Observações da dieta de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) em duas áreas do sul do Brasil Diet observations of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in two areas of southern Brazil
Fernando C. Passos; Gustavo Graciolli
Este estudo foi realizado no Parque Nacional de Superagüi (PNS) e na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural de Volta Velha (RPPN), ambas áreas de Mata Atlântica, nos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil. Morcegos foram capturados em redes de neblina e amostras fecais foram coletadas para análise da dieta. As sementes encontradas em cada amostra foram identificadas em laboratório por meio de lupa. Cento e trinta e sete exemplares de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818) foram cap...
Estudo preliminar sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae no Vale do Taquari, Sul do Brasil Preliminary study by the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae in Taquari Valley, South Brazil
Carlos Benhur Kasper
Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001 foi realizado um estudo sobre a dieta e o uso de abrigos e marcas odoríferas por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818. Coletaram-se 275 marcas odoríferas, das quais 261 foram analisadas para determinação da dieta. O uso de marcas odoríferas ocorreu por deposição de fezes, sobretudo sobre locais conspícuos das margens dos rios ou no interior dos abrigos. Os abrigos foram formados principalmente por escavação paralela a margem dos rios. Estes abrigos foram altamente reutilizados. Ocorreu predação sobre três grupos de presas: peixes, mamíferos e insetos. Os peixes formam a base da dieta, e as famílias Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/Auchenipteridae e Erythrinidae foram as mais freqüentes nas análises fecais. A ocorrência destes grupos de peixes na dieta é maior do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente.The study was carried out in two areas of Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between August 2000 and December 2001 a study about diet and use of shelters and scent marks by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed. 275 spraints were colleted, of which 261 were analised for diet determination. The use of scent marks occured by the deposition of feaces mainly under conspicuous sites of the river margin or inside the shelters. The shelters were often formed by parallel excavation of river margin. The shelters were highly reused. Predation occurred on 3 groups of preys: Fish, Mammals and Insects. The fish, formed the diet base, and the families Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/ Auchenipteridae and Erythrinidae were the most frequently identified ones in fecal analysis. The occurrence of these fish groups in the diet was higher then the relative availability in environment.
Estimativa do tamanho de duas espécies de ciclídeos (Osteichthyes, Perciformes predados por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae, através de análise das escamas Size estimation of two species of Ciclids (Ostheichthyes, Perciformes predated by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae through scale analysis
Carlos Benhur Kasper
Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Entre dezembro de 2001 e dezembro de 2002 foi realizado um estudo sobre a predação de Cichlidae por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 através de análise das escamas encontradas nas fezes de lontra. Foi identificada a predação sobre Gimnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel, 1870 e Crenicichla punctata Hensel, 1870, e a ocorrência destas espécies de peixe na dieta é mais elevada do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente. Foi encontrada uma correlação positiva entre o tamanho do peixe e das escamas, permitindo a construção de uma curva de regressão para estimar o tamanho dos peixes predados baseado no tamanho das escamas encontradas nas fezes de lontra. Neste estudo, os ciclídeos mais frequentemente predados variaram no comprimento entre 100 e 150 mm e no peso entre 22 e 37 g.The present study was carried out in the Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between December 2001 and December 2002 a study about the predation of Cichlidae by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed through scale analysis found in otter scats. Predation was indentified about Gimnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel, 1870 and Crenicichla punctata Hensel, 1870, and the occurence of these fish species in the diet were higher than the relative availability in the environment. A positive correlation between fish and scale sizes was found, allowing to build a regression curve to estimate the size of predated fish, based on scales found in otter scats. In this study ciclids most frequently predated varied in lenght from 100 and 150 mm and in weight from 22 to 37,6 g.
Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G
Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644
Angélica H Klippel
Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.
Full Text Available The karyotypes of 85 specimens of Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae collected in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest of seven states of Brazil were analyzed. Eighty four specimens presented a karyotype with 2n = 62 and one individual had 2n = 61 due to a monosomy of the X chromosome. High levels of intra- and inter-population karyotypic variability, due to sex chromosomes heteromorphisms and pericentric inversions in four autosomes (pairs 2, 3, 4 and 8, led to a variation of the autosomal arm numbers (fundamental number, FN from 78 to 82. Synaptonemal complex analyses revealed normal meiosis in males heterozygous for pericentric inversions. We found 39 different cytotypes, 27 of which are herein described for the first time. A literature survey revealed 46 described karyotypes for O. nigripes. We tested the hypothesis that chromosomal variants frequencies are dependent on geographical distribution and we propose a model for the karyotypical evolution of Oligoryzomys nigripes with 2n = 62/FN = 78-82.
Full Text Available Very little is known about the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Brazilian state of Bahia. The purpose of this study was to record the number and location of sites where otters have been recorded in this area. Between 1988 and 2009, there were 29 records of otters in Bahia, including the collection of 13 living (9 and dead (4 otters. Of the live otters, 61.53% were adults and 38.46% pups. Five of these were males, five were females and the gender of three individual was not established. The majority (41,37% of otter records were made in northern Bahia, and 31.03% were made in southern Bahia (31.03%. Eight records (27,58% were made in the area around Todos os Santos bay, including seven sites where the species was not previously known to occur. No observations were made in the mid-west region of the state, so future studies are needed in this region.
Trinca, C S; Waldemarin, H F; Eizirik, E
The Neotropical otter is one of the least known otter species, and it is considered to be threatened to various degrees throughout its geographic range. Little information exists on the ecological characteristics of this species, and no genetic study has been published about it until now, hampering the design of adequate conservation strategies for its populations. To contribute with genetic information to comprehensive conservation efforts on behalf of L. longicaudis, we characterized the molecular diversity of the 5 portion of the mtDNA control region in samples from this species collected in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The sequence analysis revealed a high level of haplotype diversity (h=0.819; SE=0.0052) and nucleotide variability ranging from 0.0039 to 0.0067. One of the sampled haplotypes was the most common in both regions and, from this sequence, several other (locally occurring) haplotypes could be derived by single point mutations. No significant genetic differentiation was observed between the Southern and Southeastern regions. PMID:18278347
Arani Nanci Bonfim Mariano
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze aspects of the otter’s hair (Lutra longicaudis. Size, shape and number of hairs, as well as their layers and distribution on the skin were observed. To accomplish this purpose, 1mm2 of skin with its respective hair was removed from 44 points of the body surface and was examined under a stereoscopic microscope in order to be measured, counted and morphologically analyzed. The results were registered in histograms and schematic drawings and compared to the descriptions for other species. The covering hair reached a maximum height of 18mm and a minimum of 3.5mm, while wholly hair showed a maximum height of 11mm and a minimum of 1.5mm. The cuticle flake hairs of the covering coat modified, along the connecting rod according to its bore, shape, number and architecture. The cortex was thick in the portion where the covering coat took the form of a flattened spindle. The wholly coat was practically constituted by the cortex. The results obtained in this study suggest that the otter has a complex fur, different to the other animals. This is probably due mainly to its semi-aquatic habit.
Fernando Marques Quintela
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.
Full Text Available This study presents the distribution of neotropical otters (Lontra longicaudis in coastal islands of Santa Catarina State. A total of 23 islands were surveyed, through 46 field trips. Otter's signs were found in 9 islands, representing 39% of the total. It is believed that the Lontra longicaudis use these islands as a support for its movement from one place to another. The results could be indicating the existence of a coastal ecological corridor used by the neotropical otter.
Gabriel Maciel de Souza Vianna
Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis, was assessed based on bottom-trawl survey data collected off the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Between 1980 and 1984 and in 2005, 416 bottom trawl hauls were carried out at depths of 10-100 m. Narcine brasiliensis occurred mainly in waters with bottom temperature between 20 and 25ºC. Density of the species was higher between the depths of 10 and 20 m, during the summer and autumn. The seasonal pattern of N. brasiliensis in the shallow coastal water of Rio Grande do Sul reflects a southward migration in summer. This is conditioned by the southward advance of warmer and high-salinity Tropical Water of the Brazil Current In winter, the return or northward migration is a response to seasonal cooling of the coastal waters and to the northward advance of cold Coastal Water of lower salinity. The latitudinal gradient in density of N. brasiliensis was related to the latitudinal gradient in salinity of the bottom waters. This was caused by the freshwater runoff from the Patos Lagoon establishing a physical barrier to the occurrence of the species farther south than the city of Rio Grande.A distribuição e abundância da raia elétrica Narcine brasiliensis foi analisada com base em 416 lances de arrasto de fundo realizados entre as profundidades de 10- 100 m ao longo da costa do Rio Grande do Sul, em 1980-1984 e 2005. A espécie ocorreu prioritariamente em águas com temperatura de fundo entre 20 e 25ºC. A densidade de N. brasiliensis foi maior durante o verão e outono e entre as profundidades de 10 e 20 m. O padrão sazonal de densidade da espécie nas águas costeiras rasas do Rio Grande do Sul reflete uma migração no sentido norte-sul condicionada pelo avanço das águas quentes e de alta salinidade da Água Tropical da Corrente do Brasil em direção ao sul durante o verão. A redução sazonal da temperatura da água e o avanço da Água Costeira, de baixa salinidade, determinam a migração da espécie em direção ao norte no inverno. O gradiente latitudinal de densidade de N. brasiliensis esteve relacionado com o gradiente latitudinal de salinidade das águas de fundo decorrente da descarga de água doce oriunda da Lagoa dos Patos, que estabelece uma barreira física para a ocorrência da espécie ao sul da cidade de Rio Grande.
Amaral, T S; Carvalho, T F; Silva, M C; Barros, M S; Picanço, M C; Neves, C A; Freitas, M B
A new class of insecticide derived from fermentation of Sacharopolyspora spinosa - spinosad, has been indicated as being of low toxicity and a natural alternative to classical pesticides. In order to elucidate several aspects related to the morphophysiological changes induced by spinosad in Artibeus lituratus, the effects of a seven-day administration on plasma glucose, glycogen, protein and lipid concentrations were evaluated, and possible changes in liver cells were examined by histological analysis. Animals were fed with spinosyn-contaminated fruit through immersion in a solution. Data reporting on metabolism revealed a decrease in hind limb muscle lipid concentration in the treated group. Morphological analysis indicated a significant increase in liver cell diameter in treated animals compared to the control group. This study indicates that spinosyn, used at its recommended dose, does not affect general energy metabolism in A. lituratus but may affect some ultrastructural characteristics of liver cells. PMID:22735137
Bibiana Verdin De Andrade
Full Text Available Three female and one male Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae were found parasitizing a neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. This is the first record of the occurrence of A. ovale in Santa Catarina Island and the second report of this ectoparasite in a mustelid species in Brazil. A. ovale has been reported in wild carnivores in several Brazilian states and is considered one of the main predominant species of the Atlantic rainforest. The Amblyomma ticks are primarily responsible for the spread of BSF in humans. Among the species of Amblyomma infesting dogs is the A. ovale and the proximity between man and the dog favors the parasite sharing. Santa Catarina Island has many rural and wild environments shared by domestic animals, especially dogs, such as the environment where the otter was found in this study. Proper determination of tick species and their distribution in different geographical regions is essential for the understanding of the epidemiology of Rickettsiosis.
Full Text Available Public participation is often disregarded during conservation projects despite the potential benefits as it can help to determine priority areas for conservation in highly fragmented landscapes or to increase knowledge of little known species. However, there is no information about its potential application in Central Mexico. We undertook a preliminary assessment based on 30 interviews preformed between December 2011 and May 2012 with hunters aimed to determine the presence, feeding habits, reproduction periods, and –threats of the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in a fragmented landscape in the Sierra Madre Oriental. Twenty three of the interviewed hunters indicated that the species is rare and considered to be solitary however, they have observed cubs and pregnant females feeding mainly on fish and crustaceans were made. Pollution, shortage of prey, habitat disturbance, and hunting were the main threats on the species. We verified the presence responses of the neotropical otter through field work and the life history information was obtained by doing a literature review. We concluded that public participation can be confidently incorporated in conservation plans of the neotropical otter in the Sierra Madre Oriental.
Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae = Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae
Ricardo Anghinoni Bocchese
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Osmorcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceirodividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quandocomparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espéciefrugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmenteem áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experimentbeing divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 wasstatistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.
Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.
Full Text Available For a further distribution and occurrence study of L. longicaudis in the region of Cananéia, south coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, a methodology adapted for the local conditions based on the “survey” method used with Lutra lutra was tested. The study site was divided in 35 quadrants of 2x2 km and in each one a body of water was chosen for the investigation. Each body of water was traveled for at least 2 km searching for evidences of the presence of otters. It was possible to produce an image of the distribution of the species in the area using the coordinates of the sites where the vestiges were found. This image showed the presence of otters in rivers and in the estuary and absence in the areas facing the open sea. In 12 out of 13 positive quadrants for the otter presence the first vestige was found in the first 800 m of monitoring. Therefore, we recommend a reduction of the area traveled in each bodies of water to 1 km, reducing the expenses and also increasing the sampled area. We also recommend the increase in the size of the quadrants due to the occurrence of otters in some quadrants considered negative by the method.
Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879 Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879
Eliane Cristine Vicente
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Os morcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceiro dividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quando comparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espécie frugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmente em áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experiment being divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 was statistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.
Daniela O. de Lima; Bethânia O. Azambuja; Vagner L. Camilotti; Nilton C. Cáceres
We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913), Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829), Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphi...
Comparative lengths of digestive tracts of seven didelphid marsupials (Mammalia) in relation to diet Dimensões comparadas de tratos digestivos de sete marsupiais didelfídeos (Mammalia) em relação à dieta
Nilton C. Cáceres
The relative proportions of the digestive tract were rarely explored to understand the behaviour and the ecology of neotropical marsupials. In this study, proportions of the digestive tract and diet were compared in seven opossum species. The animals studied were Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840, D. aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826, Metachirus nudicaudatus (Desmarest, 1817), Philander frenatus (Olfers, 1818), Lutreolina crassicaudata Desmarest, 1804, Monodelphis sorex (Hensel, 1872) and Caluromys la...
Cibele M. V. Zanon; Nélio R. dos Reis
The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals) were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818), Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810), Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810) (Phyllostomidae); Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819), Eumopsaur...
Full Text Available -protein kinase transforming protein Abl OS=Abelson murine leukemia virus GN=ABL PE=1 SV=1 ...: 239 TEPRRR--TGKLT--ITDALTD 256 >sp|Q2GXM1|SEC16_CHAGB COPII coat assembly protein SEC16 OS=Chaetomi...ition sp|Q2VZV0|IF2_MAGMM Translation initiation factor IF-2 OS=Magnetospirillum magneticum (strain AMB-1 / ...g significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q2VZV0|IF2_MAGMM Translation initiation factor IF-2 OS=Magne... kinase transforming protein... 32 1.5 sp|P00520|ABL1_MOUSE Proto-oncogene tyrosine
Full Text Available ed protein OS=Oryza... 257 4e-67 tr|A8D930|A8D930_9GENT ATP-dependent DEAD-box helicase OS=Apoc...I26 Definition sp|Q10I26|RH34_ORYSJ DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase 34 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. japonica A... RNA helicase FAL1 OS=Cryptoco... 228 2e-59 sp|Q4WEB4|FAL1_ASPFU ATP-dependent RNA helicase fal1 OS=Aspergil...nt RNA helicase FAL1 OS=Coccidio... 228 2e-59 sp|A6S4N4|FAL1_BOTFB ATP-depende...AL1 OS=Chaetomi... 228 3e-59 sp|A4QU31|FAL1_MAGGR ATP-dependent RNA helicase FAL1 OS=Magnapor... 227 5e-59 s
Full Text Available OS=Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus GN=env PE=1 SV=1 Length = 661 Score = 35.8 bits (81), Expect...LVLB Envelope glycoprotein OS=Feline leukemia virus (strain B/lambda-B1) GN=env PE=1 SV=1 Length = 662 Score = 30.8 bits (68), Expect...ALCNRT 396 >sp|P03388|ENV_MCFF3 Envelope glycoprotein OS=Mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia...plasma laidlawii... 31 3.1 sp|P11261|ENV_FLVLB Envelope glycoprotein OS=Feline leukemia vir... 31 3.1 sp|Q76....9 sp|Q2GZU7|DBP7_CHAGB ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP7 OS=Chaetomi... 30 6.9 sp|Q87BE2|TILS_XYLFT tRNA(Ile)-lysidine
S. S. P. SILVA
Full Text Available In the present study visits of phyllostomid bats to the Lafoensia glyptocarpa Kohne flowers were observed at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Itaguaí municipality, Rio de Janeiro state. This tree species present floral characteristics to fit the "chiropterophilous syndrome", encouraging the visit of four species of bats which showed different behavior patterns, according to their size, weight and access to the food resources. Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 showed hovering behavior. Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 showed landing behavior and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 fed during the quick flight, without a real landing.No presente trabalho, foram estudadas visitas de morcegos filostomídeos às flores de Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne na área da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Essa espécie vegetal apresenta atributos florais que estão de acordo com a "Síndrome da Quiropterofilia" e recebe visitas de quatro espécies de morcegos que apresentam comportamento variado ao abordar as flores, conforme o seu tamanho, peso e acesso ao alimento. Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 adeja, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767 e Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 pousam e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 realiza passagens rápidas sem pousar.
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea em morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Sreblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea on bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of the Streblidae batflies on the phyllostomid bats was conducted in the northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1997. Hundred thirty three streblids were collected on 44 parasited hosts. Eleven species of batflies (Trichobius dugesii Townsend, 1891, T. tiptoni Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius sp., Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, M. proxima (Séguy, 1926, Exastinion clovisi (Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Paraeuctenodes longipes Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976 and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907 were found on six species of phyllostomid bats (Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818 and A. geoffroyi Gray, 1838. All records are new for the Rio Grande do Sul and Anastrebla caudiferae is firstly recorded in Brazil. Differences in the batflies community composition in Artibeus fimbriatus and A. lituratus are discussed.
Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Marília Feleciano Muller
Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.
Pedro Volkmer de Castilho
Full Text Available This study analyzes the use of aquatic mammals by prehistoric societies of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. Samples from two archaeological sites were examined: Rio do Meio (RM and Porto do Rio Vermelho (SCPRV. Nine aquatic mammal species were found: a pinnipeds: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmerman, 1783 and A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872, and b cetaceans: Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822, Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758, Stenella frontalis (Cuvier, 1829, Steno bredanensis (Lesson, 1828, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 and a non-identified rorqual from the genus Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804. Three especies of semi-aquatic mammals were also recorded: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1758, Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers,1818. Both sites presented similar species diversity, although abundance was greater at the most recent site (RM. There were more samples from axial skeletons, but in genera the anatomical regions were homogeneously distributed among the identified taxa.
Full Text Available Grazing and fire, used in pasture regeneration practices, are inter-related activities in livestock management. Both activities affect habitat characteristics by changing the structure of the herbaceous and shrubby vegetation, reducing their biomass and litter cover. This study evaluated the effect of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria forest ecotones in southern Brazil. We compared four areas frequently affected by livestock management with four protected areas. Surveys were carried out in four sampling periods, one in each season of 2004. We captured a total of 325 individuals from 12 species of rodents - Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Akodon paranaensis Christoff, Fagundes, Sbalqueiro, Mattevi e Yonenaga-Yassuda, 2000, Akodon sp. 1, Akodon sp. 2 (2n = 34, Brucepattersonius iheringi (Thomas, 1896, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872, Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Scapteromys sp. (2n = 34, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer, 1814 and Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829 - and two species of marsupials - Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847 and Philander frenatus (Olfers, 1818 -, in a total effective effort of 5254 traps.day-1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of non-flying small mammals were significantly higher in the protected areas than in those affected by fire and livestock grazing. Species strictly associated with grassland habitats were not found in the impacted area. These results indicate that the presence of herds of domestic ungulates negatively affect the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland and Araucaria forest areas in southern Brazil.
巴戟天为茜草科植物巴戟天Morinda officinalis How的根。始载于《神农本草经》，列为上品。近来发现以茜草科植物羊角藤Morinda umbellata L、假巴戟Morinda shughua—eusis C．Y．Chen et M．S．Huang、四川虎刺Danmacantbus officinarum Huang、短刺虎刺Damnacanthus subspinosus Hand Mazz、虎刺Damnacanthus indicus Gaertn．f．及木兰科植物铁箍散Schisandra propinqua（WaH）Baill．Var．sinensis Oliv等植物的根混充巴戟天使用。现从性状、显微、理化等方面进行归纳比较鉴别，并编排检索表，以便查阅，供参考。
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.
Cibele M. V. Zanon
Full Text Available The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis (Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, and Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. The Phyllostomidae family was the most frequently captured. Solanaceae, Moraceae, Piperaceae, and Rosaceae were found in the diet of frugivores; six orders of insects and the class Arachnida were found in the diets of insectivores. Pregnant females were found in September and October and lactating ones in November and December. The collection peak was reached in the second hour-and-a-half. Preservation of the regional forested and altered areas is required for survival of the local chiropterofauna.Estudou-se as espécies de morcegos presentes em Ponta Grossa, na região dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, com o objetivo de conhecer seus aspectos ecológicos básicos (dieta, reprodução e horário de atividade. Realizou-se coletas em quatro fragmentos florestais, onde foram empregadas 272 horas de esforço com 48 m² de redes, e em locais de repouso, totalizando um esforço de captura de 1,52.10³ h.m². Registrou-se 247 indivíduos, de oito espécies: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis(Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae foi a família mais
Trophic ecology and the use of shelters and latrines by the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Taquari Valley, Southern Brazil Ecologia trófica e o uso de abrigos e latrinas pela lontra Neotropical (Lontra longicaudis no Vale do Taquari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
Carlos Benhur Kasper
Full Text Available This manuscript presents information about the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 in the Taquari Valley, State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The study was carried out in two areas located in the Forquetinha Creek and in the Forqueta River from January to December 2003. The otters are specialist feeders (Bsta = 0.24, with a diet based mostly on fish, especially those of the families Loricariidae and Cichlidae. Most shelters used by the species were excavated burrows underneath tree roots, while shelters within rocks were used less frequently. The burrows showed great variation in size, being found on average 3.5 m (sd = 3.6 m away from the margin and 2.5 m (sd = 1.2 m above the water level. Scent marks were made preferentially on rocks and fallen tree trunks at the edge of the water. There was a tendency to increase the reutilization of latrines in detriment of using new sites throughout the sample period.O presente estudo apresenta dados sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 no Vale do Taquari, sul do Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em duas áreas localizadas no arroio Forquetinha e rio Forqueta, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003. A população apresentou hábito alimentar especialista (Bsta = 0,24, baseado em peixes das famílias Loricariidae e Cichlidae. Os abrigos utilizados pela espécie foram formados em sua maioria, por escavações sob raízes de árvores e, com menor freqüência, entre rochas. Os abrigos escavados apresentaram dimensões bastante variáveis, sendo que estiveram em média a 3,5 m (s = 3,6 m de distância da margem e 2,5 m (s = 1,2 m de altura em relação ao nível da água. A utilização de marcas odoríferas se deu preferencialmente sobre rochas e troncos caídos na margem, sendo que houve uma tendência de aumento na reutilização de latrinas, em detrimento de novos pontos de deposição de fezes, no decorrer do período amostrado.
Daniela O. de Lima
Full Text Available We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913, Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829, Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840 - were captured. Thaptomys nigrita is recorded in the state of Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Species richness was poor when compared with communities in the central portions of the Atlantic Forest, but equivalent to that found in the Araucaria and Dense Ombrophilous forests of southern Brazil. The species most often captured in our study, A. montensis and O. nigripes, are also the most common in the majority of faunistic studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. Akodon montensis and S. angouya used places with high abundance of bamboo, possibly to avoid predators. Oligorizomys nigripes used areas with a high density of scrubs, what could facilitate aboveground movements, and was negatively correlated to mature forest indicators, which reinforce the idea that this species has opportunistic habits.
Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.
Cáceres Nilton Carlos
Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.
Cecilia S. de Andreazzi
Full Text Available The Pantanal is a South American biome characterized by extensive plains and stark environmental seasonality. Several habitats are subject to annual flooding, forcing small mammal species to aggregate in dry forest patches, which most likely influences their population dynamics and life history strategies. In order to investigate the seasonal influence on the life history traits of these small mammals, we conducted a 2-year mark-recapture study in the southeastern region of the Brazilian Pantanal (Nhecolândia and analyzed the population dynamics of the most abundant small mammal species with the jackknife estimator. A trapping effort of 21,560 trap-nights resulted in 615 individuals in 1,171 captures (success = 5.43%. Three species of rodents - Oecomys mamorae (Thomas, 1906, Thrichomys pachyurus (Wagner, 1845, and Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1841 - and three species of marsupials - Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, Thylamys macrurus (Olfers, 1818, and Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842 - were obtained. The most abundant species was O. mamorae, followed by G. agilis and T. pachyurus. Oecomys mamorae was more abundant in the wet season and presented an opportunistic reproductive strategy. Gracilianus agilis displayed increased population sizes in the dry season and synchronized, seasonal reproduction during the rainy season. Thrichomys pachyurus had a small population size, delayed response to variations in environmental conditions and higher reproductive rates in the dry season. All species revealed different life history strategies (seasonal, opportunistic or delayed response to environmental variations, coinciding with periods of higher resource availability in order to maximize survival.
Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski
Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
Full Text Available The results obtained by two estimators of population sizes, MNKA and Mh, were compared for four species of small mammmals - Didelphis aurita Wied, 1826, Philander frenata (Olfers, 1818, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827 and Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887 - during a long-term population study. The MNKA estimator consistently underestimated the population sizes in relation to Mh. On the other, the probabilistic estimator Mh, which reduces bias through the jackknife technique, could not be used in all cases as its assumptions were not always met. Correction factors between the estimates obtained by the two methods were calculated for the last three species, for which catchability did not vary significantly in time and that presented positive correlation between the estimates by the two models. In order to combine the adavantages of both methods for small mammal population studies, is suggested the use of probabilistic closed population models and to calculate a correction factor based in another model which allow estimates in all cases, and which provides correlated estimates. This correction factors should be used in those cases where the probabilistic model cannot be used.
Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti
Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.
Lívia B. Santos
Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.
Marcelo L Rheingantz
Full Text Available The diet of the Neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 is one of the best known aspects of its biology throughout its distribution range. However, most dietary studies have been undertaken during short time periods, making it difficult to identify temporal patterns in the feeding behavior of the species. The present study aimed to describe the diet of L. longicaudis in the lower region of the Mambucaba Catchment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a three year period, based on analyses of spraints (feces. The results show fish as the main prey item (frequency of occurrence, FO = 85.78%, as already described in previous studies. Crustaceans were the second main prey (FO = 70.67%, occurring in the spraints during the whole year, however presenting a higher frequency of occurrence than fish in samples collected during some months. Anurans were the third most important prey item (FO = 9.56% and mammals, birds and reptiles were preyed upon only rarely (less than 4%. Fish and crustaceans were present in the diet of the species throughout the year and frogs were important mostly from June to August (dry season. This higher rate of predation on amphibians during the drier months was probably related to the decrease of the main prey.
Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil
Lívia B. Santos
Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes
Bianca de A Carvalho
Full Text Available The genus Thylamys Gray, 1843 lives in the central and southern portions of South America inhabiting open and shrub-like vegetation, from prairies to dry forest habitats in contrast to the preference of other Didelphidae genera for more mesic environments. Thylamys is a speciose genus including T. elegans (Waterhouse, 1839, T. macrurus (Olfers, 1818, T. pallidior (Thomas, 1902, T. pusillus (Desmarest, 1804, T. venustus (Thomas, 1902, T. sponsorius (Thomas, 1921, T. cinderella (Thomas, 1902, T. tatei (Handley, 1957, T. karimii (Petter, 1968, and T. velutinus (Wagner, 1842 species. Previous phylogenetic analyses in this genus did not include the Brazilian species T. karimii, which is widely distributed in this country. In this study, phylogenetic analyses were performed to establish the relationships among the Brazilian T. karimii and all other previously analyzed species. We used 402-bp fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and the phylogeny estimates were conducted employing maximum parsimony (MP, maximum likelihood (ML, Bayesian (BY, and neighbor-joining (NJ. The topologies of the trees obtained in the different analyses were all similar and pointed out that T. karimii is the sister taxon of a group constituted of taxa from dry and arid environments named the dryland species. The dryland species consists of T. pusillus, T. pallidior, T. tatei, and T. elegans. The results of this work suggest five species groups in Thylamys. In one of them, T. velutinus and T. kariimi could constitute a sister group forming one Thylamys clade that colonized Brazil.O gênero Thylamys Gray, 1843 ocorre na região central e ao sul da América do Sul, habitando vegetações abertas e arbustivas, desde pradarias até florestas de ambientes secos, em contraste à preferência por habitats mais úmidos dos outros gêneros de Didelphidae. O gênero inclui T. elegans (Waterhouse,1839, T. macrurus (Olfers, 1818, T. pallidior (Thomas, 1902, T. pusillus
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates
Ana M. Rui
Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats
O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.
Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil
Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos
Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.
Luciane D. Coletti
Full Text Available A utilização de abrigos e do espaço pela lontra neotropical (Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818, foi estudada em um ambiente alterado e com presença humana no rio Caí, Triunfo, RS. A maioria dos sítios de marcação teve uso ocasional, e uma pequena percentagem teve uso frequente e intenso. A maioria das marcações de cheiro se encontrava no solo a uma média de distância de 1,65m da linha d'água. Ao todo foram encontrados sete abrigos na área de estudo, sendo que a lontra demonstrou preferência por abrigos específicos. O abrigo mais utilizado se constituía em escavações na barranca do rio sob as raízes de uma árvore, sendo este o de maiores dimensões e o único com galerias sob o solo. Os demais abrigos se encontravam no nível do solo e consistiam em emaranhados de galhos sob a vegetação, ou de raízes e/ou troncos caídos. O uso do espaço pela lontra esteve correlacionado à localização de suas tocas, ao grau de cobertura vegetal do local e parece ter sido pouco influenciado pelo distúrbio humano. Para medidas de conservação da lontra neotropical ressalta-se a importância da manutenção da mata ciliar e a proteção das áreas com a presença de abrigos.
Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Laura I. Weber
Full Text Available A genetic study of the neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818, which has an unknown conservation status, was carried out at the Taim Ecological Station and the margins of the Vargas stream, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Faecal samples were collected, and DNA was extracted using a silica-guanidine method. Five microsatellite loci were amplified using PCR with heterologous primers previously described for Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758. Sixteen faecal samples out of 29 from Taim and 11 out of 14 from Vargas stream margins contained enough DNA for genetic analysis. A total of 49 different alleles were found at both localities, from which 18 were exclusively found in individuals from Taim and 17 were exclusives from Vargas individuals. The most common allele was the same at both locations for three loci (Lut715, Lut733, and Lut818. A high level of genetic diversity was found at both sites (NeTaim=4.1, HoTaim=0.299, HeTaim=0.681; NeVargas=4.9, HoVargas=0.355, HeVargas=0.724, being higher at the Vargas stream site. A high and significant level of heterozygote deficiency was observed at most loci according to the χ2 test. The homogeneity χ2 test (PA lontra neotropical de rio Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818, cujo estado de conservação é ainda desconhecido, foi estudada geneticamente na Estação Ecológica do Taim e nas margens do arroio Vargas, RS, sul do Brasil. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas e o DNA foi extraído por um método de sílica-guanidina. Cinco locos de microsatélites foram amplificados por PCR utilizando primers heterólogos previamente descritos para Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758. Dezesseis amostras de fezes de um total de 29 coletadas no Taim e onze das 14 obtidas no arroio Vargas contiveram DNA suficiente para prosseguir com a analise genética. Um total de 49 alelos foram obtidos, dos quais 18 foram exclusivos de indivíduos do Taim e 17 exclusivos dos indivíduos do arroio Vargas. Em três locos (Lut715
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar em uma região cárstica o tipo de refúgio, as espécies de morcegos, a população de animais domésticos, as associações interespecíficas nas coabitações com outros mamíferos silvestres suscetíveis à raiva e a eficácia da warfarina aplicada no dorso do Desmodus rotundus rotundus foi realizada uma pesquisa de maio de 1998 a março de 2000, nos municípios de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais. Em 49 refúgios vistoriados, 29 naturais e 20 artificiais, localizados em 14 propriedades, encontrou-se o Desmodus rotundus rotundus em 18 abrigos naturais. Destes, 17 eram cavernas formadas pela dissolução ou abatimento de rocha calcária, típica do carste, e um era túnel escavado na terra pela ação das águas de um rio. As características geomorfológicas e de localização espacial foram registradas com base nas coordenadas geográficas, obtidas com auxílio de um sensor geográfico de posição. Nesses abrigos foram capturados e identificados 1457 morcegos de 14 espécies, sendo 640 Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 566 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 73 Anoura geoffroyi (Gray 1838, 58 Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, 38 Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata (Spix, 1823, 23 Platyhrrinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 16 Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856, 14 Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, 13 Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus (Pallas, 1767, 9 Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 3 Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838, 2 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821, 1 Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 e 1 Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843. Não se conseguiu isolar ou detectar o vírus rábico no cérebro de 25 hematófagos selecionados e em 52 de outras espécies. A maioria desses abrigos também era usada por pacas (Agouti paca Linnaues, 1766, capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Linnaues, 1766, guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 e raposas (Lycalopex vetulus, Lund, 1842 que são suscetíveis à raiva. Em 546 Desmodus