Cichalewski, w
2010-01-01
The high power amplifiers transfer characteristics nonlinearities can have a negative influence on the overall system performance. This is also true for the TESLA superconducting cavities accelerating field parameters control systems. This Low Level Radio Frequency control systems uses microwave high power amplifiers (like 10 MW klystrons) as actuators in the mentioned feedback loops. The amplitude compression and phase deviations phenomena introduced to the control signals can reduce the feedback performance and cause electron beam energy instabilities. The transfer characteristics deviations in the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg experiment have been investigated. The outcome of this study together with the description of the developed linearization method based on the digital predistortion approach have been described in this paper. Additionally, the results from the linearization tool performance tests in the FLASH's RF systems have been placed.
NONLINEAR EXPECTATIONS AND NONLINEAR MARKOV CHAINS
PENG SHIGE
2005-01-01
This paper deals with nonlinear expectations. The author obtains a nonlinear generalization of the well-known Kolmogorov's consistent theorem and then use it to construct filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations via nonlinear Markov chains. Compared to the author's previous results, i.e., the theory of g-expectations introduced via BSDE on a probability space, the present framework is not based on a given probability measure. Many fully nonlinear and singular situations are covered. The induced topology is a natural generalization of Lp-norms and L∞-norm in linear situations.The author also obtains the existence and uniqueness result of BSDE under this new framework and develops a nonlinear type of von Neumann-Morgenstern representation theorem to utilities and present dynamic risk measures.
Delocalized periodic vibrations in nonlinear electrical chains
Chechin, G. M.; Shcherbinin, S. A.
2013-01-01
We consider an electrical chain of N nonlinear capacitors coupled by linear inductors assuming that voltage dependence of capacitors represents an even function. We prove that only 5 symmetry determined nonlinear normal modes (NNM) can exist in the considered system. The stability of all these dynamical regimes for different N is studied with the aid of the group-theoretical method [Physical Review E 73 (2006) 36216] which allows to simplify radically the variational systems appearing in the ...
Nonlinear dynamics of zigzag molecular chains (in Russian)
Savin, A. V.; Manevitsch, L. I.; Christiansen, Peter Leth;
1999-01-01
Nonlinear, collective, soliton type excitations in zigzag molecular chains are analyzed. It is shown that the nonlinear dynamics of a chain dramatically changes in passing from the one-dimensional linear chain to the more realistic planar zigzag model-due, in particular, to the geometry...... types (such as extension and compression varieties) develop simultaneously in the chain. Accordingly, the inclusion of chain geometry is necessary if physical phenomena are to be described in terms of solitary waves...
Self-organized escape of oscillator chains in nonlinear potentials.
Hennig, D; Fugmann, S; Schimansky-Geier, L; Hänggi, P
2007-10-01
We present the noise-free escape of a chain of linearly interacting units from a metastable state over a cubic on-site potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and purely deterministic. The mutual interplay between nonlinearity and harmonic interactions causes an initially uniform lattice state to become unstable, leading to an energy redistribution with strong localization. As a result, a spontaneously emerging localized mode grows into a critical nucleus. By surpassing this transition state, the nonlinear chain manages a self-organized, deterministic barrier crossing. Most strikingly, these noise-free, collective nonlinear escape events proceed generally by far faster than transitions assisted by thermal noise when the ratio between the average energy supplied per unit in the chain and the potential barrier energy assumes small values. PMID:17994939
Strongly nonlinear waves in a chain of Teflon beads
Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.; Herbold, E.; Jin, S.
2005-01-01
One-dimensional “sonic vacuum” type phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE,Teflon) spheres with different diameters in a Teflon holder. It was demonstrated that this polymer-based sonic vacuum, with exceptionally low elastic modulus of particles, supports propagation of strongly nonlinear solitary waves with a very low speed. These solitary waves can be described using the classical nonlinear Hertz law despite the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and ...
Romeo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy)] e-mail: francesco.romeo@uniromal.it; Rega, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy)] e-mail: giuseppe.rega@uniromal.it
2006-02-01
Free wave propagation properties in one-dimensional chains of nonlinear oscillators are investigated by means of nonlinear maps. In this realm, the governing difference equations are regarded as symplectic nonlinear transformations relating the amplitudes in adjacent chain sites (n, n + 1) thereby considering a dynamical system where the location index n plays the role of the discrete time. Thus, wave propagation becomes synonymous of stability: finding regions of propagating wave solutions is equivalent to finding regions of linearly stable map solutions. Mechanical models of chains of linearly coupled nonlinear oscillators are investigated. Pass- and stop-band regions of the mono-coupled periodic system are analytically determined for period-q orbits as they are governed by the eigenvalues of the linearized 2D map arising from linear stability analysis of periodic orbits. Then, equivalent chains of nonlinear oscillators in complex domain are tackled. Also in this case, where a 4D real map governs the wave transmission, the nonlinear pass- and stop-bands for periodic orbits are analytically determined by extending the 2D map analysis. The analytical findings concerning the propagation properties are then compared with numerical results obtained through nonlinear map iteration.
Free wave propagation properties in one-dimensional chains of nonlinear oscillators are investigated by means of nonlinear maps. In this realm, the governing difference equations are regarded as symplectic nonlinear transformations relating the amplitudes in adjacent chain sites (n, n + 1) thereby considering a dynamical system where the location index n plays the role of the discrete time. Thus, wave propagation becomes synonymous of stability: finding regions of propagating wave solutions is equivalent to finding regions of linearly stable map solutions. Mechanical models of chains of linearly coupled nonlinear oscillators are investigated. Pass- and stop-band regions of the mono-coupled periodic system are analytically determined for period-q orbits as they are governed by the eigenvalues of the linearized 2D map arising from linear stability analysis of periodic orbits. Then, equivalent chains of nonlinear oscillators in complex domain are tackled. Also in this case, where a 4D real map governs the wave transmission, the nonlinear pass- and stop-bands for periodic orbits are analytically determined by extending the 2D map analysis. The analytical findings concerning the propagation properties are then compared with numerical results obtained through nonlinear map iteration
Parametrically Driven Solitons in a Chain of Nonlinear Coupled Pendula with an Impurity
XU Hai-Qing; TANG Yi
2006-01-01
The system consisting of a chain of parametrically driven and damped nonlinear coupled pendula with a mass impurity is studied by means of a discrete version of the envelope function approach. An analogue of theparametrically driven damped nonlinear Sch(o)dinger equation with an impurity term is derived from the original lattice equation.Analytical solutions of impurity pinned high-frequency breathers and kinks are obtained.The resuIts show that the mass impurity has striking influence on the high-frequency modes.In addition,we perform numerical sjmulations,showing that the light mass impurity has a stabilizing effect on the chain.The breathers seeding chaos in the homogeneous chain are pinned on a suitable light impurity to pull the chain from the chaotic state.
Thermal conductivity of nonlinear waves in disordered chains
Sergej Flach; Mikhail Ivanchenko; Nianbei Li
2011-11-01
We present computational data on the thermal conductivity of nonlinear waves in disordered chains. Disorder induces Anderson localization for linear waves and results in a vanishing conductivity. Cubic nonlinearity restores normal conductivity, but with a strongly temperature-dependent conductivity (). We ﬁnd indications for an asymptotic low-temperature ∼ 4 and intermediate temperature ∼ 2 laws. These ﬁndings are in accord with theoretical studies of wave packet spreading, where a regime of strong chaos is found to be intermediate, followed by an asymptotic regime of weak chaos (Laptyeva et al, Europhys. Lett. 91, 30001 (2010)).
Self-organized escape of oscillator chains in nonlinear potentials
Hennig, D.; Fugmann, S.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Hänggi, P
2007-01-01
We present the noise free escape of a chain of linearly interacting units from a metastable state over a cubic on-site potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and purely deterministic. The mutual interplay between nonlinearity and harmonic interactions causes an initially uniform lattice state to become unstable, leading to an energy redistribution with strong localization. As a result a spontaneously emerging localized mode grows into a critical nucleus. By surpassing this...
The quasi-equilibrium phase of nonlinear chains
T R Krishna Mohan; Surajit Sen
2005-03-01
We show that time evolution initiated via kinetic energy perturbations in conservative, discrete, spring-mass chains with purely nonlinear, non-integrable, algebraic potentials of the form ( − +1 ∼ $(_{} − _{+1})^{2}$, ≥ 2 and an integer, occurs via discrete solitary waves (DSWs) and discrete antisolitary waves (DASWs). Presence of reflecting and periodic boundaries in the system leads to collisions between the DSWs and DASWs. Such collisions lead to the breakage and subsequent reformation of (different) DSWs and DASWs. Our calculations show that the system eventually reaches a stable `quasi-equilibrium' phase that appears to be independent of initial conditions, possesses Gaussian velocity distribution, and has a higher mean kinetic energy and larger range of kinetic energy fluctuations as compared to the pure harmonic system with = 1; the latter indicates possible violation of equipartition.
Spiegler, VLM; Naim, MM; Potter, AT; Towill, DR
2015-01-01
Purpose of this paper: Previous control theory research on supply chain dynamics has predominantly taken a linear perspective of the real world, whereas nonlinearities have usually been studied via a simulation approach. Nonlinearities can naturally occur in supply chains through the existence of physical and economic constraints, for example, capacity limitations. Since the ability to flex capacity is an important aspect of supply chain resilience, there is a need to rigorously study such no...
LI De-Jun; MI Xian-Wu; DENG Ke; TANG Yi
2006-01-01
In the classical lattice theory, solitons and locaLized modes can exist in many one-dimensional nonlinear lattice chains, however, in the quantum lattice theory, whether quantum solitons and localized modes can exist or not in the one-dimensional lattice chains is an interesting problem. By using the number state method and the Hartree approximation combined with the method of multiple scales, we investigate quantum solitons and localized modes in a one-dimensional lattice chain with the nonlinear substrate potential. It is shown that quantum solitons do exist in this nonlinear lattice chain, and at the boundary of the phonon Brillouin zone, quantum solitons become quantum localized modes, phonons are pinned to the lattice of the vicinity at the central position j = j0.
INFLUENCES OF NONLINEAR INTERACTIONS ON POLARITIONS
牛家胜; 罗莹; 马本堃
2001-01-01
In this paper, we have analysed theoretically the polarization and dielectric constant generated by the nonlinear interactions between ions in ionic crystals. The spectrum of polaritons (coupling modes of photons and optical phonons)under nonlinear interactions has been developed. A new branch of dispersion relations has emerged in the original frequency gap between CTO and ωLO.
Role of Energy Exchange in the Deterministic Escape of a Coupled Nonlinear Oscillator Chain
We consider the deterministic escape of a chain of harmonically coupled units from a metastable state over a cubic potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and noise-free. The supply of a sufficient total energy transforms the chain into the nonlinear regime from which an initially, nearly uniform lattice configuration becomes unstable, yielding a redistribution of energy. In an early stage of the dynamics, we estimate the degree of energy exchange enabling the coupled system to form strongly localized modes which eventually grow into a critical nucleus. Upon passing this transition state, the nonlinear chain performs a collective, deterministic escape. We analyze the associated nonlinear dynamics in phase space and relate the escape to diffusion in a separatrix layer. (author)
Food-chain competition influences gene's size
Dembska, Marta; Dudek, Mirosław R.; Stauffer, Dietrich
2006-11-01
We have analyzed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nucleotide fraction from its equilibrium value was playing the role of the fitness parameter, B, in Bak-Sneppen model. Our finding is, that the higher is the value of the threshold fitness, during the evolution course, the more frequent are large fluctuations in number of species with strongly differentiated nucleotide content; and it is more often the case that the oldest species, which survive the food-chain competition, might have specific nucleotide fraction making possible generating long genes.
Food-chain competition influences gene's size
Dembska, Marta; M. R. Dudek; Stauffer, D.
2006-01-01
We have analysed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nu...
Deterministic escape dynamics of two-dimensional coupled nonlinear oscillator chains.
Fugmann, S; Hennig, D; Schimansky-Geier, L; Hänggi, P
2008-06-01
We consider the deterministic escape dynamics of a chain of coupled oscillators under microcanonical conditions from a metastable state over a cubic potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and noise free. We introduce a two-dimensional chain model and assume that neighboring units are coupled by Morse springs. It is found that, starting from a homogeneous lattice state, due to the nonlinearity of the external potential the system self-promotes an instability of its initial preparation and initiates complex lattice dynamics leading to the formation of localized large amplitude breathers, evolving in the direction of barrier crossing, accompanied by global oscillations of the chain transverse to the barrier. A few chain units accumulate locally sufficient energy to cross the barrier. Eventually the metastable state is left and either these particles dissociate or pull the remaining chain over the barrier. We show this escape for both linear rodlike and coil-like configurations of the chain in two dimensions. PMID:18643245
Intrinsic localized modes and nonlinear impurity modes in curved Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain
Ranja Sarkar; Bishwajyoti Dey
2008-06-01
We explore the nature of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in a curved FermiPasta-Ulam (FPU) chain and the effects of geometry and second-neighbor interaction on the localization and movability properties of such modes. We determine analytically the structure of the localized modes induced by an isotopic light-mass impurity in this chain. We further demonstrate that a nonlinear impurity mode may be treated as a bound state of an ILM with the impurity.
Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun
2016-03-01
Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.
We discuss nonlinear Markov processes defined on discrete time points and discrete state spaces using Markov chains. In this context, special attention is paid to the distinction between linear and nonlinear Markov processes. We illustrate that the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation holds for nonlinear Markov processes by a winner-takes-all model for social conformity. (fast track communication)
Frank, T D [Center for the Ecological Study of Perception and Action, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)
2008-07-18
We discuss nonlinear Markov processes defined on discrete time points and discrete state spaces using Markov chains. In this context, special attention is paid to the distinction between linear and nonlinear Markov processes. We illustrate that the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation holds for nonlinear Markov processes by a winner-takes-all model for social conformity. (fast track communication)
Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains
Naser Azad
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Nonlinear ball chain waveguides for acoustic emission and ultrasound sensing of ablation
Pearson, Stephen H.
Harsh environment acoustic emission and ultrasonic wave sensing applications often benefit from placing the sensor in a remote and more benign physical location by using waveguides to transmit elastic waves between the structural location under test and the transducer. Waveguides are normally designed to have high fidelity over broad frequency ranges to minimize distortion -- often difficult to achieve in practice. This thesis reports on an examination of using nonlinear ball chain waveguides for the transmission of acoustic emission and ultrasonic waves for the monitoring of thermal protection systems undergoing severe heat loading, leading to ablation and similar processes. Experiments test the nonlinear propagation of solitary, harmonic and mixed harmonic elastic waves through a copper tube filled with steel and elastomer balls and various other waveguides. Triangulation of pencil lead breaks occurs on a steel plate. Data are collected concerning the usage of linear waveguides and a water-cooled linear waveguide. Data are collected from a second water-cooled waveguide monitoring Atmospheric Reentry Materials in UVM's Inductively-Coupled Plasma Torch Facility. The motion of the particles in the dimer waveguides is linearly modeled with a three ball and spring chain model and the results are compared per particle. A theoretical nonlinear model is presented which is capable of exactly modeling the motion of the dimer chains. The shape of the waveform propagating through the dimer chain is modeled in a sonic vacuum. Mechanical pulses of varying time widths and amplitudes are launched into one end of the ball chain waveguide and observed at the other end in both time and frequency domains. Similarly, harmonic and mixed harmonic mechanical loads are applied to one end of the waveguide. Balls of different materials are analyzed and discriminated into categories. A copper tube packed with six steel particles, nine steel or marble particles and a longer copper tube
THE DEMAND DISRUPTION MANAGEMENT PROBLEM FOR A SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEM WITH NONLINEAR DEMAND FUNCTIONS
Minghui XU; Xiangtong QI; Gang YU; Hanqin ZHANG; Chengxiu GAO
2003-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of handling the uncertainty of demand in aone-supplier-one-retailer supply chain system. Demand variation often makes the real productiondifferent from what is originally planned, causing a deviation cost from the production plan. Assumethe market demand is sensitive to the retail price in a nonlinear form, we show how to effectivelyhandle the demand uncertainty in a supply chain, both for the case of centralized-decision-makingsystem and the case of decentralized-decision-making system with perfect coordination.
We have carried out numerical investigations of transmittance fluctuations in disordered chains in the presence of external electric fields. We have obtained an almost constant fluctuation in a length scale smaller than the localization length. However, the value of the fluctuation in the plateau region is dependent on the external electric field and strength of disorder. We have also studied the transmittance autocorrelation as a function of external electric field to probe non-linearity in transmittance. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs
Radionuclide chain transport with matrix diffusion and non-linear sorption
The present paper describes a two-dimensional model for radionuclide transport in inhomogeneous rock. Advective and dispersive flux takes place in water conducting zones which may consist of a network either of tubelike veins or planar fractures. Out of these flowpaths nuclides diffuse into stagnant pore water of a spatially limited, adjacent zone (matrix diffusion). Sorption on rock surfaces is described by a non-linear isotherm. Under specific conditions matrix diffusion can be represented by an effective (non-linear) surface sorption. Radioactive decay and, in the case of a nuclide chain, ingrowth is also included in the model. The numerical solutions of transport equations based on the method of lines are developed in detail. The advantages of this approach are the efficiency, the reliability and the general flexibility especially to include arbitrary boundary and initial conditions and arbitrary solute/rock interactions. For 135Cs we present in a comprehensive sensitivity analysis the impact of non-linear (Freundlich) sorption isotherm on break-through curves. It is shown that, provided transport times are comparable or larger than nuclide half-life, non-linear sorption may reduce concentrations at the geosphere outlet by orders of magnitude. Some results are also given for the transport of the 238U chain. (author) 25 figs., 2 tabs., 27 refs
Parameterisation effect on the behaviour of a head-dependent hydro chain using a nonlinear model
This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling (STHS), particularly concerning a head-dependent hydro chain. We use a method based on nonlinear programming (NLP), namely quadratic programming, to consider hydroelectric power generation a function of water discharge and of the head. The method has been applied successfully to solve a test case based on a realistic cascaded hydro system with a negligible computational time requirement and is also applied to show that the role played by reservoirs in the hydro chain do not depend only on their relative position. As a new contribution to earlier studies, which presented reservoir operation rules mainly for medium and long-term planning procedures, we show that the physical data defining hydro chain parameters used in the nonlinear model have an effect on the STHS, implying different optimal storage trajectories for the reservoirs accordingly not only with their position in the hydro chain but also with the new parameterisation defining the data for the hydro system. Moreover, considering head dependency in the hydroelectric power generation, usually neglected for hydro plants with a large storage capacity, provides a better short-term management of the conversion of the potential energy available in the reservoirs into electric energy, which represents a major advantage for the hydroelectric utilities in a competitive electricity market. (author)
On modulational instability of nonlinear waves in 1D ferromagnetic spin chains
We report a theoretical study of modulational instability of extended nonlinear spin waves in a one-dimensional ferromagnetic chain. The investigation is made both analytically within the framework of the linear stability analysis and also numerically by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Using a Holstein-Primakoff transformation for the spin operators, the Hamiltonian, which is constituted by a Heisenberg exchange term, a biquadratic exchange energy, an anisotropic energy and a Zeeman term, is bosonized. Then we derive a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger-like equation for the spin-wave motion. Using a linear stability analysis, we establish the stability criteria of the spin waves in such a ferromagnetic chain. From our numerical simulations of the discrete spin chain for the onset of instability, it emerges that the analytical predictions are correctly verified. For a long timescale, depending on the strength of the biquadratic exchange interaction relative to the exchange energy and the anisotropy energy, on the one hand an intrinsic localized wave train can be created displaying properties of the breather motion. On the other hand, due to the increasing size of the instability domain, with increase of the biquadratic parameter, the instability can fully develop and the linear stability fails; consequently, the time evolution of the modulated spin waves can show both regular and chaotic behaviour
Chong, C; Kim, E; Charalampidis, E G; Kim, H; Li, F; Kevrekidis, P G; Lydon, J; Daraio, C; Yang, J
2016-05-01
This article explores the excitation of different vibrational states in a spatially extended dynamical system through theory and experiment. As a prototypical example, we consider a one-dimensional packing of spherical particles (a so-called granular chain) that is subject to harmonic boundary excitation. The combination of the multimodal nature of the system and the strong coupling between the particles due to the nonlinear Hertzian contact force leads to broad regions in frequency where different vibrational states are possible. In certain parametric regions, we demonstrate that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation predicts the corresponding modes fairly well. The electromechanical model we apply predicts accurately the conversion from the obtained mechanical energy to the electrical energy observed in experiments. PMID:27300876
Patham, Bhaskar
Polyolefin elastomers are random copolymers having a polyethylene backbone with the higher olefinic comonomer incorporated as short-chain branches. These random copolymers are widely used as polymer modifiers for thermoplastic materials such as polypropylenes, resulting in thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends. This thesis addresses the nonlinear rheological behavior of the elastomers and then of the TPO blends. The effects of varying short chain branch density (SCB) on the melt rheology of three ethylene-octene random copolymers have been investigated. In particular, the strain-hardening behavior in extensional flow and strain recovery following nonlinear shear creep has been evaluated. The zero-shear viscosity followed trends in the backbone molecular weight closely. While the three copolymers were indistinguishable in linear viscoelastic creep and recovery, recovery following nonlinear shear creep decreased progressively with increasing SCB density. This reveals that the extent of rapid chain equilibration that occurs over Rouse time scales at higher strains was progressively lower with increasing SCB density. Strain hardening in uniaxial extensional flow was observed for all three copolymers. At strain rates below the primitive chain equilibration rates, strain hardening increases progressively with increasing SCB density. At higher rates, upon onset of primitive chain stretch, the strain hardening behavior for the three melts merges. Two thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends were characterized in the context of injection molding; the surface morphology of injection molded tensile bars with these materials showed surface defects or flow marks to different extents. The flow marks were traced to different degrees of strain recovery in the dispersed phases of the two blends. This recovery occurred over injection molding timescales of the order of a few seconds. Strain recovery after shear creep was higher in the blend that displayed more severe flow marks in injection
We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas
Kakad, Amar [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India); Omura, Yoshiharu [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kakad, Bharati [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India)
2013-06-15
We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.
Structural Health Monitoring under Nonlinear Environmental or Operational Influences
Jyrki Kullaa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring is based on detecting changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is well known that environmental or operational variations can also have an influence on the vibration properties. If these effects are not taken into account, they can result in false indications of damage. If the environmental or operational variations cause nonlinear effects, they can be compensated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM without the measurement of the underlying variables. The number of Gaussian components can also be estimated. For the local linear components, minimum mean square error (MMSE estimation is applied to eliminate the environmental or operational influences. Damage is detected from the residuals after applying principal component analysis (PCA. Control charts are used for novelty detection. The proposed approach is validated using simulated data and the identified lowest natural frequencies of the Z24 Bridge under temperature variation. Nonlinear models are most effective if the data dimensionality is low. On the other hand, linear models often outperform nonlinear models for high-dimensional data.
Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities
the soil and the response of the soil-structure system. Through these parametric studies we show that depending on the soil properties, frequency content of the soil response could change significantly due to the soil nonlinearity. The peaks of the transfer function between free field and outcropping responses shift to lower frequencies and amplification happens at this frequency range. Amplification reduction for the high frequencies and even de-amplification may happen for high level input motions. These changes influence the structural response. We show that depending on the combination of the fundamental frequency of the structure and the the natural frequency of the soil, the effect of soil-structure interaction could be significant or negligible. However, the effect of structure weight and rocking of the superstructure could change the results. Finally, the basin of Nice is used as an example of wave propagation on a heterogeneous nonlinear media and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The basin response is strongly dependent on the combination of soil nonlinearity, topographic effects and impedance contrast between soil layers. For the selected structures and soil profiles of this work, the performed numerical simulations show that the shift of the fundamental frequency is not a good index to discriminate linear from nonlinear soil behavior. (author)
Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators
Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.
2016-06-01
Motivated by earlier studies of artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes, we analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolution and stability of planar fronts. Our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.
The integrability of one dimensional classical continuum inhomogeneous biquadratic Heisenberg spin chain and the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the soliton of an underlying completely integrable spin model are studied. The dynamics of the spin system is expressed in terms of a higher order generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation through a differential geometric approach which becomes integrable for a particular choice of the biquadratic exchange interaction and for linear inhomogeneity. The effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the spin soliton is studied by carrying out a multiple scale perturbation analysis. (author)
Mohammed Forhad UDDIN
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a supply chain with a coordination mechanism consisting of a single vendor and buyeris considered. Further, instead of a price sensitive linear or deterministic demand function, a price-sensitivenon-linear demand function is introduced. To find the inventory cost, penalty cost and transportation cost, it isassumed that the production and shipping functions of the vendor are continuously harmonized and occur at thesame rate. In this integrated supply chain, the Buyer’s Linear Program (LP, vendor’s Integer Program (IP andcoordinated Mixed Integer Program (MIP models are formulated. In this research, numerical example ispresented which includes the sensitivity of the key parameters to illustrate the models. The solution proceduresdemonstrate that the individual profit as well as joint profit could be increased by a coordination mechanismeven though the demand function is non-linear. In addition, the results illustrate that Buyer’s selling price, alongwith the consumers purchasing price, could be decreased, which may increase the demand of the end market.Finally, a conclusion
Key Factors Influencing Economic Relationships and Communication in Finnish Food Chains
LÃ€hdesmÃ€ki, Merja; Viitaharju, Leena; Suvanto, Hannele; Valkosalo, Pauli; Kurki, Sami; Rantala, Sanna-Helena; Hartmann, Monika; Fischer, Christian; Reynolds, Nikolai; Bavorova, Miroslava
2009-01-01
The aim of this report is to discuss the role of the relationship type and communication in two Finnish food chains, namely the pig meat-to-sausage (pig meat chain) and the cereal-to-rye bread (rye chain) chains. Furthermore, the objective is to examine those factors influencing the choice of a relationship type and the sustainability of a business relationship. Altogether 1808 questionnaires were sent to producers, processors and retailers operating in these two chains of which 224 usable qu...
Influence of isomerization on nonlinear optical properties of molecules.
Kinnibrugh, T; Bhattacharjee, S; Sullivan, P; Isborn, C; Robinson, B H; Eichinger, B E
2006-07-13
The influence of rotational and geometrical isomerism on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, specifically the first-order hyperpolarizability beta, of chromophores of current interest has been investigated with density functional theory (DFT). In the first of this two-part study, the rotational isomerism of a linear chromophore was explored. Calculation of the torsion potentials about two of the rotatable and conformation-changing single bonds in a chromophore demonstrated the near equality of the molecular energies at 0 degrees and 180 degrees rotational angles. To explore the consequences of this near conformational energy degeneracy to NLO behavior, the eight low energy rotational isomers of FTC [Robinson, B. H.; et al. Chem. Phys. 1999, 245, 35] were investigated. This study provides the first-reported DFT-based calculation of the statistical mechanical average of beta over the conformational space of a molecule having substantial nonlinear optical behavior. The influence of the solvent reaction field on rotameric populations and on the beta tensor is reported. In the second part, two molecules having two donors and two acceptors bonded respectively in ortho and meta positions on a central benzene ring are shown to have substantially different beta tensors. These two so-called molecular Xs have different highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) distributions, and consistent with expectations, it is found that the larger beta(zzz) is associated with a large spatial asymmetry between the HOMOs and LUMOs. Large hyperpolarizability correlates with the HOMO concentrated on the donor groups and the LUMO on the acceptor groups. PMID:16821878
Influence of hotel chains on the development of accommodation facilities in Russia
Burenkova, Nataliya
2012-01-01
Nowadays, hotel chains have become an indispensable part of the hotel industry. Hotels which are managed by hotel chains may be found almost everywhere in the world. The main aims of this theses are to evaluate the current situation of accommodation facilities in Russia and to analyse the influence of the hotel chains on the development of accommodation facilities in the Russian market.
Phase Diagram of the 1/2-1/2-1-1 Spin Chain by the Nonlinear Sigma Model
Takano, Ken'ichi
1999-01-01
We examine a periodic mixed spin chain with spin magnitudes 1/2 and 1 which are arrayed as 1/2-1/2-1-1. The three independent parameters are ratios of the four exchange couplings. We determine phase boundaries in the parameter space by using the gapless condition which was previously derived by mapping a general inhomogeneous spin chain to the nonlinear sigma model. We find two gapless boundaries separating three disordered phases. The features of the phases are explained in terms of singlet ...
Welker, Gera A.; van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter
2008-01-01
The literature acknowledges that the type and the level of supply chain integration differ in various situations. This paper investigates the influence of business conditions on internal and external information sharing and the role of ICT in order processing, using a multi-case study among SMEs. Th
This paper investigates the entanglement of a two-qutrit Heisenberg XXX chain with nonlinear couplings under an inhomogeneous magnetic field. By the concept of negativity, we find that the critical temperature increases with the increase of inhomogeneous magnetic field b. Our study indicates that for any |K| > |J|, or |K| < |J| entanglement always exists for certain regions. We also find that at the critical point, the entanglement becomes a nonanalytic function of B and a quantum phase transition occurs. (general)
Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui
2003-01-01
The authors' previously developed method for the general kinetic analysis of nonlinear irreversible polymerizations based on moment generating functions is used for simulating free radical polymerization systems in which terminal branching and chain transfer to polymer are present, leading possibly to gel formation. The numerical solution of the equations needed for postgel predictions of sol fraction and average molecular weights (a major difficulty) is discussed with some detail. Finally, s...
López-González, Dany; Molina, Mario I.
2016-03-01
We examine the transport of extended and localized excitations in one-dimensional linear chains populated by linear and nonlinear symmetric identical n -mers (with n =3 , 4, 5, and 6), randomly distributed. First, we examine the transmission of plane waves across a single linear n -mer, paying attention to its resonances, and looking for parameters that allow resonances to merge. Within this parameter regime we examine the transmission of plane waves through a disordered and nonlinear segment composed by n -mers randomly placed inside a linear chain. It is observed that nonlinearity tends to inhibit the transmission, which decays as a power law at long segment lengths. This behavior still holds when the n -mer parameters do not obey the resonance condition. On the other hand, the mean square displacement exponent of an initially localized excitation does not depend on nonlinearity at long propagation distances z , and shows a superdiffusive behavior ˜z1.8 for all n -mers, when parameters obey the resonance merging condition; otherwise the exponent reverts back to the random dimer model value ˜z1.5 .
Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity
Lee, Kwan Tun; Huang, Jen-Kuo
2016-06-01
The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude and watershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfall-runoff dynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peak discharge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was first demonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation of the watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak discharge and time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intention of deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast, the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensity without relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity. Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainage area was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate that the scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting to a small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively great drainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scaling relationship from linearity to nonlinearity.
Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity
Kwan Tun Lee; Jen-Kuo Huang
2016-06-01
The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude andwatershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfallrunoffdynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peakdischarge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was firstdemonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation ofthe watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak dischargeand time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intentionof deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast,the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensitywithout relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity.Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainagearea was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate thatthe scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting toa small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively greatdrainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scalingrelationship from linearity to nonlinearity.
The Influence of Supply Chain Integration on the Intrapreneurship in Supply Chain Management (SCM
FatemehAshrafganjouei,
2015-12-01
Full Text Available These days, SMEs pay a lot of attention to concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM in order to achieve competitiveness. The logic behind such act is integrating the activities of value creation within any kind of organizational context. Such integrity would collaborate with managers to accomplish the competitive edge that they are aiming to achieve. The goal of current research is to identify scopes of a unique construct which is known as Entrepreneurial Supply Chain Management competency. Therefore, the notions of SCM and entrepreneurship are being aligned together for evaluating the organizational performance. The outcomes demonstrate that SCM in fact is a critical issue that can alter the organizational performance, thus, through consideration of SCM, we should focus on supply chain integration and its impacts on intrapreneurship and innovation of an organization. In order to be successful in such competitive context, SMEs need to provide novel competences which are not imitable and to increase their application in supply chain and also to improve their total performance.
Complex spatiotemporal behavior in a chain of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Gorria, C.;
2011-01-01
The dynamics of asymmetrically coupled nonlinear elements is considered. It is shown that there are two distinctive regimes of oscillatory behavior of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements depending on the relaxation time and the strength of the coupling. In the subcritical regime when the...
We present a model in which the immediate environment of a bistable system is a molecular chain which in turn is connected to a thermal environment of the Langevin form. The molecular chain consists of masses connected by harmonic or by anharmonic springs. The distribution, intensity, and mobility of thermal fluctuations in these chains is strongly dependent on the nature of the springs and leads to different transition dynamics for the activated process. Thus, all else (temperature, damping, coupling parameters between the chain and the bistable system) being the same, the hard chain may provide an environment described as diffusion-limited and more effective in the activation process, while the soft chain may provide an environment described as energy-limited and less effective. The importance of a detailed understanding of the thermal environment toward the understanding of the activation process itself is thus highlighted. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Martens, S; Hennig, D; Fugmann, S; Schimansky-Geier, L
2008-10-01
We study the Langevin dynamics of a two-dimensional discrete oscillator chain absorbed on a periodic substrate and subjected to an external localized point force. Going beyond the commonly used harmonic bead-spring model, we consider a nonlinear Morse interaction between the next-nearest neighbors. We focus interest on the activation of directed motion instigated by thermal fluctuations and the localized point force. In this context the local transition states are identified and the corresponding activation energies are calculated. It is found that the transport of the chain in point force direction is determined by stepwise escapes of a single unit or segments of the chain due to the existence of multiple locally stable attractors. The nonvanishing net current of the chain is quantitatively assessed by the value of the mobility of the center of mass. It turns out that the latter as a function of the ratio of the competing length scales of the system, that is the period of the substrate potential and the equilibrium distance between two chain units, shows a resonance behavior. More precisely there exists a set of optimal parameter values maximizing the mobility. Interestingly, the phenomenon of negative resistance is found, i.e., the mobility possesses a minimum at a finite value of the strength of the thermal fluctuations for a given overcritical external driving force. PMID:18999393
Influence of credit scoring on the dynamics of Markov chain
Galina, Timofeeva
2015-11-01
Markov processes are widely used to model the dynamics of a credit portfolio and forecast the portfolio risk and profitability. In the Markov chain model the loan portfolio is divided into several groups with different quality, which determined by presence of indebtedness and its terms. It is proposed that dynamics of portfolio shares is described by a multistage controlled system. The article outlines mathematical formalization of controls which reflect the actions of the bank's management in order to improve the loan portfolio quality. The most important control is the organization of approval procedure of loan applications. The credit scoring is studied as a control affecting to the dynamic system. Different formalizations of "good" and "bad" consumers are proposed in connection with the Markov chain model.
Influence of lipid chain unsaturation on melittin-induced micellization.
Monette, M; Lafleur, M
1996-01-01
It is well known that melittin, an amphipathic helical peptide, causes the micellization of phosphatidylcholine vesicles. In the present work, we conclude that the extent of micellization is dependent on the level of unsaturation of the lipid acyl chains. We report the results obtained on two systems: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), containing 10(mol)% saturated or unsaturated fatty acid (palmitic, oleic, or linoleic), and DPPC, containing 10(mol)% positively charged diacyloxy-3-(trime...
Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction with Chain Budget Hotels in Bangkok
P. Cherdchamadol; P. Kawachart
2013-01-01
The budget hotels in Thailand are likely to grow by the growth of low cost airline. Since cheaper airline ticket, middle management employees and their families including tourists travel more and more. Other than that, budget hotel business requires low investment but good return. Not surprisingly, the giant public company in Thailand hotel business, CENTEL, has been planned to expand new brand of 2 star hotel chain to serve the number of increasing travelers for AEC in 2015. However, IBIS Ba...
The Influence of Relational Competencies on Supply Chain Resilience
Wieland, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus
2014-01-01
Purpose: This research explores the resilience domain, which is important in the field of supply chain management; it investigates the effects relational competencies have for resilience and the effect resilience, in turn, has on a supply chain’s customer value. Design/methodology/approach: The research is empirical in nature and employs a confirmatory approach that builds on the relational view as a primary theoretical foundation. It utilizes survey data collected from manufactur...
Water environmental planning considering the influence of non-linear characteristics
ZENG Guang-ming; QIN Xiao-sheng; WANG Wei; HUANG Guo-he; LI Jian-bing; B. Statzner
2003-01-01
In practical water environmental planning, the influence of the non-linear characteristics on the benefit of environmental investment was seldom taken into consideration. This paper demonstrates that there exist a lot of non-linear behaviors in water environment by emphatically analyzing the influence of the non-linear characteristics of the economic scale, the meandering river and the model on water environmental planning, which will make a certain impact on the water environmental planning that sometimes cannot be neglected. This paper also preliminarily explores how to integrate the non-linear characteristics into water environmental planning. The results showed that compared with traditional methods, water environmental planning considering non-linear characteristics has its prevalence and it is necessary to develop the relevant planning theories and methods.
We study nonlinear wave phenomena in coupled ring resonator optical waveguides in the tight coupling regime. A discrete model for the system dynamics is put forward and its steady-state nonlinear Bloch modes are derived. The switching behaviour of the transmission system is addressed numerically and the results are explained in the light of this analytical result. We also present a numerical study on the spontaneous generation of Bragg solitons from a continuous-wave input. (paper)
Damping influence on the qualitative properties of nonlinear systems with parametric nonlinearities
Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena
Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2001 - (Poživilová, A.; Masák, J.), s. 320 KB [National conference ith international participation Engineering mechanics 2001. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2001-17.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/0225 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * integrodifferential equations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Mohammed Forhad UDDIN; Kazushi SANO
2012-01-01
In this paper, a supply chain with a coordination mechanism consisting of a single vendor and buyeris considered. Further, instead of a price sensitive linear or deterministic demand function, a price-sensitivenon-linear demand function is introduced. To find the inventory cost, penalty cost and transportation cost, it isassumed that the production and shipping functions of the vendor are continuously harmonized and occur at thesame rate. In this integrated supply chain, the Buyer’s Linear Pr...
Interacting Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for solving nonlinear measure-valued equations
Del Moral, Pierre; 10.1214/09-AAP628
2010-01-01
We present a new class of interacting Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for solving numerically discrete-time measure-valued equations. The associated stochastic processes belong to the class of self-interacting Markov chains. In contrast to traditional Markov chains, their time evolutions depend on the occupation measure of their past values. This general methodology allows us to provide a natural way to sample from a sequence of target probability measures of increasing complexity. We develop an original theoretical analysis to analyze the behavior of these iterative algorithms which relies on measure-valued processes and semigroup techniques. We establish a variety of convergence results including exponential estimates and a uniform convergence theorem with respect to the number of target distributions. We also illustrate these algorithms in the context of Feynman-Kac distribution flows.
Natalia Szozda; Sylwia Werbińska-Wojciechowska
2013-01-01
Background: Identification and analysis of factors that affect the accuracy of demand planning process across the supply chain is one of the most important problems which influence the effectiveness of its material and information flows. Material and methods: On the basis of demand planning process investigation authors define the main elements affecting the right supply chain performance level and investigate the possible connections between demand information quality and demand plannin...
Sun, K.; Mauzerall, D
1996-01-01
The conductivity across a lipid bilayer by tetraphenylborate anion is increased 10-fold on the photoformation of lipophilic porphyrin cations. The cations alone have negligible conductivity. This nonlinear photogenerated increase of ion conductivity is termed the photogating effect. Substitution of H by Cl in the para position of tetraphenylborate leads to a 100-fold enhancement of conductivity, whereas the dark conductivities for this and other substituted borates are the same. Moreover, the...
Van Camp, Koen
2015-01-01
Value still resides at the heart of the marketing place. Companies creating superior value will achieve higher satisfaction among their customers leading to higher loyalty and profits. The different relationships in the customer value-satisfaction-loyalty chain are therefore of utmost importance. Most companies, assume that the relationships between customer value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are simple symmetric, linear ones. The question remains, if this assumption is always ...
On Functional CLT for Reversible Markov Chains with nonlinear growth of the Variance
Longla, Martial; Peligrad, Magda
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the functional central limit theorem for stationary Markov chains with self-adjoint operator and general state space. We investigate the case when the variance of the partial sum is not asymptotically linear in n; and establish that conditional convergence in distribution of partial sums implies functional CLT. The main tools are maximal inequalities that are further exploited to derive conditions for tightness and convergence to the Brownian motion.
Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi
2014-11-01
Quantity discount policy is decision-making for trade-off prices between suppliers and manufacturers while production is changeable due to demand fluctuations in a real market. In this paper, quantity discount models which consider selection of contract suppliers, production quantity and inventory simultaneously are addressed. The supply chain planning problem with quantity discounts under demand uncertainty is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP) with integral terms. We apply an outer-approximation method to solve MINLP problems. In order to improve the efficiency of the proposed method, the problem is reformulated as a stochastic model replacing the integral terms by using a normalisation technique. We present numerical examples to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)
2013-07-15
We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.
When the Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics is replaced by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation to describe microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum systems, it has been verified that the nature of the particles differs considerably from those in quantum mechanics, where they are localized and have also wave-corpuscle duality due to the nonlinear interactions. In this case the influences of externally applied potentials in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation on the natures of the microscopic particles have been studied by a perturbation theory. The studied results show that the external potential can change the states of the microscopic particles, such as the positions, amplitude and wave forms, but cannot change the wave-corpuscle duality. In the meanwhile, we find further that the relationship between the external potential and change of positions of the particle satisfies the rule of motion of classical particles. Thus we know from this study that the kinetic energy term, (h2/2m)∇2φ, in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation can only make the microscopic particles have a wave feature, but the nonlinear interaction b|φ|2φ determines its corpuscle feature, their combination makes the microscopic particles have a wave-corpuscle duality, and the potential V(r→,t)φ changes only the positions, amplitude and wave form of the particles. Therefore the nonlinear interaction plays an important role in determination of the wave-corpuscle duality of microscopic particles in quantum theory.
Tourism policy and destination marketing in developing countries: the chain of influence
Kokkranikal, Jithendran; Cronje, Paul; Butler, Richard
2011-01-01
Tourism marketers including destination marketing organisations (DMOs) and international tour operators play a pivotal role in destination marketing, especially in creating destination images. These images, apparent in tourist brochures, are designed to influence tourist decision-making and behaviour. This paper proposes the concept of a “chain of influence” in destination marketing and image-making, suggesting that the content of marketing materials is influenced by the priorities of those w...
Numerical experiments on the modulation theory for the nonlinear atomic chain
Dreyer, W.; Herrmann, M.
2008-02-01
Modulation theory with periodic travelling waves is a powerful, but not rigorous tool to derive a thermodynamic description for atomic chains with nearest neighbour interactions (FPU chains). This theory is sufficiently complex to deal with strong oscillations on the microscopic scale, and therefore it is capable to describe the creation of temperature and the transport of heat on a macroscopic scale. In this paper we investigate the validity of modulation theory by means of several numerical experiments. We start with a survey on the foundations of modulation theory. In particular, we discuss the hyperbolic scaling, the notion of cold data, microscopic oscillations and Young measures, periodic and modulated travelling waves, and, finally, the resulting macroscopic conservation laws. Afterwards we discuss how the validity of a macroscopic theory may be tested within numerical simulations of the microscopic dynamics. To this end we describe an approach to thermodynamic data exploration which is motivated by the theory of Young measures, and relies on mesoscopic windows in space and time. The last part is devoted to several numerical experiments including examples with periodic boundary conditions and smooth initial data, and macroscopic Riemann problems. We interpret the outcome of these experiments in the framework of thermodynamics, and end up with two conclusions. (1) There are many examples for which modulation theory provides in fact the right thermodynamic description because it can predict both the structure of the microscopic oscillations and their macroscopic evolution correctly. (2) Modulation theory will fail if the oscillations exhibit a more complicate structure.
A non-linear approach to the structure-mobility relationship in protein main chains
A correlation investigation was carried out on the series of atomic coordinates (MPV) and temperature factor (T f), respectively for human hemoglobin and HIV-1 protease protein main chains. The MPV series revealed resemblances to the corresponding T f series. Each minor or major peak in a series had a corresponding peak in the related series. This brings a qualitative evidence for the connection of the two parameters. The series were further subjected to spectral and detrended fluctuation analysis which all revealed long-range correlation properties. This combined analysis revealed that the data were controlled both by the correlation of stationary fluctuation and trends or non-stationary contribution to correlation. The correlation of all MPV series was found to be much less sensitive to ligand binding than the corresponding T f series. Thus the long-range correlation properties of the protein main chain structure and mobility revealed two complementary properties of protein molecules. While structure imparts constancy to the system, the atomic mobility represents function yet they are intimately connected
New syndioregic main-chain, nonlinear optical polymers, and their ellipsometric characterization
Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Nee, Soe-Mie F.; Hoover, James M.; Stenger-Smith, John D.; Henry, Ronald A.; Kubin, R. F.; Seltzer, Michael D.
1991-12-01
New nonlinear optical polymers (NLOP) having potential utility in waveguides for the modulation and switching of optical signals are reported. A new class of chromophoric polymers which assume a folded, polar conformation of the backbone have been prepared. The polymers have a syndioregic arrangement of chromophores within the backbone (i.e., a head-to-head, tail-to-tail configuration). Polymers were synthesized by the polymerization of difunctional, precoupled pairs of chromophores and difunctional, bridging groups. Glassy, noncentrosymmetric films were prepared by electric field poling and by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition. Characterization of multilayer LB films by null ellipsometry to determine the anisotropic refractive parameters was performed at different angles of incidence and at a wavelength of 1.0 (mu).
The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for semiflexible linear telechelic melts, developed in Paper I, is applied to examine the influence of chain stiffness on the average degree of self-assembly and the basic thermodynamic properties of linear telechelic polymer melts. Our calculations imply that chain stiffness promotes self-assembly of linear telechelic polymer melts that assemble on cooling when either polymer volume fraction ϕ or temperature T is high, but opposes self-assembly when both ϕ and T are sufficiently low. This allows us to identify a boundary line in the ϕ-T plane that separates two regions of qualitatively different influence of chain stiffness on self-assembly. The enthalpy and entropy of self-assembly are usually treated as adjustable parameters in classical Flory-Huggins type theories for the equilibrium self-assembly of polymers, but they are demonstrated here to strongly depend on chain stiffness. Moreover, illustrative calculations for the dependence of the entropy density of linear telechelic polymer melts on chain stiffness demonstrate the importance of including semiflexibility within the LCT when exploring the nature of glass formation in models of linear telechelic polymer melts
Analysis of the Evolution and Influence on the Industrial Value Chain in Telecommunications
WANG Xiao-ming; LI Shi-ming; TAN Yang
2006-01-01
This paper discusses the evolution of telecommunication industrial value chain(TIVC), analyzes the influence of technical innovation and customer demand on TIVC, and establishes the model. The appearance of the circuit switching technology and packet switching technology together with the diversity of the demand of customers change the structure of TIVC,causing vibration in value creation and distribution systems. With changes of the TIVC,enterprises in the chain will accordingly alter their business models, products (services) and the internal organizational structures. All these changes will lead to the reconstruction and optimization of the TIVC, and consequently, promote the development of the telecommunication industry.
Influences of CCD nonlinear response on measurement of propagation factor M2 of a laser beam
In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nonlinear optoelectronic response on the measurement of the beam propagation factor M2 at different laser wavelengths. According to our theoretical investigation, the size of a laser beam with a standard Gaussian distribution will be estimated as larger than the real value when the response of a commercial non-calibrated CCD camera has a nonlinear relation to the recorded signal intensity. It has been demonstrated that the measurement accuracy in M2 becomes considerably worse by using such a CCD camera. The conclusion is thought to be useful for evaluation of the laser features in both research activities and industrial applications
Influence of various solvents on the nonlinear optical properties of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs)
Derkowska-Zielinska, Beata
2015-10-01
The aim of this work was to learn how the influence of various solvents correlates with nonlinear optical properties of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs). The method, which was used to measure nonlinear optical properties, was degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM). We used ethanol, chloroform and dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent of metallophthalocyanines. The absorption spectra of MPcs solutions present a narrow Q-band in the visible region and a relatively wide B-band in the near ultraviolet. In all cases we observed the solvatochromism effect. Nonlinear optical properties of MPcs solutions change with using different polarity of solvent in the following way: n2 (ZnPc) < n2 (CoPc) < n2 (CuPc).
Natalia Szozda
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Identification and analysis of factors that affect the accuracy of demand planning process across the supply chain is one of the most important problems which influence the effectiveness of its material and information flows. Material and methods: On the basis of demand planning process investigation authors define the main elements affecting the right supply chain performance level and investigate the possible connections between demand information quality and demand planning process accuracy. Later, an overview of some recent developments in the analyzed research area is provided. Results: Based on the literature review, there is described the defined factors impact on the accuracy of demand plan in each echelon for case companies. There are considered three cases. The examples illustrate supply chains of different manufacturing companies. The focus is placed on demand planning across the supply chains. The issue of determining the accuracy of future sales plans in each echelon of supply chains and factors affecting it are raised. Taking into account the case companies demand planning process analyses, there are defined possible quality measures, that are possible to be used when forecasting the customer demand. Conclusions: One of the most important and difficult planning area in the companies is becoming planning demand. Errors in planning are reflected not just in the business resource planning but also in the entire supply chain. Presented cases show that many factors affect the proper demand planning process in the supply chain, like e.g. information technologies, lead-time, or number of supplied materials. As it can be seen from the case studies, the model of collecting information from the market plays an important role in the demand planning process.
Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jfreire@invi.uned.es
2008-07-16
The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches.
Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of /sup 131/I fatty acids
Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Comet, M.; Vidal, M.; Pernin, C.; Marti-Batlle, D.; Busquet, G. (Universite de Grenoble, 38 (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))
1983-01-01
Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with /sup 131/I in ..omega.. position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism.
Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of 131I fatty acids
Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with 131I in ω position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism
Martens, S.; Hennig, D.; Fugmann, S.; Schimansky-Geier, L.
2008-01-01
We study the Langevin dynamics of a two-dimensional discrete oscillator chain absorbed on a periodic substrate and subjected to an external localized point force. Going beyond the commonly used harmonic bead-spring model, we consider a nonlinear Morse interaction between the next-nearest-neighbors. We focus interest on the activation of directed motion instigated by thermal fluctuations and the localized point force. In this context the local transition states are identified and the correspon...
Younghans-Haug, C.O.; Wolfe, M.F.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M.L. [Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response, Sacramento, CA (United States)
1994-12-31
Petroleum is transported and processed within biologically rich brackish environments worldwide. Past research has investigated disposition of chemically dispersed oil in mammals, fish, and higher invertebrates, yet little is known about how chemical dispersion influences petroleum behavior within primary producers within brackish water food chains. One concern is whether chemical dispersion influences petroleum bioavailability to primary producers and the potential for increased petroleum bioaccumulation. This research examines changes in petroleum bioavailability to the euryhaline phytoplankton Isochrysis galbana by measuring bioconcentration factors (BCFS) including uptake and deputation rates for dispersed and undispersed brackish water oil spills. Isochrysis is a major food source for zooplankton which are consumed by a multitude of larval fish having both ecological and commercial importance. Prudhoe Bay Crude oil, Corexit 9527, and {sup 14}C-naphthalene were used for these studies. Constant-concentration flow-through exposures were employed for the uptake and BCF experiments. Work was performed below the ``no observable effect concentration`` to eliminate stress-induced metabolic altercations that could in themselves influence petroleum behavior. Exposure chamber and experimental design will be discussed, and study results presented. Understanding how chemical dispersion alters petroleum behavior within the lowest levels of the food chain leads to better delineation of consumer risks.
Čevizović, D.; Petković, S.; Galović, S.; Chizhov, A.; Reshetnyak, A.
2015-10-01
We enlarge our results from the study of the hopping mechanism of the oscillation excitation transport in 1D model of one biologica-likel macromolecular chain to the case of a system composed from two 1D parallel macromolecular chains with consideration of the properties of intramolecular oscillation excitations. We suppose, that due to the exciton interaction with thermal oscillation (generated by mechanical phonon subsystem) of structural elements (consisting of the peptide group) of the chains, the exciton becomes by self trapped and forms the polaron state. We suggest a model which generalizes the modified Holstein polaron model to the case of two macromolecular chains and find that because of the interchain coupling, the exciton energy band is splitted into two subbands. The hopping process of exciton migration along the macromolecular chains is studied in dependence of system parameters and temperature. We pay an special attention to the temperature range (near T = 300 K) in which living cells operate. It is found that for the certain values of the system parameters there exists the abrupt change of the exciton migration nature from practically free (light) exciton motion to an immobile (heavy, dressed by phonon cloud) quasiparticle We discuss an application of the obtained results to the exciton transport both within deoxyribonucleic acid molecule and in the 2D polymer films organized from such macromolecular chains.
Influence of nanoparticle size on the nonlinear optical properties of magnetite ferrofluids
Espinosa, D.; Carlsson, L. B.; Neto, A. M. Figueiredo; Alves, S.
2013-09-01
The nonlinear index of refraction (n2) and the two-photon absorption coefficient (β) of water-based ferrofluids made of magnetite nanocrystals of different sizes and with different coatings have been measured through the Z-scan technique, with ultrashort (femtoseconds) laser pulses. Their third-order susceptibility is calculated from the values of n2 and β. The influence of different particles' coatings and sizes on these nonlinear optical properties are investigated. The values of n2 and β depend more significantly on the nanoparticles' size than on the particular coating. We observe a decrease of β as the nanoparticles' diameters decrease, although the optical gap is found to be the same for all samples. The results are interpreted considering modifications in the electronic orbital shape due to the particles' nanosize effect.
Influence of nanoparticle size on the nonlinear optical properties of magnetite ferrofluids.
Espinosa, D; Carlsson, L B; Neto, A M Figueiredo; Alves, S
2013-09-01
The nonlinear index of refraction (n_{2}) and the two-photon absorption coefficient (β) of water-based ferrofluids made of magnetite nanocrystals of different sizes and with different coatings have been measured through the Z-scan technique, with ultrashort (femtoseconds) laser pulses. Their third-order susceptibility is calculated from the values of n_{2} and β. The influence of different particles' coatings and sizes on these nonlinear optical properties are investigated. The values of n_{2} and β depend more significantly on the nanoparticles' size than on the particular coating. We observe a decrease of β as the nanoparticles' diameters decrease, although the optical gap is found to be the same for all samples. The results are interpreted considering modifications in the electronic orbital shape due to the particles' nanosize effect. PMID:24125263
Competitive advantage in the ERP system's value-chain and its influence on future development
Johansson, Björn; Newman, Mike
2010-02-01
Using the resource-based view, we present a set of propositions related to enterprise resource planning (ERP) development, reflections on competitive advantage and the different roles that stakeholders play in the value-chain. This has the goal of building a foundation for future research on ERPs and how stakeholders' desire to achieve competitive advantage influence ERP development, especially when it comes to development of a more standardised or pre-customised ERP system. The propositions also act as a foundation for increasing our knowledge concerning the difficulty in developing improved ERP systems.
Influence of magnetic current on the ground state entanglement in an isotropic transverse XY chain
无
2007-01-01
We study the ground state entanglement in a three-qubit XY chain under the influence of a magnetization current. It is found that the ground state changes from a W state to a disentangled state as the magnetic field varies. When the Lagrange multiplier λ＞√3, namely under a strong magnetic current, the ground state holds onto a W state for a large range of the magnetic field strength. A phase transition to the magnetization-current phase occurs under a certain condition.
Paul Mbaabu Karanga; Henry M. Bwisa
2014-01-01
Low yields on the small scale tea farmers in Kenya led to this study. The purpose of this study was to establish the supply chain factors influencing small scale tea production in Abothuguchi West Division in Kenya. A survey of 70 small scale tea farmers of AWD was carried out with a target population of 5000 farmers registered to supply tea to the Kenya Tea Development Agency managed by Githongo Tea Factory. A questionnaire and interview guide was used to collect the data. A response rate of...
A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here
Quadratic nonlinear-optical characteristics of thin films based on methacrylic copolymers with of chromophore-containing monomers incorporated at various concentrations are measured by Second Harmonic Generation technique. Optimal chromophores content is obtained to be about 17 mol%, rather high values of nonlinear-optical coefficient, d33, up to 60 pm/V, are determined
Entanglement of conjugated polymer chains influences molecular self-assembly and carrier transport
Zhao, Kui
2013-06-26
The influence of polymer entanglement on the self-assembly, molecular packing structure, and microstructure of low-Mw (lightly entangled) and high-Mw (highly entangled) poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the carrier transport in thin-film transistors, are investigated. The polymer chains are gradually disentangled in a marginal solvent via ultrasonication of the polymer solution, and demonstrate improved diffusivity of precursor species (coils, aggregates, and microcrystallites), enhanced nucleation and crystallization of P3HT in solution, and self-assembly of well-ordered and highly textured fibrils at the solid-liquid interface. In low-Mw P3HT, reducing chain entanglement enhances interchain and intrachain ordering, but reduces the interconnectivity of ordered domains (tie molecules) due to the presence of short chains, thus deteriorating carrier transport even in the face of improving crystallinity. Reducing chain entanglement in high-Mw P3HT solutions increases carrier mobility up to ≈20-fold, by enhancing interchain and intrachain ordering while maintaining a sufficiently large number of tie molecules between ordered domains. These results indicate that charge carrier mobility is strongly governed by the balancing of intrachain and interchain ordering, on the one hand, and interconnectivity of ordered domains, on the other hand. In high-Mw P3HT, intrachain and interchain ordering appear to be the key bottlenecks to charge transport, whereas in low-Mw P3HT, the limited interconnectivity of the ordered domains acts as the primary bottleneck to charge transport. Conjugated polymer chains of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are gradually disentangled in solution and trends in carrier transport mechanisms in organic thin film transistors for low- and high-molecular weight P3HT are investigated. While intrachain and interchain ordering within ordered domains are the key bottlenecks to charge transport in high-Mw P3HT films, the limited interconnectivity of ordered
The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures
Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL
2005-07-12
Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.
On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors
Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear
2013-07-01
Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)
On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors
Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)
The influence of chain defects on the crystallisation behaviour of isotactic polypropylene
D. W. van der Meer
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of the α-, β-and γ-phases of isotactic polypropylene were studied for welldefined and fully characterized polymers with varying amounts of stereo- and regio-defects. The specimens enabled us to study separately the influence of the type of chain defect and the concentration of defects on the parameters of interest. A combined defect fraction (CDF was introduced to describe arbitrary iPP samples with a varying amount of stereo- and regio-defects and a combination thereof. Crystal growth rates were found to decrease linearly with the defect fraction and were substantially stronger influenced by regio-defects as compared with stereo-defects. The deceleration of the growth rate of the β-phase is higher compared to the α-phase with increasing defect fraction. We also found a critical defect fraction, (Xcrit for which the growth rates of the α- and β-phases are equal. Analysis of the crystallization was performed using the model of Sanchez and Eby. Results of the analysis are in good agreement with the results found for the samples with a variation in the number of stereo-defects. The excess free energy for incorporating a stereo-defect into the trigonal crystal lattice of the β-phase is lower as compared with the α-phase. The theory correctly predicts the critical defect fraction, for which the growth rate of the α- and β-phase is equal.
Mahalingam, A.; Mani Rajan, M. S.
2015-10-01
Soliton control and management using generalized external potentials in an inhomogeneous fiber to the design of high speed optical devices and ultrahigh capacity transmission systems are investigated based on solving the variable-coefficient generalized nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of symbolic computation. We construct Lax pair for GNLS equation by means of AKNS method and two soliton solutions are obtained by virtue of the Darboux transformation. With symbolic computation, we manipulate the control parameters and external potentials to investigate the propagation behaviors of nonautonomous solitons. Moreover, the main evolution features of obtained two soliton solutions are exposed by some interesting figures through computer simulation. Especially, we analyze the influence of external potentials such as periodic, exponential and parabolic potential on soliton propagation. Finally, soliton propagation under the absence (vanishing) of external potential is also discussed. Obtained results confirmed that external potentials has strong influence on the soliton dynamics. Our results might provide a new method to achieve the soliton pulse compression while they passing through the potential barrier or well under the influence of external potentials.
Broux, B; Shamim, Z; Wang, T; Spellman, S; Haagenson, M; Stinissen, P; Ryder, L P; Müller, K; Hellings, N
2014-01-01
We investigated the influence of IL-7 receptor α-chain (IL-7Rα) gene haplotypes in donors on the outcome of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Unlike the association between single donor SNPs and HCT outcome found previously, only trends towards association were found here, due to 'dilution...
Influence of forced respiration on nonlinear dynamics in heart rate variability
Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E;
1997-01-01
Although it is doubtful whether the normal sinus rhythm can be described as low-dimensional chaos, there is evidence for inherent nonlinear dynamics and determinism in time series of consecutive R-R intervals. However, the physiological origin for these nonlinearities is unknown. The aim of this...... a metronome set to 12 min(-1). Nonlinear dynamics were measured as the correlation dimension and the nonlinear prediction error. Complexity expressed as correlation dimension was unchanged from normal respiration, 9.1 +/- 0.5, compared with forced respiration, 9.3 +/- 0.6. Also, nonlinear...... determinism expressed as the nonlinear prediction error did not differ between spontaneous respiration, 32.3 +/- 3.4 ms, and forced respiration, 31.9 +/- 5.7. It is concluded that the origin of the nonlinear dynamics in heart rate variability is not a nonlinear input from the respiration into the...
Huang, J. P.
2004-01-01
The usual approach to the development of new nonlinear dielectric materials focuses on the search for materials in which the components possess an inherently large nonlinear dielectric response. In contrast, based on thermodynamics, we have presented a first-principles approach to obtain the electrostriction-induced effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility for the electrorheological (ER) fluids in which the components have inherent linear, rather than nonlinear, responses. In detail, th...
An Empirical Study on the Influencing Factors of Design Chain Integration
D.Y. Sha; G.R. Liang; Kun-Chih Huang
2013-01-01
The main objective of this study is to identify the key factors that will affect the successful execution of design chain as integrating into a traditional supply chain. Facing the current highly volatile global market, the industries have well accepted the concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM) which integrating upstream and downstream to improve the competitiveness of products. However, product innovation capability would become critical when most of th...
He Xiaolan
2013-01-01
In this study, first, the relational model between logistics information capability, distribution capability, flexibility capability and the service quality, the response and the financial performance of supply chain is build. Then the model was examined by structure equation modeling. The result shows that logistics information capability does not have direct impact on the performance of supply chain, but have impact on the service quality of supply chain and financial performance through th...
Valečková, Markéta; Kárný, Miroslav; Sutanto, E. L.
2001-01-01
Roč. 37, č. 6 (2001), s. 1071-1078. ISSN 0005-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1564 Grant ostatní: IST(XE) 1999/12058 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : Markov chain * clustering * Bayesian mixture estimation Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2001
He-Ling Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetoelectric composite material is effective in transferring magnetic field into electric signal. In this paper, a nonlinear finite element method is present to model the magnetoelectric composite of ferroelectric and magnetostrictive material. In the method, the nonlinear and coupling behavior of magnetostrictive material such as Terfenol-D is considered. The nonuniform magnetic, electric, and mechanical field distributions are present. An interfacial transferring coefficient is defined to investigate the performance of interfacial mechanical coupling quantitatively, and the influence of the properties of interfacial bonding material and interfacial cracks on magnetoelectric coefficient is discussed. A new laminate ME composite of curved interface is proposed to overcome weak interfacial bonding.
Teaching Teachers about Supply Chain Management to Influence Students' Career and Education Choices
Gardner, Leslie L.
2013-01-01
Since teachers are influential in high school students' career choices, enabling high school teachers to introduce educational and career opportunities in supply chain management is a viable strategy for reaching high school students about these opportunities. This article presents a pilot program of supply chain workshops to educate high school…
Does ICT influence supply chain management and performance? A review of survey-based research
Zhang, Xuan; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; van der Vaart, Taco
2011-01-01
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review and classify survey-based research connecting information and communication technology (ICT), supply chain management (SCM), and supply chain (SC) performance. The review evaluates present empirical results and aims at detecting explanations for simil
Shear mechanical anisotropy of side chain liquid-crystal elastomers: Influence of sample preparation
Rogez, D.; Francius, G.; Finkelmann, H.; Martinoty, P.
2006-08-01
We study the mechanical anisotropy of a series of uniaxial side chain nematic elastomers prepared with the same chemical composition but with different preparation protocols. For all the compounds, the experiments performed as a function of temperature show no discontinuity in both G'// and G'⊥ (the labels // and ⊥ stand for the director parallel, respectively perpendicular to the shear displacement) around the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature determined by DSC. They also all show a small decrease in G'// starting at temperatures well above this temperature (from ˜ 4°C to ˜ 20°C depending on the compound studied) and leading to a small hydrodynamic value of the G'⊥/G'// ratio. The measurements taken as a function of frequency show that the second plateau in G'// and the associated dip in G//” expected from dynamic semi-soft elasticity are not observed. These results can be described by the de Gennes model, which predicts small elastic anisotropy in the hydrodynamic and linear regimes. They correspond to the behavior expected for compounds beyond the mechanical critical point, which is consistent with the NMR and specific heat measurements taken on similar compounds. We also show that a reduction in the cross-linking density does not change the non-soft character of the mechanical response. From the measurements taken as a function of frequency at several temperatures we deduce that the time-temperature superposition method does not apply. From these measurements, we also determine the temperature dependence of the longest relaxation time τE of the network for the situations where the director is either parallel or perpendicular to the shear velocity. Finally, we discuss the influence on the measurements of the mechanical constraint associated with the fact that the samples cannot change their shape around the pseudo phase transition, because of their strong adherence on the sample-bearing glass slides.
Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method
In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.
Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method
Park, Gang Kyu; Park, Sun Jong; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae [Dept. of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.
Behrouz Jahandideh
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, chain stores are experiencing a severe competitive environment. In such an environment, a growing number of customers are equipped by high volumes of information and are more risk-taking. As they tend to switch their store based on the higher value that they might receive elsewhere, as customers switching behavior has become so commonplace and has become a challenge for retailers. Thus, factors that influence the willingness of customers to repurchase will play a critical role in the performance and success of chain stores. This paper aimed to identify and prioritize the determinative factors that cause customers repeat patronage in Etka chain stores. Factors were extracted based on a thorough literature review and then these factors were modified using pre-test and interview methods. In this study, questionnaires were used for data collection. Respectively, to identify and prioritize determinative factors, correlation analysis and artificial neural networks were used. Results showed that in order of importance, quality, price loyalty program, number of service counters, store staff, shelf labels, product selection, parking facilities, home delivery, store brand, and store atmosphere are factors that determine customers’ repeat patronage of Etka chain stores. Meanwhile, young, educated and wealthy customers showed lower store repeat patronage. Finally, the paper concludes with suggestions for increasing consumer repeat-patronage of Etka chain-stores and directions for future research.
Influence of Lean and Green on supply chain performance: an interpretive structural modelling model
Castro, Pedro Tomaz Leitão Cirne de
2014-01-01
This work aims to identify and rank a set of Lean and Green practices and supply chain performance measures on which managers should focus to achieve competitiveness and improve the performance of automotive supply chains. The identification of the contextual relationships among the suggested practices and measures, was performed through literature review. Their ranking was done by interviews with professionals from the automotive industry and academics with wide knowledge on the sub...
Murphy, Ryan P.; Kelley, Elizabeth G.; Rogers, Simon A.; Sullivan, Millicent O.; Epps, Thomas H.
2014-01-01
Chain exchange between block polymer micelles in highly selective solvents, such as water, is well-known to be arrested under quiescent conditions, yet this work demonstrates that simple agitation methods can induce rapid chain exchange in these solvents. Aqueous solutions containing either pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) or pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide-d 4) micelles were combined and then subjected to agitation by vortex mixing, concentric cylinder Couette flow, or nitrogen gas...
Li, Yanwu; Silamkoti, Arundutt; Kolavi, Gundurao; Mou, Liyuan; Gulati, Shelly; Air, Gillian M; Brouillette, Wayne J.
2012-01-01
Neuraminidase (NA) plays a critical role in the life cycle of influenza virus and is a target for new therapeutic agents. A series of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors with the pyrrolidinobenzoic acid scaffold containing lipophilic side chains at the C3 position have been synthesized and evaluated for influenza neuraminidase inhibitory activity. The size and geometry of the C3 side chains have been modified in order to investigate structure-activity relationships. The results indicated that ...
Djurado, David [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique and Hybride, DRFMC/SPrAM/CEA Grenoble, UMR CEA-CNRS-UJF 5819, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Curtet, Jean Pierre; Bee, Marc [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (UMR CNRS-UJF-5588) Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble I, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 87 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Michot, Christophe [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Armand, Michel [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, UMR 6007 CNRS, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)
2007-12-31
The structure of a family of copolyimides in which are alternating stiff/redox pyromellitimide units and flexible/solvating polyethyleneoxide (PEO) strands were studied by using wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering techniques and is fully discussed. It is shown that the rich variety of structures exhibited by these compounds can be understood by considering the dramatic change of flexibility of the chain induced by the variation of the length of the PEO strand compared to that of the pyromellimide segment. In this respect, concerning the compounds which exhibit fully amorphous structures a better understanding of their structural behavior can be obtained in the framework of Flory's theory of semi-rigid polymers. In this approach, the degree of flexibility of the chain is mainly resulting from the relative amount of flexible units constituting the repetition unit of the polymer chain. The final structural mode adopted by each compound in the solid state is then directly a consequence of this intrinsic property of the chain. The introduction of a lithium salt in contact with the copolymer chains induces some structure changes which can also be explained by the modification of the degree of flexibility of the chain. It is found that the best performances in terms of electroactivity and mixed conduction are precisely obtained with the only compound which keeps full amorphicity in absence and in presence of the lithium salt. (author)
De Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, Gianfranco; Cantatore, Angela; Barbato, Giulio; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Levi, Raffaello
2010-01-01
The work deals with an experimental investigation on the influence of three Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument settings, accelerating voltage, spot size and magnification, on the image formation process. Pixel size and nonlinearity were chosen as output parameters related to image quality and resolution. A silicon grating calibrated artifact was employed to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively, through a designed experiment approach, the parameters relevance. SEM magnificat...
Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, Gianfranco; Cantatore, Angela;
2010-01-01
The work deals with an experimental investigation on the influence of three Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument settings, accelerating voltage, spot size and magnification, on the image formation process. Pixel size and nonlinearity were chosen as output parameters related to image...... quality and resolution. A silicon grating calibrated artifact was employed to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively, through a designed experiment approach, the parameters relevance. SEM magnification was found to account by far for the largest contribution on both parameters under consideration...
Influence of a nonlinear reference temperature profile on oscillatory Bénard-Marangoni convection.
Dondlinger, M; Colinet, P; Dauby, P C
2003-12-01
We analyze oscillatory instabilities in a fluid layer of infinite horizontal extent, heated from above or cooled from below, taking into account the nonlinearity of the reference temperature profile during the transient state of heat conduction. The linear stability analysis shows that a nonlinear reference temperature profile can have a strong effect on the system, either stabilizing or destabilizing, depending on the relative importance of buoyancy and surface tension forces. For the nonlinear analysis we use a Galerkin-Eckhaus method leading to a finite set of amplitude equations. In the two-dimensional (2D) case, we show the solution of these amplitude equations are standing waves. PMID:14754318
Gai, Yue; Song, Dong-Po; Watkins, James
Brush block copolymers synthesized via living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) offer unique advantages as templates for functional hybrid materials. Unlike linear block copolymer, the bottlebrush polymer phase transition not only depends on volume fractions of the two blocks but also on side chain length. Here we report the morphology transitions of PS-b-PEO bottlebrush copolymer (BBCP) as a function of PEO side chain length and block volume fraction. For the BBCPs with similar side chain lengths, highly ordered lamellar morphologies were observed with PEO volume fractions in a wide range from 32 vol% to 72 vol%, which is significantly different from that of traditional linear block copolymers. This study will lay the groundwork for nanostructure fabrications using the BBCPs and provides new insights into the phase behavior of the new type of materials. This work was supported by NSF center for Hierarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Li, Yanwu; Silamkoti, Arundutt; Kolavi, Gundurao; Mou, Liyuan; Gulati, Shelly; Air, Gillian M; Brouillette, Wayne J
2012-07-15
Neuraminidase (NA) plays a critical role in the life cycle of influenza virus and is a target for new therapeutic agents. A series of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors with the pyrrolidinobenzoic acid scaffold containing lipophilic side chains at the C3 position have been synthesized and evaluated for influenza neuraminidase inhibitory activity. The size and geometry of the C3 side chains have been modified in order to investigate structure-activity relationships. The results indicated that size and geometry of the C3-side chain are important for selectivity of inhibition against N1 versus N2 NA, important type A influenza variants that infect man, including the highly lethal avian influenza. PMID:22677529
Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin
2016-01-01
In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.
Influence of alkane chain length on adsorption on an α-alumina surface by MD simulations
Plasma surface techniques provide both an efficient and ecological tool for the functionalization of surfaces. Hence, a proper understanding of the plasma–surface interactions of precursors and radicals during the deposition process is of great importance. Especially during the initial deposition process, the deposition of molecules and fragments is difficult to investigate by experimental techniques and import insights can be obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, the reactive force field developed by the group of Kieffer at the University of Michigan was used to study the adsorption of single linear alkane chains on an α-alumina surface. The chain length was changed from 6 backbone carbon atoms to 16 carbon atoms, the deposition energy from 0.01 to 10 eV and the incidence angle from 0° to 60° with respect to the surface normal. Results show that the adsorption depends a lot on the ratio of deposition energy to alkane chain length and the incidence angle. More grazing incidence reduces the adsorption probability and a low ratio of energy to chain length increases it
Data Science in Supply Chain Management: Data-Related Influences on Demand Planning
Jin, Yao
2013-01-01
Data-driven decisions have become an important aspect of supply chain management. Demand planners are tasked with analyzing volumes of data that are being collected at a torrential pace from myriad sources in order to translate them into actionable business intelligence. In particular, demand volatilities and planning are vital for effective and…
Influence of alkane chain length on adsorption on an α-alumina surface by MD simulations
Turgut, C. [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Institut Jean Lamour (IJL) CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Pandiyan, S. [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Mether, L. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 (Finland); Belmahi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL) CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 (Finland); Philipp, P., E-mail: philipp@lippmann.lu [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)
2015-06-01
Plasma surface techniques provide both an efficient and ecological tool for the functionalization of surfaces. Hence, a proper understanding of the plasma–surface interactions of precursors and radicals during the deposition process is of great importance. Especially during the initial deposition process, the deposition of molecules and fragments is difficult to investigate by experimental techniques and import insights can be obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, the reactive force field developed by the group of Kieffer at the University of Michigan was used to study the adsorption of single linear alkane chains on an α-alumina surface. The chain length was changed from 6 backbone carbon atoms to 16 carbon atoms, the deposition energy from 0.01 to 10 eV and the incidence angle from 0° to 60° with respect to the surface normal. Results show that the adsorption depends a lot on the ratio of deposition energy to alkane chain length and the incidence angle. More grazing incidence reduces the adsorption probability and a low ratio of energy to chain length increases it.
Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann;
2015-01-01
Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical...
Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain
Wolfe, M. F.; Schwartz, G. J. B.; Singaram, S.; Tjeerdema, R. S. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mielbrecht, E. E. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences; Sowby, M. L. [California State Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)
1997-10-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the impact of dispersing agents on petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation and metabolic transformation of a model PH, ({sup 1}4C)naphthalene, were measured and compared with Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527, and undispersed preparations of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary algae producer and a primary rotifer consumer. Results showed that uptake of naphthalene increased significantly in the presence of a dispersant in algae. A significant increase in uptake was also recorded in rotifers via trophic transfer. Trophic transfer played a significant, sometimes even dominant, role in uptake and bioaccumulation. 27 refs., 6 figs.
Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain
Experiments were conducted to determine the impact of dispersing agents on petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation and metabolic transformation of a model PH, (14C)naphthalene, were measured and compared with Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527, and undispersed preparations of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary algae producer and a primary rotifer consumer. Results showed that uptake of naphthalene increased significantly in the presence of a dispersant in algae. A significant increase in uptake was also recorded in rotifers via trophic transfer. Trophic transfer played a significant, sometimes even dominant, role in uptake and bioaccumulation. 27 refs., 6 figs
Warfe, Danielle M.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Neil E. Pettit; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Pusey, Bradley J; Bunn, Stuart E.; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M.
2013-01-01
The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of produ...
Kao, Pao T.; Redekop, William; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia
2012-01-01
Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM...
H. Khosravinia; Ramesha, KP
2007-01-01
This study consisting of two trails conducted to examine the impact of initial EDTA level added to blood samples on quantity and quality of genomic DNA isolated from avian fresh blood and the influence of initial EDTA level with various levels of $MgCl_2$ added to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) final volume on amplification pattern. EDTA level added to collected blood samples had no significant impact on quantity as well as quality of extracted genomic DNA. However, higher levels of EDTA inc...
Gandomzadeh, Ali
2011-02-08
the soil and the response of the soil-structure system. Through these parametric studies we show that depending on the soil properties, frequency content of the soil response could change significantly due to the soil nonlinearity. The peaks of the transfer function between free field and outcropping responses shift to lower frequencies and amplification happens at this frequency range. Amplification reduction for the high frequencies and even de-amplification may happen for high level input motions. These changes influence the structural response. We show that depending on the combination of the fundamental frequency of the structure and the the natural frequency of the soil, the effect of soil-structure interaction could be significant or negligible. However, the effect of structure weight and rocking of the superstructure could change the results. Finally, the basin of Nice is used as an example of wave propagation on a heterogeneous nonlinear media and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The basin response is strongly dependent on the combination of soil nonlinearity, topographic effects and impedance contrast between soil layers. For the selected structures and soil profiles of this work, the performed numerical simulations show that the shift of the fundamental frequency is not a good index to discriminate linear from nonlinear soil behavior. (author)
Seyed Valiollah Tabatabaee Hanzaee
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including multi-sensory brand experience, brand engagement, pleasing brand, brand communications and brand effectiveness influence brand loyalty, significantly.
Khlopenko, N. Ya.
1996-01-01
The influence of a comparatively low volume concentration of gas microbubbles contained in oil on nonlinear characteristics describing the behavior of an oil film in the guide gap of a hydrodynamic tilting pad bearing under action of a low-frequency harmonic force is analyzed using a numerical dynamic model of a collar-oil film-pad system. It is shown that bubbles in the oil greatly affect the efficiency of the tilting pad bearing. Results of oil-film-dynamics investigations reported previously (including those of the present author) are generalized.
Cindy Le Bourgot
Full Text Available Peripartum nutrition is crucial for developing the immune system of neonates. We hypothesized that maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS supplementation could accelerate the development of intestinal immunity in offspring. Thirty-four sows received a standard or a scFOS supplemented diet (10 g scFOS/d for the last 4 weeks of gestation and the 4 weeks of lactation. Colostrum and milk immunoglobulins (Ig and TGFβ1 concentrations were evaluated on the day of delivery and at d 6 and d 21 postpartum. Piglet intestinal structure, the immunologic features of jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph node cells were analysed at postnatal d 21. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured over time in the intestinal contents of suckling and weaned piglets. Colostral IgA (P<0.05 significantly increased because of scFOS and TGFβ1 concentrations tended to improve (P<0.1. IFNγ secretion by stimulated Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node cells, and secretory IgA production by unstimulated Peyer's patch cells were increased (P<0.05 in postnatal d 21 scFOS piglets. These differences were associated with a higher proportion of activated CD25+CD4α+ T cells among the CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (P<0.05 as assessed by flow cytometry. IFNγ secretion was positively correlated with the population of activated T lymphocytes (P<0.05. Total short-chain fatty acids were unchanged between groups during lactation but were higher in caecal contents of d 90 scFOS piglets (P<0.05; specifically propionate, butyrate and valerate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that maternal scFOS supplementation modified the intestinal immune functions in piglets in association with increased colostral immunity. Such results underline the key role of maternal nutrition in supporting the postnatal development of mucosal immunity.
José Eduardo Galve
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of the supply chain management on the environmental impact of a 2400 L waste disposal container used in most cities of Spain. The studied functional unit, a waste disposal container, made up mostly of plastic materials and a metallic structure, and manufactured in Madrid (Spain, is distributed to several cities at an average distance of 392 km. A life cycle assessment of four different scenarios (SC has been calculated with the software EcoTool v4.0 (version 4.0; i+: Zaragoza, Spain, 2015 and using Ecoinvent v3.0 database (version 3.0; Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories: St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2013. The environmental impact has been characterized with two different methodologies, recipe and carbon footprint. In order to reduce the environmental impact, several end of life scenarios have been performed, analyzing the influence of the supply chain on a closed-looped system that increases recycling. Closed loop management of the waste and reuse of parts allows companies to stop selling products and start selling the service that their products give to the consumers.
Lundberg, Oskar E.; Nordborg, Anders; Lopez Arteaga, Ines
2016-03-01
A state-dependent contact model including nonlinear contact stiffness and nonlinear contact filtering is used to calculate contact forces and rail vibrations with a time-domain wheel-track interaction model. In the proposed method, the full three-dimensional contact geometry is reduced to a point contact in order to lower the computational cost and to reduce the amount of required input roughness-data. Green's functions including the linear dynamics of the wheel and the track are coupled with a point contact model, leading to a numerically efficient model for the wheel-track interaction. Nonlinear effects due to the shape and roughness of the wheel and the rail surfaces are included in the point contact model by pre-calculation of functions for the contact stiffness and contact filters. Numerical results are compared to field measurements of rail vibrations for passenger trains running at 200 kph on a ballast track. Moreover, the influence of vehicle pre-load and different degrees of roughness excitation on the resulting wheel-track interaction is studied by means of numerical predictions.
Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain
Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations.
Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain
When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, 14C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations
Barrett, John W.; Süli, Endre
2016-07-01
We prove the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to a general class of models that arise from the kinetic theory of dilute solutions of nonhomogeneous polymeric liquids, where the polymer molecules are idealized as bead-spring chains with finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) type spring potentials. The class of models under consideration involves the unsteady, compressible, isentropic, isothermal Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain Ω in Rd, d = 2, for the density ρ, the velocity u ˜ and the pressure p of the fluid, with an equation of state of the form p (ρ) =cpργ, where cp is a positive constant and γ > 1. The right-hand side of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation includes an elastic extra-stress tensor, which is the classical Kramers expression. The elastic extra-stress tensor stems from the random movement of the polymer chains and is defined through the associated probability density function that satisfies a Fokker-Planck-type parabolic equation, a crucial feature of which is the presence of a centre-of-mass diffusion term. This extends the result in our paper J.W. Barrett and E. Süli (2016) [9], which established the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to the system for d ∈ { 2 , 3 } and γ >3/2, but the elastic extra-stress tensor required there the addition of a quadratic interaction term to the classical Kramers expression to complete the compactness argument on which the proof was based. We show here that in the case of d = 2 and γ > 1 the existence of global-in-time weak solutions can be proved in the absence of the quadratic interaction term. Our results require no structural assumptions on the drag term in the Fokker-Planck equation; in particular, the drag term need not be corotational. With a nonnegative initial density ρ0 ∈L∞ (Ω) for the continuity equation; a square-integrable initial velocity datum u˜0 for the Navier-Stokes momentum equation; and a nonnegative initial probability density function ψ0
Nicole Landa Cavallaro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective: To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design: Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]. All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results: Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all. Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02 and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion: Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation.
Influence of nonlinear effects on statistical properties of the radiation from SASE FEL
Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.
1998-02-01
The paper presents analysis of statistical properties of the radiation from self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser operating in nonlinear mode. The present approach allows one to calculate the following statistical properties of the SASE FEL radiation: time and spectral field correlation functions, distribution of the fluctuations of the instantaneous radiation power, distribution of the energy in the electron bunch, distribution of the radiation energy after monochromator installed at the FEL amplifier exit and the radiation spectrum. It has been observed that the statistics of the instantaneous radiation power from SASE FEL operating in the nonlinear regime changes significantly with respect to the linear regime. All numerical results presented in the paper have been calculated for the 70 nm SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility under construction at DESY.
Mostafa H. Ali, Ahmed E. Elsamahy, Maher A. Farhoud and Taymour A. Hamdalla
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Near field distribution, propagation constant and dispersion characteristics of nonlinear single-mode optical fibers have been investigated. Shooting-method technique is used and implemented into a computer code for both profiles of step-index and graded-index fibers. An error function is defined to estimate the discrepancy between the expected electric-field radial derivative at the core-cladding interface and that obtained by numerically integrating the wave equation through the use of Runge-Kutta method. All of the above calculations done under the ocean depth in which the depth will affect the refractive index that have a direct effect on all the optical fiber parameters.KeyWords: Nonlinear refractive index, Normalized propagation constant, Mode delay factor, Material dispersion, Waveguide dispersion.
Influence of Spectral Filtering and Nonlinear Gain on an Optical Soliton
LIU Ling-Hong; YAN Jia-Ren; TANG Zheng-Hua
2007-01-01
@@ Using the direct soliton perturbation theory, we investigate the evolution of soliton parameters and the firstorder correction of bright soliton in a system with linear and nonlinear gain (or loss) and spectral filtering in a comprehensive way. The results obtained by means of our analytic method are consistent with numerical simulations. It is also found that the stable soliton propagation which has been investigated in a previous report by others is the limit case of our results.
RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF DRM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER NONLINEARITIES ONTO THE OUTPUT SIGNAL PARAMETERS
Varlamov, Oleg
2014-01-01
Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is an OFDM-based digital radio standard for long-, mediumand shortwave bands. Modern AM broadcast transmitters (with PDM or PSM modulator) with minor modifications or linear (SSB) transmitters may be used. Quality of transmitter is described by MER in output signal and accordance of out-of-band emissions spectrum mask. Nonlinearities in transmitter lead to increase out-of-band emissions in the adjacent channel and degradation of desired signal quality. A computer ...
The Influence of the Balance of Dispersion and Nonlinearity on the Transmission Quality in Fiber
无
2000-01-01
This article analyzes the effect of the balance of dispersion and nonlinearity on the quality of a transmission system with super Gauss pulse input by altering the input power and adding a section of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). The same mechanisms are applied to a 2-channel wave divide multiplex system(WDM) as well. DCF is proved to be a good solution in both situations.
Influence of the Non-linear Effects in the Design of Viscous Dampers for Bridge Cables
Acar, Yalda; Jingstål, Pontus
2014-01-01
In this master thesis the performance of external viscous dampers attached to cables in cable-stayed bridges have been studied. A comparison has been performed between a linear and a non-linear cable model. The comparison was carried out for two bridge cables, one from the Dubrovnik Bridge and the other from the Normandie Bridge. The performance of the dampers have been measured in terms of maximum achieved damping ratio and minimum amplitude of vibration. The analysis was performed using the...
Influence of the non-linearity of the collision operator on ion cyclotron resonance heating
The distribution function of ions heated in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. For non-minority heating scenarios, the full non-linear Coulomb collision operator must be used in this equation. A method of resolution accounting for the complexity of this operator is presented. We consider a plasma immersed in a homogeneous magnetic field. The adopted method of resolution is based on an expansion of the distribution function in a series of Legendre polynomials. Results of the corresponding code non-linear Fokker-Planck in two-dimensional velocity space (NLFP-2D) are discussed for experimentally relevant JET-like parameters. The convergence of the Legendre expansion has been tested and the importance of the non-linear effects has been shown. Three different regimes, characterized by different modes of indirect ion heating and depending on the absorbed RF power density as well as the minority concentration, were identified. The NLFP-2D code has been used to study the validity of the Maxwellian approximation of the self-collision operator. One finds that this model is only correct in a very limited range of parameters, and leads mostly to an overestimation of the indirect ion heating
Linear theory of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at a density profile which varies exponentially between regions of constant density is discussed in detail. The exact theory provides an approximate but conservative simple formula for the growth constant and it shows that a hitherto widely used theory erroneously underestimates the growth constant. A simple but effective ''synthetical model'' of nonlinear bubble growth is obtained from a synthesis of linear theory and constant terminal bubble speed. It is applied to pusher shell break-up in an inertial confinement fusion pellet to determine the maximum allowable initial perturbations and the most dangerous wavelength. In a situation typical of heavy ion drivers it is found that the allowable initial perturbations are increased by a few orders of magnitude by the gradual density transition and another order of magnitude by nonlinear saturation of the bubble speed. The gradual density transition also shifts the most dangerous wavelength from about once to about four times the minimum pusher shell thickness. The following topics are treated briefly: Reasons conflicting with use of the synthetical model to decide whether the pusher shell in a certain simulation will be broken up; other nonlinear theories available in the literature; further realistic effects that might aggravate instability growth. (orig.)
Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain
When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, may alter the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface marine organisms. Further, the dispersing agent may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes, To date, little information exists on the sub-lethal effects of dispersants and factors modifying their role in the bioavailability and disposition of PH in marine food chains. The objective of the current research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability to primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, deputation, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, 14C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for dispersed Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) vs. undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities (22 and 34 ppt) employing Isochrysis galbana, a primary producer, and Brachionus plicatilis, a primary consumer. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations. However, short term (eight hour) and long term (two week) static exposure studies indicate the uptake of14C-naphthalene from WAF preparations is inhibited by up to 50% from dispersed oil preparations. Results of comparative static and flow-through chamber exposure studies will be presented
Polymer chains with nonlinear interactions
Fugmann, Simon Martin
2011-01-01
Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einfluss der gekoppelten Dynamik in nichtlinearen Polymerketten auf Prozesse wie den thermischen Zerfall und den kraftinduzierten Abriss zu untersuchen. Dafür betrachten wir zunächst die Gleichgewichtsrelaxationseigenschaften von Ketten mit nichtlinearen Wechselwirkungspotentialen. Es kann gezeigt werden, dass die Relaxationseigenschaften des End-zu-End-Abstandes wie auch der Hauptkomponenten jene der harmonischen Kette sind. Die Korrelationszeiten weichen jedoc...
Milojević Vladimir S.; Nikolić Ljubiša B.; Nikolić Goran; Stamenković Jakov
2013-01-01
In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that signifi...
In this thesis, the author deals with one of the simplest 1D magnetic systems: the S = 1/2 ferromagnetic chain with an almost isotropic interaction between adjacent magnetic moments. Experimental realizations of this system became available only recently with the synthesis of the compounds [C6H11NH3]CuCl3 (CHAC) and [C6H11NH3]CuBr3 (CHAB). The present understanding of the crystallographic and magnetic properties of CHAC and CHAB is summarized. Attention is given to the anisotropy in the intrachain interaction, which to a large extent determines the static and dynamic properties. Heat capacity measurements on CHAB are presented as well as nuclear spin-lattice relaxation measurements on both CHAC and CHAB. The experimental results on both compounds are compared with numerical calculations on the Raman and three-spinwave relaxation processes within the framework of linear spinwave theory. In the case of CHAB, the author also discusses the contribution of soliton excitations to the observed relaxation rate. (Auth.)
Cerium Biomagnification in a Terrestrial Food Chain: Influence of Particle Size and Growth Stage.
Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L
2016-07-01
Mass-flow modeling of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) indicates that a major fraction of released particles partition into soils and sediments. This has aggravated the risk of contaminating agricultural fields, potentially threatening associated food webs. To assess possible ENM trophic transfer, cerium accumulation from cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and their bulk equivalent (bulk-CeO2) was investigated in producers and consumers from a terrestrial food chain. Kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red hawk) grown in soil contaminated with 1000-2000 mg/kg nano-CeO2 or 1000 mg/kg bulk-CeO2 were presented to Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis), which were then consumed by spined soldier bugs (Podisus maculiventris). Cerium accumulation in plant and insects was independent of particle size. After 36 days of exposure to 1000 mg/kg nano- and bulk-CeO2, roots accumulated 26 and 19 μg/g Ce, respectively, and translocated 1.02 and 1.3 μg/g Ce, respectively, to shoots. The beetle larvae feeding on nano-CeO2 exposed leaves accumulated low levels of Ce since ∼98% of Ce was excreted in contrast to bulk-CeO2. However, in nano-CeO2 exposed adults, Ce in tissues was higher than Ce excreted. Additionally, Ce content in tissues was biomagnified by a factor of 5.3 from the plants to adult beetles and further to bugs. PMID:26690677
INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORT FACTOR ON STOCKS IN LOGISTICS CHAINS OF RESOURCE BEHAVIOU
I. A. Lebedeva
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The paper considers behaviour of material flows at stages of complicated logistic industrial and transport systems. Key parameters of logistic delivery schemes are analyzed in the paper. The paper estimates an influence of a time parameter on the level of transport and logistics costs and, as a consequence, on a final finished product.While determining a stock level it is necessary to know not only an intensity of material resource consumption by manufacturing process for a concrete period of time, but also a probability of non-observance of transport service terms and cost of stock storage. Stocks of mass cargoes are basically formed at first stages of industrial and transport system and cost of their storage is relatively insignificant. However deficit presence of the given resources influences on functioning of all subsequent interrelated stages of the industrial and transport system.Thus, a risk of deficit occurrence of the given resources can be probably reduced by creating a high stock rate. There is a processing of hi-tech component items (or half-finished products at last stages of the industrial and transport system. Expenses on storage of such resources are usually high and possibility of their substitution by analogous ones is insignificant. At last stages a mobilization of facilities for provision of on-time delivery is more profitable that allows to save on stock arrangement.
On the influence of Gribov ambiguities in a class of nonlinear covariant gauges
Serreau, Julien; Tresmontant, Andréas
2015-01-01
We consider Yang-Mills theories in a recently proposed family of nonlinear covariant gauges that consistently deals with the issue of Gribov ambiguities. Such gauges provide a generalization of the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauges which can be formulated as an extremization procedure and might be implemented in numerical calculations. This would allow for nonperturbative studies of Yang-Mills correlators in a broad class of covariant gauges continuously connected to the well studied Landau gauge. We compute the ghost and gluon propagators in the continuum formulation at one-loop order in perturbation theory and we study their momentum dependence down to the deep infrared regime, with and without renormalization group improvement. In particular, we show that the theory admits infrared safe renormalization group trajectories with no Landau pole. Both the gluon and the ghost behave as massive fields at low energy, and the gluon propagator is transverse even away from the Landau gauge limit. We compare our r...
Influence of nonlinear electrodynamics on stability of thin-shell wormholes
Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia
2016-07-01
The aim of this paper is to discuss stability of regular thin-shell wormholes coupled with non-linear electrodynamics and cosmological constant. The surface stresses are formulated by using Lanczos equations. We examine attractive and repulsive behavior of these constructed wormholes corresponding to outward and inward-directed acceleration components, respectively. We also investigate stability conditions for the existence of traversable thin-shell wormholes with arbitrarily small amount of different fluids as exotic matter. We consider linear, logarithmic and Chaplygin gas models and find that a modified generalized Chaplygin gas model provides maximum viable regions for stability of the respective thin-shell wormholes. It is found that formation of stable regions for ABGB thin-shell wormholes highly depends on the physically acceptable range of charge and other parameters.
Influence of nonlinear effects on the neutral gas transport in tokamaks
The linear Monte Carlo computer code EIRENE for calculation of free molecular flow of neutral gases through a background plasma has been extended to the non-linear transition flow regime (Knudsen number 0.1-10). Motivation arose from higher gas densities in the range of 1013-1015 cm-3 appearing in the srape-off layer and in parts of the vacuum system of advanced tokamak experiments. To treat the problem, the Direct Monte Carlo Simulation Method after Bird, a kinetic approach, was chosen, since the conditions for application of continuum theory are not met. First results with the extended code were obtained in calculating the conductance of plasma-free short cylindrical ducts and elbows. A steady increase in conductance with decreasing Knudsen number was found, which is in good agreement with experimental data. Further calculations for transition flows through fixed background plasmas were made. In these, solutions obtained were represented as differences from solutions obtained by linear calculations. Simulation of a 1-D plasma slab configuration (related to the gaseous divertor concept) revealed markedly varying neutral gas profiles due to neutral-neutral collisions. In addition, in these runs neutral-neutral inelastic collision processes turned out to be negligible. Finally, neutral gas behaviour at higher densities in pump limiter geometries was studied, related to experiments on the tokamak TEXTOR. An increase in conductance in the direction to the pumps of up to 25% relative to linear results was found. Recently obtained experimental data on the impact of non-linear neutral effects upon conductance could be confirmed. (orig.)
Bech-Larsen, Tino
trend is that retail chain managers concentrate the effort on the key-departments of the chain store. So far, however, the academic research attempts to measure which departments are most significant for chain-equity have been scarce. This paper discusses the concept of chain-equity and gives a number...... of reasons why the fruit and vegetable department can be one of the keys to the creation of chain- equity. Furthermore, the paper describes the results of two empirical studies (a focus group and a survey), which aim at exploring a) the concept of chain-equity, b) the extent to which a positive customer...
Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain
Wolfe, M.F.; Younghans-Haug, C.O.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Sowby, M.L. [Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response, Sacramento, CA (United States)
1994-12-31
Oil spills represent a serious threat to marine organisms. Crude oil consists of numerous compounds with a wide range of physicochemical properties critical in determining those organisms at greatest risk. Surface inhabitants may benefit from the application of dispersing agents, yet little is understood of the disposition of the dispersed components of a spill. As the functional water solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons increases in the water column, the portion that is available for uptake may also increase, placing another group of organisms at risk. Potential increases in adsorption and bioaccumulation may extend the threat of oil spills from marine organisms to human consumers. Studies to date have focused on the acute toxicity of oil and dispersants. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of a dispersant on the bioavailability of crude oil components at concentrations below the no observable effect level (NOEL). Flow-through chambers were used to expose the algae, Isochrysis galbana, to ``undispersed`` Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) spiked with {sup 14}C naphthalene and ``dispersed`` spiked PBCO/Corexit 9527 sea water preparations. Bioavailability to Isochrysis was assessed as uptake, bioconcentration, and deputation of {sup 14}C naphthalene and its metabolites. Results of exposure studies will be presented.
Milojević Vladimir S.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that significantly depend on sodium polyacrylates efficiency used as crystal inhibitors, stabilizers for suspended soil, and agents for soil redisposition prevention on fabric surface. The values of the whiteness and elongation at break for cotton fabrics increase with the increase of average weight molecular mass, Mw, up to the value of 70000 g/mol, while in the case of further increase of weight average molar mass up to the 250000 g/mol value of these characteristics begin to decline. The values of the total residue content after combustion indicate an increase in its content with the increase of weight average molar mass of 3000 to 70000 g/mol, while the highest value has been reached in the sample of detergent containing sodiumpolyacrilic with the weight average molar mass of 250000 g/mol. All detergent samples show no significant dependence of the secondary washing characteristics on the number of washing cycles.
Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain
Oil spills represent a serious threat to marine organisms. Crude oil consists of numerous compounds with a wide range of physicochemical properties critical in determining those organisms at greatest risk. Surface inhabitants may benefit from the application of dispersing agents, yet little is understood of the disposition of the dispersed components of a spill. As the functional water solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons increases in the water column, the portion that is available for uptake may also increase, placing another group of organisms at risk. Potential increases in adsorption and bioaccumulation may extend the threat of oil spills from marine organisms to human consumers. Studies to date have focused on the acute toxicity of oil and dispersants. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of a dispersant on the bioavailability of crude oil components at concentrations below the no observable effect level (NOEL). Flow-through chambers were used to expose the algae, Isochrysis galbana, to ''undispersed'' Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) spiked with 14C naphthalene and ''dispersed'' spiked PBCO/Corexit 9527 sea water preparations. Bioavailability to Isochrysis was assessed as uptake, bioconcentration, and deputation of 14C naphthalene and its metabolites. Results of exposure studies will be presented
Influencing the ultrafast plasmon damping time using Fano resonances for nonlinear plasmonics
Martin Olivier J. F.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We explore the possibility of strongly influencing the plasmon damping time in nanostructures for efficient second harmonic generation, by taking advantage of the tunability of the narrow linewidth feature in the extinction cross-section exhibited by plasmonic nanostructures under Fano resonance.
Influence of nonlinear sorption kinetics on the slow-desorbing organic contaminant fraction in soil
Schlebaum, W.; Schraa, G.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.
1999-01-01
Release rates of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from the soil matrix influence the availability of HOCs in soils or sediments for microbial degradation or removal by physical means (e.g., soil washing or soil venting). In this study it was shown that the initial contaminant concentration influ
Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.
Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S
2013-01-01
On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection. PMID:24367549
庄品; 赵林度
2008-01-01
The challenge for supply chain management is to create appropriate supply chain contracts so as to optimize the system performance. To examine the role of asymmetric information in a two-echelon supply chain system and derive supply chain contracts to deal with existing asymmetric information, a two level supply chain model including one supplier and one retailer under the demand of price elasticity is developed. By using the principal-agent principle and the optimal control theory, three types of supply chain contract, i.e., a wholesale pricing contract, a two-parameter linear and a two-parameter nonlinear contracts are obtained. In these contracts, the supplier has asymmetric information about the retailer cost structure. Simulation results show that the two-parameter contracts are more effective strategies to achieve supply chain coordination.%为研究两级供应链系统中不对称信息的作用,并设计供应链契约有效地解决信息不对称问题,文中建立了市场需求为价格弹性需求,包含一个供应商和一个零售商的两级供应链模型.当零售商成本结构为非对称信息时,利用委托-代理理论和最优控制原理设计了3种不对称信息和非线性需求下供应链契约:批发价契约、双参数线性契约和双参数非线性契约,并对上述3种契约模型进行数值仿真分析.研究显示双参数契约模型能够更有效地达到供应链协调.
The Influence of Spatial Resolution on Nonlinear Force-Free Modeling
DeRosa, M L; Leka, K D; Barnes, G; Amari, T; Canou, A; Gilchrist, S A; Thalmann, J K; Valori, G; Wiegelmann, T; Schrijver, C J; Malanushenko, A; Sun, X; Régnier, S
2015-01-01
The nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model is often used to describe the solar coronal magnetic field, however a series of earlier studies revealed difficulties in the numerical solution of the model in application to photospheric boundary data. We investigate the sensitivity of the modeling to the spatial resolution of the boundary data, by applying multiple codes that numerically solve the NLFFF model to a sequence of vector magnetogram data at different resolutions, prepared from a single Hinode/SOT-SP scan of NOAA Active Region 10978 on 2007 December 13. We analyze the resulting energies and relative magnetic helicities, employ a Helmholtz decomposition to characterize divergence errors, and quantify changes made by the codes to the vector magnetogram boundary data in order to be compatible with the force-free model. This study shows that NLFFF modeling results depend quantitatively on the spatial resolution of the input boundary data, and that using more highly resolved boundary data yields more self-c...
Computational analysis of nonlinear creep of polyphase aggregates: Influence of phase morphology
Cook, A. C.; Vel, S. S.; Gerbi, C.; Johnson, S. E.
2014-09-01
The constitutive laws of polyphase aggregates dominantly depend on the operative deformation mechanisms, phase morphology and modes, and environmental conditions. Each of these factors has the potential to dramatically affect bulk mechanical properties as well as the local stress and strain rate distributions. To focus on the effects of phase morphology, we have developed a rigorous multiscale approach based on asymptotic expansion homogenization. The proposed methodology has two fundamental goals: (1) accurately predict bulk behavior in aggregates by explicitly taking into account phase morphology and (2) calculate detailed distributions of strain rates, stresses, and viscosities in heterogeneous materials. The methodology is able to consider general nonlinear phase constitutive laws that relate strain rates to stresses, temperature, and other factors such as water fugacity and grain size. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing power law creep of computer-generated and natural polyphase systems and benchmarking the results against analytical solutions. As an outcome of this analysis, we find that the approximation of an aggregate as a power law material is reasonable for isotropic, homogeneous phase distributions but breaks down significantly with high degrees of phase organization. We also present distributions in strain rate, stress, and viscosity for different applied loading conditions. Results exhibit areas of high internal stresses and substantial localization. We describe and provide a freely available software package supporting these calculations.
A note on Influence diagnostics in nonlinear mixed-effects elliptical models
Patriota, Alexandre G
2009-01-01
This paper provides general matrix formulas for computing the score function, the (expected and observed) Fisher information and the $\\Delta$ matrices (required for the assessment of local influence) for a quite general model which includes the one proposed by Russo et al. (2009). Additionally, we also present an expression for the generalized leverage. The matrix formulation has a considerable advantage, since although the complexity of the postulated model, all general formulas are compact,...
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.
Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V
2015-07-31
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421
Yingtang; LI; Zhong; QIAO
2014-01-01
Like the general green supply chain,the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate,as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables.Currently,the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China,and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained,so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.The operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is affected by many factors,and the most important factor is the incomplete consistency between the individual interests of supply chain members and the overall interests of supply chain.Therefore,the key driving force to improve the efficiency of green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is to build the scientific and rational collaborative decision-making mechanism of supply chain,in order to solve the problems concerning the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables,such as risk sharing,cost control and revenue allocation,thereby achieving the coordinated development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.
Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.
2016-01-01
and nonlinear irregular wave realizations are calculated using the fully nonlinear potential flow wave model OceanWave3D [1]. The linear and nonlinear wave realizations are compared using both a static analysis on a fixed monopile and dynamic calculations with the aeroelastic code Flex5 [2]. The...
Li, Bo; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing
2016-07-01
Fluid flow tests were conducted on two crossed fracture models for which the geometries of fracture segments and intersections were measured by utilizing a visualization technique using a CCD (charged coupled device) camera. Numerical simulations by solving the Navier-Stokes equations were performed to characterize the fluid flow at fracture intersections. The roles of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect in the nonlinear fluid flow behavior through single fracture intersections were investigated. The simulation results of flow rate agreed well with the experimental results for both models. The experimental and simulation results showed that with the increment of the hydraulic gradient, the ratio of the flow rate to the hydraulic gradient, Q/J, decreases and the relative difference of Q/J between the calculation results employing the Navier-Stokes equations and the cubic law, δ, increases. When taking into account the fracture surface roughness quantified by Z2 ranging 0-0.42 for J = 1, the value of δ would increase by 0-10.3%. The influences of the intersecting angle on the normalized flow rate that represents the ratio of the flow rate in a segment to the total flow rate, Ra, and the ratio of the hydraulic aperture to the mechanical aperture, e/E, are negligible when J 10-2. Based on the regression analysis on simulation results, a mathematical expression was proposed to quantify e/E, involving variables of J and Rr, where Rr is the radius of truncating circles centered at an intersection. For E/Rr > 10-2, e/E varies significantly and the scale of model has large impacts on the nonlinear flow behavior through intersections, while for E/Rr law to fluid flow through fracture intersections is suggested as J < 10-3, E/Rr < 10-3, and Z2 = 0.
Li, Bo; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing
2016-07-01
Fluid flow tests were conducted on two crossed fracture models for which the geometries of fracture segments and intersections were measured by utilizing a visualization technique using a CCD (charged coupled device) camera. Numerical simulations by solving the Navier-Stokes equations were performed to characterize the fluid flow at fracture intersections. The roles of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect in the nonlinear fluid flow behavior through single fracture intersections were investigated. The simulation results of flow rate agreed well with the experimental results for both models. The experimental and simulation results showed that with the increment of the hydraulic gradient, the ratio of the flow rate to the hydraulic gradient, Q/J, decreases and the relative difference of Q/J between the calculation results employing the Navier-Stokes equations and the cubic law, δ, increases. When taking into account the fracture surface roughness quantified by Z2 ranging 0-0.42 for J = 1, the value of δ would increase by 0-10.3%. The influences of the intersecting angle on the normalized flow rate that represents the ratio of the flow rate in a segment to the total flow rate, Ra, and the ratio of the hydraulic aperture to the mechanical aperture, e/E, are negligible when J 10-2. Based on the regression analysis on simulation results, a mathematical expression was proposed to quantify e/E, involving variables of J and Rr, where Rr is the radius of truncating circles centered at an intersection. For E/Rr > 10-2, e/E varies significantly and the scale of model has large impacts on the nonlinear flow behavior through intersections, while for E/Rr < 10-3, the scale effect is negligibly small. Finally, a necessary condition to apply the cubic law to fluid flow through fracture intersections is suggested as J < 10-3, E/Rr < 10-3, and Z2 = 0.
Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain.Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data.Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain.Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems.Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.
Hamed Asgari
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Customer purchasing behavior plays an essential role on marketing planning in today’s competitive environment. Immediate purchasing behavior is one of the most important components of purchasing behavior. In this paper, we use factor analysis to extract important factors influencing immediate purchasing behavior.The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire including 35 questions and through basic investigation, the questions are reduced to 21 ones. The questionnaire is distributed among 200 regular customers and 149 questionnaires have been collected. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.804, which is well above the minimum desirable level of 0.7. The survey is conducted among regular customers who normally make purchases from Shahrvand food chains in city of Tehran, Iran. The results of factor analysis reveals four major factors including intelligence pricing strategy, involvement, promotion margin and consumer behavior. The proposed study of this paper considers “intelligence pricing strategy” for the first time as an important factor in consumer’s purchasing behavior.
Mrityunjoy Roy
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a technique has been developed to determine the optimum mix of logistic service providers of a make-to-order (MTO supply chain. A serial MTO supply chain with different stages/ processes has been considered. For each stage different logistic service providers with different mean processing lead times, but same lead time variances are available. A realistic assumption that for each stage, the logistic service provider who charges more for his service consumes less processing lead time and vice-versa has been made in our study. Thus for each stage, for each service provider, a combination of cost and mean processing lead time is available. Using these combinations, for each stage, a polynomial curve, expressing cost of that stage as a function of mean processing lead time is fit. Cumulating all such expressions of cost for the different stages along with incorporation of suitable constraints arising out of timely delivery, results in the formulation of a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem. On solving the problem using mathematica, optimum processing lead time for each stage is obtained. Using these optimum processing lead times and by employing a simple technique the optimum logistic service provider mix of the supply chain along with the corresponding total cost of processing is determined. Finally to examine the effect of changes in different parameters on the optimum total processing cost of the supply chain, sensitivity analysis has been carried out graphically.
Bhardwaj, R.; Bhatnagar, K. B.
1995-12-01
The rotational motion of a satellite in a circular orbit under the influence of magnetic torque is being studied. The present paper deals with the non-resonance and resonance cases. By using Melnikov's method, the authors have shown that the equation of motion is non-integrable. Taking the magnetic torque perturbation to be small (ɛ ≪ 1) and using BKM method, it is observed that the amplitude of the oscillation remains constant up to the second order of approximation. The main resonance has been shown to exist. The analysis regarding the stability near the resonance frequency shows that discontinuity occurs in the amplitude of the oscillation at a frequency of the external periodic force which is less than the frequency of the natural oscillation.
Nagaraja, K. K.; Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.; Rao, Ashok; Nagaraja, H. S.
2016-08-01
We present the studies on the influence of annealing on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered manganese doped zinc oxide (MZO) thin films with different doping concentration. It is revealed that the incorporation of Mn into ZnO and annealing lead to prominent changes in the third order nonlinearity. Nonlinear optical measurements were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a continuous wave (CW) Hesbnd Ne laser of 633 nm. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit self-defocusing thermal nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) was found to be of the order of 10-3 esu and 10-2 esu for annealed MZO thin films at 200 °C and 400 °C respectively. The dependence of grain size on the observed nonlinearity was revealed by atomic force microscopy analysis. Optical limiting studies were carried out for a range of input power levels and an optical limiting of about ∼8 mW was observed indicating the possible application for photonic devices.
Nonlinear equilibrium structure of thin currents sheets: influence of electron pressure anisotropy
L. M. Zelenyi
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Thin current sheets represent important and puzzling sites of magnetic energy storage and subsequent fast release. Such structures are observed in planetary magnetospheres, solar atmosphere and are expected to be widespread in nature. The thin current sheet structure resembles a collapsing MHD solution with a plane singularity. Being potential sites of effective energy accumulation, these structures have received a good deal of attention during the last decade, especially after the launch of the multiprobe CLUSTER mission which is capable of resolving their 3D features. Many theoretical models of thin current sheet dynamics, including the well-known current sheet bifurcation, have been developed recently. A self-consistent 1D analytical model of thin current sheets in which the tension of the magnetic field lines is balanced by the ion inertia rather than by the plasma pressure gradients was developed earlier. The influence of the anisotropic electron population and of the corresponding electrostatic field that acts to restore quasi-neutrality of the plasma is taken into account. It is assumed that the electron motion is fluid-like in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and fast enough to support quasi-equilibrium Boltzmann distribution along the field lines. Electrostatic effects lead to an interesting feature of the current density profile inside the current sheet, i.e. a narrow sharp peak of electron current in the very center of the sheet due to fast curvature drift of the particles in this region. The corresponding magnetic field profile becomes much steeper near the neutral plane although the total cross-tail current is in all cases dominated by the ion contribution. The dependence of electrostatic effects on the ion to electron temperature ratio, the curvature of the magnetic field lines, and the average electron magnetic moment is also analyzed. The implications of these effects on the fine structure of thin current sheets
Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N
2016-08-01
Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. PMID:27211507
Tine Olsen; Brett Inder
2008-01-01
To explain the value added along the coffee commodity chain we propose and estimate a theoretical model of the coffee commodity chain. The theoretical model consists of four markets and five agents in the coffee commodity chain and predicts that prices in the coffee commodity chain move together but are also influenced by income, technology and production. A vector error correction model is used to test the theoretical predictions. In addition to the theoretical conclusions the empirical mode...
The influence of the length of the cation alkyl chain on the dispersibility by ultrasonic treatment of TiO2 nanopowders in hydrophilic imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids was studied for the first time by dynamic light scattering and advanced rheology. TiO2 nanopowders had been synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) under varied conditions leading to two different materials. A commercial nanopowder had been used for comparison. Characterizations had been done using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption with BET analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Primary particle sizes were about 6 and 8 nm for the CVS-based and 26 nm for the commercial materials. The particle size distribution in the dispersion was strongly influenced by the length of the cation alkyl chain for all the investigated powders with different structural characteristics and concentrations in the dispersion. It was found that an increase of the alkyl chain length was beneficial, leading to a narrowing of the particle size distribution and a decrease of the agglomerate size in dispersion. The smallest average nanoparticle sizes in dispersion were around 30 nm. Additionally, the surface functionality of the nanoparticles, the concentration of the solid material in the liquid, and the period of ultrasonic treatment control the dispersion quality, especially in the case of the ionic liquids with the shorter alkyl chain. The influence of the nanopowders characteristics on their dispersibility decreases considerably with increasing cation alkyl chain length. The results indicate that ionic liquids with adapted structure are candidates as absorber media for nanoparticles synthesized in gas phase processes to obtain liquid dispersions directly without redispergation.
FU, Wei; FENG, Ji-Kang; YU, Kun-Qian; REN, Ai-Min; CUI, Meng
2000-01-01
On the basis of Z1NDO methods, according to the sum-overstates (SOS) expression, the progran for the calculation of the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities βuk and βμ ofmolecules was devised, and the structures and nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetric bis (phenylethynyl) benzene series derivatives were studied. The influence of the molecular conjugated chain lengths, the donor and the acceptor on βμwas examined.
Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H
2013-10-01
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased the separation of serum and no influence on creaminess was observed. Regarding the product's acceptability, the low-fat yogurt with added inulin presented similar acceptance compared with the full-fat yogurt. The addition of Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei did not affect the sensory profile and acceptance of the low-fat yogurt. Using external preference mapping, it was possible to verify that the sensory acceptance was driven positively by the sweetness and creaminess and negatively driven by firmness (appearance and texture) and homogeneity (appearance). It was possible to formulate low-fat yogurts with added probiotics that presented similar sensory characteristics to those of full-fat yogurts, and this was due to the addition of the long-chain inulin as a fat replacer. PMID:23932139
Maxwell, Sara; Harding, Joanne; Brabin, Charles; Peter J. Appleford; Brown, Ruth; Delaney, Carol; Brown, Garry; Woollard, Alison
2013-01-01
Background C. elegans mitochondrial (Mit) mutants have disrupted mitochondrial electron transport chain function, yet, surprisingly, they are often long-lived, a property that has offered unique insights into the molecular mechanisms of aging. In this study, we examine the phenotypic consequences of reducing the expression of the respiratory chain complex assembly factors sft-1 (homologous to human SURF1) and oxa-1 (homologous to human OXA1) by RNA interference (RNAi). Mutations in human SURF...
Vauzour, D.; Pascual-Teresa, Sonia de; Minihane, Anne-Marie
2015-01-01
© 2015 The Authors. Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we ...
Marinda Uys; Lidia Pottas; Bart Vinck; Catherine van Dijk
2012-01-01
Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research ...
Zeng, Qi-Jun; Cheng, Ze
2010-06-01
In a Kerr nonlinear blackbody, bare photons with opposite wave vectors and helicities are bound into pairs and unpaired photons are transformed into a different kind of quasiparticle, the nonpolariton. The present paper investigates the influence of a single frequency electromagnetic wave on the energy spectrum of the nonpolariton system. We find that the wave can lead to an energy shift of nonpolaritons. Moreover, we calculate the first-order energy shift on certain conditions.
Hagelberg, Terri King; Cole, Julia
1995-01-01
Time series analysis methods have traditionally helped in identifying the role of various forcing mechanisms in influencing climate change. A challenge to understanding decadal and century-scale climate change has been that the linkages between climate changes and potential forcing mechanisms such as solar variability are often uncertain. However, most studies have focused on the role of climate forcing and climate response within a strictly linear framework. Nonlinear time series analysis pr...
金莉; 来保长; 耿宜萍; 王一理; 司履生
2001-01-01
Objective. To investigate the anti-tumor effects of human single chain interleukin-12 (hscIL-12). Method. pcDNA/hscIL-12 recombinant was transfected into human hepatic carcinoma cells (7721 cells) by lipofectin method. The 7721/hscIL-12 cells which secrete hscIL-12 stably, were obtained via G418 selection, and in vitro the influence of hscIL-12 gene transduction on the growth of tumor cells was evaluated by cellcycle analysis. In vivo, genetically engineered 7721 cells (7721/hscIL-12, 7721/pcDNA) and parental cells were implanted into BALB/c nude mice, respectively. 7721/pcDNA and 7721/hscIL-12 groups were divided into two sub-groups on day 8: one was administered with hPBL twice, 6 days at interval; the other was given equalvolume of PBS. Mice were sacrificed on day 26, and spleens and tumors were taken out for histologic assay. Results. hscIL-12 produced stably by 7721/hscIL-12 cells had bioactivity, and it was proved by Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In vitro, compared with 7721 and 7721/pcDNA, the7721/hscIL-12 grew much more slowly. FACS assay showed apparent G1 arrest of 7721/hscIL-12 cells. In ani-mal experiment, on day 8 after inoculation, the tumors of 7721 and 7721/pcDNA group were up to 5 -7mm,while those of 7721/hscIL-12 group were 2 -4mm. When treated with hPBL, the tumor of 7721/hscIL-12 groupdisappeared completely. Histologically, the tumors from 7721/hscIL-12 without hPBL treatment had numerouslymphocyte infiltration, the tumor cells displayed depression looking, atrophy, focal necrosis and apoptosis, whereas the tumors of 7721 and 772l/pcDNA groups grew thrivingly.Conclusion. hsclL-12 transduced 7721 cells could induced significant antitumor immune response which resulted in tumor regression totally when the hPBL was inoculated, and also hscIL-12 has certain effects on mice immune system. These findings suggest that hscIL-12 and hscIL-12 gene therapy might have promising prospects in clinical application.
The dependences of gain and nonlinear distortions in analogue fiber-optic links on bias of an external electrooptical modulator were investigated. The increase in the gain by up to 5 dB as compared with the conventional quadrature point operation was demonstrated by shift the bias voltage applied to the external electrooptical modulator to a low transmission. Dependences of nonlinear distortions on the bias voltage of an electrooptical modulator were investigated. A minor increase in nonlinear distortions (less than 0.5 %) was observed at the conditions of a maximum gain. Proposed theoretical model is in a good agreement with the experimental data
Alexis eGutierrez
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Over the last decade, a diverse coalition of actors has come together to develop and promote sustainability initiatives ranging from seafood eco-labels, seafood guides, traceability schemes, and sourcing policies in Western seafood supply chains. Based on a literature review, we trace the development of the Sustainable Seafood Movement, which has been working to reform sustainability practices in the seafood supply chain. Focusing on the US and the UK capture fisheries, we explore the roles of key actors and analyze the dynamics within and between actor groups through a conceptual model derived from semi-structured interviews. We argue that the Sustainable Seafood Movement is different from previous social movements in that, in addition to actors advocating for government reform, it has motivated supply chain actors to participate in non-state market driven governance regime. The movement and its actors have leveraged their legitimacy and authority garnered within the supply chain to increase their legitimacy and authority in public governance processes. As the movement continues to evolve, it will need to address several emerging issues to maintain its position of legitimacy and authority in both the supply chain and public governance processes.
For describing the dynamics of alpha helical proteins with internal molecular excitations, nonlinear couplings between lattice vibrations and molecular excitations, and spin excitations in one-dimensional isotropic biquadratic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin with the octupole–dipole interactions, we consider an inhomogeneous generalized fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Based on the Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur system, infinitely many conservation laws for the equation are derived. Through the auxiliary function, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions for the equation are obtained. Interactions of solitons are discussed by means of the asymptotic analysis. Effects of linear inhomogeneity on the interactions of solitons are also investigated graphically and analytically. Since the inhomogeneous coefficient of the equation h=α x+β, the soliton takes on the parabolic profile during the evolution. Soliton velocity is related to the parameter α, distance scale coefficient and biquadratic exchange coefficient, but has no relation with the parameter β. Soliton amplitude and width are only related to α. Soliton position is related to β
El Khoury, Elsy; Patra, Digambara
2016-05-01
Using fluorescence quenching of curcumin in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes by brominated derivatives of fatty acids, the location of curcumin has been studied, which indicates length of hydrocarbon chain has an effect on the location of curcumin in liposomes. Change of fluorescence intensity of curcumin with temperature in the presence of liposomes helps to estimate the phase transition temperature of these liposomes, thus, influence of cholesterol on liposome properties has been studied using curcumin as a molecule probe. The cooperativity due to the interactions between the hydrocarbon chains during melting accelerates the phase transition of DPPC liposomes in the presence of high percentage of cholesterol whereas high percentage of cholesterol generates a rather rigid DMPC liposome over a wide range of temperatures. We used ethanol to induce interdigitation between the hydrophobic chains of the lipids and studied this effect using curcumin as fluorescence probe. As a result of interdigitation, curcumin fluorescence is quenched in liposomes. The compact arrangement of the acyl chains prevents curcumin from penetrating deep near the midplane. In the liquid crystalline phase ethanol introduces a kind of order to the more fluid liposome, and does not leave space for curcumin to be inserted away from water. PMID:26945646
Sleven, Jurgen
2002-01-01
Phthalocyanines form a colourful class of macrocyclic compounds, attracting the attention of many scientists. Some of these compounds – especially the metal containing phthalocyanines – play an important role in industrial activity and in society. Applications for phthalocyanines are found in the fields of non-linear optics, catalysis, electronic (bio)sensors, photovoltaic solar cells, optical data storage, lubricants, photo- and radiosensitizers for treatment of cancer, protein inhibitors … ...
Pratim Ghosh, Arghya; Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Manas
2016-05-01
We examine the influence of position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) on a few nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The said properties include total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC), nonlinear optical rectification (NOR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG). The impurity potential is modeled by a Gaussian function and the noise applied being Gaussian white noise. The profiles of above NLO properties have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy for different values of PDEM. Using PDEM the said profiles exhibit considerable departure from that of fixed effective mass (FEM). Presence of noise almost invariably amplifies the NLO properties with a few exceptions. A change in the mode of application of noise also sometimes affects the above profiles. The investigation furnishes us with a detailed picture of the subtle interplay between noise and PDEM through which the said NLO properties of doped QD systems can be tailored.
李蔚; 梅君瑶; 韩庆生; 王腾
2009-01-01
The analytical expression of bit error probability in a balanced differential phase-shift keying(DPSK) optical receiver considering nonlinear phase noise and EDFA ASE noise is given,which is very useful to estimate the performance of DPSK balanced and unbalanced receiver in optical communication system.Through analysis,if only nonlinear phase noise is considered,both the balance and unbalanced receivers have the same performances.But if adding the ASE noise of EDFA,the balanced receiver is better.
Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper
2005-01-01
We have derived an expression for the BER of a cascade of 2R-regenerators including the effects of nonlinearity, noise and extinction-ratio. The best choice of threshold and the interplay bet1-55752-770-9ween device parameters are investigated.......We have derived an expression for the BER of a cascade of 2R-regenerators including the effects of nonlinearity, noise and extinction-ratio. The best choice of threshold and the interplay bet1-55752-770-9ween device parameters are investigated....
Capel, François; Nicolai, Taco; Durand, Dominique; Boulenguer, Patrick; Langendorff, Virginie
2005-01-01
The gelation of low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) induced by addition of Ca2+ was studied by measuring the storage modulus as a function of temperature during cooling. Samples with different molar masses were prepared by mechanical degradation. The effect of the molar mass and the pectin concentration on the gelation properties was investigated. The effect of partial amidation was studied by comparing LMP and partially amidated LMP with the same molar mass and degree of methylation. The results are compared to those from a model developed for Ca2+-induced pectin gelation, and good agreement is found except at low concentrations and low molar masses where the gels are weaker than predicted. At low concentrations intrachain bonding weakens the gel, while the presence of small pectin chains weakens the gel because it neutralizes binding sites on larger chains. PMID:16283714
Raffaele Cavalli
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this study a Discrete-event simulation (D-es has been developed to analyze the wood supply chain for firewood production in a mountain area in North-eastern Italy. The D-es is applied in the modeling of extraction (Full Tree System, processing of roundwood into wood assortments (cross-cut and sorting, offroad and on-road transport. In order to estimate the productivity functions and parameters, field studies were conducted to gather data about the different operations linked in the model. Also a GIS network analysis was developed to integrate the spatial information onthe covered distance to the D-es model for each of the supposed Scenarios. The results indicats that an increment of 5 m ha-1 of the forest road network could significantly increase the productivity of the wood supply chain up to 2%.
Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a nonlinear Klein- Gordon model with Remoissenet-Peyrard substrate potential coupled to an applied field is analyzed in the limits of moderate temperature and strong damping. We derive analytically the non- Gaussian correction to the nucleation rate formula of kink- antikink pairs previously calculated by Yemele and Kofane and show that the correction factor depends on the intensity of the applied field, the temperature of the system and the shape of the substrate potential. (author)
Ali Sanayei
2011-07-01
The application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID for the purpose of tracking each single part in the automotive supply chain management has become very crucial in recent years. In this study, the factors influencing the development of RFID in Iran Khodro Industrial Group as well as their weight and ranking are evaluated. It is notewothy that the Lin framework factors have been used as the basis of this research. The Fuzzy Delphi, Delphi, and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP methods were applied for the research three stages. In the first stage, three of the Lin framework factors were rejected and replaced with seven more new factors. In the second stage, after three times performance of Delphi method, the dimension of each of the new seven factors was recognized, and finally in the third stage, the weight and ranking of factors and dimensions which influence the RFID development in supply chain management in our case study, Iran Khodro Company, was calculated. The results of the research have shown that the International Standard and Specification dimension has the highest weight among other influential dimensions. Also, the dimensions of Security, Cost, Infrastructure, Technology, and other factors have respectively the next highest weight after the International Standard and Specification dimension
A. Sanayei
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID for the purpose of tracking each single part in the automotive supply chain management has become very crucial in recent years. In this study, the factors influencing the development of RFID in Iran Khodro Industrial Group as well as their weight and ranking are evaluated. It is notewothy that the Lin framework factors have been used as the basis of this research. The Fuzzy Delphi, Delphi, and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP methods were applied for the research three stages. In the first stage, three of the Lin framework factors were rejected and replaced with seven more new factors. In the second stage, after three times performance of Delphi method, the dimension of each of the new seven factors was recognized, and finally in the third stage, the weight and ranking of factors and dimensions which influence the RFID development in supply chain management in our case study, Iran Khodro Company, was calculated. The results of the research have shown that the International Standard and Specification dimension has the highest weight among other influential dimensions. Also, the dimensions of Security, Cost, Infrastructure, Technology, and other factors have respectively the next highest weight after the International Standard and Specification dimension.
Bang, O.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Christiansen, P.L.
1994-01-01
Discretizing the continuous nonlinear Schrodinger equation with arbitrary power nonlinearity influences the time evolution of its ground state solitary solution. In the subcritical case, for grid resolutions above a certain transition value, depending on the degree of nonlinearity, the solution...
Peniche, C.; Zaldivar, D. (Univ. de la Habana, Havana (Cuba). Centro de Biomateriales); Bulay, A. (Plastmassi, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Roman, J.S. (CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros)
1993-12-20
The thermal behavior of random copolymers of furfuryl methacrylate (F) and N-vinyl-pyrrolidone (P) was studied by means of dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in the range 100--600 C. The dynamic experiments show that these copolymers exhibit two degradation steps in the intervals 260--320 C and 350--520 C, respectively. The normalized weight loss in the low temperature interval increases as the mole fraction of F in the copolymer m[sub F] increases, whereas an inverted trend in the high temperature interval is observed. The apparent activation energy E[sub a] of the first degradation step for copolymers prepared with different composition, was obtained according to the treatment suggested by Broido. A plot of the values of E[sub a] versus the F dead molar fraction in the copolymer chains m[sub FF] gave a straight line that indicates that there is a direct relationship between the thermogravimetric behavior of these systems and their corresponding microstructure, that is, the distribution of comonomeric units along the copolymers chains. The first decomposition step was also studied by isothermal TGA and a good linearity for the variation of the weight loss percentage [Delta]W versus m[sub F] at least during the first 30 min of treatment was obtained.
Simandoux, Oliver; Gâteau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel
2013-01-01
In the thermoelastic regime, photoacoustic sensing of optical absorption relies on conversion from light to acoustic energy via the coefficient of thermal expansion \\beta. In this work, we confront confront experimental measurements to theoretical predictions of nonlinear photoacoustic generation based on the dynamic variation of \\beta(T) during the optical excitation of absorbers in aqueous solution. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of organic dye and gold nanospheres (with same optical densities), illuminated with 532 nm nanosecond pulses, was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (center frequency 20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence (a few mJ/cm2) for an equilibrium temperature around 4{\\deg}C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. Under the same condition, no emission was observed with the absorbing organic dye. At a fixed fluence of 5 mJ/cm2, th...
Influence of Ion Nonlinear Polarization Drift and Warm Ions on Solitary Kinetic Alfvén Wave
DUAN Su-Ping; LI Zhong-Yuan
2003-01-01
Considering the effects of ion nonlinear polarization drift and warm ions, we adopt two-fluid model to results derived in this paper indicate that dip SKAW and hump SKAW both exist in a wide range in magnetosphere(for the pressure parameter β ~ 10-5 ~ 0.01, where βis the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, i.e.region 1 > β > me/mi. These results are different from previous ones. That indicates that the effects of ion nonlinear polarization drift and warm ions are important and they cannot be neglected. The SKAW has an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, which makes the SKAW take an important role in the acceleration and energization of field-aligned charged particles in magnetic plasmas. And the SKAW is also important for the heating of a local plasma.So it makes a novel physical mechanism of energy transmission possible.
Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena
Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2004 - (Zolotarev, I.; Poživilová, A.), s. 111-112 ISBN 80-85918-88-9. [Engineering mechanics 2004. Svratka (CZ), 10.05.2004-13.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2076353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * parametric vibration * gear ing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Greco, M.; C. Lugni; Faltinsen, O. M.
2015-01-01
Occurrence and features of parametric roll (PR) on a weather-vaning floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) platform with a turret single-point mooring-line system are examined. The main focus is on the relevance of motions coupling and nonlinear effects on this phenomenon and on more general unstable conditions as well as on the occurrence and severity of water on deck. This work was motivated by recent experiments on an FPSO model without mooring systems highlighting the occurrenc...
Nonlinear excitation of lo calized plasmon in one-dimensional atomic chain%一维原子链局域等离激元的非线性激发∗
尹海峰; 毛力
2016-01-01
本文基于含时密度泛函理论，研究了不同频率光脉冲场作用下一维钠原子链中电子的输运与等离激元共振之间的耦合规律.在等离激元共振点附近约0.8 eV频率范围内的光脉冲场，都可以激发体系的等离激元共振.这些不同频率外场激发的等离激元共振强度大小在一个数量级.外场频率越接近等离激元共振频率，外场激起的等离激元振动的振幅越大.对于线性原子链等离激元的非线性激发现象，本文用经典谐振子模型给出了定性解释.%At different frequencies of light pulse field, the coupling between plasmon resonance and electron transport of one-dimensional sodium atomic chain is investigated by using time-dependent density functional theory. Light pulse field, whose frequency is in about 0.8 eV range around the plasmon resonance point, can stimulate plasmon resonance of the system. Plasmon resonance intensity magnitude which is stimulated by these different frequency light pulse fields are in the same order of magnitude. The more closely the external field frequency approaches to plasmon resonance frequency, the larger plasmon resonance amplitude stimulated by the external field fields will be. With regard to the nonlinear excitation phenomenon of linear atomic chain plasmon, using a classical harmonic oscillator model, we gives a qualitative explanation.
Giraldo-Tobón, Eugenio; Ospina, Walter; Miranda-Pedraza, Guillermo L.; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E.
2015-07-01
The coefficients of the second-order nonlinear optical rectification and the generation of second and third harmonics, related to electron energy transitions in a two-dimensional elliptical quantum dot are calculated. The conduction band states are obtained using the finite element method to numerically solve the effective mass Schrödinger differential equation in the parabolic approximation, including the influence of an externally applied static electric field. It comes about that the geometry of the ellipse has a strong influence on the optical response, being the large eccentricity case the more favorable one. Furthermore, it is shown that the application of an electric field is of most importance for achieving well-resolved higher harmonics signals.
Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy
Björnham, Oscar
2016-01-01
Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...
Vauzour, David; Tejera, Noemi; O'Neill, Colette; Booz, Valeria; Jude, Baptiste; Wolf, Insa M A; Rigby, Neil; Silvan, Jose Manuel; Curtis, Peter J; Cassidy, Aedin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Rimbach, Gerald; Minihane, Anne Marie
2015-03-01
Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with pure anthocyanins for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomized controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select anthocyanins and their in vivo metabolites for 24 h and 48 h (experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA status or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary anthocyanins on n-3 PUFA distribution and suggest that the increasingly recognized benefits of anthocyanins are unlikely to be the result of a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status. PMID:25573539
Kavitha, T; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Devi, R S Rama; Hofman, T
2012-04-19
Mixing of ionic liquids (ILs) with molecular solvent can expand the range of structural properties and the scope of molecular interactions between the molecules of the solvents. Exploiting of these phenomena essentially require a basic fundamental understanding of mixing behavior of ILs with molecular solvents. In this context, a series of protic ILs possessing tetra-alkyl ammonium cation [R(4)N](+) with commonly used anion hydroxide [OH](-) were synthesized and characterized by temperature dependent thermophysical properties. The ILs [R(4)N](+)[OH](-) are varying only in the length of alkyl chain (R is methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl) of tetra-alkyl ammonium on the cationic part. The ILs used for the present study included tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide [(CH(3))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TMAH), tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(2)H(5))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TEAH), tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(3)H(7))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TPAH) and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(4)H(9))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TBAH). The alkyl chain length effect has been analyzed by precise measurements such as densities (ρ), ultrasonic sound velocity (u), and viscosity (η) of these ILs with polar solvent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), over the full composition range as a function of temperature. The excess molar volume (V(E)), the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκ(s)) and deviation in viscosity (Δη) were predicted using these properties as a function of the concentration of ILs. Redlich-Kister polynomial was used to correlate the results. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions, and hydrogen bonding between ILs and NMP molecules. Later, the hydrogen bonding features between ILs and NMP were also analyzed using a molecular modeling program with the help of HyperChem 7. PMID:22443087
This paper presents the results of the investigation concerning the behavior of digital protection devices implemented in a power system that contains dispersed energy resources such as wind power plants, fuel cells and photovoltaic; and non-linear loads. The study combines basic knowledge from the fields of power quality and protection technique. The goal is to test and analyse the impact of the new electrical environment on the different types of protection algorithms that can be implemented in the protection devices. A comparison of the different protection algorithms concerning their output results is presented. (Author)
Ross-Jones, T N; McIlwraith, C W; Kisiday, J D; Hess, T M; Hansen, D K; Black, J
2016-06-01
Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation has previously been shown to modify joint-related inflammation in several species, although information in the horse is lacking. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA would modify experimentally induced synovitis in horses. Twelve, skeletally mature, non-pregnant mares were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CONT) or an n-3 long-chain fatty acid-enriched treatment diet (N3FA) containing 40 g/day of n-3 LCPUFA for 91 days. Blood samples taken on days 0, 30, 60 and 90, and synovial fluid collected on days 0 and 90 were processed for lipid composition. On day 91, joint inflammation was stimulated using an intra-articular (IA) injection of 100 ng of recombinant equine IL-1beta (reIL-1β). Synovial fluid samples taken at post-injection hours (PIH) 0, 4, 8 and 24 were analysed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and routine cytology. Synovium and articular cartilage samples collected at PIH 8 were analysed for gene expression of MMP 1 and MMP 13, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the aggrecanases, a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5. A 90-day feeding period of n-3 LCPUFA increased serum phospholipid and synovial fluid lipid compositions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to CONT horses. The reIL-1β injection caused an inflammatory response; however, there was no effect of dietary treatment on synovial fluid PGE2 content and MMP activity. Synovial tissue collected from N3FA horses exhibited lower expression of ADAMTS-4 compared to CONT horses. Despite the presence of EPA and DHA in the synovial fluid of N3FA horses, dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not modify synovial fluid biomarkers compared to CONT horses; however, the lower ADAMTS-4 mRNA expression in N3FA synovium warrants further
Hamed Asgari; Bahram Azizi; Naser Azad; Hamid Bagheri
2013-01-01
Customer purchasing behavior plays an essential role on marketing planning in today’s competitive environment. Immediate purchasing behavior is one of the most important components of purchasing behavior. In this paper, we use factor analysis to extract important factors influencing immediate purchasing behavior.The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire including 35 questions and through basic investigation, the questions are reduced to 21 ones. The questionnaire is distributed...
Highlights: • Linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of quantum dot are studied. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • Doped system is subject to Gaussian white noise. • Dopant migrates under damped condition. • Noise-damping coupling affects polarizabilities. - Abstract: We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of static and frequency-dependent linear, first, and second nonlinear polarizabilities of repulsive impurity doped quantum dot. We have considered propagation of dopant within an environment that damps the motion. Simultaneous presence of noise inherent to the system has also been considered. The dopant has a Gaussian potential and noise considered is a Gaussian white noise. The doped system is exposed to an external electric field which could be static or time-dependent. Noise undergoes direct coupling with damping and the noise-damping coupling strength appears to be a crucial parameter that designs the profiles of polarizability components. This happens because the coupling strength modulates the dispersive and asymmetric character of the system. The frequency of external field brings about additional features in the profiles of polarizability components. The present investigation highlights some useful features in the optical properties of doped quantum dots
Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R
2016-06-01
During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. PMID:26616144
Galzitskaya, Oxana V
2016-01-01
The discovery of protein chain regions responsible for protein aggregation is an important result of studying of the molecular mechanisms of prion diseases and different proteinopathies associated with the formation of pathological aggregations through the prion mechanism. The ability to control aggregation of proteins could be an important tool in the arsenal of the drug development. Here we demonstrate, on an example of RNA-binding proteins of the FET family from six animal species (human, gorilla, pig, mouse, chicken, zebra fish), the possible role of repeats within the disordered regions. For these proteins, different repeats are revealed in the prion-like (N-terminal disordered) domains, and in the C-terminal disordered regions, predicted using bioinformatics methods. Moreover, we have found that in more complex organisms the number of repeats is increased. It can be hypothesized that the presence of a large number of repeats in the disordered regions in the proteins of the FET-family could both modulate and accelerate the formation of a dynamic cross-beta structure, and pathological aggregates. PMID:26100283
AI Hong; LU Hong-fei; LIANG Huan-you; WU Jian; LI Ruo-lan; LIU Guo-ping; XI Yun
2005-01-01
Background Enamel demineralization occurs frequently during orthodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the changes of the density of mutans streptococcus (MS) in plaque after bracket bonding and using fluoride adhesive on maxillary incisors by real time fluorescence-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ PCR).Methods The study was designed as a self-paired test. Brackets were bonded with fluoride adhesive on the left side, while non-fluoride adhesive on the right side for each patient. Plaque samples were taken from the surfaces around the brackets of four maxillary incisors before brackets bonding and after the bonding 4 weeks later. The amount of MS was measured by RT-FQ PCR. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using the SPSS 11.5 version and the alpha level was set at 0.05 (2-tailed).Results The amount of MS in plaque increased significantly after bracket bonding (P0.05), and among the incisors using and not using fluoride adhesive (P>0.05).Conclusions The increase of the density of MS in plaque after bracket bonding is one of the etiological factors for enamel demineralization in orthodontic patients. The result of this study did not support what we observed clinically that the incidence of enamel demineralization for lateral incisors was higher than that for central incisors. Using fluoride adhesive for bonding did not affect the amount of MS in plaque in our study. Further study is needed.
Verkerk, Ruud; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ciska, Ewa; Holst, Birgit; Rowland, Ian; De Schrijver, Remi; Hansen, Magnor; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Mithen, Richard; Dekker, Matthijs
2009-09-01
Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper. PMID:19035553
Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P; Mosier, Eric M; Miller, Jonathan D
2016-06-01
This study examined correlations between type I percent myosin heavy chain isoform content (%MHC) and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) during isometric muscle actions. Fifteen (age=21.63±2.39) participants performed 40% and 70% maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the leg extensors that included increasing, steady force, and decreasing segments. Muscle biopsies were collected and MMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis. Linear regressions were fit to the natural-log transformed MMGRMS-force relationships (increasing and decreasing segments) and MMGRMS was selected at the targeted force level during the steady force segment. Correlations were calculated among type I%MHC and the b (slopes) terms from the MMGRMS-force relationships and MMGRMS at the targeted force. For the 40% MVC, correlations were significant (P<0.02) between type I%MHC and the b terms from the increasing (r=-0.804) and decreasing (r=-0.568) segments, and MMGRMS from the steady force segment (r=-0.606). Type I%MHC was only correlated with MMGRMS during the steady force segment (P=0.044, r=-0.525) during the 70% MVC. Higher type I%MHC reduced acceleration in MMGRMS (b terms) during the 40% MVC and the amplitude during the steady force segments. The surface MMG signal recorded during a moderate intensity contraction provided insight on the contractile properties of the VL in vivo. PMID:27152756
Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kumita, Janet R; Dobson, Christopher M; Kozak, Maciej
2015-07-01
Very important to gene therapy is the delivery system of the nucleic acids (called a vector), which will enhance the efficiency of the transport of new DNA into cells whilst protecting against damage. A promising alternative to the currently used viral vectors are the systems based on amphiphilic compounds - lipoplexes. Among them, gemini surfactants, which consist of two hydrophobic chains and two cationic heads connected by a linker - spacer group, appear to be promising candidates. The subject of this study involves two gemini surfactants, alkoxy derivatives of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts, differing in the length of their spacer groups and how they interact with two types of salmon sperm DNA (low and high molecular weight (MW)) or plasmid DNA (pDNA). The mixtures of gemini surfactants with nucleic acids of differing p/n ratios (positive-to-negative charge ratio) were characterised by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of synchrotron radiation, dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and gel electrophoresis techniques. This analysis allows for the selection of the most suitable and promising candidates for non-viral vectors in gene therapy, determination of the conditions needed to form stable complexes, identification of conformational changes in the DNA molecules upon interactions with gemini surfactants and in some cases, determination of the structures formed in these lipoplexes. PMID:25969417
José María Caridad
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is focused on an analysis and evaluation of severe events according to their frequency of occurrence and their impact on the company's manufacturing and distribution supply chains performance in the Czech Republic. Risk factors are introduced for critical events.Design/methodology: An identification and classification of severe events are realized on the basis of median mapping and mapping of ordinal variability acquired through the questionnaire survey of 82 companies. Analysis of 46 risk factors was sorted into 5 groups. We used asymmetric Somers's d statistics for testing the dependence of frequency and impact of a severe event on selected risk sources. The hierarchical cluster analysis is performed to identify relatively homogeneous groups of critical severe events according to their dependency on risk factors and its strength.Findings: Results showed that ‘a lack of contracts’ is considered to be the most critical severe event. Groups of demand and supply side and an external risk factor group were identified to be the most significant sources of risk factors. The worst cluster encompasses 11% of examined risk factors which should be prevented. We concluded that organizations need to adopt appropriate precautions and risk management methods in logistics.Originality: In this paper, the methodology for severe events evaluation in supply chain is designed. This methodology involves assessing the critical factors which influence the critical events and which should be prevented.
Nonlinear Waves in Complex Systems
2007-01-01
The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations, it is the ......The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations......, it is the universality and robustness of the main models with respect to perturbations that developped the field. This is true for both continuous and discrete equations. In this volume we keep this broad view and draw new perspectives for nonlinear waves in complex systems. In particular we address energy flow...
Niezgoda, Izabela; Szypszak, Ewelina; Dardas, Dorota; Galewski, Zbigniew
2016-04-01
In this manuscript, we report synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of 4-[[4-(butoxy)phenyl]diazenyl]phenyl alkanoates homologous series. For the first time, nineteen derivatives are described here. The enantiotropic nematic phase is typically observed among all members of this series. However, in the case of 4-[[4-(butoxy)phenyl]diazenyl]phenyl stearate, the nematic phase shows a monotropic character. In addition to liquid-crystalline polymorphism, a second crystalline form was observed in some homologs. Furthermore, using a photoelastic modulator, the optical anisotropy in the nematic phase was determined in the first nine compounds of this series. Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy at significantly lower values of reduced temperature is relatively weak. In contrast, optical anisotropy shows a strong temperature effect near isotropization. Moreover, the influence of the ester chain elongation on liquid crystalline and optical properties was established.
Sarkadi-Nagy Eszter A
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations. Methods Baboons were randomized into a breastfed (B and four formula-fed groups: term, no DHA/ARA (T-; term, DHA/ARA supplemented (T+; preterm, no DHA/ARA (P-; preterm and DHA/ARA supplemented (P+. At four weeks adjusted age, brains were dissected and total fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results DHA and ARA are rich in many more structures than previously reported. They are most concentrated in structures local to the brain stem and diencephalon, particularly the basal ganglia, limbic regions, thalamus and midbrain, and comparatively lower in white matter. Dietary supplementation increased DHA in all structures but had little influence on ARA concentrations. Supplementation restored DHA concentrations to levels of breastfed neonates in all regions except the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Prematurity per se did not exert a strong influence on DHA or ARA concentrations. Conclusion 1 DHA and ARA are found in high concentration throughout the primate CNS, particularly in gray matter such as basal ganglia; 2 DHA concentrations drop across most CNS structures in neonates consuming formulas with no DHA, but ARA levels are relatively immune to ARA in the diet; 3 supplementation of infant formula is effective at restoring DHA concentration in structures other than the cerebral cortex. These results will be useful as a guide to future investigations of CNS function in the absence of dietary DHA and ARA.
Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Stahnke, Louise Heller
2004-01-01
ionization detection (GC/FID). Main volatile catabolic products of leucine, isoleucine and valine were 3-methylbutanoic, 2-methylbutanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids, respectively. The generation of branched flavour compounds was influenced significantly by most of the investigated environmental parameters....... The environmental conditions studied were temperature (12-28degreesC), NaCl concentration (4.0-12.0% (w/w)) acidity (pH 4.8-5.8) and addition of manganese (0-2.5mg Mn/kg). Flavour compounds were sampled by automatic static headspace collection and separated/quantified using gas chromatography/flame...
LU Xiang-feng; YU Hong-jiang; ZHOU Xiao-yang; WANG Lai-yuan; HUANG Jian-feng; GU Dong-feng
2008-01-01
Background Although the role of fibrinogen as a predictor of acute myocardial infarction(MI)has been well-established,the association of genetic polymorphisms in the fibrinogen gene with MI is still controversial.This study was conducted to elucidate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of the fibrinogen β-chain(FGB)gene and MI in Chinese Han population.Methods The occurrence of 3 common polymorphisms(i.e.-455G/A,R448K and 8558C/G)in a case-control study including 508 patients with MI and 503 healthy controls was investigated. Results Analyses of single polymorphisms showed that individuals carrying the rare alleles for the 3 polymorphisms were significantly associated with a decreased risk of MI.Logistic regression analysis indicated that R448K remained independently associated with MI after adjustment for environmental risk factors(adjusted odds ratio(OR)=0.71 for KK/RK versus RR.P=0.023).The three polymorphisms were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium.Haplotype analyses showed that the A-K-G haplotype(-455A,448K,8558G)was associated with a protective effect against MI.Compared with the common haplotype G-R-C,the adjusted OR for A-K-G was 0.68(95% CI,0.51-0.90;P=0.006). Conclusion These data indicate that individuals carrying the FGB 448K allele may be protective against having MI in this population.
Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael
2015-12-01
This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The
In present investigation 0.5 and 1 mol% formic acid (FA) added potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals have been grown by a slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of different functional groups has been qualitatively analyzed by the FT-IR spectral analysis. The optical transparency and optical constants were assessed employing UV–visible studies in the range of 200–900 nm. The wide optical band gap of 1 mol% FA added KDP has been found to be 5 eV. The frequency dependent dielectric measurements were studied for pure and KDP added FA crystals. The enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystals was determined by a classical Kurtz–Perry powder technique. The encouraging third order nonlinear properties were examined employing a Z-scan technique using He–Ne laser, at 632.8 nm. The effective negative index of refraction and high figure of merit (FOM) essential for laser stabilization were determined for grown crystals. - Highlights: • Study on electrical and optical properties of formic acid (FA) added KDP was reported for the first time. • Optical properties were found to be enhanced with increasing concentration of FA. • The SHG efficiency of 1 mol% FA added KDP was 1.13 times that of KDP. • The high concentration of FA contributed lower dielectric properties to KDP suitable for microelectronics applications. • The improved third order nonlinear parameters were ascertained with addition of FA in KDP crystal
Greco, M; Lugni, C; Faltinsen, O M
2015-01-28
Occurrence and features of parametric roll (PR) on a weather-vaning floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) platform with a turret single-point mooring-line system are examined. The main focus is on the relevance of motions coupling and nonlinear effects on this phenomenon and on more general unstable conditions as well as on the occurrence and severity of water on deck. This work was motivated by recent experiments on an FPSO model without mooring systems highlighting the occurrence of parametric resonance owing to roll-yaw coupling. A three-dimensional numerical hybrid potential-flow seakeeping solver was able to capture this behaviour. The same method, extended to include the mooring lines, is adopted here to investigate the platform behaviour for different incident wavelengths, steepnesses, headings, locations of the turret and pretensions. From the results, sway and yaw tend to destabilize the system, also bringing chaotic features. The sway-roll-yaw coupling widens the existence region of PR resonance and increases PR severity; it also results in a larger amount of shipped water, especially at smaller wavelength-to-ship length ratio and larger steepness. The chaotic features are excited when a sufficiently large yaw amplitude is reached. Consistently, a simplified stability analysis showed the relevance of nonlinear-restoring coefficients, first those connected with the sway-yaw coupling then those associated with the roll-yaw coupling, both destabilizing. From the stability analysis, the system is unstable for all longitudinal locations of the turret and pre-tensions examined, but the instability weakens as the turret is moved forward, and the pre-tension is increased. The use of a suitable dynamic-positioning system can control the horizontal motions, avoiding the instability. PMID:25512590
Fleming, S. W.; Hood, E.; Dahlke, H. E.; O'Neel, S.
2016-01-01
The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.
Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)
Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.
1977-01-01
The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.
Highlights: ► A study of mixed systems of nonionic surfactants belonging to different families. ► The micellar size is affected by composition, temperature, and salt addition. ► Clouding is analyzed from a thermodynamic point of view. ► The influence of the alkyl chain length of the sugar-based surfactant is examined. - Abstract: The clouding behavior of two non-ionic mixed surfactant systems (n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside/n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol and n-decyl-β-D-maltoside/n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol) was investigated over the entire composition range in pure water and in 1 M NaCl. The evolution of micellar size as a function of temperature was monitored by dynamic light scattering and a unimodal distribution pattern of aggregates consistent with a single scattering species was found. Our results confirm that an increase of temperature induces micellar growth and that clustering of micelles occurs as the temperature approaches the cloud point. It was observed that, with increasing temperature, the higher the n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol content the greater the micellar growth. The presence of sugar surfactant monomers in the mixed micelle enhances the cloud point of the system. This phase behavior is sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the micellar solution which induces cloud point depression. For a certain system composition, the cloud point decreases as the alkyl chain length of the sugar-based surfactant increases. Cloud-point thermodynamics were evaluated assuming that clouding indicates the solubility limit when phase separation occurs. The micelle–solvent interactions were characterized from the compensation temperatures, which were determined from the enthalpy–entropy plots.
Compliance error compensation technique for parallel robots composed of non-perfect serial chains
Klimchik, Alexandr; Pashkevich, Anatol; Chablat, Damien; Hovland, Geir
2012-01-01
International audience The paper presents the compliance errors compensation technique for over-constrained parallel manipulators under external and internal loadings. This technique is based on the non-linear stiffness modeling which is able to take into account the influence of non-perfect geometry of serial chains caused by manufacturing errors. Within the developed technique, the deviation compensation reduces to an adjustment of a target trajectory that is modified in the off-line mod...
Sharma, Gangavaram V M; Anjaiah, Gonuguntla; Kanakaraju, Marumudi; Sudhakar, Bommeda; Chatterjee, Deepak; Kunwar, Ajit C
2016-01-14
The important role of side chains in the stabilization of helical folds in peptidic foldamers containing C-linked carbo-β-amino acids (β-Caa), an interesting class of β-amino acids, with carbohydrate side chains has been extensively elaborated. As a pragmatic approach to alleviate the interference of substituents in the side chains on the folding propensities of the peptides, they are often modified or removed. The present study reports the synthesis of a new β-Caa with a 3-deoxy-L-ara furanoside side chain, [(R)-β-Caa(da)], from D-glucose, and its use in the synthesis of α/β-peptides in 1 : 1 alternation with D-Ala. The synthesis of peptides using (R)-β-Caa(da), was facile unlike those from (R)-β-Caa(a) having the L-ara furanoside side chain. The detailed NMR, molecular dynamics (MD) and CD studies on the new α/β-peptides showed the presence of robust left-handed 11/9-mixed helices. The study demonstrates that the new (R)-β-Caa(da), behaves differently compared to the other two related monomers, (R)-β-Caa(x) with the D-xylo furanoside side chain and (R)-β-Caa(a). PMID:26489370
Lu, Y; Rong, C Z; Zhao, J Y; Lao, X J; Xie, L; Li, S; Qin, X
2016-01-01
The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period. PMID:27580005
无
2001-01-01
Chitosan resins, which clinically served as adsorbents in hemoperfusion therapy, were prepared with reversed-phase suspension methodology using three differently structured crosslinking agents, methanal, glyoxal and glutaraldehyde. And the glyoxal and glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan resins were reduced with NaBH4 afterwards. By analyzing the results from FTIR and SEM, it was found that the reduction treatment to the adsorbents efficiently improved the chemical stability of these chitosan resins, and the shifts in crosslinking agents exerted influences over the morphologies of the adsorbents obviously. After being put to use in the adsorption tests upon some model uremic middle molecular toxins and BSA in vitro, all three adsorbents demon- strated a fairly realistic adsorption capability to the model toxins but little to BSA. And the adsorp- tion process reached the equilibrium in a clinically qualified short time. But the adsorption capaci- ties of these adsorbents to the model toxins were quite different. It had been found that with the growing of fatty chain length of crosslinking agent, these adsorbents showed a gradually increased adsorption capacity to the model toxins, and the glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan resin be- haved best.
Understanding the supply chain
Aćimović Slobodan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.
Dini Hardini
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease
Yoshida, Zensho
2010-01-01
This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl
An analytical methodology was developed to predict the thermal stress level that occurs in a metallic matrix composite reinforced with SiC particles, when the temperature decreases from 600 deg C to 20 deg C during the fabrication process. This analytical development is based on the Eshelby method, dislocation mechanisms, and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution model. The material was assumed to have a linear elastic behavior. The analytical results from this formulation were verified against numerical linear analyses that were performed over a set of random non-uniform distribution of particles that covers a wide range of volumetric ratios. To stick with the analytical hypothesis, particles with round geometry were used. Each stress distribution, represented by the isostress curves at ΔT=-580 deg C, was analyzed with an image analyzer. A statistical procedure was applied to obtain the most probable thermal stress level. Analytical and numerical results compared very well. Plastic deformation as well as particle geometry can alter significantly the stress field in the material. To account for these effects, in this work, several numerical analyses were performed considering the non-linear behavior for the aluminum matrix and distinct particle geometries. Two distinct sets of data with were used. To allow a direct comparison, the first set has the same models (particle form, size and distribution) as used previously. The second set analyze quadrilateral particles and present very tight range of volumetric ratio, closer to what is found in actual SiC composites. A simple and fast algorithm was developed to analyze the new results. The comparison of these results with the previous ones shows, as expected, the strong influence of the elastic-plastic behavior of the aluminum matrix on the composite thermal stress distribution due to its manufacturing process and shows, also, a small influence of the particles geometry and volumetric ratio. (author)
Maas Stefan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Structural Health Monitoring (SHM intends to identify damage by changes of characteristics as for instance the modal parameters. The eigenfrequencies, mode-shapes and damping-values are either directly used as damage indicators or the changes of derived parameters are analysed, such as e.g. flexibilities or updated finite element models. One common way is a continuous monitoring under environmental excitation forces, such as wind or traffic, i.e. the so-called output-only modal analysis. Alternatively, a forced measured external excitation in distinct time-intervals may be used for input-output modal analysis. Both methods are limited by the precision or the repeatability under real-life conditions at site. The paper will summarize several field tests of artificially step-by-step damaged bridges prior to their final demolishment and it will show the changes of eigenfrequencies due to induced artificial damage. Additionally, some results of a monitoring campaign of a healthy bridge in Luxembourg are presented. Reinforced concrete shows non-linear behaviour in the sense that modal parameters depend on the excitation force amplitude, i.e. higher forces lead often to lower eigenfrequencies than smaller forces. Furthermore, the temperature of real bridges is neither constant in space nor in time, while for instance the stiffness of asphalt is strongly dependant on it. Finally, ageing as such can also change a bridge’s stiffness and its modal parameters, e.g. because creep and shrinkage of concrete or ageing of elastomeric bearing pads influence their modulus of elasticity. These effects cannot be considered as damage, though they influence the measurement of modal parameters and hinder damage detection.
Marinda Uys
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants’ (N=40 subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. Results: The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users’ perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. Conclusion: The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users’ enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.
Parametrically Driven Nonlinear Oscillators with an Impurity
张卓; 唐翌
2002-01-01
By virtue of the method of multiple scales, we study a chain of parametrically driven nonlinear oscillators with a mass impurity. An equation is presented to describe the nonlinear wave of small amplitude in the chain.In our derivation, the equation is applicable to any eigenmode of coupled pendulum. Our result shows that a nonpropagation soliton emerges as the lowest or highest eigenmode of coupled pendulum is excited, and the impurity tends to pin the nonpropagation soliton excitation.
Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.
Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A
2014-10-20
We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics. PMID:25401574
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS
Magdalena Daniela DINU
2014-01-01
This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...
Troin, Magali; Vrac, Mathieu; Khodri, Myriam; Caya, Daniel; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Piovano, Eduardo; Sylvestre, Florence
2016-03-01
During the 1970s, Laguna Mar Chiquita (Argentina) experienced a dramatic hydroclimatic anomaly, with a substantial rise in its level. Precipitations are the dominant driving factor in lake level fluctuations. The present study investigates the potential role of remote forcing through global sea surface temperature (SST) fields in modulating recent hydroclimatic variability in Southeastern South America and especially over the Laguna Mar Chiquita region. Daily precipitation and temperature are extracted from a multi-member LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ensemble of simulations forced by HadISST1 observed time-varying global SST and sea-ice boundary conditions from 1950 to 2005. The various members of the ensemble are only different in their atmospheric initial conditions. Statistical downscaling (SD) is used to adjust precipitation and temperature from LMDz ensemble mean at the station scale over the basin. A coupled basin-lake hydrological model ( cpHM) is then using the LMDz-downscaled (LMDz-SD) climate variables as input to simulate the lake behavior. The results indicate that the long-term lake level trend is fairly well depicted by the LMDz-SD- cpHM simulations. The 1970s level rise and high-level conditions are generally well captured in timing and in magnitude when SST-forced AGCM-SD variables are used to drive the cpHM. As the LMDz simulations are forced solely with the observed sea surface conditions, the global SST seems to have an influence on the lake level variations of Laguna Mar Chiquita. As well, this study shows that the AGCM-SD- cpHM model chain is a useful approach for evaluating long-term lake level fluctuations in response to the projected climate changes.