4. Sade, trabalho e ambiente no meio rural brasileiro Health, work and environment at the Brazilian rural

    Frederico Peres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute as implicaes das mudanas no paradigma produtivo sobre a sade e o ambiente no meio rural brasileiro. Para tanto, analisa dados de produo, demografia e economia, contrastando os determinantes, de ordem social, estrutural e econmica, com os reflexos na relao sade, trabalho e ambiente, desvelando um quadro preocupante, que inclui: a os impactos ambientais de grandes cadeias produtivas como soja, milho, algodo e cana de acar; b a contaminao qumica de diversos compartimentos ambientais em razo do uso de agrotxicos e fertilizantes na agricultura; c o uso de reas naturais para o aumento de reas destinadas agricultura e pecuria; e d os reflexos destas aes sobre a sade de um contingente expressivo de indivduos, trabalhadores ou no, colocados cada vez mais em situao de extrema vulnerabilidade face aos riscos advindos dos diversos processos produtivos presentes no meio rural brasileiro. Assim, o presente artigo mostra que os macrodeterminantes (ou grandes foras motrizes acabam por configurar o retrato da sade dos habitantes do Brasil Rural que, cotidianamente, enfrentam uma srie de desafios para a garantia de uma qualidade de vida e de trabalho digna.This manuscript discusses the implications of the productive paradigm changes in health and environment of rural area of Brazil. It analyzes production, economy and demography data, facing social and structural determinants with health and environmental reflexes, revealing a serious panorama that includes: a environmental impacts associated to large productive chains, such as corn, soy-bean, cotton and sugar cane; b chemical contamination of diverse environment compartments due to pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture; c the use of natural land in the expansion of agriculture and cattle farming activities; and d the reflexes of these actions on individuals, workers or not, that are more and more forced to deal with extreme vulnerability situations because of the risk of rural work processes. Thus, the present article points that macro-determinants (or driven-forces tends to configure the health status of Rural Brazil inhabitants which, day after day, face a series of challenges in order to guarantee dignity in their work and quality of life.

  5. Face-to-face coalition

    Andrews, Timothy J.; Thompson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The perception and recognition of familiar faces are thought to depend critically on an analysis of the internal features of the face. However, other studies have shown that combining highly familiar internal features with an inappropriate set of familiar external features produces a composite face whose identity is dominated by the external features. Here, we show that this illusion depends on the distinctiveness of the external features.

  6. Innovating for Rural Development

    Christensen, Dorthe

    management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation as an...... analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...... interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural...

  7. Rural Aging

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  8. The Truth About Operating In Syria : The opportunities and challenges companies face upon entering and operating in the emerging market of Syria

    Moukbel, Maya; Bergqvist, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Emerging markets are playing a significant role in the ongoing process of economical and political globalisation. Due to the fall of international trade and investment barriers, a wider range of opportunities has risen for companies of the developed countries seeking to further enhance their international business potentials. Nonetheless, many hurdles still facing the integration process due to the existing political and cultural polarity, between emerging markets and their potential business...

  9. Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.

    Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

    2012-12-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

  10. Desarrollo territorial rural y cooperativas: un anlisis desde las polticas pblicas / Dveloppement territorial rural et les Coopratives: une anafyse ds les politiques publiques / Territorial Rural Development and Cooperatives: an Analysis from Public Policies

    Inmaculada, Buenda-Martnez; Alain, Ct.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas rurales enfrentan un conjunto de desafos globales como resultado de las actuales transformaciones econmicas y sociales. La contribucin de las cooperativas, en tanto que empresas de estructura colectiva con una fuerte adscripcin territorial, ha originado que sean consideradas en algunos [...] pases como un pilar de las polticas rurales. Este trabajo analiza una exitosa iniciativa pblica de casi treinta aos: las cooperativas de desarrollo regional. Su funcin como promotoras del movimiento cooperativo de Quebec es fundamental para la diversidad empresarial y el empleo de las regiones rurales. Abstract in english Rural areas face a range of global challenges as a result of current economic and social transformations. The contribution of cooperatives, as collective companies with a strong territorial affiliation, has led them to be considered in some countries as a pillar of rural policies. This paper analyze [...] s a successful public initiative released almost ???y years ago: cooperatives for regional development. Their function as promoters of the cooperative movement in Quebec is critical for corporate diversity and employment in rural areas.

  11. Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts

    Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United

  12. Recruiting and Retaining Physicians in Very Rural Areas

    Pepper, Carolyn M.; Sandefer, Ryan H.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Recruiting and retaining physicians is a challenge in rural areas. Growing up in a rural area and completing medical training in a rural area have been shown to predict decisions to practice in rural areas. Little is known, though, about factors that contribute to physicians' decisions to locate in very sparsely populated areas. Purpose:

  13. Regional development - rural employment opportunities

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate these trends, and build a generic model which can be used to create employment opportunities in the rural areas, based on the specificities of the tertiary sector.

  14. Keeping Rural Schools up to Full Speed

    Beesley, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Rural schools are long accustomed to meeting challenges in innovative ways. For them, the challenge is not so much a lack of technology as it is adequate internet access, which affects both teachers and students. In this article, the author discusses how to keep rural schools up to full speed. The author suggests that the best approach when…

  15. Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries

    Conning, Jonathan; Udry, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This review examines portions of the vast literature on rural financial markets and household behavior in the face of risk and uncertainty. We place particular emphasis on studying the important role of financial intermediaries, competition and regulation in shaping the changing structure and organization of rural markets, rather than on household strategies and bilateral contracting. Our goal is to provide a framework within which the evolution of financial intermediation in rural economies ...

  16. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Bermès, Emmanuelle; Faudet, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliancy with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows. The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This pap...

  17. The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Emmanuelle Bermès; Louise Fauduet

    2011-01-01

    The process of setting up a digital preservation repository in compliance with the OAIS model is not only a technical challenge: libraries also need to develop and maintain appropriate skills and organizations. Digital activities, including digital preservation, are nowadays moving into the mainstream activity of the Library and are integrated in its workflows.The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) has been working on the definition of digital preservation activities since 2003. This pape...

  18. A Study on the Challenges Faced By Health Systems in Establishing Risk Management in Selected Hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Batoul Ahmadi; Mohammad Keshvari; Abbas Homauni; Hojat Gharaei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to identify the challenges of risk management in the context of clinical governance in selected hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods:This study was implemented in two phases: qualitative step and quantitative step (survey). The first step was conducted using in-depth interviews and the second was carried out through a survey by questionnaire. Data were collected in hospitals through in-depth interviews with hospitals managers...

  19. What's wrong with web2.0?: the challenges facing library staff & students in realising the potential of social media & networking

    Lingard, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Web2.0 tools (blogs, social bookmarking, feeds, Twitter etc) offer great potential for both libraries and learners and yet usage for academic purposes remains relatively low. This presentation contrasts the possibilities with the reality and looks at some of the challenges that need to be overcome for the wider adoption of these tools. In particular the talk will focus on the need for appropriate staff development for Library staff and will report on digital literacy sessions run by the pres...

  20. Towards an inclusive society in Ghana: An analysis of challenges persons with disabilities face in participating in tourism in Ashanti region

    Sussan Aggrey Mensah; Maxwell Peprah Opoku; Eric Badu

    2015-01-01

    Participation in tourism brings individuals, families and communities together, making it an important social inclusion strategy. Negative perceptions about persons with disabilities could make it difficult for them to access public places. Therefore, this study served to examine tourism challenges for persons with disabilities (PwDs) in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A cross sectional study with quantitative data collection was conducted with PwDs. Structured questionnaires were administered t...