Centroid finding method for position-sensitive detectors
Radeka, V.; Boie, R.A.
1979-10-01
A new centroid finding method for all detectors where the signal charge is collected or induced on strips of wires, or on subdivided resistive electrodes, is presented. The centroid of charge is determined by convolution of the sequentially switched outputs from these subdivisions or from the strips with a linear centroid finding filter. The position line width is inversely proportional to N/sup 3/2/, where N is the number of subdivisions.
A new Initial Centroid finding Method based on Dissimilarity Tree for K-means Algorithm
Kumar, Abhishek; Gupta, Suresh Chandra
2015-01-01
Cluster analysis is one of the primary data analysis technique in data mining and K-means is one of the commonly used partitioning clustering algorithm. In K-means algorithm, resulting set of clusters depend on the choice of initial centroids. If we can find initial centroids which are coherent with the arrangement of data, the better set of clusters can be obtained. This paper proposes a method based on the Dissimilarity Tree to find, the better initial centroid as well as every bit more acc...
Liu, Yuan
2016-01-01
In Liu (2015), we propose selecting binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) candidates using the centroid shift of the images, which is induced by the non-synchronous variations of the two nuclei. In this paper, a known binary AGN (SDSS J233635.75-010733.7) is employed to verify the ability of this method. Using 162 exposures in the $R$ band of \\textit{Palomar Transient Factory} (PTF), an excess of dispersion in the positional distribution of the binary AGN is detected, though the two nuclei cannot be resolved in the images of PTF. We also propose a new method to compare the position of the binary AGN in PTF $g$ and $R$ band and find the difference is highly significant even only with 20 exposures. This new method is efficient for two nuclei with different spectral energy distributions, e.g., type I + type II AGN or off-set AGN. Large-scale surveys, e.g., the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, are expected to discover a large sample of binary AGN candida...
Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes
Moysés Nascimento
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.
Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method of star image of star tracker
Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Ershuai; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jingjin; Qin, Tianmu
2015-11-01
The energy distribution of an actual star image coincides with the Gaussian law statistically in most cases, so the optimized processing algorithm about star image centroiding should be constructed also by following Gaussian law. For a star image spot covering a certain number of pixels, the marginal distribution of the gray accumulation on rows and columns are shown and analyzed, based on which the formulas of Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method (GAC) are deduced, and the robustness is also promoted due to the inherited filtering effect of gray accumulation. Ideal reference star images are simulated by the PSF (point spread function) with integral form. Precision and speed tests for the Gaussian Analytic formulas are conducted under three scenarios of Gaussian radius (0.5, 0.671, 0.8 pixel), The simulation results show that the precision of GAC method is better than that of the other given algorithms when the Gaussian radius is not bigger than 5 × 5 pixel window, a widely used parameter. Above all, the algorithm which consumes the least time is still the novel GAC method. GAC method helps to promote the comprehensive performance in the attitude determination of a star tracker.
Electronic lifetime measurements with a Ge(Li) detector using the centroid-shift method
The centroid-shift method was applied to lifetime measurements using a pulsed beam. A time-centroid spectrum and a mean-life spectrum were created automatically with a minimum of human interference. The method is illustrated with the 98Mo(α,3n)99Ru reaction, in which an isomeric state in 99Ru was found. (Auth.)
Star sub-pixel centroid calculation based on multi-step minimum energy difference method
Wang, Duo; Han, YanLi; Sun, Tengfei
2013-09-01
The star's centroid plays a vital role in celestial navigation, star images which be gotten during daytime, due to the strong sky background, have a low SNR, and the star objectives are nearly submerged in the background, takes a great trouble to the centroid localization. Traditional methods, such as a moment method, weighted centroid calculation method is simple but has a big error, especially in the condition of a low SNR. Gaussian method has a high positioning accuracy, but the computational complexity. Analysis of the energy distribution in star image, a location method for star target centroids based on multi-step minimum energy difference is proposed. This method uses the linear superposition to narrow the centroid area, in the certain narrow area uses a certain number of interpolation to pixels for the pixels' segmentation, and then using the symmetry of the stellar energy distribution, tentatively to get the centroid position: assume that the current pixel is the star centroid position, and then calculates and gets the difference of the sum of the energy which in the symmetric direction(in this paper we take the two directions of transverse and longitudinal) and the equal step length(which can be decided through different conditions, the paper takes 9 as the step length) of the current pixel, and obtain the centroid position in this direction when the minimum difference appears, and so do the other directions, then the validation comparison of simulated star images, and compare with several traditional methods, experiments shows that the positioning accuracy of the method up to 0.001 pixel, has good effect to calculate the centroid of low SNR conditions; at the same time, uses this method on a star map which got at the fixed observation site during daytime in near-infrared band, compare the results of the paper's method with the position messages which were known of the star, it shows that :the multi-step minimum energy difference method achieves a better
Comparison of performance of some common Hartmann-Shack centroid estimation methods
Thatiparthi, C.; Ommani, A.; Burman, R.; Thapa, D.; Hutchings, N.; Lakshminarayanan, V.
2016-03-01
The accuracy of the estimation of optical aberrations by measuring the distorted wave front using a Hartmann-Shack wave front sensor (HSWS) is mainly dependent upon the measurement accuracy of the centroid of the focal spot. The most commonly used methods for centroid estimation such as the brightest spot centroid; first moment centroid; weighted center of gravity and intensity weighted center of gravity, are generally applied on the entire individual sub-apertures of the lens let array. However, these processes of centroid estimation are sensitive to the influence of reflections, scattered light, and noise; especially in the case where the signal spot area is smaller compared to the whole sub-aperture area. In this paper, we give a comparison of performance of the commonly used centroiding methods on estimation of optical aberrations, with and without the use of some pre-processing steps (thresholding, Gaussian smoothing and adaptive windowing). As an example we use the aberrations of the human eye model. This is done using the raw data collected from a custom made ophthalmic aberrometer and a model eye to emulate myopic and hyper-metropic defocus values up to 2 Diopters. We show that the use of any simple centroiding algorithm is sufficient in the case of ophthalmic applications for estimating aberrations within the typical clinically acceptable limits of a quarter Diopter margins, when certain pre-processing steps to reduce the impact of external factors are used.
Statistical analysis of x-ray stress measurement by centroid method
The X-ray technique allows a nondestructive and rapid measurement of residual stresses in metallic materials. The centroid method has an advantage over other X-ray methods in that it can determine the angular position of a diffraction line, from which the stress is calculated, even with an asymmetrical line profile. An equation for the standard deviation of the angular position of a diffraction line, σsub(p), caused by statistical fluctuation was derived, which is a fundamental source of scatter in X-ray stress measurements. This equation shows that an increase of X-ray counts by a factor of k results in a decrease of σsub(p) by a factor of 1/√k. It also shows that σsub(p) increases rapidly as the angular range used in calculating the centroid increases. It is therefore important to calculate the centroid using the narrow angular range between the two ends of the diffraction line where it starts to deviate from the straight background line. By using quenched structural steels JIS S35C and S45C, the residual stresses and their standard deviations were calculated by the centroid, parabola, Gaussian curve, and half-width methods, and the results were compared. The centroid of a diffraction line was affected greatly by the background line used. The standard deviation of the stress measured by the centroid method was found to be the largest among the four methods. (author)
Generalized centroid shift method for lifetime measurements in heavy ion reactions
Andrejtscheff, W.; Senba, M.; Tsoupas, N.; Ding, Z.Z. (Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)
1982-12-15
An application of the generalized centroid shift method for lifetime measurements in the nano-second and subnanosecond region in HI reactions on the Rutgers tandem is described. Delayed ..gamma gamma..-coincidence measurements using plastic scintillators (start) and a germanium detector (stop) are discussed. Details of the analysis including treatment of the time background (random coincidences) and the choice of range of analysis of the time distributions are considered.
P. Phani Bushan Rao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Ranking fuzzy numbers are an important aspect of decision making in a fuzzy environment. Since their inception in 1965, many authors have proposed different methods for ranking fuzzy numbers. However, there is no method which gives a satisfactory result to all situations. Most of the methods proposed so far are nondiscriminating and counterintuitive. This paper proposes a new method for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the Circumcenter of Centroids and uses an index of optimism to reflect the decision maker's optimistic attitude and also an index of modality that represents the neutrality of the decision maker. This method ranks various types of fuzzy numbers which include normal, generalized trapezoidal, and triangular fuzzy numbers along with crisp numbers with the particularity that crisp numbers are to be considered particular cases of fuzzy numbers.
Ringler, Todd D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gunzburger, Max [FLORIDA STATE UNIV; Ju, Lili [UNIV OF SOUTH CAROLINA
2008-01-01
During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multi-resolution schemes that are able, at least regional to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of robust, multi-resolution climate system component models, SCVTs allow for the generation of high quality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function, each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean. Idealized examples are developed for ocean-ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear shallow-water equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multi-resolution method and the challenges ahead.
An improved Q estimation approach: the weighted centroid frequency shift method
Li, Jingnan; Wang, Shangxu; Yang, Dengfeng; Dong, Chunhui; Tao, Yonghui; Zhou, Yatao
2016-06-01
Seismic wave propagation in subsurface media suffers from absorption, which can be quantified by the quality factor Q. Accurate estimation of the Q factor is of great importance for the resolution enhancement of seismic data, precise imaging and interpretation, and reservoir prediction and characterization. The centroid frequency shift method (CFS) is currently one of the most commonly used Q estimation methods. However, for seismic data that contain noise, the accuracy and stability of Q extracted using CFS depend on the choice of frequency band. In order to reduce the influence of frequency band choices and obtain Q with greater precision and robustness, we present an improved CFS Q measurement approach—the weighted CFS method (WCFS), which incorporates a Gaussian weighting coefficient into the calculation procedure of the conventional CFS. The basic idea is to enhance the proportion of advantageous frequencies in the amplitude spectrum and reduce the weight of disadvantageous frequencies. In this novel method, we first construct a Gauss function using the centroid frequency and variance of the reference wavelet. Then we employ it as the weighting coefficient for the amplitude spectrum of the original signal. Finally, the conventional CFS is adopted for the weighted amplitude spectrum to extract the Q factor. Numerical tests of noise-free synthetic data demonstrate that the WCFS is feasible and efficient, and produces more accurate results than the conventional CFS. Tests for noisy synthetic data indicate that the new method has better anti-noise capability than the CFS. The application to field vertical seismic profile (VSP) data further demonstrates its validity5.
Schomaker, Lambertus; Mangalagiu, D.; Vuurpijl, Louis; Weinfeld, M.; Schomaker, Lambert; Vuurpijl, Louis
2000-01-01
This paper describes treebased classification of character images, comparing two methods of tree formation and two methods of matching: nearest neighbor and nearest centroid. The first method, Preprocess Using Relative Distances (PURD) is a treebased reorganization of a flat list of patterns, desi
A recently developed centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) sampling method is investigated here to assess its suitability for use in statistical sampling applications. CVT efficiently generates a highly uniform distribution of sample points over arbitrarily shaped M-dimensional parameter spaces. On several 2-D test problems CVT has recently been found to provide exceedingly effective and efficient point distributions for response surface generation. Additionally, for statistical function integration and estimation of response statistics associated with uniformly distributed random-variable inputs (uncorrelated), CVT has been found in initial investigations to provide superior points sets when compared against latin-hypercube and simple-random Monte Carlo methods and Halton and Hammersley quasi-random sequence methods. In this paper, the performance of all these sampling methods and a new variant ('Latinized' CVT) are further compared for non-uniform input distributions. Specifically, given uncorrelated normal inputs in a 2-D test problem, statistical sampling efficiencies are compared for resolving various statistics of response: mean, variance, and exceedence probabilities
A walk-free centroid method for lifetime measurements with pulsed beams
A delayed-coincidence lifetime measurement method based on a comparison of walk-free centroids of time spectra is presented. The time is measured between the cyclotron RF signal and the pulse from a plastic scintillation detector followed by a fixed energy selection. The events to be time-analyzed are selected from the associated charge-particle spectrum of a silicon detector which is operated in coincidence with the scintillator, i.e., independently of the formation of the signal containing the time information. With this technique, with the micropulse FWHM of typically 500 to 700 ps, half-lives down to the 10 ps region can be measured. The following half-lives are obtained with the new method: 160+-6 ps for the 2032 keV level in 209Pb; 45+-10 ps and 160+-20 ps for the 1756.8 keV (02+) and 2027.3 keV (03+) levels in 116Sn, respectively. (author)
Localization Methods of Weighted Centroid of dBZ on Weather-Radar Echo Maps in Vector Format
Xue-tao Yu
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Fast generation of weather-radar echo maps in vector format and accurate localization of weighted centroid of dBZ (dBZ stands for decibels of reflectivity of a radar signal reflected off a remote object are the basis of studying the characteristic tracking algorithms which are based on the vector echoes. The authors principally studied the approach to generating the vector echo map, and discussed the localization methods of weighted centroid of dBZ on vector echo maps. First, based on the traditional calculation method on raster echo data, some new localization methods of weighted centroid of dBZ on vector echo data were proposed by considering the weights of features’ area and distance from their location to radar center. Second, taking the base reflectivity products of CINRAD/SA weather radar in Meizhou city of China as data sources, they illustrated the storage structure of this type of echo data and studied the drawing mode of changing this type of data into vector format files under the polar coordinate system in detail. Third, using the same vector echo maps created by the above method, the weighted centroid of the same area was calculated by the above localization methods. In the end, Compared with the calculated value of the same area by traditional method which is based on raster echo maps, the three new calculated results and the sources of error were analyzed in detail and two conclusions were drawn: the echo’s precision in vector format is much higher than that in raster format and it is more accurate to take the features’ area and distance to radar center as weights during the calculation of weighted centroid of dBZ on echo maps in vector format.
Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University
2008-01-01
During the next decade and beyond, climate system models will be challenged to resolve scales and processes that are far beyond their current scope. Each climate system component has its prototypical example of an unresolved process that may strongly influence the global climate system, ranging from eddy activity within ocean models, to ice streams within ice sheet models, to surface hydrological processes within land system models, to cloud processes within atmosphere models. These new demands will almost certainly result in the develop of multiresolution schemes that are able, at least regionally, to faithfully simulate these fine-scale processes. Spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellations (SCVTs) offer one potential path toward the development of a robust, multiresolution climate system model components. SCVTs allow for the generation of high quality Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations through the use of an intuitive, user-defined density function. In each of the examples provided, this method results in high-quality meshes where the quality measures are guaranteed to improve as the number of nodes is increased. Real-world examples are developed for the Greenland ice sheet and the North Atlantic ocean. Idealized examples are developed for ocean–ice shelf interaction and for regional atmospheric modeling. In addition to defining, developing, and exhibiting SCVTs, we pair this mesh generation technique with a previously developed finite-volume method. Our numerical example is based on the nonlinear, shallow water equations spanning the entire surface of the sphere. This example is used to elucidate both the potential benefits of this multiresolution method and the challenges ahead.
Régis J.-M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method for direct electronic “fast-timing” lifetime measurements of nuclear excited states via γ-γ coincidences using an array equipped with N very fast high-resolution LaBr3(Ce scintillator detectors is presented. The generalized centroid difference method provides two independent “start” and “stop” time spectra obtained without any correction by a superposition of the N(N – 1/2 calibrated γ-γ time difference spectra of the N detector fast-timing system. The two fast-timing array time spectra correspond to a forward and reverse gating of a specific γ-γ cascade and the centroid difference as the time shift between the centroids of the two time spectra provides a picosecond-sensitive mirror-symmetric observable of the set-up. The energydependent mean prompt response difference between the start and stop events is calibrated and used as a single correction for lifetime determination. These combined fast-timing array mean γ-γ zero-time responses can be determined for 40 keV < Eγ < 1.4 MeV with a precision better than 10 ps using a 152Eu γ-ray source. The new method is described with examples of (n,γ and (n,f,γ experiments performed at the intense cold-neutron beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France, using 16 LaBr3(Ce detectors within the EXILL&FATIMA campaign in 2013. The results are discussed with respect to possible systematic errors induced by background contributions.
Christine Laurendeau
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Increasingly ubiquitous wireless technologies require novel localization techniques to pinpoint the position of an uncooperative node, whether the target is a malicious device engaging in a security exploit or a low-battery handset in the middle of a critical emergency. Such scenarios necessitate that a radio signal source be localized by other network nodes efficiently, using minimal information. We propose two new algorithms for estimating the position of an uncooperative transmitter, based on the received signal strength (RSS of a single target message at a set of receivers whose coordinates are known. As an extension to the concept of centroid localization, our mechanisms weigh each receiver's coordinates based on the message's relative RSS at that receiver, with respect to the span of RSS values over all receivers. The weights may decrease from the highest RSS receiver either linearly or exponentially. Our simulation results demonstrate that for all but the most sparsely populated wireless networks, our exponentially weighted mechanism localizes a target node within the regulations stipulated for emergency services location accuracy.
Robust indices of regional and global cardiac function are a key factor in detection and treatment of heart disease as well as understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of a healthy heart. Myocardial elastography provides a noninvasive method for imaging and measuring displacement and strain of the myocardium for the early detection of cardiovascular disease. However, two-dimensional in-plane axial and lateral strains measured depend on the sonographic view used. This becomes especially critical in a clinical setting and may induce large variations in the measured strains, potentially leading to false diagnoses. A novel method in myocardial elastography is proposed for eliminating this view dependence by deriving the polar, principal and classified principal strains. The performance of the proposed methodology is assessed by employing 3D finite-element left-ventricular models of a control and an ischemic canine heart. Although polar strains are angle-independent, they are sensitive to the selected reference coordinate system, which requires the definition of a centroid of the left ventricle (LV). In contrast, principal strains derived through eigenvalue decomposition exhibit the inherent characteristic of coordinate system independence, offering view (i.e., angle and centroid)-independent strain measurements. Classified principal strains are obtained by assigning the principal components in the physical ventricular coordinate system. An extensive strain analysis illustrates the improvement in interpretation and visualization of the full-field myocardial deformation by using the classified principal strains, clearly depicting the ischemic and non-ischemic regions. Strain maps, independent of sonographic views and imaging planes, that can be used to accurately detect regional contractile dysfunction are demonstrated
Romero, Vicente J. [Model Validation and Uncertainty Quantification Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0828 (United States)]. E-mail: vjromer@sandia.gov; Burkardt, John V. [School of Computational Science and Information Technology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4120 (United States)]. E-mail: burkardt@csit.fsu.edu; Gunzburger, Max D. [School of Computational Science and Information Technology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4120 (United States)]. E-mail: gunzburg@csit.fsu.edu; Peterson, Janet S. [School of Computational Science and Information Technology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4120 (United States)]. E-mail: jspeters@csit.fsu.edu
2006-10-15
A recently developed centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) sampling method is investigated here to assess its suitability for use in statistical sampling applications. CVT efficiently generates a highly uniform distribution of sample points over arbitrarily shaped M-dimensional parameter spaces. On several 2-D test problems CVT has recently been found to provide exceedingly effective and efficient point distributions for response surface generation. Additionally, for statistical function integration and estimation of response statistics associated with uniformly distributed random-variable inputs (uncorrelated), CVT has been found in initial investigations to provide superior points sets when compared against latin-hypercube and simple-random Monte Carlo methods and Halton and Hammersley quasi-random sequence methods. In this paper, the performance of all these sampling methods and a new variant ('Latinized' CVT) are further compared for non-uniform input distributions. Specifically, given uncorrelated normal inputs in a 2-D test problem, statistical sampling efficiencies are compared for resolving various statistics of response: mean, variance, and exceedence probabilities.
Moysés Nascimento
2009-03-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi alterar o método centroide de avaliação da adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica de genótipos, para deixá-lo com maior sentido biológico e melhorar aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos de sua análise. A alteração se deu pela adição de mais três ideótipos, definidos de acordo com valores médios dos genótipos nos ambientes. Foram utilizados dados provenientes de um experimento sobre produção de matéria seca de 92 genótipos de alfafa (Medicago sativa realizado em blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições. Os genótipos foram submetidos a 20 cortes, no período de novembro de 2004 a junho de 2006. Cada corte foi considerado um ambiente. A inclusão dos ideótipos de maior sentido biológico (valores médios nos ambientes resultou em uma dispersão gráfica em forma de uma seta voltada para a direita, na qual os genótipos mais produtivos ficaram próximos à ponta da seta. Com a alteração, apenas cinco genótipos foram classificados nas mesmas classes do método centroide original. A figura em forma de seta proporciona uma comparação direta dos genótipos, por meio da formação de um gradiente de produtividade. A alteração no método mantém a facilidade de interpretação dos resultados para a recomendação dos genótipos presente no método original e não permite duplicidade de interpretação dos resultados.ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to modify the centroid method of evaluation of phenotypic adaptability and the phenotype stability of genotypes in order for the method to make greater biological sense and improve its quantitative and qualitative performance. The method was modified by means of the inclusion of three additional ideotypes defined in accordance with the genotypes' average yield in the environments tested. The alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. forage yield of 92 genotypes was used. The trial had a randomized block design, with two replicates, and the data were used to
Takahiro Yamaguchi
2015-05-01
Full Text Available As smartphones become widespread, a variety of smartphone applications are being developed. This paper proposes a method for indoor localization (i.e., positioning that uses only smartphones, which are general-purpose mobile terminals, as reference point devices. This method has the following features: (a the localization system is built with smartphones whose movements are confined to respective limited areas. No fixed reference point devices are used; (b the method does not depend on the wireless performance of smartphones and does not require information about the propagation characteristics of the radio waves sent from reference point devices, and (c the method determines the location at the application layer, at which location information can be easily incorporated into high-level services. We have evaluated the level of localization accuracy of the proposed method by building a software emulator that modeled an underground shopping mall. We have confirmed that the determined location is within a small area in which the user can find target objects visually.
Centroid Based Text Clustering
Priti Maheshwari
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Web mining is a burgeoning new field that attempts to glean meaningful information from natural language text. Web mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. Text clustering is one of the important Web mining functionalities. Text clustering is the task in which texts are classified into groups of similar objects based on their contents. Current research in the area of Web mining is tacklesproblems of text data representation, classification, clustering, information extraction or the search for and modeling of hidden patterns. In this paper we propose for mining large document collections it is necessary to pre-process the web documents and store the information in a data structure, which is more appropriate for further processing than a plain web file. In this paper we developed a php-mySql based utility to convert unstructured web documents into structured tabular representation by preprocessing, indexing .We apply centroid based web clustering method on preprocessed data. We apply three methods for clustering. Finally we proposed a method that can increase accuracy based on clustering ofdocuments.
Nacif, S. V.; Sanchez, M. A.
2013-05-01
We selected seven aftershocks from Maule earthquake between 33.5°S to 35°S from May to September to find single source inversion. The data were provided by XY Chile Ramp Experiment* which was deployed after great Maule earthquake. Waveform data are from 13 broad band stations chosen from the 58 broad band stations deployed by IRIS-PASCAL from April to September 2010. Stations are placed above the normal subduction section south of ~33.5°S. Events were located with an iterative software called Hypocenter using one dimensional local model, obtained above for the forearc region between 33°S to 35°S. We used ISOLA which is a fortran code with a Matlab interface to obtain moment tensors solutions, optimum position and time of the subevents. Values depth obtained by a grid search of centroid position show range values which are compatibles with the interplate seismogenic zone. Double-Couple focal mechanism solutions (Figure 1) show 4 thrust events which can be associated with that zone. However, only one of them has strike, dip and rake of 358°, 27° and 101 respectively, appropriate to be expected for interplate seismogenic zone. On the other hand, the other 3 events show strike and normal double-couple focal mechanism solutions (Figure 1). This last topic makes association to those events to the contact of the Nazca and South American plate difficult. Nevertheless, in a first stage, their depths may allow possibility of an origin there. * The facilities of the IRIS Data Management System, and specifically the IRIS Data Management Center, were used for access to waveform, metadata or products required in this study. The IRIS DMS is funded through the National Science Foundation and specifically the GEO Directorate through the Instrumentation and Facilities Program of the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement EAR-0552316. Some activities of are supported by the National Science Foundation EarthScope Program under Cooperative Agreement EAR-0733069
Geogebra: Calculation of Centroid
Qamil Kllogjeri
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Our paper is result of the research done in a special direction for solving problems of physics by using GeoGebra programme: calculation of centroid. Lots of simulations of physical phenomena from the class of Mechanics can be performed and computational problems can be solved with GeoGebra. GeoGebra offers many commands and one of them is the command “centroid” to calculate the coordinates of the centroid of a polygon but, we have created a new tool to calculate the coordinates of the centroid of a plane region bounded by curves. Our work is part of the passionate work of many GeoGebra users which will result with a very rich fund of GeoGebra virtual tools, examples and experiences that will be worldwidely available for many teachers and practioners.
Geogebra: Calculation of Centroid
Qamil Kllogjeri; Pellumb Kllogjeri
2012-01-01
Our paper is result of the research done in a special direction for solving problems of physics by using GeoGebra programme: calculation of centroid. Lots of simulations of physical phenomena from the class of Mechanics can be performed and computational problems can be solved with GeoGebra. GeoGebra offers many commands and one of them is the command “centroid” to calculate the coordinates of the centroid of a polygon but, we have created a new tool to calculate the coordinates of the centr...
Takahiro Yamaguchi; Kazumasa Takami
2015-01-01
As smartphones become widespread, a variety of smartphone applications are being developed. This paper proposes a method for indoor localization (i.e., positioning) that uses only smartphones, which are general-purpose mobile terminals, as reference point devices. This method has the following features: (a) the localization system is built with smartphones whose movements are confined to respective limited areas. No fixed reference point devices are used; (b) the method does not depend on the...
Research on Centroid Position for Stairs Climbing Stability of Search and Rescue Robot
Yan Guo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper represents the relationship between the stability of stairs climbing and the centroid position of the search and rescue robot. The robot system is considered as a mass point-plane model and the kinematics features are analyzed to find the relationship between centroid position and the maximal pitch angle of stairs the robot could climb up. A computable function about this relationship is given in this paper. During the stairs climbing, there is a maximal stability-keeping angle depends on the centroid position and the pitch angle of stairs, and the numerical formula is developed about the relationship between the maximal stability-keeping angle and the centroid position and pitch angle of stairs. The experiment demonstrates the trustworthy and correction of the method in the paper.
ESTIMATION OF DOPPLER CENTROID FREQUENCY IN SPACEBORNE SCANSAR
无
2008-01-01
Doppler centroid frequency is an essential parameter in the imaging processing of the Scanning mode Synthetic Aperture Radar(ScanSAR).Inaccurate Doppler centroid frequency will result in ghost images in imaging result.In this letter,the principle and algorithms of Doppler centroid frequency estimation are introduced.Then the echo data of ScanSAR system is analyzed.Based on the algorithms of energy balancing and correlation Doppler estimator in the estimation of Doppler centroid fequency in strip mode SAR,an improved method for Doppler centroid frequency estimation in ScanSAR is proposed.The method has improved the accuracy of Doppler centroid fequency estimation in ScanSAR by zero padding between burst data.Finally,the proposed method is validated with the processing of ENVironment SATellite Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar(ENVISAT ASAR)wide swath raw data.
Weighted Centroid Correction Localization in Cellular Systems
Rong-Zheng Li
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: There is a large demand for wireless Location-Based Service (LBS and it is provided by many wireless cellular systems. In process of positioning a Mobile Station (MS, the computing speed is as important as the positioning accuracy and the algorithm should also be resistant to environmental influences. Approach: A new positioning method based on Weighted Centroid Correction Localization (WCCL for wireless cellular systems is introduced in this article. Firstly, referring to the receiving-state of an MS in cellular systems, it computes a weighted centroid of surrounding Base Stations (BSs as a rough approximate position of the MS. Then, according to the distances between the MS and the BSs being less or bigger than the computed distances between the BSs and the weighted centroid, it corrects the coordinate of the weighted centroid towards the directions of the BSs by moving it closer or farther in turn. Results: According to our experiments, WCCL improves the positioning accuracy, as well as to provide a better resistance to environmental influences. Conclusion: As a modified centroid-based localization algorithm, WCCL obtains weighting factors from the receiving-state of MS in multi-cells structured cellular systems and obtains a better positioning result in cellular systems without updating the network equipment. Therefore, for the cellular positioning problem, WCCL algorithm can be an alternate solution.
郭晓军; 徐健; 马新星; 刘峰
2015-01-01
The centroid accuracy of star tracker is the base of other accuracies .It's the base of celestial navigation ,star map identification ,orbit positioning and so on ,which is required to reach arc second scale .This paper analyses the main fac‐tors affecting the positioning accuracy of target centroid and the method for star target centroids based on multi‐step maxi‐mum information entropy is proposed .This method uses the linear superposition to narrow the centroid area ,using the sym‐metry of the stellar energy distribution to get the difference at centroid position and obtain the centroid ,then the validation comparison of simulated star images .Experiments show that the positioning accuracy of the method up to 0 .01 pixel ,has good effect to calculate the centroid of low SNR conditions .%高精度星敏感器星点光斑的质心定位精度是星敏感器整体定位精度的基础，是天文导航、星图识别、轨道精确定位等技术的基础，常需要达到角秒级和亚像素的标准。论文分析了影响定位精度的主要因素，并研究了 CCD 观测图像亚像素的高精度质心定位方法，并分析了恒星成像时能量的分布，提出基于多步长最大信息熵的质心定位方法，该方法使用线性叠加缩小质心区域，利用恒星能量分布的对称性，求取信息熵最大时的质心位置，并采用模拟星图验证比较。实验表明，该方法定位精度可达0．01pixel ，对低信噪比条件下的质心计算具有较好的效果。
Micro-pixel accuracy centroid displacement estimation and detector calibration
Zhai, Chengxing; Goullioud, Renaud; Nemati, Bijan
2011-01-01
Precise centroid estimation plays a critical role in accurate astrometry using telescope images. Conventional centroid estimation fits a template point spread function (PSF) to the image data. Because the PSF is typically not known to high accuracy due to wavefront aberrations and uncertainties in optical system, a simple Gaussian function is commonly used. PSF knowledge error leads to systematic errors in the conventional centroid estimation. In this paper, we present an accurate centroid estimation algorithm by reconstructing the PSF from well sampled (above Nyquist frequency) pixelated images. In the limit of an ideal focal plane array whose pixels have identical response function (no inter-pixel variation), this method can estimate centroid displacement between two 32$\\times$32 images to sub-micropixel accuracy. Inter-pixel response variations exist in real detectors, {\\it e.g.}~CCDs, which we can calibrate by measuring the pixel response of each pixel in Fourier space. The Fourier transforms of the inter...
Mai Shouman; Tim Turner; Rob Stocker
2012-01-01
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the world over the past 10 years. Researchers have been using several data mining techniques to help health care professionals in the diagnosis of heart disease. Naïve Bayes is one of the data mining techniques used in the diagnosis of heart disease showing considerable success. K-means clustering is one of the most popular clustering techniques; however initial centroid selection strongly affects its results. This paper demonstrat...
Variable centroid control scheme over hypersonic tactical missile
Yl; Yan(易彦); ZHOU; Fengqi(周凤岐)
2003-01-01
This paper presents a brand-new tactical missile control scheme--variable centroid vector control according to the international highlight in the field of missile control and the research status of hypersonic missile control in China. Four critical problems related with the new control method are included: improving phase control in the spinning missile single-channel control; establishing variable centroid controlled spinning missile attitude dynamics equations; analyzing variable centroid control strategies and analyzing the stability of the controlled missile and implementing robust control. The achievements and results obtained are valuable and helpful to the theoretical explorations and engineering applications.
An efficient g-centroid location algorithm for cographs
V. Prakash
2005-07-01
Full Text Available In 1998, Pandu Rangan et al. Proved that locating the g-centroid for an arbitrary graph is Ã°ÂÂ’Â©Ã°ÂÂ’Â«-hard by reducing the problem of finding the maximum clique size of a graph to the g-centroid location problem. They have also given an efficient polynomial time algorithm for locating the g-centroid for maximal outerplanar graphs, Ptolemaic graphs, and split graphs. In this paper, we present an O(nm time algorithm for locating the g-centroid for cographs, where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges of the graph.
陆斌; 郭少军; 王铎
2011-01-01
可见光CCD拍摄的星空图像中目标点的质心求取已经有了很多种方法,可见光中的恒星质心求取方法在近红外星图中同样适用,常用的方法有Gauss拟合法,矩方法（包括修正矩方法）和寻导法等。介绍了质心求取方法中的Gauss拟合法,分析其优劣性,并以这种方法为基础,根据近红外星图导航的实际情况提出了一种较为实用的方法,并验证比较其精度和可行性。%The centroid of the visible light CCD image targets can be derived by using lots of methods,these algorithms are also suitable for the near infrared stellar map.The common methods are： Gauss fitting method,method of moments,derivative search and so on.The Gauss fitting method is introduced and analyzed its advantages and disadvantages.According to this method,a more practical method is proposed based on the near infrared stellar map navigation,verified and compared its accuracy and feasibility.
FINGERPRINT MATCHING BASED ON PORE CENTROIDS
S. Malathi
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In recent years there has been exponential growth in the use of bio- metrics for user authentication applications. Automated Fingerprint Identification systems have become popular tool in many security and law enforcement applications. Most of these systems rely on minutiae (ridge ending and bifurcation features. With the advancement in sensor technology, high resolution fingerprint images (1000 dpi pro- vide micro level of features (pores that have proven to be useful fea- tures for identification. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for fingerprint matching based on pores by reliably extracting the pore features The extraction of pores is done by Marker Controlled Wa- tershed segmentation method and the centroids of each pore are con- sidered as feature vectors for matching of two fingerprint images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better per- formance with lower false rates and higher accuracy.
无
2010-01-01
Subpixel centroid estimation is the most important star image location method of star tracker. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the systematic error of subpixel centroid estimation algorithm utilizing frequency domain analysis under the con-sideration of sampling frequency limitation and sampling window limitation. Explicit expression of systematic error of cen-troid estimation is obtained, and the dependence of systematic error on Gaussian width of star image, actual star centroid loca-tion and the number of sampling pixels is derived. A systematic error compensation algorithm for star centroid estimation is proposed based on the result of theoretical analysis. Simulation results show that after compensation, the residual systematic errors of 3-pixel-and 5-pixel-windows’ centroid estimation are less than 2×10-3 pixels and 2×10-4 pixels respectively.
We recently obtained a quantum-Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics by making a single change to the derivation of the “Classical Wigner” approximation. Here, we show that the further approximation of this “Matsubara dynamics” gives rise to two popular heuristic methods for treating quantum Boltzmann time-correlation functions: centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). We show that CMD is a mean-field approximation to Matsubara dynamics, obtained by discarding (classical) fluctuations around the centroid, and that RPMD is the result of discarding a term in the Matsubara Liouvillian which shifts the frequencies of these fluctuations. These findings are consistent with previous numerical results and give explicit formulae for the terms that CMD and RPMD leave out
Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus
2016-06-01
Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times.
Fast tracking mode predictive centroiding scheme
Rehman, Masood-Ur; Fang, Jiancheng; Saffih, Faycal; Quan, Wei
2008-10-01
The autonomous star trackers, using charge couple device CCD camera, or active pixel sensor APS, as natural sensors for optical input, has assumed a permanent position. This is due to their highly accurate attitude determination, small size, light weight and simple functionality, making them devices of choice in nearly all modern space vehicles especially for Nano-satellites. In all star trackers, star centroiding is a fundamental process necessary for pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method is presented, which predicts centers of regions of star locations, in successive image frames, from the current knowledge of boresight direction, which is updated successively. This method is very attractive for hardware implementation using APS imagers known for their random accessibility feature lacked in CCD's. The big advantage of this method is that it does not need pattern recognition, thus making it fast. This reduction of computational budget, power consumption and time, added to the capability of incorporating them in APS imagers, is appealing to Nano-satellites navigational instrumentation.
Finding protein sites using machine learning methods
Jaime Leonardo Bobadilla Molina
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The increasing amount of protein three-dimensional (3D structures determined by x-ray and NMR technologies as well as structures predicted by computational methods results in the need for automated methods to provide inital annotations. We have developed a new method for recognizing sites in three-dimensional protein structures. Our method is based on a previosly reported algorithm for creating descriptions of protein microenviroments using physical and chemical properties at multiple levels of detail. The recognition method takes three inputs: 1. A set of control nonsites that share some structural or functional role. 2. A set of control nonsites that lack this role. 3. A single query site. A support vector machine classifier is built using feature vectors where each component represents a property in a given volume. Validation against an independent test set shows that this recognition approach has high sensitivity and specificity. We also describe the results of scanning four calcium binding proteins (with the calcium removed using a three dimensional grid of probe points at 1.25 angstrom spacing. The system finds the sites in the proteins giving points at or near the blinding sites. Our results show that property based descriptions along with support vector machines can be used for recognizing protein sites in unannotated structures.
Determination of Star Bodies from -Centroid Bodies
Lujun Guo; Gangsong Leng
2013-11-01
In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ characterized by having larger volume than any other member, for all real ≥ 1 that are not even natural numbers, where $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ denotes the -centroid equivalence class of the star body .
Properties of Planet-induced Deviations in the Astrometric Microlensing Centroid Shift Trajectory
Han, Cheongho; Lee, Chunguk
2001-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the properties of the planet-induced deviations in the trajectory of the microlensed source star centroid motion (astrometric curve) and the correlations between the astrometric and photometric deviations. For this, we construct vector field maps of excess centroid shifts. Fromthe investigation of the maps, we find that the astrometric deviation is closely correlated with the photometric one. The astrometric deviation increases as the photometric deviation increa...
Bayesian methods for finding sparse representations
Wipf, David Paul
2006-01-01
Finding the sparsest or minimum L0-norm representation of a signal given a (possibly) overcomplete dictionary of basis vectors is an important problem in many application domains, including neuroelectromagnetic source localization, compressed sensing, sparse component analysis, feature selection, image restoration/compression, and neural coding. Unfortunately, the required optimization is typically NP-hard, and so approximate procedures that succeed with high probability are sought. Nearly al...
Study on Zero-Doppler Centroid Control for GEO SAR Ground Observation
2014-01-01
In geosynchronous Earth orbit SAR (GEO SAR), Doppler centroid compensation is a key step for imaging process, which could be performed by the attitude steering of a satellite platform. However, this zero-Doppler centroid control method does not work well when the look angle of radar is out of an expected range. This paper primarily analyzes the Doppler properties of GEO SAR in the Earth rectangular coordinate. Then, according to the actual conditions of the GEO SAR ground observation, the eff...
Foot Bone in Vivo: Its Center of Mass and Centroid of Shape
Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Lin, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng
2010-01-01
This paper studies foot bone geometrical shape and its mass distribution and establishes an assessment method of bone strength. Using spiral CT scanning, with an accuracy of sub-millimeter, we analyze the data of 384 pieces of foot bones in vivo and investigate the relationship between the bone's external shape and internal structure. This analysis is explored on the bases of the bone's center of mass and its centroid of shape. We observe the phenomenon of superposition of center of mass and centroid of shape fairly precisely, indicating a possible appearance of biomechanical organism. We investigate two aspects of the geometrical shape, (i) distance between compact bone's centroid of shape and that of the bone and (ii) the mean radius of the same density bone issue relative to the bone's centroid of shape. These quantities are used to interpret the influence of different physical exercises imposed on bone strength, thereby contributing to an alternate assessment technique to bone strength.
Numerical methods for finding stationary gravitational solutions
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson
2016-07-01
The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory–Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS{}5× {S}5. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.
Numerical Methods for Finding Stationary Gravitational Solutions
Dias, Oscar J C; Way, Benson
2015-01-01
The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly-spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory-Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS$_5\\times S^5$. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.
Lp-centroid Bo dies and Its Characterizations
Ma Tong-yi; Zhang De-yan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the characteristic properties for Lp-centroid bod-ies, and an improved version of Busemann-Petty problem for Lp-centroid bodies is obtained. In addition, using the definitions of Lp-pole curvature image and Lp-aﬃne surface area, a new proof of Busemann-Petty problem for Lp-centroid bodies is given.
Radiographic measures of thoracic kyphosis in osteoporosis: Cobb and vertebral centroid angles
Briggs, A.M.; Greig, A.M. [University of Melbourne, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, School of Physiotherapy, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria (Australia); Wrigley, T.V.; Tully, E.A.; Adams, P.E.; Bennell, K.L. [University of Melbourne, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, School of Physiotherapy, Victoria (Australia)
2007-08-15
Several measures can quantify thoracic kyphosis from radiographs, yet their suitability for people with osteoporosis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the vertebral centroid and Cobb angles in people with osteoporosis. Lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine were captured in 31 elderly women with osteoporosis. Thoracic kyphosis was measured globally (T1-T12) and regionally (T4-T9) using Cobb and vertebral centroid angles. Multisegmental curvature was also measured by fitting polynomial functions to the thoracic curvature profile. Canonical and Pearson correlations were used to examine correspondence; agreement between measures was examined with linear regression. Moderate to high intra- and inter-rater reliability was achieved (SEM = 0.9-4.0 ). Concurrent validity of the simple measures was established against multisegmental curvature (r = 0.88-0.98). Strong association was observed between the Cobb and centroid angles globally (r = 0.84) and regionally (r = 0.83). Correspondence between measures was moderate for the Cobb method (r = 0.72), yet stronger for the centroid method (r = 0.80). The Cobb angle was 20% greater for regional measures due to the influence of endplate tilt. Regional Cobb and centroid angles are valid and reliable measures of thoracic kyphosis in people with osteoporosis. However, the Cobb angle is biased by endplate tilt, suggesting that the centroid angle is more appropriate for this population. (orig.)
Radiographic measures of thoracic kyphosis in osteoporosis: Cobb and vertebral centroid angles
Several measures can quantify thoracic kyphosis from radiographs, yet their suitability for people with osteoporosis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the vertebral centroid and Cobb angles in people with osteoporosis. Lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine were captured in 31 elderly women with osteoporosis. Thoracic kyphosis was measured globally (T1-T12) and regionally (T4-T9) using Cobb and vertebral centroid angles. Multisegmental curvature was also measured by fitting polynomial functions to the thoracic curvature profile. Canonical and Pearson correlations were used to examine correspondence; agreement between measures was examined with linear regression. Moderate to high intra- and inter-rater reliability was achieved (SEM = 0.9-4.0 ). Concurrent validity of the simple measures was established against multisegmental curvature (r = 0.88-0.98). Strong association was observed between the Cobb and centroid angles globally (r = 0.84) and regionally (r 0.83). Correspondence between measures was moderate for the Cobb method (r 0.72), yet stronger for the centroid method (r = 0.80). The Cobb angle was 20% greater for regional measures due to the influence of endplate tilt. Regional Cobb and centroid angles are valid and reliable measures of thoracic kyphosis in people with osteoporosis. However, the Cobb angle is biased by endplate tilt, suggesting that the centroid angle is more appropriate for this population. (orig.)
Centroid Velocity Statistics of Molecular Clouds
Bertram, Erik; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S
2014-01-01
We compute structure functions and Fourier spectra of 2D centroid velocity (CV) maps in order to study the gas dynamics of typical molecular clouds (MCs) in numerical simulations. We account for a simplified treatment of time-dependent chemistry and the non-isothermal nature of the gas and use a 3D radiative transfer tool to model the CO line emission in a post-processing step. We perform simulations using three different initial mean number densities of n_0 = 30, 100 and 300 cm^{-3} to span a range of typical values for dense gas clouds in the solar neighbourhood. We compute slopes of the centroid velocity increment structure functions (CVISF) and of Fourier spectra for different chemical components: the total density, H2 number density, 12CO number density as well as the integrated intensity of 12CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0). We show that optical depth effects can significantly affect the slopes derived for the CVISF, which also leads to different scaling properties for the Fourier spectra. The slopes of CVI...
ASTROMETRIC IMAGE CENTROID DISPLACEMENTS DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING BY THE ELLIS WORMHOLE
Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication, we study the gravitational microlensing effects of the Ellis wormhole in the weak-field limit. First, we find a suitable coordinate transformation, such that the lens equation and analytic expressions of the lensed image positions can become much simpler. Second, we prove that two images always appear for the weak-field lens by the Ellis wormhole. By using these analytic results, we discuss astrometric image centroid displacements due to gravitational microlensing by the Ellis wormhole. The astrometric image centroid trajectory by the Ellis wormhole is different from the standard one by a spherical lensing object that is expressed by the Schwarzschild metric. The anomalous shift of the image centroid by the Ellis wormhole lens is smaller than that by the Schwarzschild lens, provided that the impact parameter and the Einstein ring radius are the same. Therefore, the lensed image centroid by the Ellis wormhole moves slower. Such a difference, although it is very small, will be, in principle, applicable for detecting or constraining the Ellis wormhole by using future high-precision astrometry observations. In particular, the image centroid position gives us additional information, so that the parameter degeneracy existing in photometric microlensing can be partially broken. The anomalous shift reaches the order of a few micro arcseconds, if our galaxy hosts a wormhole with throat radius larger than 105 km. When the source moves tangentially to the Einstein ring, for instance, the maximum position shift of the image centroid by the Ellis wormhole is 0.18 normalized by the Einstein ring radius. For the same source trajectory, the maximum difference between the centroid displacement by the Ellis wormhole lens and that by the Schwarzschild one with the same Einstein ring radius is -0.16 in the units of the Einstein radius, where the negative means that the astrometric displacement by the Ellis wormhole lens is smaller
Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices
Transverse centroid oscillations are analyzed for a beam in a solenoid transport lattice. Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable 'alignment functions' and 'bending functions' that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by both mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on the properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering, and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields, respectively. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid oscillations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.
Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices
Lund, Steven M.
2008-01-01
Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable "alignment functions" and "bending functions" that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalig...
Study of velocity centroids based on the theory of fluctuations in position-position-velocity space
Kandel, D; Pogosyan, D
2016-01-01
We study possibility of obtaining velocity spectra by studying turbulence in an optically thick medium using velocity centroids (VCs).We find that the regime of universal, i.e. independent of underlying turbulence statistics, fluctuations discovered originally within the velocity channel analysis (VCA) carries over to the statistics of VCs. In other words, for large absorptions the VC lose their ability to reflect the spectra of turbulence. Combining our present study with the earlier studies of centroids in Esquivel & Lazarian, we conclude that centroids are applicable for studies subsonic/transsonic turbulence for the range of scales that is limited by the absorption effects. We also consider VCs based on absorption lines and define the range of their applicability. We address the problem of analytical description of spectra and anisotropies of fluctuations that are available through studies using VC. We obtain spectra and anisotropy of VC fluctuations arising from Alfv\\'en, slow and fast modes that con...
A measure of variable planar locations anchored on the centroid of the vowel space
Watt, Dominic; Fabricius, Anne
2011-01-01
This paper presents part of an ongoing research program which aims to apply mathematical and geometrical analytic methods to vowel formant data to enable the quantification of parameters of variation of interest to sociophoneticians. We open with an overview of recent research working towards a set...... of desiderata for choice of normalization algorithm(s) based on replicable procedures. We then present the principles of centroid-based normalization and account for its performance in recent road tests. In sections 4 and 5 we introduce a method that utilizes the centroid of the speaker’s vowel space...
Energy Centroids in the presence of random interactions
Zhao, Y M; Yoshida, N; Ogawa, K; Yoshinaga, N; Kota, V K B
2005-01-01
In this paper we study energy centroids such as those with fixed spin and isospin, those with fixed irreducible representations for bosons, in the presence of random two-body and/or three-body interactions. Our results show that regularities of energy centroids of fixed spin states reported in earlier works are more robust than expected.
Transverse Centroid Oscillations in Solenoidially Focused Beam Transport Lattices
Lund, S M; Wootton, C J; Lee, E P
2008-08-01
Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable 'alignment functions' and 'bending functions' that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid deviations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.
Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices
Lund, Steven M.; Wootton, Christopher J.; Lee, Edward P.
2008-08-01
Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable"alignment functions" and"bending functions" that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid deviations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.
Consolidating boundary methods for finding the eigenstates of billiards
The plane-wave decomposition method, a widely used means of numerically finding eigenstates of the Helmholtz equation in billiard systems is described as a variant of the mathematically well-established boundary integral method (BIM). A new unified framework encompassing the two methods is discussed. Furthermore, a third numerical method, which we call the gauge freedom method is derived from the BIM equations. This opens the way to further improvements in eigenstate search techniques
Improved measurements of RNA structure conservation with generalized centroid estimators
Yohei eOkada
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Identification of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs in genomes is acrucial task for not only molecular cell biology but alsobioinformatics. Secondary structures of ncRNAs are employed as a keyfeature of ncRNA analysis since biological functions of ncRNAs aredeeply related to their secondary structures. Although the minimumfree energy (MFE structure of an RNA sequence is regarded as the moststable structure, MFE alone could not be an appropriate measure foridentifying ncRNAs since the free energy is heavily biased by thenucleotide composition. Therefore, instead of MFE itself, severalalternative measures for identifying ncRNAs have been proposed such asthe structure conservation index (SCI and the base pair distance(BPD, both of which employ MFE structures. However, thesemeasurements are unfortunately not suitable for identifying ncRNAs insome cases including the genome-wide search and incur high falsediscovery rate. In this study, we propose improved measurements basedon SCI and BPD, applying generalized centroid estimators toincorporate the robustness against low quality multiple alignments.Our experiments show that our proposed methods achieve higher accuracythan the original SCI and BPD for not only human-curated structuralalignments but also low quality alignments produced by CLUSTALW. Furthermore, the centroid-based SCI on CLUSTAL W alignments is moreaccurate than or comparable with that of the original SCI onstructural alignments generated with RAF, a high quality structuralaligner, for which two-fold expensive computational time is requiredon average. We conclude that our methods are more suitable forgenome-wide alignments which are of low quality from the point of viewon secondary structures than the original SCI and BPD.
Iterative method of finding hydraulic conductivity characteristics of soil moisture
Rysbaiuly, Bolatbek; Adamov, Abilmazhin
2016-08-01
The work considers an initial boundary value problem for a nonlinear equation of hydraulic conductivity. A method of finding a nonlinear diffusion coefficient is developed and hydraulic conductivity of soil moisture is found. Numerical calculations are conducted.
A graphical method for finding maximin efficiency designs.
Imhof, L; Wong, W K
2000-03-01
We consider the problem of designing an experiment when there are two competing optimality criteria. Designs that maximize the minimum efficiencies under the two criteria are proposed along with a graphical method for finding these maximin designs. PMID:10783784
Visualization Method for Finding Critical Care Factors in Variance Analysis
YUI, Shuntaro; BITO, Yoshitaka; OBARA, Kiyohiro; KAMIYAMA, Takuya; SETO, Kumiko; Ban, Hideyuki; HASHIZUME, Akihide; HAGA, Masashi; Oka, Yuji
2006-01-01
We present a novel visualization method for finding care factors in variance analysis. The analysis has two stages: first stage enables users to extract a significant variance, and second stage enables users to find out a critical care factors of the variance. The analysis has been validated by using synthetically created inpatient care processes. It was found that the method is efficient in improving clinical pathways.
2016-01-01
Drastic shifts in species distributions are a cause of concern for ecologists. Such shifts pose great threat to biodiversity especially under unprecedented anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Many studies have documented recent shifts in species distributions. However, most of these studies are limited to regional scales, and do not consider the abundance structure within species ranges. Developing methods to detect systematic changes in species distributions over their full ranges is critical for understanding the impact of changing environments and for successful conservation planning. Here, we demonstrate a centroid model for range-wide analysis of distribution shifts using the North American Breeding Bird Survey. The centroid model is based on a hierarchical Bayesian framework which models population change within physiographic strata while accounting for several factors affecting species detectability. Yearly abundance-weighted range centroids are estimated. As case studies, we derive annual centroids for the Carolina wren and house finch in their ranges in the U.S. We further evaluate the first-difference correlation between species’ centroid movement and changes in winter severity, total population abundance. We also examined associations of change in centroids from sub-ranges. Change in full-range centroid movements of Carolina wren significantly correlate with snow cover days (r = −0.58). For both species, the full-range centroid shifts also have strong correlation with total abundance (r = 0.65, and 0.51 respectively). The movements of the full-range centroids of the two species are correlated strongly (up to r = 0.76) with that of the sub-ranges with more drastic population changes. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of centroids for analyzing distribution changes in a two-dimensional spatial context. Particularly it highlights applications that associate the centroid with factors such as environmental stressors, population characteristics
Monte Carlo Form-Finding Method for Tensegrity Structures
Li, Yue; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Cao, Yan-Ping
2010-05-01
In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo-based approach to solve tensegrity form-finding problems. It uses a stochastic procedure to find the deterministic equilibrium configuration of a tensegrity structure. The suggested Monte Carlo form-finding (MCFF) method is highly efficient because it does not involve complicated matrix operations and symmetry analysis and it works for arbitrary initial configurations. Both regular and non-regular tensegrity problems of large scale can be solved. Some representative examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this versatile method.
Semiclassical approach to centroid splitting of giant resonances on deformed nuclei
The double-peak splitting of giant resonances on deformed nuclei is investigated microscopically with the semiclassical method. A self-consistent semiclassical approach is employed to determine the nucleon density of deformed nuclei, and the Vlasov equation is utilised to calculate the centroids of giant resonances. The results are in good agreement with experimental ones. (author)
Study on Zero-Doppler Centroid Control for GEO SAR Ground Observation
Yicheng Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In geosynchronous Earth orbit SAR (GEO SAR, Doppler centroid compensation is a key step for imaging process, which could be performed by the attitude steering of a satellite platform. However, this zero-Doppler centroid control method does not work well when the look angle of radar is out of an expected range. This paper primarily analyzes the Doppler properties of GEO SAR in the Earth rectangular coordinate. Then, according to the actual conditions of the GEO SAR ground observation, the effective range is presented by the minimum and maximum possible look angles which are directly related to the orbital parameters. Based on the vector analysis, a new approach for zero-Doppler centroid control in GEO SAR, performing the attitude steering by a combination of pitch and roll rotation, is put forward. This approach, considering the Earth’s rotation and elliptical orbit effects, can accurately reduce the residual Doppler centroid. All the simulation results verify the correctness of the range of look angle and the proposed steering method.
EPA flow reference method testing and analysis: Findings report. Appendices
In the summer of 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a series of week-long field tests at three electric utility sites to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA's test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. The findings from that study are presented in document EPA/430-R-99-009a (NTIS Order Number PB99-150286). This document contains 10 appendices for that report
Doppler Centroid Estimation for Airborne SAR Supported by POS and DEM
CHENG Chunquan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available It is difficult to estimate the Doppler frequency and modulating rate for airborne SAR by using traditional vector method due to instable flight and complex terrain. In this paper, it is qualitatively analyzed that the impacts of POS, DEM and their errors on airborne SAR Doppler parameters. Then an innovative vector method is presented based on the range-coplanarity equation to estimate the Doppler centroid taking the POS and DEM as auxiliary data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated and analyzed via the simulation experiments. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the method can be used to estimate the Doppler centroid with high accuracy even in the cases of high relief, instable flight, and large squint SAR.
... Brain George Hightower searches for genetic mutations that affect HIV's ability to infect the brain. Read Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry and Biochemistry Enzymes, Molecular Probes, Metabolic ...
A New Halo Finding Method for N-Body Simulations
Kim, J; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom
2004-01-01
We have developed a new halo finding method, Physically Self-Bound (PSB) group finding algorithm, which can efficiently identify halos located even at crowded regions. This method combines two physical criteria such as the tidal radius of a halo and the total energy of each particle to find member particles. Two hierarchical meshes are used to increase the speed and the power of halo identification in the parallel computing environments. First, a coarse mesh with cell size equal to the mean particle separation $l_{\\rm mean}$ is used to obtain the density field over the whole simulation box. Mesh cells having density contrast higher than a local cutoff threshold $\\delta_{\\rm LOC}$ are extracted and linked together for those adjacent to each other. This produces local-cell groups. Second, a finer mesh is used to obtain density field within each local-cell group and to identify halos. If a density shell contains only one density peak, its particles are assigned to the density peak. But in the case of a density s...
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, C.; Guo, Feng; Lee, S; Ouimet, Marie-Claude; Albert, P.S.; Dingus, Thomas A.
2014-01-01
This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (global positioning system, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near-crash (CNC) ...
Outlier Finding from Clusters using Categorical Data
Anamika Malaiya; Pradeep Chouskey; Gajendra Vaiker
2012-01-01
A New Categorical Data algorithm which combines a systematic method for finding initial centroids and an efficient way for assigning data points to clusters. This method ensures the entire process generate cluster without sacrificing the accuracy. It always generate good cluster by reducing the mean square error. Our clustering algorithm serves as a good benchmark to monitor the progression of student’s performance in institute. It also enhances the decision making by academic planners to mon...
A Statistical Study of Beam Centroid Oscillations in a Solenoid Transport Channel
Lund, S; Wootton, C; Coleman, J; Lidia, S; Seidl, P
2009-05-07
A recent theory of transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidally focused beam transport lattices presented in Ref. [1] is applied to statistically analyze properties of the centroid orbit in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Contributions to the amplitude of the centroid oscillations from mechanical misalignments and initial centroid errors exiting the injector are analyzed. Measured values of the centroid appear consistent with expected alignment tolerances. Correction of these errors is discussed.
Hele, Timothy J. H.; Willatt, Michael J.; Muolo, Andrea; Althorpe, Stuart C.
2015-01-01
We recently obtained a quantum-Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics by making a single change to the derivation of the `Classical Wigner' approximation. Here, we show that the further approximation of this `Matsubara dynamics' gives rise to two popular heuristic methods for treating quantum Boltzmann time-correlation functions: centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). We show that CMD is a mean-field approximation to Matsubara dynamics, obtained by disc...
Surface waves recorded on the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) station Urumqi (WMQ) are analyzed for 26 centroid moment tensor (CMT) earthquakes located within an epicentral distance of 1300 km. Applying a simple grid search method for source parameter retrieval, I obtain revised estimates of the focal depth, fault strike, and seismic moment (M0) from amplitude spectra of Love and Rayleigh waves and compare these estimates with the CMT best double-couple solutions. The comparisons show that residuals are unbiased for focal depth and fault strike, where population spreads are ±13 km and ±17 degree, respectively. On the other hand, M0 estimates are found to be biased, with CMT M0 larger than regional estimates by an average of 0.27±0.04 log units. The results for focal depth and strike are consistent with previous global and regional studies comparing independent estimates with CMT results. Recent full-waveform modeling studies for central Asian earthquakes support the findings of bias in M0 estimates. I suggest that causes for M0 bias may be related to great thicknesses of continental crust in Hindu Kush and Tien Shan regions and to data censoring practices at small magnitudes. M0:mb scaling relationships for central Asian earthquakes show better agreement with western U.S. scaling when M0 estimates determined in this study are used. copyright 1998 American Geophysical Union
Preliminary results of centroiding experiment for the STEP mission
Li, Haitao; Li, Baoquan; Cao, Yang; Chen, Ding; Li, Ligang
2015-08-01
Search for Terrestrial Exo-Planet (STEP)[1] was originally proposed in 2013 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is currently being under background engineering study phase in China. The STEP mission is a space astrometry telescope working at visible light wavelengths. The STEP aims at the nearby terrestrial planets detection through micro-arcsecond-level astrometry. Determination of the separation between star images on a detector with high precision is very important for astrometric exoplanets detection through the observation of star wobbles due to planets. The requirement of centroiding accuracy for STEP is 1e-5 pixel. A centroiding experiment have been carried out on a metrology testbed in open laboratory. In this paper, we present the preliminary results of determining the separations between star images. Without calibration of pixel positions and intra-pixel response, we have demonstrated that the standard deviation of differential centroiding is below 7.4e-3 pixel by the algorithm of linear corrected photon weighted means(LCPWM)[2,3]. For comparison, the photon weighted means(PWM) and Gauss fitting are also used in the data reduction. These results pave the way for the geometrical calibration and the intra-pixel quantum efficiency(QE) calibration of detector array equipment for micro-pixel accuracy centroiding.
Metrology calibration and very high accuracy centroiding with the NEAT testbed
Crouzier, A; Preis, O; Henault, F; Kern, P; Martin, G; Feautrier, P; Stadler, E; Lafrasse, S; Delboulbe, A; Behar, E; Saint-Pe, M; Dupont, J; Potin, S; Cara, C; Donati, M; Doumayrou, E; Lagage, P O; Léger, A; LeDuigou, J M; Shao, M; Goullioud, R
2014-01-01
NEAT is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA with the objectives of detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. NEAT requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 5e-6 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 2e-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The European part of the NEAT consortium is building a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 5e-6 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the NEAT spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a mirror on the CCD. The ...
Jang, Seogjoo
2013-01-01
An exact real time quantum dynamics preaveraged over imaginary time path integral is formulated for general condensed phase equilibrium ensemble. This formulation results in the well-known centroid dynamics approach upon filtering of centroid constraint, and provides a rigorous framework to understand and analyze a related quantum dynamics approximation method called ring polymer molecular dynamics. The formulation also serves as the basis for developing new kinds of quantum dynamics that uti...
Valentine, A.P.; Trampert, J.
2012-01-01
The centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) algorithm provides a straightforward, rapid method for the determination of seismic source parameters from waveform data. As such, it has found widespread application, and catalogues of CMT solutions – particularly the catalogue maintained by the Global CMT Project –
Beam centroid motion estimate for a high current LIA
A high current linear induction accelerator now is being constructed in Institute of Fluid Physics. It consists of 18 blocks, totally 72 induction accelerating cells, and 18 connection cells with ports for beam diagnostic hardware and vacuum pump. The goal of the facility is to obtain high quality, high current pulse electron beams. In order to reduce corkscrew motion caused by energy spread and misalignment of a focusing system some measures to control the transverse motion of beam centroid must be taken. At first magnetic alignment is performed by using pulsed-wire technique very carefully, then the tilt errors is corrected by a pair of steering coils, which are located inside each cell, after that based on the alignment data a simple estimate of the beam centroid motion has been done by transfer matrix algorithm. In this paper, the calculated and analysis results are presented
Centroid precision and orientation precision of planar localization microscopy.
McGray, C; Copeland, C R; Stavis, S M; Geist, J
2016-09-01
The concept of localization precision, which is essential to localization microscopy, is formally extended from optical point sources to microscopic rigid bodies. Measurement functions are presented to calculate the planar pose and motion of microscopic rigid bodies from localization microscopy data. Physical lower bounds on the associated uncertainties - termed centroid precision and orientation precision - are derived analytically in terms of the characteristics of the optical measurement system and validated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations. The practical utility of these expressions is demonstrated experimentally by an analysis of the motion of a microelectromechanical goniometer indicated by a sparse constellation of fluorescent nanoparticles. Centroid precision and orientation precision, as developed here, are useful concepts due to the generality of the expressions and the widespread interest in localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and particle tracking. PMID:26970565
A double inequality for bounding Toader mean by the centroidal mean
Yun Hua; Feng Qi
2014-11-01
In this paper, the authors find the best numbers and such that $\\overline{C}( a+ (1 - )b$, $ b + (1 - )a) < T (a, b) < \\overline{C} ( a + (1 - )b, b + (1 - )a)$ for all , > 0 with ≠ , where $\\overline{C}(a, b) = \\frac{2(a^{2}+ab+b^{2})}{3(a+b)}$ and $T(a, b) = \\frac{2}{} \\int^{/2}_{0}\\sqrt{a^{2}\\cos^{2} + b^{2}\\sin^{2} } {\\rm d}$ denote respectively the centroidal mean and Toader mean of two positive numbers and .
The generation of spatial population distributions from census centroid data
I Bracken; Martin, D.
1989-01-01
Census data are commonly used in geographical analysis and to inform planning purposes, though at the disaggregate level the basis of enumeration poses difficulties. In this paper an approach to surface generation is described that offers the prospect of revealing an underlying population distribution from centroid-based data which is independent of zonal geography. It is suggested that this can serve a wide variety of analytical, cartographic, and policy purposes, including the creation of s...
Non-obtuse Remeshing with Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation
Yan, Dongming
2015-12-03
We present a novel remeshing algorithm that avoids triangles with small and triangles with large (obtuse) angles. Our solution is based on an extension to Centroidal Voronoi Tesselation (CVT). We augment the original CVT formulation by a penalty term that penalizes short Voronoi edges, while the CVT term helps to avoid small angles. Our results show significant improvements of the remeshing quality over the state of the art.
Classification of open clusters by centroid method of taxonomical analysis
Distributions of open clusters of the Galaxy in spaces with coordinates being mass, absolute magnitude, integrated colour index, diameter, metallicity, and age, are considered. Majority of clusters are shown to enter several taxons (classes) with narrow enough limits of these parameters. The classes form a linear sequence by age and two-dimensional sequence on colour - magnitude diagram. They are not isolated but transit into each other continuously. It possibly means an absence of significant gaps in cluster formation process. Bifurcation of age sequence of classes depending on mass and diameter values is found. This allows an evolutionary interpretation
An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals
Saputra, K V I [Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University Pelita Harapan, Jl. MH Thamrin Boulevard, Tangerang Banten, 15811 (Indonesia); Quispel, G R W [Department of Mathematics and Statistical Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3086 (Australia); Van Veen, L, E-mail: kie.saputra@staff.uph.ed [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St N., Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)
2010-06-04
In this paper we develop an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two- and three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.
An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals
Saputra, K V I; van Veen, L
2010-01-01
In this paper we developed an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two and three dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.
Methods to Find the Number of Latent Skills
Beheshti, Behzad; Desmarais, Michel C.; Naceur, Rhouma
2012-01-01
Identifying the skills that determine the success or failure to exercises and question items is a difficult task. Multiple skills may be involved at various degree of importance, and skills may overlap and correlate. In an effort towards the goal of finding the skills behind a set of items, we investigate two techniques to determine the number of…
Gender-based violence: concepts, methods, and findings.
Russo, Nancy Felipe; Pirlott, Angela
2006-11-01
The United Nations has identified gender-based violence against women as a global health and development issue, and a host of policies, public education, and action programs aimed at reducing gender-based violence have been undertaken around the world. This article highlights new conceptualizations, methodological issues, and selected research findings that can inform such activities. In addition to describing recent research findings that document relationships between gender, power, sexuality, and intimate violence cross-nationally, it identifies cultural factors, including linkages between sex and violence through media images that may increase women's risk for violence, and profiles a host of negative physical, mental, and behavioral health outcomes associated with victimization including unwanted pregnancy and abortion. More research is needed to identify the causes, dynamics, and outcomes of gender-based violence, including media effects, and to articulate how different forms of such violence vary in outcomes depending on cultural context. PMID:17189506
Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings
Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.
2016-01-01
Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and ...
Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber
Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal, E-mail: khasmidatul@siswa.um.edu.my; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T., E-mail: wat@um.edu.my; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin [National Centre for Particle Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2016-01-22
Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.
Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber
Azmi, K. A. Mohammad Kamal; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin
2016-01-01
Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC.
Hough transform method for track finding in center drift chamber
Hough transform is a global tracking method used which had been expected to be faster approach for tracking the circular pattern of electron moving in Center Drift Chamber (CDC), by transforming the point of hit into a circular curve. This paper present the implementation of hough transform method for the reconstruction of tracks in Center Drift Chamber (CDC) which have been generated by random number in C language programming. Result from implementation of this method shows higher peak of circle parameter value (xc,yc,rc) that indicate the similarity value of the parameter needed for circular track in CDC for charged particles in the region of CDC
James Joseph Wright
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Receptive fields of neurons in the forelimb region of areas 3b and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex, in cats and monkeys, were mapped using extracellular recordings obtained sequentially from nearly radial penetrations. Locations of the field centroids indicated the presence of a functional system, in which cortical homotypic representations of the limb surfaces are entwined in three-dimensional Mobius-strip-like patterns of synaptic connections. Boundaries of somatosensory receptive field in nested groups irregularly overlie the centroid order, and are interpreted as arising from the superposition of learned connections upon the embryonic order. Since the theory of embryonic synaptic self-organisation used to model these results was devised and earlier used to explain findings in primary visual cortex, the present findings suggest the theory may be of general application throughout cortex, and may reveal a modular functional synaptic system, which, only in some parts of the cortex, and in some species, is manifest as anatomical ordering into columns.
Mello, Alexandre J T S; Pipa, Daniel R
2016-05-10
Adaptive optics in the new generation of large telescopes, over 24 m in diameter, present new challenges. One of them is spot elongation in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors when using laser guide stars. The laser brightness depends on the sodium layer density profile, and this is reproduced in the format of an elongated spot. The pattern of the spot is a problem for centroiding techniques, and knowledge of the sodium layer profile is essential for adequate centroiding. In this work, we propose a super-resolution reconstruction technique that combines the information available in various low-resolution elongated spots over the sub-apertures of the sensor to obtain a high-resolution sodium layer density profile that can be used as a reference in centroiding. This is achieved with the information available in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor only, dispensing with external measurements. Finally, we present simulation results of an iterative method that yields a super-resolved sodium layer density profile jointly with improved centroiding. PMID:27168279
Generalized method for finding community structures in networks
Chang, Chang
2013-01-01
To date, most algorithms aiming to find community structures in networks mainly focus on unipartite or bipartite networks. However, to our knowledge, there is no algorithm specifically designed for the mixture network, a third type defined in our paper that represents a wide range of real-world networks. Interestingly, unipartite and bipartite networks can be viewed as limiting cases of a mixture network, suggesting that the mixture network can be considered as a general condition. Based on this observation, we propose a probabilistic model based on the link community model for a unipartite, undirected network [B. Ball, B. Karrer, and M. E. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 84, 036103 (2011)] by redefining this model in the context of a bipartite network and generalizing the bipartite network version model to a mixture network, the general condition, which can be used to find modules in unipartite, bipartite, and mixture networks in a unified framework. We show that both the model of Ball et al. (unipartite, undirected ne...
Class hierarchy method to find Change-Proneness
Malan V.Gaikwad
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Finding Proneness of software is necessary to identify fault prone and change prone classes at earlier stages of development, so that those classes can be given special attention. Also to improves the quality and reliability of the software. For corrective and adaptive maintenance we require to make changes during the software evolution.As such changes cluster around number of key components in software, it is important to analyze the frequency of changes in individual classes and also to identify and show related changes in multiple classes. Early detection of fault prone and change prone classes can enables the developers and experts to spend their valuable time and resources on these areas of software. Prediction of change-prone and fault prone classes of a software is an active topic in the area of software engineering. Such prediction can be used to predict changes to different classes of a system from one release of software to the next release. Identifying the change-prone and fault prone classes in advance can helps to focus attention on these classes.In this paper we are focusing on finding dependency of software that can be chieved by estimating the proneness of Object Oriented Software. Two main types of proneness are associated with OO software. Fault Proneness and Change Proneness.
Finding Methods for Innovative Packaging Development: The Card Approach
Magnusson, Amanda; Olander, Malin; Olsson, Annika
2013-01-01
Innovation strategies are crucial for corporate success and should be a top priority for packaging companies. However, to improve the innovativeness of packaging manufacturers, there is a need to increase the integration of product and packaging development and collaboration within the supply chain. New methods for innovative packaging development are needed. Packaging plays a valuable role in the marketing and distribution of products, and can thus add great value for actors in the supply...
A Simple Method To Find All Lensed Quasars
Kochanek, C. S.; Mochejska, B.; Morgan, N. D.; Stanek, K. Z.
2005-01-01
We demonstrate that gravitationally lensed quasars are easily recognized using image subtraction methods as time variable sources that are spatially extended. For Galactic latitudes |b|>20 deg, lensed quasars dominate the population of spatially extended variable sources, although there is some contamination from variable star pairs, variable star-quasar pairs and binary quasars that can be easily controlled using other information in the survey such as the object light curves and colors. Thi...
Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings
Paul M Macey
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with
Findings from analysing and quantifying human error using current methods
In human reliability analysis (HRA), the scarcity of data means that, at best, judgement must be applied to transfer to the domain of the analysis what data are available for similar tasks. In particular for the quantification of tasks involving decisions, the analyst has to choose among quantification approaches that all depend to a significant degree on expert judgement. The use of expert judgement can be made more reliable by eliciting relative judgements rather than absolute judgements. These approaches, which are based on multiple criterion decision theory, focus on ranking the tasks to be analysed by difficulty. While these approaches remedy at least partially the poor performance of experts in the estimation of probabilities, they nevertheless require the calibration of the relative scale on which the actions are ranked in order to obtain the probabilities of interest. This paper presents some results from a comparison of some current HRA methods performed in the frame of a study of SLIM calibration options. The HRA quantification methods THERP, HEART, and INTENT were applied to derive calibration human error probabilities for two groups of operator actions. (author)
A evolutionary method for finding communities in bipartite networks
WeiHua, Zhan; Jihong, Guan; Shuigeng, Zhou
2010-01-01
Common practice in community structure detection is to develop different methods for different classes of networks. Here, we first show that unipartite networks and directed networks can be uniformly represented as bipartite networks, and their modularity completely consist with that for bipartite networks. To optimize the bipartite modularity, we then present a modified adaptive genetic algorithm, called as MMOGA, which is especially suited for community structure detection. In MMOGA, we introduce a new measure for the informativeness of a locus instead of the standard deviation, which can exactly determine those loci to mutate. This measure is the bias between the distribution of a locus over the current population and the uniform distribution of the locus, i.e., Kull-back Divergence between them. Moreover, we develop a reassignment technique for differentiating the informative state a locus has attained from the random state at initial phase. Also we present a modified mutation rule which incorporating rel...
Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region
Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.
2015-12-01
Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for
Onychomycosis: Clinical findings, etiological agents and evaluation of laboratory methods
Dubljanin Eleonora
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the etiological agents in patients with suspected onychomycosis, and to carry out comparative testing of individual or combinations of tests: direct microscopy with KOH and Blankophor (BP, culturing on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA, diluted Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (D-SDA and dermatophyte test medium (DTM. From 70 nail samples (65 toenails, 5 fingernails, 46 (60.5% had at least one of five positive tests. Isolation was possible in 41, while in 5 samples the presence of fungi was observed by KOH and/or BP. Dermatophytes were most frequently isolated (80.5% where Trichophyton rubrum was predominant. Candida spp. was isolated in 9.8%, Aspergillus spp. 4.9%, Alternaria spp. 2.4% and Fusarium spp. 2.4%. Application of BP as an individual test was the most sensitive method. The combination of BP with DTM or D-SDA provides the best sensitivity and allows the identification of fungi to the species/genus level.
Visualising Pipeline Sensor Datasets with Modified Incremental Orthogonal Centroid Algorithm
Folorunso Olufemi Ayinde
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Each year, millions of people suffer from after-effects of pipeline leakages, spills, and eruptions. Leakages Detection Systems (LDS are often used to understand and analyse these phenomena but unfortunately could not offer complete solution to reducing the scale of the problem. One recent approach was to collect datasets from these pipeline sensors and analyse offline, the approach yielded questionable results due to vast nature of the datasets. These datasets together with the necessity for powerful exploration tools made most pipelines operating companies "data rich but information poor". Researchers have therefore identified problem of dimensional reduction for pipeline sensor datasets as a major research issue. Hence, systematic gap filling data mining development approaches are required to transform data "tombs" into "golden nuggets" of knowledge. This paper proposes an algorithm for this purpose based on the Incremental Orthogonal Centroid (IOC. Search time for specific data patterns may be enhanced using this algorithm.
Regularities with random interactions in energy centroids defined by group symmetries
Kota, V K B
2005-01-01
Regular structures generated by random interactions in energy centroids defined over irreducible representations (irreps) of some of the group symmetries of the interacting boson models $sd$IBM, $sdg$IBM, $sd$IBM-$T$ and $sd$IBM-$ST$ are studied by deriving trace propagations equations for the centroids. It is found that, with random interactions, the lowest and highest group irreps in general carry most of the probability for the corresponding centroids to be lowest in energy. This generalizes the result known earlier, via numerical diagonalization, for the more complicated fixed spin ($J$) centroids where simple trace propagation is not possible.
Virbhadra, K S
2007-01-01
We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for the Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due the Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, the strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image ...
Outlier Finding from Clusters using Categorical Data
Anamika Malaiya
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A New Categorical Data algorithm which combines a systematic method for finding initial centroids and an efficient way for assigning data points to clusters. This method ensures the entire process generate cluster without sacrificing the accuracy. It always generate good cluster by reducing the mean square error. Our clustering algorithm serves as a good benchmark to monitor the progression of student’s performance in institute. It also enhances the decision making by academic planners to monitor the student’s performance semester by semester by improving on the future academic results in the subsequence academic session.
Total Magnification and Magnification Centroid Due to Strongly Naked Singularity Lensing
DeAndrea, Justin
2015-01-01
A strongly naked singularity (SNS) was modelled at the center of the Galaxy. This specific type of naked singularity was characterized in 2008 by Virbhadra and Keeton. The lens is described using the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric, which has an ordinary mass and massless scalar charge parameters. Gravitational lensing by the SNS gives rise to 4 images: 2 images on the same side as the source and 2 images on the opposite side of the source from the optic axis. We compute magnification centroid, magnification centroid shift, and total absolute magnification for many values of the angular source position. The nature of the curve for all three results are qualitatively similar to Schwarzschild black hole lenses, but quantitatively different. Magnification centroid increases as angular source position increases. As angular source position increases, magnification centroid shift increases to a maximum value, and then begins to decrease. As angular source position becomes large, magnification centroid shift will appro...
Grand-Canonical Adaptive Resolution Centroid Molecular Dynamics: Implementation and Application
Agarwal, Animesh
2016-01-01
We have implemented the Centroid Molecular Dynamics scheme (CMD) into the Grand Canonical-like version of the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Molecular Dynamics (GC-AdResS) method. We have tested the implementation on two different systems, liquid parahydrogen at extreme thermodynamic conditions and liquid water at ambient conditions; the reproduction of structural as well as dynamical results of reference systems are highly satisfactory. The capability of performing GC-AdResS CMD simulations allows for the treatment of a system characterized by some quantum features and open boundaries. This latter characteristic not only is of computational convenience, allowing for equivalent results of much larger and computationally more expensive systems, but also suggests a tool of analysis so far not explored, that is the unambiguous identification of the essential (quantum) degrees of freedom required for a given property.
A Direct Algebraic Method in Finding Particular Solutions to Some Nonlinear Evolution Equations
LIUChun-Ping; CHENJian-Kang; CAIFan
2004-01-01
Firstly, a direct algebraic method and a routine way in finding traveling wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations are explained. And then some new exact solutions for some evolution equations are obtained by using the method.
High-speed on-chip windowed centroiding using photodiode-based CMOS imager
Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A centroid computation system is disclosed. The system has an imager array, a switching network, computation elements, and a divider circuit. The imager array has columns and rows of pixels. The switching network is adapted to receive pixel signals from the image array. The plurality of computation elements operates to compute inner products for at least x and y centroids. The plurality of computation elements has only passive elements to provide inner products of pixel signals the switching network. The divider circuit is adapted to receive the inner products and compute the x and y centroids.
NEWTON''S METHOD FOR FINDING EXTREMUM OF STRONGLY CONVEX FUNCTIONALS
BAMADIO B.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this article the generalized method for solving nonlinear equations for finding the extremum of functions is presented. In the thesis, the examples show that the method of expanding the domain of convergence from different initial approximations, obviously do not meet sufficient conditions for convergence of the classical Newton's method.
Wang Haiyong; Wang Yonghai; Li Zhifeng; Song Zhenfei
2014-01-01
Simulated star maps serve as convenient inputs for the test of a star sensor, whose stan-dardability mostly depends on the centroid precision of the simulated star image, so it is necessary to accomplish systematic error compensation for the simple Gaussian PSF (or SPSF, in which PSF denotes point spread function). Firstly, the error mechanism of the SPSF is described, the reason of centroid deviations of the simulated star images based on SPSF lies in the unreasonable sampling positions (the centers of the covered pixels) of the Gaussian probability density function. Then in reference to the IPSF simulated star image spots regarded as ideal ones, and by means of normal-ization and numerical fitting, the pixel center offset function expressions are got, so the systematic centroid error compensation can be executed simply by substituting the pixel central position with the offset position in the SPSF. Finally, the centroid precision tests are conducted for the three big error cases of Gaussian radius r=0.5, 0.6, 0.671 pixel, and the centroid accuracy with the compen-sated SPSF (when r=0.5) is improved to 2.83 times that of the primitive SPSF, reaching a 0.008 pixel error, an equivalent level of the IPSF. Besides its simplicity, the compensated SPSF further increases both the shape similarity and the centroid precision of simulated star images, which helps to improve the image quality and the standardability of the outputs of an electronic star map sim-ulator (ESS).
Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models
Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik
2007-01-01
Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set as...
Initial data for general relativistic SPH with Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations
Pablo, Cruz Pérez Juan
2013-01-01
In this work we present an alternative method to obtain a distribution of particles over an hyper surface, such that they obey a rest-mass density distribution $\\rho(x^i)$. We use density profiles that can be written as $\\rho(x^1,x^2,x^3)=\\rho(x^1) \\rho(x^2) \\rho(x^3)$ in order to be able to use them as a probability density functions. We can find the relation between the chart $x^j$ and a uniform random variable $\\bar{x}^j \\in (0,1)$, say $F(x^j)=\\bar{x}^j$. Using the inverse of this function we relate a set of $N$ arbitrary number of points inside a cube with coordinates $\\{ x^j =F^{-1}(\\bar{x}^j)\\}$ giving the position in order to get the density distribution $\\rho(x^j)$. We get some noise due to the random distribution and we can notice that each time we relax the configuration on the cube we also get a better distribution of the desired physical configuration described with $\\rho(x^j)$. This relaxation of the position of the particles in the cube has been performed a Lloyd's algorithm in 3D and we have u...
Dressing transformation method for finding soliton solutions of the sinh-Gordon equation
In this paper, the establishment of the dressing transformations in the sinh-Gordon model is reconsidered. By carefully analysing the infinitesimal structures of dressing transformations, we improve the algebraic method for solving the dressing problem in the system and then lay the dressing transformation method on a firm basis. The modified dressing transformation method, which no longer contains any deductive jumps, turns out to become a powerful Hamiltonian approach to finding N-soliton solutions (N≥1) of the integrable systems. (author)
Roch, Julien; Duperray, Pierre; Schindelé, François
2016-03-01
Most of the tsunami potential seismic sources in the NEAM region are in a magnitude range of 6.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.5 (e.g. the tsunami triggered by the Boumerdes earthquake of 2003 with Mw=6.9 ). The CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis (CENALT), in operation since 2012 as the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) and Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP), has to issue warning messages within 15 min of earthquake origin time. These warnings are based on the seismic source parameters (Mw magnitude, focal depth and type of fault), which are computed by focal mechanisms and centroid inversion methods. The W-phase method, developed by Kanamori and Rivera, allows quick computation of seismic source parameters due to the early arrival time between P-waves and surface waves, and is therefore particularly useful for monitoring. We assess the W-phase method with 29 events of magnitude M_w ≥ 5.8 for the period 2010-2015 in the NEAM region. Results with 10 min of signal length are in good agreement compared to the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalog.
AN EFFICIENT DATA MINING METHOD TO FIND FREQUENT ITEM SETS IN LARGE DATABASE USING TR- FCTM
Saravanan Suba
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Mining association rules in large database is one of most popular data mining techniques for business decision makers. Discovering frequent item set is the core process in association rule mining. Numerous algorithms are available in the literature to find frequent patterns. Apriori and FP-tree are the most common methods for finding frequent items. Apriori finds significant frequent items using candidate generation with more number of data base scans. FP-tree uses two database scans to find significant frequent items without using candidate generation. This proposed TR-FCTM (Transaction Reduction- Frequency Count Table Method discovers significant frequent items by generating full candidates once to form frequency count table with one database scan. Experimental results of TR-FCTM shows that this algorithm outperforms than Apriori and FP-tree.
Accuracy Evaluation for Region Centroid-Based Registration of Fluorescent CLSM Imagery
Lin Amy
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We present an accuracy evaluation of a semiautomatic registration technique for 3D volume reconstruction from fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM imagery. The presented semiautomatic method is designed based on our observations that (a an accurate point selection is much harder than an accurate region (segment selection for a human, (b a centroid selection of any region is less accurate by a human than by a computer, and (c registration based on structural shape of a region rather than based on intensity-defined point is more robust to noise and to morphological deformation of features across stacks. We applied the method to image mosaicking and image alignment registration steps and evaluated its performance with 20 human subjects on CLSM images with stained blood vessels. Our experimental evaluation showed significant benefits of automation for 3D volume reconstruction in terms of achieved accuracy, consistency of results, and performance time. In addition, the results indicate that the differences between registration accuracy obtained by experts and by novices disappear with the proposed semiautomatic registration technique while the absolute registration accuracy increases.
Shirokov, Dmitry
2009-01-01
In this paper we further develop the method of quaternion typification of Clifford algebra elements suggested by the author in the previous papers. On the basis of new classification of Clifford algebra elements it is possible to find out and prove a number of new properties of Clifford algebra. In particular, we find subalgebras and Lie subalgebras of Clifford algebra and subalgebras of the Lie algebra of the pseudo-unitary Lie group.
A trilinear method for finding null points in a three-dimensional vector space
Null points are important locations in vector fields, such as a magnetic field. A new technique (a trilinear method for finding null points) is presented for finding null points over a large grid of points, such as those derived from a numerical experiment. The method was designed so that the null points found would agree with any field lines traced using the commonly used trilinear interpolation. It is split into three parts: reduction, analysis, and positioning, which, when combined, provide an efficient means of locating null points to a user-defined subgrid accuracy. We compare the results of the trilinear method with that of a method based on the Poincare index, and discuss the accuracy and limitations of both methods
The effect of event shape on centroiding in photon counting detectors
High resolution, CCD readout, photon counting detectors employ simple centroiding algorithms for defining the spatial position of each detected event. The accuracy of centroiding is very dependent upon a number of parameters including the profile, energy and width of the intensified event. In this paper, we provide an analysis of how the characteristics of an intensified event change as the input count rate increases and the consequent effect on centroiding. The changes in these parameters are applied in particular to the MIC photon counting detector developed at UCL for ground and space based astronomical applications. This detector has a maximum format of 3072x2304 pixels permitting its use in the highest resolution applications. Individual events, at light level from 5 to 1000k events/s over the detector area, were analysed. It was found that both the asymmetry and width of event profiles were strongly dependent upon the energy of the intensified event. The variation in profile then affected the centroiding accuracy leading to loss of resolution. These inaccuracies have been quantified for two different 3 CCD pixel centroiding algorithms and one 2 pixel algorithm. The results show that a maximum error of less than 0.05 CCD pixel occurs with the 3 pixel algorithms and 0.1 CCD pixel for the 2 pixel algorithm. An improvement is proposed by utilising straight pore MCPs in the intensifier and a 70 μm air gap in front of the CCD. ((orig.))
The method of geometric progression for finding a minimum of unimodal functions
Abdukhamidov, A.U. [Samarkand Univ. (Russian Federation)
1994-06-05
An asymptotically optimal method for finding a minimal point x{sup *} for a function f(x) {element_of} C{sup 2}, unimodal on an interval [a{sub k},b{sub k}] is proposed. This method partitions the intervals {delta}{sub k} = b{sub k} - a{sub k}, k = 1, 2, {hor_ellipsis}, and locates x{sup *} by means of a decreasing geometric progression. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization
Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare
2015-01-01
One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...
Zarkevich, Nikolai A
2014-01-01
The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, C2-NEB finds it with higher stability and accuracy. However, C2-NEB is suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS but guarantees that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP, and it estimates accuracy from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB (SS-NEB).
Estimation Normal Vector of Triangular Mesh Vertex by Angle and Centroid Weights and its Application
Yueping Chen
2013-04-01
Full Text Available To compute vertex normal of triangular meshes more accurately, this paper presents an improved algorithm based on angle and centroid weights. Firstly, four representational algorithms are analyzed by comparing their weighting characteristics such as angles, areas and centroids. The drawbacks of each algorithm are discussed. Following that, an improved algorithm is put forward based on angle and centroid weights. Finally, by taking the deviation angle between the nominal normal vector and the estimated one as the error evaluation standard factor, the triangular mesh models of spheres, ellipsoids, paraboloids and cylinders are used to analyze the performance of all these estimation algorithms. The machining and inspection operations of one mould part are conducted to verify the improved algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm is effective.
Wang Haiyong
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Simulated star maps serve as convenient inputs for the test of a star sensor, whose standardability mostly depends on the centroid precision of the simulated star image, so it is necessary to accomplish systematic error compensation for the simple Gaussian PSF (or SPSF, in which PSF denotes point spread function. Firstly, the error mechanism of the SPSF is described, the reason of centroid deviations of the simulated star images based on SPSF lies in the unreasonable sampling positions (the centers of the covered pixels of the Gaussian probability density function. Then in reference to the IPSF simulated star image spots regarded as ideal ones, and by means of normalization and numerical fitting, the pixel center offset function expressions are got, so the systematic centroid error compensation can be executed simply by substituting the pixel central position with the offset position in the SPSF. Finally, the centroid precision tests are conducted for the three big error cases of Gaussian radius σ = 0.5, 0.6, 0.671 pixel, and the centroid accuracy with the compensated SPSF (when σ = 0.5 is improved to 2.83 times that of the primitive SPSF, reaching a 0.008 pixel error, an equivalent level of the IPSF. Besides its simplicity, the compensated SPSF further increases both the shape similarity and the centroid precision of simulated star images, which helps to improve the image quality and the standardability of the outputs of an electronic star map simulator (ESS.
J. Joiner
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The cloud Optical Centroid Pressure (OCP is a satellite-derived parameter that is commonly used in trace-gas retrievals to account for the effects of clouds on near-infrared through ultraviolet radiance measurements. Fast simulators are desirable to further expand the use of cloud OCP retrievals into the operational and climate communities for applications such as data assimilation and evaluation of cloud vertical structure in general circulation models. In this paper, we develop and validate fast simulators that provide estimates of the cloud OCP given a vertical profile of optical extinction. We use a pressure-weighting scheme where the weights depend upon optical parameters of clouds and/or aerosols. A cloud weighting function is easily extracted using this formulation. We then use fast simulators to compare two different satellite cloud OCP retrievals, from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, with estimates based on collocated cloud extinction profiles from a combination of CloudSat radar and MODIS visible radiance data. These comparisons are made over a wide range of conditions to provide a comprehensive validation of the OMI cloud OCP retrievals. We find generally good agreement between OMI cloud OCPs and those predicted by CloudSat. However, the OMI cloud OCPs from the two independent algorithms agree better with each other than either does with the estimates from CloudSat/MODIS. Differences between OMI cloud OCPs and those based on CloudSat/MODIS may result from undetected snow/ice at the surface, cloud 3-D effects, cases of low clouds obscurred by ground-clutter in CloudSat observations and by opaque high clouds in CALIPSO lidar observations, and the fact that CloudSat/CALIPSO only observes a relatively small fraction of an OMI field-of-view.
J. Joiner
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The cloud Optical Centroid Pressure (OCP is a satellite-derived parameter that is commonly used in trace-gas retrievals to account for the effects of clouds on near-infrared through ultraviolet radiance measurements. A fast simulator is desirable in order to further expand the use of cloud OCP retrievals into the operational and climate communities for applications such as data assimilation and evaluation of cloud vertical structure in general circulation models. In this paper, we develop and validate a fast simulator that provides estimates of the cloud OCP given a vertical profile of optical extinction. We use a pressure-weighting scheme where the weights depend upon optical parameters of clouds and/or aerosol. A cloud weighting function is easily extracted using this formulation. We then use the fast simulator to compare two different satellite cloud OCP retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with estimates based on collocated cloud extinction profiles from a combination of CloudSat radar and MODIS visible radiance data. These comparisons are made over a wide range of conditions in order to provide a comprehensive validation of the OMI cloud OCP retrievals. We find generally good agreement between OMI cloud OCPs and those predicted by CloudSat. However, the OMI cloud OCPs from the two independent algorithms agree better with each other than either does with the estimates from CloudSat/MODIS. Differences between OMI cloud OCPs and those based on CloudSat/MODIS may result from undetected snow/ice at the surface, cloud 3-D effects, and the fact that CloudSat only observes a relatively small fraction of OMI pixel.
Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A.; Gupta, P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Veefkind, P.; Sneep, M.; de Haan, J.; Polonsky, I.; Spurr, R.
2012-01-01
The cloud Optical Centroid Pressure (OCP), also known as the effective cloud pressure, is a satellite-derived parameter that is commonly used in trace-gas retrievals to account for the effects of clouds on near-infrared through ultraviolet radiance measurements. Fast simulators are desirable to further expand the use of cloud OCP retrievals into the operational and climate communities for applications such as data assimilation and evaluation of cloud vertical structure in general circulation models. In this paper, we develop and validate fast simulators that provide estimates of the cloud OCP given a vertical profile of optical extinction. We use a pressure-weighting scheme where the weights depend upon optical parameters of clouds and/or aerosol. A cloud weighting function is easily extracted using this formulation. We then use fast simulators to compare two different satellite cloud OCP retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with estimates based on collocated cloud extinction profiles from a combination of CloudS at radar and MODIS visible radiance data. These comparisons are made over a wide range of conditions to provide a comprehensive validation of the OMI cloud OCP retrievals. We find generally good agreement between OMI cloud OCPs and those predicted by CloudSat. However, the OMI cloud OCPs from the two independent algorithms agree better with each other than either does with the estimates from CloudSat/MODIS. Differences between OMI cloud OCPs and those based on CloudSat/MODIS may result from undetected snow/ice at the surface, cloud 3-D effects, low altitude clouds missed by CloudSat, and the fact that CloudSat only observes a relatively small fraction of an OMI field-of-view.
A method for finding the ridge between saddle points applied to rare event rate estimates
Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Jónsson, Hannes; Vegge, Tejs
2012-01-01
to the path. The method is applied to Al adatom diffusion on the Al(100) surface to find the ridge between 2-, 3- and 4-atom concerted displacements and hop mechanisms. A correction to the harmonic approximation of transition state theory was estimated by direct evaluation of the configuration......A method is presented for finding the ridge between first order saddle points on a multidimensional surface. For atomic scale systems, such saddle points on the energy surface correspond to atomic rearrangement mechanisms. Information about the ridge can be used to test the validity of the harmonic...... approximation to transition state theory, in particular to verify that second order saddle points—maxima along the ridge—are high enough compared to the first order saddle points. New minima along the ridge can also be identified during the path optimisation, thereby revealing additional transition mechanisms...
A Root-MUSIC-Like Direction Finding Method for Cyclostationary Signals
Yide Wang
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new root-MUSIC-like direction finding algorithm that exploits cyclostationarity in order to improve the direction-of-arrival estimation. The proposed cyclic method is signal selective, it allows to increase the resolution power and the noise robustness significantly, and it is also able to handle more sources than the number of sensors. Computer simulations are used to show the performance of the algorithm.
A Root-MUSIC-Like Direction Finding Method for Cyclostationary Signals
2005-01-01
We propose a new root-MUSIC-like direction finding algorithm that exploits cyclostationarity in order to improve the direction-of-arrival estimation. The proposed cyclic method is signal selective, it allows to increase the resolution power and the noise robustness significantly, and it is also able to handle more sources than the number of sensors. Computer simulations are used to show the performance of the algorithm.
Geothermal energy environmental problems and control methods: review of recent findings
Nguyen, V.T.; Caskey, J.F.; Pfundstein, R.T.; Rifkin, S.B.
1980-06-01
The findings of a literature review on the environmental concerns and associated control methods of geothermal energy utilization are presented. The document introduces the environmental problems associated with geothermal energy utilization; assesses the current status of control methods; references appropriate environmental documents; and identifies areas where additional environmental research is needed. The review attempts to consolidate current understanding of the environmental impact of geothermal energy development. Approximately 180 reports written by authors in industry, government and academia have been reviewed in the areas of air emissions, surface and subsurface liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, and induced seismicity.
An Approach for registration method to find corresponding mass lesions in temporal mammogram pairs
Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Radiologists generally use multiple mammographic views to detect and characterize suspiciousregions. When radiologists discover a suspicious lesion in one view, they try to find a corresponding lesion in the other views. Views from different projections, typically cranio caudal (CC and medio lateral oblique (MLO views, allow for a better realization of the lesion. Most current computer aided detection (CAD systems differ considerably from radiologists in the way they use multiple views. These systems do not combine information from available views but instead analyse each view separately. Given the positive effect of multiview systems on radiologists' performance we expect that fusion of information from different views will improve CAD systems as well. Such multi-view CAD programs require regional registration methods to find corresponding regions in all available views. In this paper we concentrate on developing such a method for corresponding mass lesions in prior and In other words, starting from a current image containing a mass lesion, the method aims at locating the same mass lesion in the prior image. The method was tested on a set of 412 cancer cases. In each case a malignant mass, architectural distortion or asymmetry was annotated. In 92% of these cases the candidate mass detections by CAD included the cancer regions in both views. It was found that in 82% of the cases a correct link between the true. Positive regions in both views could be established by our method.Key words: Multiple View, Computer-Aided Detection, masses, mammography
Tuberculosis case finding: evaluation of a paper slip method to trace contacts.
Judith Mwansa-Kambafwile
Full Text Available SETTING: South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB burden in the world. Intensified case finding, recommended by WHO, is one way to control TB. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a paper slip method for TB contact tracing. METHOD: TB patients were offered paper slips to give to their contacts, inviting them for TB screening. The number of contacts screened and the proportion diagnosed with TB was calculated. Contacts that returned to the clinic after receiving the slips were interviewed. A focus group discussion (FGD with TB patients was held to determine their acceptability. RESULTS: From 718 paper slips issued, a 26% TB contact tracing rate was found, with a 12% case detection rate. The majority (68% of contacts were screened within 2 weeks of receiving the slip. Age and gender were not significantly associated with time to screening. 16% of the contacts screened did not reside with the TB patients. 98% of the contacts said the method was acceptable. FGD findings show that this method is acceptable and may prevent stigma associated with TB/HIV. CONCLUSION: This simple, inexpensive method yields high contact tracing and case detection rates and potentially would yield additional benefits outside households.
Jun, LIU; Huang, Wei; Hongjie, Fan
2016-02-01
A novel method for finding the initial structure parameters of an optical system via the genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed in this research. Usually, optical designers start their designs from the commonly used structures from a patent database; however, it is time consuming to modify the patented structures to meet the specification. A high-performance design result largely depends on the choice of the starting point. Accordingly, it would be highly desirable to be able to calculate the initial structure parameters automatically. In this paper, a method that combines a genetic algorithm and aberration analysis is used to determine an appropriate initial structure of an optical system. We use a three-mirror system as an example to demonstrate the validity and reliability of this method. On-axis and off-axis telecentric three-mirror systems are obtained based on this method.
Centroid and Theoretical Rotation: Justification for Their Use in Q Methodology Research
Ramlo, Sue
2016-01-01
This manuscript's purpose is to introduce Q as a methodology before providing clarification about the preferred factor analytical choices of centroid and theoretical (hand) rotation. Stephenson, the creator of Q, designated that only these choices allowed for scientific exploration of subjectivity while not violating assumptions associated with…
A general methodology is developed to experimentally characterize the spatial distribution of occupied traps in dielectric films on a semiconductor. The effects of parasitics such as leakage, charge transport through more than one interface, and interface trap charge are quantitatively addressed. Charge transport with contributions from multiple charge species is rigorously treated. The methodology is independent of the charge transport mechanism(s), and is directly applicable to multilayer dielectric structures. The centroid capacitance, rather than the centroid itself, is introduced as the fundamental quantity that permits the generic analysis of multilayer structures. In particular, the form of many equations describing stacked dielectric structures becomes independent of the number of layers comprising the stack if they are expressed in terms of the centroid capacitance and/or the flatband voltage. The experimental methodology is illustrated with an application using thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements. The centroid of changes (via thermal emission) in the amount of trapped charge was determined for two different samples of a triple-layer dielectric structure. A direct consequence of the TSC analyses is the rigorous proof that changes in interface trap charge can contribute, though typically not significantly, to thermally stimulated current
Xiong, Kun; Jiang, Jie
2015-01-01
Compared with traditional star trackers, intensified high-accuracy star trackers equipped with an image intensifier exhibit overwhelmingly superior dynamic performance. However, the multiple-fiber-optic faceplate structure in the image intensifier complicates the optoelectronic detecting system of star trackers and may cause considerable systematic centroid errors and poor attitude accuracy. All the sources of systematic centroid errors related to fiber optic faceplates (FOFPs) throughout the detection process of the optoelectronic system were analyzed. Based on the general expression of the systematic centroid error deduced in the frequency domain and the FOFP modulation transfer function, an accurate expression that described the systematic centroid error of FOFPs was obtained. Furthermore, reduction of the systematic error between the optical lens and the input FOFP of the intensifier, the one among multiple FOFPs and the one between the output FOFP of the intensifier and the imaging chip of the detecting system were discussed. Two important parametric constraints were acquired from the analysis. The correctness of the analysis on the optoelectronic detecting system was demonstrated through simulation and experiment. PMID:26016920
Kun Xiong
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Compared with traditional star trackers, intensified high-accuracy star trackers equipped with an image intensifier exhibit overwhelmingly superior dynamic performance. However, the multiple-fiber-optic faceplate structure in the image intensifier complicates the optoelectronic detecting system of star trackers and may cause considerable systematic centroid errors and poor attitude accuracy. All the sources of systematic centroid errors related to fiber optic faceplates (FOFPs throughout the detection process of the optoelectronic system were analyzed. Based on the general expression of the systematic centroid error deduced in the frequency domain and the FOFP modulation transfer function, an accurate expression that described the systematic centroid error of FOFPs was obtained. Furthermore, reduction of the systematic error between the optical lens and the input FOFP of the intensifier, the one among multiple FOFPs and the one between the output FOFP of the intensifier and the imaging chip of the detecting system were discussed. Two important parametric constraints were acquired from the analysis. The correctness of the analysis on the optoelectronic detecting system was demonstrated through simulation and experiment.
European–Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor catalog: Solutions for years 2003 and 2004
Pondrelli, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Salimbeni, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Morelli, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Ekström, G.; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA; Boschi, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia
2007-01-01
We present an update, for years 2003 and 2004, of the European– Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) catalog that we maintain since 1997. This update adds 177 new solutions to the database, relating to moderate-magnitude (4.5 ≤M
A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data
Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: There are various methodological approaches to identifying clinically important subgroups and one method is to identify clusters of characteristics that differentiate people in cross-sectional and/or longitudinal data using Cluster Analysis (CA) or Latent Class Analysis (LCA). There is...... a scarcity of head-to-head comparisons that can inform the choice of which clustering method might be suitable for particular clinical datasets and research questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of three commonly available methods (SPSS TwoStep CA...... each program's ease of use and interpretability of the presentation of results.We analysed five real datasets of varying complexity in a secondary analysis of data from other research projects. Three datasets contained only MRI findings (n = 2,060 to 20,810 vertebral disc levels), one dataset contained...
Two methods for improving performance of an HMM and their application for gene finding
Krogh, Anders Stærmose
1997-01-01
A hidden Markov model for gene finding consists of submodels for coding regions, splice sites, introns, intergenic regions and possibly more. It is described how to estimate the model as a whole from labeled sequences instead of estimating the individual parts independently from subsequences....... It is argued that the standard maximum likelihood estimation criterion is not optimal for training such a model. Instead of maximizing the probability of the DNA sequence, one should maximize the probability of the correct prediction. Such a criterion, called conditional maximum likelihood, is used...... for the gene finder `HMMgene'. A new (approximative) algorithm is described, which finds the most probable prediction summed over all paths yielding the same prediction. We show that these methods contribute significantly to the high performance of HMMgene....
A New Method for Finding Point Sources in High-energy Neutrino Data
Fang, Ke; Miller, M. Coleman
2016-08-01
The IceCube collaboration has reported the first detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, including ∼50 high-energy starting events, but no individual sources have been identified. It is therefore important to develop the most sensitive and efficient possible algorithms to identify the point sources of these neutrinos. The most popular current method works by exploring a dense grid of possible directions to individual sources, and identifying the single direction with the maximum probability of having produced multiple detected neutrinos. This method has numerous strengths, but it is computationally intensive and because it focuses on the single best location for a point source, additional point sources are not included in the evidence. We propose a new maximum likelihood method that uses the angular separations between all pairs of neutrinos in the data. Unlike existing autocorrelation methods for this type of analysis, which also use angular separations between neutrino pairs, our method incorporates information about the point-spread function and can identify individual point sources. We find that if the angular resolution is a few degrees or better, then this approach reduces both false positive and false negative errors compared to the current method, and is also more computationally efficient up to, potentially, hundreds of thousands of detected neutrinos.
A novel method to find the neutral position of the breast
Knight, Miranda; Wheat, Jon; Driscoll, Heather; Haake, Steve
2014-01-01
Breast pain affects up to 70% of the female population. It is believed that stretching of the breast tissue causes discomfort and that by placing the breast into a position in which the tissue is neither in compression or tension (termed neutral position) will eliminate breast pain. The purpose of the study was to find a simple method that could be used to determine the location of the neutral position. One participant with a breast size of 34C performed three activities. The breast and torso...
Partly melted DNA conformations obtained with a probability peak finding method
Tøstesen, Eivind
2005-06-01
Peaks in the probabilities of loops or bubbles, helical segments, and unzipping ends in melting DNA are found in this article using a peak finding method that maps the hierarchical structure of certain energy landscapes. The peaks indicate the alternative conformations that coexist in equilibrium and the range of their fluctuations. This yields a representation of the conformational ensemble at a given temperature, which is illustrated in a single diagram called a stitch profile. This article describes the methodology and discusses stitch profiles vs the ordinary probability profiles using the phage lambda genome as an example.
Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Steffanie A Strathdee; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
2011-01-01
Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement betwe...
A new method of finding all Roots of simple quaternionic polynomials
Feng, Lianggui
2011-01-01
In this paper, we provide a new method to find all zeros of polynomials with quaternionic coefficients located on only one side of the powers of the variable (these polynomials are called simple polynomials). This method is much more efficient and much simpler than the known one in [D. Janovska and G. Opfer, A note on the computation of all zeros of simple quaternionic polynomials, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 48(1)(2010), pp. 244-256]. We recover several known results, and deduce several interesting consequences concerning solving equations with all real coefficients or complex coefficients which do not seem to be deduced easily from the results in [D. Janovska and G. Opfer, A note on the computation of all zeros of simple quaternionic polynomials, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 48(1)(2010), pp. 244-256]. We also give a necessary and sufficient condition for a simple quaternionic polynomials to have finitely many solutions (only isolated solutions).
Marzieh Ahmadzadeh
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Program comprehension is the first step required for software maintenance, which accounts for a considerable number of job opportunities. For this to happen, it seems obvious that improving this ability in the teaching environment is required. The literature shows, however, that not enough solutions for improving program comprehension are offered as much as for programming itself.The aim of this research therefore, is to find a pattern of how different students vary in terms of comprehending a code written in an object-oriented language. For this, we have focused on two concepts including inheritance and polymorphism, gathered data online and analyzed it qualitatively. To find the right subject for all the students to study, a data mining technique i.e., the K-means clustering algorithm, was used.Results showed that a slight difference in programming experience can have a significant impact on program comprehension ability. The methods that were used by participants who succeeded in the experiment were the same as methods used by experts as mentioned in earlier research. Inheritance and polymorphism did not play an important role in lack of success in the process of program comprehension.
4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning
Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Flammang, Aaron; Shea, Steven M. [Center for Applied Medical Imaging, Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Hales, Russell; Herman, Joseph; Lee, Junghoon; McNutt, Todd; Roland, Teboh; Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)
2013-09-15
distribution functions. The surrogate respiratory information allowed the authors to show how this technique can be used to study correlations between internal and external (surrogate) information over these prolonged durations. However, compared against the gold standard of the time stamps in the dMRI frames, the temporal synchronization of the surrogate 1D respiratory information was shown to be likely unreliable.Conclusions: The authors have established viability of a novel and practical pretreatment, 4D tumor centroid tracking method employing a commercially available dynamic MRI sequence. Further developments from the vendor are likely needed to provide a reliably synchronized surrogate 1D respiratory signal, which will likely broaden the utility of this method in the pretreatment radiotherapy planning context.
4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning
distribution functions. The surrogate respiratory information allowed the authors to show how this technique can be used to study correlations between internal and external (surrogate) information over these prolonged durations. However, compared against the gold standard of the time stamps in the dMRI frames, the temporal synchronization of the surrogate 1D respiratory information was shown to be likely unreliable.Conclusions: The authors have established viability of a novel and practical pretreatment, 4D tumor centroid tracking method employing a commercially available dynamic MRI sequence. Further developments from the vendor are likely needed to provide a reliably synchronized surrogate 1D respiratory signal, which will likely broaden the utility of this method in the pretreatment radiotherapy planning context
Exponential tails in the centroid velocity distributions of star-forming regions
Miesch, M S; Miesch, Mark S; Scalo, John M
1994-01-01
Probability density functions (pdfs) of ^{13}CO emission line centroid (line-of-sight, intensity-weighted average) velocities are presented for several densely sampled molecular clouds as quantitative descriptors of their underlying dynamics. Although some are approximately Gaussian in form, most of the pdfs exhibit relatively broader, often nearly exponential, tails, similar to the pdfs of velocity {\\em differences} and {\\em derivatives} (but not the velocity field itself) found in experiments and numerical simulations of incompressible turbulence. The broad pdf tails found in the present work are also similar to those found in decades-old measurements of interstellar velocity pdfs using atomic line centroids, and to the excess wing emission recently found in individual molecular line profiles. Some possible interpretations of the observed deviations are briefly discussed, although none of these account for the nearly exponential tails.
The soil natural thermoluminescence measurement and radon survey were chosen, whose penetrability is stronger, and their applied effects were studied in prospecting uranium deposit at Xiazhuang granite area. The 236 stations were measured respectively with these two methods at Zhongdong district Ongyuan county Guangdong province. The research results show that: 1. There are good effects which fractured zones were found out with radon survey. 2. The soil natural thermoluminescence measurement is one of the cumulative measurement methods. It can obviously respond the projected position of uranium deposit of intersected point type. 3. The sensitivity, stability and reappearance of the soil natural thermoluminescence is good, and it was less affected by human activity on the surface. The measured anomalies can reflect the variety of the radioactive field, so amplitude and width of anomalies can basically respond the distribution of uranium ore body. The problems to be solved in the future are: If the rocks above the 'intersection point type' uranium deposits are relatively intact, how much depth can it be found out with soil natural thermoluminescence method? A set of nuclear geophysical prospecting pattern on the different types of uranium deposits in Xiazhuang uranium ore field should be summarized so that they can be used to find out uranium deposits in granite area in the future. (authors)
Irina Petrova
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The research deals with the issue of the patent analysis efficiency, which is a necessary stage of seaching analogues and prototypes to obtain technical solutions. The article presents the results of analyzing the present automation systems for finding necessary information in the patent databases and identifies their advantages and disadvantages. It gives a description of the “Intellect” system, which is an example of software systems for the conceptual design stage support. Materials and Methods The article presents some of the possible ways to organize the patents-analogues search process and specific features of searching analogues and prototypes for the generated parametric structure scheme of the technical solution, which is the result of the synthesis of a new information-measuring and control system element in the “Intellect” system. The description of the proposed search query forming method is given. The article gives the structure of the patent passport, which must be stored in a database to organize the process of searcing analogues and prototypes. There given a description of algorithms for automatic adding a patent to the database, recalculating the weights while adding a patent by experts, identifying the fact of using different physical and technical effects in a patent. Results The final part of the article contains an example of the results of testing the developed subsystem implementing the proposed method. According to the test results it is concluded that the selected software and algorithmic solutions are effective.
A Bayesian Method For Finding Galaxies That Cause Quasar Absorption Lines
Shoemaker, Emileigh Suzanne; Laubner, David Andrew; Scott, Jennifer E.
2016-01-01
We present a study of candidate absorber-galaxy pairs for 39 low redshift quasar sightlines (0.06 Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We downloaded the COS linelists for these quasar spectra from MAST and queried the SDSS DR12 database for photometric data on all galaxies within 1 Mpc of each of these quasar lines of sight. We calculated photometric redshifts for all the SDSS galaxies using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift code. We used all these absorber and galaxy data as input into an absorber-galaxy matching code which also employs a Bayesian scheme, along with known statistics of the intergalactic medium and circumgalactic media of galaxies, for finding the most probable galaxy match for each absorber. We compare our candidate absorber-galaxy matches to existing studies in the literature and explore trends in the absorber and galaxy properties among the matched and non-matched populations. This method of matching absorbers and galaxies can be used to find targets for follow up spectroscopic studies.
A method for automatic matching of multi-timepoint findings for enhanced clinical workflow
Raghupathi, Laks; Dinesh, MS; Devarakota, Pandu R.; Valadez, Gerardo Hermosillo; Wolf, Matthias
2013-03-01
Non-interventional diagnostics (CT or MR) enables early identification of diseases like cancer. Often, lesion growth assessment done during follow-up is used to distinguish between benign and malignant ones. Thus correspondences need to be found for lesions localized at each time point. Manually matching the radiological findings can be time consuming as well as tedious due to possible differences in orientation and position between scans. Also, the complicated nature of the disease makes the physicians to rely on multiple modalities (PETCT, PET-MR) where it is even more challenging. Here, we propose an automatic feature-based matching that is robust to change in organ volume, subpar or no registration that can be done with very less computations. Traditional matching methods rely mostly on accurate image registration and applying the resulting deformation map on the findings coordinates. This has disadvantages when accurate registration is time-consuming or may not be possible due to vast organ volume differences between scans. Our novel matching proposes supervised learning by taking advantage of the underlying CAD features that are already present and considering the matching as a classification problem. In addition, the matching can be done extremely fast and at reasonable accuracy even when the image registration fails for some reason. Experimental results∗ on real-world multi-time point thoracic CT data showed an accuracy of above 90% with negligible false positives on a variety of registration scenarios.
An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on Centroid and Exponential Inertia Weight
2014-01-01
Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is a global stochastic tool, which has ability to search the global optima. However, PSO algorithm is easily trapped into local optima with low accuracy in convergence. In this paper, in order to overcome the shortcoming of PSO algorithm, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IPSO), based on two forms of exponential inertia weight and two types of centroids, is proposed. By means of comparing the optimization ability of IPSO algorithm w...
A Centroid-based Heuristic Algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem
Kwangcheol Shin; Sangyong Han
2012-01-01
The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is famous as a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem. This study proposes a centroid-based heuristic algorithm to solve the capacitated VRP in polynomial time. The proposed algorithm consists of three phases: cluster construction, cluster adjustment, and route establishment. At the cluster construction phase, the farthest node (customer) among un-clustered nodes is selected as a seed to form a cluster. The notion of the geometrical centre of a cluster...
Sagar S. De; Minati Mishra; Satchidananda Dehuri
2013-01-01
In the visual data mining, visualization of clusters is a challenging task. Although lots of techniques already have been developed, the challenges still remain to represent large volume of data with multiple dimension and overlapped clusters. In this paper, a multivariate clusters visualization technique (MVClustViz) has been presented to visualize the centroid-based clusters. The geographic projection technique supports multi-dimension, large volume, and both crisp and fuzzy clusters visual...
Philine Gaffron
2015-02-01
Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.
Old Wine in New Skins: The Sensitivity of Established Findings to New Methods
Foster, E. Michael; Wiley-Exley, Elizabeth; Bickman, Leonard
2009-01-01
Findings from an evaluation of a model system for delivering mental health services to youth were reassessed to determine the robustness of key findings to the use of methodologies unavailable to the original analysts. These analyses address a key concern about earlier findings--that the quasi-experimental design involved the comparison of two…
Findings from a mixed-methods study of an interprofessional faculty development program.
Abu-Rish Blakeney, Erin; Pfeifle, Andrea; Jones, Mandy; Hall, Leslie Walter; K Zierler, Brenda
2016-01-01
Forty faculty members from eight schools participated in a year-long National Faculty Development Program (NFDP) conducted in 2012-2013, aimed at developing faculty knowledge and skills for interprofessional education (IPE). The NFDP included two live conferences. Between conferences, faculty teams implemented self-selected IPE projects at their home institutions and participated in coaching and peer-support conference calls. This paper describes program outcomes. A mixed methods approach was adopted. Data were gathered through online surveys and semi-structured interviews. The study explored whether faculty were satisfied with the program, believed the program was effective in developing knowledge and skills in designing, implementing, and evaluating IPE, and planned to continue newly-implemented IPE and faculty development (FD). Peer support and networking were two of the greatest perceived benefits. Further, this multi-institutional program appears to have facilitated early organizational change by bringing greater contextual understanding to assumptions made at the local level that in turn could influence hidden curricula and networking. These findings may guide program planning for future FD to support IPE. PMID:26576839
Gilsbach, J M; Pillong, A
1997-01-01
A neurosurgeon has not received any special training in personnel recruitment at the time he becomes chief of a department. Consequently, a suboptimal personnel policy is most probable. Due to the rapid changes in social behaviour and style of leadership in postwar Europe, he might be ill advised to follow only the example of his successful predecessors, apart from the fact, that this would only be possible if the personalities (of the former and new chief) were similar. To save time and energy for optimal patient care, personnel recruitment can be improved and made more reproducible and reliable by adopting modern, professional non-medical principles. A typical stepwise process of personnel recruitment includes an analysis of the position and function, the definition of demands and offers, the choice of advertising and searching methods, the analysis of the application documents, the interview with the candidate including its re-evaluation and the ongoing evaluation process during the training. This election process is not only conducted by the chief of a department, but also by senior staff-members and even young, competing assistants. It aims to find the candidate who fits best in the requirements, who will be trained and educated with the least effort and who has the best potential to succeed in the long run. The only factors seemingly predicting a good development of a candidate are personality, energy (potential, motivation) and intelligence. Therefore, the search should especially aim to discover these-admittedly difficult to detect-qualities. PMID:9253431
Transition state-finding strategies for use with the growing string method
Goodrow, Anthony; Bell, Alexis T.; Head-Gordon, Martin
2009-06-01
Efficient identification of transition states is important for understanding reaction mechanisms. Most transition state search algorithms require long computational times and a good estimate of the transition state structure in order to converge, particularly for complex reaction systems. The growing string method (GSM) [B. Peters et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7877 (2004)] does not require an initial guess of the transition state; however, the calculation is still computationally intensive due to repeated calls to the quantum mechanics code. Recent modifications to the GSM [A. Goodrow et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 174109 (2008)] have reduced the total computational time for converging to a transition state by a factor of 2 to 3. In this work, three transition state-finding strategies have been developed to complement the speedup of the modified-GSM: (1) a hybrid strategy, (2) an energy-weighted strategy, and (3) a substring strategy. The hybrid strategy initiates the string calculation at a low level of theory (HF/STO-3G), which is then refined at a higher level of theory (B3LYP/6-31G∗). The energy-weighted strategy spaces points along the reaction pathway based on the energy at those points, leading to a higher density of points where the energy is highest and finer resolution of the transition state. The substring strategy is similar to the hybrid strategy, but only a portion of the low-level string is refined using a higher level of theory. These three strategies have been used with the modified-GSM and are compared in three reactions: alanine dipeptide isomerization, H-abstraction in methanol oxidation on VOx/SiO2 catalysts, and C-H bond activation in the oxidative carbonylation of toluene to p-toluic acid on Rh(CO)2(TFA)3 catalysts. In each of these examples, the substring strategy was proved most effective by obtaining a better estimate of the transition state structure and reducing the total computational time by a factor of 2 to 3 compared to the modified
Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study
Samandari Ghazaleh
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days
Centers and centroids of the cone-beam projection of a ball.
Clackdoyle, R; Mennessier, C
2011-12-01
In geometric calibration of cone-beam (CB) scanners, point-like marker objects such as small balls are imaged to obtain positioning information from which the unknown geometric parameters are extracted. The procedure is sensitive to errors in the positioning information, and one source of error is a small bias which can occur in estimating the detector locations of the CB projections of the centers of the balls. We call these detector locations the center projections. In general, the CB projection of a ball of uniform density onto a flat detector forms an ellipse. Inside the ellipse lie the center projection M, the ellipse center C and the centroid G of the intensity values inside the ellipse. The center projection is invariably estimated from C or G which are much easier to extract directly from the data. In this work, we quantify the errors incurred in using C or G to estimate M. We prove mathematically that the points C, G, M and O are always distinct and lie on the major axis of the ellipse, where O is the detector origin, defined as the orthogonal projection of the cone vertex onto the detector. (The ellipse can only degenerate to a circle if the ball is along the direct line of sight to O, and in this case all four points coincide.) The points always lie in the same order: O, M, G, C which establishes that the centroid has less geometric bias than the ellipse center for estimating M. However, our numerical studies indicate that the centroid bias is only 20% less than the ellipse center bias so the benefit in using centroid estimates is not substantial. For the purposes of quantifying the bias in practice, we show that the ellipse center bias ||CM|| can be conveniently estimated by eA/(π ƒ(≈) where A is the area of the elliptical projection, e is the eccentricity of the ellipse and ƒ(≈) is an estimate of the focal length of the system. Finally, we discuss how these results are affected by physical factors such as beam hardening, and indicate extensions
Centers and centroids of the cone-beam projection of a ball
In geometric calibration of cone-beam (CB) scanners, point-like marker objects such as small balls are imaged to obtain positioning information from which the unknown geometric parameters are extracted. The procedure is sensitive to errors in the positioning information, and one source of error is a small bias which can occur in estimating the detector locations of the CB projections of the centers of the balls. We call these detector locations the center projections. In general, the CB projection of a ball of uniform density onto a flat detector forms an ellipse. Inside the ellipse lie the center projection M, the ellipse center C and the centroid G of the intensity values inside the ellipse. The center projection is invariably estimated from C or G which are much easier to extract directly from the data. In this work, we quantify the errors incurred in using C or G to estimate M. We prove mathematically that the points C, G, M and O are always distinct and lie on the major axis of the ellipse, where O is the detector origin, defined as the orthogonal projection of the cone vertex onto the detector. (The ellipse can only degenerate to a circle if the ball is along the direct line of sight to O, and in this case all four points coincide.) The points always lie in the same order: O, M, G, C which establishes that the centroid has less geometric bias than the ellipse center for estimating M. However, our numerical studies indicate that the centroid bias is only 20% less than the ellipse center bias so the benefit in using centroid estimates is not substantial. For the purposes of quantifying the bias in practice, we show that the ellipse center bias ||CM|| can be conveniently estimated by eA/(π f-tilde) where A is the area of the elliptical projection, e is the eccentricity of the ellipse and f-tilde is an estimate of the focal length of the system. Finally, we discuss how these results are affected by physical factors such as beam hardening, and indicate extensions
Determination of the beam centroid of an obstructed focused Gaussian laser beam.
St John, W Doyle
2009-08-01
Diffraction of an obstructed focused Gaussian laser beam has been treated theoretically using the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral and was found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. The obstruction is a vertically oriented opaque cylinder treated as a flat hard aperture. Measurements and calculations are compared for the diffracted irradiance profile and the beam centroid as a function of cylinder diameter and lateral and longitudinal placement along the optic axis. The cylinders used were gauge pins and/or wires with diameters from 0.5 to 100 mil. PMID:19649057
Determination of the beam centroid of an obstructed focused Gaussian laser beam
Diffraction of an obstructed focused Gaussian laser beam has been treated theoretically using the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral and was found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. The obstruction is a vertically oriented opaque cylinder treated as a flat hard aperture. Measurements and calculations are compared for the diffracted irradiance profile and the beam centroid as a function of cylinder diameter and lateral and longitudinal placement along the optic axis. The cylinders used were gauge pins and/or wires with diameters from 0.5 to 100 mil.
Determination of the beam centroid of an obstructed focused Gaussian laser beam
Doyle St John, W.
2009-08-01
Diffraction of an obstructed focused Gaussian laser beam has been treated theoretically using the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral and was found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. The obstruction is a vertically oriented opaque cylinder treated as a flat hard aperture. Measurements and calculations are compared for the diffracted irradiance profile and the beam centroid as a function of cylinder diameter and lateral and longitudinal placement along the optic axis. The cylinders used were gauge pins and/or wires with diameters from 0.5 to 100 mil.
European Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor catalog: Solutions for years 2003 and 2004
Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Morelli, A.; Ekström, G.; Boschi, E.
2007-09-01
We present an update, for years 2003 and 2004, of the European- Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) catalog that we maintain since 1997. This update adds 177 new solutions to the database, relating to moderate-magnitude ( 4.5≤MBoumerdes, Algerian coast in 2003 and Al Hoceima, Morocco in 2004) and in Southern Greece and Dodecanese region (August 2003 and 2004). The complete RCMT catalog for the European and Mediterranean region now covers 8 years, and contains about 600 solutions.
一种双臂巡检机器人的质心调整策略%Centroid adjustment strategy for a dual arm inspection robot
李贞辉; 王洪光; 王越超
2014-01-01
In this paper, a centroid adjustment strategy is presented for solving the dynamic stability problem for a du⁃al arm inspection robot when it is hung by single arm. Based on analysis of the obstacle crossing process of the robot, a kinetic model is established when the robot is hung by a single arm and a state⁃feedback controller based on the ro⁃bot model is presented. This paper also discusses the planning method for the variable of joints based on shortest tran⁃sition time, achieving the dynamically stable movement by regulating joint variables in time and adjusting the centroid of the robot. The simulation and experimental results showed that the centroid adjustment strategy is feasible.%针对一种双臂巡检机器人单臂挂线越障时的动态稳定问题，提出了一种质心调整策略。在分析机器人越障过程的基础上，建立了机器人单臂挂线时的动力学模型，设计了一种状态反馈控制器。提出以过渡时间最短为目标规划关节变量，设定机器人倾角和两臂间距为控制目标，实时调节各关节运动，通过控制调整机器人质心位置实现机器人越障时的稳定运动。仿真和实验证明了所提质心调整策略的可行性。
Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Ekström, G.; Morelli, A.
2006-12-01
The European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog collects solutions routinely computed since 1997 for earthquakes with moderate magnitude (4.5≤ M ≤ 5.5) in the Mediterranean region. The database represents an extension to smaller magnitudes of the Harvard global CMT catalog, based on analysis of seismograms recorded at regional distance, and modeling of intermediate period surface waves. The catalog, updated to 2005, includes about 650 events, and represents a valuable tool for seismotectonic and geodynamic studies. The most interesting seismic sequences in the most recent years occurred in Northern Africa (Boumerdes, Algerian coast in 2003 and Al Hoceima, Morocco in 2004) and in the Southern Greece, Dodecanese area and Aegean Sea (August 2003 and 2004, October 2005). For most of the events of these sequences moment tensor solutions were not available in the literature. We further extended the catalog back in time for the Italian region, as far as allowed by availability of digital data --- i.e. since 1977 --- with the same analysis and inversion method used for current seismicity. The new dataset includes events in many seismic zones where moderate seismicity had previously been scarcely documented, e.g. the Po Plain and the Adriatic Sea. In particular, both older and more recent seismicity in the Central Adriatic Sea holds particular interest, as the region had often been depicted as aseismic. New solutions, providing new information on the geometry of seismic deformation, mainly represent moderate magnitude events, that can effectively be modeled by the method we use.
Kitamura, Takao; Nakajima, Koki; Hagiwara, Chisaki; Asada, Hideki
2013-01-01
Gravitational lens models with negative convergence (surface mass density projected onto the lens plane) inspired by modified gravity theories, exotic matter and energy have been recently examined to discuss possible demagnification of images and gravitational lensing shear, in such a way that a static and spherically symmetric modified spacetime metric depends on the inverse distance to the power of positive $n$ ($n=1$ for Schwarzschild metric, $n=2$ for Ellis wormhole) in the weak-field approximation [Kitamura, Nakajima and Asada, PRD 87, 027501 (2013), Izumi et al. to be published in PRD (2013)]. Some of the exotic lens models cause the attractive force on light rays like a convex lens, whereas the others are repulsive on light rays like a concave lens. The present paper considers microlensed image centroid motions by the exotic lens models. Numerical calculations show that, for large $n$ cases in the convex-type models, the centroid shift from the source position might move on a multiply-connected curve l...
Target Centroid Position Estimation of Phase-Path Volume Kalman Filtering
Fengjun Hu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For the problem of easily losing track target when obstacles appear in intelligent robot target tracking, this paper proposes a target tracking algorithm integrating reduced dimension optimal Kalman filtering algorithm based on phase-path volume integral with Camshift algorithm. After analyzing the defects of Camshift algorithm, compare the performance with the SIFT algorithm and Mean Shift algorithm, and Kalman filtering algorithm is used for fusion optimization aiming at the defects. Then aiming at the increasing amount of calculation in integrated algorithm, reduce dimension with the phase-path volume integral instead of the Gaussian integral in Kalman algorithm and reduce the number of sampling points in the filtering process without influencing the operational precision of the original algorithm. Finally set the target centroid position from the Camshift algorithm iteration as the observation value of the improved Kalman filtering algorithm to fix predictive value; thus to make optimal estimation of target centroid position and keep the target tracking so that the robot can understand the environmental scene and react in time correctly according to the changes. The experiments show that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper shows good performance in target tracking with obstructions and reduces the computational complexity of the algorithm through the dimension reduction.
A path method for finding energy barriers and minimum energy paths in complex micromagnetic systems
Minimum energy paths and energy barriers are calculated for complex micromagnetic systems. The method is based on the nudged elastic band method and uses finite-element techniques to represent granular structures. The method was found to be robust and fast for both simple test problems as well as for large systems such as patterned granular media. The method is used to estimate the energy barriers in CoCr-based perpendicular recording media
A simple method for finding the scattering coefficients of quantum graphs
Cottrell, Seth S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10065 (United States)
2015-09-15
Quantum walks are roughly analogous to classical random walks, and similar to classical walks they have been used to find new (quantum) algorithms. When studying the behavior of large graphs or combinations of graphs, it is useful to find the response of a subgraph to signals of different frequencies. In doing so, we can replace an entire subgraph with a single vertex with variable scattering coefficients. In this paper, a simple technique for quickly finding the scattering coefficients of any discrete-time quantum graph will be presented. These scattering coefficients can be expressed entirely in terms of the characteristic polynomial of the graph’s time step operator. This is a marked improvement over previous techniques which have traditionally required finding eigenstates for a given eigenvalue, which is far more computationally costly. With the scattering coefficients we can easily derive the “impulse response” which is the key to predicting the response of a graph to any signal. This gives us a powerful set of tools for rapidly understanding the behavior of graphs or for reducing a large graph into its constituent subgraphs regardless of how they are connected.
The study on the centroid of the lattice point in the plane%平面格点形心问题研究
慕运动
2001-01-01
The centroid of the lattice point in the plane is studied in this paper. Let n(k) be the smallest integer n such that, given any n latice points in the plane, some k of them have a lattice point centroid. Erickson gave a proof of n(3)=9 by the method of finite projective plane in ［1］. Firstly, this paper gives a new and simple proof of n(3)=9 by geometric method and the pigeonhole principle. Secondly, it improves the upper bound of n(4).%在组合论和数论中，平面格点形心问题是对给定的自然数k，求这样的最小整数n(k)，使得当n≥n(k)时，平面上任意几个格点中必存在k个格点的形心也是格点。显然n(1)=1，并容易求出n(2)=5。文献［1］用较复杂的组合设计方法确定出n(3)=9。本文提出一种简易的方法，给出n(3)=9的新证，并得到n(4)的改进上界。
Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete
2011-01-01
The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missin...
An Approach for registration method to find corresponding mass lesions in temporal mammogram pairs
Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
2010-01-01
Radiologists generally use multiple mammographic views to detect and characterize suspiciousregions. When radiologists discover a suspicious lesion in one view, they try to find a corresponding lesion in the other views. Views from different projections, typically cranio caudal (CC) and medio lateral oblique (MLO) views, allow for a better realization of the lesion. Most current computer aided detection (CAD) systems differ considerably from radiologists in the way they use multiple views. Th...
Ra, Koy; Pichdara, Lonn; Dararath, Yem;
There is growing international interest in the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction. In consequence, this broad area of investigation has been subject to increased research; one major international research project is that facilitated by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). This...... project covers a large number of sites in 26 countries throughout the tropics. The present report contains contextual details, methodological information and preliminary findings for the PEN sites in Cambodia....
Wenjun Liu; Kewang Chen
2013-09-01
In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV system. This method is extremely simple but effective for handling nonlinear time-fractional differential equations.
An MLE method for finding LKB NTCP model parameters using Monte Carlo uncertainty estimates
The aims of this work were to establish a program to fit NTCP models to clinical data with multiple toxicity endpoints, to test the method using a realistic test dataset, to compare three methods for estimating confidence intervals for the fitted parameters and to characterise the speed and performance of the program.
A New Method for Finding Point Sources in High-energy Neutrino Data
Fang, Ke
2016-01-01
The IceCube collaboration has reported the first detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos including $\\sim 50$ high-energy starting events, but no individual sources have been identified. It is therefore important to develop the most sensitive and efficient possible algorithms to identify point sources of these neutrinos. The most popular current method works by exploring a dense grid of possible directions to individual sources, and identifying the single direction with the maximum probability of having produced multiple detected neutrinos. This method has numerous strengths, but it is computationally intensive and, because it focuses on the single best location for a point source, additional point sources are not included in the evidence. We propose a new maximum likelihood method that uses the angular separations between all pairs of neutrinos in the data. Unlike existing autocorrelation methods for this type of analysis, which also use angular separations between neutrino pairs, our method incorpor...
Tadeusz Kowal
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The author gives a new methodical solution based on the table of characters used in taxonomic examinations by the dendrite method worked out for the species of Delia Dum., Spergula L. and Spergularia Presl. growing in Poland. This methodical solution shows a simple way to find conjugate and antagonistic characters in the examined species and to determine which characters are related to each other in different organs.
An alternative computational method for finding the minimum-premium insurance portfolio
Katsikis, Vasilios N.
2016-06-01
In this article, we design a computational method, which differs from the standard linear programming techniques, for computing the minimum-premium insurance portfolio. The corresponding algorithm as well as a Matlab implementation are provided.
DiffCoEx : a simple and sensitive method to find differentially coexpressed gene modules
Tesson, Bruno M.; Breitling, Rainer; Jansen, Ritsert C.
2010-01-01
Background: Large microarray datasets have enabled gene regulation to be studied through coexpression analysis. While numerous methods have been developed for identifying differentially expressed genes between two conditions, the field of differential coexpression analysis is still relatively new. M
DiffCoEx: a simple and sensitive method to find differentially coexpressed gene modules
Breitling Rainer; Tesson Bruno M; Jansen Ritsert C
2010-01-01
Abstract Background Large microarray datasets have enabled gene regulation to be studied through coexpression analysis. While numerous methods have been developed for identifying differentially expressed genes between two conditions, the field of differential coexpression analysis is still relatively new. More specifically, there is so far no sensitive and untargeted method to identify gene modules (also known as gene sets or clusters) that are differentially coexpressed between two condition...
The present communication proposes a mathematical method of finding crystallite distribution by size. The method was developed in recent years to process small-angle scattering data and is based on a modified Laplace method. The proposed method is less sensitive to background level and requires fewer experimental points over a wide angle range than harmonic analysis of the form of the diffraction lines (HAFXL). Experimental verification of the method obtained from two powder samples of nickel oxide is presented. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
A numerical method for finding sign-changing solutions of superlinear Dirichlet problems
Neuberger, J.M.
1996-12-31
In a recent result it was shown via a variational argument that a class of superlinear elliptic boundary value problems has at least three nontrivial solutions, a pair of one sign and one which sign changes exactly once. These three and all other nontrivial solutions are saddle points of an action functional, and are characterized as local minima of that functional restricted to a codimension one submanifold of the Hilbert space H-0-1-2, or an appropriate higher codimension subset of that manifold. In this paper, we present a numerical Sobolev steepest descent algorithm for finding these three solutions.
DiffCoEx: a simple and sensitive method to find differentially coexpressed gene modules
Breitling Rainer
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large microarray datasets have enabled gene regulation to be studied through coexpression analysis. While numerous methods have been developed for identifying differentially expressed genes between two conditions, the field of differential coexpression analysis is still relatively new. More specifically, there is so far no sensitive and untargeted method to identify gene modules (also known as gene sets or clusters that are differentially coexpressed between two conditions. Here, sensitive and untargeted means that the method should be able to construct de novo modules by grouping genes based on shared, but subtle, differential correlation patterns. Results We present DiffCoEx, a novel method for identifying correlation pattern changes, which builds on the commonly used Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA framework for coexpression analysis. We demonstrate its usefulness by identifying biologically relevant, differentially coexpressed modules in a rat cancer dataset. Conclusions DiffCoEx is a simple and sensitive method to identify gene coexpression differences between multiple conditions.
The Findings from the OECD/NEA/CSNI UMS (Uncertainty Method Study)
Within licensing procedures there is the incentive to replace the conservative requirements for code application by a 'best estimate' concept supplemented by an uncertainty analysis to account for predictive uncertainties of code results. Methods have been developed to quantify these uncertainties. The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) of OECD/NEA (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development / Nuclear Energy Agency), has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced 'best estimate' thermal-hydraulic codes. Most of the methods identify and combine input uncertainties. The major differences between the predictions of the methods came from the choice of uncertain parameters and the quantification of the input uncertainties, i.e. the wideness of the uncertainty ranges. Therefore, suitable experimental and analytical information has to be selected to specify these uncertainty ranges or distributions. After the closure of the Uncertainty Method Study (UMS) and after the report was issued comparison calculations of experiment LSTF-SB-CL-18 were performed by University of Pisa using different versions of the RELAP 5 code. It turned out that the version used by two of the participants calculated a 170 K higher peak clad temperature compared with other versions using the same input deck. This may contribute to the differences of the upper limit of the uncertainty ranges. A 'bifurcation' analysis was also performed by the same research group also providing another way of interpreting the high temperature peak calculated by two of the participants. (authors)
Centroid position measurements and subpixel sensitivity variations with the MAMA detector
Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Slater, D. C.; Timothy, John G.; Jenkins, E. B.
1989-01-01
Initial measurements of the position sensitivity of a visible-light multianode microchannel array detector show that centroid calculations for image spots are accurate to better than 0.04 pixels even with sources that are essentially delta functions at the photocathode.Subpixel sensitivity variations of 10-15 percent are typically found for pixels in the array. Variations as large as 30 percent are possible in the worst conditions. These variations limit the photometric accuracy of the detector when very small scale features are observed. The photometric accuracy and the position sensitivity of the detector appear to be limited by cross-coupling effects within the anode array. Initial measurements with more recent designs of the detector show that most or all of this cross-coupling has been eliminated.
Kinugawa, Kenichi [Nara Women`s Univ., Nara (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry
1998-10-01
It has been unsuccessful to solve a set of time-dependent Schroedinger equations numerically for many-body quantum systems which involve, e.g., a number of hydrogen molecules, protons, and excess electrons at a low temperature, where quantum effect evidently appears. This undesirable situation is fatal for the investigation of real low-temperature chemical systems because they are essentially composed of many quantum degrees of freedom. However, if we use a new technique called `path integral centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulation` proposed by Cao and Voth in 1994, the real-time semi-classical dynamics of many degrees of freedom can be computed by utilizing the techniques already developed in the traditional classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Therefore, the CMD simulation is expected to be very powerful tool for the quantum dynamics studies or real substances. (J.P.N.)
Energy Centroids of Spin $I$ States by Random Two-body Interactions
Zhao, Y M; Ogawa, K
2005-01-01
In this paper we study the behavior of energy centroids (denoted as $\\bar{E_I}$) of spin $I$ states in the presence of random two-body interactions, for systems ranging from very simple systems (e.g. single-$j$ shell for very small $j$) to very complicated systems (e.g., many-$j$ shells with different parities and with isospin degree of freedom). Regularities of $\\bar{E_I}$'s discussed in terms of the so-called geometric chaoticity (or quasi-randomness of two-body coefficients of fractional parentage) in earlier works are found to hold even for very simple systems in which one cannot assume the geometric chaoticity. It is shown that the inclusion of isospin and parity does not "break" the regularities of $\\bar{E_I}$'s.
Philippa Barry
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Although randomized controlled trials are described as the gold standard in health care research, their superiority is being questioned in palliative care which is focused on addressing individualized needs to maximize life quality. We use creative practice-based research to examine the usefulness of our music therapy work amongst people with life threatening conditions. Examined voices include “collective” (patients, visitors, staff, and music therapist, "their” (patients or caregivers, "our” (a group of music therapists, and "my voice” (one music therapist. Data sources have included clinical journals, semi-structured questionnaires, interview responses, a focus group, reflexive groupwork supervision transcripts, and patients’ song lyrics. Findings, situated within varied theoretic lenses, substantiate music therapy’s role in oncology and palliative care settings. Readers are invited to devise creative ways to voice their clients’, bystanders’, and own wisdom about music therapy to meaningfully extend the knowledge base.
The Dynamics of Poverty in the United States: A Review of Data, Methods, and Findings
Cellini, Stephanie Riegg; McKernan, Signe-Mary; Ratcliffe, Caroline
2008-01-01
This paper reviews the literature on poverty dynamics in the U.S. It surveys the most prevalent data, theories, and methods used to answer three key questions: How likely are people to enter, exit, and reenter poverty? How long do people remain in poverty? And what events are associated with entering and exiting poverty? The paper then analyzes…
A Simple Method to Find out when an Ordinary Differential Equation Is Separable
Cid, Jose Angel
2009-01-01
We present an alternative method to that of Scott (D. Scott, "When is an ordinary differential equation separable?", "Amer. Math. Monthly" 92 (1985), pp. 422-423) to teach the students how to discover whether a differential equation y[prime] = f(x,y) is separable or not when the nonlinearity f(x, y) is not explicitly factorized. Our approach is…
A NEW PROOF OF JORDAN'S CENTROID THEOREM%约当重心定理的一个新证明
Skrun.,R; 李冠英
1999-01-01
Jordan's Centroid Theorem (1869) states th at the centroid of a tree consists of either a single vertex or a pair of adjace nt vertices. This paper presents a new proof of this theorem.%约当重心定理(1869年)提出,一棵树的重心不是由一个单一的顶点组成,就是由一对相邻的顶点组成.这篇文章提出了一个证明这个定理的新方法.
A Proposal to Speed up the Computation of the Centroid of an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Set
Carlos E. Celemin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents two new algorithms that speed up the centroid computation of an interval type-2 fuzzy set. The algorithms include precomputation of the main operations and initialization based on the concept of uncertainty bounds. Simulations over different kinds of footprints of uncertainty reveal that the new algorithms achieve computation time reductions with respect to the Enhanced-Karnik algorithm, ranging from 40 to 70%. The results suggest that the initialization used in the new algorithms effectively reduces the number of iterations to compute the extreme points of the interval centroid while precomputation reduces the computational cost of each iteration.
A Novel Approach Based on MEMS-Gyro's Data Deep Coupling for Determining the Centroid of Star Spot
Xing Fei; Chen Nan; You Zheng; Sun Ting
2012-01-01
The traditional approach of star tracker for determining the centroid of spot requires enough energy and good shape, so a relatively long exposure time and stable three-axis state become necessary conditions to maintain high accuracy, these limit its update rate and dynamic performance. In view of these issues, this paper presents an approach for determining the centroid of star spot which based on MEMS-Gyro's data deep coupling, it achieves the deep fusion of the data of star tracker and MEM...
An alignment-free method to find and visualise rearrangements between pairs of DNA sequences.
Pratas, Diogo; Silva, Raquel M; Pinho, Armando J; Ferreira, Paulo J S G
2015-01-01
Species evolution is indirectly registered in their genomic structure. The emergence and advances in sequencing technology provided a way to access genome information, namely to identify and study evolutionary macro-events, as well as chromosome alterations for clinical purposes. This paper describes a completely alignment-free computational method, based on a blind unsupervised approach, to detect large-scale and small-scale genomic rearrangements between pairs of DNA sequences. To illustrate the power and usefulness of the method we give complete chromosomal information maps for the pairs human-chimpanzee and human-orangutan. The tool by means of which these results were obtained has been made publicly available and is described in detail. PMID:25984837
Gradient Method for Finding Optimal Scheduling in Infinite Dimensional Models of Chemotherapy
Smieja, Jaroslaw; Swierniak, Andrzej; Duda, Zdzislaw
2000-01-01
One of the major obstacles against succesful chemotherapy of cancer is the emergence of resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. Applying optimal control theory to mathematical models of cell cycle dynamics can be a very efficient method to understand and, eventually, overcome this problem. Results that have been hitherto obtained have already helped to explain some observed phenomena, concerning dynamical properties of cancer populations. Because of recent progress in understanding th...
Finding the buckling load of non-uniform columns using the iteration perturbation method
Aref Afsharfard; Anooshiravan Farshidianfar
2014-01-01
The aim of this study is to calculate the critical load of variable inertia columns. The example studied in this paper can be used as a paradigm for other non-uniform columns. The wavelength of equivalent vibratory system is used to calculate the critical load of the trigonometrically varied inertia column. In doing so, the equilibrium equation of the column is theoretically studied using the perturbation method. Accuracy of the calculated results is evaluated by comparing the solution with n...
THE STATISTICAL METHOD FOR FINDING THE RESPONSE FOR N RANDOM EXCITATION OF THE INVERTED PENDULUM
Marinică STAN
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We present a method for estimating the power spectral density of the stationary response of oscillatorwith a nonlinear restoring force under external stochastic wide-band excitation. An equivalent linear system isderived, from which the power spectral density is deduced. We consider an inverted pendulum suspendedsubjected to white noise excitation with a random number n random excitations simultaneously applied. Themethod will be briefly discussed in the following sections
Zanko, Ashley; Price, Bryan; Bonner, Jennifer; Hill, Jennie L.; Zoellner, Jamie M
2012-01-01
Background: Despite recommendations, there have been few efforts to apply the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community gardens. Objectives: As guided by the CBPR approach and grounded in a social-ecological model and behavioral theory, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand opinions and interests in developing and implementing a community garden and to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable...
An alignment-free method to find and visualise rearrangements between pairs of DNA sequences
Pratas, Diogo; Silva, Raquel M; Pinho, Armando J.; Ferreira, Paulo J.S.G.
2015-01-01
Species evolution is indirectly registered in their genomic structure. The emergence and advances in sequencing technology provided a way to access genome information, namely to identify and study evolutionary macro-events, as well as chromosome alterations for clinical purposes. This paper describes a completely alignment-free computational method, based on a blind unsupervised approach, to detect large-scale and small-scale genomic rearrangements between pairs of DNA sequences. To illustrat...
Healthy Bread Initiative: Methods, Findings, and Theories—Isfahan Healthy Heart Program
Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram
2013-01-01
The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, ...
The performance of a variety of techniques for locating transition states on potential energy surfaces is evaluated within the density functional theory framework. Diffusion of a water molecule across NaCl(001) and HCl bond breaking on the same surface are treated as general test cases; the former is an example of a low barrier diffusion process and the latter an example of a relatively high barrier covalent bond rupture event. The methods considered include the nudged elastic band (NEB), Dewar, Healy and Stewart (DHS), dimer, constrained optimization (CO), activation-relaxation technique (ART) and one-side growing string (OGS) as well as novel combinations of the DHS with growing string (DHS + GS) and DHS plus climbing image (CI-DHS). A key conclusion to come from this study is that the NEB method is relatively fast, especially when just a single (climbing) image is used. Indeed, using more images represents an unnecessary computational burden for our set of processes. The dimer method exhibits variable performance; being poor for the water diffusion processes, which have small activation energies, but much more efficient for the HCl bond breaking process which has a higher barrier. When only a poor initial guess of the transition state geometry is available, the CI-DHS scheme is one of the most efficient techniques considered. And as a means to quickly establish an approximate minimum energy pathway the DHS + GS scheme offers some potential.
Amita Verma; Mubashir Masoodi; Bahar Ahmed
2012-01-01
Objective: In the present study an attempt has been made to study the antihepatotoxic activity of active compounds in this plant through in silico methods. Methods: We have taken 12 compounds form this plant. All the compounds were further subjected to molecular propertied prediction and drug likeness by Molinspiration and found in compliance with Lipinski’s rule of five. Biochemical parameters like SGOT and SGPT were determined by Reitman and Frankel, ALP by Kind and King, TP by reported methods of Wooton. Results: All the compounds were showed expected similar bioactivity especially in case of enzyme inhibition. Compound Vulgarin showed no violation with good drug likeness score and biological activity as compare to standard drug Silibinin. Vulgarin exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) while the total protein (TP) levels were increased when compared with standard drug silymarin against CCl4-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of the liver sections. Conclusions: We found that Vulgarin one of the twelve compounds is showed better drug likeness and biological activity against Silibinin. So this particular compound can be taken as lead compound for further drug discovery for hepatotoxic activity.
Adaptive Ant Colony Clustering Method Applied to Finding Closely Communicating Community
Yan Liu
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The investigation of community structures in networks is an important issue in many domains and disciplines. Closely communicating community is different from the traditional community which emphasize particularly on structure or context. Our previous method played more emphasis on the feasibility that ant colony algorithm applied to community detection. However the essence of closely communicating community did not be described clearly. In this paper, the deﬁnition of closely communicating community is put forward ﬁrstly, the four features are described and corresponding methods are introduced to achieve the value of features between each pair. Meanwhile, pair propinquity and local propinquity are put forward and used to guide ants’ decision. Based on the previous work, the closely communicating community detection method is improved in four aspects of adaptive adjusting, which are entropy based weight modulation, combining historical paths and random wandering to select next coordination, the strategy of forcing unloading and the adaptive change of ant’s eyesight. The value selection of parameters is discussed in the portion of experiments, and the results also reveal the improvement of our algorithm in adaptive djusting.
Kuehl, Kerry S; Elliot, Diane L; MacKinnon, David P; O'Rourke, Holly P; DeFrancesco, Carol; Miočević, Milica; Valente, Matthew; Sleigh, Adriana; Garg, Bharti; McGinnis, Wendy; Kuehl, Hannah
2016-05-01
The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments) Study is a worksite wellness team-based intervention among police and sheriff departments assessing the program's effectiveness to reduce occupational risks and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. The SHIELD program focused on improving diet, physical activity, body weight and sleep, and reducing the effects of unhealthy stress and behaviors, such as tobacco and substance abuse. The SHIELD team-based health promotion program was found to be feasible and effective at 6 months in improving diet, sleep, stress, and overall quality of life of law enforcement department personnel. Both intervention and control groups were followed for 24 months, and we report those durability findings, along with qualitative group interview results that provide insight into the changes of the long-term outcomes. Long-term effects were observed for consumption of fruits and vegetables, and there was some evidence for effects on tobacco and alcohol use. Assessment of dietary habits, physical activity behaviors, weight loss maintenance, and substance use is rare more than 1 year following an intervention, and in general, initial positive changes do not persist in prior research. The SHIELD program was feasible, effective, and durable for improving dietary changes. PMID:27158956
Caprara, Alberto; Carr, Robert; Istrail, Sorin; Lancia, Giuseppe; Walenz, Brian
2004-01-01
Protein structure comparison is a fundamental problem for structural genomics, with applications to drug design, fold prediction, protein clustering, and evolutionary studies. Despite its importance, there are very few rigorous methods and widely accepted similarity measures known for this problem. In this paper we describe the last few years of developments on the study of an emerging measure, the contact map overlap (CMO), for protein structure comparison. A contact map is a list of pairs of residues which lie in three-dimensional proximity in the protein's native fold. Although this measure is in principle computationally hard to optimize, we show how it can in fact be computed with great accuracy for related proteins by integer linear programming techniques. These methods have the advantage of providing certificates of near-optimality by means of upper bounds to the optimal alignment value. We also illustrate effective heuristics, such as local search and genetic algorithms. We were able to obtain for the first time optimal alignments for large similar proteins (about 1,000 residues and 2,000 contacts) and used the CMO measure to cluster proteins in families. The clusters obtained were compared to SCOP classification in order to validate the measure. Extensive computational experiments showed that alignments which are off by at most 10% from the optimal value can be computed in a short time. Further experiments showed how this measure reacts to the choice of the threshold defining a contact and how to choose this threshold in a sensible way. PMID:15072687
Pavlidou, E.; van der Meijde, M.; van der Werff, H.; Hecker, C.
2016-05-01
We introduce a normalization algorithm which highlights short-term, localized, non-periodic fluctuations in hyper-temporal satellite data by dividing each pixel by the mean value of its spatial neighbourhood set. In this way we suppress signal patterns that are common in the central and surrounding pixels, utilizing both spatial and temporal information at different scales. We test the method on two subsets of a hyper-temporal thermal infra-red (TIR) dataset. Both subsets are acquired from the SEVIRI instrument onboard the Meteosat-9 geostationary satellite; they cover areas with different spatiotemporal TIR variability. We impose artificial fluctuations on the original data and apply a window-based technique to retrieve them from the normalized time series. We show that localized short-term fluctuations as low as 2 K, which were obscured by large-scale variable patterns, can be retrieved in the normalized time series. Sensitivity of retrieval is determined by the intrinsic variability of the normalized TIR signal and by the amount of missing values in the dataset. Finally, we compare our approach with widely used techniques of statistical and spectral analysis and we discuss the improvements introduced by our method.
Application of geo-microbial prospecting method for finding oil and gas reservoirs
Rasheed, M. A.; Hasan, Syed Zaheer; Rao, P. L. Srinivasa; Boruah, Annapurna; Sudarshan, V.; Kumar, B.; Harinarayana, T.
2015-03-01
Microbial prospecting of hydrocarbons is based on the detection of anomalous population of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria in the surface soils, indicates the presence of subsurface oil and gas accumulation. The technique is based on the seepage of light hydrocarbon gases such as C1-C4 from the oil and gas pools to the shallow surface that provide the suitable conditions for the development of highly specialized bacterial population. These bacteria utilize hydrocarbon gases as their only food source and are found enriched in the near surface soils above the hydrocarbon bearing structures. The methodology involves the collection of soil samples from the survey area, packing, preservation and storage of samples in pre-sterilized sample bags under aseptic and cold conditions till analysis and isolation and enumeration of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria such as methane, ethane, propane, and butane oxidizers. The contour maps for the population density of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria are drawn and the data can be integrated with geological, geochemical, geophysical methods to evaluate the hydrocarbon prospect of an area and to prioritize the drilling locations thereby reducing the drilling risks and achieve higher success in petroleum exploration. Microbial Prospecting for Oil and Gas (MPOG) method success rate has been reported to be 90%. The paper presents details of microbial prospecting for oil and gas studies, excellent methodology, future development trends, scope, results of study area, case studies and advantages.
Azpillaga, Beronika; Arzamendi, Jesus; Etxeberria, Feli; Garagorri, Xabier; Lindsay, Diana; Joaristi, Luis
2001-01-01
Describes the preliminary findings in the Basque Country of a project shared by four European countries to teach a second language or a foreign language to preschool and school-age children. The method used to teach the foreign language--English--is based on the use of dramatized formats. Examines level of language proficiency achieved with each…
2010-04-01
... used to find your primary insurance amount. 404.283 Section 404.283 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Recomputing Your Primary Insurance Amount § 404.283 Recomputation under method other than that used to...
Finding the buckling load of non-uniform columns using the iteration perturbation method
Aref Afsharfard
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to calculate the critical load of variable inertia columns. The example studied in this paper can be used as a paradigm for other non-uniform columns. The wavelength of equivalent vibratory system is used to calculate the critical load of the trigonometrically varied inertia column. In doing so, the equilibrium equation of the column is theoretically studied using the perturbation method. Accuracy of the calculated results is evaluated by comparing the solution with numerical results. Effect of improving the initial guess on the solution accuracy is investigated. Effects of varying parameters of the trigonometrically varied inertia and the uniformly tapered columns on their stability behavior are studied. Finally, using the so-called “perfectibility” parameter, two design goals, i.e., being lightweight and being strong, are studied for the discussed columns.
Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes
Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.
2010-01-01
NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability
A comparative method for finding and folding RNA secondary structures within protein-coding regions
Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Meyer, Irmtraud Margret; Forsberg, Roald; Simmonds, Peter; Hein, Jotun
2004-01-01
Existing computational methods for RNA secondary-structure prediction tacitly assume RNA to only encode functional RNA structures. However, experimental studies have revealed that some RNA sequences, e.g. compact viral genomes, can simultaneously encode functional RNA structures as well as proteins...... that RNA-DECODER's parameters can be automatically trained to successfully fold known secondary structures within the HCV genome. We scan the genomes of HCV and polio virus for conserved secondary-structure elements, and analyze performance as a function of available evolutionary information. On known...... secondary structures, RNA-DECODER shows a sensitivity similar to the programs MFOLD, PFOLD and RNAALIFOLD. When scanning the entire genomes of HCV and polio virus for structure elements, RNA-DECODER's results indicate a markedly higher specificity than MFOLD, PFOLD and RNAALIFOLD....
R. Seller
2007-09-01
Full Text Available A novel radio channel compensation method aiming to give optimal calibration for microstrip antenna array systems is presented in this paper, realized for an actual DOA measurement antenna system using microstrip antennas to sample the electromagnetic field, operating at 4.5GHz. This new approach considers mismatch between antennas and channel RF ports, channel transmission inequalities, and also decreases the effects of multipath propagation components of calibration reference signals by placing the calibration reference signal feeding network on the microstrip antenna array bearer, directly beside the antenna patches. It is combined with orthogonal spread spectrum calibration signal utility for continuous uninterrupted measurements. The spread spectrum calibration signal is orthogonal to the continuous wave (CW signal to be measured, therefore, the 2 signals can be separated in the receiver, enabling them to be present simultaneously. DOA measurement results are shown, measured with the realized integrated microstrip patch antenna array with calibration network hardware.
Chou, Fremen Chihchen; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Hsin, Dena Hsin-Chen
2016-05-01
Understanding how interprofessional education (IPE) works in learning clinical ethics via problem-based learning (PBL) and how different professions' perspectives influence each other in this setting may inform future IPE. Eighty-nine students participated in a clinical ethics PBL and were assigned into three study groups, i.e., medical, nursing, and interprofessional groups. This study applied an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. The quantitative phase involved observation of the learning process in PBL tutorial with checklists to code students' performance of learning behaviour, ethics discussion skills, learning content explored, and analysis through comparison of accumulative percentage of the coded performance between groups. Content analysis of post-PBL homework self-reflections from interprofessional group was conducted as the following explanatory qualitative phase. Quantitative results indicated that nursing students performed favourably on course engagement, caring, and communication while medical students performed positively on issue identification and the life science aspect. Interprofessional group showed the strength of the both professions and performed best through the learning process. Content analysis revealed that students in the interprofessional group achieved interprofessional learning from recognizing the differences between to appreciating learning from each other and to sense the need of future collaboration. With early exposure to IPE, undergraduate students may learn to balance their socialized viewpoints by seeing ethical dilemmas from each other's standpoint. PMID:27152541
M. Amodio
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.
Lead finding from Pterocarpous santilanus with hepatoprotective potentials through in silico methods
B.K.Manjunatha
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Review of the literature revealed that, many compounds have been isolated from P.santalinus but there is no report of screening its potency in protecting CCl4 induced liver damage. Hence in the present study an attempt has been made to study the hepatoprotective potency of the active constituents in P.santalinus through in silico methods.Lipenski’s Rule of Five was applied on all the compounds to evaluate their drug likeness and pharmacological properties. Only the compounds satisfying the Lipenski’s criteria were considered for further computational operations. Compounds that cleared the Lipenski’s barrier were prepared for docking studies by their energyminimization in Marvin Sketch. HBx protein of hepatitis B virus served as a target (receptor for docking studies. Its structure was retrieved from PDB (ID:3I7H. Energy minimized compounds were subjected to receptor-ligand interaction study using Hex docking tool. Based on the docking scores of energy minimized compounds it wasconcluded that pterocarpol and cryptomeridiol required minimum energy to bind to HBx. ADME-TOX analysis of these compounds showed that their AMES test value was significantly lower than some of the ommercially and widely used drugs to treat Hepatisis. Hence these compounds hold good prospective of being used as medicine thattargets HBx for hepatitis treatment.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND A SUITABLE METHOD FOR TEXT DOCUMENT CLUSTERING
Dr.M.Punithavalli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Text mining is used in various text related tasks such as information extraction, concept/entity extraction,document summarization, entity relation modeling (i.e., learning relations between named entities,categorization/classification and clustering. This paper focuses on document clustering, a field of textmining, which groups a set of documents into a list of meaningful categories. The main focus of thispaper is to present a performance analysis of various techniques available for document clustering. Theresults of this comparative study can be used to improve existing text data mining frameworks andimprove the way of knowledge discovery. This paper considers six clustering techniques for documentclustering. The techniques are grouped into three groups namely Group 1 - K-means and its variants(traditional K-means and K* Means algorithms, Group 2 - Expectation Maximization and its variants(traditional EM, Spherical Gaussian EM algorithm and Linear Partitioning and Reallocation clustering(LPR using EM algorithms, Group 3 - Semantic-based techniques (Hybrid method and Feature-basedalgorithms. A total of seven algorithms are considered and were selected based on their popularity inthe text mining field. Several experiments were conducted to analyze the performance of the algorithmand to select the winner in terms of cluster purity, clustering accuracy and speed of clustering.
An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans
Chenuil Anne
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians. The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa.
Healthy bread initiative: methods, findings, and theories--Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.
Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram
2013-03-01
The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model. PMID:23617204
A Novel Approach Based on MEMS-Gyro's Data Deep Coupling for Determining the Centroid of Star Spot
Xing Fei
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The traditional approach of star tracker for determining the centroid of spot requires enough energy and good shape, so a relatively long exposure time and stable three-axis state become necessary conditions to maintain high accuracy, these limit its update rate and dynamic performance. In view of these issues, this paper presents an approach for determining the centroid of star spot which based on MEMS-Gyro's data deep coupling, it achieves the deep fusion of the data of star tracker and MEMS-Gyro at star map level through the introduction of EKF. The trajectory predicted by using the angular velocity of three axes can be used to set the extraction window, this enhances the dynamic performance because of the accurate extraction when the satellite has angular speed. The optimal estimations of the centroid position and the drift in the output signal of MEMS-Gyro through this approach reduce the influence of noise of the detector on accuracy of the traditional approach for determining the centroid and effectively correct the output signal of MEMS-Gyro. At the end of this paper, feasibility of this approach is verified by simulation.
Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S
2013-03-01
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365
一种改进的基于质心的文本分类算法%AN IMPROVED TEXT CATEGORISATION ALGORITHM BASED ON CENTROID
陈震; 吴斌; 沈崇玮; 张忠辉; 王柏
2013-01-01
Text categorisation is a hot topic in data mining and information retrieval, and has been rapidly developing in recent years. Centroid-based approach is a text categorisation method modelling fast and having good effect, many researchers have studied this method thoroughly and put forward the improvement strategies to incessantly raise the performance of it. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to dynamically adjust the centroid position. The algorithm adjusts the centroid position dynamically based on every sample text in training set. Besides, we tackle the bottleneck aiming at mass data, make use of two current parallel computing frameworks, MapReduce and BSP, and put forward the parallel strategy of the algorithm. By the comparative experiments on 5 different datasets with other algorithms, we prove that the algorithm has quite accurate classification effect.%文本分类是数据挖掘与信息检索领域的热点话题,近年来迅速发展.基于质心的方法是一种建模迅速且效果较好的文本分类方法,许多学者对该方法进行了深入研究并提出改进策略,不断提高算法效果.提出一种新的动态调整质心位置算法,该算法根据训练集中的每个样本文本动态的调整质心位置.并且针对海量数据处理瓶颈,运用当前两种并行计算框架MapReduce和BSP,提出了算法的并行策略.通过与其它算法在5种不同数据集中的对比实验,证明该方法确有较准确的分类效果.
Lau Nguyen Dinh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of finding maximum flow in network graph is extremely interesting and practically applicable in many fields in our daily life, especially in transportation. Therefore, a lot of researchers have been studying this problem in various methods. Especially in 2013, we has developed a new algorithm namely, postflow-pull algorithm to find the maximum flow on traditional networks. In this paper, we revised postflow-push methods to solve this problem of finding maximum flow on extended mixed network. In addition, to take more advantage of multi-core architecture of the parallel computing system, we build this parallel algorithm. This is a completely new method not being announced in the world. The results of this paper are basically systematized and proven. The idea of this algorithm is using multi processors to work in parallel by postflow_push algorithm. Among these processors, there is one main processor managing data, sending data to the sub processors, receiving data from the sub-processors. The sub-processors simultaneously execute their work and send their data to the main processor until the job is finished, the main processor will show the results of the problem.
Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic
2014-01-01
Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106
Neutron radiography with sub-15 μm resolution through event centroiding
Conversion of thermal and cold neutrons into a strong ∼1 ns electron pulse with an absolute neutron detection efficiency as high as 50–70% makes detectors with 10B-doped Microchannel Plates (MCPs) very attractive for neutron radiography and microtomography applications. The subsequent signal amplification preserves the location of the event within the MCP pore (typically 6–10 μm in diameter), providing the possibility to perform neutron counting with high spatial resolution. Different event centroiding techniques of the charge landing on a patterned anode enable accurate reconstruction of the neutron position, provided the charge footprints do not overlap within the time required for event processing. The new fast 2×2 Timepix readout with >1.2 kHz frame rates provides the unique possibility to detect neutrons with sub-15 μm resolution at several MHz/cm2 counting rates. The results of high resolution neutron radiography experiments presented in this paper, demonstrate the sub-15 μm resolution capability of our detection system. The high degree of collimation and cold spectrum of ICON and BOA beamlines combined with the high spatial resolution and detection efficiency of MCP-Timepix detectors are crucial for high contrast neutron radiography and microtomography with high spatial resolution. The next generation of Timepix electronics with sparsified readout should enable counting rates in excess of 107 n/cm2/s taking full advantage of high beam intensity of present brightest neutron imaging facilities.
Power centroid radar and its rise from the universal cybernetics duality
Feria, Erlan H.
2014-05-01
Power centroid radar (PC-Radar) is a fast and powerful adaptive radar scheme that naturally surfaced from the recent discovery of the time-dual for information theory which has been named "latency theory." Latency theory itself was born from the universal cybernetics duality (UC-Duality), first identified in the late 1970s, that has also delivered a time dual for thermodynamics that has been named "lingerdynamics" and anchors an emerging lifespan theory for biological systems. In this paper the rise of PC-Radar from the UC-Duality is described. The development of PC-Radar, US patented, started with Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded research on knowledge-aided (KA) adaptive radar of the last decade. The outstanding signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) performance of PC-Radar under severely taxing environmental disturbances will be established. More specifically, it will be seen that the SINR performance of PC-Radar, either KA or knowledgeunaided (KU), approximates that of an optimum KA radar scheme. The explanation for this remarkable result is that PC-Radar inherently arises from the UC-Duality, which advances a "first principles" duality guidance theory for the derivation of synergistic storage-space/computational-time compression solutions. Real-world synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be used as prior-knowledge to illustrate these results.
The dynamical climate network, its major centroids, and their close relation to the ENSO cycle
Gozolchiani, Avi; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Berezin, Yehiel; Guez, Oded; Dijkstra, Henk; Havlin, Shlomo
2013-04-01
The observed relations between temperature fluctuations in different geographical regions yields a very robust climate network pattern that remains highly stable during time. Here, we break up the different elements that contribute to this stability, and quantify them [Y. Berezin, et. al., Nat. Sci. Rep. (2012)]. Due to its high stability, the climate network adjacency matrix can be regarded as a spatial field on its own right, and its typical profiles indeed have been the topic of recent studies. We have demonstrated [K. Yamasaki et. al. PRL (2008),A. Gozolchiani et. al. EPL (2008)] that during El-Nino times large portions of this field have a reduced value, corresponding to a less correlated atmosphere. We are now able to pinpoint a peculiar and rich pattern in this effect - the unique autonomous component in the eastern pacific [A. Gozolchiani et. al. PRL 107, 148501 (2011)]. In contrast to our and others earlier works, the different stages of the ENSO cycle come out as the 2 dominant K-means centroids, without pre-identification based on ENSO indices. Finally, the different feedback mechanisms which contribute to events are shown to be reflected in the network profile.
Xu-Zhi Lai; Simon X. Yang; Gui-Xiu Zeng; Jin-Hua She; Min Wu
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new distributed positioning algorithm for unknown nodes in a wireless sensor network. The algorithm is based exclusively on connectivity. First, assuming that the positions of the anchor nodes are already known, a circular belt containing an unknown node is obtained using information about the anchor nodes that are in radio range of the unknown node, based on the geometric relationships and communication constraints among the unknown node and the anchor nodes. Then, the centroid of the circular belt is taken to be the estimated position of the unknown node. Since the algorithm is very simple and since the only communication needed is between the anchor nodes and the unknown node, the communication and computational loads are very small. Furthermore, the algorithm is robust because neither the failure of old unknown nodes nor the addition of new unknown nodes influences the positioning of unknown nodes to be located. A theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm does not produce any cumulative error and is insensitive to range error, and that a change in the number of sensor nodes does not affect the communication or computational load. These features make this algorithm suitable for all sizes of low-power wireless sensor networks.
Rapid Centroids and the Refined Position Accuracy of the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Catalogue
The Swift X-ray Telescope autonomously refines the Burst Alert Telescope positions (∼1-4' uncertainty) to better than 5 arcsec, within 5 seconds of target acquisition by the observatory for typical bursts. The results of the rapid positioning capability of the XRT are presented here for both known sources and newly discovered GRBs, demonstrating the ability to automatically utilise one of two integration times according to the burst brightness, and to correct the position for alignment offsets caused by the fast pointing performance and variable thermal environment of the satellite as measured by the Telescope Alignment Monitor. We present an evaluation of the position accuracy for both the onboard centroiding software and the ground software for the calibration targets and show that a significant improvement in position accuracy is obtained if the boresight detector position is optimised relative to the spacecraft pointing. Finally, we present an updated catalogue of Swift GRB X-ray positions obtained in Photon Counting Mode using the improved, calibrated boresight
Kubarev V.S.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a quantitative psychotechnological research on the process of one's comprehension of his/her own life. It focuses on the reflective mechanisms of realizing meanings of life, thus further developing research on meaning formations of personality within the culturalactivity approach. For these purposes a method of solving the task of finding the meaning of a dream was used in the study, which is in fact an operationalization of the method of productive amplification of consciousness. Rather than examining the already formed contents of meanings of life available for introspective descriptions, this method allows the exploration of the constructive activity of consciousness through which these meanings of life are formed. The main outcome is the reconstruction and empirical model of reflective activity carried out by the individual in the process of comprehending meanings of life and his/her life situation
2013-01-01
Classification of imbalanced data has become a research hot topic in machine learning .Traditional classi-fication algorithms assume that different classes have balanced distribution or equal misclassification cost , thus, making it hard to get ideal result of classifications .A support vector machine (SVM) classification method based on weighted clustering centroid was proposed in this paper .First, unsupervised clustering was applied to the positive and negative samples respectively to extract the clustering centroid of each clustering , which was represented the most in compactness of the clustering sample .Next, all clustering centroids formed a new set of balance training .In order to minimize the information loss during clustering , each clustering centroid was associated with a weight factor that was defined proportional to the number of samples of the class .Finally, all clustering centroids and weight fac-tors participated in the training of the improved SVM model .Experimental results show that the proposed method can make the sample selected from model train sets more typical and improve the classification performance better than other sampling techniques for dealing with imbalanced data .% 不平衡数据分类是机器学习研究的热点问题，传统分类算法假定不同类别具有平衡分布或误分代价相同，难以得到理想的分类结果。提出一种基于加权聚类质心的SVM分类方法，在正负类样本上分别进行聚类，对每个聚类，用聚类质心和权重因子代表聚类内样本分布和数量，相等类别数量的质心和权重因子参与SVM模型训练。实验结果表明，该方法使模型的训练样本具有较高的代表性，分类性能与其他采样方法相比得到了提升。
M. Payami
2003-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different values . For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model (SJM as well as simple jellium model (JM with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere.
Zábranová, Eliška; Matyska, Ctirad
2016-04-01
After the 2015 Illapel earthquake the radial and spheroidal modes up to 1 mHz were registered by the network of superconducting gravimeters. These data provide unique opportunity to obtain ultralow-frequency estimates of several centroid moment tensor components. We employ the superconducting-gravimeter records of 60-h lengths and perform the joint inversion for M_{rr}, (M_{\\vartheta \\vartheta }-M_{\\varphi \\varphi })/2 and M_{\\vartheta \\varphi } centroid moment tensor components from spheroidal modes up to 1 mHz. The M_{rr} component is also obtained from independent inversion of the radial modes _0S_0 and _1S_0. Our results are consistent with the published solutions obtained from higher frequency data, suggesting thus negligible slow afterslip phenomenon.
Seifert, Bernhard; Csösz, Sandor
2015-01-01
The paper integrates two independent studies of numeric morphology-based alpha-taxonomy of the cryptic ant species Temnothoraxcrassispinus (Karavajev, 1926) and Temnothoraxcrasecundus sp. n. conducted by different investigators, using different equipment, considering different character combinations and evaluating different samples. Samples investigated included 603 individual workers from 203 nests - thereof 104 nest samples measured by Seifert and 99 by Csösz. The material originated from Europe, Asia Minor and Caucasia. There was a very strong interspecific overlap in any of the 29 shape characters recorded and subjective expert determination failed in many cases. Primary classification hypotheses were formed by the exploratory data analysis Nest Centroid (NC) clustering and corrected to final species hypotheses by an iterative linear discriminant analysis algorithm. The evaluation of Seifert's and Csösz's data sets arrived at fully congruent conclusions. NC-Ward and NC-K-means clustering disagreed from the final species hypothesis in only 1.9 and 1.9% of the samples in Seifert's data set and by 1.1 and 2.1% in Csösz's data set which is a strong argument for heterospecificity. The type series of Temnothoraxcrassispinus and Temnothoraxcrasecundus sp. n. were allocated to different clusters with p = 0.9851 and p = 0.9912 respectively. The type series of the junior synonym Temnothoraxslavonicus (Seifert, 1995) was allocated to the Temnothoraxcrassispinus cluster with p = 0.9927. Temnothoraxcrasecundus sp. n. and Temnothoraxcrassispinus are parapatric species with a long contact zone stretching from the Peloponnisos peninsula across Bulgaria northeast to the southern Ukraine. There is no indication for occurrence of interspecifically mixed nests or intraspecific polymorphism. However, a significant reduction of interspecific morphological distance at sites with syntopic occurrence of both species indicates local hybridization. The results are discussed within the