Sample records for cephalexin

  1. Cephalexin induced cholestatic jaundice.

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Rao, Mana; Jasdanwala, Sarfaraz; Mathur, Ajay; Eng, Margaret


    Cephalexin is a very commonly prescribed orally administered antibiotic which has many potential side effects. Amongst these cholestatic jaundice has been infrequently reported as an adverse reaction. We present a case of a 57-year-old male who exhibited features of cholestatic jaundice including elevated liver function tests (LFTs) after taking cephalexin and showed improvement on removal of the offending agent. During this time he was symptomatically treated with cholestyramine. Complete resolution of LFTs was seen in four weeks. Cephalexin induced cholestasis is rare and hence requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25180107

  2. Cephalexin

    ... order to prevent them from developing a heart valve infection.This medication may be prescribed for other ... This branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.

  3. Integrated reactor concepts for the enzymatic kinetic synthesis of cephalexin

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Bosma, R.; Kroon, P.J.; Tjeerdsma, P.S.; DeVroom, E.; VanderLaan, J.M.; Moody, H.M.; Beeftink, H.H.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.


    Integrated process concepts for enzymatic cephalexin synthesis were investigated by our group, and this article focuses on the integration of reactions and product removal during the reactions. The last step in cephalexin production is the enzymatic kinetic coupling of activated phenylglycine (pheny


    S. Ramachandran et al.


    Full Text Available In this study, a discriminative dissolution method was developed for Cephalexin OD (orally disintegrating tablets 750mg. The solubility and stability of the cephalexin API was determined in ten different solutions. In that 0.01N HCl, glycine buffer pH 3-0, acetate buffer pH 4.5 and water gave good stability and the solubility. Dissolution profiling of cephalexin OD tablets 750mg of single batch was done with the selected media containing varying concentration of surfactants (tween 80 and Sodium lauryl sulphate- SLS. The release profile is compared with that of the control media. The media that gave discriminately faster release than that of the control were found to be 0.01N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80, 0.01N HCl with 0.5% of SLS, acetate buffer with 1% of tween 80 and water with 0.5% of SLS. With the selected media, dissolution profile was done on the three different batches of cephalexin OD tablets one with lesser polymer ratio and other with higher polymer ratio that that of the test batch. Only 0.01N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80 as dissolution medium was found to show good discrimination in the release profile with change in the formulation conditions. The discriminative dissolution method developed was validated for its specificity, accuracy, stability, linearity and precision and it passes all the parameters.

  5. Neodymium(III) complexing with ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin

    The interaction of Nd3+ ions with ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin anions (L) in aqueous solution at 20 deg C and ionic strength of 0.1 (KNO3) was studied by pH titration. The NdL and Nd(OH)L complexes are formed in a weak alkaline solution. The distribution curves of neodymium(III) complex species depending on pH were constructed. The formation constants of the complexes were determined

  6. Synthesis and application of cephalexin imprinted polymer for solid phase extraction in milk.

    Lata, Kiran; Sharma, Rajan; Naik, Laxmana; Rajput, Y S; Mann, Bimlesh


    Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) against cephalexin was synthesized by co-polymerization of functional monomer, cross-linker, radical initiator, along with target molecule (cephalexin) in a porogenic material. Binding of cephalexin towards prepared MIP was studied in different solvents (water, methanol, 1M NaCl, acetone and acetonitrile) and best binding was observed in methanol. Partition coefficient and selectivity of prepared imprint and non-imprint was also studied. Cross reactivity in terms of binding efficiency was also assessed with other antibiotics. Chromatographic study of MIP was carried out by packing prepared imprint into glass column. MIP was used as matrix in solid phase extraction (SPE) for recovery of cephalexin from spiked milk samples for further estimation by high performance liquid chromatography. No interference was observed from milk components after elution of cephalexin from MIP, indicating selectivity and affinity of MIP. On the other hand, interference was observed in eluate obtained from C18 SPE column. PMID:25872441

  7. Development of colorimetric method for cephalexin in dosage forms

    Priyanka P


    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, accurate, rapid, and economical colorimetric-spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of cephalexin in capsules. This method is based on the reaction of the drug with ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide, giving a green-colored chromogen exhibiting maximum absorbance at 791 nm against reagent blank. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-6 µ g/ml. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  8. Design and evaluation of gastroretentive mucoadhesive cephalexin tablets.

    Sonani, N G; Hiremath, S P; Dasankoppa, F S; Jamakandi, V G; Sreenivas, S A


    The aim of this investigation was to develop gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets of cephalexin, which will retain in the stomach for 10 h. Cephalexin, a first-generation cephalosporin, becomes ionized in intestinal pH because pKa is 4.5 and thus reducing its bioavailability. The various batches were prepared by wet granulation method using variety of mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K4M, hydroxyl propyl cellulose, chitosan, carbopol 934P and sodium carboxymethylcellulose and subjected to various evaluation parameters such as mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release profile, swelling characteristics and physical properties. It was evident from the study that the formulation containing HPMC K4M and carbopol 934P in combination exhibited maximum mucoadhesive strength of 144.42 gms, in vitro residence time was 8.73 h and in vitro drug release was found to be 75.03% in 10 h with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. So, the optimized formulation F(2) was further subjected to in vivo retention time in rabbit by X-ray technique, SEM and Accelerated stability studies. Regarding all the properties evaluated, the formulation containing HPMC K4M and carbopol 934P in combination was found to be the best to achieve the aim of this study. PMID:19586492


    Patel Satish A


    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the estimation of cephalexin in tablets. The method is based on the reaction of cephalexin with ninhydrin reagent in methanol giving blue color chromogen, which shows maximum absorbance at 576 nm against reagent blank. The chromogen obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-60 µg/ml for cephalexin. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  10. Comparison of pivmecillinam and cephalexin in acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

    Menday, A P


    The clinical and bacteriological efficacy of a 3-day course of pivmecillinam, 200 mg three times daily, was compared with that of a 7-day course of cephalexin, 250 mg four times daily, in 216 patients with a bacteriologically confirmed, acute, uncomplicated, urinary tract infection. Both treatments were similarly effective. Clinical cure or improvement was obtained in 95.3% of patients given pivmecillinam and in 93.6% of patients given cephalexin. Bacteriological success was achieved in 89.7 and 81.7% patients taking pivmecillinam or cephalexin, respectively. Eradication rates for Escherichia coli were 90.1% for pivmecillinam and 80.6% for cephalexin. Both treatments were well tolerated. This study has confirmed that a 3-day course of pivmecillinam is effective and well tolerated in uncomplicated cystitis. PMID:10724022

  11. Development of gastro retentive drug delivery system of cephalexin by using factorial design

    Prakash Rao, B.; Ashok Kottan, Neelima; Snehith, V.S.; Ramesh, C.


    The objective of this research work was to formulate and optimize the floating drug delivery system containing cephalexin using 23 factorial design. Floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method incorporating HPMC K4M, xanthan gum, guar gum, sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid as gas generating agent. The influence of independent variables like, polymer: polymer ratio, polymer type and tartaric acid on floating lag time and cephalexin release profile were studied. The diffusion...

  12. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    Fakhraei AH.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subjected to tooth extraction were divided into two groups. Each group received 1 gr amoxicillin or cephalexin and teeth were extracted 30-60-90-120-180 minutes after antibiotic intake. Blood sampling was performed immediately after extraction and concentrations of two antibiotics were measured in microbiology laboratory. ANOVA test and Post-hoc (Duncan test were used for statistical analysis with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The maximum serum concentration was 10.1006 μg/ml for amoxicillin at 120 minutes and 41.5467 μg/ml for cephalexin at 90 minutes after drug intake. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of cephalexin and amoxicillin for Streptococcus sanguis was 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The mean concentration for amoxicillin was 10 times and for cephalexin was 20 times higher than MIC.

  13. Spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of Cephalexin in tablet dosage forms

    Patel S


    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, accurate, rapid, and economical spectrophotometric methods, have been developed for the estimation of cephalexin in tablets. Method A is based on the reaction of cephalexin with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, in presence of 20% sodium carbonate solution, giving a blue colour chromogen, which shows maximum absorbance at 753 nm against reagent blank, while method B is based on the estimation of cephalexin in distilled water, at 263 nm. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-160 µg/ml in method A, and 5-50 µg/ml in method B. Results of the analysis were validated statistically, and by recovery studies.

  14. Cephalexin synthesis by immobilised penicillin G acylase under non-isothermal conditions: reduction of diffusion limitation

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Mohy Eldin, M.S.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.


    The effect of thermodialysis on the enzymatic kinetic synthesis of the antibiotic cephalexin was investigated. As reference points, two existing models for an immobilised enzyme (Assemblase?) and for the free enzyme were used. For Assemblase?, it is known that diffusion limitation occurs and that th

  15. A pharmacokinetic comparison of cefadroxil and cephalexin after administration of 250, 500 and 1000 mg solution doses.

    Barbhaiya, R H


    The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil and cephalexin were examined following single oral doses of either 250, 500 or 1000 mg to a total of 36 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were divided into groups of 12 per dose-group and solution doses of cefadroxil or cephalexin were administered after an overnight fast according to a crossover design for the cephalosporins but not for doses. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from each individual and were analyzed for cefadroxil or cephalexin using validated HPLC assays with UV detection. The individual subject plasma concentration-time data for each cephalosporin were analyzed using noncompartmental methods. Profiles for cephalexin in plasma showed sharper and higher peaks than those for cefadroxil. Although values for the peak concentrations (Cmax) for cefadroxil were lower than that of cephalexin, the levels of cefadroxil in plasma and urine remained above the reported minimum inhibitory concentrations of susceptible organisms for longer period of time than those of cefalexin. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of cefadroxil (about 2 h) was significantly longer than that of cephalexin (about 1 h). The values for Cmax and AUC0-infinity values for both these cephalosporins showed dose-proportional increase, whereas t1/2, renal clearance (CLR) remained independent of dose. These observations confirm that cefadroxil and cephalexin obey linear pharmacokinetics. The CLr of both the cephalosporins were significantly higher than the average glomerular filtration rate at each dose level. The urinary recovery (% Xu) of each cephalosporin, accounted for over 80 per cent of the administered dose, and no significant differences in % Xu were observed between the two cephalosporins. These data suggest that the systemic availability of cefadroxil and cephalexin is similar at each dose level. PMID:8743403

  16. Ozonation of Cephalexin Antibiotic Using Granular Activated Carbon in a Circulating Reactor

    A circulating reactor was used to decompose cephalexin during catalytic ozonation. The effect of ozone supply and granular activated carbon (GAC) catalyst was investigated for removal of CEX and COD. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon was investigated during in-situ ozonation. According to results, ozone supply appeared as the most influencing variable followed by dosage of granular activated carbon. The BET surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) curves indicated that solid phase regeneration of activated carbon using ozone gas followed by mild thermal decomposition was very effective. The adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbon was slightly lower than virgin activated carbon. The overall study revealed that catalytic ozonation was effective in removing cephalexin from solution and the method can be applied for in-situ ozonation processes. (author)

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Immediate and Sustained Release Cephalexin Administered by Different Routes to Llamas (Lama glama)

    Kreil, Verónica; Ambros, Luis; Prados, Ana Paula; Tarragona, Lisa; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Bramuglia, Guillermo


    We investigate the pharmacokinetics of two different cephalexin formulations administered to llamas by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) routes, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cephalexin against some Escherichia coli and staphylococci isolated from llamas, and we apply the PK/PD modelling approach, so that effective dosage recommendations for this species could be made. Six llamas received immediate (10 mg/kg, IV, IM, and SC) and sustained (8 mg/kg IM, SC) release cephalexin. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental approach. Immediate release SC administration produced a significantly longer elimination half-life as compared with the IV and IM administration (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 h, resp.) and higher mean absorption time as compared with the IM administration (1.7 ± 0.5 versus 0.6 ± 0.4 h). Absolute bioavailability was in the range of 72–89% for both formulations and routes of administration. Cephalexin MIC90 values against staphylococci and E. coli were 1.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Our results show that the immediate release formulation (10 mg/kg) would be effective for treating staphylococcal infections administered every 8 h (IM) or 12 h (SC), whereas the sustained release formulation (8 mg/kg) would require the IM or SC administration every 12 or 24 h, respectively. PMID:27051418

  18. Pharmacokinetic comparison of cefroxadin (CGP 9000) and cephalexin by simultaneous administration to humans.

    Lecaillon, J B; Hirtz, J L; Schoeller, J P; Humbert, G.; Vischer, W


    The pharmacokinetic parameters of cefroxadin and cephalexin were compared after simultaneous oral administration of the two cephalosporins to 21 subjects. The influence of the dose, the formulation, and food intake on these parameters was investigated. Both drugs were equally well absorbed from all of the tested formulations; identical percentages of the dose were recovered in the urine in all cases. The elimination half-life of cefroxadin and, consequently, the area under the plasma concentr...

  19. Formulation and evaluation of cephalexin extended release matrix tablets using 3 factorial design.

    Jishnu, V; Prabhakaran, R; Gilhotra, Rm


    The aim of the present investigation was to prepare extended release film coated matrix tablets of cephalexin using binary mixture of two grades of hydrophilic polymer, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), by direct compression method. Results of the preliminary trials indicated that the polymers used have significant release retarding effect on the formulation. To study the effect of concentration of polymers on drug release from matrix tablets, 3(2) full factorial design was applied. The concentration of HPMC K15M and HPMC 15cps were used as independent variables, while percentage drug release was selected as dependent variable. The dissolution data were fitted into zero-order, first-order, Higuchi and Korsemeyer-Peppas models to identify the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of drug release. Comparative study of dissolution profile of final batch F3 with market preparation (Sporidex AF 375) was done by similarity factor (f(2)) determination and it was concluded that final formulation F3 (10% HPMC K15M, 17.5% HPMC 15cps) shows good similarity with the market product. The results of the accelerated stability study of final formulation F3 for 1 month revealed that storage conditions were not found to have made any significant changes in final formulation F3. The release of cephalexin was prolonged for 6 h by using polymer combinations of HPMC and a twice daily matrix tablet was formulated. PMID:22224031

  20. Spiral conformation of Vibrio cholerae as determined by scanning electron microscopy of elongated cells induced by cephalexin treatment.

    Konishi, H.; Katayama, A.; Ito, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshii, Z


    The elongated cells of Vibrio spp. induced by cephalexin treatment were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Vibrio cholerae has a twisted cell body and a right-handed spiral conformation and that the cell bodies of V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus are straight rather than curved.


    M.A.Zazouli, M.Ulbricht, S. Nasseri, H. Susanto,


    Full Text Available Antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cephalexin are a group of pharmaceutical compounds in human medicine practice that have been entered in water bodies. Presence of these compounds in the environment has raised concerns regarding the toxicity to aquatic organisms and the emergence of strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Removal of these substances before entering the aquatic environment as well as water reuse plant is very important. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM on the removal efficiency of cephalexin and amoxicillin, by using two different commercially available composite NF membranes (TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3. In addition, the effect of NOM fractions on retention mechanism and permeates flux behavior was studied. Amoxicillin and cephalexin were used as models of antibiotics; alginate and humic acid were used as models of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of NOM, respectively. It was observed that the rejection and permeate flux of amoxicillin and cephalexin were influenced by the membrane characteristics and properties of NOM. The results showed that as the alginate proportion was increased, the rejection improved. The permeate flux decreased with increasing alginate ratio. It was observed that the rejections of amoxicillin and cephalexin in TFC-SR2 were >97.3% and >95.8% in all experiments, respectively. In TFC-SR3, the rejection percentage were (95.9%-100% and (86.1%-96.3%, respectively. Alginate and humic acid had synergistic effect on flux decline. In other words, increasing alginate concentration increased the rate and extent of flux reduction.

  2. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz


    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Cephalexin Extended-release Matrix Tablets Using Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose as Rate-controlling Polymer.

    Vijay, J; Sahadevan, Jt; Prabhakaran, R; Gilhotra, R Mehra


    The present investigation reports the design and evaluation of six-hour extended release film-coated matrix tablets of cephalexin using different grades of hydrophilic polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) employing direct compression method. The preformulation studies performed included the physical compatibility studies, Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis, drug characterization using Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopic analysis and particle size analysis using sieve method. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, thickness and friability. Results of the studies indicate that the polymers used have significant release-retarding effect on the formulation. The dissolution profile comparison of the prepared batches P1 to P8 and market preparation (Sporidex AF 375) was done by using Food and Drug Administration-recommended similarity factor (f(2)) determination. The formulation P8 (10% HPMC K4M, 15% HPMC 15cps) with a similarity factor (f(2)) of 77.75 was selected as the optimized formulae for scale-up batches. The dissolution data of the best formulation P8 was fitted into zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsemeyer-Peppas models to identify the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of drug release. The results of the accelerated stability study of best formulation P8 for three months revealed that storage conditions were not found to have made any significant changes in final formulation F3. The release of cephalexin was prolonged for 6 h by using polymer combinations of HPMC and a twice daily matrix tablet was formulated. PMID:22523453

  4. Aqueous phase adsorption of cephalexin by walnut shell-based activated carbon: A fixed-bed column study

    Nazari, Ghadir; Abolghasemi, Hossein; Esmaieli, Mohamad; Sadeghi Pouya, Ehsan


    The walnut shell was used as a low cost adsorbent to produce activated carbon (AC) for the removal of cephalexin (CFX) from aqueous solution. A fixed-bed column adsorption was carried out using the walnut shell AC. The effect of various parameters like bed height (1.5, 2 and 2.5 cm), flow rate (4.5, 6 and 7.5 mL/min) and initial CFX concentration (50, 100 and 150 mg/L) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system was investigated at optimum pH 6.5. The highest bed capacity of 211.78 mg/g was obtained using 100 mg/L inlet drug concentration, 2 cm bed height and 4.5 mL/min flow rate. Three kinetic models, namely Adam's-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson were applied for analysis of experimental data. The Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were appropriate for walnut shell AC column design under various conditions. The experimental adsorption capacity values were fitted to the Bangham and intra-particle diffusion models in order to propose adsorption mechanisms. The effect of temperature on the degradation of CFX was also studied.

  5. Determinação espectrofotométrica de cefalexina em formulações farmacêuticas explorando a sua reação de transferência de carga com a quinalizarina Spectrophotometric determination of cephalexin in pharmaceutical formulations exploring its charge transfer reaction with quinalizarin

    Carlos Eduardo R. de Paula


    Full Text Available This work proposes a new simple and fast spectrophotometric method for cephalexin determination in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the charge transfer reaction between cephalexin and quinalizarin in dimethylsulfoxide medium. Several analytical parameters related to the system were optimized and the reaction was characterized in terms of stoichiometry. Also, association constant and apparent molar absorptivity of the product were determined. The method presented a limit of detection of 0.46 mg L-1 and a quantification limit of 1.5 mg L-1. It was successfully applied in the determination of cephalexin in two samples of commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole Cálculo de propiedades moleculares de 5 cefalosporinas: cefradina, cefalexina, cefadroxilo, cefprozilo y ceftobiprole

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz


    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.Fundamento: las cadenas laterales unidas al ácido 7-aminocefalosporánico, base estructural de las cefalosporinas

  7. 电渗析组合反渗透过程处理头孢氨苄酶法母液废水的研究%Study on the treatment of waste water of the cephalexin enzymatic process by the combination process of electrodialysis and reverse osmosis

    阮慧敏; 黄杰; 李健; 沈江南; 王家德; 高从堦


    利用电渗析技术脱除头孢氨苄酶法母液废水中的盐分,研究了操作电压、浓缩室与淡化室流速比、温度等因素对电渗析脱盐过程的影响,并研究了反渗透膜法处理脱盐母液废水的膜通量变化趋势。实验结果表明,当淡化室、浓缩室流量均为500 L/h(流速比1∶1),操作电压为25 V,温度<30℃时,电渗析在高效脱盐的同时具有理想的有机物截留率达99.50%以上,能耗3.65 kW⋅h/kg;反渗透膜法在处理脱盐母液废水时,膜通量衰减较慢,水回收率达到75.67%。实验结果表明,利用电渗析、反渗透组合工艺处理头孢氨苄酶法母液废水具有良好的可行性。%The-salt-in-the-waste-water-of-the-cephalexin-enzymatic-process-was-removed-by-electrodialysis.-The-influences-of-operating-voltage,velocity-ratio-and-temperature-on-the-desal-ination-process-were-investigated.-The-change-of-the-permeate-flux-in-the-reverse-osmosis-sepa-ration-process-was-also-studied.-The-results-showed-that-the-electrodialysis-process-performed-better-in-desalination-with-the-organic-matter-retention-rate-reaching-99.50%,the-energy-con-sumption-of-3.65-kW⋅h/kg-at-the-conditions-of-the-flow-of-500-L/h-(velocity-ratio-of-1∶1),the-operating-voltage-of-25-V-and-temperature<30℃.-During-the-reverse-osmosis-separation-pro-cess,the-decay-of-permeate-flux-was-slow-and-acceptable,and-the-water-recovery-rate-was-75.67%.-All-results-showed-that-it-was-feasible-to-treatment-the-waste-water-of-the-cephalexin-enzymatic-process-by-a-combined-process-of-electrodialysis-and-reverse-osmosis.

  8. 77 FR 47511 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalexin; Fentanyl; Milbemycin Oxime and Praziquantel


    ... (Ancylostoma caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus..., Toxascaris leonina), adult hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and...

  9. Drug: D00906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D00906 Drug Cephalexin (USP); Cephalexin monohydrate; Cefalexin; CEX; Keftab (TN); ...S J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB01 Cefalexin D00906 Cephalexin (USP)...ins inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefalexin [ATC:J01DB01] D00906 Cephalexin

  10. Delayed Anaphylaxis with Methimazole: Nicolau Syndrome After Oxytocin Intramuscular Administration Anastrazole-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Amoxicillin- and Cephalexin-Induced Eosinophilic Colitis Docetaxel-Induced Supravenous Erythematous Eruption.

    Mancano, Michael A


    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:27559184

  11. Comparative virulence genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of environmental and clinical Salmonella enterica from Cochin, India

    Parvathi, A.; Vijayan, J.; Murali, G.; Chandran, P.

    . Newport revealed multiple drug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, trimethorprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cephalothin, and cephalexin. In comparison, S. Typhi were susceptible to all clinically relevant...

  12. Facial ulcerations due to Acinetobacter baumannii: Vessel thrombosis with bacterial mycelia

    Dong Ming Li


    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl presented with a 2-week history of progressive facial ulcerations that did not respond to cephalexin and topical dexamethasone. Biopsy on the ulcer showed rod-shaped bacteria and actinomycetes-like mycelia in the vessel walls and within thrombi. Tissue culture yielded Acinetobacter baumannii, which was resistant to cephalexin. A favourite outcome was achieved with minocycline treatment. This is the first case report of A. baumannii-related vasculitis.

  13. A case study of Impetigo

    Mansouri P


    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  14. El meloxicam no modifica la disposición de la cefalexina en caninos Meloxicam does not modify cefalexin disposition in dogs

    A. P Prados


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la farmacocinética de la cefalexina administrada por vía intravenosa a caninos y determinar si la administración conjunta con meloxicam produce modificaciones en la misma. Se trabajó con 7 perros Beagle sanos. Las drogas administradas fueron cefalexina y meloxicam a dosis única de 25 mg/kg intravenosa y 0.1 mg/kg intravenosa respectivamente. Cada animal recibió cefalexina sola (experiencia 1 y cefalexina 5 minutos luego de la administración de meloxicam (experiencia 2 con un período de lavado de 2 semanas entre cada experiencia. Las concentraciones plasmáticas de la cefalexina se determinaron mediante el método microbiológico. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la cefalexina calculados en cada experiencia, por lo tanto se concluye que el tratamiento simultáneo con ambas drogas no modifica la farmacocinética del antibiótico.The purpose of the present study was to describe intravenous cephalexin pharmacokinetics in healthy dogs and to investigate if previous administration of meloxicam affects it. Seven Beagle dogs were included in this study. Each dog received intravenous 25 mg/kg cephalexin (experience 1 or cephalexin 5 minutes after intravenous 0.1 mg/kg meloxicam (experience 2, with a 2 week wash out period. Cephalexin plasma concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. No statistical differences were found in cephalexin pharmacokinetic parameters between experiences. Consequently, when meloxicam is co-administered intravenously with cephalexin it doesn’t modify the pharmacokinetic of the antibiotic.

  15. Drug: D00263 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D00263 Drug Cefalexin (JP16); Cephalexin; CEX; Keflex (TN) C16H17N3O4S 347.094 347....acteria 6132 Cephem antibioitics D00263 Cefalexin (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic C...USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB01 Cefalexin D00263 Cefalexin...phalosporins Cephalexin D00263 Cefalexin (JP16) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antibacterials Cell wall biosynt...hesis inhibitor Penicillin binding proteins inhibitor Cephems - Cephalosporins Cefalexin [ATC:J01DB01] D00263 Cefalexin

  16. Prevention of Infective (Bacterial) Endocarditis: Wallet Card

    ... IV Cephalexin**† 2g 50 mg/kg Allergic to penicillins or ampicillin — Oral regimen OR Clindamycin OR Azithromycin ... 20 mg/kg 15 mg/kg Allergic to penicillins or ampicillin and unable to take oral medication ...

  17. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)32+]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy)32+ with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ) are 0.03 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.08 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h-1. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations

  18. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Osama H. Abdelmageed; Tamer Z. Attia


    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of abs...


    Parag Lokhande


    Full Text Available Cephalexin is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics and is used to fight bacteria in the body. It works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall formation, causing it to rupture, and killing the bacteria. A controlled release tablet dissolution method was developed for evaluation of Cephalaxin CR tablet & determination of Cephalaxin is done by UV spectrophotometer. The solubility and stability of the cephalexin API was determined in ten different solutions. In that 0.1N HCl, glycine buffer pH 3.0, acetate buffer pH 4.5 and water gave good stability and the solubility. Dissolution profiling of cephalexin gastroretentive controlled release (GR CR of single batch was done with the selected media containing varying concentration of surfactants (tween 80 and Sodium lauryl sulphate- SLS. The release profile is compared with that of the control media. The media that gave discriminately faster release than that of the control were found to be 0.1N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80, With the selected media, dissolution profile was done on the three different batches of cephalexin GR CR tablets one with lesser polymer ratio and other with higher polymer ratio that that of the test batch. Only 0.1N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80 as dissolution medium was found to show good discrimination in the release profile with change in the formulation conditions. The discriminative dissolution method developed was validated for its specificity, accuracy, stability, linearity and precision and it passes all parameters.

  20. In vivo evaluation of tigemonam, a novel oral monobactam.

    Clark, J M; Olsen, S. J.; Weinberg, D S; Dalvi, M.; Whitney, R R; Bonner, D P; Sykes, R. B.


    Tigemonam, a new monobactam with excellent activity against gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated for in vivo efficacy and absorption after oral administration to laboratory animals. Tigemonam is absorbed when administered orally to mice and dogs. In a variety of gram-negative systemic infections in mice, orally administered tigemonam was efficacious in all infections studied. Comparison drugs such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor were less efficacious, especially in infections caused...

  1. Effect of hyperproduction of TEM-1 beta-lactamase on in vitro susceptibility of Escherichia coli to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Wu, P J; Shannon, K; Phillips, I


    The susceptibility of 173 TEM-1-producing isolates of Escherichia coli was assessed by determination of MICs by the agar dilution method. MICs of amoxicillin, mezlocillin, cephaloridine, and, to a smaller extent, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (but not cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or imipenem) were higher for isolates that produced large amounts of beta-lactamase than for isolates that produced smaller amounts. The effect of fixed concentrations of clavulanic acid on resistan...

  2. In vitro activity of Ro 19-5247 (T-2525) and interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing.

    Beskid, G; Fallat, V; Siebelist, J; Durkin, J W; Lipschitz, E R; McGarry, D H


    The activity of Ro 19-5247 (the active metabolite of the oral cephalosporin Ro 19-5248 [T-2588]) was compared with that of five orally active agents against a total of 331 bacterial strains. Ro 19-5247 was more active in vitro than amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cefuroxime, and cephalexin against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and amoxicillin overall were more active than the other four agents against staphylococci. Ro 19-5247, amoxicillin-c...

  3. Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.

    Stephen, K W; McCrossan, J; MacKenzie, D; MacFarlane, C.B.; Speirs, C F


    1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampi...

  4. Mimicking natural evolution in metallo-β-lactamases through second-shell ligand mutations

    Tomatis, Pablo E.; Rasia, Rodolfo M.; Segovia, Lorenzo; Vila, Alejandro J.


    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) represent the latest generation of β-lactamases. The structural diversity and broad substrate profile of MBLs allow them to confer resistance to most β-lactam antibiotics. To explore the evolutionary potential of these enzymes, we have subjected the Bacillus cereus MBL (BcII) to a directed evolution scheme, which resulted in an increased hydrolytic efficiency toward cephalexin. A systematic study of the hydrolytic profile, substrate binding, and active-site feature...

  5. Significance of "extravascular" protein binding for antimicrobial pharmacodynamics in an in vitro capillary model of infection.

    Dudley, M N; Blaser, J; D. Gilbert; Zinner, S H


    The effect of protein binding in an "extravascular" space on antimicrobial pharmacodynamics was studied in an in vitro capillary model of infection. Simulated 500-mg oral doses of dicloxacillin (approximately 96% bound) or cephalexin (less than 5% bound) were administered every 6 h for four doses. A 10-fold-higher dose of dicloxacillin was also studied to determine the effect of drug concentration on the reduction of bacterial killing in the presence of protein. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 259...

  6. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A


    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethopri...

  7. Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C


    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...

  8. Heterologous expression of leader-less pga gene in Pichia pastoris: intracellular production of prokaryotic enzyme

    Kyslík Pavel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillin G acylase of Escherichia coli (PGAEc is a commercially valuable enzyme for which efficient bacterial expression systems have been developed. The enzyme is used as a catalyst for the hydrolytic production of β-lactam nuclei or for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin. To become a mature, periplasmic enzyme, the inactive prepropeptide of PGA has to undergo complex processing that begins in the cytoplasm (autocatalytic cleavage, continues at crossing the cytoplasmic membrane (signal sequence removing, and it is completed in the periplasm. Since there are reports on impressive cytosolic expression of bacterial proteins in Pichia, we have cloned the leader-less gene encoding PGAEc in this host and studied yeast production capacity and enzyme authenticity. Results Leader-less pga gene encoding PGAEcunder the control of AOX1 promoter was cloned in Pichia pastoris X-33. The intracellular overproduction of heterologous PGAEc(hPGAEc was evaluated in a stirred 10 litre bioreactor in high-cell density, fed batch cultures using different profiles of transient phases. Under optimal conditions, the average volumetric activity of 25900 U l-1 was reached. The hPGAEc was purified, characterized and compared with the wild-type PGAEc. The α-subunit of the hPGAEc formed in the cytosol was processed aberrantly resulting in two forms with C- terminuses extended to the spacer peptide. The enzyme exhibited modified traits: the activity of the purified enzyme was reduced to 49%, the ratios of hydrolytic activities with cephalexin, phenylacetamide or 6-nitro-3-phenylacetylamidobenzoic acid (NIPAB to penicillin G increased and the enzyme showed a better synthesis/hydrolysis ratio for the synthesis of cephalexin. Conclusions Presented results provide useful data regarding fermentation strategy, intracellular biosynthetic potential, and consequences of the heterologous expression of PGAEc

  9. In vitro susceptibilities of Borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone.

    Agger, W A; Callister, S M; Jobe, D A


    We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill...

  10. Determination of β-lactam Antibiotics in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Uv-visible Spectrophotometry Atomic Absorption and High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    *A. J. Abdulghani; 1H. H. Jasim; HASSAN, A.S.


    The determination amoxicillin, ampicillin and cephalexin was studied by complexation of the antibiotics with Au(III) and Hg(II) ions in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations using uv-visible spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, and HPLC techniques. Optimum conditions for complex formation were fixed at pH 4 and (2-4) for Au(III) and Hg(II)complexes respectively, heating temperature at (60 °C) and heating time for (10 minute). All complexes were extracted from aqueous solution with benzyl alco...

  11. A case of wound infection caused by Shewanella algae in the south of Iran

    M. Taherzadeh


    Full Text Available Shewanella algae was isolated from the purulent discharge in the navel area of a young male with a history of swimming in the Persian Gulf. A routine laboratory diagnosis procedure, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, was used to avoid misidentification with other species of Shewanella. The bacterium was suscetible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, nitrophorantion, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole but was resistant to amoxicillin, vancomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ceftizoxime. The patient successfully recovered after treatment with antibiotics.

  12. Anti-infectives and risk of severe hypoglycemia in glipizide and glyburide users

    Schelleman, Hedi; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Wan, Fei; Hennessy, Sean


    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether orally administered anti-infectives increase the risk of severe hypoglycemia in glipizide and glyburide users. We performed two case-control and case-crossover studies using US Medicaid data. All of the anti-infectives examined were associated with an elevated risk of severe hypoglycemia. Using cephalexin as the reference category, in glipizide users statistically significant associations were found with co-trimoxazole (OR=3.14; 95%CI: 1.83–...

  13. The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test

    M. Mohsenzadeh


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (μg kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

  14. Microbiological species and antimicrobial resistance profile in patients with diabetic foot infections

    Alexandre Faraco de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Introduction:Diabetic foot infections are a difficult problem to solve, often requiring hospitalization and exposing patients to the risk of amputations. Identification of the most prevalent pathogens is useful for administration of antibiotic therapy, and can reduce mutilations.Objective:To identify the microbiological profile and resistance to antimicrobial drugs in a series of patients with infected diabetic feet.Material and methods:an epidemiological, retrospective and descriptive study based on analysis of medical records from diabetic patients with plantar lesions who underwent surgical treatment over a 24-month period at a public hospital. Data were collected on age, sex, length of hospital stay, cultures from lesions, antibiotic therapy administered, bacterial resistance and surgeries conducted, with statistical analysis of means and standard deviations.Results:There were 66 admissions of diabetic patients, the majority elderly people (77%. Hospital stays ranged from 2 to 29 days, with a mean of 12.42. There were 91 surgical procedures, resulting in some kind of amputation in 65% of cases. The most common bacterial group was enterobacteria (47%, followed by staphylococci (27%. Three patients (4.5% had multi-resistant organisms. Resistance to clindamycin was the most common at 39 admissions (59%, followed by resistance to cephalexin, seen in 24 admissions (36%.Conclusions:Diabetic foot infections were most often caused by germs found in the community, in particular the enterococci. Bacterial resistance was very widespread and was most commonly associated with drugs for oral administration, in particular clindamycin and cephalexin.

  15. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital, Indonesia

    Maksum Radji; Siti Fauziah; Nurgani Aribinuko


    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods, and their antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Results: Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment, of which 249 (64.68%) were cultured positive and 136 (35.32%) were negative. The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.9%). P. aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin (95.3%), cefotaxime (64.1%), and ceftriaxone (60.9%). Amikacin was the most effective (84.4%) antibiotic against P. aeruginosa followed by imipenem (81.2%), and meropenem (75.0%). K. pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin (86.5%), ceftriaxone (75.7%), ceftazidime (73.0%), cefpirome (73.0%) and cefotaxime (67.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins, and quinolone antibiotics. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  16. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng


    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world. PMID:27131034

  17. A Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantification of Cefixime in Human Plasma

    R Arunkumar


    Full Text Available Cefixime is a third generation cephalosporin effective against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is available in solid and liquid oral dosages of 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg. It is used to treat respiratory and urinary tract infections. In this study, a liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometric method to quantify cefixime in human plasma was developed. The quantification range for the method was 114.5033 to 9374.2050 ng/ml and the method was validated as per US FDA standards for pharmaceutical development. Cephalexin was used as the internal standard. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions and extraction procedures were optimized to quantify the levels of cefixime in human plasma accurately. 100 μL of K3EDTA human plasma was required for sample processing. Extraction of cefixime and cephalexin was done by Liquid-Liquid extraction and separation was achieved by reverse phase liquid chromatography. Specificity, selectivity, matrix effect, calibration curve, precision, accuracy, ruggedness, recovery, stability and dilution integrity were established for cefixime in human plasma. The method met acceptance criteria for all the validation parameters and can be successfully applied to human pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies of cefixime. The bioanalytical method was highly sensitive and selective for estimation of cefixime in human plasma samples containing the drug

  18. High-dose antibiotic therapy is superior to a 3-drug combination of prostanoids and lipid A derivative in protecting irradiated canines

    There is an urgent need to develop non-toxic radioprotectors. We tested the efficacy of a 3-drug combination (3-DC) of iloprost, misoprostol, and 3D-MPL (3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A) and the effects of postirradiation clinical support with high doses of antibiotics and blood transfusion. Canines were given 3-DC or the vehicle and exposed to 3.4 Gy or 4.1 Gy of 60Co radiation. Canines irradiated at 4.1 Gy were also given clinical support, which consisted of blood transfusion and antibiotics (gentamicin, and cefoxitin or cephalexin). Peripheral blood cell profile and 60-day survival were used as indices of protection. At 3.4 Gy, 3-DC- or vehicle-treated canines without postirradiation clinical support survived only for 10 to 12 days. Fifty percent of the canines treated with 3-DC or vehicle and provided postirradiation clinical support survived 4.1-Gy irradiation. Survival of canines treated with vehicle before irradiation significantly correlated with postirradiation antibiotic treatments, but not with blood transfusion. The recovery profile of peripheral blood cells in 4.1 Gy-irradiated canines treated with vehicle and antibiotics was better than drug-treated canines. These results indicate that therapy with high doses of intramuscular aminoglycoside antibiotic (gentamicin) and an oral cephalosporin (cephalexin) enhanced survival of irradiated canines. Although blood transfusion correlated with survival of 3-DC treated canines, there were no additional survivors with 3-DC treated canines than the controls. (author)

  19. Evaluation of nasopharyngeal microbial flora and antibiogram and its relation to otitis media with effusion.

    Nourizadeh, Navid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Gharavi, Vahideh; Nourizadeh, Niloufar; Movahed, Rahman


    Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME) are the main causes of hearing impairment in children which require proper treatment, mainly antibiotic therapy. Patients whom were appropriate candidates for adenoidectomy were divided into two groups regarding the presence of middle ear effusion. Adenoid tissue specimens were cultured in both groups and the bacterial flora and anti-microbial resistance pattern were determined. 72 patients were studied, 42 % had OME while 58 % did not. The following bacteria were isolated and cultured from both groups with no meaningful difference in prevalence: Streptococcus viridans (p = 0.265), Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.72), H. influenza (p = 0.806), Entrococcus. spp (0.391), Streptococcus pneumonia (p = 0.391), nonhemolytic Streptococcus (p = 0.230). Bacterial sensitivity was similar for Amoxicillin-clavulanate (p = 0.935), Amoxicillin (p = 0.935), Cephalexin (p = 0.806), Cefixime (p = 0.391) and Azithromycin in both groups. The two groups showed no meaningful difference considering the bacterial flora of nasopharynx and their sensitivity. Bacteria in both groups were sensitive to Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanate and resistant to Azithromycin, Cefixime and Cephalexin. PMID:25929414




    Full Text Available Introduction. It is very important to know the resistant bacteria to common used antibiotics in our community. Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the main cause of infection in infectious disease. This study was done to demonstrate the pattern of resistance to batalactamase antibiotics among staphiococci. Methods. During a period of five month, 38 coagulase positive staphylococcus isolates were identified from various clinical specimens from 600 patients at the AI-Zahra university hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Results. Betalactamase production assays using rapid acidometric and iodometric tests showed that 78.9 percent and 73.6 percent of isolates were positive, respectively. The differnce in determination rate between acidometric and iodometric tests was not statistically significant. Moreover the acidometric test was cheaper and more easy to perform than iodometric test. In vitro sensitivity testing using the disc diffusion method showed that all of isolates were resistant to carbenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin, while 7.9 percent and 13.2 percent were resistant to cefazolin and cephalexin, respectively. Discussion. We recommend use of cefazolin, cephalexin and oxacillin for treatment of patients with staphylococcus infections.

  1. Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis: where are we now.

    Pathak, Himanshu; Marshall, Tarnya


    A 35-year-old man presented with polyarthritis and constitutional symptoms, and a recent history of multiple tick bites and skin rash on trekking holiday. He did not respond to oral doxycycline and cephalexine for presumed Lyme's disease. Further investigation confirmed strongly positive streptococcal serology. There was absence of clinical or echocardiography evidence of heart involvement and immunological screening for inflammatory arthritis was negative. In the absence of other major Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever, besides polyarthritis and the serological evidence of a recent streptococcal infection, a diagnosis of post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) was also made. He responded well to penicillin therapy and has been started on oral penicillin prophylaxis as per available guidance. As streptococcal infections in the adult population are increasingly reported, it is a timely opportunity to revisit PSRA, and develop comprehensive treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. PMID:27520996

  2. Characterization of rPEPT2-mediated Gly-Sar transport parameters in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT-0193 cl.2 cultured in basic growth media

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Frokjaer, Sven;


    added. The aim of the study was thus to characterize Gly-Sar transport parameters in SKPT cells cultured in basic growth media (conventional media without added agonists). Morphology was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and immunohistochemistry. Monolayer integrity was evaluated...... using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements and [(3)H]-mannitol permeabilities. Di-/tripeptide transporter activity was studied using [(14)C]-glycylsarcosine ([(14)C]-Gly-Sar). SKPT cells grown in basic media for 4 days formed confluent monolayers with a TEER of 5.03 +/- 0.33 (n = 5). Apical Gly-Sar uptake peaked after 3-6 days in culture. Uptake at day 4 was 5.89 +/- 0.30 (n = 3). Di-/tripeptide uptake displayed an optimum at approximately pH 6. Affinity values for cephalexin, kyotorphin, and delta-aminolevulinic acid were comparable to those...

  3. Isolation of Streptococci from Milk Samples of Normal, Acute and Subclinical Mastitis Cows and Determination of Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns

    Azizollah Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Streptococci are frequently isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy cows with only limited information available on the antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms. A total of 42 Streptococci isolated from 148 milk samples of normal, sub acute and acute bovine mastitis cases. Overall, 35% of the strains tested were Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae 26%, Streptococcus uberis 18 and 4% were Enterococcus sp. Differences between the number of isolations in acute and sub acute groups were statistically significant, (p<0.5. The antimicrobial susceptibility for these organisms was determined for the following antimicrobial agents: cephalexine, penicillin, clindamycin, cloxaciline, gentamicin, streptomycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin. S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and Enterococci demonstrated high level of resistance against streptomycin, penicillin and cloxaciline. Low level of sensitivity to other tested antimicrobials was demonstrated.

  4. EUM: impacto de la intervención educativa en el consumo de antibióticos en la seguridad social

    Desirée Sáenz Campos


    Full Text Available La Seguridad Social de Costa Rica desarrolla un programa de educación médica permanente que, en 1996, enfatizó el uso racional de antibióticos en clínicas y hospitales del país. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la intervención educativa en la prescripción de antibióticos. Diez unidades reportaron el consumo de cefalexina, amoxicilina y sulfa-trimetoprim (S-TMP en ambas presentaciones orales disponibles, tres meses antes y después de la visita (se incluyeron datos de dos unidades más, como control; para análisis, los resultados se uniformaron como dosis diaria definida (DDD. El consumo global fue de 46.58 DDD antes del módulo, y vario +1.76 durante los 3 meses siguientes. La prescripción de cefalexina mostró una disminución media de 13%, y la prescripción de S-TMP bajó un 14%; ambos descensos se registraron en el 70% de las unidades. Alternativamente, la prescripción de amoxicilina aumentó sistemáticamente, hasta un 32% como promedio. Por su parte, los controles mostraron un incremento sistemático en el consumo de los antibióticos: +12% para cefalexina y S-TMP, respectivamente; y +37% para amoxicilina. En conclusión, se demostró que el consumo de medicamentos es susceptible de modificación, especialmente en núcleos cerrados (atención ambulatoria. Asimismo, que la intervención educativa tuvo un impacto real en la prescripción de antibióticos de uso masivo. Y finalmente, se confirma que la educación médica permanente es útil para promover, continuamente, el uso racional de medicamentos.In 1996, the Costa Rican Social Security developped a Program of Medical Education to promote an intesive knowledge of antibiotics rational use in several health center. In order to evaluate the posible impact of educative intervention in antibiotics prescriptions, ten health centers of all visited reported consuption of cephalexin, amoxicilin and sulpha-metoxazol (S-TMP in both formulation avalable (pills and

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas spp. isolates from food in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel


    A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food. PMID:19382665

  6. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko


    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  7. Structure and function of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) and their relevance to drug therapy and personalized medicine.

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Kruck, Stephan; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias


    Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are membrane transporters mediating the excretion of organic cations and zwitterions into bile and urine and thereby contributing to the hepatic and renal elimination of many xenobiotics. Transported substrates include creatinine as endogenous substrate, the vitamin thiamine and a number of drug agents with in part chemically different structures such as the antidiabetic metformin, the antiviral agents acyclovir and ganciclovir as well as the antibiotics cephalexin and cephradine. This review summarizes current knowledge on the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including data on expression and localization in different tissues, important aspects on regulation and their functional role in drug transport. The role of genetic variation of MATE proteins for drug pharmacokinetics and drug response will be discussed with consequences for personalized medicine. PMID:27165417

  8. [Separation of bases, phenols and pharmaceuticals on ionic liquid-modified silica stationary phase with pure water as mobile phase].

    Wang, Xusheng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang


    N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid (IL) -modified silica was prepared with the reaction of 3-chloropropyl modified silica and N-methylimidazole using toluene as solvent. Based on the multiple interactions between N-methylimidazolium IL-modified silica and analytes such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic attraction, repulsion interaction, hydrogen-bonding, etc., the bases (cytosine, thymine, 2-aminopyrimidine and 6-chloroguanine), phenols (m-aminophenol, resorcinol and m-nitrophenol) and three pharmaceuticals (moroxydine hydrochloride, acyclovir and cephalexin hydrate) were separated successfully with only pure water as the mobile phase. These chromatographic separations are environmental friendly, economical and convenient, without any organic solvent or buffer additive. The retention mechanism of these samples on the stationary phase was also investigated. PMID:21657060

  9. Eyelid nonbullous impetigo

    Rafael Corredor-Osorio


    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of nonbullous impetigo of the eyelid. A 21-year-old woman had a painless eruptions right eyelid and around nostril. Clinical examination revealed eyelid nonbullous impetigo. The patient was otherwise healthy. Any minor trauma or skin problems there were not founded. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the lesions. Complete resolution was achieved with oral cephalexin an ointment tobramycin. Impetigo nonbullous occurs commonly on the face of children but it might be developed in healthy adults even those was not necessary evidenced previous trauma or dermal infiltrate with pus or any other active cutaneous injury as this case is demonstrated. The treatment of impetigo around the eye included a careful examination of the segment anterior and the application de topical measures with oral and topical antibiotics. The case is being reported in view of its rarity and unusual location.

  10. Interaction of Peptide Transporter 1 With D-Glucose and L-Glutamic Acid; Possible Involvement of Taste Receptors.

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Taichi; Ichiba, Kiko; Kamioka, Hiroki; Tomono, Takumi; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Idota, Yoko; Hatano, Yasuko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo


    We investigated the influence of sweet and umami (savory) tastants on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CEX), a substrate of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1, SLC15A1) in rats. After oral administration of glucose or mannitol to rats, CEX was administered together with a second dose of glucose or mannitol. Western blot analysis indicated that expression of PEPT1 in rat jejunum membrane was decreased by glucose, compared to mannitol. Furthermore, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of orally administered CEX was reduced by glucose compared to mannitol. The effect of glucose was diminished by nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. We also found that Cmax of orally administered CEX was reduced by treatment with L-glutamic acid, compared to D-glutamic acid. Thus, excessive intake of glucose and L-glutamic acid may impair oral absorption of PEPT1 substrates. PMID:26852864

  11. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin


    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  12. Species distribution and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from various clinical specimens

    Mohan U


    Full Text Available A study of 192 strains of Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS showed that Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species, 158 (82.29% isolated from all clinical specimens followed by S. saprophyticus (30, 15.62% isolated mainly from urine. Slime production was exhibited by 77 (48.7% strains of S. epidermidis and 8 (26.6% of S. saprophyticus and the difference in the slime producing activity was statistically significant (p<0.005. Antibiotic susceptibility testing against 15 commonly used antibiotics showed multidrug resistance with more than 90% resistance to penicillin, more than 50% to cephalexin and ciprofloxacin and more than 20% to methicillin, thus, highlighting the importance of species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing for clinical isolates of CONS.

  13. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Zakaria El Astal


    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  14. Cellulitis: diagnosis and management.

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Kroshinsky, Daniela


    Cellulitis is an acute infection of the dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin, often occurring after a local skin trauma. It is a common diagnosis in both inpatient and outpatient dermatology, as well as in the primary care setting. Cellulitis classically presents with erythema, swelling, warmth, and tenderness over the affected area. There are many other dermatologic diseases, which can present with similar findings, highlighting the need to consider a broad differential diagnosis. Some of the most common mimics of cellulitis include venous stasis dermatitis, contact dermatitis, deep vein thrombosis, and panniculitis. History, local characteristics of the affected area, systemic signs, laboratory tests, and, in some cases, skin biopsy can be helpful in confirming the correct diagnosis. Most patients can be treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, with dicloxacillin or cephalexin being the oral therapy of choice when methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is not a concern. PMID:21410612

  15. Fusion of bacterial spheroplasts by electric fields.

    Ruthe, H J; Adler, J


    Spheroplasts of Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium were found to fuse in an electric field. We employed the fusion method developed by Zimmermann and Scheurich (1981): Close membrane contact between cells is established by dielectrophoresis (formation of chains of cells by an a.c. field), then membrane fusion is induced by the application of short pulses of direct current. Under optimum conditions the fusion yield was routinely 90%. Fusable spheroplasts were obtained by first growing filamentous bacteria in the presence of cephalexin, then converting these to spheroplasts by the use of lysozyme. The fusion products were viable and regenerated to the regular bacterial form. Fusion of genetically different spheroplasts resulted in strains of bacteria possessing a combination of genetic markers. Fusion could not be achieved with spheroplasts obtained by growing the cells in the presence of penicillin or by using lysozyme on bacteria of usual size. PMID:3899175

  16. Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

    S. A. Hussein


    Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

  17. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    Shraim, Amjad


    The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides). The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city’s sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1) in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9), metformin (15.2), norfluoxetine (7.07), atenolol (2.04), and cephalexin (1.88). Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1) than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2), metformin (3.19), norfluoxetine (7.25), atenolol (0.545), and cephalexin (1.53). The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  18. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in Shiraz, Iran

    Aziz Japoni


    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19 to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended.

  19. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital,Indonesia

    Maksum; Radji; Siti; Fauziah; Nurgani; Aribinuko


    Objective:To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit(ICU) of a tertiary care of Falmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia.Methods:A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods,and(heir antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method.Results:Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment,of which 249(64.68%) were cultured positive and 136(35.32%) were negative.The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa)(26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae(K.pneumoniae)(15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis(14.9%).P.aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin(95.3%),cefotaxime(64.1%),and ceftriaxone(60.9%).Amikacin was the most effective(84.4%) antibiotic against P.aeruginosa followed by imipenem(81.2%),and meropenem(75.0%).K.pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin(86.5%),ceftriaxone(75.7%),ceftazidime(73.0%),cefpirome(73.0%) and cefotaxime(67.9%),respectively.Conclusions:Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins,and quinolone antibiotics.Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pallerns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  20. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in shiraz, iran.

    Japoni, Aziz; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jmalidoust, Marzieh; Farshad, Shohreh; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Rafaatpour, Noraladdin; Badiee, Parisa


    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA) pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19) to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended. PMID:24031530

  1. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of causative organisms of neonatal septicemia in an urban hospital of Bangladesh

    Forhad Monjur


    Full Text Available Background: The information of the sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms is very important for effective control of septicemia in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion and profile of pathogenic bacteria in the blood cultures of the neonates with clinically suspected septicemia and their susceptibility pattern to antimicrobial agents for developing a unified antibiotic treatment protocol. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted over a period of 3 year and 4 months (39 months. The study included 1000 patients admitted in the selected hospital in Bangladesh. Blood samples for culture were taken aseptically before starting antibiotic therapy. Microorganisms were isolated and identified by standard microbiological processes which include colony morphology, Gram stain, and biochemical profiles. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were performed by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion method against imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, netilmicin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, cefotaxime, cephalexin, and ampicillin. Results: Among the patients, 633 (63.3% were males and 367 (36.7% were females. Blood cultures were found positive in 194 (19.4% neonates. The organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (31.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%, Escherichia coli (7.2%, Acinatobactor (5.7%, Gram-negative Bacilli (4.1%, Flavobacterium spp. (3.6%, Serratia spp. (5.7%, Citrobacter fruendi (3.1%, Streptococcus species (2.6%, and Enterobacter spp. (1.0%. A majority of the bacterial isolates in neonatal sepsis were found sensitive to imipenem (91.8% and ciprofloxacin (57.2% and resistant to commonly used antibiotics, eg. ampicillin (96.4% and cephalexin (89.2%. Conclusion : The problem can be mitigated by careful selection and prudent use of available antibiotics.

  2. A clinico-bacteriological study of lacrimal regurgitate in cases of chronic dacryocystitis in a referral hospital in Madhya Pradesh

    Devendra Kumar Shakya


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic dacryocystitis is an inflammation of the lacrimal sac which usually occurs because of the obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to know its clinico-bacteriological profile. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out over a period of one year to know the current bacterial flora involved in chronic dacryocystitis. All specimens were processed for isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens according to the standard microbiological techniques. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among total 100 cases of chronic dacryocystitis, the highest percentage of infections in relation to age was noted in the age group of 50-60 years and the prevalence rate was higher in female patients compared with male. Out of total chronic dacryocystitis cases, 72% cases were found to be culture positive. Among positive culture, gram positive organisms were higher than that of Gram-negative. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated and Streptococcus pyogenes was least isolated. The highest percentage of positive samples was found in the mucopurulent discharge followed by extensive purulent and clear fluid, respectively. In Gram-positive isolates, chloramphenicol was the most sensitive followed by cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, cephalexin, vancomycin, gentamycin, and tobramycin, respectively, whereas in Gram-negative isolate, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were equally effective followed by ofloxacin, gentamycin, cephalexin, cefazolin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion: S. epidermidis was the most frequently isolated bacteria, and chloramphenicol was the most susceptible drug in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton


    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (P<0.05). Resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was greatest in the South-Central region (P<0.05). E. coli resistance may preclude empirical treatment with doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  4. Etiología y sensibilidad bacteriana en infección urinaria en niños. Hospital Infantil Club Noel y Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

    Iris de Castaño


    , cefadroxil, cephalexin, cephradine, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin–sulbactam, cephalothin and cefazolin. Conclusions: E. coli is the main cause of UTI in the pediatric population of Cali. Usual recommended antibiotic and antibacterial for UTI empiric therapy are cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfa, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. In accordance with the results in the present study resistance of bacteria to these medicaments was high. Antibiotics and antibacterials with better sensitivity were: cefuroxime, cefproxil, cefixime and nalidixic acid which the authors recommend for empiric oral therapy while the urine culture is in process and final results arrive. In spite of norfloxocin good sensitivity, its use should be reserved for especial cases where resistance to other antibiotics is found. If there is an indication for intravenous treatment, ceftriaxone or amikacin are recommended.

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

    Lavanya S


    Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.

  6. Spatial Patterning of Newly-Inserted Material during Bacterial Cell Growth

    Ursell, Tristan


    In the life cycle of a bacterium, rudimentary microscopy demonstrates that cell growth and elongation are essential characteristics of cellular reproduction. The peptidoglycan cell wall is the main load-bearing structure that determines both cell shape and overall size. However, simple imaging of cellular growth gives no indication of the spatial patterning nor mechanism by which material is being incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. We employ a combination of high-resolution pulse-chase fluorescence microscopy, 3D computational microscopy, and detailed mechanistic simulations to explore how spatial patterning results in uniform growth and maintenance of cell shape. We show that growth is happening in discrete bursts randomly distributed over the cell surface, with a well-defined mean size and average rate. We further use these techniques to explore the effects of division and cell wall disrupting antibiotics, like cephalexin and A22, respectively, on the patterning of cell wall growth in E. coli. Finally, we explore the spatial correlation between presence of the bacterial actin-like cytoskeletal protein, MreB, and local cell wall growth. Together these techniques form a powerful method for exploring the detailed dynamics and involvement of antibiotics and cell wall-associated proteins in bacterial cell growth.[4pt] In collaboration with Kerwyn Huang, Stanford University.

  7. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater

    Syed Zaghum Abbas


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater.

  8. Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activities of New Arylideneamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-(thio/dithio-acetamido Cephalosporanic Acids

    Shakir Mahmood Alwan


    Full Text Available New derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid 1–8 were synthesized by acylation of the 7-amino group of the cephem nucleus with various arylidinimino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-thio(or dithio-acetic acid intermediates 3a–d and 5a–d, respectively, so the acyl side chains of these new cephalosporins contained a sulfide or disulfide bond. This unique combination of a Schiff base with the sulfide or disulfide bonds in the acyl side chain afforded new cephalosporins of reasonable potencies, some of which were found to possess moderate activities against the tested microorganisms. Their chemical structures were characterized by ¹H-NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. Preliminary in vitro antimicrobial activities of the prepared cephalosporins were investigated using a panel of selected microorganisms. Results indicated that the newly synthesized cephalosporins containing disulfide bonds (compounds 5–8 exhibited better activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cephalosporins cross-linked by a sulfide bond (compounds 1–4 showed a slight change in antimicrobial activities when compared with that of the reference cephalosporin (cephalexin.

  9. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Marta C de Castillo


    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  10. An indirect conductimetric screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in bovine kidneys.

    Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Sipilä, Hannu; Nuotio, Lasse; Niemi, Anneli; Honkanen-Buzalski, Tuula


    An indirect conductimetric screening method using three test bacterium-medium combinations was developed for rapid detection of antibiotic residues in bovine carcasses. The detection time (DT), i.e. the point when the growth of the test bacterium was detected, was determined by observing the rate of change in the conductance plotted against time. This detection time averaged half of the reference time recorded by the instrument software. Total change in conductance (TC) was used as a further measure of growth. Threshold values for DT and TC were determined with inhibitor-free kidney samples. The presence of a residue was indicated if the DT exceeded the respective threshold value and was confirmed if the TC remained below the TC threshold value. The limits of detection (LODs) determined with fortified samples were at about or below the MRLs for cephalexin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, dihydrostreptomycin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and penicillin G. The LODs for penicillin G, oxytetracycline and the sum of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also estimated with incurred samples; these samples were also analysed using liquid chromatography. The LODs determined with fortified and incurred samples were in close agreement. Given its rapid detection, good sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics and ease of performance, the indirect conductimetric method developed here would seem to offer an appealing alternative to agar diffusion tests. PMID:12375852

  11. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian


    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk. PMID:27088652

  12. Bacterial Profile of Blood Stream Infection and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Isolates.

    Usha Arora, Pushpa Devi


    Full Text Available Blood samples from 2542 clinically diagnosed cases of septicemia were processed. Out of these 946(76.55% were from Pediatric Department and rest from other Departments. Growth was obtained in509(20.02% cases . Candida spp were isolated from 23 (4.57 cases Out of 486 bacterial isolates 52.67% were gram positive bacteria whereas 47.33% were gram negative bacilli . Staph aureus 133 (27.37%wasthe predominant organisms followed by CONS 98 (20.1%. Amongst gram negative organismsEnterobacter 69 (14.19 % was the most predominant followed by Esch coli 45 (9.27 % Pseudomonas 37(7.62 % and Acinetobacter spp 34 (6.69 %. Amongst gram positive organisms maximum resistancewas seen with ampicillin (74.61% and erythromycin (69.67 %. Most of the gram negative bacilli wereMDR (71%. Maximum resistance was observed with ampicillin (86.1% cephalexin (68.07% andpiperacillin (57.71%. Most successful drugs were amikacin,gentamicin and cefotaxime. 34.35% of theisolates were ESBL producers.

  13. Efficacy of Amitraz plus Metaflumizone for the treatment of canine demodicosis associated with Malassezia pachydermatis

    Cafarchia Claudia


    Full Text Available Abstract This case reports the efficacy of metaflumizone plus amitraz spot-on formulation (ProMeris Duo®; Fort Dodge against generalized demodectic mange. A two year-old male dog presented at clinical examination with poor general condition, diffused alopecia, crusted lesions, pruritus, skin scales and pustules. Demodex mites, Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts and bacteria were diagnosed. The dog was treated with cephalexin and topically with metaflumizone plus amitraz spot on formulation at two weeks intervals until two consecutive skin scrapings resulted negative for mites. The number of adult mites statistically decreased at follow-up with a reduction of approximately 42 and 94% at +14 and +28 days post treatment (p.t. respectively. Nymphs and larvae could not be detected from +28 day p.t. while eggs were no longer present +42 day p.t. The dog was negative for both bacteria and M. pachydermatis at 14 days p.t., coinciding with improved general clinical conditions, recovering skin lesions and no further signs of pruritus. These results show that metaflumizone plus amitraz associated with the antibiotic therapy is highly effective for treating generalized demodectic mange and could also be effective toward controlling M. pachydermatis opportunistic infections.

  14. Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts alone and in combination with different antimicrobials against multidrug-resistantPseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    Ghaleb Adwan; Bassam Abu-Shanab; Kamel Adwan


    Objective:To evaluate the possible in vitro interaction between ethanolic extracts ofRhus coriaria(R. coriaria) (seed),Sacropoterium spinosum(S. spinosum) (seed),Rosa damascena (R. damascene) (flower) and certain known antimicrobial drugs including oxytetracycline HCl, penicillin G, cephalexin, sulfadimethoxine as sodium, and enrofloxacin. This synergy study was carried out against 3 clinical strains of multidrug-resistantPseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa).Methods: Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using microdilution method.Results: The results of this study showed that there is a decrease in the MIC in case of combination of ethanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The most interesting result was that the combination betweenR. coriaria and these antibiotics, showed a high decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and a strong bactericidal activity against these strains.Conclusions: These results may indicate that combinations betweenR. coriaria extract and these antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistanceP. aeruginosa, which may due to thatR. coriaria extract contain natural inhibitors working by different mechanisms or inhibiting efflux pumps. Now we have experiments underway leading to the identification of the active molecules present inR. coriaria. Further,in vivo experiments are needed to confirm pseudomonal protection.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

    Mohammad Alshara


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.


    Alfonso Orta Ismary


    Full Text Available Introduction: Adverse reactions to antimicrobials in Cuba have taken place since 2003 to date, the first in the report of adverse reactions in general, as well as serious and fatal reactions, on the skin and schedules are the systems more affected. This research aimed to characterize the antibacterial dermatologic toxicities reported by the national coordinating pharmacovigilance unit from 2007 to 2009. Method: An observational study of Pharmacovigilance, descriptive and transversal using Spontaneous Reporting of Suspected Adverse Reaction database and the Cuban system of pharmacovigilance. Reports were analyzed for antibacterial dermatologic toxicities reported from 2007 through 2009, the primary endpoint was the dermatologic adverse effect reported. Results: A total of 3006 suspected adverse reactions to skin. Predominated in females (60.2% and in adults, 53.7%. The antibacterial associated with increased number of notifications were 18.5% RL penicillin, amoxicillin, cephalexin, 17.3% and 9.7%. Dermatological adverse events predominated were rash and urticaria. Moderate adverse effects predominated (64.4%, 87.5% were probable and 81.8% common. Conclusions: Adverse dermatologic antibacterial dominated by females and in adults. RL Penicillin was the drug most associated with adverse reactions. Moderate adverse reactions, probable and common were the more frequent in the study.

  17. Absorption of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and its enzymatic conversion to d-amphetamine

    Michael Pennick


    Full Text Available Michael PennickBiosciences Department, Shire Pharmaceutical Development Ltd, Basingstoke, UKAbstract: These studies investigated the absorption and metabolic conversion of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX, a prodrug stimulant that requires conversion to d-amphetamine for activity. Oral absorption of LDX was assessed in rat portal and jugular blood, and perfusion of LDX into isolated intestinal segments of anesthetized rats was used to assess regional absorption. Carrier-mediated transport of LDX was investigated in Caco-2 cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells expressing human peptide transporter-1 (PEPT1. LDX metabolism was studied in rat and human tissue homogenates and human blood fractions. LDX was approximately10-fold higher in portal blood versus systemic blood. LDX and d-amphetamine were detected in blood following perfusion of the rat small intestine but not the colon. Transport of LDX in Caco-2 cells had permeability apparently similar to cephalexin and was reduced with concurrent PEPT1 inhibitor. Affinity for PEPT1 was also demonstrated in PEPT1-transfected CHO cells. LDX metabolism occurred primarily in whole blood (rat and human, only with red blood cells. Slow hydrolysis in liver and kidney homogenates was probably due to residual blood. The carrier-mediated absorption of intact LDX, likely by the high-capacity PEPT1 transporter, and subsequent metabolism to d-amphetamine in a high-capacity system in blood (ie, red blood cells may contribute to the consistent, reproducible pharmacokinetic profile of LDX.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, LDX, prodrug, ADHD, absorption, Vyvanse

  18. Frequency and Susceptibility of Bacteria Caused Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates: Eight-Year Study at Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran Iran.

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri


    Full Text Available Susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI in neonate would potentially improve the clinical management by enabling clinicians to choose most reasonable first line empirical antibiotics. This study aimed to this end by studying isolated organisms from neonates with UTI in an inpatient setting.Current retrospective study has recruited all cases of neonatal UTI diagnosed through a suprapubic/catheterized sample, admitted to Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from June 2004 to June 2012.Escherichia coli was the dominant (64.4% bacteria among a total of 73 cases (69.9% boys and 30.1% girls; aged 14.14 ± 7.68 days; birth weight of 3055.85 ± 623.00 g and Enterobacter (19.2%, Klebsiella (12.3%, and Staphylococcus epidermdisis (4.1% were less frequent isolated bacteria. E. coli was mostly resistant to ampicillin (93.6%, cefixime (85.7% and cephalexin (77.3%, and sensitive to cefotaxime (63.6%. Enterobacter found to be most resistant to amikacin (100%, ampicillin (92.85%, and most sensitive to ceftizoxime (71.4%.A high ratio (> 92.85% of resistance toward ampicillin was observed among common neonatal UTI bacterial agents. Having this finding along with previous reports of emerging resistance of neonatal uropathogensto ampicillin could be a notion that a combination of a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside would be a more reasonable first choice than ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside.

  19. Expedient antibiotics production: Final report

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Byers, C.H.; Lee, D.D.


    The literature on the manufacture, separation and purification, and clinical uses of antibiotics was reviewed, and a bibliography of the pertinent material was completed. Five antimicrobial drugs, penicillin V and G, (and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), Cephalexin (a cephalosporin), tetracycline and oxytetracycline, Bacitracin (topical), and sulfonamide (chemically produced) were identified for emergency production. Plants that manufacture antibiotics in the continental United States, Mexico, and Puerto Rico have been identified along with potential alternate sites such as those where SCP, enzyme, and fermentation ethanol are produced. Detailed process flow sheets and process descriptions have been derived from the literature and documented. This investigation revealed that a typical antibiotic-manufacturing facility is composed of two main sections: (1) a highly specialized, but generic, fermentation unit and (2) a multistep, complex separation and purification unit which is specific to a particular antibiotic product. The fermentation section requires specialized equipment for operation in a sterile environment which is not usually available in other industries. The emergency production of antibiotics under austere conditions will be feasible only if a substantial reduction in the complexity and degree of separation and purity normally required can be realized. Detailed instructions were developed to assist state and federal officials who would be directing the resumption of antibiotic production after a nuclear attack. 182 refs., 54 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Development of a focused ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the determination of trace concentrations of Cr and Mn in pharmaceutical formulations by ETAAS.

    de Paula, Carlos Eduardo R; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S; Brum, Daniel M; Cassella, Ricardo J


    This paper reports the development of a new method for the focused ultrasound extraction of Cr and Mn from pharmaceutical formulations and their determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was optimized by evaluating the influence of several variables such as the sonication power and time, concentration of HCl in the extractant solution and mass of sample employed in the extraction procedure. The curves of pyrolysis and atomization were constructed for both analytes in order to evaluate the effect of the matrix on the measurement of Cr and Mn. Quantitative extraction of both Cr and Mn was achieved when 25-150 mg of the sample were sonicated for 30 min at 50% power with 5 ml of a 1 moll(-1) HCl solution. The developed method was successfully applied in the determination of Cr and Mn in samples of pharmaceutical formulations containing different active principles such as ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, azithromycin, amlodipine and methionine. There was no statistical (95% confidence level, paired t-test) difference between the results obtained by the proposed method and the results obtained after total digestion of the samples. PMID:23245262




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was performed on culture and sensitivit y of 6,951 urine samples, received in the Department of Microbiology, Christia n Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana from out patients and in patients having urinary tra ct infection (UTI .A total of 2,276 samples were found out to be culture positive, out of which 1,727 samples yielded gram negative organisms. Various isolates included 1,237 Escheric hia coli (E. coli, 262 Klebsiella pneumoniae,47 Acinetobacter lwoffi, 39 Proteus mirab ilis,39 Enterobacter aerogenes and 03 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extended spectrum beta lacta mase (ESBL production was studied in multidrug resistant E. coli. And Klebsiella pneumoni ae, out of which 28.29% E.coli and 30.53% Klebsiella pneumoniae yielded positive results. Our r esults suggest that the physician should be aware of high prevalence of ESBL producing E.coli and Klebsiella pneumonia which are the two common uropathogens, and should plan their therapy re gime accordingly. However, Acinetobacter species were mainly associate d with nosocomial UTI whereas Enterobacter species were isolated mostly from out pa tients. Various uropathogens causing community acquired as well as nosocomial UTI showed poor response to cephalexin whereas resistant strains from both types of UTI exhibited g ood susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactum combination.

  2. Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    Spencer, Jeanne P


    Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess. PMID:18819238

  3. Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the simultaneous analysis of β-lactams (four penicillins and eight cephalosporins) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Karageorgou, Eftichia G; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N


    The application of ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the confirmatory analysis of 12 β-lactam antibiotics in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection has been proposed herein. Four penicillins (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin) and eight cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefadroxil, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefazolin, cephalexin, and cefotaxime) are effectively extracted using a mixed sorbent of Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe technique and OASIS HLB providing a matrix free from any endogenous interference. Examined analytes were well resolved on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase of CH(3)COONH(4) (0.05 M) and acetonitrile delivered under a gradient program. 1,7-Dimethyl-xanthine was used as internal standard. The method was validated meeting the European Legislation determining linearity, selectivity, stability, decision limit, detection capability, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness according to the Youden approach. Recoveries of all antibiotics rated from 85.0 to 115.7%, while RSD values were <12.7%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to milk samples purchased from local market. PMID:22941669

  4. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Mahmoud A. Omar


    Full Text Available A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5–15 g mL−1 and 5–25 g mL−1 using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  5. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of certain cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Omar, Mahmoud A; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Attia, Tamer Z


    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes) methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5-15 mug mL(-1) and 5-25 mug mL(-1) using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:20140078

  6. Antibacterial susceptibility profiles of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated in Batna and Setif Governorates (East of Algeria

    Mamache Bakir

    Full Text Available Sub-clinical mastitis is a main pathology of dairy husbandry because it is not clinically recognized by the owners and the veterinarians. For this reason, its economic loss is usually underestimated in milk production. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of sub-clinicalmastitis in Batna and Setif governorates (East of Algeria. For this purpose, a detailed bacteriological study of all bacterial strains isolated from sub-clinical mastitis followed by a study of their antibacterial susceptibility profiles has been undertaken. 89 bacterial strains distributed as follows were studied: 27 strains of staphylococci among which 23 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS that are generally incriminated in sub-clinical mastitis. 39 strains of streptococci among which 10 were Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis strains. 23 strains of enterobacteria represented mainly by Escherichia coli (E.coli. All these bacterial strains were isolated from cow milk of 3 different farms. The antibacterial susceptibility profiles have revealed a susceptibility of the isolated strains to a large number of antibiotics mainly to the Neomycin, the Cephalexin and the Spiramycin. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 537-541

  7. [A case of psittacosis treated with rifampicin (author's transl)].

    Kanazawa, Y; Suga, S; Niwayama, S


    A 45-year-old male who had looked over pet-birds at a bird shop 11 days before, developed a high fever with chills. Without any response to cephalexin, he was admitted to the hospital, with the chief complaints of high fever and sever headache on the 8th day of illness. The chest X-ray films taken then revealed a fun-shaped ground glass-like shadow extending over S10 of the right lung. After the oral administration of 450 mg rifampicin on the 9th day of illness, he became a febrile within one day and was cured with the same daily doses for the following 10 days. Chlamydia was isolated from the peritoneal exudate of the mice inoculated with throat mucus of the patient taken prior to the administration of rifampicin. Complement fixation reaction for psittacosis was positive in a titer of 1 : 16 on the 11th day of illness and rose to 1 : 64 in a week. PMID:957515

  8. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici B14 in association with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for application in a soy based aerated symbiotic dessert

    Maria Carolina de Oliveira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici B14 and to study its resistance in the gastrointestinal system when combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and used in a potentially symbiotic aerated soy based dessert. P. acidilactici B14 showed some important probiotic characteristics such as survival rate of 45.9% at pH 2.5; 72.4% in 0.3% bile salts and 95.8% after gastrointestinal transit at pH 4.0. Tolerance against the antibiotics cephalexin, neomycin, vancomycin, cefotaxime and penicillin G was also observed. The strain inhibited antagonism against the following cultures: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus cereus ATCC 33018, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P and Salmonella sp. The mixed culture of P. acidilactici B14 with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showed a survival rate of 92.4% after the passage through the gastrointestinal system at pH 4.0. Furthermore, in the presence of the food matrix, an average increase in cell viability, after being subjected to the gastrointestinal system of 9.9% at pH 2.0 and 6.1% at pH 4.0, was observed. This characterized the adequacy of the associated culture as probiotic in the development of a functional food such as soy based aerated symbiotic dessert.

  9. Microbial infection and antibiotic patterns among intensive care unit patients in a tertiary hospital in Central Nepal

    RK Sanjana


    Full Text Available Aims The present study is a fundamental effort to evaluate the bacteriological and antibiotic patterns in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU setting in a tertiary care hospital. This study was carried out to guide the clinician in choosing the appropriate antibiotics and to prevent emergence of multidrug resistance bacteria. Materials and Methods Between March 2009 to Feb 2012, the samples from various ICUs that were submitted to the microbiology laboratory for culture and sensitivity were included in this study. All the organisms were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratory procedure and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disc diffusion methods. Result Of 3,780 specimens, 2,312 (61.1% isolates were recovered. Single organisms were isolated from 1,746 (75.5% samples while the remaining 566 (24.4% had two or more organisms isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate 819 (35.4%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 637 (27.5%. Antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that almost all isolates were resistant to cephalexin (97.8% and ciprofloxacin (80.3%. However (95.8% of the isolates were sensitive to tobramycin, (92.0% to meropenem & (74.80 % to amikacin. Conclusion It is concluded that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominate pathogen isolated from ICUs of this Hospital. Most of the frequently isolated pathogens are resistant to cephalosporins and quinolone antibiotics as compared to aminoglycosides and carbapenem. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pattern is very important for setting a guideline to the clinician in choosing an appropriate therapy of infected patients of ICUs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-3, 1-8 DOI:

  10. Investigations of multiresistance to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta: Lactamase effect (ESBL test in strains E.coli and salmonella originating from domestic animals

    Mišić Dušan


    Full Text Available The presence of multiresistance to the effects of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta-lactamase were examined in 45 strains of E. coli and 35 strains of Salmonella. The strains of E. coli originated from several species of domestic animals: dogs, cats, poultry, and cattle, and 30 strains of Salmonella originated from poultry, 4 strains from cattle, and 1 strain from swine. The presence of the following serovarieties was established using serological examinations: Salmonella Enteritidis 17 strains, Salmonella Gallinarum 1 strain, Salmonella Hartford 5 strains, Salmonella Anatum 1 strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4 strains, Salmonella Agona 1 strain, Salmonella Infantis 1 strain, Salmonella Thompson var. Berlin 1 strain, Salmonella Tennessee 1 strain, Salmonella Senftenberg 1 strain, Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain, and Salmonella Hadar 1 strain. In the examinations of the listed strains we used antibiogram discs of ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cephtriaxon, cephotaxim, cephtazidime, aztreonam, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cyprofloxacine, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. The lowest prevalence of multiresistance in E. Coli strains to 3 or more antibiotics was established in dogs 20%, and the highest in 60% strains originating from swine. In 62.88% strains of Salmonella we established sensitivity to all applied antibiotics. Resistance was also established in a small number of the examined strains to ampicillin (11 strains, to tetracycline (5 strains, to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (5 strains, to sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim (5 strains, to gentamycin (3 strains, and to cloramphenicol (1 strain. Of all the examined strains of Salmonella, 6 strains originating from poultry exhibited multiresistence. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase effects examined using the ESBL test, was not established in strains of E. coli and Salmonella strains.

  11. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

    M. N. Brahmbhatt


    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13


    A Moirangthem


    Full Text Available Objective: Infections of throat have a tremendous impact on public health. This present study aims to find out the bacterial load in throat infections as well as their susceptibility pattern in patients attending Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, Sikkim.Method: A total of 55 symptomatic patients having throat infections attended Central Referral Hospital Sikkim, among which 28 were males and 27 were females. A total of 55 throat swabs were collected from the patients with symptoms ofpharyngitis. Results: Out of 55 samples, culture was positive in 37 samples. Twenty one strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 13 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 1 strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 2 strains of Proteus spp. were isolated. The isolation rate of Staph.aureus was found to be statistically significant when compared between the isolation rate of Ps.aeruginosa, Stp. pyogenes and Proteus spp. 3 isolates of Staph. aureus were sensitive to penicillin, 1 isolate was moderately sensitive and 17 isolates were resistant. 12 strains of Staph.aureus were sensitive to methicillin. Methicillinresistant was seen in 9 strains of Staph. aureus. The strains of Stp. pyogenes isolated were either moderately sensitive or resistant to the used antibiotics, it was not sensitive to any of the used antibiotics. It was moderately sensitive to amoxiclave, clarithromycin, erythromycin and resistant toclindamycin and cefuroxime. 100% strains of Ps. aeruginosa were resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, piperacillin, ticarcillin, tobramycin and the strains were sensitive only to imipenem (100%. Further 100% strains of Proteus spp.were sensitive to cefuroxime, azithromycin, amoxicillinand cephalexin.Conclusion: Our study showed a high rate of monomicrobial infection. The controlof throat infections demands the availability of primary care and appropriate treatment.

  13. Molecular detection of Salmonella spp. isolated from apparently healthy pigeon in Mymensingh, Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance pattern

    Md. Khaled Saifullah


    Full Text Available Objectives: Here we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in cloacal swabs and pharyngeal swabs of apparently healthy pigeons sold in the live bird markets and villages in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 50 samples, comprised of cloacal swabs (n=24 and pharyngeal swabs (n=26 were collected. The samples were processed, and Salmonella was isolated through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques and biochemical tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The prevalence rate of Salmonella was found to be 37.5% (n=9/24 in cloacal swabs and 30.77% (n=8/26 in pharyngeal swabs with an overall prevalence rate of 34% (n=17/50. The prevalence rate of Salmonella pigeon varied slightly among locations; 34.62% (n=9/26 in live bird markets, and 33.33% (n=8/24 in villages. Molecular detection of 17 Salmonella isolates obtained from biochemical test was performed by genus specific PCR, where all of them amplified a region of 496-bp segment of the histidine transport operon gene. Antibiogram study revealed multi-drug resistant traits in most of the isolates tested. The highest resistance was found against Ampicillin (88.23% followed by Cephalexin (82.35%. The rate of sensitivity of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin was 100% followed by Azithromycin (82.35%, Gentamicin (76.47% and Nalidixic acid (76.47%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pigeons carry multi-drug resistant Salmonella that may transfer to the humans and animals. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 51-55

  14. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses

    Mojtaba Bonyadian


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb, heat labile toxin (LT and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1. Twelve out of 120 (10.00% isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66% isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00% strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN, trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX, oxytetracycline (OTC, gentamicin (GMN, cephalexin (CPN, nalidixic acid (NDA and nitrofurantoin (NFN, ampicillin (AMP, neomycin (NEO and streptomycin (STM. Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  15. Multi-residue enantiomeric analysis of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in environmental samples by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara


    Enantiomeric profiling of chiral pharmacologically active compounds (PACs) in the environment has hardly been investigated. This manuscript describes, for the first time, a multi-residue enantioselective method for the analysis of human and veterinary chiral PACs and their main metabolites from different therapeutic groups in complex environmental samples such as wastewater and river water. Several analytes targeted in this paper have not been analysed in the environment at enantiomeric level before. These are aminorex, carboxyibuprofen, carprofen, cephalexin, 3-N-dechloroethylifosfamide, 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine, dihydroketoprofen, fenoprofen, fexofenadine, flurbiprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen, ifosfamide, indoprofen, mandelic acid, 2-phenylpropionic acid, praziquantel and tetramisole. The method is based on chiral liquid chromatography utilising a chiral α1-acid glycoprotein column and tandem mass spectrometry detection. Excellent chromatographic separation of enantiomers (Rs≥1.0) was achieved for chloramphenicol, fexofenadine, ifosfamide, naproxen, tetramisole, ibuprofen and their metabolites: aminorex and dihydroketoprofen (three of four enantiomers), and partial separation (Rs = 0.7-1.0) was achieved for ketoprofen, praziquantel and the following metabolites: 3-N-dechloroethylifosfamide and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine. The overall performance of the method was satisfactory for most of the compounds targeted. Method detection limits were at low nanogram per litre for surface water and effluent wastewater. Method intra-day precision was on average under 20% and sample pre-concentration using solid phase extraction yielded recoveries >70% for most of the analytes. This novel, selective and sensitive method has been applied for the quantification of chiral PACs in surface water and effluent wastewater providing excellent enantioresolution of multicomponent mixtures in complex environmental samples. It will help with better understanding

  16. Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphy-lococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Ghaleb Adwan; Mohammad Mhanna


    Objective:This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between water extracts of Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis,Salvia fruticosa,Majorana syriaca,Ocimum basilucum,Syzygium aromaticum,Laurus nobilis,and Rosa damascena alone and then synergy testing of these extracts with known antimicrobial agents including oxytetracycline HCl,gentamicin sulfate,penicillin G,cephalexin and enrofloxacin.This study was conducted against five S.aureus isolates;one is Methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)and 4 Methicillin -sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).Methods:Evaluation of the interaction between plant extracts and different antimicrobial agents has been done using well -diffusion and microdilution methods. Results:The results of the conducted experiments using well -diffusion method demonstrate that these plants showed in vitro interactions between antimicrobial agents and plant extracts were additive,while using microdi-lution method showed synergistic effects with significant reduction in the MICs of the test antibiotics against these strains of S.aureus.This change in MIC was noticed in all plant extracts against test antibiotics inclu-ding these plants showed weak antibacterial activity by well diffusion method.Synergism effect was occurred in both sensitive and resistant strains but the magnitude of minimum fold reduction of inhibitory concentration in resistant strains especially MRSA strain was higher than the sensitive strains.Coclusion:This study probably suggests the possibility of concurrent use of these antimicrobial drugs and plant extracts in combination in trea-ting infections caused by S.aureus strains or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimi-crobial activity of these antibiotics.

  17. Antibiotic resistance pattern among the Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat in India.

    Singh, Shweta; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Tiwari, Suresh C; Singh, Himanshu


    The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 2008-2009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All the Salmonella isolates tested showed multiple drug resistance varying from 5.40% to 100% with 16 of the 25 antibiotics tested. None of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and metronidazole. Resistance was also observed against clindamycin (94.59%), ampicillin (86.49%), co-trimoxazole (48.65%), colistin (45.94%), nalidixic acid (35.10%), amoxyclave (18.90%), cephalexin, meropenem, tobramycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, amoxicillin (8.10% each), sparfloxacin and streptomycin (5.40% each). Isolates from clinical cases of animals were resistant to as many as 16 antibiotics, whereas isolates from human clinical cases and meat were resistant to 9 and 14 antibiotics, respectively. Overall, 19 resistotypes were recorded. Analysis of multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) indicated that clinical isolates from animals had higher MARI (0.25) as compared to isolates from food (0.22) and human (0.21). Among the different serotypes studied for antibiogram, Paratyhi B isolates, showed resistance to three to 13 antibiotics, whereas Typhimurium strains were resistant to four to seven antibiotics. Widespread multidrug resistance among the isolates from human, animal and meat was observed. Some of the uncommon serotypes exhibited higher resistance rate. Considerable changes in the resistance pattern were also noted. An interesting finding was the reemergence of sensitivity to some of the old antibiotics (chloromphenicol, tetracycline). PMID:21853412

  18. Topical retapamulin in the management of infected traumatic skin lesions

    Ribhi Shawar


    Full Text Available Ribhi Shawar1, Nicole Scangarella-Oman1, MaryBeth Dalessandro2, John Breton2, Monique Twynholm3, Gang Li4, Harmony Garges51Infectious Disease Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 2Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 3Infectious Diseases Medicine Development Centre Europe, GlaxoSmithKline, Greenford, Middlesex, UK; 4MDC BDS – Infectious Disease, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: Retapamulin is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic specifically designed for use as a topical agent. The unique mode of action by which retapamulin selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis differentiates it from other nonpleuromutilin antibacterial agents that target the ribosome or ribosomal factors, minimizing the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterial classes in current use. In vitro studies show that retapamulin has high potency against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and coagulase-negative staphylococci commonly found in skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs, including S. aureus strains with resistance to agents such as macrolides, fusidic acid, or mupirocin, and other less common organisms associated with SSSIs, anaerobes, and common respiratory tract pathogens. Clinical studies have shown that twice-daily topical retapamulin for 5 days is comparable to 10 days of oral cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions. A 1% concentration of retapamulin ointment has been approved for clinical use as an easily applied treatment with a short, convenient dosing regimen for impetigo. Given the novel mode of action, low potential for cross-resistance with established antibacterial agents, and high in vitro potency against many bacterial pathogens

  19. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli.

    Ferullo, Daniel J; Lovett, Susan T


    The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes upon arrest. Nucleoids of these cells are decondensed; in the absence of the ability to synthesize ppGpp, nucleoids become highly condensed, similar to that seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor chloramphenicol. After induction of the stringent response, while regions corresponding to the origins of replication segregate, the termini remain colocalized in wild-type cells. In contrast, cells arrested by rifampicin and cephalexin do not show colocalized termini, suggesting that the stringent response arrests chromosome segregation at a specific point. Release from starvation causes rapid nucleoid reorganization, chromosome segregation, and resumption of replication. Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact. We propose that DNA methylation and SeqA binding to non-origin loci is necessary to enforce a full stringent arrest, affecting both initiation of replication and chromosome segregation. This is the first indication that bacterial chromosome segregation, whose mechanism is not understood, is a step that may be regulated in response to environmental conditions. PMID:19079575

  20. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli.

    Daniel J Ferullo


    Full Text Available The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes upon arrest. Nucleoids of these cells are decondensed; in the absence of the ability to synthesize ppGpp, nucleoids become highly condensed, similar to that seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor chloramphenicol. After induction of the stringent response, while regions corresponding to the origins of replication segregate, the termini remain colocalized in wild-type cells. In contrast, cells arrested by rifampicin and cephalexin do not show colocalized termini, suggesting that the stringent response arrests chromosome segregation at a specific point. Release from starvation causes rapid nucleoid reorganization, chromosome segregation, and resumption of replication. Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact. We propose that DNA methylation and SeqA binding to non-origin loci is necessary to enforce a full stringent arrest, affecting both initiation of replication and chromosome segregation. This is the first indication that bacterial chromosome segregation, whose mechanism is not understood, is a step that may be regulated in response to environmental conditions.


    Yengkhom Rameshwor


    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in infants and children. The clinical manifestations of UTI are varied and the etiology of UTI and the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens have been changing over the past years, both in community and nosocomial infections. However, there are not much information on etiology and resistance pattern of community acquired UTIs in India. This study was designed and conducted in the department of Pediatrics, BVDU Medical college hospital, Pune during the per iod from July 2009 to August 2011 to study children from birth to 12 years of age presenting with their first UTI with respect to their age and sex distributions, clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters, uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 52 patients who attended our tertiary care centre. This study showed highest incidence of first UTI among infants with male preponderance among 5WBCs/mm 3 . E. coli was the commonest organism found in urine culture in all the age groups followed by CONS, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Maximum Sensitivity of E. coli was to Imipenem, Meropenem, Amikacin, Gatifloxacin and Nitrofurantoin. E. coli was found resistant to commonly used oral antibiotics like cotrimoxazole, ampicil lin, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefixime, cepodoxim. Most isolates of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Proteus were highly sensitive to Piperacillin - Tazobactum, Imipenem, Aminoglycosides, Fluroquinolones and Nitrofurantoin. Also, Klebsiella isolates were found se nsitive to third generation cephalosporins but Pseudomonas and Proteus isolates were resistant to it. CONS and Enterococci were highly sensitive to Co - amoxyclav, Ampicillin - sulbactum, Piperacillin - tazobactum, Imipenem, Amikacin and Gatifloxacin.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance of Urinary Tract Infection of Children Under 14 Years Admitted To The Pediatric Clinic of Imam Sajjad Hospital, 2012

    F Asadi Manesh F


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Urinary tract infection is the most common childhood infections after upper respiratory tract infection. Early diagnosis, proper treatment and appropriate patient follow-up can lead to a significant reduction in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection in children under 14 years admitted to the pediatric clinic of Imam Sajjad (AS Yasooj. Methods: Methods: In this cross-sectional study antibiotic sensitivity of 145 positive urine cultures were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Urine specimens were collected by suprapubic aspiration and catheterization urethral in children without urinary incontinence and Mid Stream Clean-Catch method. Data were analyzed by chi square test. Results: Among the patients were studied, 60.68% female and 39.31% were male. The most common cause of urinary tract infections in children, Escherichia coli (72.41%, followed by Klebsiella (34/10.34%. Antibiotic resistance patterns including ampicillin (85.51%, amoxicillin (/83.44%, cephalexin (69.65%, cephalothin (62.06%, cotrimoxazole (37.61%, nalidixic acid (44.82%, cefixime (24.37%, nitrofurantoin (36.55%, gentamicin (35.17%, ceftriaxone (28.27%, ciprofloxacin (26.89%, amikacin (25.51%, and cefotaxime (24.82% were respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections of children in Yasuj in 2012 was higher than previous years except for amikacin, But it was a remarkable increase in ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. The use of nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides is recommended for empirical treatment.

  3. Investigation of the antibacterial activity of pioglitazone

    Alzoubi KH


    Full Text Available Majed M Masadeh1, Nizar M Mhaidat2, Sayer I Al-Azzam2, Karem H Alzoubi21Department of Pharmaceutical Technology; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, JordanPurpose: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinediones class of drugs, against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria.Methods: Susceptibility testing was done using the antibiotic disk diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of pioglitazone was measured according to the broth micro incubation standard method.Results: Pioglitazone induced a dose-dependent antibacterial activity in which the optimal concentration was 80 µM. Furthermore, results indicated that while E. coli was sensitive (MIC = 31.25 ± 3.87 mg/L to pioglitazone-induced cytotoxicity, S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae were resistant (MIC = 62.5 ± 3.77 mg/L and MIC = 62.5 ± 4.14 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, pretreatment of bacteria with a suboptimal concentration of pioglitazone (40 µM before adding amoxicillin, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, or ciprofloxacin enhanced the antibacterial activity of all agents except co-trimoxazole. This enhancing effect was particularly seen against K. pneumoniae.Conclusion: These results indicate the possibility of a new and potentially important pioglitazone effect and the authors’ ongoing studies aim to illustrate the mechanism(s by which this antibacterial effect is induced.Keywords: pioglitazone, susceptibility testing, antibiotics, diabetes 

  4. Prescription pattern of antimicrobials in tertiary care hospital in central India

    Pallavi Dnyaneshwar Admane


    Full Text Available Objective: Antimicrobial agents are the greatest contribution to 20th century, which are used for cure and prevention of infections. Widespread use of antimicrobials has facilitated the development of resistance.Aim: the study was to assess the use of antimicrobials in tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra.Method: Prescription audit was done to assess the use of antimicrobials. Total 1942 prescriptions were analyzed for average number of drugs prescribed, antimicrobials prescribed by generic name or brand name, percentage of antibiotics among the prescribed drugs, use of fixed drug combinations, if any.Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed by percentage.Result: Demographic analysis showed that out of 1942 patients in OPD, most were male (56.38 and in the age group between 35 to 50 years.  In 1942 prescription, 30.25% drugs were antimicrobials. Three drugs were prescribed in 52.15% of the prescription, followed by 4 drugs in 19.78% prescriptions.  79.18% prescriptions were prescribed by generic name while 20.82% were prescribed by brand name. 29.18% of drugs were fixed dose combinations of all the antibiotics were prescribed empirically on the basis of provisional diagnosis. Of the total of antibiotics prescribed, amoxicillin was prescribed in 50.66% of patients, followed by cotrimoxazole in 26.05 % patients, cephalexin (8.50%   were used commonly.  Conclusion: The rational use of antimicrobial agents is one of the main contributors to control worldwide emergence of antibacterial resistance, side effects and reduced cost of the treatment.

  5. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro


    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5 %). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high

  6. The survey of bacterial etiology and their resistance to antibiotics of urinary tract infections in children of Birjand city

    Azita Fesharakinia


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial infections in childhood, which due to an inapproto determine the common bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility in children with urinary tract infection.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical and prospective study was done in 2009-2010 on urine samples of all children under 13 years who had been referred to Emmam-Reza hospital laboratory in Birjand and had positive urine culture. Sex and age of children, the kind of isolated bacteria in urine culture, susceptibility and resistance of these bacteria to current antibiotics were studied.The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS using Fisher exact- test.   Results: 100 children (84 girls and 16 boys with positive urine culture were studied. The most common age of urinary tract infection was under two years. In all ages the rate of urinary tract infection in females was more than males. E.coli was the most common cause in both sexes. There was a significant relationship between kind of microorganism and age of infection. The most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection in all ages was E.coli (75% ,infection by Proteus was 11%, and other microorganism caused 14% of the cases. E.coli had the most susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime and the most resistance to cephalexin and co-trimoxazol. Not taking the type of microorganism into consideration, the most sensitive antibiotics were ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefexim and nalidixic acid and the most resistance was against co-trimoxasol and cefalexin.   Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended to use cefexime and nalidixic acid for outpatient treatment of urinary infection , and ceftazidime and ceftriaxon for inpatient treatment.Selecting of antibiotics for urinary infection therapy should be based on the local prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on a universal guideline.

  7. 头孢氨苄工艺改进%The Improved Process of Cefalexin

    李文杰; 赵南; 胡文彩


    Cefalexin was synthesized and determined to open the route for the synthesis of cefalexin. 7 -aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid ( 7-ADCA ) was used as the starting material, after salt formation protection, condensed with the intermediate phthalic anhydride levorotatory ammonia acid ethyl Deng sylvite after protected, reacted in the five steps, cephalexin was synthesized. The total yield was 91%, and the product quality met the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010). This method increased the total yield, and the activated carbon in the aqueous phase was not activated after hydrolysis and extraction, reduced the activated carbon decolorization and filtration time, also shorten the production cycle, while reducing production costs.%通过对头孢氨苄合成工艺的研究,确定并打通了头孢氨苄的合成路线,以7-氨基-3-去乙酰氧基头孢烷酸(7-ADCA)为起始原料,经成盐保护后,与左旋苯酐氨酸乙基邓钾盐经保护后的中间体缩合,经五步反应,得到头孢氨苄。摩尔总收率91%,产品质量符合并且高于中国药典(2010版)的要求。本方法提高了总收率,并且在水解萃取分层后,在水相中不加活性炭,减少了活性炭脱色以及过滤的时间,也缩短了生产周期,同时降低了生产成本。

  8. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

    Mayon White Richard T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  9. An HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous determination of nine β-lactam antibiotics in ewe milk.

    Cámara, M; Gallego-Picó, A; Garcinuño, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P; Durand-Alegría, J S; Sánchez, P J


    The presence of β-lactam residues in foodstuffs constitutes a potential risk to the human health and undesirable effects on consumers, and nowadays these antibiotic residues are also recognised as an emerging environmental problem. In addition, these are of great concern to prestigious Manchego cheese processors (Central Spain denomination of origin) because they reduce the curdling of milk and cause improper cheese ripening, which consequently lead to an important loss of monetary income. This work describes the development of a sensitive and reliable method using liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection (LC-DAD) for simultaneous determination of the β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin (AMP), benzylpenicillin (PEG), cephalexin (CFX), cefazolin (CFL), cefoperazone (CFP), cloxacillin (CLO), dicloxacillin (DCL), oxacillin (OXA) and phenoxymethylpenicillin (PEV), in Manchega ewe milk. The column, mobile phase, temperature and flow rate were optimised to provide the best resolution of these analytes. The extraction method of the antibiotic residues involves the deproteinisation of the milk sample using acetonitrile and centrifugation followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up. The recoveries for the studied β-lactams ranged from 79% to 96% with relative standard deviations between 0.5% and 4.9%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for all these compounds were in the range of 3.4-8.6μgkg(-1), which are lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union for the studied β-lactams in milk, making the method suitable for performing routine analyses. The proposed multi-residue LC-UV-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method is a powerful and popular alternative for the determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in small milk industries and is the first one capable of determining nine β-lactam antibiotics in samples of Manchega ewe milk. PMID:23790854

  10. Streamlining methodology for the multiresidue analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in bovine kidney using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R


    A previously reported multiresidue method for the analysis of 11 important beta-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cloxacillin, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide (DCCD), deacetylcephapirin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, and penicillin G) in bovine kidney has been further streamlined. The method is based on a simple extraction using acetonitrile-water (4:1, v/v), followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up with C(18) sorbent, concentration of an extract aliquot, and filtration of the final extracts using syringeless filter vials, which are used for the sample introduction in the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The recoveries have been improved by adding the internal standard [(13)C(6)]sulfamethazine to the homogenized sample before the extraction step, which enabled a proper control of the volume changes during the sample preparation. Average recoveries of fortified samples were 87-103% for all beta-lactams, except for DCCD, which had an average recovery of 60%. Based on the results of the stability study and LC mobile phase tests, methanol has been eliminated from the entire method, including the LC-MS/MS analysis. The best overall LC-MS/MS (electrospray positive ionization) performance was achieved by using 0.1% formic acid as an additive in both parts of the mobile phase, in water and in acetonitrile. To prevent carry-over in the LC-MS/MS analysis, the LC method was divided into two parts: one serving as an analytical method for injection of the sample and elution of the analytes and the other one, starting at a highly organic mobile phase composition, being dedicated for injection of a solvent, washing of the system, and equilibration of the column to the initial conditions of the analytical method. In this way, a blank solvent is injected after each sample, but these in-between injections contribute minimally to the overall sample throughput. PMID:18656204

  11. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    Hartman-Adams, Holly; Banvard, Christine; Juckett, Gregory


    Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas. Both types usually resolve within two to three weeks without scarring, and complications are rare, with the most serious being poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Treatment includes topical antibiotics such as mupirocin, retapamulin, and fusidic acid. Oral antibiotic therapy can be used for impetigo with large bullae or when topical therapy is impractical. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides are options, but penicillin is not. Natural therapies such as tea tree oil; olive, garlic, and coconut oils; and Manuka honey have been anecdotally successful, but lack sufficient evidence to recommend or dismiss them as treatment options. Treatments under development include minocycline foam and Ozenoxacin, a topical quinolone. Topical disinfectants are inferior to antibiotics and should not be used. Empiric treatment considerations have changed with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, macrolide-resistant streptococcus, and mupirocin-resistant streptococcus all documented. Fusidic acid, mupirocin, and retapamulin cover methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and streptococcal infections. Clindamycin proves helpful in suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole covers methicillin-resistant S

  12. Wound infections on board ship--prevention, pathogens, and treatment.

    Dahl, Eilif


    Wounds are common in seafarers and they can easily become infected in the marine environment. Pre-sea tetanus immunization is essential. Without diagnostic facilities and only a limited range of antibiotics onboard, injury prevention and early treatment to reduce the likelihood of infection are important measures. Suturing clean cuts reduces healing time and risk of infection. Fresh, clean cuts, especially on the face or head, can be closed by adhesive tape or sutures, but if infection arises, then one or more sutures should be removed to enable drainage. Most wounds must be considered contaminated and should not be closed, just covered with sterile dressing after cleaning. Antibiotic treatment should be started immediately in seafarers with hand and puncture wounds. The primary treatment for a simple abscess is incision and drainage. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for abscesses if the infection spreads to the surrounding tissue (associated cellulitis), if there is lack of response to incision and drainage alone, or if the abscess is in an area difficult or dangerous to drain (e.g. face, palm, genitalia). Recommended therapy for cellulitis is 5-10 days of dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, or erythromycin, but if there is no improvement after 2-3 days, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) should be suspected. Bites and burn wounds require special attention. Since wound infections can deteriorate rapidly, a telemedicine advice service (TMAS) should be consulted during the early stages, and serial digital photographs of the affected area, transmitted by e-mail to TMAS, are often useful during treatment at sea. PMID:22258845

  13. Use of antibiotics in ambulatory care patients and at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases

    Stefan-Mikić Sandra


    Full Text Available Introduction Optimal pharmacotherapy includes utilization of the right drug at the right time, right duration of therapy and adequate dosage. This study analyzed utilization of antimicrobial drugs at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad and in outpatients of the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman. Material and methods Utilization of anti-infective agents was examined according to Anatomic-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification (group J. Drug utilization data were presented in Defined Daily Doses at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad in Defined Daily Doses per 100 bed-days, and in the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman in Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants per day. Results At the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad penicillins susceptible to beta-lactamase were established as most frequently used (39.33% namely: benzylpenicillin (32.18%, quinolone antibacterial agents ciprofloxacin (12.44% and cephalosporins, cephalexin (8.25%. In the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman most frequently used were extended-spectrum penicillins (24.20% namely tetracyclines, doxycycline (18.98%, amoxicillin (18.27%, macrolides roxithromycin (17.56%. At the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad the decision on using antibiotics and establishing whether it was bacterial or virus infection in 92.13% cases was made on the basis of following analyses: throat and nasal swabs, urine culture, virus complement-binding reaction. In Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman it was done only in 18.46%. Conclusion Although treatment performed based on clinical picture and experience usually proves to be correct, antibiotic prescription policy should include antibiograms to provide optimal treatment and decrease the degree of resistance. Thus medicine would be

  14. Salmonella enteritidis and antibiotic resistance patterns: a study on 1950 children with diarrhea

    Saeed Eshraghi


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Salmonellosis is a bacterial gasteroenteritis caused by different serovars of Salmonella. In the recent years, Salmonella enterica subspecies. Enterica serovar enteritidis is a major cause of gastroenteritis and food poisoning in the worldwide.  Different genus of salmonella is increasingly being resistant to common antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica isolated from medical health centers in Tehran. "n"nMethods: In this descriptive cross- sectional study from April to December 2008, 1950 fecal specimens from children with diarrhea were cultivated to identify Salmonella enteritidis. We used Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI protocol to determine resistance patern of the isolates to 16 different antibiotics. "n"nResults: In this study, out of 26 isolates 14(54% were S. enteritidis, 2(8% S. para B, 6(23% S. para C, 3(11% S. arizonea and 1(4% S. para A. all of them were sensitive to ceftazidime, cephalexin, cefotaxime, ceftiraxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and colistin sulfate. All of the isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin whereas 71.4% of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  15. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Thamires Martins


    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  16. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 as adjuvant treatment of inflammatory mammary carcinoma in a dog

    Simone Domit Guérios


    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2,3]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of a 10%-20% concentration of Calcarea carbonica, Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album, Asa foetida, Conium maculatum, Ipecacuanha, Phosphorus, Rhus tox, Silicea, Sulphur, and Thuya occidentalis, all in decimal dilutions of Hahnemann in distilled water and submitted to vigorous shaking. Aim: Describe an association of M8 and piroxicam (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat a dog with IMC. Discussion: A 7 years old, mixed breed intact female dog was presented to the Federal University of Parana - Veterinary Hospital, Curitiba (HV-UFPR for mammary glands examination. The owners related inflammation of mammary glands with clinical course of approximately 10 days, which was treated for mastitis (cephalexin and metergoline without clinical improvement. Clinical examination revealed erythema, increased skin warmth, pain on palpation, and plaque involving the 4th and 5th right mammary glands. Abdominal ultrasound and serum biochemistry were unremarkable. Thoracic radiographs showed suspicious images of pulmonary metastasis. Fine needle biopsy was taken for cytologic examination. Cytological interpretation was a malignant epithelial neoplasm, probably a mammary carcinoma. Diagnosis of IMC was based on clinical signs and cytopathology. Dog was treated with oral (0.5 mL and topical M8 twice a day for 15 days, and pyroxican, 0.3mg/kg, PO, q24h. Clinical improvement was observed 7 days after starting

  17. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    Aburjai Talal A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  18. Separation of bases,phenols and pharmaceuticals on ionic liquid-modified silica stationary phase with pure water as mobile phase%咪唑离子液体键合硅胶固定相纯水洗脱分离碱基、酚类和药物化合物

    王旭生; 邱洪灯; 刘霞; 蒋生祥


    采用N-甲基咪唑和氯丙基咪唑反应的方法制备得到了离子液体键合硅胶固定相,并利用该固定相中的咪唑环阳离子和被分析物之间存在的多重作用机理如疏水作用、静电吸引和排斥及氧键作用等,以纯水作为流动相,成功地分离了碱基(胞嘧啶、胸腺嘧啶、2-氨基嘧啶和6-氯鸟嘌呤)、酚类化合物(间氨基酚、间苯二酚和间硝基酚)以及3种药物化合物(盐酸吗啉呱、阿昔洛韦和头孢氨苄).采用没有添加任何有机溶剂和缓冲液的纯水作流动相,既绿色环保,又节约经济,简单方便.对该固定相分离这些化合物的保留机理做了探讨.%N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid(IL)-modified silica was prepared with the reaction of 3-chloropropyl modified silica and N-methylimidazole using toluene as solvent. Based on the multiple interactions between N-methylimidazolium IL-modified silica and analytes such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic attraction, repulsion interaction, hydrogen-bonding,etc., the bases (cytosine, thymine, 2-aminopyrimidine and 6-chloroguanine ), phenols (m-aminophenol, resorcinol and m-nitrophenol) and three pharmaceuticals (moroxydine hydrochloride, acyclovir and cephalexin hydrate) were separated successfully with only pure water as the mobile phase. These chromatographic separations are environmental friendly, economical and convenient, without any organic solvent or buffer additive. The retention mechanism of these samples on the stationary phase was also investigated.

  19. Finding of coagulase negative staphylococci in the herd with an increased number of somatic cells in milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility

    Katić Vera


    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens. Controlling CNS mastitis is difficult because the epidemiology is not clear, and the CNS group consists of about 40 different Staphylococcus species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by mastitis test. From 52 udder quarters where mastitis test showed an increase of somatic cells, milk samples were taken for bacteriological examination. For isolating the causes of mastitis there was used blood agar. Identification of the causative agents of mastitis was carried out on the basis of colony appearance on blood agar and their physiological characteristics. Coagulasepositive staphylococci sensitivity which cause mastitis was tested by Kirby Bauer method. For susceptibility testing there were used commercially produced discs containing: 10 IU penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 +10 μg, cloxacillin 25 μg, 30 μg amoxicillin, cephalexin 30 μg, ceftiofur 30 μg, 15 μg lincomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline 30 μg. The sensitivity of microorganisms was evaluated on the basis of inhibition zone diameter recommended by the manufacturer and was labeled as sensitive (S moderately sensitive (I or resistant (R. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 61.53% of samples from cows with subclinical mastitis, making them the most common cause of subclinical mastitis. The highest resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to penicillin G (58.33% of isolates. Full sensitivity of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100% of

  20. Prevalence of blaCTX-M gene in multi-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Urinary Tract Infections, Tehran, Iran

    Mehdi Goudarzi


    Full Text Available Background:The emergence and increase in the incidence of Extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli has become an emerging challenge especially in hospitalized patients with UTI. The aim of the present study was to survey the frequency of bla CTX-M genotype in ESBL producing E. coli isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI and determination of their antibiotic resistance pattern.Material and methodsA total of 135 E. coli isolates were collected from isolated from patients with UTI. The isolates were subjected to confirmatory phenotype tests for the presence of ESBL. 75 E. coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL-positive by means of the Double disc synergy test. In vitro susceptibility of ESBL isolates to 15 antimicrobial agents amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, nitrofourantoin, amikacin and imipenem was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s Disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012 guideline. PCR method was used to identify bla CTX-M gene in 75 ESBL positive strains.Results:PCR and sequence analysis showed that 75 (55.5% isolates produced bla CTX-M genes. In vitro susceptibility of ESBL producing E. coli showed that all of them were resistant to amoxicillin and penicillin and The rates of resistance to the majority of tested antibiotics varied between 61% to 100 %, with the exception of amikacin (14.7% and imipenem (2.7%. Our results showed that the frequency of bla CTX-M was strikingly high (93.3%.Conclusion:These data confirmed that the frequency of bla CTX-M genes were high among E. coli isolated from patients with UTI. The trend of multidrug-resistant profile has been associated with bla CTX-M gene is alarming. Therefore, it is very important to establish a routine screening of ESBL in clinical isolates to prevent dissemination of resistant isolates in health

  1. 新型高效液相色谱流动相手性添加剂法拆分头孢氨苄对映体%Separation of Cefalexin Enantiomers by a New Chiral HPLC Mobile Phase Additives

    沈静茹; 王伟; 余学红; 蔡薇; 张祎; 刘武林


      用双[-6-氧-(3-脱氧柠檬酸单酯-4)]-β-环糊精为手性流动相添加剂,以有机弱酸的形式和三乙胺组成缓冲体系,在高效液相色谱(HPLC)中实现了头孢氨苄对映体的手性拆分.结合碳18硅胶键合(ODS-BP)柱为固定相,该缓冲液与不同比例乙腈混合形成流动相,考察了流动相配比、pH值、手性流动相添加剂浓度等因素对头孢氨苄2对对映体手性分离的影响.结果表明:在pH 8.8,流速0.6 mL/min,检测波长310 nm,添加剂浓度为5.0 mmol/L缓冲液的最佳条件下,可实现头孢氨苄4个对映异构体色谱峰的基线分离,最佳条件下4峰中相邻两峰分离度Rs 分别为3.41、5.34和8.93.%Using bis-[6-oxygen-(3-deoxycitric acid monoester-4)]-β-cyclodextrin as the chiral HPLC mobile phase additive, an organic weak acid(β-cyclodextrin derivative) and triethylamine as buffer system, enantioseparation of cefalexin enantiomers was achieved. Based on an ODS-BP column stationary phase and a mixed mobile phase of acetonitrile and the additive-triethylamine buffer, the effects of the ratio of mobile phase, pH value and the concentration of the chiral additive concentration on the separation of cephalexin 2 enantiomers were discussed. The results showed that under the optimum conditions:pH8. 8, 0. 6mL/min flow rate, ultraviolet detection wavelength of 310 nm, additive concentration of 5. 0 mmol/L, baseline separation of 4 peaks of cefalexin enantiomers could be obtained, with the Rs of adjacent peaks being 3. 41, 5. 34 and 8. 93,respectively.

  2. 头孢氨苄与相似化合物头孢羟氨苄的拉曼光谱比较%Comparison of Raman Spectrum of Cefalexin and Its Similitude Cefadroxil

    李萍; 尹利辉; 张雁


    目的:比较分析头孢氨苄及其相似化合物头孢羟氨苄的拉曼光谱,对结构特征相关性进行分析和探讨.方法:采用傅里叶拉曼光谱仪、显微拉曼光谱仪及便携式拉曼光谱仪对头孢氨苄进行光谱检测,并对相似化合物头孢羟氨苄进行了傅立叶拉曼光谱检测.结果:在3台不同的拉曼仪的3种不同的激发光光源的激发下,头孢氨苄的大部分特征峰的峰位基本一致,但相对峰强却有区别;头孢氨苄与头孢羟氨苄的傅立叶拉曼光谱存在一定的差异,体现了化学结构差异与拉曼光谱差异的相关性.结论:拉曼光谱相对峰强的差异反映了激发光对不同基团或骨架结构的选择性激发.该法简单、快速、可靠、专属性强,可实现自动识别,对样品无损,有望成为药品日常监督中一种有效的鉴别手段.%Objective: To compare the differences of Raman spectrum of cefalexin and its similitude cefadroxil to explore the structural property relationship. Method: Cefalexin was detected using a Fourier Raman spectrometer,a micro-Raman spectrometer and a portable Raman spectrometer,and cefadroxil was studied using a Fourier Raman spectrometer. Result: The major characteristic peaks of cefalexin were basically consistent under the three different excitation light sources in the three different Raman spectrometer, while the relative intensity of the characteristic peaks showed difference. There were differences in the Fourier Raman spectrum of cephalexin and cefadroxil,suggesting the correlation of chemical structure and Raman spectrum. Conclusion: The differences in the relative intensity of Raman characteristic peaks reflect the selective excitation of the source to different groups and skeleton structure. The method is reliable, rapid, accurate and specific with automatic identification and without sample damage, and may be an effective identification method in the daily inspection.

  3. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 casesEtiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira


    Full Text Available A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12.35%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8% were the most common microorganisms identified. The isolates were susceptible mainly to norfloxacin (89.62%, gentamicin (83.25%, and ofloxacin (80.16%. High occurrence of resistance of isolates was observed to neomicin (30.84% and cephalexin (27.63%. Multiple drug resistance to three or more and five or more of antimicrobials tested was observed in 34.9% and 15.5% of isolates, respectively. The cases of canine otitis occurred predominantly in first years of age, in mixed breeds animals, at autumn season. The presence of itch, bad smell, and secretion in ear conduct were the major signs observed at clinical examination. Estudo retrospectivo da etiologia, perfil de sensibilidade microbiana, ocorrência de multirresistência dos isolados e os principais aspectos epidemiológicos foram investigados em 616 casos de otite canina. Staphylococcus ? hemolítico (26,27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12,35% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8,8% foram os micro-organismos mais frequentes. Os isolados foram sensíveis “in vitro” principalmente a norfloxacina (89,62%, gentamicina (83,25% e ofloxacina (80,16%. Alta ocorrência de resistência das linhagens foi observada frente à neomicina (30,84% e cefalexina (27,63%. A ocorrência de resistência múltipla a três ou mais e cinco ou mais dos antimicrobianos foi observada em, respectivamente, 34,9% e 15,5% dos isolados. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente nos primeiros anos de idade, em animais sem raça definida, no período do outono. A presença de prurido, mau cheiro e secreção no conduto auditivo foram os principais sinais observados ao exame clínico.

  4. Comparative study on pharmacokinetics of Cephradine in diabetic and normal rats

    LIANG Jun; FU Ting; HAN Guo-zhu; LU Li


    Objective To study effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on pharmacokinetics of cephradine (CED) by comparing the difference in pharmacokinetic behaviours of CED between diabetic and normal rats. Methods DM was induced in male rats by a single iv injection of alloxan 60 mg·kg-1; rats whose blood glucose was over 16 mmol·L-1 were taken as DM group. The rats were divided into DM group and normal control (CTL) group, which were subdivided into low dose (90 mg·kg-1) and high dose (180 mg·kg-1) subgroups. CED was administered by iv or po routes. Blood samples collected at different time post dosing were analyzed by RP-HPLC to yield CED plasma concentration time course. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 column (250×4.6 mm ID, 5 μm);mobile phase, consisting of 0.025 mol·L-1 KH2PO4-MeOH-CH3CN (87; 6 : 7 v/v), was delivered at 1.0 mL·min-1; UV detector was set at 261 nm.The peak area ratio of CED to cephalexin (CEX) as internal standard vs concentraion of CED was used to construct calibration curve. 50 μL aliquots of TCA-deproteined plasma samples were injected into chromatograph. Results The methodology validation including specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, stability, etc., showed that the HPLC assay developed by us completely met requirements of pharmacokinetic study Both DM and CTL groups showed the two-compartment model for iv dosing and extravascular one-compartment model for po dosing as well as first-order kinetics. However, in iv experiment, DM group, when compared with CTL group, presented a significantly shortened t1/2β and MRT as well as increased CL, reflected by t1/2β 84-91 vs 116-120 min, MRT 61-70 vs 103-119 min;CL 23-25 vs 18-19 mL·min-1·kg-1(P<0.05);in po experiment, a markedly shorter t1/2 K and tmax as well as greater CL and Cmax in DM group than in CTL group were found; meanwhile, DM rats suffered from remarkably increased kidney weight (KW) and KW/BW ratio relative to CTL rats

  5. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    Pyörälä Satu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39% responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308, dogs (n = 989 and cats (n = 311. For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%, followed by dry-cow therapy (21%, subclinical mastitis (6% and treatment for acute enteritis (4%. The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459, benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379, while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%. Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%, followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%. Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful

  6. Juvenile cellulitis in a puppy – case reportsCelulite juvenil canina – relato de casos

    Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves


    Full Text Available Juvenile cellulitis or juvenile sterile granulomatous lymphadenitis is a rare disorder that affects puppies between three weeks to six months years old. Clinical signs include alopecia, edema, papules, pustules and crusts especially on eyelids. Definitive diagnosis requires cytological and histological evaluation and early and aggressive therapy is recommended, once scars after recovery can be severe .The choice treatment is the high dose of corticosteroids use such as prednisone. Three animals of canine species were attended at the Veterinary Hospital Clinical Small Animal Service presenting different clinical signs. Hemogram, skin lesions and submandibular lymph nodes cytological examination was collected and analyzed. The treatment was instituted, using cephalexin (22mg/kg, twice daily up to control of secondary bacterial infection, and prednisone (2mg/kg, once a day until clinical resolution. Complete cure was obtained at the end of treatment. The aim of this work is to report three clinical cases of juvenile cellulitis in dogs. A celulite juvenil ou linfadenite granulomatosa estéril juvenil, é um distúrbio raro que acomete filhotes com idade entre três semanas a seis meses. Os sinais clínicos incluem alopecia, edema, pápulas, pústulas e crostas especialmente em pálpebras. O diagnóstico definitivo requer exames citológico e histopatológico e a terapia precoce e agressiva é preconizada, pois as cicatrizes após recuperação podem ser graves. O tratamento de escolha consiste no uso de altas doses dos glicocorticoides, como prednisona. Foram atendidos no Hospital Veterinário, três animais da espécie canina, apresentando sinais clínicos variados. Foram realizados hemograma, exame citológico das lesões de pele e dos linfonodos submandibulares. O tratamento foi instituído, utilizando-se cefalexina na dose de 22 mg/kg, duas vezes ao dia, até controle de infecção bacteriana secundária e prednisona na dose de 2mg/kg, uma vez

  7. Estabelecimento de protocolo para micropropagação de Lippia gracilis Schauer Establishment of protocol for Lippia gracilis Schauer micropropagation

    M.J.M Marinho


    onto MS medium plus plant growth regulators in order to establish the best dose for the development of explants. Due to high levels of contamination, the effect of cephalexin was evaluated. Although the antibiotic decreased the bacterial contamination, the percentage of oxidation was high. Then, activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and half the salts of MS were tested for their effectiveness to control oxidation. In conclusion, the used antibiotic concentration resulted in oxidation of explants. Furthermore, plant growth regulators and antioxidant methods did not show consistent results for a better development of explants and control of oxidation, respectively.

  8. A Semi-Selective agar medium to detect the presence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in naturally infected cotton seed Meio semi-selectivo para detectar a presença de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum em sementes de algodoeiro naturalmente infetadas

    Yeshwant R Mehta


    Full Text Available A semi-selective agar medium was developed for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum seed. The basic medium was peptone-sucrose-agar (PSA. Criteria for the semi-selective medium were the typical colony characters of Xam and its pathogenicity on cotton. Several systemic fungicides and antibiotics in different concentrations were tested alone or in combination with others. The final composition of the semi-selective agar medium was established after several attempts in order to inhibit most of the fungal and bacterial saprophytes and favour the development of Xam. It contained PSA + cyclohexamide, cephalexin, pencycuron, triadimenol and tolylfluanid. The bacteria were recovered from naturally infected seeds by the direct plating of 2,000 surface disinfected seeds on the semi-selective medium. The recovery of the pathogen from naturally infected leaf tissues and in dilution plating, on semi-selective medium and on nutrient agar, were comparable. Among the three detection methods tested, the semi-selective medium was found to be the most reliable and quantifiable. Degree of severity of angular leaf spot in the field was not always correlated with the level of infection in the seed. This is the first report of a semi-selective agar medium to detect the presence of Xam in naturally infected cotton seed.Um meio de cultura semi-seletivo foi desenvolvido para detectar Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam em sementes do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum. O meio básico foi peptona-sacarose-ágar (PSA. Os critérios para o meio semi-seletivo foram; as características típicas das colônias de Xam e sua patogenicidade em algodoeiro. Vários fungicidas sistêmicos e antibióticos foram testados sozinhos ou em combinação com outros em diferentes concentrações. A composição final do meio semi-seletivo foi estabelecida após várias tentativas no sentido de inibir a maioria dos fungos e bact

  9. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N


    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with the

  10. 社区医院门急诊抗菌药物应用情况调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Antibiotic of Community Hospital

    刘焱; 杜淑贤


    Objective: The purpose of our center in 2009 on the application of antimicrobial agents were analyzed in order to promptly identify problems, to better promote the hospital's scientific management and rational antimicrobial agents in clinical use. Method: January to December in 2009, Centre for Emergency Department a total of 47,578 electronic prescriptions, the number of prescriptions with antibiotics, the use of antibiotic type and quantity of sales amount of DDDs ( DDDs ), average daily costs ( DDDc ) value, etc. statistical analysis. Result: Antibiotic prescription 10952, 23.02% of the total number of prescriptions, involving a total of seven classes of antibiotics 36 species; antibacterial drug sales amount to the total amount of medicine sales 31.04%; which eephalosporins antibiotics annual retail sales exceeded 38% of the retail value, dominant; DDDs sort of gatifloxacin capsules, cephradine capsules and cephalexin capsules of the top three. Conclusion:The center basically rational use of antimicrobial drugs, but still need attention to their security, to further enhance the level of rational drug use.%目的:对我社区卫生服务中心2009年抗菌药物应用情况进行统计分析,以便及时发现问题,更好地促进医院的科学管理和抗菌药物在临床的合理使用.方法:收集2009年1月至12月中心门急诊电子处方共47578张,对含抗菌药物的处方数、所用抗菌素种类和数量、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs) 、日均费用(DDDc)值等进行统计分析.结果:使用抗菌药物处方10952张,占总处方数的23.02%,涉及抗菌药物共7类36种;抗菌药销售金额占西药销售总金额的31.04%;其中头孢菌素类零售金额超过全年抗菌药物零售金额38%,占主导地位;DDDs排序中加替沙星胶囊、头孢拉定胶囊和头孢氨苄胶囊居前3位.结论:我社区卫生服务中心使用抗菌药物基本合理,但仍需重视其安全性,进一步提高合理用药水平.

  11. 白内障术前结膜囊菌群分布和药敏试验研究%The Research about the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery

    牛梅民; 张小娟; 黄怀洁; 李克勤; 廖忠; 杨怡; 陈振南; 陈琼志


    目的 探讨白内障术前结膜囊细菌种类和药物敏感情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 对白内障术前205例(205眼)结膜囊采集标本进行细菌培养,观察培养阳性的细菌对常用抗菌药物的敏感性变化.结果 细菌培养阳性26例(26眼),阳性率为12.68%.白内障患者术前结膜囊主要细菌构成为革兰阳性球菌(96.15%),其中以表皮葡萄球菌为主(69.23%),其次为溶血性葡萄球菌、产色葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌;革兰阴性杆菌为洋葱假单胞菌.大多数细菌对万古霉素、阿米卡星、替考拉宁、克林霉素、莫匹罗星、呋喃妥因、吗啉唑酮敏感,耐药性小于20%,普遍对氨苄西林、四环素、头孢西丁、苯唑西林、红霉素明显耐药(68.0%以上).结论 表皮葡萄球菌是白内障术前结膜囊存在的最常见条件致病菌,预防感染或抗感染可以选用阿米卡星、克林霉素、呋喃妥因等常用抗菌药物.%Objective To research the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery,base on this research,provide the basis for clinical medication.Methods Collect Conjunctival sac of 205 eyes from 205 cases and make germiculture,observe the movement of positive Gram' s sensibility which effect by common antibacterial.Results There were 26 eyes with cultured positive Gram from 205 case,the ratio of positive was 12.68%.The preoperative conjunctival sac of cataract patients was mainly made up of Gram positive bacteria(96.15%),and most of them were Staphylococcus epidermidi(69.23%),there were also Staphylococcus haemolyticus,Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus saprophyticus,Gram negative bacilli was the Pseudomonas cepaci.Most of grams were sensitive to Vancomycin,Amikacin,Teicoplanin,Clindamycin,Mupirocin,Furadantin and Morpholine trazodone,the tolerance was less than 20%,and they usually had higher tolerance to Cephalexin Penicillin

  12. Evaluation of the Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test for the detection of antibiotics in ewe and goat milk.

    Beltrán, M C; Romero, T; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P


    The Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects β-lactam or tetracycline drugs in raw commingled cow milk at or below European Union maximum residue levels (EU-MRL). The Charm MRL BLTET test procedure was recently modified (dilution in buffer and longer incubation) by the manufacturers to be used with raw ewe and goat milk. To assess the Charm MRL BLTET test for the detection of β-lactams and tetracyclines in milk of small ruminants, an evaluation study was performed at Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Animal of Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain). The test specificity and detection capability (CCβ) were studied following Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Specificity results obtained in this study were optimal for individual milk free of antimicrobials from ewes (99.2% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) and goats (97.9% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) along the entire lactation period regardless of whether the results were visually or instrumentally interpreted. Moreover, no positive results were obtained when a relatively high concentration of different substances belonging to antimicrobial families other than β-lactams and tetracyclines were present in ewe and goat milk. For both types of milk, the CCβ calculated was lower or equal to EU-MRL for amoxicillin (4 µg/kg), ampicillin (4 µg/kg), benzylpenicillin (≤ 2 µg/kg), dicloxacillin (30 µg/kg), oxacillin (30 µg/kg), cefacetrile (≤ 63 µg/kg), cefalonium (≤ 10 µg/kg), cefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), desacetylcefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), cefazolin (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefoperazone (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefquinome (20 µg/kg), ceftiofur (≤ 50 µg/kg), desfuroylceftiofur (≤ 50µg/kg), and cephalexin (≤ 50 µg/kg). However, this test could neither detect cloxacillin nor nafcillin at or below EU-MRL (CCβ >30 µg/kg). The

  13. Ectopia renal cruzada con fusión, reflujo vesicoureteral y riñón ectópico afuncional:: informe de un caso Crossed renal ectopia with fusion, vesicoureteral reflux and dysfunctional ectopic kidney:: A case report

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez


    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un niño cuyo ultrasonido materno-fetal de la semana 20 de la gestación no detectó alteraciones, pero el de la semana 23,6 mostró un riñón pélvico derecho. A los 22 días de nacido el ultrasonido renal mostró un riñón derecho de tamaño y posición normal y dilatación pélvica moderada, e inmediatamente por debajo del polo inferior de éste, un bolsón hidronefrótico que parecía corresponder a una ectopia renal cruzada con hidronefrosis grave. El padre padeció reflujo vesicoureteral derecho que desapareció espontáneamente. A pesar de la profilaxis con cefalexina, hubo una infección urinaria que se trató satisfactoriamente con ceftriaxona. Investigaciones ultrasonográficas y radioisotópicas arrojaron la existencia de una anomalía congénita dada por dilatación pélvica no obstructiva del riñón derecho, ectopia renal cruzada con fusión del riñón izquierdo afuncional y reflujo vesicoureteral bilateral, de grado II del riñón derecho y de grado V del izquierdo ectópico cruzado. A los 11 meses de edad se le realizó una lumbotomía y se comprobó la fusión del bolsón hidronefrótico con el polo inferior del riñón derecho. Se resecó el bolsón y se realizó una ligadura baja del uréter.This is the case of a child whose maternal-fetus ultrasound (US at twenty weeks pregnancy not detected alterations, but at the 23, 6 weeks it showed the presence of a right pelvic kidney. At twenty two days the renal US showed a right kidney with a normal size and location as well as a moderate pelvic dilation and immediately beneath its lower pole a hydronephrosis big sac in correspondence with a crossed renal ectopia with severe hydronephrosis. His father had right vesiculorectal reflux disappeared spontaneously. Despite the prophylaxis with Cephalexin there was a urinary infection adequately treated with Cephtriaxone. Ultrasonography and radioisotope researches demonstrated the presence of a congenital anomaly

  14. 1株鸽源鸡杆菌复合群3的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of one pigeon-origin Gallibacterium genomo sp3

    杨晓林; 陈英; 余松城; 邹年莉; 吴瑞婷; 夏静; 牛婷; 王富妍; 黄勇


    .This disease had caused great economic losses to the pigeon farm.In order to propose a proper treatment program for this disease,representative samples were collected from disease pigeons for bacteria isolation and virus detection. The bacteria were isolated by blood agar and were identified by following test:morphological observation, biochemical identification,animal experiment,antibiotic sensitive experiment,1 6S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Animal experiments were conducted by infecting mice and pigeons to observe its pathogenicity.For the virus detection,the nucleotide sequences of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV),avian influenza virus subtype (H 9 N2) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that NDV was detected from the lung and trachea of some sick pigeons,and one bacterial strain was isolated from the livers and lungs of sick pigeons and named as SC01.The SC01 strain was gram-negative (G-),short rod-shaped bacteria.It was pathogenic to mice,and the median lethal dose to mice was 1.26 × 10 9 CFU/mL.Biochemical test showed that it can ferment most sugars and alcohols.Sensitive drug screen revealed that the SC01 strain was sensitive to ceftriaxone sodium,cefoperazone sodium,florfenicol,cephalexin,cefazolin,and resistant to neomycin,streptomycin,erythromycin,sulfafurazole,etc.The 1 6S rRNA gene sequence of the SC01 strain was blasted in GenBank,and the results showed that the nucleotide sequence homologies of SC01 and Gallibacterium ,Pasteurella , Haemophilus ,Actinobacillus were relatively high. The 1 6S rRNA nucleotide sequence homologies of SC01 and four G.genomo sp.3 strains were 98.5% 99.5%,and the highest homology (99.5%) came from the comparison between the sequences of SC01 and EU423996.Phylogenetic analysis showed that SC01 strain and nine Gallibacterium strains formed an independent big branch in phylogenetic tree.The SC01 strain and G. genomo sp. 3 fell into the same small branch. Meanwhile, Pasteurella , Haemophilus and