Sample records for cervus elaphus elaphus

  1. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等


    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  2. Genetic structure of the Danish red deer (Cervus elaphus)



    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in Denmark became almost extinct in recent historical times due to over-hunting. The species has subsequently recovered within remote areas, but non-Danish individuals have been introduced at several localities. To assess genetic structure, past demographi...

  3. Lactation curves in captive Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    García Díaz, Andrés; Landete Castillejos, Tomás; Molina Casanova, Ana María; Albiñana, Bernardo; Fernández, Carlos; Garde López-Brea, José Julián; Gallego Martínez, Laureano


    This study examines milk production and the effect of milk production and sex of calf on body weights and gains of red deer calves and hinds of the Iberian subspecies (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Milk production was assessed in 14 hinds by weighing calves before and after suckling and by adjusting these values to the Gamma function. Gamma estimates of total milk production up to d 105 were similar to the amounts computed directly from double weighing. Hinds showed two types of lactation cu...

  4. Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Mark P Dagleish

    Full Text Available European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6% weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of

  5. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

    Reid Hugh W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, primarily affects cattle. Transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (MBM. In addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to BSE and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. In the UK, farmed and free ranging deer were almost certainly exposed to BSE infected MBM in proprietary feeds prior to legislation banning its inclusion. Therefore, although BSE has never been diagnosed in any deer species, a possible risk to human health remains via ingestion of cervine products. Chronic wasting disease (CWD, also a TSE, naturally infects several cervid species in North America and is spreading rapidly in both captive and free-ranging populations. Results Here we show that European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to intra-cerebral (i/c challenge with BSE positive cattle brain pool material resulting in clinical neurological disease and weight loss by 794–1290 days and the clinical signs are indistinguishable to those reported in deer with CWD. Spongiform changes typical of TSE infections were present in brain and accumulation of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPd was present in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in lymphoid or other tissues. Western immunoblot analysis of brain material showed a similar glycosylation pattern to that of BSE derived from infected cattle and experimentally infected sheep with respect to protease-resistant PrP isoforms. However, the di-, mono- and unglycosylated bands migrated significantly (p Conclusion This study shows that deer are susceptible to BSE by intra-cerebral inoculation and display clinical signs and vacuolar pathology that are similar to those

  6. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland

    Zintl Annetta


    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

  7. Hybridisation and introgression of exotic Cervus (nippon and canadensis) with red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the British Isles

    Smith, Stephanie Lindsay


    Europe’s largest population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) resides in the British Isles and has been present since the end of the last ice age, c. 11,000BP. Since the mid-19th century, multiple introductions of Japanese sika (Cervus nippon) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) have taken place across the British Isles. While wapiti introductions have generally gone extinct, sika have thrived and expanded and now often live in sympatry with red deer. Hybridisation between these spe...

  8. Sarcocystosis in Cervus elaphus: Comparison of diagnostic methods

    Mónica Luzón


    Full Text Available Red deer (Cervus elaphus from a National Wildlife Reserve near Toledo in central Spain were surveyed for Sarcocystis infection. A total of 61 deer were examined. Tissue compression and histology were used to examine samples from diaphragm and heart from each animal included in the study, and results from the two techniques and the two tissues were compared to determine the tissue and technique that provide the most accurate measure of prevalence and intensity. Prevalence and intensity were then compared between calves, yearlings and adults. Sarcocystis was detected in 59 (97% of the 61 deer. Comparison between tissues showed that (a prevalence based on histology was similar for heart and diaphragm, (b prevalence based on compression was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm and (c intensity was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm, regardless of the technique used. Comparison between techniques showed that (a both techniques rendered similar prevalences and intensities of Sarcocystis infection with heart samples and (b both techniques were not comparable with diaphragm samples (compression rendered lower prevalence but higher intensity than histology. Together these data suggest that heart is the preferable tissue for estimating prevalence and intensity, regardless of the technique used. A preliminary species identification of isolated cysts from three animals showed two morph types, corresponding to Sarcocystis cervicanis (syn. S. cf. grueneri; S. wapiti in the heart and diaphragm of three animals and S. hjorti, only in the diaphragm of two animals. Given the different location of those morph types, both heart and diaphragm should be sampled and preferably assessed using histology to most reliably detect infection. Based on histology of heart, prevalence and intensity of Sarcocystis were significantly lower in calves than in yearlings or adults.

  9. Sarcocystosis in Cervus elaphus: Comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Luzón, Mónica; Domínguez-González, Julia; Soto-Carrión, Ana María; Alunda, José María; Fuente, Concepción de la


    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) from a National Wildlife Reserve near Toledo in central Spain were surveyed for Sarcocystis infection. A total of 61 deer were examined. Tissue compression and histology were used to examine samples from diaphragm and heart from each animal included in the study, and results from the two techniques and the two tissues were compared to determine the tissue and technique that provide the most accurate measure of prevalence and intensity. Prevalence and intensity were then compared between calves, yearlings and adults. Sarcocystis was detected in 59 (97%) of the 61 deer. Comparison between tissues showed that (a) prevalence based on histology was similar for heart and diaphragm, (b) prevalence based on compression was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm and (c) intensity was significantly higher for heart than for diaphragm, regardless of the technique used. Comparison between techniques showed that (a) both techniques rendered similar prevalences and intensities of Sarcocystis infection with heart samples and (b) both techniques were not comparable with diaphragm samples (compression rendered lower prevalence but higher intensity than histology). Together these data suggest that heart is the preferable tissue for estimating prevalence and intensity, regardless of the technique used. A preliminary species identification of isolated cysts from three animals showed two morph types, corresponding to Sarcocystis cervicanis (syn. S. cf. grueneri; S. wapiti) in the heart and diaphragm of three animals and S. hjorti, only in the diaphragm of two animals. Given the different location of those morph types, both heart and diaphragm should be sampled and preferably assessed using histology to most reliably detect infection. Based on histology of heart, prevalence and intensity of Sarcocystis were significantly lower in calves than in yearlings or adults. PMID:26767167

  10. Effect of lunar phase on summer activity budgets of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) exist in a complex biological and social environment that is marked by necessary diurnal activities such as foraging, ruminating, and resting. It has long been understood that elk demonstrate circadian rhythms. One of the most predictable variables that could af...

  11. Effect of lunar phase on diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsonii)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) are important components in many ecosystems across the western US and are integral with both Native American and contemporary western culture. They are prized by hunters and are the object of countless works of art. These magnificent creatures are studi...

  12. Sedici anni di censimenti del cervo sardo (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) nella riserva naturale WWF di Monte Arcosu

    Murgia, Carlo; Murgia, Andrea; Deiana, Anna Maria


    This paper describes data collected about consistence, density and social structure of Sardinian deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus Erxleben, 1777) subspecies of European deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) from 1989 to 2004. The study area is located in the WWF Faunal Park of Monte Arcosu (south-western of Sardinia). The flora of the Reserve is typical Mediterranean vegetation. The data have been collected with two different methods, using both roaring census and direct observations. Results s...

  13. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China

    Mingming Zhang; Zhensheng Liu; Liwei Teng


    We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied sea...

  14. Differential Immune Responses of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis▿

    Robinson, Mark; O'Brien, Rory; Mackintosh, Colin; Griffin, Frank


    Immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) that presented with different levels of paucibacillary pathology were profiled to detail immune changes during the progression of Johne's disease. Immune responses were monitored using an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ELISA, and flow cytometry. Animals in the study were divided into outcome groups postmortem according to disease severity. All animals mounted IgG1 antibody an...

  15. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China

    Mingming Zhang


    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

  16. Cervus elaphus Foraging Impacts on Plants and Soils at an Ungrazed Desert Grass/Shrubland in Northwestern New Mexico, USA

    Louis C. Bender


    Full Text Available We evaluated Cervus elaphus herbivory and trampling impacts on plants and soils on Chaco Culture National Historical Park (Chaco, a desert grass/shrubland in northwestern New Mexico, USA, most (63% of which has been protected from grazing by domestic livestock since 1948. We conducted grazing, browse, and water infiltration surveys in areas which received different amounts of C. elaphus use (use and control, 2004–2007. Browse utilization was <32% on monitored species and Odocoileus hemionus use accounted for the majority of browsing. Live plant cover was greater on areas receiving more C. elaphus use, and no grass species were used above recommended levels. Stubble heights of Bouteloua spp. were positively related to relative C. elaphus use on some areas, suggesting possible stimulation of grassland productivity by C. elaphus grazing. Water infiltration rates either did not differ among use or control sites or were faster in use sites, indicating no impacts of C. elaphus use on soil compaction. At current C. elaphus densities (0.2–0.4/km2, negative impacts to plants and soils were not seen on Chaco, and some evidence suggests that light grazing is optimizing desert grasslands of Chaco.

  17. Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe

    Sommer, R. S.; Zachos, F. E.; Street, M.; Jöris, O.; Skog, A.; Benecke, N.


    Here we present spatial-temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palaeontological and genetic data are discussed and we propose that present day European red deer haplogroup distributions are best explained against the history of late Quaternary population contractions into and expansions from glacial refugia. Around 800 records of Cervus elaphus were assigned to the period covering the later part of the Last Glacial and the Early to Middle Holocene. Red deer becomes increasingly visible in faunal assemblages dated to late OIS-3 (<40.0 ka 14C BP). The species persisted throughout the LGM on the Iberian Peninsula, in adjacent regions of South-Western France (Gascony, Dordogne, Languedoc), on the Italian Peninsula, in the Balkans and Greece, and east of the Carpathians in Moldavia. We suggest that genetic exchange between the populations of the Balkans and the East of the Carpathians remained uninterrupted during the LGM. The expansion of red deer from its southern refugia into Central and Northern Europe begins rapidly at 12,500 14C BP. The expansion of red deer coincides with the sudden rise in temperature at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1e and the dispersion of open birch woodland into the northern half of Europe. Radiocarbon supported records show a more or less universal distribution of Cervus elaphus across Europe following the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic change at 10.0 ka 14C BP for the first time. Molecular data and fossil record combined provide a clearer temporal and spatial pattern for the Lateglacial recolonisation process of the northern part of Europe.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis).

    Shao, Yuanchen; Xing, Xiumei; Zha, Daiming; Yang, Fuhe


    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome was 16,351 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, all of which were arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the northeast sika deer's mitochondrial genome was 33.3% of A, 24.4% of C, 28.9% of T and 13.4% of G. A termination-associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region. PMID:24438284

  19. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence


    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a cand...

  20. Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

    Dagleish Mark P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus. Results After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use. Conclusion Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

  1. Successful low dose insemination of flow cytometrically sorted Sika (Cervus nippon) sperm in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus).

    Gao, Q H; Wei, H J; Han, C M; Du, H Z; Zhang, Z G; Zhao, W G; Zhang, Y; Li, S


    The purpose of this study was to determine a practical method in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) of using predetermined sexed Sika (Cervus nippon) semen. Semen was collected by electro-ejaculation from one stag of proven fertility and transported to the laboratory where it was retained as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a modified high-speed cell sorter. Wapiti hinds (n=81) were inseminated into the uterus by rectum manipulation with 1 x 10(6) (X1 and Y1 group, respectively) or 2 x 10(6) (X2 and Y2 group, respectively) of sorted frozen-thawed and 1 x 10(7) non-sorted frozen-thawed (a commercial dose control) Sika motile sperm 60-66h after removal of intra-vaginal progesterone-impregnated CIDR devices and administration of 700IU of PMSG at the time of CIDR removal. The percentage of hinds calving after insemination was similar for X1 (38.5%), X2 (41.7%), Y1 (44.4%), Y2 (38.9%) groups (P>0.05), but higher for control (75%) treatment (PSika and Wapiti-hybrid calves produced by Wapiti hinds inseminated with Y-sorted sperm were male (93.7%) and 10/10 (100%) Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves from hinds inseminated with X-sorted sperm were female. The sex ratio of the Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves born to hinds inseminated with sex-sorted sperm deviated significantly (PSika and Wapiti-hybrid calves were born between 237 and 250d of gestation. Male and female calves in the control group had similar birth weights and weaning weights as calves from hinds inseminated with X- or Y-sorted sperm. In conclusion it can be said that normal Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves of predicted sex can be produced after artificial insemination of Wapiti does with low numbers of sex-sorted cryopreserved Sika sperm. PMID:19619965

  2. Sarcocystosis in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Moré, Gastón; Massone, Adriana; Uzal, Francisco A


    Sarcocystis spp. are protozoan parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle, which produce cysts in the muscle of herbivorous animals. In these animal species, sarcocystosis is frequently asymptomatic, although it may occur with high prevalence. Seven Sarcocystis spp. have been described in red deer (Cervus elephus). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcocystosis, and to perform the morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. found in wild red deer of the Nahuel Huapi National Park (NHNP), Patagonia, Argentina. Full necropsies of 62 red deer killed by hunters in the NHNP and neighboring areas were performed. Samples of heart and skeletal muscle were examined histologically and selected samples were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), PCR and sequencing. Sarcocystis spp. thin walled cysts were detected in 62 % (38/62) of heart, and in 22 % (3/14) of skeletal muscle samples examined histologically. TEM revealed a smooth and thin cyst wall (≤1 μm), with scarce and separated ribbon-like protrusions. A total of three partial and one full 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences were obtained, and showed the highest identity (≥99 %) with Sarcocystis taeniata, a species described in moose (Alces alces). The morphological and molecular results indicate that red deer in Argentina are frequently infected with S. taeniata, a species for which the definitive host is unknown. The present results also confirm that Sarcocystis spp. using cervids as intermediate host are not host-specific. Further studies are needed to improve the epidemiological knowledge of Sarcocystosis in red deer. PMID:26779923

  3. Oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against Brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Ficht, Thomas A; Davis, Donald S; Elzer, Philip H; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa; Wong-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Rice-Ficht, Allison C


    Bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), USA, are infected with Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. Bovine brucellosis recently has been transmitted from infected elk to cattle in Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho and has resulted in their loss of brucellosis-free status. An efficacious Brucella vaccine with a delivery system suitable for wildlife would be a valuable tool in a disease prevention and control program. We evaluated Strain 19 (S19) in a sustained release vehicle consisting of alginate microspheres containing live vaccine. In a challenge study using red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) as a model for elk, alginate, a naturally occurring polymer combined with a protein of Fasciola hepatica vitelline protein B was used to microencapsulate S19. Red deer were orally or subcutaneously immunized with 1.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units (CFUs) using microencapsulated S19. Humoral and cellular profiles were analyzed bimonthly throughout the study. The vaccinated red deer and nonvaccinated controls were challenged 1 yr postimmunization conjunctivally with 1 x 10(9) CFUs of B. abortus strain 2308. Red deer vaccinated with oral microencapsulated S19 had a statistically significant lower bacterial tissue load compared with controls. These data indicate for the first time that protection against Brucella-challenge can be achieved by combining a commonly used vaccine with a novel oral delivery system such as alginate-vitelline protein B microencapsulation. This system is a potential improvement for efficacious Brucella-vaccine delivery to wildlife in the GYA. PMID:19901378

  4. Diets of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India

    G.M. Shah


    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the diets of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu in Dachigam National Park (DNP were determined by analyzing 95 freshly collected pellet samples. The pellets were collected along well defined transects during a two year study from January 2005 to December 2006. The diets showed marked seasonal variations. The spring diet was constituted by forbs (45.2%, shrubs (24%, grasses (20% and climbers (10.7%. In summer forbs accounted for 42.7% of the diet, trees 38%, grasses 14.3% and shrubs 4.8%. Except the lone representation of forb species (5.6% the autumn diet was mainly represented by shrubs (75% and trees (19.4%. The winter diet was constituted by trees (35.6%, shrubs (28.6%, forbs (21.3%, grasses (8.6% and climbers (5.8%.

  5. Nutritional evaluation of the lipid fraction of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) tenderloin.

    Quaresma, M A G; Trigo-Rodrigues, I; Alves, S P; Martins, S I V; Barreto, A S; Bessa, R J B


    The meat lipid fraction of psoas major muscle from 20 adult (10 males and 10 females) feral Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) was characterized by quantification of total fat, total cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acid (FA) composition, including detailed trans octadecenoate isomers and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomeric profile. The total lipid content revealed a very lean meat (0.99 g/100g of meat), with total cholesterol content averaging 55.6 mg/100g of muscle. The FA profile displayed a very high PUFA level for ruminant meat (30.2g/100g FA). The 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 content was fairly low (0.26% of total FA) compared with other ruminant meats. The comparison of stags and hinds showed more similarities than differences. Nevertheless, hinds displayed superior contents of α-tocopherol and trans MUFA and a better n-6/n-3 ratio than stags. PMID:22695295

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cervus elaphus songaricus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervinae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Li, Yiqing; Ba, Hengxing; Yang, Fuhe


    Complete mitochondrial genome of Tianshan wapiti, Cervus elaphus songaricus, is 16,419 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed an identical tree topology. The monopoly of red deer, wapiti and sika deer was well supported, and wapiti was found to share a closer relationship with sika deer. Tianshan wapiti shared a closer relationship with xanthopygus than yarkandensis. Rusa unicolor and Rucervus eldi were given a basal phylogenetic position. Our phylogenetic analysis provided a robust phylogenetic resolution spanning the entire evolutionary relationship of the subfamily Cervinae. PMID:24725059

  7. Spatial Ecology and Population Dynamics of Tule Elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) at Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    Cobb, McCrea Andrew


    The tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) was reintroduced to Point Reyes National Seashore, California in 1978. After exhibiting irruptive growth for 20 years, elk abundances have fluctuated. Three subpopulations of elk currently inhabit Pt. Reyes: a fenced subpopulation at high density; a free-ranging subpopulation in designated wilderness at low density; and a free-ranging subpopulation on active ranchland at low density. Little is known about the spatial ecology and population dynamics of...

  8. Haematological and serum biochemical reference values in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus

    Olav Rosef


    Full Text Available Analyses of haematological and biochemical constituents were carried out on the Norwegian subspecies of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. All animals were captured from January to March by using a mixture of xylazine and tiletamin-zolazepam. Immobilisation was performed with plastic projectile syringes fired from a dart gun. Fourteen haematological parameters were analysed. There were no differences in the values between hinds and stags and between adults and calves (P > 0.01. Of the 22 biochemical compounds investigated there was a significant difference (P < 0.01 between calves and adults for lactate dehydrogenase (LD, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin, and the minerals Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca, and P. Differences (P < 0.01 between hinds and stags were found in cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin and Cu. The blood values determined in this study can be used as reference values for this red deer subspecies immobilised with a mixture of xylazine-tiletamin-zolazepam for health control and diagnosis of diseases.Abstract in Norwegian /Sammendrag:Hematologiske og biokjemiske parametere er analysert på norsk frittlevende hjort (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. Hjorten ble immobilisert i tidsrommet januar til mars ved hjelp av et spesialgevær ladet med plast kanyler som inneholdt en blanding av xylazin og tiletamin-zolazepam. Det var ingen forskjeller i de14 undersøkte hematologiske verdiene mellom hinder, kalver og bukker (P>0,01. Av de 22 biokjemiske parametrene som ble undersøkt var det en signifikant forskjell mellom kalver og voksne (P<0,01 når det gjelder laktat dehydrogenase, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin og mineralene Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca og P. Det var en signifikant forskjell mellom hinder og bukker (P<0.01 på parametrene kolesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, alfa-1 globulin, alfa-2 globulin og Cu. Blodverdiene som ble målt i dette studiet kan bli brukt som referanseverdier

  9. Prevalence of Dermatophytes in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus in The Stelvio National Park, Italy

    Roberta Perego


    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis has been described in wildlife, but the literature reporting dermatophyte prevalence in deer is incomplete. To determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and to evaluate the hypothetical role of asymptomatic carriers hair samples were collected from 30 legally hunted wild red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Stelvio National Park, Italy. All deer were visually examined for dermatologic lesions and the coat was brushed using a modified Mackenzie collection method. A small sample of hair was used for direct microscopical examination and subsequently fungal culture was performed on the hair samples. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were used to identify dermatophytes, saprophytic fungi and yeasts. None of the deer had visible cutaneous lesions. No dermatophyte spores or hyphae were found on direct microscopical examination and, when hair samples were cultured, dermatophytes were not demonstrated in any sample. Only saprophytic fungi were grown, predominantly Alternaria spp., Mucor spp., Cladosporium spp. These results did not reveal the presence of asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes in the deer sample population of Stelvio National Park and suggest that it is unlikely that, at least in the investigated geographical area, the red deer act a reservoir for transmission of dermatophytes to other wild animals, livestock or people living locally

  10. Do red deer stags (Cervus elaphus use roar fundamental frequency (F0 to assess rivals?

    Maxime Garcia

    Full Text Available It is well established that in humans, male voices are disproportionately lower pitched than female voices, and recent studies suggest that this dimorphism in fundamental frequency (F0 results from both intrasexual (male competition and intersexual (female mate choice selection for lower pitched voices in men. However, comparative investigations indicate that sexual dimorphism in F0 is not universal in terrestrial mammals. In the highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic Scottish red deer Cervus elaphus scoticus, more successful males give sexually-selected calls (roars with higher minimum F0s, suggesting that high, rather than low F0s advertise quality in this subspecies. While playback experiments demonstrated that oestrous females prefer higher pitched roars, the potential role of roar F0 in male competition remains untested. Here we examined the response of rutting red deer stags to playbacks of re-synthesized male roars with different median F0s. Our results show that stags' responses (latencies and durations of attention, vocal and approach responses were not affected by the F0 of the roar. This suggests that intrasexual selection is unlikely to strongly influence the evolution of roar F0 in Scottish red deer stags, and illustrates how the F0 of terrestrial mammal vocal sexual signals may be subject to different selection pressures across species. Further investigations on species characterized by different F0 profiles are needed to provide a comparative background for evolutionary interpretations of sex differences in mammalian vocalizations.

  11. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander


    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany. PMID:27617204

  12. Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars

    Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David


    Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

  13. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.


    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  14. Chemical capture of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus with medetomidine-ketamine

    J.M. Arnemo


    Full Text Available Seventeen free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus (12 calves and 5 yearling hinds were immobilized with a combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (MED and ketamine hydrochloride (KET in winter (January-March. Immobilizations were performed with plastic projectile syringes fired from a dart gun. Mean (SD doses of 0.147 (0.024 mg MED/kg and 2.5 (0.4 mg KET/kg induced recumbency in 5.0 (2.0 minutes in the calves and all of them were completely immobilized. The initial doses in the yearling hinds were 0.099 (0.016 mg MED/kg and 1.9 (0.2 mg KET/kg but three of them required addirional dosing for induction of reliable restraint. The distance covered by the animals between darting and recumbency ranged from 40-250 m for calves and 100-300 m for yearling hinds. The animals were translocated to deer farms for breeding purposes and were given 12.5-25.0 mg of atipamezole hydrochloride before transportation. All animals recovered completely. Haematological and serum biochemical comparisons between free-ranging calves immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine (n=3 and captive unmedicated calves (n=4 showed that chemical capture induce very little stress in red deer.

  15. Antlers of Cervus elaphus as biomonitors of {sup 90}Sr in the environment

    Baeza, A.; Vallejo, I. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.e [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Salas, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain)


    Adequate radioprotection of the environment requires the identification of biomonitors sensitive to the variation of its radionuclide content. Due to the chemical similarities between calcium and strontium, calcified tissues of mammals are considered to be good {sup 90}Sr biomonitors. This work considered Cervus elaphus antlers which, being shed annually, can give information about the importance of radiostrontium contamination in an ecosystem in the time period required for the growth of the antler. The samples were collected at various points of W and SW Spain. The mean value of their {sup 90}Sr content was (70 {+-} 43 (S.D.)) Bq/kg d.w., range (16-218) Bq/kg d.w., and the radionuclide was evenly distributed in the different parts of the antler. There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. The antlers' content of {sup 226}Ra (from the natural uranium series) and the contents of some stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, and K) were also determined. The values for these stable elements were practically constant in the analyzed samples, and the concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr > {sup 90}Sr > {sup 226}Ra - Research highlights: {yields} There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. {yields} The content of stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, K) in the analyzed antlers were practically constant. {yields} The concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr >{sup 90}Sr >{sup 226}Ra.

  16. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W


    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  17. Natural diet and food habitat use of the Tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis

    QIAO Jianfang; YANG Weikang; GAO Xingyi


    In order to determine the natural diet and food habitat use of Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), a study was carried out in Qiemo, Xinjiang, China from October 2000 to June 2001. Direct observation combined with faecal analysis method was used to determine the natural diet of red deer. 15 different species of plant were identified as food items. Among them, 13 species of plants were identified in winter diet and 9 species in summer. Red deer consumed a wider range of species in winter because of their nutrient requirement as well as the shortage of food and the scarcity of high-quality forage in the study area. Phragmites communis, Glycyrrhiza inflata and populus diversifolia were frequently present in the deer's diet whenever in winter and summer. Among them, Phragmites communis was the most abundant plant in the area and was included in the deer's diet. Observation on food selection frequency of captive Tarim red deer showed that Populus diversifolia was the first preferred species. However, this food was limited in the study area. Five food habitat types were found in the study area according to plant association: (1)Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association, (2) Tamarix ramosissima-Halostachys caspica association, (3) Tamarix ramosissima-Phragmites communis association, (4) Populus diversifoliaPhragmites communis association, (5) Burned area.Among them, Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association (reed meadow and reed marsh)was preferred to other types within the study area whenever in summer and winter. Dense reed cover could reduce the chance of detection from predator and obstruct attack from predator. Furthermore, under the cover of the reed, Tarim red deer was protected from direct solar radiation during the hours of www. hot day in summer. The reed meadow and marsh was preferred, presumably because the red deer could minimize their movements while searching for food, water and cover.

  18. Gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.

    Hammond, K J; Hoskin, S O; Jopson, N B; Mackintosh, C G; Hofstra, G; Thompson, B R; Stevens, D R


    This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same

  19. Relations between nutritional condition and survival of North American elk Cervus elaphus

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.; Cook, R.C.; Hall, P.B.


    We related annual and seasonal survival of four populations of elk Cervus elaphus in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to measures and indices of individual nutritional condition. Among populations, for all mortality (human and non-human causes) sources inclusive, annual survival of adult females was correlated with a rump body condition score (rs = 0.627, P = 0.071), and survival over spring-summer-autumn (SSA) was correlated with mean ingesta-free body fat (IFBF; rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rump body condition score (rBCS; rs = 0.615, P = 0.050). For non-human mortality sources only, survival through SSA was correlated with IFBF (rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rBCS (rs = 0.615, P = 0.050), and survival over winter was correlated with withers body condition score (rs = 0.677, P = 0.045). For human-caused mortality sources only, survival over SSA was correlated with rBCS (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036) and IFBF (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036). For individuals, logistic analysis found that individual likelihood of dying from all mortality sources inclusive was best predicted (??2 = 8.3, P = 0.004, ?? = -1.24) by longissimus dorsi (loin) muscle thickness, a measure of protein catabolism. For only non-human mortality sources, a model (??2 = 16.1, P = 0.0003) containing both loin muscle thickness (??2 = 5.7, P = 0.017, ??= -1.02) and percent ingesta-free body fat (??2 = 4.9, P = 0.027, ?? = -0.35) best predicted individual susceptibility to mortality. Odds ratios indicated that odds of dying increased approximately 3X for each centimeter of loin muscle catabolized and 1.4X for each percent less body fat. No condition indices at the individual level were related to survival from human-caused mortality sources. Our study populations were characterized by low-marginal condition (i.e. mean ingesta-free body fat levels of 5.9-12.3% for lactating cows in late autumn); this likely increased the prominence of measures of muscle catabolism relative to fat accretion in influencing individual elk survival

  20. Observations on rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India

    B.A. Bhat


    Full Text Available Observations on seasonal rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu were recorded in Dachigam National Park (DNP during the years 2005 to 2007. A total of 24 breeding herds were seen. The size of the herd varied from 2-5, and usually comprised of one large stag and one or more hinds. The rutting season commenced in the main valley of lower Dachigam by late September and extended up to the first week of November. The peak was from October 9 to 20. The stags in rut became intolerant of each other and separated. The most conspicuous feature of the rut was the reverberating resonant roars by stags. The courtship behaviour was observed on six occasions and only mature stags (8-tined and above were involved in courtship. Various anthropogenic activities in the habitat were found to impair the rutting behaviour of deer.

  1. Predisposition assessment of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) as a strategy in preventive forest habitat management

    Friedrich Reimoser; Ursula Nopp-Mayr; Friedrich Voelk


    This paper presents a method to assess the predisposition of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus), which illustrates options in preventive forest habitat management. We developed an expert system, based on expert interviews and literature analyses. We selected the most important site- and stand-related predisposing factors for bark peeling of red deer, considering the relation of food dependent and food independent settling stimuli. Within the mechanistic expert sy...

  2. Molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Rocchigiani, Guido; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Nardoni, Simona; Leoni, Alessandro; Nicoloso, Sandro; Mancianti, Francesca


    To estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (Cervus elaphus) living in Italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by PCR for A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. Thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. In particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for Babesia divergens, 6 (10%) for C. burnetii, 2 (3.33%) for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reaction was observed for F. tularensis. Thirteen (21.67%) animals resulted co-infected by two or three pathogens. Red deer is confirmed as competent reservoir of A. phagocytophilum and B. divergens, but not of B. burgdorferi. This is the first report of C. burnetii-positive red deer in central Italy. Hunters may be at risk of infection both through infected ticks and during the infected cervids carcasses dressing. PMID:27477510

  3. Movement and Activity Patterns of Translocated Elk (Cervus elaphus Nelsoni on an Active Coal Mine in Kentucky

    Widén, P.


    Full Text Available Monitoring activity and movements of newly translocated wildlife is necessary for identifying factors that may hinder population establishment. We documented movements and activity of 6 radio-collared Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni translocated to Kentucky from the 4th of March 1999 until the 17th of July 1999. Seventy three percent of daily activity occurred during crepuscular hours, a period that accounted for only 33% of the day. Elk tended to be more active at dawn (39% than dusk (32%. Elk spent most of their time feeding (49.4% and resting-ruminating (44.6%, with little time spent walking or standing (6.0%. Elk were disturbed 9 times by humans and once by dogs during 702 hours of monitoring. Eight of these disturbance events occurred in reclaimed grassland. During each disturbance, elk moved farther (892 m than during the same hours when undisturbed (282 m. Disturbances altered elk movement and activity patterns, and fragmented social groups. Wildlife managers should identify sources of disturbance at release sites and implement plans that minimize their impacts on reintroduced animals.

  4. Genetic Structure and Effective Population Sizes in European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) at a Continental Scale: Insights from Microsatellite DNA.

    Zachos, Frank E; Frantz, Alain C; Kuehn, Ralph; Bertouille, Sabine; Colyn, Marc; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pérez-González, Javier; Skog, Anna; Sprĕm, Nikica; Flamand, Marie-Christine


    We analyzed more than 600 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from large parts of its European distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. Populations were clearly differentiated (overall F ST = 0.166, Jost's D est = 0.385), and the BAPS clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. When forced into only 3 genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as previously found in mtDNA phylogeographic studies: a western group from Iberia to central and parts of Eastern Europe, an eastern group from the Balkans to Eastern Europe, and a third group including the threatened relict populations from Sardinia and Mesola in Italy. This result was also confirmed by a multivariate approach to analyzing our data set, a discriminant analysis of principal components. Calculations of genetic diversity and effective population sizes (linkage disequilibrium approach) yielded the lowest results for Italian (Sardinia, Mesola; N e between 2 and 8) and Scandinavian red deer, in line with known bottlenecks in these populations. Our study is the first to present comparative nuclear genetic data in red deer across Europe and may serve as a baseline for future analyses of genetic diversity and structuring in this widespread ungulate. PMID:26912909

  5. Characteristics of Antioxidant Systems of Yellow Fraction of Red Deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) Semen During the Rutting Period.

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Szurnicka, M; Dziekonska, A; Kordan, W; Giżejewski, Z; Filipowicz, K


    The objective of this study was to make the preliminary characterization of the antioxidant defence systems of the yellow fraction (YF) of red deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) semen during the rutting period. The semen was collected using artificial vagina (AV). The studies included spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also analysed the contents of low-molecular antioxidants such as L-glutathione (GSH + GSSG), L-ascorbate (ASC) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Additionally, the samples were subjected to PAGE and stained for SOD and GPx activities. It was demonstrated that the yellow fraction exhibited activities of SOD and GPx, with the highest activities in September and October. CAT activity was not detected. Staining for the SOD and GPx activities confirmed three protein bands with SOD activity and one protein band with GPx activity. The content of GSH + GSSG was similar in trials dating from October to December contrary to the content of ASC which was high in samples from September and October. The stable rate of TAS was observed during the whole rutting period. The results of this study showed that the YF of red deer semen is equipped with basic battery of antioxidant enzymes comprising SOD and GPx, with the supporting role of GSH + GSSG and ASC. Moreover, the samples obtained at the peak of the rutting period occurring from September to October had the highest enzymatic activity in comparison with remaining months of the rutting period, which contributed to the high quality of the semen by preventing it from the formation of oxidative stress during the short period of intense sexual activity of male red deer. The better understanding of the mechanisms of antioxidant defence systems in the YF of deer's semen may contribute to the potential use of this fraction in technology of wild ruminant semen preservation. PMID:26854018

  6. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez


    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497


    Scala, Christopher; Duffard, Nicolas; Beauchamp, Guy; Boullier, Séverine; Locatelli, Yann


    Deer are sensitive to clostridial diseases, and vaccination with clostridial toxoids is the method of choice to prevent these infections in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses in red deer (Cervus elaphus) over a 13-mo period after vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine, containing an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. Antibody production to the Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin component of the vaccine was measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Animals from group 1 (9 mo old; n = 6) were naïve and received an initial vaccination with a booster vaccine 4 wk apart and one annual booster. Animals from group 2 (21 mo old; n = 10) had been previously vaccinated 12 mo prior and received a first annual booster at the beginning of this study and a second annual booster 12 mo later. The multivalent clostridial vaccine induced a high antibody response that peaked after each injection and then slowly decreased with time. In group 1, a booster vaccine was required to obtain an initial high humoral response. The annual booster injection induced a strong, rapid, and consistent anamnestic response in both groups. The serologic responses persisted significantly over the baseline value for 9-12 mo in group 1, but more than 12 mo in group 2. It is unknown whether the measured humoral immune responses would have been protective as no challenge studies were performed. Further investigation is needed to determine the protective antibody titers to challenge and how long this immunity might persist after vaccination. PMID:27010263

  8. Hybridisation between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Japanese sika (C. nippon) on the Kintyre Peninsula, Scotland

    Senn, Helen V.


    Hybridisation between introduced and endemic species causes conservation concerns, but also provides us with an opportunity to study the dynamics of gene flow between two species as they first meet. Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) were introduced to the British Isles at a number of locations at the beginning of the 20th century. In the intervening time, sika have spread and their range now extends across approximately 40% of Scotland, where they overlap with that of native red ...

  9. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Eva Wiklund


    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  10. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit


    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

  11. Acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems: wolf(Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) as model species

    Passilongo, Daniela


    The high variability of vocalization is due to their function, the habitat where they evolved and the physical constraints of the emitters. The aim of this study were to analyse the acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals, wolf (Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus), in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems. Firstly, I analysed the Italian wolf howl. I found two forms of howl; both types are uttered within the lowest frequencies of the wolf’s vocal range,...


    B. Cenci Goga; A. Vizzani; C. Monticelli; I. Nicchiarelli; P. Sechi; I. Pisano


    A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008) sampling period. Samples of water (n=12) and feces (n=59), collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and En...

  13. Composición y calidad de la dieta del ciervo (Cervus elaphus L. en el norte de la península ibérica

    Garin, I.


    Full Text Available Plant composition and quality of the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. diet in the northern Iberian peninsula The feeding pattern of red deer varies greatly among the different European populations. The aim of our study was to elucidate the plant composition and the quality of the red deer diet in the Pyrenees (Northern Iberian peninsula. Over a one-year period, the red deer fed mainly on browse, pines being the main food. However, unlike other populations on the Iberian peninsula, consumption of herbaceous plants was higher than browse in the spring-summer period. Nevertheless, the diet of Pyrenean red deer shared some features with the Mediterranean populations such as browsing on woody legumes. Fecal nitrogen content, as an index of diet quality, showed low annual values with a marked decrease in winter. The overall feeding pattern was similar to that of other Central European populations. The large size of the surveyed population probably affected its high level of browse consumption and poor quality diet.

  14. X- and Y-chromosome specific variants of the amelogenin gene allow sex determination in sheep (Ovis aries and European red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Brenig B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple and precise methods for sex determination in animals are a pre-requisite for a number of applications in animal production and forensics. However, some of the existing methods depend only on the detection of Y-chromosome specific sequences. Therefore, the abscence of a signal does not necessarily mean that the sample is of female origin, because experimental errors can also lead to negative results. Thus, the detection of Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences is advantageous. Results A novel method for sex identification in mammals (sheep, Ovis aries and European red deer, Cervus elaphus is described, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of a part of the amelogenin gene. A partial sequence of the amelogenin gene of sheep and red deer was obtained, which exists on both X and Y chromosomes with a deletion region on the Y chromosome. With a specific pair of primers a DNA fragment of different length between the male and female mammal was amplified. Conclusion PCR amplification using the amelogenin gene primers is useful in sex identification of samples from sheep and red deer and can be applied to DNA analysis of micro samples with small amounts of DNA such as hair roots as well as bones or embryo biopsies.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Hungarian red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) from high-throughput sequencing data and its phylogenetic position within the family Cervidae.

    Frank, Krisztián; Barta, Endre; Bana, Nóra Á; Nagy, János; Horn, Péter; Orosz, László; Stéger, Viktor


    Recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the Cervidae family. A common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is mitochondrial DNA analysis, which can be used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and for molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the development of sequencing technology, more and more mitochondrial sequences have been made available in public databases, including whole mitochondrial DNA sequences. These data have been used for phylogenetic analysis of animal species, and for studies of evolutionary processes. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of a Central European red deer, Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, from Hungary by a next generation sequencing technology. The mitochondrial genome is 16 354 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region, all of which are arranged similar as in other vertebrates. We made phylogenetic analyses with the new sequence and 76 available mitochondrial sequences of Cervidae, using Bos taurus mitochondrial sequence as outgroup. We used 'neighbor joining' and 'maximum likelihood' methods on whole mitochondrial genome sequences; the consensus phylogenetic trees supported monophyly of the family Cervidae; it was divided into two subfamilies, Cervinae and Capreolinae, and five tribes, Cervini, Muntiacini, Alceini, Odocoileini, and Capreolini. The evolutionary structure of the family Cervidae can be reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genomes; which method could be used broadly in phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of animal taxa. PMID:27165525

  16. Predisposition assessment of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus L. as a strategy in preventive forest habitat management

    Friedrich Reimoser


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to assess the predisposition of mountainous forests to bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus, which illustrates options in preventive forest habitat management. We developed an expert system, based on expert interviews and literature analyses. We selected the most important site- and stand-related predisposing factors for bark peeling of red deer, considering the relation of food dependent and food independent settling stimuli. Within the mechanistic expert system, knowledge on predisposing effects of certain site and stand features is represented in the form of an award-penalty point system. In the current paper, we present the predisposition assessment system for bark peeling and the verification of the system with data of the inventory of natural resources of the Limestone Alps National Park (Upper Austria. Three site-related indicators, i.e. terrain features, roughness/smoothness of relief, and local climate, and six stand-related indicator, i.e. tree age, canopy cover, proportion of conifers, cover of herb layer, method of final cutting, and harassment, were included in the system. Both the chosen indicators and the overall assessment clearly reflected the predisposition in terms of relative frequencies of peeled and unpeeled sample plots. A supplemental logistic regression run with the occurrence/absence of bark peeling as response variable and the assessed predisposition scores from the PAS as explanatory variable proved the discriminatory value of the PAS.

  17. A field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir.

    Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida


    One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park. PMID:27605778

  18. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu in India.


    Full Text Available The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  19. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations.

    French, Andrew S; Zadoks, Ruth N; Skuce, Philip J; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A


    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson's R = 0.89, p advantages of cELISA over FE: i) the ability to store samples long term (frozen) without apparent loss in diagnostic power; and ii) reduced labour and the ability to process large batches. Further evaluation of cELISA sensitivity in red deer, where a range of fluke burdens can be obtained, is desirable. In the interim, the cELISA is a practicable diagnostic for F. hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer. PMID:27598003

  20. The population size, demography and the harvest strategy for the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. in the Polish eastern Carpathians

    Merta, D.


    Full Text Available Using a line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of red deer (Cervus elaphusL. in 8 Forest Districts (Baligród, Cisna, Dukla, Lutowiska, Komacza, Stuposiany, Rymanów and Wetlina were estimated during February 2000. The total number of red deer inhabiting the study area (134.0 thousand hectares of forest was 4,081 individuals. The average population density was 30.4 red deer/1000 ha and it ranged from 10.1 animals/1000 ha in Wetlina Forest District to 39.3 individuals/1000 ha in Dukla Forest District. In September 2000, observation records of 952 red deer indicated that male/female ratio was 1:1.6, and the calf/female index was 31 calves per 100 females. Using a population dynamics model, an annual population recruitment rate was calculated. It ranged from 10.5% to 18.1% of the population size in March and it was negatively correlated with the population density of wolves. A computer simulation of various harvest strategies showed that the low percentage of old stags in the present red deer population was caused by over-harvest of 2-5-year-old stags. Therefore, it is suggested that the percentage of young males in the hunting bag should not be higher than 30% of the total harvested males.

    En février 2000 nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de cerfs (Cervus elaphusL. dans 8 Districts Forestiers (Baligrod, Cisn, Dukla, Lutowiska, Komancza, Stuposiany, Rymanow et Wetlina. Pour cela un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne a été utilisé. Le nombre total de cerfs habitant dans la zone d'étude -134.000 ha de forêt- s'élevait à 4 081 animais. La densité moyenne de la population était de 30,4 cerfs par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 10,1 animais par 1000 ha dans le District Forestier de Wetlina et 39,3 individus par 1000 ha dans le District Forestier de Dukla. En Septembre 2000, les observations enregistrées pour 952 cerfs ont montré que le

  1. Analysis of Nutritional Components and Active Components in Cervus elaphus kansuensis Meat%甘肃马鹿肉营养成分及活性物质分析

    张爱萍; 谢宗平; 李君兰; 郭兆斌; 余群力


    以甘肃马鹿肉为实验材料,检测分析了甘肃马鹿肉的营养成分及活性物质.结果表明:甘肃马鹿水分含量为72.88g/100g,蛋白质27.49g/100g,脂肪2.13g/100g,灰分1.09g/100g;铁14.96mg/100g,锌0.84mg/100g,铜0.199mg/100g,硒1.22μg/100g,磷15.72mg/100g;总氨基酸含量为81.08g/100g,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的38.87%;过氧化物歧化酶63.42U/mg,雌二醇157.88pg/mL,睾酮0.78ng/mL.生长激素0.76ng/mL.甘肃马鹿肉具有高蛋白、低脂肪、丰富的矿物质、氨基酸含量全面等特点,并含有一定量的活性物质,对人体有较高的营养和滋补价值,是优质的动物性食品资源.%Healthy,adult,pasture-raised Cervus elaphus kansuensis ere slaughtered and Longissimus dorsi samples were taken for the measurement of nutritional components and active components by routine methods.The results showed that the Longissimus dorsi of Cervus elaphus kansuensis contained 72.88 g of water,27.49 g of protein,2.13 g of fat,1.09 g of ash,14.96 mg of Fe,0.84 mg of Zn,0.199 mg of Cu,1.22 μg of Se,and 15.72 mg of P per 100 g.The total amino acid content was 81.08% with the essential amino acids together accounting for 38.87% of the total amino acids.Additionally,the levels of SOD,estradiol,testosterone and growth hormone were detected to be 63.42 U/mg,157.88 pg/mL,0.78 ng/mL and 0.76 ng/mL,respectively.These data demonstrate that the meat of Cervus elaphus kansuensis has good quality characteristics such as high protein,low fat,abundant minerals and a full range of amino acids in large quantities,and also contain some active substances,indicating high nutritional and nourishing value for the human body as an excellent source of animal-derived food.

  2. Induction of Sperm Acrosome Reaction wti h Calcium Ionophore A23187 in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus)%钙离子载体诱发马鹿精子顶体反应效果1)

    李和平; 邹琦; 商兰; 刘伟石


    Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) sperm was capacitated in vitro by swimming-up and the acrosome reaction (AR) was in-duced by Calcium ionophore A23187 to choose an optimal A23187 system during AR.A23187 of 0.01-100 μmol/L can enhance the ratio of AR on the capacitated sperm and 0.1μmol/L A23187 can obtain the highest ratio of AR (74.00%± 2.62%) for 5-min treatment time.AR of capacitated sperm can, but the uncapacitated sperm cannot, be induced by A23187 in wapiti.%以马鹿( Cervus elaphus)为试验动物,采用上浮法诱导马鹿精子体外获能,以钙离子载体( A23187)诱导马鹿精子顶体反应,进而摸索钙离子载体( A23187)诱发其顶体反应的适宜体系。结果表明:0.01~100.00μmol/L的A23187可提高获能马鹿精子的顶体反应率;其中适宜的A23187浓度为0.10μmol/L,反应的时间为5 min,顶体反应率为(74.00±2.62)%。 A23187能促进获能马鹿精子的顶体反应,但不能显著(P>0.05)促进未获能马鹿精子的顶体反应。


    B. Cenci Goga


    Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 μg/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

  4. På vej mod en dansk krondyrforvaltning (Cervus elaphus): Hvad mangler vi at vide, og hvad mangler vi at gøre?

    Sunde, Peter; Haugaard, Lars


    bestanden og jagtudbyttet på, vil være at frede de unge hjorte mod at have fri jagt på dem, som har nået ”høstklar” alder. Ud over at sikre jægerne et bedre udbytte vil en sådan ”mindstemålsmodel” modvirke selektion for tidligere kønsmodenhed og mindre kropstørrelse for hjorte. In Denmark, red deer (Cervus....... We compared the harvest outcome and demographic composition of these theoretical models with two Danish red deer populations with contrasting land owner structure and hunting regimes (Djursland and Oksbøl). Djursland (hunting seasons 2008/9-2012/13) represents a ‘typical’ Danish landscape, comprising...... of maintaining a stable red deer population with a high proportion of mature stags. We demonstrate that the harvest pattern on Djursland (with an annual mortality of 50% of 2-7 year old stags wherefore less than 1 % of male calves survive until 8 years of age) result in far fewer mature stags in the...

  5. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Argentina

    J P Soler


    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de ataxia enzoótica (AE en ciervos rojos en cautiverio ocurrido en Argentina. La AE es una patología de los ciervos que causa parálisis lenta y progresiva de las extremidades posteriores y ha sido asociada a la deficiencia de cobre. Su presentación suele ser a partir de los 9 meses de edad. El problema afectó a dos ciervas rojas con debilidad de los miembros posteriores. Se realizó necropsia a una hembra preñada. Se tomaron muestras de órganos en formol al 10%, de suero y sangre entera. Al feto también se le realizó necropsia y se le tomó una muestra de hígado. A partir de muestras de pasto se determinaron los niveles de Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo y SO4. En el agua se analizaron los valores de sales totales, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na y Cl. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad en el establecimiento fue del 0,14%. Los valores de Cu hepático hallados en la hembra y su feto fueron 14,6 ppm y 337 ppm MS, respectivamente. El nivel de Cu en sangre de la cierva fue de 0,5 μg/ml y el hematocrito de 46%. En mιdula espinal se encontró degeneración mielínica generalizada con pérdida de la vaina de mielina, siendo de mayor severidad en las regiones dorsales de la médula. Se observó también vacuolización de la sustancia blanca sin respuesta inflamatoria. Los niveles hepáticos de Cu en la hembra necropsiada se encontraban por debajo del valor considerado como límite, pero a pesar de esto la cupremia se hallaba dentro del rango de referencia siendo ésta una característica comúnmente observada en los casos de deficiencia de Cu. Los valores de Cu hepático fetal también estaban por debajo del rango considerado como normal. A pesar de que los parámetros medidos en pasto y agua al momento del problema estaban dentro de valores de referencia, es probable que los ciervos hayan estado expuestos previamente a bajos valores de Cu dietario durante un tiempo prolongado, lo cual pudo verse agravado por la gran demanda de Cu que ejerce el crecimiento fetal. Considerando que esta enfermedad se presenta usualmente en forma estacional, es de gran importancia realizar muestreos de sangre en la época de mayor riesgo (principios de primavera con el fin de hacer un diagnóstico temprano. De acuerdo a los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y epidemiológicos, se concluye que el diagnóstico corresponde a "ataxia enzoótica por deficiencia de Cu".Enzootic ataxia is a pathology that causes slow and progressive paralysis of the hind limbs in red deer and has been related to copper (Cu deficiency. This condition is not seen until deer are about 9 months old. The objective of this paper is to describe a clinical case of enzootic ataxia in red deer kept in captivity in Argentina. The problem started with two pregnant female deer that showed hind limb weakness. One was slaughtered for necropsy. Blood and organ samples were taken, and the latter were kept in formaldehyde at 10%. A necropsy of the foetus was also carried out and a liver sample was taken. Grass and water were analyzed. Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo and SO4 levels were measured in grass, while total salt, SO4 , Ca, Mg, Na and Cl levels were measured in water. Disease prevalence was 0.14%. Liver Cu values were 14.6 ppm and 337 ppm DM in the female and foetus respectively. Blood Cu level in the female was 0.5 μg/ml and haematocrit was 46%. In spinal cord a general medullar myelin sheath loss was found, but it was more severe in dorsal regions of the medulla. Vacuolization of white substance with no inflammatory response was also observed. Although liver Cu levels in the slaughtered female were lower than those considered as limiting, cupraemia was within the normal range. This is a commonly observed characteristic in Cu deficiency. Cu liver values in the foetus were also below the normal range. As this is a cronic disease, it is probable that the animals were exposed to a low Cu level diet for a long time. This condition could have been worsened by the high Cu demand during foetal growth in the last third of the gestation period. Since this disease is usually found in certain geographical areas and appears seasonally, it is important to take blood samples at the time of higher risk (beginning of spring in order to carry out an early diagnosis. Therefore, according to the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data, it is concluded that the diagnosis corresponds to enzootic ataxia due to Cu deficiency.

  6. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus) en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Argentina

    J P Soler; S B Cseh


    Se describe un caso de ataxia enzoótica (AE) en ciervos rojos en cautiverio ocurrido en Argentina. La AE es una patología de los ciervos que causa parálisis lenta y progresiva de las extremidades posteriores y ha sido asociada a la deficiencia de cobre. Su presentación suele ser a partir de los 9 meses de edad. El problema afectó a dos ciervas rojas con debilidad de los miembros posteriores. Se realizó necropsia a una hembra preñada. Se tomaron muestras de órganos en formol al 10%, de suero y...

  7. Antibody Responses of Cervids (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection and the Implications for Immunodiagnosis

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current ante-mortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, has seri...

  8. Roe (Capreolus capreolus) and red (Cervus elaphus) deer foraging habits under snow conditions

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Homolka, Miloslav

    Hamburg: DSV-Verlag, 2005 - (Pohlmeyer, K.), s. 447-449 ISBN 3-88412-431-5. [IUGB Congress /27./. Hannover (DE), 28.08.2005-03.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : deer * winter diet * browsing impact Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. Long-term dynamics of Coxiella burnetii in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus

    David eGonzález-Barrio


    Full Text Available Several aspects of the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic Q-fever are unknown. We designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to C. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of Q fever specific control approaches. Other relevant aspects of the dynamics of C. burnetii - the effect of herd immune status, age, season and early infection on exposure, the average half-life of antibodies, the presence and duration of maternal humoral immunity and the age of first exposure - were analysed. The dynamics of C. burnetii in deer herds seems to be modulated by host herd and host individual factors and by particular host life history traits. Red deer females become exposed to C. burnetii at the beginning of their second year since maternal antibodies protect them after birth and during the main pathogen shedding season - at the end of spring-early summer. Infection pressure varies between years, probably associated to herd immunity effects, determining inter-annual variation in the risk of exposure. These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based upon humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6 months.

  10. The content of selected metals in muscles of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Poland.

    Skibniewski, Michał; Skibniewska, Ewa M; Kośla, Tadeusz


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba in the muscles of red deer that were hunted in two regions of Poland (south-western and north-eastern). The data obtained were evaluated with regards to benefits and potential risk to consumers' health. Samples for the investigations were collected in 2008 and 2009 from 50 female red deer, and the metal concentrations were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) method. The mean concentrations of Pb did not differ statistically between regions and were equal to that permitted for farm animals. The results of this study support the conclusion that the meat of the analysed animals does not pose a risk of lead intoxication. Statistically higher mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were found in the muscles of red deer from the south-western region (namely, 2.99 and 25.78 mg kg(-1)) than those in animals from north-eastern Poland (namely, 2.61 and 23.39 mg kg(-1) wet weight). In terms of human nutritional needs, the meat of red deer can be considered as a good source of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations did not differ statistically between regions. Their mean concentrations were 4.50, 0.09, 0.16 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Although high Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations were found, the meat of red deer does not pose a risk for adult consumers. Only high Ba content may potentially result in negative health effects for children. PMID:25548020

  11. Seasonal and age related changes in size of reproductive structures of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus

    Rolf Langvatn


    Full Text Available Morphometric studies of uteri, ovary weights, and follicle diameters were carried out to investigate possible methodological applications. Size and anatomical appearance of the uterus varied with age and phase in the estrous cycle, both in parous and nulliparous females. The uterus thus may provide valuable information on reproductive status for known-aged animals. Weight of ovaries increased in young, but declined in old females, showing significant covariance with body weight in young and prime ages. Ovary weights increased from low levels shortly after parturition to a maximum towards the end of the gestation period. Ovaries containing a corpus luteum were heavier than those without. Compared to ovary weights, mean diameter of largest ovarian follicle varied in an opposite pattern during the yearly cycle. Maximum follicle diameter was largest in non-ovulated females. Weight of ovaries and follicle size appear to be of limited value as criteria in analysis of reproductive status and performance.

  12. Tuberculosis, genetic diversity and fitness in the red deer, Cervus elaphus.

    Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Alves, Paulo C; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian


    Understanding how genetic diversity, infections and fitness interact in wild populations is a major challenge in ecology and management. These interactions were addressed through heterozygosity-fitness correlation analyses, by assessing the genetic diversity, tuberculosis (TB) and body size in adult red deer. Heterozygosity-fitness correlation models provided a better understanding of the link between genetic diversity and TB at individual and population levels. A single local effect was found for Ceh45 locus at individual level, enhancing the importance of its close functional genes in determining TB presence. At population level, the ability of the red deer to control TB progression correlated positively with population genetic diversity, indicating that inbred populations might represent more risk of deer TB severity. Statistical models also gained insights into the dynamics of multi-host interaction in natural environments. TB prevalence in neighbouring wild boar populations was positively associated with deer TB at both individual and population levels. Additionally, TB presence correlated positively with red deer body size, for which "general and local effect" hypotheses were found. Although body size might be correlated with age, an indirect genetic effect on TB presence could be implied. This study provides new insights towards understanding host-pathogen interactions in wild populations and their relation to fitness traits. PMID:27245150

  13. Elk (Cervus elaphus) Seasonal Habitat Selection in a Heterogeneous Forest Structure

    Popp, Jesse N.; McGeachy, David N. C.; Josef Hamr


    Seasonal habitat selection by the reintroduced Burwash elk population, approximately 30 km south of Sudbury, Ontario, has been analysed in order to assist in the development of future management. Twenty-five adult females were radio-collared and tracked 1–3 times a week for 3 years. The most prominent patterns included selection of intolerant hardwood forests (trembling aspen, white birch, and balsam poplar) during all seasons, while Great Lakes-St. Lawrence pines (white and red pine dominate...

  14. Spent Mushroom Substrate Influences Elk (Cervus Elaphus Canadensis) Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters

    Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Sang Woo; DO, YOON JUNG; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Yeoung Gyu; Yang, Boh Suk; Shin, Daekeun; Cho, Young Moo


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived from Pleurotus eryngii on the hematological and biochemical blood properties of elk. A total of 18, two and three-year-old elk were fed three different levels of SMS (0, 15 and 20%) in a corn-wheat bran diet for 80 days. The results indicated significantly high levels of blood monocytes, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (HCT) in elk fed 15% or 20% SMS (p

  15. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian


    As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9% (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6% (28/86) for sika deer, and 20% (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n = 20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n = 5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans. PMID:25185666

  16. Longitudinal Pathogenesis Study of Young Red Deer (Cervus elaphus after Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP

    Colin Mackintosh


    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis progresses more quickly in young red deer than in sheep or cattle. This study describes the clinical, immunological and pathological changes over a 50-week period in fourteen 4-month-old red deer that received heavy oral challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. At 4 and 12 weeks post challenge they were anaesthetized and a section of jejunal lymph node was surgically removed for culture, histopathology, and genetic studies. All 14 deer became infected, none were clinically affected, and they had varying degrees of subclinical disease when killed at week 50. Week 4 biopsies showed no paratuberculosis lesions, but MAP was cultured from all animals. At weeks 12 and 50 histopathological lesions ranged from mild to severe with corresponding low-to-high antibody titres, which peaked at 12–24 weeks. IFN-γ responses peaked at 8–15 weeks and were higher in mildly affected animals than in those with severe lesions.

  17. Damage caused by red deer (Cervus elaphus & wild boar (Sus scrofa in forest hunting grounds in Serbia

    Gačić Dragan P.


    Full Text Available The systematic study and assessment of the damage by big game in forest hunting grounds in Serbia was infrequent, although the damage was evident. The objective of this paper is to identify the rates and types of damage by red deer and wild boar at three localities: (1 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Crni Lug' (Srem, (2 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Podunavsko Lovište Plavna' (Southwestern Bačka, and (3 fenced rearing centre 'Lomnička Reka' (Mt. Veliki Jastrebac. The damage was not recorded on locality (1. The damage on locality (2 (new polar plantations and locality (3 (beech forests was caused by red deer. The main causes of the damage were excessive density and disturbed population structure (sex and age, nonharmonised forest and hunting management, shortage of natural food, especially of pasture areas.

  18. Steroid hormones profile during an ovarian synchronization procedure in different age categories of red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus L.

    Šperanda Marcela


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare estradiol/progesterone ratios of different age categories of red deer hinds and use it as a predictor of estrus synchronization success and consequently conception rate. To accomplish this we used 38 red deer hinds to establish serum progesterone and estradiol levels in young (21 animals, mature (10 animals and old (7 animals hinds during the estrus synchronization procedure (transvaginal/cervical AI. The following estrus synchronization was used: at the start of the experiment each hind received a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR, Pharmacia&Upjohn, New Zealand containing 0.3 g of progesterone. The device was removed on day 11, simultaneously with an application of 250 IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG, Folligon® Intervet International, Boxmeer, Holland. Transvaginal/ cervical AI (artificial insemination was performed 48 hours after CIDR withdrawal (day 13. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein using a Venoject® vacutainer without an anticoagulant for hormonal tests on the same experimental day (0, 11th and 13th day. A statistically (p<0.01 higher progesterone level was found in young hinds on the 11th day after controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device insertion. A significantly higher (p<0.01 estrogen level was observed in the young in regard to mature and old hinds on the expected day of estrus (13th day. Estradiol/progesterone ratios showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01 on insemination day (13th day between old and young hinds (98.67 : 46.59 and between old and mature hinds (98.67 : 51.79. Out of a total of 38 hinds only 9 had their offspring, 6 of the young and 3 of the mature hinds.

  19. Contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Arnold, Walter; Beiglböck, Christoph; Burmester, Marion; Guschlbauer, Maria; Lengauer, Astrid; Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja; Breves, Gerhard


    Northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. We investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. Our results support the latter hypothesis. We found in a feeding experiment that total energy intake was considerably lower during winter despite ad libitum feeding. Together with reduced food intake, mass of visceral organs was significantly lower and body fat reserves were used as metabolic fuel in addition to food. However, efficacy of nutrient absorption seemed to be increased simultaneously. Extraction of crude protein from forage was higher in winter animals, at any level of crude protein intake, as indicated by the lower concentration of crude protein in feces. In line with these in vivo results, Ussing chamber experiments revealed greater electrogenic responses to both peptides and glucose in the small intestines of winter-acclimatized animals, and peptide uptake into jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles was increased. We conclude that reduced appetite of red deer during winter avoids energy expenditure for unproductive search of scarcely available food and further renders the energetically costly maintenance of a large gut and visceral organs unnecessary. Nevertheless, extraction of nutrients from forage is more efficient in the winter to attenuate an inevitably negative energy balance. PMID:26017492

  20. Effects of highways on elk (Cervus elaphus) habitat in the Western United States and proposed mitigation approaches

    Ruediger, William Bill C.; Wall, Ken; Wall, Robin


    Why Elk? Elk are an excellent species to use as a “terrestrial wildlife indicator” for highway impacts. First, they are widespread and exist in all western states as well as several midwestern and eastern states. They are prevalent on many National Forest lands, Bureau of Land Management lands, USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service lands. Much elk habitat is on public lands in the western United States (Flathers and Hoekstra 1989, Peek undated, Thomas and Toweill 1982). Elk...

  1. Antibody Responses of Cervids (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection and the Implications for Immunodiagnosis ▿

    Harrington, Noel P.; Surujballi, Om P.; Prescott, John F.; Duncan, J. Robert; Waters, W. Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena


    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. T...

  2. Introgression through rare hybridization: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus) in Argyll, Scotland.

    Goodman, S. J.; Barton, N. H.; Swanson, G.; Abernethy, K; Pemberton, J M


    In this article we describe the structure of a hybrid zone in Argyll, Scotland, between native red deer (Cervus elaphus) and introduced Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon), on the basis of a genetic analysis using 11 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA. In contrast to the findings of a previous study of the same population, we conclude that the deer fall into two distinct genetic classes, corresponding to either a sika-like or red-like phenotype. Introgression is rare at any one locus...

  3. An Assessment of Agricultural Damage Caused by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.and Fallow Deer (Dama dama L. in Southwest England

    Charles John Wilson


    Full Text Available The impact of deer grazing on agricultural grassland and cereal crops was assessed at two locations with medium to high deer densities in the Exmoor area of southwest England. Red deer impact on early spring grazing was measured at one site by comparing samples of herbage cut from inside and outside deer-proof exclosure cages, just prior to turn out of livestock, on 1 March 1989. Fallow deer impact on first-cut silage grass production was similarly measured using exclosure cages at a second site by cutting samples on 31 May 1990 and on 6 June 1995. In addition, impact of fallow deer on cereal crops was assessed at this site by measuring sample grain yields from areas of the crop used or unused by deer in 1995 (winter wheat, 1996 (winter barley and 1997 (winter wheat. Significant dry matter yield losses were recorded for red deer impact on spring grazing in 1989 (14.5% and for fallow deer impact on first-cut silage (15.9% in 1995 but not in 1990. In 1995 a small but significant yield loss (7.1% was recorded for winter wheat at the fallow deer site but no loss in cereal yield was recorded in 1996 or 1997. These assessments, carried out in response to complaints about deer damage, suggest that the impacts of deer in this area, where they occur at relatively high density, are only moderate. This highlights the need for careful assessment of cost-benefits when considering deer management strategies to reduce perceived agricultural damage.

  4. Application of a hybrid model to reduce bias and improve precision in population estimates for elk (Cervus elaphus) inhabiting a cold desert ecosystem

    Kathryn A. Schoenecker; Bruce C. Lubow


    Accurately estimating the size of wildlife populations is critical to wildlife management and conservation of species. Raw counts or “minimum counts” are still used as a basis for wildlife management decisions. Uncorrected raw counts are not only negatively biased due to failure to account for undetected animals, but also provide no estimate of precision on which to judge the utility of counts. We applied a hybrid population estimation technique that combined sightability modeling, radio coll...

  5. Application of a hybrid model to reduce bias and improve precision in population estimates for elk (Cervus elaphus inhabiting a cold desert ecosystem

    Kathryn A. Schoenecker


    Full Text Available Accurately estimating the size of wildlife populations is critical to wildlife management and conservation of species. Raw counts or “minimum counts” are still used as a basis for wildlife management decisions. Uncorrected raw counts are not only negatively biased due to failure to account for undetected animals, but also provide no estimate of precision on which to judge the utility of counts. We applied a hybrid population estimation technique that combined sightability modeling, radio collar-based mark-resight, and simultaneous double count (double-observer modeling to estimate the population size of elk in a high elevation desert ecosystem. Combining several models maximizes the strengths of each individual model while minimizing their singular weaknesses. We collected data with aerial helicopter surveys of the elk population in the San Luis Valley and adjacent mountains in Colorado State, USA in 2005 and 2007. We present estimates from 7 alternative analyses: 3 based on different methods for obtaining a raw count and 4 based on different statistical models to correct for sighting probability bias. The most reliable of these approaches is a hybrid double-observer sightability model (model MH, which uses detection patterns of 2 independent observers in a helicopter plus telemetry-based detections of radio collared elk groups. Data were fit to customized mark-resight models with individual sighting covariates. Error estimates were obtained by a bootstrapping procedure. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to double-observer modeling. The resulting population estimate corrected for multiple sources of undercount bias that, if left uncorrected, would have underestimated the true population size by as much as 22.9%. Our comparison of these alternative methods demonstrates how various components of our method contribute to improving the final estimate and demonstrates why each is necessary.

  6. Antemortem detection of PrP-CWD in preclinical, ranch-raised Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by biopsy of the rectal mucosa

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE of deer and elk in North America. All diseases in this family are characterized by long preclinical incubation periods following by a relatively short clinical course. The abnormal isoform of the normal cellular prion prot...

  7. Structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides

    A macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (North Bohemia, Czech Republic). As was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. In all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently less fluorotic than the other permanent teeth. This was related to the fact that crown formation in the M1 takes place prenatally and during the lactation period. Fluorosed teeth exhibited opaque and posteruptively stained enamel, reduction or loss of enamel ridges, moderately to grossly increased wear and, in more severe cases, also enamel surface lesions of partly posteruptive, partly developmental origin. Microradiographically, fluorosed enamel was characterised by subsurface hypomineralisation, interpreted as a result of fluoride interference with the process of enamel maturation. In addition, an accentuation of the incremental pattern due to the occurrence of alternating bands with highly varying mineral content was observed in severely fluorosed teeth, denoting fluoride disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis. A corresponding enhancement of the incremental pattern was also seen in the dentine. The enamel along the more pronounced hypoplasias consisted of stacked, thin layers of crystals arranged in parallel, indicating that the ameloblasts in these locations had lost the distal (prism-forming) portions of their Tomes processes. The findings of the present study indicate that red deer are highly sensitive bioindicators of environmental pollution by fluorides

  8. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc


    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  9. Uzgoj običnoga jelena (Cervus elaphus L.) u kontroliranim uvjetima u ograđenom prostoru Šeprešhat

    Grubešić, Marijan; Urošević, Branko; Mihaljević, Zlatan; Tomljanović, Kristijan


    Ograđeni prostor Šeprešhat namijenjen je intenzivnomu uzgoju običnoga jelena u kontroliranim uvjetima. Svrha je takva uzgoja proizvodnja visokovrijednoga baranjskoga jelena s mogućnošću distribucije kvalitetnoga rasplodnoga materijala u druga lovišta Republike Hrvatske. Uzgoj je jelena započeo još 2002. godine s prvim hvatanjima i ispuštanjima teladi u ograđeni prostor. Ograđeni prostor Šeprešhat u međuvremenu se postupno širio te od početnih 53 ha danas ima 380 ha. Prostor je razdijeljen na ...

  10. The Influence of Snow Cover Changes on Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L. Migrations in the Western Part of Gorski Kotar Region in Croatia

    Josip Malnar


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Animal migrations are a direct result of reproduction, behaviour characteristics, predators, population density, disturbance, loss of habitat, climatic, vegetational and nutritional factors. The availability and accessibility of natural food in winter months is dependent on snow cover. The main objective of this study was to determine the migrational activities of red deer and to examine the dependency between migrations and climatic factors. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the northwest Dinarid mountains, i.e. in the western part of Gorski Kotar region, which represents a large integral forest complex, distinctive due to its significant vertical drops, diverse relief characteristics and habitat conditions. Data on red deer migrations was collected over a 12 year period from hunting records, gamekeeper logs and records from game counting and monitoring. Results and Conclusions: The results of the macroclimatic analysis show a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the monitored weather stations in the study area. The Klana site stood out as the most appropriate red deer winter habitat, based on climatic conditions. Climatic conditions play a key role in seasonal red deer migrations or non-migrations. The Crni Lug site was assessed to be the least favourable due to macroclimatic conditions (snow depth.

  11. Environ: E00332 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00332 Cervus male sex organ Crude drug Cervus elaphus [TAX:9860], Cervus nippon [T...AX:9863] Cervidae Cervus male sex organ Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00332 Cervus male sex organ ...

  12. Validación y uso de Espectrocopía de Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS) para el estudio de alimentación de ciervo (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) y gamo (Dama dama) en ecosistemas mediterráneos

    Tellado-Ruiz, María-Sierra


    [ES]En este estudio desarrollamos y validamos un método de Espectroscopía de Reflectancia en la región del infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) para determinar, de forma indirecta a partir de heces, la calidad de la dieta de dos especies de cérvidos en ambiente mediterráneo. Se estudió el contenido de fibra ácido detergente (ADF) y fibra neutro detergente (NDF), el contenido de lignina, el índice de carbono/nitrógeno (C:N), la digestibilidad enzimática (EDOM) y de la pared celular (CWD), la cantidad de ...

  13. Modelli di valutazione ambientale per i Bovidi (Capra ibex, Rupicapra rupicapra e i Cervidi (Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso

    C. Oppio


    Full Text Available La conservazione delle popolazioni di stambecco ha grande rilevanza a livello italiano ed europeo, a causa della distribuzione concentrata in poche aree, mentre le consistenti popolazioni di camoscio hanno importanza economica e gestionale. L?espansione dell?areale di distribuzione dei cervidi in territorio alpino, è un fenomeno ormai consolidato e legato all?abbandono dei territori collinari e montani ma anche alle reintroduzioni e alle azioni di tutela nei confronti delle specie. I modelli d?idoneità ambientale rappresentano un efficace strumento per il confronto a livello qualitativo (numero di specie e quantitativo (abbondanza delle popolazioni tra l?attuale popolamento faunistico dei territori alpini e la loro situazione potenziale. Il Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso si estende per oltre 700 km² sul territorio di Piemonte e di Valle d?Aosta; gli affioramenti rocciosi ne occupano il 37.0%, la vegetazione rada il 20.1% e le praterie sommitali e le brughiere il 17.3%. L?analisi ambientale del Parco è stata effettuata mediante Arcview 3.2 per Windows misurando il valore di 20 variabili ambientali (Corine Land Cover III Liv., 27 fisiche (DTM e 17 di complessità paesaggistica in 2925 Unità Campione di 0,5 km di lato. Per la formulazione dei modelli relativi alla distribuzione (presenza/assenza dello stambecco sono stati utilizzati i dati dei censimenti (1999 effettuati nel Parco; per il camoscio ed il capriolo sono stati utilizzati i dati rilevati nelle province di Vercelli e Biella (1997 e in quella di Verbania (1999, mentre per il cervo sono stati utilizzati quelli relativi alla sola provincia di Verbania (1999. I modelli sono stati formulati mediante Analisi di Funzione Discriminante (Magnusson, 1983; Massolo & Meriggi, 1995 e Analisi di Regressione Logistica (Norusis, 1994. Per lo stambecco i dati sono stati suddivisi in due sets, di cui uno utilizzato per la formulazione del modello e l?altro per la sua validazione. Mediante un test del chi-quadrato sono state confrontate le percentuali di casi classificati nei due sets. Per le altre specie i modelli formulati sono stati applicati al territorio del parco e la validità dei modelli è stata valutata dalla percentuale di casi originali riclassificati correttamente. Per i bovidi il modello a maggior capacità predittiva è stato quello discriminante (classificazioni corrette: 73.0% per stambecco e 82.8% per camoscio. La non significatività del test Χ² (P=0.470 indica che non esistono differenze significative tra la distribuzione reale dello stambecco e quella ottenuta dal modello. L'81.1% del territorio del Parco è idoneo al camoscio alpino e l'area vocata include il 93.6% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Per il capriolo il modello logistico è stato quello a maggior capacità predittiva (88.1% dei casi originali classificati correttamente, individuando il 50.7% del territorio realmente occupato dalla specie. Anche per il cervo quello logistico è preferibile per la maggiore percentuale di casi totali classificati correttamente (AFD: 74.9%; ARL: 76.0%.

  14. Podiel drevín v potrave jeleňa lesného (Cervus elaphus) a srnca hôrneho (Capreolus capreolus) v lužnom lese

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava

    Zvolen: Technická univerzita, 2003, s. 161-166. [Nové trendy v ochrane lesa. Zvolen (SK), 23.01.2003-24.01.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : deer * floodplain forest * food Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Selezione invernale dell'habitat e densità del cervo (Cervus elaphus e del capriolo (Capreolus capreolus nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo

    R. Latini


    Full Text Available Nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo è stata studiata la selezione dell'habitat invernale di cervo e capriolo da aprile a maggio del 2000 e del 2002, in un'area caratterizzata da boschi di faggio, rimboschimenti a pino nero e pascoli. È stata utilizzata la tecnica del pellet group count, su transetti lineari larghi 2 metri, individuati ogni 100 m di quota, lungo le isoipse da 1350 a 1950 m s.l.m. Sono stati percorsi 61 km ed è stata campionata un'area di 12 ha. Per ogni gruppo di escrementi (1583 per il cervo e 946 per il capriolo sono state rilevate l'altitudine, la pendenza, l'esposizione e il tipo di vegetazione. È stato assunto che tutti gli habitat fossero ugualmente disponibili ed accessibili e che le disponibilita fossero conosciute (Alldredge et al., 1998. I dati raccolti sono stati elaborati applicando il test del Χ², la statistica di Bonferroni (Neu et al., 1974 e l'indice Jacobs (Jacobs, 1974. Il cervo ha selezionato aree comprese tra 1300 e 1500 m s.l.m. (p<0.01, un range altimetrico più ristretto rispetto al capriolo che seleziona anche le quote piu elevate, comprese cioè tra 1300 e 1700 m s.l.m. (p<0.01. Entrambi i cervidi selezionano le zone più scoscese (21°-60° (p<0.01: Il cervo seleziona le classi d'esposizione comprese tra sud-est ed ovest (p<0.01, mentre il capriolo i versanti sud-ovest e ovest (p<0.01. Entrambe le specie preferiscono ambienti di transizione ed evitano le zone di bosco maturo ed i pascoli d'alta quota (p<0.01. Utilizzando il tasso di defecazione è stata calcolata la densità delle due specie (Mayle, 1999 che è risultata di 2.7 cervi/100 ha e 1.0 caprioli/100 ha. Le due specie selezionano le stesse risorse, suggerendo, così come riscontrato da altri autori (Welch, 1989, una convergenza per quanto riguarda l'uso invernale dell'habitat. La scelta d'aree poste a quote medio-basse, di zone scoscese e di versanti meridionali potrebbe essere legata alla minore altezza e persistenza del manto nevoso (Mysterud et al., 1997. La scelta di aree ecotonali e zone di bosco con soprassuolo forestale articolato potrebbe essere messo in relazione sia al più elevato valore trofico di questi habitat, sia alla maggiore disponibilità di siti di riparo. I risultati trovano riscontro in uno studio analogo condotto nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Pedrotti & Mustoni, 1994 e rappresentano il primo contributo alla conoscenza di queste due popolazioni all'interno del Parco a 30 anni dalla loro reintroduzione.

  16. 马鹿生长激素(GH)基因生物信息学预测及分析%Bioinformatics Prediction and Analysis on GH Gene of Cervus elaphus

    宋兴超; 杨福合; 刘汇涛; 徐超; 魏海军; 邢秀梅


    In order to study the structure and function of GH gene of wapiti, coding sequences(CDS) of GH gene in wapiti, sika deer, chevrotain, cattle, goat, sheep, pig, human, chimpanzee, Norway rat, house mouse, arctic fox, dog, chicken and zebrafish were downloaded from GenBank as experimental ma- terials. Bioinformaties analysis was made on basic information and encoding protein structure, physic- chemical property, signal peptide, transmembrane structure, generic phosphorylation sites, secondary structure and subcellular localization were predicted by means of biologic software and online tools. In ad- dition, the similarity of GH gene CDS sequence and amino acid between those of wapiti and other 14 species were also analyzed. Phylogentic tree of the homologous gene based on the amino acid of GH gene was constructed. The results showed that the length of wapiti GH gene was 2 100 bp, which included 5 exons, 4 introns, partial 5'UTR and 3'UTR, and it contained an open reading frame of 654 bp, which encoded 217 amino acids. The estimated molecular weight of GH protein was 24.588 4 ku, with a iso- electric point of 7.62 and 31.04 in stability index, belonging to the stable alkalinous protein with hy- drophobicity. The GH protein had two obvious strong transmembrane region, eight phosphorylation sites. The secondary structure of GH protein was mainly α-helix and irregular curly. The extracellular protein contained one signal peptide was probably being secreting type. The similarity comparison and phyloge- netic tree indicated that the evolution distance of wapiti GH gene was the most homogeneous to sika deer, chevrotain, cattle, goat and sheep. The research provided detailed bioinformatics information for further study on GH gene of wapiti.%为研究马鹿生长激素(GH)基因的结构和功能,从GenBank中下载马鹿、梅花鹿、鼷鹿、牛、山羊、绵羊、猪、人、黑猩猩、挪威大鼠、小家鼠、北极狐、狗、鸡和斑马鱼的GH基因完整编码区(CDS)及氨基酸序列,利用DNAStar 7.0、BioEdit 7.0生物软件与相关在线工具对马鹿GH基因核苷酸序列的基本信息及其编码蛋白的理化特性和结构特征进行了生物信息学预测及分析,对马鹿与其他14个物种GH基因的CDS序列及其编码氨基酸序列进行相似性分析,并基于氨基酸序列构建了15个物种的系统进化树。结果表明:马鹿GH基因DNA序列长度为2 100 bp,包括完整的5个外显子和4个内含子,部分5′UTR和3′UTR,CDS全长654 bp,编码217个氨基酸;其编码的蛋白是一种分子质量为24.588 4 ku,等电点为7.62的疏水性稳定碱性蛋白;存在2个强跨膜区、8个广泛磷酸化位点,二级结构元件以α-螺旋和无规则卷曲为主;该蛋白位于细胞外,含有1个信号肽,属一种分泌型蛋白;马鹿与梅花鹿、牛、绵羊、山羊和鼷鹿等动物的GH基因氨基酸序列相似性较高,亲缘关系最近。该研究结果可为马鹿GH基因的进一步分析提供详细的生物学基础信息。

  17. Složení potravy jelena lesního (Cervus elaphus) a srnce lesního (Capreolus capreolus) v NP a CHKO Šumava a Bavorský les

    Barančeková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Šustr, P.; Heurich, M.

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2009 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 27-28 ISBN 978-80-87189-03-0. [Zoologické dny. 12.02.2009-13.02.2009, Brno] Institutional research pla n: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : analyses * deer browse * faeces Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  18. Welfare pro velké cervidy - zohlednění potřeb jelenovitých (Cervidae) a možnosti jejich naplnění v expozicích zoo Brno

    Přichystalová, Michala


    Many species of deer family (Cervidae) are common among the inmates zoos and similar livestock farms. Center of radiation biungulates deer family was Asia, deer now inhabit all continents except Antarctica. The zoo in Brno kepts following species: Siberian deer (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) inhabit the forested areas of Southeast Asia. In the older literature is cited as subspecies of deer (Cervus elaphus), modern science provides evidence of a greater relationship with wapiti (Cervus canadensis...

  19. Migrations and management of the Jackson elk herd

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From April 1978 to April 1982, 85 adult (~2. 7 years-old) elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were captured and radio-collared on the National Elk Refuge in northwestern...

  20. Genetic variability of sika and red deer populations in the Czech Republic based on mitochondrial DNA

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Vallo, Peter; Barančeková, Miroslava; Koubek, Petr

    Primiero : Parco Naturale Paneveggio, 2007. s. 98. [International conference on genus Cervus 2007 /1./. 14.09.2007-17.09.2007, Primiero] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cervus nippon * Cervus elaphus * control region * cytochrome b gene * genetic variability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. Guía para la determinación de la edad del ciervo ibérico (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) a través de su dentición: revisión metodológica y técnicas de elección

    Azorit Casas, Concepción E.


    La determinación de la edad de los ciervos cazados es fundamental e imprescindible para valorar tanto la calidad individual como la calidad de la población en su conjunto y pone en perspectiva cuestiones sobre gestión y manejo. La determinación de la edad es la mejor fuente de información para evaluar los resultados de la gestión desarrollada, monitorizar el cumplimiento de los objetivos marcados a medio y largo plazo, y valorar las consecuencias de prácticas de manejo anteriores. También con...

  2. Habitat acoustics of Rocky Mountain elk in Colorado and European Red deer in Denmark

    Riede, Tobias; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye;

      Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We investig......  Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We...

  3. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  4. Eurasian lynx hunting red deer: is there an influence of a winter enclosure system?

    Belotti, E.; Kreisinger, Jakub; Romportl, D.; Heurich, M.; Bufka, L.


    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2014), s. 441-457. ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cervus elaphus * Habitat heterogeneity * Lynx lynx * Predation probability * Prey density * Supplementary feeding Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  5. Native red deer and introduced chamois: foraging habits and competition in a subalpine meadow-spruce forest area

    Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta


    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2001), s. 89-98. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0172; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cervus elaphus * Rupicapra rupicapra * foraging strategy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.287, year: 2001

  6. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests

    Robert B Allen; Forsyth, David M.; Allen, Roy K. J.; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I.


    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand’s temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult m...

  7. Is there any evidence of their crossbreeding in captive and/or in free-living populations?

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Voloshina, I. V.; Kawata, Y.; Oshida, T.; Igota, H.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr

    Huilo Huilo: Fundacion Huilo Huilo, 2010 - (Werner-Flueck, J.; Charrier, A.). s. 38-39 [International Deer Biology Congress /7./. 02.08.2010-07.08.2010, Huilo Huilo] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/1569 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cervus nippon * Cervus elaphus * hybridization * microsatellite loci * conservation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. Reproductive biotechnologies: a new approach for Cervids conservation

    Uccheddu, Stefania


    Reproductive biotechnologies have great potential as a tool for the conservation of endangered mammal species. We tried to apply some assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in the sardinian regional context, widely considered for its peculiar biodiversity. Our research had been driven in particular at cervids, Fallow deer (Dama dama, Linneus 1758) and Sardinian red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus, Exrleben 1777). This subspecies is strictly protected and is included as a Near Threatened on th...

  9. Cost–Benefit Analyses of Mitigation Measures Aimed at Reducing Collisions with Large Ungulates in the United States and Canada: a Decision Support Tool

    Robert J. Ament; Anthony P. Clevenger; John W. Duffield; Huijser, Marcel P.; Pat T. McGowen


    Wildlife–vehicle collisions, especially with deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) are numerous and have shown an increasing trend over the last several decades in the United States and Canada. We calculated the costs associated with the average deer–, elk–, and moose–vehicle collision, including vehicle repair costs, human injuries and fatalities, towing, accident attendance and investigation, monetary value to hunters of the animal kil...

  10. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park

    Wilmers, C C; Crabtree, R L; Smith, D. W.; Murphy, K M; Getz, Wayne M.


    1. The reintroduction of grey wolves Canis lupus (L.) to Yellowstone National Park provides a natural experiment in which to study the effects of a keystone predator on ecosystem function. 2. Grey wolves often provision scavengers with carrion by partially consuming their prey. 3. In order to examine how grey wolf foraging behaviour influences the availability of carrion to scavengers, we observed consumption of 57 wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (L.) and determined the percentage of edible bi...

  11. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Spraker Terry R; White Stephen N; Reynolds James O; O'Rourke Katherine I


    Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP h...

  12. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection.

    Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre


    Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by P...

  13. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection

    Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre


    Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by P...

  14. Immune Responses of Elk to Initial and Booster Vaccinations with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 or 19

    S. C. Olsen; Fach, S. J.; Palmer, M. V.; Sacco, R. E.; Stoffregen, W. C.; Waters, W.R.


    Previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). In this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strains RB51 (SRB51) and 19 (S19). Elk were vaccinated with saline or 1010 CFU of SRB51 or S19 (n = seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. Compared to nonvaccinate...

  15. Fire behaviour and impact on heather moorland

    Davies, Gwilym Matthew


    For roughly the past 200 years land-managers have used the practice of “muirburning” to manipulate the structure of heather (Calluna vulgaris) to create a patchwork of habitat structures able to provide forage and nesting sites for red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) as well as grazing for sheep (Ovis aries) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). This thesis investigates both the behaviour and impact of management fires in recognition of the need to develop multi-aim land management practices ...

  16. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua


    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis. PMID:26309015

  17. Risk assessment of Sika deer Cervus nippon in the Netherlands

    Lammertsma, D.R.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Griffioen, A.J.


    Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) is considered an invasive alien species in Europe. They were introduced in the 19th and 20th century in Europe and have established self-sustaining populations in various countries. Main concerns for Sika, without preventive measures taken and without population control, are about damage to forestry (silviculture, timber production), agriculture, Natura 2000 areas, competition with native ungulates and hybridization and introgression with native Red Deer. Risk assess...

  18. Reprodukce siky (Cervus nippon) na Plzeňsku

    Husinec, Václav


    This thesis examines the impact of the age of female sika deer on the weight of embryos of sika deer Cervus nippon nippon in the North Pilsen Region. From 2011 to the start of 2013 hunted down female sika deer were examined to establish the presence of embryos. Embryos were subsequently taken out of the hunted deer and analysed. The location of Košetice was selected to collate the data necessary. The location and the method of collation of data has been described in one of the chapters of thi...

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in Michigan, USA.

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Shank, K L; Kaneene, J B


    A study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in Michigan. This is the first description of cervid farming in the United States. Data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from March 3 through June 28, 1993. Completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. Study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 766 (12.5%) elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), 284 (4.6%) fallow deer (Dama dama), 114 (1.9%) sika deer (Cervus nippon), 6 (0.1%) red deer (Cervus elaphus), 4 (treatment of injuries (27.7% [44/159]), anthelmintic administration (25.2% [40/159]), issuance of health certificates (19.5% [31/159]), diagnosis and treatment of illnesses (17.6% [28/159]), vaccination (13.8% [22/159]), disease diagnosis (treatment provided by farmer) (8.8% [14/159]), foot care (3.8% [6/159]), and other purposes (ie, necropsy, dystocia, antler removal) (11.3% [18/159]). PMID:9208449

  20. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility.

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E; Miracle, Preston T; Stevens, Rhiannon E; O'Connell, Tamsin C


    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  1. Niche relationships within a guild of ungulate species in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, following release from artificial controls

    Singer, Francis J.; Norland, Jack E.


    Niche relationships and diet overlaps were compared among elk (Cervus elaphus), bison (Bison bison), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) between 1967–1970 and 1986–1988, a period when total ungulate numbers nearly tripled on Yellowstone's northern range. Ungulate species ratios on Yellowstone's northern winter range during the latter period were 100 elk : 10 mule deer : 3 bison : 2 pronghorns : 1 bighorns. Elk numbers were positively correlated to bison, mule deer, and pronghorn numbers (r2 = 0.76, 0.97, and 0.48, respectively, P niche relationships during a period of near tripling in density of the ungulate guild.

  2. Stime di consistenza del cervo sardo nell'oasi di Monte Arcosu mediante la tecnica del pellets-group count

    Murgia, Andrea; Cocco, Francesca; Murgia, Carlo; Deiana, Anna Maria


    This paper presents the results obtained during a research carried out from 2002 to 2003 in the Monte Arcosu Natural Park. The aim of this work has been to estimate the density values and the amount of population of Sardinian deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus). Pellets-group count was the method used. Data obtained show the average density values in the study area (29.9 SE = 5.8 deer/Km2). A higher value has been obtained in the inner part of the Park. Data show that population is constant duri...

  3. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E.; Miracle, Preston T.; Stevens, Rhiannon E.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.


    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  4. Etologie jelení zvěře v přezimovacích obůrkách

    Kocán, Jaroslav


    Abstrakt The main part of the Bachelor degree thesis “The ethology of red deer in the winter enclosures”, is an effort to compare the differences between the behavior of deer in the winter enclosure with the ecological demands and the way of life in the wild. The work is mainly focused on Red deer (Cervus elaphus) ethology. The focus is primarily on deer´s ethology during the winter season, for which there is a period of emergency. Game changes their food habits and home area claims during...

  5. Field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.

    Goossens, E; Dorny, P; Vercammen, F; Vercruysse, J


    The efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (Gazella leptoceros), eight Soay sheep (Ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex), six red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 Nelson's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. The efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count reduction (fecr) tests and in vitro egg hatch assays. Fenbendazole was highly effective against nematodes in five of the seven species, consistently reducing egg shedding by more than 90 per cent. In the egg hatch assays of the five herds, 50 per cent inhibition of hatching (ld50) was observed at a concentration of thiabendazole below 0.1 microg/ml. In the Arabian oryx and alpine ibex the efficacy of fenbendazole was less than 90 per cent, and the ld50 in the egg hatch assays was between 0.1 and 0.2 microg/ml thiabendazole. PMID:16272545

  6. La espátula de Boppard (Boppard, Renania-Palatinado, Alemania y sus paralelos en Europa a finales del Paleolítico superior y en el Mesolítico

    Stefan WENZEL


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el Paleolítico superior final del yacimiento de Boppard se ha documentado una espátula realizada a partir de la cara posterior de un metatarso de Cervus elaphus. La pieza posee decoración en ambos bordes que consiste en incisiones paralelas horizontales orientadas en el sentido longitudinal del hueso. Estas incisiones están dispuestas en grupos, separadas por zonas del hueso sin decoración. Se estudian piezas de similares características procedentes principalmente de la región cantábrica, pero también de Francia, de Italia, de Alemania, de la República Checa y de Suecia. En lo referente a su posición cronológica los mejores paralelos de la espátula de Boppard proceden de finales del Paleolítico superior.ABSTRACT: A spatula recovered from the Late Palaeolithic site of Boppard is manufactured on a fragment of the plantar face of a metatarsal bone of red deer (Cervus elaphus. Along its narrow side, the tool exhibits numerous parallel notches at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the bone. These are arranged in groups separated by notch-free areas of bone. Comparable bone tools are described, mainly from Cantabrian Spain, but also from France, Italy, Germany, the Czech Republik and Sweden. The best paralells for the Boppard specimen are, insofar as they are dated, known from the Later Upper Palaeolithic.

  7. Faunal migration in late-glacial central Italy: implications for human resource exploitation.

    Pellegrini, Maura; Donahue, Randolph E; Chenery, Carolyn; Evans, Jane; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Montgomery, Janet; Mussi, Margherita


    The hunter-gatherer transhumance model presents foragers as specialised hunters of migratory ungulates, which moved seasonally between coastal lowlands and interior uplands. We studied six animal teeth of horse (Equus hydruntinus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from four different archaeological sites: the Grotta di Vado all'Arancio, Grotta di Settecannelle, Grotta Polesini and Grotta di Pozzo, in central Italy to test whether the migratory patterns and seasonal variations recorded in their teeth were consistent with expectations of the transhumance model for this region during the late Upper Palaeolithic. Sequential sub-samples of enamel were analysed from each tooth for oxygen, carbon and strontium isotope ratios to reconstruct mobility and yearly seasonal variations. The results show little evidence that these animals were moving over different geological terrains throughout the year, although small variations in Sr isotope ratios and concentrations were detected that corresponded to probable seasonal variations as shown by variability in oxygen isotope sequences. The results do, however, demonstrate that Cervus elaphus and Equus hydruntinus had different ranging behaviours, with the former moving over wider areas than the latter. This methodology produces results appropriate to assess animal migratory behaviour and, in turn, to test the consistency of proposed models of hunter-gatherer subsistence and mobility strategies. PMID:18537188

  8. Genetic analysis of evolutionary relationships among deer (subfamily Cervinae).

    Emerson, B C; Tate, M L


    The evolutionary relationships among 10 taxa of deer from the four genera of the subfamily Cervinae (Cervus, Elaphurus, Axis, and Dama) were examined by a comparison of their electrophoretic types for 22 proteins. We analyzed the data using both phenetic and cladistic methods and found that the genera of the Cervinae were not monophyletic. The genus Cervus was split into two distinct groups with red deer, wapiti (C. elaphus ssp.), and sika (C. nippon) in one clade and sambar (C. unicolor) and rusa (C. timorensis) in another. There was a close genetic relationship between the genus Elaphurus and the red deer, wapiti, sika group, whereas sambar and rusa were more similar to members of the genera Dama and Axis than to the other members of their own genus. These findings contrast with the taxonomy of the species that is based largely on studies of comparative morphology. Our samples (n = 5) showed fixed allelic differences between wapiti and red, wapiti and sika, and red and sika samples at 3, 6, and 7 loci, respectively. Analysis of these protein loci in a wider range of C. elaphus and C. nippon subspecies could resolve debate over the evolutionary relationships of these taxa. PMID:8340615

  9. Fauna de mamiferos del pleistoceno superior del yacimiento de las Majolicas (Granada

    Alberdi, Mª T.


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the fossils of macromarnmals provided by Las Majolicas site (Granada, Spain. This site was excavated in the 50's by E. Aguirre. The high frecuency of cervids with 469 fossils identified out of 558 is remarkable. We have compared Cervus elaphus from Las Majolicas with others that belong to the Cantabrian Range and we can conclude that they have smaller sizes, a fact which can be related to the more meridional situation of the site. According to the fauna that appears in Las Majolicas this site might be located in the Upper Pleistocene.En este trabajo se describen los fósiles de macromamíferos del yacimiento de Las Majolicas (Granada, España, excavado en la década de los cincuenta por E. Aguirre. En él predominan los cérvidos, con 469 restos identificados de un total de 558. Los restos de Cervus elaphus al compararlos con otros ejemplares del Pleistoceno superior de la Cordillera Cantábrica presentan un menor tamaño, lo cual podría indicar una reducción de la talla en relación al nivel más meridional de esta localidad. La fauna presente en Las Majolicas indica su posible asignación al Pleistoceno Superior

  10. Sequence Length Polymorphisms within Cervid AmelogeninX and AmelogeninY Genes: Use in Sex Determination

    Benson H. Morrill


    Full Text Available Sequence length polymorphisms between the amelogeninX and amelogeninY genes have been utilized for the design of rapid PCR sex determination assays for various mammalian species, including four cervid species (Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Cervus nippon, and Dama dama. Several of these assays have been shown to be able to determine sex from non-invasively collected samples such as hair roots, feces, or skeletal remains. Such assays can be helpful for both zoo and wildlife biologists for sex determination, and could possibly be further developed to aid in species identification and SNP analyses if sequence information is also available. In order to further study the amelogeninX and amelogeninY gene polymorphisms that exist within cervids, partial sequences from these genes were generated and analyzed in multiple amelogeninX and amelogeninY samples of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni; and single amelogeninX and amelogeninY samples of sika deer (Cervus nippon, fallow deer (Dama dama and axis deer (Axis axis. Within these five species, three sequence length polymorphism regions (two or more nucleotides inserted or deleted between samples were found. The lengths of these polymorphisms were 45, 9, and 9 nucleotides. In addition, a SNP was found in the amelogeninY sequences of the mule deer samples that were analyzed. Lastly, the primers used to amplify the regions of the amelogeninX and amelogeninY sequences were able to determine sex in all five species that were studied.

  11. Kajian kualitas daging rusa sambar (cervus unicolor) buru dan dipeliharaan secara intensif

    Sihombing, Juli Mutiara


    JULI MUTIARA SIHOMBING: The Meat Quality Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor) Hunting and Intensive maintained deer, guided by RISTIKA HANDARINI and HERLA RUSMARILIN. Information about sambar meat quality is still lacking, especially the comparison between Sambar deer hunting and intensively maintained. The purpose of this study to examine differences in the quality of game and deer venison reared intensively given feed with crude protein 16%. The research was conducted in deer captivity at Univ...

  12. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica DNA from peripheral blood of Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan.

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Seino, Nobutaka; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Kaji, Koichi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igota, Hiromasa; Inoue, Satoshi


    Partial nucleotide sequences of the citrate synthase and 17-kDa genes of Rickettsia helvetica were detected from peripheral blood samples of Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan. Results suggest the presence of a rickettsiemia associated with R. helvetica. This is the first evidence of R. helvetica infection in Sika deer and indicates that this species may represent a potential reservoir host of R. helvetica in Japan. PMID:18263833

  13. Určování domovského okrsku siky (Cervus nippon)

    Janda, Jakub


    This Bachelor thesis deals with available methods of research leads to monitoring of sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) home range, with preference for telelmetric research. The knowledges that are key for better understanding and approach to the sika deer behavior and life strategy – species that population is rising to the essential quantity. Quantity that is vital not only for management of this species but also for his influence to the forestry – harms on forest vegetation. In this th...

  14. Telemetrické sledování siky (Cervus nippon)

    Dvořák, Stanislav


    In my thesis, I focused on the research of the spatial orientation of sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Hradiste hunting using GPS devices. Research has been and still is carried on the forest Lomnica forest area. The first part is devoted to the description, morphology, biology, habitat and expansion of the sika deer, describe a device that is used to monitor and narcotization. The second part focuses on the experience I gained and assessed by telemetric monitoring and observation of this ...

  15. Haematological values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Audigé, L


    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot, to define their mean haematological values (red cell count, white cell count, differential leucocyte count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration). Male deer had a significantly higher red cell count and haemoglobin concentration, and a lower mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin content, than did female deer. PMID:1288471


    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi; Thimotius Sraun


    The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi) at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  17. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated meningoencephalitis in a sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin; Arnold, Kim; Hotton, Doug; Beckstead, Robert B


    An adult, female, free-ranging, sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) from Wicomico County, Maryland, USA, was found circling and having no fear of humans. The animal was euthanized and submitted for a postmortem exam. There were no gross lesions and the deer was negative for rabies. Microscopic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with intralesional adult nematodes, larvae, and eggs consistent with nematodes in the family Protostrongylidae. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. tenuis-associated encephalitis in a sika deer. PMID:20090046

  18. Surveillance of chronic wasting disease in sika deer, Cervus nippon, from Tokachi district in Hokkaido.

    Kataoka, Natsumi; Nishimura, Masakazu; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka


    Surveillance of chronic wasting disease (CWD) was conducted by performing Western blot analysis of tissue samples from 136 sika deer (Cervus nippon) killed by hunters in the Tokachi district of Hokkaido Island. No prion protein (PrPSc) associated with CWD was detected in any of the samples. To assess amino acid polymorphisms of the sika deer PrP gene, nucleotide sequencing of the PrP gene was performed. The only amino acid polymorphisms detected were 3 silent mutations at nucleotide positions 63, 225 and 408. These results suggest that sika deer in the Tokachi district are genetically homogeneous, and are not infected with CWD. PMID:15805745

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of northeastern sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum).

    Shao, Yuanchen; Zha, Daiming; Xing, Xiumei; Su, Weilin; Liu, Huamiao; Zhang, Ranran


    The complete mitochondrial genome of the northeastern sika deer, Cervus nippon hortulorum, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome is 16,434 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, all of which are arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the northeastern sika deer's mitochondrial genome is 33.3% of A, 24.5% of C, 28.7% of T and 13.5% of G. A termination associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region. PMID:24660928


    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi


    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  1. Adrenal response to ACTH stimulation in Rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T


    Resting cortisol values in immobilized mature Rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the response to synthetic ACTH were investigated. The mean level of cortisol in mature Rusa stags was found to be 3.80 ng/ml (SD = 0.87, N = 18). Over the range 0.37-6.0 i.u. the adrenal response to ACTH challenge was linearly related to the log dose ACTH administered (r = 0.998). More than 6 i.u. of ACTH caused maximal stimulation of the adrenal gland. Rusa deer appear to be much more sensitive to ACTH administration than other species. PMID:6150796

  2. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    Gardner, A.L.


    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  3. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi


    We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020

  4. Molecular diversity of rumen bacterial communities from tannin-rich and fiber-rich forage fed domestic Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China

    Li, Zhi Peng; Liu, Han Lu; Li, Guang Yu; Bao, Kun; Wang, Kai Ying; Xu, Chao; Yang, Yi Feng; Yang, Fu He; Wright, André-Denis G.


    Background Sika deer (Cervus nippon) have different dietary preferences to other ruminants and are tolerant to tannin-rich plants. Because the rumen bacteria in domestic Sika deer have not been comprehensively studied, it is important to investigate its rumen bacterial population in order to understand its gut health and to improve the productivity of domestic Sika deer. Results The rumen bacterial diversity in domestic Sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed oak leaves- (OL group) and corn stalks-base...

  5. An ecological perspective on the changing face of Brucella abortus in the western United States

    Cross, Paul C.; Maichak, Eric J.; Brennan, Angela; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Henningsen, John C.; Luikart, Gordon


    After a hiatus during the 1990s, outbreaks of Brucella abortus in cattle are occurring more frequently in some of the western states of the United States, namely, Montana, Wyoming and Idaho. This increase is coincident with increasing brucellosis seroprevalence in elk (Cervus elaphus), which is correlated with elk density. Vaccines are a seductive solution, but their use in wildlife systems remains limited by logistical, financial, and scientific constraints. Cattle vaccination is ongoing in the region. Livestock regulations, however, tend to be based on serological tests that test for previous exposure and available vaccines do not protect against seroconversion. The authors review recent ecological studies of brucellosis, with particular emphasis on the Greater Yellowstone Area, and highlight the management options and implications of this work, including the potential utility of habitat modifications and targeted hunts, as well as scavengers and predators. Finally, the authors discuss future research directions that will help us to understand and manage brucellosis in wildlife.

  6. Climatic and density influences on recruitment in an irruptive population of Roosevelt elk

    Starns, Heath D.; Ricca, Mark A.; Duarte, Adam; Weckerly, Floyd W.


    Current paradigms of ungulate population ecology recognize that density-dependent and independent mechanisms are not always mutually exclusive. Long-term data sets are necessary to assess the relative strength of each mechanism, especially when populations display irruptive dynamics. Using an 18-year time series of population abundances of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) inhabiting Redwood National Park in northwestern California we assessed the influence of population size and climatic variation on elk recruitment and whether irruptive dynamics occurred. An information-theoretic model selection analysis indicated that abundance lagged 2 years and neither climatic factors nor a mix of abundance and climatic factors influenced elk recruitment. However, density-dependent recruitment differed between when the population was declining and when the population increased and then stabilized at an abundance lower than at the start of the decline. The population displayed irruptive dynamics.

  7. Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - bark beetles; Impact of abiotic factors on forest growths; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - leaf-eating insect; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - game; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - fungal diseases; 1 : 2 000 000

    On these maps the impact of different biotic and abiotic factors on forest growth on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. The data on damage to forest growth in the years 1996 - 1999 are based on source material of 'Lesnicka ochranarska sluzba' and the reports on occurrence of the bark beetles from the entities managing the forests. The most important species of bark beetles are: Ips typographus, Pityogenes chalcographus, and Xyloterus lineatus for spruce trees; Tomicus minor, Tomicus piniperda, and Ips acuminatus for pine trees; Scolytus intricatus for beech trees. The most important abiotic damage-causing factors are wind, snow, and rime. The most important leafeating species are: Lymantria dispar, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, Tortricidae, and Geometridae. Red deer Cervus elaphus L. causes the most important damage to forest growths. The most important species of fungal pathogens are tracheomycosis, cankers, bark necrosis and wood destroying fungi such as Armillaria mellea, Hypoxylon deustum and the like. (authors)

  8. Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours

    Sean A. Rands


    Full Text Available Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate.

  9. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter


    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination. PMID:26886253

  10. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago


    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  11. Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 - a novel deltapapillomavirus inducing endemic papillomatosis in the endangered Visayan spotted deer.

    Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Jörgens, Dirk; Schubert, Christina; Heckel, Jens-Ove; Sutter, Gerd


    We describe a novel papillomavirus - Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 (RalPV1) - which causes endemic fibropapillomatosis in the European conservation breeding population of the highly endangered Visayan spotted deer (Rusa alfredi). Degenerated papillomavirus-specific primers were used to amplify and sequence parts of the viral DNA. Subsequently, the complete genomic DNA was cloned and the sequence was determined. The RalPV1 genome has a length of 8029 bp, encodes the early proteins E6, E7, E1, E2 and E5, the two late proteins L1 and L2 and contains an upstream regulatory region. Highest sequence identities were observed with two deltapapillomaviruses, the Capreolus capreolus PV1 and Cervus elaphus PV1. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF L1 suggested that RalPV1 is a putative new type of the papillomavirus species Deltapapillomavirus 5. PMID:26555294

  12. Effects of bull elk demographics on age categories of harem bulls

    Bender, L.C.


    Many management strategies for elk (Cervus elaphus) emphasize increasing numbers of mature bulls in the population. These strategies are usually assumed to enhance productivity via increased breeding by mature bulls. I compared age classes of harem bulls during the peak of the rut under 4 bull harvest strategies that resulted in different bull:cow ratios, mature bull:cow ratios, bull mortality rates, and proportions of mature bulls in the autumn (pre-hunting season) population. Proportions of harems held by differing age classes of bulls [mature (P84% of harems only in populations where mature bull:cow ratios exceeded 21:100 in the autumn population. Interaction of mature bull ratios in the autumn population, harem size, and bull selectivity in the harvest strategy must be considered if increased breeding by mature harem bulls is a management goal.

  13. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04539-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 0.006 ( P27476 ) RecName: Full=Nuclear localization sequence-binding pro... 33 0.007 ( O35698 ) RecName: Full=RNA-binding moti...e Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value (Q54WM4) RecName: Full=Eukaryotic translation... factor ... 68 3e-18 AF291712_1( AF291712 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana initiation f...e) Arabidopsis thaliana eukaryotic tr... 65 4e-15 (A5DNX9) RecName: Full=Eukaryotic translation initiation...1 EF619483_1( EF619483 |pid:none) Cervus elaphus eukaryotic translat... 71 4e-11 (A8WLV5) RecName: Full=Probable eukaryotic translati

  15. 贺兰山野生有蹄类动物的经济价值及种群动态变化%Value and Population Dynamics of Wild Ungulates in Helan Mountains

    梁军; 胡天华


    记述了贺兰山的4种野生有蹄类动物——马麝、马鹿、岩羊、鹅喉羚的经济价值及目前的种群动态变化,对贺兰山野生有蹄类动物的种群致危原因进行了分析,并据此提出了相应的保护管理建议。%The economic value and present population dynamics of four wild ungulates like Moschus chrysogaster, Cervus elaphus, Pseudois nayaur and Gazella subgutturosa in Helan Mountains were recorded. Endangered reasons of the wild ungulates were analyzed, meanwhile the management suggestions were put forward.

  16. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.


    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of sika deer Cervus nippon (Cetartiodactyla: Cervinae) South Anhui population.

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Fang, Hong-Yan; Jin, Can; Liu, Lei


    The complete mitochondrial genome of sika deer (Cervus nippon) South Anhui population is a circular molecule of 16,429 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 62% (T: 28.7%; C: 24.6%; A: 33.3%; G: 13.4%). ND2, ND3 and ND5 genes begin with ATA as start codon, ND4L gene begins with GTG as start codon, while other nine protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG initiation codon. ND1, COI, COII, ATP8, ATP6, ND4L, ND5 and ND6 genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon, ND2 ends with TAG, COIII, ND3 and ND4 ends with T, Cyt b ends with AGA. PMID:23570529

  18. Two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus desmarest, 1822 in Leyte Island

    Harvie Potot Portugaliza


    Full Text Available This case report describes the necropsy findings of two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting the Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus in Leyte Island, Philippines. A female deer aging approximately 5-year was presented for necropsy to the Diagnostic Laboratory at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Visayas State University. Gross pathology was recorded and the selected organs having lesion were collected for histopathological studies. Results showed severe necrotizing lesions in the nasal and palatal areas, infestation of calliphorid maggots, hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, lung atelectasis and duodenitis. Heavy ruminal fluke infection was also observed. Two potentially zoonotic parasites namely Fasciola gigantica and Sarcocystis spp. were identified. The Philippine brown deer appears to have a role in transmission and amplification of zoonotic parasites, and can also be threatened by diseases caused by the parasites.

  19. Malignant catarrhal fever in farmed Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). 2. Animal transmission and virological studies.

    Westbury, H A; Denholm, L J


    A disease with clinical signs and histological lesions similar to malignant catarrhal fever in cattle was transmitted from Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) to rabbits. This was accomplished on 3 separate occasions, and the disease was serially passaged in rabbits up to 11 times. The clinical signs in affected rabbits were pyrexia, depression, anorexia, mucopurulent conjunctivitis, nasal discharge and diarrhoea. These signs were seen in 27 of 38 inoculated rabbits with the mean incubation period being 12 days (range 8 to 20 days). Histologically, affected rabbits exhibited mononuclear perivascular cuffing and vasculitis in the brain, heart, liver and kidney. Lymph nodes and spleen showed destruction and loss of mature lymphocytes and lymphoid follicles and an increased number of large lymphoblastoid cells. These clinical signs and lesions were not detected in control rabbits. The disease was not transmitted to cattle, sheep, guinea pigs or mice, nor was an agent isolated in cattle, deer or rabbit tissue cultures, or in chicken embryos. PMID:7115234

  20. Serum biochemical values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Audigé, L


    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot. Serum mean biochemical values from shot deer are presented for blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus. Mean total protein and albumin increased with age. There was an age-associated increase of gamma globulins. Mean creatine kinase activity and creatinine, albumin and phosphorus concentrations were higher in stags than in hinds. Pregnant hinds had lower mean creatine kinase activity and phosphorus and higher mean alanine aminotransferase and total protein than non-pregnant hinds. Mean calcium concentration increased when deer were agitated before bleeding. PMID:1288472

  1. An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in young rusa deer (Cervus timorensis).

    Tomkins, N W; Jonsson, N N; Young, M P; Gordon, A N; McColl, K A


    On the basis of clinical signs and histological findings eight 9-month-old male rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) were diagnosed with sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever. Following a variable course involving rectal temperatures around 40.5 degrees C, depression, inappetence, diarrhoea, corneal opacity and hypopyon all animals died or were euthanased over a 5-week period. Severe multifocal vasculitis, mainly periglomerular and in the arcuate vessels were consistent histological findings which in the past have been adequate to confirm clinical diagnosis of sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever. A nested polymerase chain reaction test has been used to detect a sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever PRC product, 238 base-pairs in size, in DNA extracted from lymphocyte preparations. The result supported the diagnosis of sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever in these deer. PMID:9406629

  2. Evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants.

    Goossens, Els; Vercruysse, Jozef; Vercammen, Francis; Dorny, Pierre


    Parasite control in wild ruminants is based mainly on anthelmintics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate three parasite control programs in seven herds of captive wild ruminants in 3 consecutive years. In the first year, a biannual spring-summer treatment regime with fenbendazole at 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 3 days was applied. The next year, an early-season treatment program with three administrations of fenbendazole at the same dosage at 3-wk intervals was used. In the third year, an early-season treatment program with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg p.o. for 3 days), applied three times at 5-wk intervals, was evaluated. Effectiveness of these control programs was assessed by fecal egg counts and by scores of body condition and fecal consistency at weekly intervals. Involved animal species were Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros), Soay sheep (Ovis aries soay), ibex (Capra ibex), red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus), and Nelson's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). With the spring-summer regime, fecal egg counts remained low during the first 5 mo, but from September onward, they slowly increased to significant levels in all seven herds. The early-season program with fenbendazole resulted in fecal egg counts near zero during the entire year in four herds but a significant egg shedding from August onward was noted in Arabian oryx, scimitar-horned oryx, and Soay sheep. The early-season program with ivermectin resulted in very low to zero egg shedding in gazelle, adult Soay sheep, ibex, red deer, and Nelson's elk during the entire grazing season, but failed to prevent high shedding in October in Arabian oryx and scimitar-horned oryx. High contamination of grassy pastures with infective larvae/eggs in the previous year or before the first treatment may explain failure of the treatment regimes in some herds. PMID:17312807

  3. Elaphostrongylus spp. from Scandinavian cervidae - a scanning electron microscope study (SEM

    Margareta Stéen


    Full Text Available Nematodes of the genus Elaphostrongylus collected from moose (Alces alces L., reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., and red deer (Cervus elaphus L., respectively, were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. Morphological differences in the ribs of the genital bursa were demonstrated. The Elaphostrongylus species from reindeer and red deer differed from each other in four ribs of the genital bursa. These results agree with the morphological characters of E. cervi and E. rangiferi described by Cameron (1931 and Mitskevitch (1960. The genital bursa of Elaphostrongylus sp. from moose, in accordance with the description of E. alces by Steen et al. (1989 showed characteristics differing from those found in Elaphostrongylus spp. from reindeer and red deer respectively. These results support the hypothesis that there are three separate species of Elaphostrongylus present in Scandinavian Cervidae. Svep-elektroniska studier på Elaphostrongylus spp. hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Rundmaskar inom slaktet Elaphostrongylus funna hos alg (Alces alces L., ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. och kronhjort(Cervus elaphus L. studerades med hjalp av svepelelektronmikroskop. De hanliga bursorna med sin a stodjeribbor uppvisade variationer i utseende, langd och placering mellan dessa rundmaskar. De arter av Elaphostrongylus funna hos ren och kronhjort skilde sig åt avseende fyra stodjeribbor på de hanliga bursorna. Dessa resultat stammer val overens med de karaktarer som tidigare ar beskrivna av Cameron(1931 och av Mitskevich (1960. Den hanliga bursan hos arten Elaphostrongylus funnen hos alg, vilken tidigare ar beskriven av Steen et al. (1989, visade upp ett utseende som skilde sig från bursorna hos de Elaphostrongylus-arter funna hos ren och kronhjort. Dessa resultat stoder hypotesen om tre skilda arter av Elaphostrongylus hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.

  4. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Stefano Mattioli


    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  5. Serosurvey for antibodies to malignant catarrhal fever-associated viruses in free-living and captive cervids in Germany.

    Frölich, K; Li, H; Müller-Doblies, U


    A total of 486 serum samples collected from several species of both free-living and captive cervids in Germany was examined for antibodies against malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-associated viruses (MCFV) by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). Eleven (2%) of these samples were positive for antibodies against MCFV. Among 157 serum samples collected from 16 different species of captive deer including four (7%) of 54 fallow deer and one (7%) of 14 sika deer (Cervus nippon) were seropositive. Among 329 samples from three species of free-ranging deer, including 253 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 22 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 54 fallow deer (Cervus dama), only fallow deer were antibody-positive. Of the 25 fallow deer samples collected between 1990 and 1993, four (16%) were seropositive. Among 29 free-ranging fallow deer samples collected in the hunting period 1996-1997, antibodies to MCFV were detected in two (7%) of these sera. All of these fallow deer samples were collected from a circumscribed area in northern Germany. In the same area a high seroprevalence (72%) to MCFV was observed in domestic sheep (n = 50). Among 20 sheep samples (buffy coat) and 15 fallow deer samples (spleen or lymph nodes) examined for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) by PCR, all 20 sheep samples examined were OvHV-2 positive, but all of the 15 fallow deer samples, including seven seropositive deer, were OvHV-2 negative. PMID:9813848

  6. Observations on the eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Bianchi, M; Hurlin, J C; Lebel, S; Chardonnet, P


    The eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of 14 farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) of known birth date and their live weights were observed about every 2 weeks from 12 to 30 months of age. The permanent incisor pattern was 11, 14-17 months; 12, 18-23 months; 13, 20-26 months; and 14, 22-27 months. There was no significant relationship between body weight and timing of permanent incisor eruption. PMID:16031978

  7. Detachment of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from hunted sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Tsunoda, Takashi


    Ixodid ticks were collected from 13 sika deer, Cervus n.nippon, shot in the Boso Peninsula in central Japan from late February to early March 1999. Haemaphysalis megaspinosa was the most abundant species of the adults collected, although Haemaphysalis longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, H. cornigera, Ixodes ovatus, and Amblyomma testudinarium were also collected. Males were more abundant than females for H. longicornis, H. megaspinosa, H. flava, and H. kitaokai. Ticks that had inserted their hypostome into its host skin (designated attached) were distinguished from those that were detached and on the host's surface. A greater fraction of males than females of all four species were detached. Females were classified in three feeding stages (engorged, partially engorged, and unfed). More H. longicornis and H. megaspinosa unfed female ticks than engorged and partially-engorged female ticks were collected detached. Our results indicated that H. megaspinosa, H. longicornis, H. flava, and H. kitaokai male ticks detached sooner than female ticks after their host died. PMID:24659518

  8. Sperm membrane proteome in wild Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and Sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Kawase, Osamu; Cao, Shinuo; Xuan, Xuenan


    Whereas recent advances in proteome-related techniques have accumulated a lot of information about sperm proteins in model animals, the information in non-model wildlife species is absolutely deficient, although this knowledge would be valuable to regulate wildlife overabundance. To characterize the repertoires of sperm membrane proteins in Japanese overpopulated wildlife, our study focuses on the following two species: Macaca fuscata and Cervus nippon. We enriched sperm membrane proteins by the phase partitioning with Triton X-114, and then separated them by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and, finally, they were comprehensively identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Sperm membrane proteins were successfully enriched. They included some proteins with unknown function and fertility-related proteins that work in sperm development, motility, capacitation, transport, protection, acrosome reaction, and fertilization. Additionally, beta-defensin 126 and epithelial chloride channel were strongly detected in M. fuscata but not in C. nippon, whereas lactadherin and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 1 were strongly detected in C. nippon alone. This study is an initiative case showing that the sperm of wildlife conserve major fertility-related proteins, but express some proteins in a species-specific manner. In the development of a practical method for fertility control, this aspect may be taken into consideration. PMID:25277530

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sika deer Cervus nippon hortulorum (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) and phylogenetic studies.

    Liu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Ming-Hai


    Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck 1836) are classified in the order Artiodactyla, family Cervidae, subfamily Cervinae. At present, the phylogenetic studies of C. nippon are problematic. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitochondrial sequence of the wild C. nippon hortulorum. The complete mitogenome sequence is 16 566 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition was 33.4% A, 28.6% T, 24.5% C, 13.5% G, with a 62.0% AT bias. The 13 protein-coding genes encode 3782 amino acids in total. To further validate the new determined sequences and phylogeny of Sika deer, phylogenetic trees involving 15 most closely related species available in GenBank database were constructed. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for deer species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Artiodactyla. PMID:26258510

  10. Isolation and characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 from antler base of sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Jiang, Wei; Yin, Yongguang; Zhou, Yajun; He, Guidan; Qi, Yue


    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are secreted innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. In this study, a new peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 named cnPGRP1 was isolated from an antler base of sika deer Cervus nippon. The antler base antimicrobial proteins (AAP) were subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods connected to Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column (CM) anion-exchange column, and RP-HPLC. The molecular weight of cnPGRP1 was 17.2 kDa under SDS-PAGE, and peptide mass fingerprint analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS as peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 matched to Dasypus novemcinctus. The matched amino acids sequences were RLYEIIQKWPHYRA. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be killed by cnPGRP1 in the 50-250 μg/mL range through in vitro. Furthermore, cnPGRP1 has been found to bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and even fungus. PMID:24360898

  11. Malignant catarrhal fever in farmed Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). 1. Clinico-pathological observations.

    Denholm, L J; Westbury, H A


    A sporadic fatal disease is described in 7 Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) from 5 deer farms in Victoria. Bilateral ophthalmia and wasting were the most significant signs in a clinical course varying from 4 to 34 days. Bilateral hypopyon, peripheral corneal opacities and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration of the renal cortex with pronounced mural thickening and dilatation of vessels at the cortico-medullary junction were the only consistent lesions. Haemorrhagic ileitis, colitis and typhlitis were the major lesions in two deer that died 4 and 6 days after onset of clinical disease. Ecchymotic haemorrhages and sub-serosal haematomas on the intestines and mesentery were the main finding in cases with a longer clinical course. Other gross lesions varied between cases. The most significant histological lesion was fibrinoid necrotising vasculitis with adventitial lymphoid cell infiltration characteristic of bovine malignant catarrhal fever. Mucosal erosions seen in protracted cases of this disease were associated with lymphoid cell infiltration into foci of degenerating epithelial cells. In many lymph nodes there was severe follicular necroses. In chronic cases extensive proliferation of lymphoblastoid cells was seen in the parafollicular cortex and medullary sinuses of nodes which also showed discrete follicular necrosis. PMID:6981408

  12. Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the prion protein gene in sika deer (Cervus nippon laiouanus)

    Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Bo-Sook; Rho, Jung-Rae; Yoo, Mi-Hyun; Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, In-Soo


    Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been detected in several cervid species. In order to confirm the genetic variations, this study examined the DNA sequences of the PRNP obtained from 33 captive sika deer (Cervus nippon laiouanus) in Korea. A total of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at codons 100, 136 and 226 in the PRNP of the sika deer were identified. The polymorphic site located at codon 100 has not been reported. The SNPs detected at codons 100 and 226 induc...

  13. Effects of ovarian storage condition on in vitro maturation of Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) oocytes.

    Tulake, Kuerban; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Higaki, Shogo; Koyama, Keisuke; Wang, Xuguang; Li, Heping


    The effects of different preservation conditions (temperature 20-25 or 10-15 degrees C; duration 12 or 24 h) for ovaries of Cervus nippon yesoensis on in vitro maturation of oocytes were examined. When ovaries were kept for 12 h at 20-25 degrees C, maturation rate of oocytes was highest (71%); however, it declined when the preservation time was extended to 24 h (31%). When the preservation temperature decreased to 10-15 degrees C, the maturation rate after 12 h preservation decreased (51%) but it remained in same level even though preservation time is prolonged to 24 h (55%). PMID:25597189

  14. Artificial insemination, hybridization and pregnancy detection in sika deer (Cervus nippon ).

    Willard, S T; Hughes, D M; Bringans, M; Sasser, R G; White, D R; Jaques, J T; Godfrey, R W; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D


    Artificial insemination (AI) was performed on sika hinds (Cervus nippon ) receiving various dosages of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG; Year 1: 0, 50 and 100 IU; Year 2: 100 and 150 IU) and using semen collected from elk and 1 2 elk x 1 2 sika stags. The time from synchronization device removal (CIDR vs norgestomet) to estrus was determined through observations of mounting activity. Methods for pregnancy detection, serum progesterone (P4), estrone sulfate (E1S), pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) and ultrasonography, following AI (Year 1: AI, Days 28 and 48 after AI; Year 2: AI, Days 42, 53 and 100 after AI) and a 90-d natural breeding season were investigated. From available production data, body weights were compared among sika and 1 4 elk x 3 4 sika hybrids relative to age. Pregnancy rates tended (P treatment and sire; administration of 0 IU PMSG resulted in fewer hinds becoming pregnant to AI than 50 or 100 IU of PMSG. Hinds receiving 100 IU of PMSG had higher (P 0.10) between the CIDR and norgestomet groups. Pregnancy rates 50 d after a 90-d breeding season were similar (P > 0.10) between ultrasound (70.9%) and PSPB (61.6%). Serum P4 after 90 d in breeding groups and 50 d after stag removal were higher (P 0.10) between ultrasound (49.0%) and PSPB (37.3%). Serum P4 28 and 48 d after AI were higher (P 0.10) between ultrasound and PSPB (66.7%). Serum P4 was higher (P sika males tended (P sika males, while 1 4 elk x 3 4 sika females were heavier (P sika females at all ages. In summary, this study documents the use of AI and methods for pregnancy detection in sika hinds as well as preliminary information regarding the production of elk-x-sika hybrids. PMID:16727942

  15. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M


    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

  16. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  17. Affinities between Cutifilaria (Nematoda: Filarioidea, parasites of deer, and Mansonella as seen in a new onchocercid, M. (C. perforata n. sp., from Japan

    Uni S.


    Full Text Available A new dermal filarioid nematode, collected from Cervus nippon nippon (sika deer on Kyushu Island, Japan, showed close affinities between the genera Cutifilaria and Mansonello (Onchocercidae : Onchocercinae : no buccal capsule, esophagus reduced to a thin fibrous tube, and female tail with four lappets. We propose Cutifilaria as a subgenus of Mansonella. Cutifilaria was distinguished from the five other subgenera, Mansonella, Tetrapetalonema, Esslingeria, Sandnema, and Tupainema, in having an area rugosa composed of transverse bands with tiny points, 14-16 papillae around the cloacal aperture, two prominent rhomboidal subterminal papillae, and a thick right spicule with spoon-shaped distal extremity. The host range of Mansonella was extended to ungulates by the addition of Cutifilaria, which appears to be derived from Tupainema, parasitic in Tupaioidea (insectivores, because of the similarity in their right spicules ; Cutifilaria seems to have an Asiatic origin. M. (C. perforata n. sp. was distinct from the sole other related species, M. (C. wenki, a parasite of Cervus elaphus (red deer in Europe, having a more complex right spicule with a sturdy terminal point and microfilariae with a bifid posterior end. In addition, almost all females had cuticular pores near the vulva, on the ventral line. The prevalence of microfilariae and adults of M. (C. perforata in the skin of sika deer was 38 % and 21 %, respectively.

  18. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J


    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus. PMID:24655475

  19. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V


    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote. PMID:10941751

  20. [Molecular identification of hairy antler by analysis of high resolution melting].

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Jin, Yan


    High resolution melting (HRM) , an important technology for genotyping and mutation scanning, has broad prospects in the authenticity of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper selected universal CO I primers and used HRM to establish a new method for authenticity of Hairy Antler. PCR was conducted at the annealing temperature of 60 °C and 45 cycles. The range of the DNA template concentration, the primer concentration and the Mg2+ ion concentration were further optimized. The results showed that the Tm values of Cervus nippon were (81.96 ± 0.07), (84.51 ± 0.03) °C and Cervus elaphus was(82.58 ± 0.13), (85.95 ± 0.05) °C with 10-100 mg · L(-1) DNA template, 0.2 µLmol · L(-1) primer, 2.0 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+. This method can authenticate of hairy antler and is simple, fast, high-throughput, visualization. PMID:26137679

  1. Middle Pleistocene climate and habitat change at Zhoukoudian, China, from the carbon and oxygen isotopic record from herbivore tooth enamel

    Gaboardi, Mabry; Deng, Tao; Wang, Yang


    The Pleistocene deposits at Zhoukoudian, often referred to as the "Peking Man" site, contain dental remains from a diverse group of herbivores, including Equus sanmeniensis, Cervus elaphus, Cervus nippon, Megaloceros pachyosteus, Sus lydekkeri, and Dicerorhinus choukoutienensis. The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of structural carbonate within the enamel of these teeth are used to reconstruct the paleodiet and paleoenvironment of the mammals. The δ13C values of enamel from Zhoukoudian range from -2.3‰ to -13.0‰, indicating that these mammals consumed between ˜25% and 100% C 3 plants. The presence of significant amounts of C 4 plants in the diets of some herbivore species indicates that at the onset of the Middle Pleistocene local habitats included mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation. By approximately 470,000 yr ago, C 3 plants dominated the diets of herbivores studied, suggesting that the abundance of C 4 flora had decreased in the area. For all deer analyzed in this study, the values of δ13C and δ18O decrease substantially from about 720,000 to 470,000 yr ago. This trend may be due to a strengthening of the winter monsoon during the Middle Pleistocene.

  2. Serological survey for Lyme disease in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Isogai, E; Isogai, H; Masuzawa, T; Yanagihara, Y; Sato, N; Hayashi, S; Maki, T; Mori, M


    Seventy-six wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) from areas endemic for Borrelia burgdorferi during 1988 to 1989 had the IgG antibody to the bacteria in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of seropositive deer was 25.0% to strain HO14 and 22.4% to strain HP3, respectively. Specific IgG antibody titers were high in summer but low in winter. In summer, seropositive deer were 75.0%. Similar results were obtained in serum specimens obtained monthly from 4 farmed deer. It was suggested that the sika deer could be one of the wild reservoirs for B. burgdorferi in Hokkaido, Japan. The transmission risk of B. burgdorferi is considered to be greatest during late spring to early summer. PMID:1808467

  3. Changes in plasma levels of cortisol and corticosterone after acute ACTH stimulation in rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H


    Resting cortisol and corticosterone levels in immobilized mature rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the influence of synthetic ACTH on the cortisol/corticosterone ratio (F/B ratio) were investigated. The basal concentration of cortisol was found to be 14.07 nmol/l (SD = 9.3, N = 15) and corticosterone was 3.79 nmol/l (SD = 2.3, N = 15). The cortisol/corticosterone ratio for the basal level was 5.31 (SD = 3.9, N = 15). After ACTH administration the cortisol/corticosterone ratio increased to 11.41 (SD = 5.4, N = 147) regardless of doses of ACTH administered to individual stags. The adrenal response to ACTH administration has a potential application for selection of deer most suitable for deer farming. PMID:2863041

  4. Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) as a host for the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) in Papua New Guinea.

    Owen, I L


    The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854

  5. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.


    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health o...

  6. Vegetation Recovery in Response to the Exclusion of Grazing by Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) in Seminatural Grassland on Mt. Kushigata, Japan

    Nagaike, Takuo; Ohkubo, Eiji; Hirose, Kazuhiro


    We examined the recovery of vegetation in seminatural grassland in central Japan after eliminating grazing by sika deer (Cervus nippon) by fencing. By 2012, after 5 years of fencing for exclusion of sika deer, the species composition of quadrats within the enclosure reverted to the original species composition in 1981, not browsed by sika deer. Conversely, outside the fence was different from the baseline quadrats in 1981. Iris sanguinea, a prominent flower in the area, recovered within the e...

  7. The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

    Wei Wan-Hong; Guo Jun; Yang Yan; Lv Shen-Jin


    It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon). About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers) and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers), Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Dat...

  8. Seed contents of sika deer (Cervus nippon) dung and the fate of seeds in a temperate short grassland in an urban park in Japan

    Haruna Ishikawa


    Many studies have suggested the positive effects of grazing by large herbivorous mammals on seed dispersal, but little isknown about how herbivores could affect the fate of ingested seeds. This study examined the effects of seed ingestion bysika deer (Cervus nippon) on seed fate in a temperate grassland established in an urban park long resided by high densitiesof sika deer. I compared species composition and seasonal traits of seed abundance and maturity in the grasslandcommunity with those ...


    Raines, Janis A; Storms, Timothy


    A captive Indochinese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) was castrated at the age of 5 yr. The resultant abnormal antler growth over the next few years became difficult to manage from both the veterinary and husbandry standpoints. Using a commercially available trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant marketed for domestic cattle heifers, normal mineralization of the abnormal antlers was achieved along with the expected normal casting. The deer was then maintained for 6 yr using an annual implant regimen. PMID:26667563


    雷蕾; 张再蓉; 王成东; 余星明; 赵波


    Four sika deers (Cervus nippon) (3 males, and 1 female) with depression, loss of appetite, high body temperature and hematochezia were dead in June, 1999 and Yersinia was cultured from their pathological materials. In addition, the susceptibility of Yersinia to antibiotics and the toxicity to mice were detected. All the other sika deers contacted with the died animals were treated with amikacin sulfate and protected from the disease.

  11. Population genetic structure of wild and farmed rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia inferred from polymorphic microsatellite loci

    Garine-Wichatitsky de, M.; De Meeûs, Thierry; Chevillon, Christine; BERTHIER, D.; Barre, N.; Thevenon, S.; Maillard, J.C.


    Historical records indicate that 12 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) were introduced in New-Caledonia during the 1870s. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci to assess the genetic differentiation and diversity of farmed and wild deer populations. Past genetic bottlenecks were detected in both sub-populations, although higher genetic diversity was maintained in farmed populations, probably due to the regular introduction of reproducers from wild populations and from other farms....

  12. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea


    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were m...

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation.

    He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming


    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089

  14. Yersiniosis in farmed deer.

    Jerrett, I V; Slee, K J; Robertson, B I


    Samples from 77 chital (Axis axis), 42 fallow (Dama dama), 26 red (Cervus elaphus), 7 rusa (Cervus timorensis) and 1 sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) were examined. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed as the cause of death in 6 (23%) of the red and 23 (30%) of the chital deer. Yersiniosis was the most common infectious cause of death diagnosed. Affected deer were usually found moribund or dead, often with faecal staining of the perineum. Gross pathology in chital included a fibrinous enterocolitis, enlarged congested mesenteric lymph nodes and multiple pale foci through the liver. Gross changes in red deer were limited to intense congestion of the intestinal mucosa and enlargement and congestion of mesenteric lymph nodes. Microscopic intestinal changes in both species consisted of microabscessation or diffuse suppurative inflammation of the intestinal mucosa with numerous bacterial colonies in the lamina propria. Multifocal suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis was a common finding. Multifocal suppurative or non-suppurative hepatitis was frequently present in the liver of chital but was uncommon in the red deer. Yersiniosis occurred during the cooler months from June to November, with younger age classes most commonly affected. Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I, II and III were isolated in the ratio 17:3:0 in the chital deer and 1:1:2 in red deer. The clinical, epidemiological and bacteriological features are similar to those documented previously by New Zealand workers. The increased susceptibility to disease of red deer and chital compared to fallow deer and perhaps other species has not previously been documented. PMID:2222364

  15. Genetic diversity among Chinese sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations and relationships between Chinese and Japanese sika deer


    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) is a cervid endemic to mainland and insular Asia and endangered. We analyzed variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region for four subspecies to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and evolutionary history in China. 335 bp were sequenced and eight haplotypes were identified based on 25 variable sites among the populations. Sika deer in China showed lower genetic diversity, suggesting a small effective population size due to habitat fragmentation, a low number of founder individuals, or the narrow breeding program. AMOVA analysis indicated that there was significant genetic subdivision among the four populations, but no correlation between the genetic and geographic distance. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that Chinese sika deer may be divided into three genetic clades, but the genetic structure among Chinese populations was inconsistent with subspecies designations and present geographic distribution. Including the sequence data of Japanese sika deer, the results indicated that Chinese populations were more closely related to Southern Japanese populations than to the Northern Japanese one, and the Taiwan population was closer to populations of Northeastern China and Sichuan than to those of Southern China.

  16. Molecular identification of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype in the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Kato, Satomi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuyama, Ryota; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Sugimoto, Chihiro


    The protozoan Cryptosporidium occurs in a wide range of animal species including many Cervidae species. Fecal samples collected from the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), a native deer of Hokkaido, in the central, western, and eastern areas of Hokkaido were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect infections with Cryptosporidium and for sequence analyses to reveal the molecular characteristics of the amplified DNA. DNA was extracted from 319 fecal samples and examined with PCR using primers for small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA), actin, and 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) gene loci. PCR-amplified fragments were sequenced and phylogenetic trees were created. In 319 fecal samples, 25 samples (7.8 %) were positive with SSU-rRNA PCR that were identified as the Cryptosporidium deer genotype. Among Cryptosporidium-positive samples, fawns showed higher prevalence (16.1 %) than yearlings (6.4 %) and adults (4.7 %). The result of Fisher's exact test showed a statistical significance in the prevalence of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype between fawn and other age groups. Sequence analyses with actin and HSP70 gene fragments confirmed the SSU-rRNA result, and there were no sequence diversities observed. The Cryptosporidium deer genotype appears to be the prevalent Cryptosporidium species in the wild sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. PMID:26687968

  17. Bacterial community composition and fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed three different diets.

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G; Liu, Hanlu; Bao, Kun; Zhang, Tietao; Wang, Kaiying; Cui, Xuezhe; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu


    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) rely on microorganisms living in the rumen to convert plant materials into chemical compounds, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), but how the rumen bacterial community is affected by different forages and adapt to altered diets remains poorly understood. The present study used 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to examine the relationship between rumen bacterial diversity and metabolic phenotypes using three sika deer in a 3 × 3 latin square design. Three sika deer were fed oak leaves (OL), corn stover (CS), or corn silage (CI), respectively. After a 7-day feeding period, when compared to the CS and CI groups, the OL group had a lower proportion of Prevotella spp. and a higher proportion of unclassified bacteria belonging to the families Succinivibrionaceae and Paraprevotellaceae (Psika deer. However, the differences in interplay patterns between rumen bacterial community composition and metabolic phenotypes were altered in the native and domesticated diets indicating the changed fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer. PMID:25252928

  18. 半圈养条件下白唇鹿行为时间分配及活动规律的研究%Time Budget and Behaviour Pattern of Cervus Albirostris in Captivity

    何利军; 丁由中; 王小明; 夏述忠


    From March to April,1998,the authors studied the time budget andbehaviour patterns of Cervus albirostris in Shanghai Wild Animal Park.We analyzed the results from 23 days′observation for different sex and weather were analyzed.Cervus albirostris spent about 50% daytime in resting,and 40% daytime in feeding.Resting behaviour was presented from 8∶00 to 17∶00.The female spent more resting time than the male(p<0.05)in fine days.The female spent less standing time than the male in rainy days(p<0.01).Cervus albirostris spent more standing time in fine days than in rainy days(p<0.05 for the male,p<0.01 for the female).

  19. Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone concentrations and LH-RH responsiveness in mature, male rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H


    Plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in immobilized or yarded rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) were investigated over a two-year period. Testosterone concentrations showed a minor elevation in autumn (May) and reached maximal levels in late winter-early spring (August) coinciding with the rut. Luteinizing hormone in plasma was only detectable from January to May. Maximal responsiveness of the pituitary-gonadal axis to LH-RH stimulation was recorded in August. The combination of Fentaz (fentanylcitrate and azaperone) and Rompun (xylazine hydrochloride) for immobilizing deer influences hypothalamic function. PMID:2869876

  20. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M


    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  1. 梅花鹿 LHβ基因的克隆及序列分析%The Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Cervus nippon LHβ Gene

    竭航; 陈彬龙; 吴楠; 李地艳; 雷美艳; 张承露; 曾德军


    【目的】克隆梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区并进行序列分析。【方法】采用 PCR 克隆测序的方法获得梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区全序列,采用 ProtParam tool 等分子生物学工具对梅花鹿 LHβ蛋白的分子量、等电点、二级结构、蛋白功能等进行预测,并采用 MEGA 6.0软件构建进化树以确定其系统发育地位。【结果】梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区全长462 bp (GenBank 序列号为 KT199365),包含了 ATG 起始密码子和 TAA 终止密码子,共编码141个氨基酸,蛋白质分子量为15.17 kDa,等电点为8.00。梅花鹿 LHβ蛋白均位于膜外,无跨膜结构,平均疏水性(GRAVY)为0.391,蛋白功能预测显示,该蛋白最有可能为激素,这与本研究的目的基因相符。进化树分析结果表明,梅花鹿LHβ基因与山羊、绵羊和牛等反刍动物较近,其中与绵羊最近。【结论】梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区序列与绵羊 LHβ基因最近。%Objective]The aim of this study is to clone the LHβ gene CDS of Cervus nippon and analyze the structure and features of LHβprotein.[Method]The LHβ gene CDS of Cervus nip-pon was obtained by PCR,cloning and sequencing.Then,the structure and features of LHβpro-tein,including molecular weight,isoelectric point,secondary structure,function were predicted by online molecular biological tool,such as ProtParam tool.Meanwhile,we constructed a phylo-genetic tree by MEGA 6.0 software to further explain the genetic basis for this gene.[Results]The full CDS sequence of Cervus nippon LHβ gene was 462 bp (GenBank Accession No. KT199365),encoding 141 amino acids,which contained ATG start codon,and TGA stop codon, with a calculated molecular weight of 15.17 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.00.No conserved transmembrane region was detected and all of the amino acids were located outside the membrane. The average of hydrophobicity (GRAVY)was 0.391.Function predicted results showed that the function of

  2. Game species: extinction hidden by census numbers

    Carranza, J.


    Full Text Available Management of game species may involve a risk of alteration of their genetic properties. Local adaptations may be disrupted if artificially selected individuals from farms or those belonging to distant geographical areas are introduced to increase population density or trophy ‘quality’. In Spain, red deer (Cervus elaphus from different European subspecies have been introduced to increase the size of trophies (antlers of local populations. Legislation against these introductions is not effective for various reasons, and once the individuals are in the Iberian peninsula it is virtually impossible to prevent their spreading throughout the whole territory without a genetic tool to distinguish between autochthonous and foreign specimens. We have developed such a genetic test and propose a strategy to dissuade land-owners from importing foreign deer. Since deer are bred mainly for their antlers, our strategy is based on an agreement with the National Trophy Body in Spain which rejects trophies from foreign populations. Rejection decreases the value of the trophy so that it becomes more profitable to produce autochthonous deer. Using such a strategy at some critical step in the production or commercialisation process may be a good model to apply in protecting genetic properties of exploited species.

  3. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.


    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  4. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models

    Cross, Paul C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Edwards, William H.; Brennan, Angela; Ebinger, Michael R.


    The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km2; range = [95–10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  5. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.


    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  6. Comparison of Mexican wolf and coyote diets in Arizona and New Mexico

    Carrera, R.; Ballard, W.; Gipson, P.; Kelly, B.T.; Krausman, P.R.; Wallace, M.C.; Villalobos, C.; Wester, D.B.


    Interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) can have significant impacts on their distribution and abundance. We compared diets of recently translocated Mexican wolves (C. l. baileyi) with diets of resident coyotes in Arizona and New Mexico, USA. We systematically collected scats during 2000 and 2001. Coyote diet was composed mostly of mammalian species, followed by vegetation and insects. Elk (Cervus elaphus) was the most common item in coyote scats. Mexican wolf diet had a higher proportion of large mammals and fewer small mammals than coyote diet; however, elk was also the most common food item in Mexican wolf scats. Our results suggest that Mexican wolf diet was more similar to coyote diet than previously reported, but coyotes had more seasonal variation. Considering results in other areas, we expect that Mexican wolves will have a negative impact on coyotes through direct mortality and possibly competition. Reintroduction of Mexican wolves may have great impacts on communities by changing relationships among other predators and their prey.

  7. Changes in interacting species with disturbance

    Cole, Glen F.


    Human-influenced changes in the diversity and abundance of native wildlife in a southern boreal forest area, which became a national park in 1975, are used to develop working hypotheses for predicting and subsequently measuring the effects of disturbance or restoration programs on groups of interacting species. Changes from presettlement conditions began with early 1900 hunting, which eliminated woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and elk ( Cervus elaphus), and reduced moose ( Alces alces) to the low numbers which still persist. Increases in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), as these other cervid species became less abundant or absent, provided enough alternative food to sustain the system's carnivores until plant succession on previously burned or logged areas also caused deer to decline. With increased competition for reduced food, carnivore species also became less abundant or absent and overexploited some prey populations. The abilities of interacting species to maintain dynamically stable populations or persist varied with their different capacities to compensate for increased exploitation or competition. These relationships suggested a possible solution to the problem of predicting the stability of populations in disturbed systems. For the 1976 1985 period, a hypothesis that the increased protection of wildlife from exploitation in a national park would restore a more diverse, abundant, and productive fauna had to be rejected.

  8. Parasitofauna in the gastrointestinal tract of the Cervids (Cervidae in northern Poland

    Burlinski P.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine parasite species and their prevalence in the gastrointestinal tract of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L., red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama from selected areas of northern Poland. A total of 1668 fecal samples, obtained from animals living in three various regions, were analyzed. The samples were examined by coproscopic techniques, including flotation (according to Fülleborn, decantation (according to Zarnowski and Josztowa and flotation in the McMaster chamber. The experimental materials were collected from January 2008 to January 2009, in the hunting districts belonging to two hunting associations, "Bór" in Wipsowo and "Gwardia Slupsk" in Lupawa. In order to compare the health status of cervids kept under farm-like conditions, fecal samples were also collected in the paddocks of the Municipal Zoological Garden "Wybrzeza" in Gdansk. Parasites (eggs and oocysts were found in 42.09% of the analyzed samples. The most frequently observed roundworm was Chabertia sp. (13.79% in roe deer, 12.07% in red deer, 11.36% in fallow deer. High counts of Ostertagia sp. eggs (11.55% in roe deer, 6.03% in red deer, 13.18% in fallow deer and Trichostrongylus sp. eggs (10.69% in roe deer, 2.93% in red deer, 10.68% in fallow deer were also noted. The highest infestation rates (51.17% were determined in the studied areas of the Zoological Garden in Gdansk.

  9. Monitoring fish, wildlife, radionuclides and chemicals at Hanford, Washington

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish, wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits. 35 refs., 4 figs

  10. Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits

  11. Hanford, Washington: Monitoring to assess the state of the environment

    Environmental monitoring has been ongoing at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site for almost 5 years. Concentrations of airborne radionuclides at the Site perimeter, and concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River are in compliance with applicable standards. Radionuclide levels in food stuffs irrigated with river water taken downstream of the Site, most onsite wildlife samples, and soils and vegetation from both on- and off-site locations are typical of those attributable to worldwide fallout. The calculated dose potentially received by a maximally exposed individual, using worst-case assumptions for all routes of exposure, was 0.05 mrem/yr in 1989. The average per capita whole-body effective dose to people, based on a population of 340,000 living within 80 km (50 mi) of the Site, was <0.01 to 0.03 mrem annually from 1985 through 1989. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in Hanford Reach of the Columbia River has increased in recent years with a con-comitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), various plants and other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common

  12. Long-term environmental monitoring at Hanford, Washington

    Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for over 45 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations (nuclear and nonnuclear) on air, surface and ground water, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils and vegetation. Data from monitoring efforts are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1988, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter roosting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is increasing. The Hanford Site also serves as a refuge for Canada good (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various plants and other animals, e.g., (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyote (Canis latrans). 32 refs., 4 figs

  13. Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States

    Jeffrey T. Nelson


    Full Text Available In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp., white-tailed deer (WTD (Odocoileus virginianus, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT, comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT, and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak, and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP. Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3% were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids.

  14. Temporal stability in the genetic structure of Sarcoptes scabiei under the host-taxon law: empirical evidences from wildlife-derived Sarcoptes mite in Asturias, Spain

    Rossi Luca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicitly, parasite molecular studies assume temporal genetic stability. In this study we tested, for the first time to our knowledge, the extent of changes in genetic diversity and structure of Sarcoptes mite populations from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica in Asturias (Spain, using one multiplex of 9 microsatellite markers and Sarcoptes samples from sympatric Pyrenean chamois, red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Results The analysis of an 11-years interval period found little change in the genetic diversity (allelic diversity, and observed and expected heterozygosity. The temporal stability in the genetic diversity was confirmed by population structure analysis, which was not significantly variable over time. Population structure analysis revealed temporal stability in the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes mite under the host-taxon law (herbivore derived- and carnivore derived-Sarcoptes mite among the sympatric wild animals from Asturias. Conclusions The confirmation of parasite temporal genetic stability is of vital interest to allow generalizations to be made, which have further implications regarding the genetic structure, epidemiology and monitoring protocols of the ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite. This could eventually be applied to other parasite species.

  15. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Daniel R MacNulty

    Full Text Available An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison, to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus, a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  16. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Silvana Mattiello


    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  17. Aboriginal overkill in the intermountain west of North America : Zooarchaeological tests and implications.

    Lyman, R Lee


    Zooarchaeological evidence has often been called on to help researchers determine prehistoric relative abundances of elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Some interpret that evidence as indicating elk were abundant; others interpret it as indicating elk were rare. Wildlife biologist Charles Kay argues that prehistoric faunal remains recovered from archaeological sites support his contention that aboriginal hunters depleted elk populations throughout the Intermountain West, including the Yellowstone area. To support his contention Kay cites differences between modern and prehistoric relative abundances of artiodactyls, age and sex demographics of ungulates in the prehistoric record indicating selective predation of prime-age females, and a high degree of fragmentation of artiodactyl bones indicating humans were under nutritional stress. Kay's data on taxonomic abundances are time and space averaged and thus mask much variation in elk abundances. When these data are not lumped they suggest that elk were at some times, in some places, as abundant as they are today. Data on the age-sex demography of artiodactyl prey are ambiguous or contradict Kay's predictions. Bone fragmentation data are variously nonexistent or ambiguous. The zooarchaeological implications of Kay's aboriginal overkill hypothesis have not yet undergone rigorous testing. PMID:26190412

  18. Accumulation of polonium 210Po, uranium (234U and 238U and plutonium (238Pu and 239+240Pu in tissues and organs of deer Carvidae from northern Poland

    Strumińska-Parulska D. I.


    Full Text Available Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, collected in northern Poland, were the subject of the investigation. Polonium, uranium and plutonium activities were measured using alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The average concentrations of 210Po ranged between 0.02±0.01 Bq kg−1 ww in muscles and 7.15±0.12 Bq kg−1 ww in kidneys. The concentration of 238U ranged widely between 2.49±0.18 and 69.37±5.45 mBq kg−1 ww. The average concentrations of 239+240Pu ranged between 0.18±0.04 mBq kg−1 ww in muscle and 2.77±0.60 mBq kg−1 ww in kidneys. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling location, sex, age and species did not influence on the radioisotope activities in the analyzed samples.

  19. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences


    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  20. Concentration of 137Cs and 40K in meat of omnivore and herbivore game species in mountain forest ecosystems of Gorski Kotar, Croatia

    The aim of this study was to investigate 137Cs and 40K load in large mammal game species in the mountain forest region of Gorski Kotar in Croatia approximately a quarter of century after the Chernobyl accident. 137Cs and 40K activity were determined by the gamma-spectrometric method in 49 meat samples of five large game species: brown bear (Ursus arctos), wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). The results indicated that herbivore game species (roe deer, red deer and chamois) show significantly lower 137Cs concentrations than omnivore species (brown bear, wild boar), thereby confirming the hypothesis that different dietary strategy impact caesium concentrations in meat. The measured caesium load in brown bear meat was in the range of two orders of magnitude, while caesium load in wild boar meat was found in the range of one order of magnitude. The estimated effective equivalent dose showed that uptake of the highest caesium doses would be from consumption of omnivore species meat, while much lower doses could be taken in with the consumption of meat from herbivore species. (author)

  1. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Todd K. Shury


    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  2. Stable isotope ratio analysis to differentiate temporal diets of a free-ranging herbivore.

    Walter, W D; Leslie, D M


    Stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) in tissue samples of herbivores can identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants consumed. We present results from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that highlight the ability to differentiate diets using tissue delta13C and delta15N. The signatures of delta13C and delta15N differed in tissues of varying metabolic activity: muscle, a short-term dietary indicator (i.e., 1-2 months) and hoof, a long-term dietary indicator (i.e., 3-12 months). We also documented that delta13C and delta15N values along elk hooves (proximal, middle, distal sections) elucidated temporal shifts in dietary selection. The carbon isotopes of the composite hoof were similar to those of the middle section, but the composite hoof differed in delta(13)C from the distal and proximal sections. The delta13C and delta15N signatures also differed among elk populations, indicating temporal dietary shifts of individuals occupying disparate native range and human-derived agricultural landscapes. Analyses of stable isotopes in various tissues highlighted carbon and nitrogen assimilation through time and differences in the foraging ecology of a rangeland herbivore. PMID:19530151

  3. Application of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA for the detection of antibodies for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wild boar and red deer

    Terzić Svjetlana


    Full Text Available For detecting antibodies towards foot and mouth (FMD virus in sera collected from red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus and wild boars (Sus scrofa, three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used. Two ELISA kits (PrioCHECK FMDV NS and CHEKIT FMD-3ABC were used for the detection of antibodies towards non-structural proteins of FMD virus and one assay was based on the detection of antibodies for serotype O (PrioCHECK FMDV type O. All of the sera tested in our study were negative for antibodies against FMD virus. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of commercially available ELISA kits given for marketing authorization in Croatia in testing the prevalence of FMD antibodies in wild boar and red deer populations. Since the producers of ELISA kits used in our study did not declare wild animals as a target species, we hypothesised that the same kits could be used for serological diagnosis of FMD in red deer and wild boars. Our study confirmed that the kits used are acceptable for detecting antibodies in both species tested, however, the investigation highlighted the problem of validating the kits due to the absence of available positive sera originating from red deer, as well as other susceptible species, especially artiodactyls.

  4. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Joel C Watts


    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  5. The expanding universe of prion diseases.


    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  6. Les indicateurs de la pression du cerf élaphe sur la végétation du sous-bois en forêt feuillue tempérée (synthèse bibliographique

    Lehaire, F.


    Full Text Available Indicators of red deer pressure on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. A review. During recent decades, populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and, in some forests, has reached levels that have reduced the diversity of forest ecosystem services. Assessing the balance between timber production and hunting remains a crucial question for forest users (foresters, hunters and requires reliable tools such as ecological indicators. This paper reviews the ecological indicators that characterize the pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus L. on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. Such indicators monitor the cover, height, stem density, biomass and species diversity of different indicator plant groups. These plant groups embrace species belonging to the herbaceous stratum, forest regeneration or particular species such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and bramble (Rubus fruticosus L.. As the choice of indicator plants affects considerably the performance of the ecological indicator of deer pressure on understory vegetation, such decisions must be carried out with caution, taking into account plant abundance and palatability. The reviewed indicators help us to understand the relationship between biodiversity, carrying capacity and deer populations. They are intended for use by forest managers who would like to monitor red deer pressure in relation to forest management goals and forest sustainability.

  7. Native prey distribution and migration mediates wolf (Canis lupus) predation on domestic livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Nelson, Abigail A.; Kauffman, Matthew; Middleton, A.D.; Jimenez, M.D.; McWhirter, D. E.; Gerow, K.


    Little research has evaluated how the migration and distribution of native prey influence patterns of livestock depredation by large carnivores. Previous research suggests that the presence of native prey can increase depredation rates by attracting predators (prey tracking hypothesis). Alternatively, the absence of native prey may facilitate predation on livestock (prey scarcity hypothesis). In this study, we evaluated support for these competing hypotheses through analysis of 4 years of cattle (Bos taurus L., 1758) depredation data (n = 39 kills), 2 years of summer and fall wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) predation and tracking data (n = 4 wolves), and 3 years of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) movement data (n = 70 elk). We used logistic regression to compare the relative influence of landscape features and elk distribution on the risk of livestock depredation in areas with migratory and resident elk. Cattle depredations occurred in habitats with increased encounter rates between wolves and livestock. In resident elk areas, depredation sites were associated with elk distribution and open roads. In migratory elk areas, depredation sites were associated with wolf dens, streams, and open habitat. Patterns of carnivore–livestock conflicts are complex, and using ungulate distribution data can predict and minimize such instances.

  8. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah


    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts. PMID:19901399

  9. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL


    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  10. Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs

    Lukacs, P.M.; Gude, J.A.; Russell, R.E.; Ackerman, B.B.


    Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  11. Northwest Montana Wildlife Habitat Enhancement: Hungry Horse Elk Mitigation Project: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan.

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick


    Portions of two important elk (Cervus elaphus) winter ranges totalling 8749 acres were lost due to the construction of the Hungry Horse Dam hydroelectric facility. This habitat loss decreased the carrying capacity of the both the elk and the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In 1985, using funds from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as authorized by the Northwest Power Act, the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) completed a wildlife mitigation plan for Hungry Horse Reservoir. This plan identified habitat enhancement of currently-occupied winter range as the most cost-efficient, easily implemented mitigation alternative available to address these large-scale losses of winter range. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, as amended in 1987, authorized BPA to fund winter range enhancement to meet an adjusted goal of 133 additional elk. A 28-month advance design phase of the BPA-funded project was initiated in September 1987. Primary goals of this phase of the project included detailed literature review, identification of enhancement areas, baseline (elk population and habitat) data collection, and preparation of 3-year and 10-year implementation plans. This document will serve as a site-specific habitat and population monitoring plan which outlines our recommendations for evaluating the results of enhancement efforts against mitigation goals. 25 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Demographics of an experimentally released population of elk in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Murrow, Jennifer L.; Clark, Joseph D.; Delozier, E. Kim


    We assessed the potential for reestablishing elk (Cervus elaphus) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP), USA, by estimating vital rates of experimentally released animals from 2001 to 2006. Annual survival rates for calves ranged from 0.333 to 1.0 and averaged 0.592. Annual survival for subadult and adult elk (i.e., ≥1 yr of age) ranged from 0.690 to 0.933, depending on age and sex. We used those and other vital rates to model projected population growth and viability using a stochastic individual-based model. The annual growth rate (λ) of the modeled population over a 25-year period averaged 0.996 and declined from 1.059 the first year to 0.990 at year 25. The modeled population failed to attain a positive 25-year mean growth rate in 46.0% of the projections. Poor calf recruitment was an important determinant of low population growth. Predation by black bears (Ursus americanus) was the dominant calf mortality factor. Most of the variance of growth projections was due to demographic variation resulting from the small population size (n  =  61). Management actions such as predator control may help increase calf recruitment, but our projections suggest that the GSMNP elk population may be at risk for some time because of high demographic variation.

  13. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.


    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  14. Inferences about ungulate population dynamics derived from age ratios

    Harris, N.C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Mills, L.S.


    Age ratios (e.g., calf:cow for elk and fawn:doe for deer) are used regularly to monitor ungulate populations. However, it remains unclear what inferences are appropriate from this index because multiple vital rate changes can influence the observed ratio. We used modeling based on elk (Cervus elaphus) life-history to evaluate both how age ratios are influenced by stage-specific fecundity and survival and how well age ratios track population dynamics. Although all vital rates have the potential to influence calf:adult female ratios (i.e., calf:xow ratios), calf survival explained the vast majority of variation in calf:adult female ratios due to its temporal variation compared to other vital rates. Calf:adult female ratios were positively correlated with population growth rate (??) and often successfully indicated population trajectories. However, calf:adult female ratios performed poorly at detecting imposed declines in calf survival, suggesting that only the most severe declines would be rapidly detected. Our analyses clarify that managers can use accurate, unbiased age ratios to monitor arguably the most important components contributing to sustainable ungulate populations, survival rate of young and ??. However, age ratios are not useful for detecting gradual declines in survival of young or making inferences about fecundity or adult survival in ungulate populations. Therefore, age ratios coupled with independent estimates of population growth or population size are necessary to monitor ungulate population demography and dynamics closely through time.

  15. Using Pellet Groups To Assess Response Of Elk and Deer to Roads and Energy Development

    Matthew R. Dzialak


    Full Text Available Development and extraction of resources such as oil and gas has directly and indirectly reduced available habitat to wildlife through changes in behavior and resource use. To assess how elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus spp. were spatially distributed relative to roads and coal-bed natural gas well pads, we collected pellet group data during 2 summers in south-central Colorado. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the relative probability of use of elk and deer in relation to roads and well pads. We found relative probability of use was positively associated with distance from roads, indicating greater use of areas farther away from roads. Relative probability of use was negatively associated with distance to well pads, potentially as a result of plant phenology and reseeding in disturbed areas around well pads. Other factors such as elevation, slope and vegetative security cover also influenced elk and deer spatial distributions. Based on these data, it appears resource use may be driven by forage and security cover more than disturbance features. Pellet group surveys appear to be an appropriate technique for evaluating resource use of populations across large spatial extents when logistical and financial constraints limit the use of more advanced technology such as very high frequency and global positioning system collars.

  16. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła


    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers. PMID:24244044

  17. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Rene Kizek


    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  18. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Hubalek, Jaromir; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene


    Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metals and in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Excepting humans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animal species. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records were obtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observed in samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used, well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very low signal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reaching over 20 µM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowest values of about 1-3 µM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  19. Climate-mediated shifts in Neandertal subsistence behaviors at Pech de l'Azé IV and Roc de Marsal (Dordogne Valley, France).

    Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W; Turq, Alain; Sandgathe, Dennis; McPherron, Shannon J P; Dibble, Harold


    Neandertals disappeared from Europe just after 40,000 years ago. Some hypotheses ascribe this to numerous population crashes associated with glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene. The goal of this paper is to test the hypothesis that glacial periods stressed Neandertal populations. If cold climates stressed Neandertals, their subsistence behaviors may have changed-requiring intensified use of prey through more extensive nutrient extraction from faunal carcasses. To test this, an analysis of Neandertal butchering was conducted on medium sized bovid/cervid remains composed of predominately red deer (Cervus elaphus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), and roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) deposited during global warm and cold phases from two French sites: Pech de l'Azé IV (Pech IV, Bordes' excavation) and Roc de Marsal (RDM). Analysis of surface modification on high survival long bones and proximal and middle phalanges demonstrates that skeletal elements excavated from the cold levels (RDM Level 4, Pech IV Level I2) at each cave have more cut marks and percussion marks than elements from the warm levels (RDM Level 9, Pech IV Level Y-Z) after controlling for fragment size. At both sites, epiphyseal fragments are rare, and although this pattern can result from carnivore consumption, carnivore tooth marks are almost nonexistent (support for the hypothesis that Neandertals were processing faunal remains more heavily during glacial periods, suggesting a response to increased nutritional stress during colder time periods. PMID:27343769

  20. Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.

    Paul C Cross

    Full Text Available The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2; range = [95-10237]. The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.

  1. Estimation of Correlation between the Number of Individuals and Biogenic Capacity of the Hunting Terrain 56, Forest District Lunca Timişului, for 13 Hunting Species in 2006-2010 Period

    Dorel Dronca


    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the UE, is imposing a special attention to hunting animals populations. The aim of the present paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13th species, in the period 2006-2010, in the hunting terrain 56 Chevereş, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of 9109ha. After the observations were performed, the present paper is stating that on this hunting ground had no good correlation between the number of individuals and the biogenic capacity of the hunting fond at the following species: Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L., Fallow Deer (Dama dama L, Roe Deer (Caproleus Caproleus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L., European hare (Lepus europaeus P., in turn at the rest of the studied species the correlation is good. For the species in regress the observations are recommending the following with attention of the natural selection and the improvement of the artificial selection.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Witkowski Lucjan


    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  3. Estimation of Correlation between the Number of Individuals and Biogenic Capacity of the Hunting Terrain 54 Padureni, Forest District Lunca Timişului, for 13 Hunting Species in 2007-2011 Period

    Dorel Dronca


    Full Text Available Integration of the Romania in the EU is imposing a special attention to hunting animals populations. The aim of thepresent paper was to study the quantitative evolution of the hunting population for the 13th species, in the period2007-2011, in the hunting terrain 54 Padureni, from Forest Domain – Lunca Timişului, with a total surface of11,963ha. The paper shows that form the 13th species studied 5 were not identified on this hunting terrain Red Deer(Cervus elaphus L., Wildcat (Felis silvestres L, European Pine Marten (Martes martes L., Least Weasel (Mustelanivolis L. Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica L.. For the other species identified the individuals number evolutiondemonstrated that there is a god correlation between the number of individuals and it-s biogenic capacity. Also thepaper recommends a special attention to natural selection and the efficient use of artificial selection, especially forthe following 3 species: Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus L., Wild hog (Sus scrofa L. and Common Pheasant(Phasianus colchicus L..

  4. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu


    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  5. Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal park.

    Schmidbauer, S-M; Wohlsein, P; Kirpal, G; Beineke, A; Müller, G; Müller, H; Moser, I; Baumgartner, W


    An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. Three pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), one buffalo (Bison bonasus) and two European lynxes (Lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. Postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central nervous system. Acid-fast organisms were demonstrated in various organs histologically and bacteriologically. Spoligotyping of 17 isolates from various organs of the affected animals confirmed an infection by M bovis and revealed an identical pattern indicating a common origin. The spoligotype was different from the pattern of M bovis recorded in the cattle population in Germany between 2000 and 2006. Investigations of sentinel animals such as an aged silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), a badger (Meles meles), a ferret (Mustela putorius) and rodents, and tuberculin skin tests of the animal attendants and randomly collected faecal samples from the enclosures were all negative for M bovis. PMID:17766809

  6. Iberian red deer: paraphyletic nature at mtDNA but nuclear markers support its genetic identity.

    Carranza, Juan; Salinas, María; de Andrés, Damián; Pérez-González, Javier


    Red deer populations in the Iberian glacial refugium were the main source for postglacial recolonization and subspecific radiation in north-western Europe. However, the phylogenetic history of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and its relationships with northern European populations remain uncertain. Here, we study DNA sequences at the mitochondrial control region along with STR markers for over 680 specimens from all the main red deer populations in Spain and other west European areas. Our results from mitochondrial and genomic DNA show contrasting patterns, likely related to the nature of these types of DNA markers and their specific processes of change over time. The results, taken together, bring support to two distinct, cryptic maternal lineages for Iberian red deer that predated the last glacial maximum and that have maintained geographically well differentiated until present. Haplotype relationships show that only one of them contributed to the northern postglacial recolonization. However, allele frequencies of nuclear markers evidenced one main differentiation between Iberian and northern European subspecies although also supported the structure of both matrilines within Iberia. Thus, our findings reveal a paraphyletic nature for Iberian red deer but also its genetic identity and differentiation with respect to northern subspecies. Finally, we suggest that maintaining the singularity of Iberian red deer requires preventing not only restocking practices with red deer specimens belonging to other European populations but also translocations between both Iberian lineages. PMID:26843924

  7. Wild ungulates as sentinel of BTV-8 infection in piedmont areas.

    Grego, E; Sossella, M; Bisanzio, D; Stella, M C; Giordana, G; Pignata, L; Tomassone, L


    Bluetongue caused by the genotype 8 virus (BTV-8) appeared for the first time in BTV free areas in northern Italy in 2008. The presence of domestic animals outbreaks, abundant wild ungulates populations, and ongoing regional BTV control plans, made this area interesting to evaluate the role of wild ruminants in BTV-8 epidemiology. We analyzed spleen samples from hunted red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) by quantitative RT-PCR. Samples were collected from 2008 to 2011 in two provinces of Piedmont region. BTV-8 was detected in all ungulate species, confirming their receptivity to the infection. However, the viral load in the positive specimens was low, and decreased from 2008 to 2011. These results, together with the extinction of the epidemic following a regional livestock vaccination campaign, lead to hypothesize that wild ungulates were an epiphenomenon and they had not an important role in the domestic transmission cycle of BTV-8 in this area. In spite of this, wild ruminants appear to be good sentinels of BTV circulation and their monitoring could be useful for surveillance in piedmont areas. PMID:25306211

  8. A simple solar radiation index for wildlife habitat studies

    Keating, Kim A.; Gogan, Peter J.; Vore, John N.; Irby, Lynn R.


    Solar radiation is a potentially important covariate in many wildlife habitat studies, but it is typically addressed only indirectly, using problematic surrogates like aspect or hillshade. We devised a simple solar radiation index (SRI) that combines readily available information about aspect, slope, and latitude. Our SRI is proportional to the amount of extraterrestrial solar radiation theoretically striking an arbitrarily oriented surface during the hour surrounding solar noon on the equinox. Because it derives from first geometric principles and is linearly distributed, SRI offers clear advantages over aspect-based surrogates. The SRI also is superior to hillshade, which we found to be sometimes imprecise and ill-behaved. To illustrate application of our SRI, we assessed niche separation among 3 ungulate species along a single environmental axis, solar radiation, on the northern Yellowstone winter range. We detected no difference between the niches occupied by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and elk (Cervus elaphus; P = 0.104), but found that mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) tended to use areas receiving more solar radiation than either of the other species (P solar radiation component.

  9. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Pauline eNol


    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  10. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Robert B Allen

    Full Text Available Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species. Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut, we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011 to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.