Sample records for central spanish pyrenees

  1. The sedimentary record and petrophysical logs from the Spanish Central Pyrenees: Implications for paleoclimate change in the Early Devonian

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Liao, J-Ch.; Hušková, Aneta; Calvo, H.; Hrstka, Tomáš


    Roč. 21, - (2015), s. 350-350. ISSN 1608-8166. [International Congress on Stratigraphy /2./. STRATI 2015. 19.07.2015-23.07.2015, Graz] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : stratigraphy * Early Devonian * sedimentary record * paleoclimate change * Spanish Central Pyrenees Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Correlation of Pragian (Early Devonian) conodont successions from the Barrandian area (Czech Republic) and the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.

    Hefei : Nanjing Institute of Geology and palaeontology, 2006 - (Qun, Y.; Yongdong, W.; Weldon, E.). s. 367-368 ISBN 7-312-01956-0. [International Palaeontological Congress. 17.06.2006-21.06.2006, Beijing] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300130613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Pragian * Conodont correlation * Barrandian * Spanish Central Pyrenees Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm3), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 210Pb and 137Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for238U, 14 and 40 for 226Ra, 7 and 56 for 210Pb, 19 and 46 for Th232, 1 and 48 for 137Cs and 185 and 610 for 40K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among radionuclides, sediment components and stable elements provided evidence of a

  4. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.


    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  5. Streamflow response and sediment yield after farmland abandonment: results from a small experimental catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Serrano-Muela, M. P.


    Full Text Available A small catchment affected by agricultural practices in the past, then progressively abandoned and naturally re-vegetated was monitored in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The results obtained over a 9-year period revealed the complexity of its hydrological and geomorphological behaviour. Several runoff generation processes can occur at the same time and in different parts of the catchment, depending on the water reserves conditions and rainfall characteristics. Sediment response is mainly controlled by the spatial and temporal dynamics of water and sediment contributing areas within the catchment. The sediment output illustrates the complexity of the geomorphic response of mountain environments modified by past farmland activities.

    Se presenta una síntesis de la investigación realizada en una pequeña cuenca experimental afectada por una intensa actividad agraria en el pasado y sujeta a un proceso de revegetación natural en la actualidad en el Pirineo Central. Los principales resultados obtenidos demuestran su complejo comportamiento hidrogeomorfológico. El análisis de la información hidrológica sugiere que diferentes procesos dominantes de generación de escorrentía pueden ocurrir de manera simultánea en diferentes áreas de la cuenca, en función del estado de humedad de la misma y de las características de la precipitación. La respuesta sedimentológica está principalmente controlada por la dinámica espacio-temporal de las áreas fuente de escorrentía y de sedimento. La exportación de sedimento ilustra la complejidad de la respuesta geomorfológica en los ambientes de montaña afectados por actividades agrarias en el pasado.

  6. Topographic control of snowpack distribution in a small catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees: intra- and inter-annual persistence

    J. Revuelto


    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the relations between terrain characteristics and snow depth distribution in a small alpine catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. Twelve field campaigns were conducted during 2012 and 2013, which were years characterized by very different climatic conditions. Snow depth was measured using a long range terrestrial laser scanner and analyses were performed at a spatial resolution of 5 m. Pearson's r correlation, multiple linear regressions and binary regression trees were used to analyze the influence of topography on the snow depth distribution. The analyses were used to identify the topographic variables that better explain the snow distribution in this catchment, and to assess whether their contributions were variable over intra- and inter-annual time scales. The topographic position index, which has rarely been used in these types of studies, most accurately explained the distribution of snow accumulation. Other variables affecting the snow depth distribution included the maximum upwind slope, elevation, and northing (or potential incoming solar radiation. The models developed to predict snow distribution in the basin for each of the 12 survey days were similar in terms of the most explanatory variables. However, the variance explained by the overall model and by each topographic variable, especially those making a lesser contribution, differed markedly between a year in which snow was abundant (2013 and a~year when snow was scarce (2012, and also differed between surveys in which snow accumulation or melting conditions dominated in the preceding days. The total variance explained by the models clearly decreased for those days on which the snow pack was thinner and more patchily distributed. Despite the differences in climatic conditions in the 2012 and 2013 snow seasons, some similarities in snow accumulation patterns were observed.

  7. Land Cover Changes and Sediment Connectivity in a Torrential Reach of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    San Juan, Yasmina; María García Ruiz, José; Gómez Villar, Amelia; Nadal Romero, Estela; Beguería, Santiago; Álvarez Martínez, Javier; Arnáez Vadillo, Jose; González Sampériz, Penélope; Serrano Muela, María Pilar; Galilea Salvador, Ianire


    The Ijuez River drains a sector of the Eocene flysch in the southern Pyrenees, The basin includes natural forests and afforestations in the montane belt, as well as extensive grasslands in the subalpine belt, over 1700 m a.s.l. At the beginning, the streambed develops a narrow canyon with a very steep longitudinal profile that ends in a torrential alluvial plain plenty of cobbles and boulders arranged in a chaotic manner. Several check dams in the middle and lower stretches of the river have contributed to reduce sediment transfer downstream. The upper reach, however, maintains it torrential character. There, the Ijuez River shows the occurrence of various changes in the hydromorphological regime: (i) a terrace level above 3 m of the actual channel, with matrix-supported cobbles indicating a fluvio-torrential regime; (ii) above the terrace level the accumulation of a large number of debris flows occurred; (iii) recently a strong incision of the actual channel occurred, contributing to the dismantlement of fluvial terrace and debris flow deposits. This evolution reflects, most likely, the changes underwent in the subalpine and montane belts due to deforestation and the consequent transformation of the forests into cultivated fields (below 1600 m a.s.l.) and subalpine grasslands to feed the transhumant sheep flocks. Such changes occurred between 2500-2000 years ago and between 1200-900 year ago, according to the deforestation ages obtained from charcoal remnants in soils and lacustrine sediments. Radiocarbon dates obtained for debris flows (from woody remnants located within the debris-flow deposits) in the Ijuez basin indicate an age of approximately 100 years ago, coinciding with the moment of maximum population pressure and the maximum extent of the cultivated area. Along the 20th century, farmland abandonment, afforestations and natural reforestation, as well as the decline of the livestock pressure has reduced sediment yield and connectivity, thus explaining the

  8. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.


    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  10. The North Maladeta Fault (Spanish Central Pyrenees) as the Vielha 1923 earthquake seismic source: Recent activity revealed by geomorphological and geophysical research

    Ortuño, M.; Queralt, P.; Martí, A.; Ledo, J.; Masana, E.; Perea, H.; Santanach, P.


    The Spanish Central Pyrenees have been the scenario of at least two damaging earthquakes in the last 800 years. Analysis of macroseismic data of the most recent one, the Vielha earthquake (19 November 1923), has led to the identification of the North Maladeta Fault (NMF) as the seismic source of the event. This E-W trending fault defines the northern boundary of the Maladeta Batholith and corresponds to a segment of the Alpine Gavarnie thrust fault. Our study shows that the NMF offsets a reference Neogene peneplain. The maximum observed vertical displacement is ˜ 730 m, with the northern downthrown sector slightly tilting towards the South. This offset provides evidence of normal faulting and together with the presence of tectonic faceted spurs allowed us to geomorphically identify a fault trace of 17.5 km. This length suggests that a maximum earthquake of Mw = 6.5 ± 0.66 could occur in the area. The geomorphological study was improved with a resistivity model obtained at Prüedo, where a unique detritic Late Miocene sequence crops out adjacent to the NMF. The section is made up of 13 audiomagnetotelluric soundings along a 1.5 km transect perpendicular to the fault trace at Prüedo and reveals the structure in depth, allowing us to interpret the Late Miocene deposits as tectonically trapped basin deposits associated with normal faulting of the NMF. The indirect age of these deposits has been constrained between 11.1 and 8.7 Ma, which represents a minimum age for the elevated Pyrenean peneplain in this part of the Pyrenees. Therefore, we propose the maximum vertical dip-slip rate for the NMF to be between 0.06 and 0.08 mm/a. Normal faulting in this area is attributed to the vertical lithospheric stress associated with the thickened Pyrenean crust.

  11. Influence of the Yesa reservoir on floods of the Aragón River, central Spanish Pyrenees

    J. I. López-Moreno


    Full Text Available The Yesa reservoir, the largest Pyrenean reservoir, was constructed in 1959 to supply water to new irrigated areas in the Ebro Depression, NE Spain. It is filled from October to May-June and then releases large quantities of water in the summer via the Bardenas Canal. The results confirm that the frequency of floods downstream of the dam decreased. The reduction mainly depends on two factors: i the water storage level, and ii the season of the year. Floods are very well controlled when the reservoir level is lower than 50%. Between 50 and 70%, only the highest floods are controlled. Finally, the reservoir retains mainly autumn and spring floods; most winter floods are released downstream to ensure the safety of the dam. Keywords: reservoir, flood control, flood seasonality, flood frequency, river regime, Pyrenees

  12. Identification of active erosion areas and areas at risk by remote sensing: an example in the Esera Isabena watershed, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    The identification of eroded areas at basin scale can be very useful for environmental planning and can help to reduce land degradation and sediments yield. In this paper remote sensing technique are used to discriminate eroded areas and areas at risk in a badlands landscape developed on Eocene marls. In the Esera Isabena watershed (Spanish Pyrenees). The spatial distribution, the scarce vegetal cover and the high level of erosion let a good visual and digital discrimination of badlands, as opposed to other land covers and surfaces. A maximum likelihood supervised method was used to discriminate heavily eroded areas (badlands) from scarce or densely vegetated lands. the classification distance was used to obtain thresholds for eroded areas and areas at risk. Two error statistics (sensitivity and specificity), where used to determine the most adequate threshold values. The resulting map shows that most areas at risk are located surrounding the badlands areas. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Land-use changes in the Spanish Pyrenees.

    García-Ruiz, José María; Lasanta Martínez, Teodoro


    [EN] This paper discusses the evolution of land use in the Spanish Pyrenees and the environmental and demographic factors that led to change. The traditional system depended upon a complex social organization and abundant cheap labour; there was extensive summer grazing for sheep which in winter moved to the Ebro Basin; and, despite the unfavourable environment, the cultivation of cereals was important. In the second half of the 20th century, outmigration led to a disruption of the management...

  14. Land reclamation by reforestation in the central Pyrenees.

    Ortigosa, L. M.; García-Ruiz, José María; Gil, Eustaquio


    [EN] The chief technical characteristics of recent (since 1940) forest plantation programmes in the central Pyrenees are described. Pines are preferred for their fast growth, a demand for wood in Spain and their adaptability to the climate and soils of the Pyrenees, where there are natural pine forests. Pinus sylvestris is predominant in the high valleys, P. nigra is more important in the Pre-Pyrenees and P. halepensis is planted on south-facing slopes and Mediterranean locations. Planting te...

  15. Warming or cooling in the Pragian? Sedimentary record and petrophysical logs across the Lochkovian-Pragian boundary in the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Liao, J.-Ch.; Hušková, Aneta; Calvo, H.; Hrstka, Tomáš


    Roč. 449, May (2016), s. 300-321. ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100131201 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : climate change * correlation * Early Devonian * gamma-ray spectrometry * magnetic susceptibility * Pyrenees Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.339, year: 2014

  16. Geological map of the Paleozoic of the Central Pyrenees

    Sitter, de L.U.; Zwart, H.J.


    Mapping of the Paleozoic of the Central Pyrenees by students in geology of Leiden University under the directorship of Prof. Dr L.U. de Sitter started in 1948 with the Arize massif. Since then the survey has shifted first eastwards, 1949 St. Barthélemy massif; then westwards, 1950 Salat valley; 1951

  17. Geomorphic mapping in endorheic catchments in the Spanish Pyrenees: an integrated GIS analysis of karstic features

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Navas Izquierdo, Ana; Machín Gayarre, Javier


    Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be useful tools to assess morphologically and hydrologically active processes. This paper presents a method to obtain accurate DEMs, an analysis of DEM errors and the benefits of GIS techniques for mapping geomorphological features and active processes in the karstic endorheic catchment with three permanent lakes (Estaña lakes) in the External Ranges of the Spanish Pyrenees. Field work revealed the lack of accuracy in the original DEM. A method was th...

  18. Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees


    Full Text Available The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on catchment sediment yield. The application demonstrated how such a model, with a large number of parameters to be evaluated, can be used even when directly measured data are not available: rainfall and discharge time series were generated by reference to other local records and data providing the basis for a soil map were obtained by a short field campaign. Uncertainty bounds for the outputs were determined as a function of the uncertainty in the values of key model parameters. For a four-year period and for the existing forested state of the catchment, a good ability to simulate the observed long term spatial distribution of debris flows (represented by a 45-year inventory and to determine catchment sediment yield within the range of regional observations was demonstrated. The lower uncertainty bound on simulated landslide occurrence approximated the observed annual rate of landsliding and suggests that landslides provide a relatively minor proportion of the total sediment yield, at least in drier years. A scenario simulation in which the forest cover was replaced by grassland indicated an increase in landsliding but a decrease in the number of landslides which evolve into debris flows and, at least for drier years, a reduction in sediment delivery to the channel network.

  19. Ichnology and sedimentology of deep-marine clastic systems, Middle Eocene, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees.

    Heard, T. G.


    Despite considerable research into the characterisation of the architectural elements of submarine fans, few studies have attempted the full integration of ichnology and sedimentology. In this thesis, a quantitative analysis of trace fossils from the Early-Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees, shows that trace fossils are powerful discriminators of deep-marine fan and related environments. Sixteen fan and related environments have been recognised in th...

  20. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees Part II, Valle de Arán, Sheet 4

    Zwart, H.J.


    The structural geology and metamorphic petrology of the Bosost area in the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) is discussed. The rocks exposed in this area consist of Cambro-Ordovician mica-schists with numerous granite and pegmatite bodies, phyllites and limestones; Silurian slates and schists and Dev

  1. Developing a chronology for glacial advances in the Spanish Pyrenees with luminescence dating

    Rhodes, Edward; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric; Garcia-Ruiz, Jose


    Over the course of 15 years, a significant number of sediment samples directly from glacial contexts, or from significant fluvial aggradations related to glacial advances, have been dated using OSL in the Spanish Pyrenees. These provide a record of significant glaciation early during the last glacial cycle, with subsequent events decreasing in size; the LGM advance appears surprisingly small. The development and further extension of this chronology is limited by two issues. These are i) the degree of incomplete zeroing of the luminescence signal experienced by sand grains during transport in high energy fluvial systems and in glacial contexts, and ii) the poor luminescence characteristics of quartz in this region. Both of these limitations are common, if not ubiquitous, in glaciated mountain landscapes. The second limitation is caused by the luminescence properties of quartz in bedrock, and of quartz in short-residence geomorphic contexts where grains are derived directly from bedrock before being flushed from these environments. In order to overcome these constraints, several different approaches have been taken, using quartz OSL, and more recently taking advantage of recent developments in the dating of K-feldspar using IRSL (Infra-Red Stimulated Luminescence). Single grains of K-feldspar have been dated from a wide range of different high-energy fluvial contexts around the globe, using a post-IR IRSL dating protocol. Several of these localities have independent age control, providing the opportunity to assess this approach. Future directions for luminescence dating applications in Spain, and other circum-Mediterranean regions will be provided.

  2. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Lipski, John M.


    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  3. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Herrera, G.; J. C. Davalillo; J. Mulas; Cooksley, G.; O. Monserrat; V. Pancioli


    In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) technique, (SPN), has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain). The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural gro...

  4. Sediment balance in four small cartchments with different land cover in Central Pyrenees

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Serrano Muela, M. P.; Regüés-Muñoz, D.; Alvera, Bernardo; García-Ruiz, José María


    Four experimental catchments in the Central Pyrenees were monitored by the Department of Geo-environmental Processes and Global Change (Pyrenean Institute of Ecology, CSIC) to assess the hydrological and geomorphological consequences of various land uses and vegetation cover. The catchments were selected along an altitudinal and land-use gradient and included: (i) a sub-Mediterranean environment affected by intense weathering and erosion processes on marls, (ii) an old abandoned cultivated ar...

  5. Spontaneous ash tree reforestation in the Central Pyrenees: a future local energy source?

    Bernard Elyakime; Laurent Larrieu; Alain Cabanettes; Laurent Burnel


    With the agricultural economy of the Central Pyrenees in steady decline, natural forest stands are colonising abandoned agricultural meadows. The present study seeks to define the economic conditions for a new fuel-wood local economy based on these extensions of the forest cover. Farmer/forest owners are capable of exploiting this resource, involving logging, hauling and cutting the wood to size, to meet their own heating needs. In this way, owners could thus recuperate a maximum unit value e...

  6. Human-Related Forest Fires in the Subalpine Belt of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Sanjuán, Yasmina; María García-Ruiz, José; Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Muela, María Pilar; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Arnáez, José


    The subalpine belt of the Central Pyrenees ranges approximately between 1700 and 2200 m a.s.l. This area should be covered with dense forests of Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata, with increasingly open formations towards the upper forest limit. At present, most of the subalpine belt is occupied with grasslands due to human-induced deforestation for enlarging the area occupied by summer pastures. Two are the most important scientific problems related to deforestation of the subalpine belt: (i) the timing of deforestation, and (ii) the geomorphic consequences of a sudden substitution of forests by grasslands. Up to now, intense deforestation is clearly recorded in regional palaeoenvironmental sequences since the Middle Ages and, traditionally, this practice was usually attributed to large fires with the purpose of balance the winter and summer pasture resources. Nevertheless, the presence of abundant remnants of prehistoric monuments (dolmens, cromlechs, tumulus) in the subalpine belt induced to think in a previous seasonal presence of human populations, most probably practicing some primitive type of transhumance. This would only be possible if part of the subalpine forests would be burnt to allow a limited expansion of grasslands, despite the consequences in the landscape of this kind of practices were not permanent in time. We present here new dates of fire occurrence from charcoal obtained from soils in the hillslopes and from lacustrine sediments. Two periods of human-induced fires have been identified: (i) between 2500 and 2000 cal. yr BP, and (ii) between 1100 and 900 cal yr BP. The consequences of deforestation can be easily observed in the landscape, particularly shallow landslide activity, gelifluction, solifluction and the rapid development of parallel incisions in the steepest slopes.

  7. Challenges for the management of water resource systems under the impact of global climate change / The Yesa reservoir in the Spanish Pyrenees as an example

    Winterscheid, A.


    It is becoming obvious that climate change has profound impacts on water resource systems, composed of natural ecosystem, engineered facilities and management institutions. As a consequence a successful management strategy of water resource systems has to meet the challenge of more frequent extremes with respect to the criteria of sustainability. This might lead to reduced water availability facing an increased water demand as well as more severe floods. Behind the background of climate change an integrated analysis of the Yesa reservoir / Spain has been carried out. The Yesa reservoir is a single purpose site located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Water is stored during the wet and thaw period to provide sufficient supplies for irrigation in the dry period. To satisfy future water demands an enlargement of the Yesa reservoir storage volume from actual 450 Hm3 up to 1500 Hm3 has been planed since 1982. The project is still in the approval procedure due to many raised objections. Opponents of this enlargement project refer to severe impacts on the ecological and social system. A scenario based hydrological analysis with respect to climate change as well as land use change within the catchment area has been carried out. The obtained results raise doubts on the future performance of an enlarged Yesa reservoir with respect to the criteria of sustainability. The Yesa enlargement project is still in the stage of planning, therefore additional comprehensive studies should be carried out for the assessment of future water resources and evaluation of ecological, economical as well as social risks.

  8. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo


    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  9. Sedimentology, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis of Post-Hercynian continental deposits in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Nagtegaal, Peter J.C.


    The first chapter of the post-Hercynian geologic history of the South-Central Pyrenees is recorded in a sequence of fluvial and volcanic deposits which reach a total of added maximum thicknesses of more than 2300 m and date from the Westphalian D up to and including the Lower Triassic. The present s

  10. Numerical modelling comparison of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Central Pyrenees-Spain)

    Fernandez-Merodo, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Davalillo, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Gerardo


    Slow-moving landslides are a wide-spread type of active mass movement that cause severe damages to infrastructures and may be a precursor of sudden catastrophic slope failures. In this context, modelling slow-moving landslide behaviour is an important task in order to quantify and reduce the risk associated to this geological process. In practice, landslide occurrence and stability conditions are evaluated for a given scenario through a stability factor based on limit equilibrium analysis. This "static" approximation is hardly applied when boundary conditions are time dependent. Apart from earthquake studies, time dependent analysis is required when: (i) hydrological conditions change as in the case of rainfall; (ii) resistant parameters are reduced as in the case of strain softening or weathering processes and (iii) creep behaviour is taken into account. Different numerical models can be applied to reproduce the kinematic behaviour of large slow landslides. This paper compares four different models: i) a direct correlation with measured rainfall, ii) a simple 1D infinite slope viscoplastic model [1], iii) a 2D elasto-plastic finite element model [2] and iv) a 2D visco-plastic finite element model [3]. These models, ordered by increasing level of complexity, are compared by applying them to the Portalet case study. The Portalet landslide (Central Spanish Pyrenees) is an active paleo-landslide that has been "reactivated" by the construction of a parking area at the toe of the slope in 2004. This landslide is still active despite the corrective measures carried out to stabilize it. The measurements obtained with different monitoring techniques (ground based SAR, advanced DInSAR processing of satellite SAR images, DGPS and inclinometers) indicate that the hillside is still moving today following two patterns. The first one corresponds to a slow continuous motion of constant speed of about 100 mm/year, the second one corresponds to accelerations of the moving mass when

  11. Thinning of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees since 1981

    López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Revuelto, Jesús; Rico, Ibai; Chueca-Cía, Javier; Julián, Asunción; Serreta, Alfredo; Serrano, Enrique; Martín Vicente-Serrano, Sergio; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; María García-Ruiz, José


    This paper analyzes the evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier, the third largest glacier in the Pyrenees, from 1981 to the present. We assessed the evolution of the glacier's surface area by analysis of aerial photographs from 1981, 1999, and 2006, and changes in ice volume by geodetic methods with digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from topographic maps (1981 and 1999), airborne lidar (2010) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014) data. We interpreted the changes in the glacier based on climate data from nearby meteorological stations. The results indicate that the degradation of this glacier accelerated after 1999. The rate of ice surface loss was almost three times greater during 1999-2006 than during earlier periods. Moreover, the rate of glacier thinning was 1.85 times faster during 1999-2010 (rate of surface elevation change = -8.98 ± 1.80 m, glacier-wide mass balance = -0.73 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr-1) than during 1981-1999 (rate of surface elevation change = -8.35 ± 2.12 m, glacier-wide mass balance = -0.42 ± 0.10 m w.e. yr-1). From 2011 to 2014, ice thinning continued at a slower rate (rate of surface elevation change = -1.93 ± 0.4 m yr-1, glacier-wide mass balance = -0.58 ± 0.36 m w.e. yr-1). This deceleration in ice thinning compared to the previous 17 years can be attributed, at least in part, to two consecutive anomalously wet winters and cool summers (2012-2013 and 2013-2014), counteracted to some degree by the intense thinning that occurred during the dry and warm 2011-2012 period. However, local climatic changes observed during the study period do not seem sufficient to explain the acceleration of ice thinning of this glacier, because precipitation and air temperature did not exhibit statistically significant trends during the study period. Rather, the accelerated degradation of this glacier in recent years can be explained by a strong disequilibrium between the glacier and the current climate, and likely by other

  12. Accelerated wastage of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees during recent stationary climatic conditions

    J. I. López-Moreno


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier, the third largest glacier of the Pyrenees, from 1981 to the present. We assessed the evolution of the glacier's surface area by use of aerial photographs from 1981, 1999, and 2006, and changes in ice volume by geodetic methods with digital elevation models (DEMs generated from topographic maps (1981 and 1999, airborne LIDAR (2010 and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. We interpreted the changes in the glacier based on climate data from a nearby meteorological station. The results indicate an accelerated degradation of this glacier after 2000, with a rate of ice surface loss that was almost three-times greater from 2000 to 2006 than for earlier periods, and a doubling of the rate of ice volume loss from 1999 to 2010 (the ice depth decreased 8.98 ± 1.8 m, −0.72 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr−1 compared to 1981 to 1999 (the ice depth decreased 8.35 ± 2.12 m, −0.39 ± 0.1 m w.e. yr−1. This loss of glacial ice has continued from 2011 to 2014 (the ice depth decreased 2.1 ± 0.4 m, −0.64 ± 0.36 m w.e. yr−1. Local climatic changes during the study period cannot explain the acceleration in wastage rate of this glacier, because local precipitation and snow accumulation increased slightly, and local air temperature during the ablation period did not significantly increase. The accelerated degradation of this glacier in recent years can be explained by the lack of equilibrium between the glacier and the current climatic conditions. In particular, the average air temperature increased by at least 0.9 °C in this region since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA in the mid-1800s. Thus, this glacier shrinks dramatically during years with low accumulation or high air temperatures during the ablation season, but cannot recover during years with high accumulation or low air temperatures during the ablation season. The most recent TLS data support this interpretation. These

  13. Sub-MIlankovitch millennial and decadal cyclicity in Middle Eocene deep-marine laminated sediments, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Scotchman, J. I.; Pickering, K. T.; Robinson, S. A.


    James I. Scotchman1, Kevin T. Pickering1 & Stuart A. Robinson1 1Department of Earth Sciences, UCL (University College London), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, U.K. Climate variability on the scale of millennia has become conspicuous within Quaternary records with far fewer such records existing within the pre-Pleistocene geological record. We identify millennial and decadal cyclicity in deep-marine siliciclastic (turbiditic and hemipelagic) sediments from a core in the middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees. Outcrop spectral gamma-ray data from laterally adjacent and age-equivalent strata to the core, together with a re-analysis of bioturbation data from the core, identifies the three main Milankovitch orbital periods. From this data, we derive a robust sediment accumulation rate for these sediments of 27.5 cm/kyr. Spectral analysis of data from high-resolution multi-element XRF scanning of a ~10 m-thick stratigraphic interval of fine-grained laminated sediments reveals the presence of various high-frequency cycles mainly above the 99% confidence level. Applying our derived sediment accumulation rate yields sub-Milankovitch millennial-scale cycles (~5,400, ~2,800, and ~1,000 yr) and decadal (~90, ~50, and ~30 yr) cycles split between allogenic and authigenic deposition. These cycles are manifest in the core as grain-size variations. The ~5,400 and ~2,800 yr cycles, recorded by elemental (Al, K, Ca and Fe) and element/Al ratios (Si/Al, Ca/Al and Zr/Al) are interpreted as representing climatically-driven variation in sediment supply to the deep-marine Ainsa basin. Higher-frequency decadal cycles are coincident with well-known Gleissberg solar cycles or possible multiples of the 11-year Schwabe cycle although how these cycles are expressed within these sediments remains unclear.

  14. Spontaneous ash tree reforestation in the Central Pyrenees: a future local energy source?

    Bernard Elyakime


    Full Text Available With the agricultural economy of the Central Pyrenees in steady decline, natural forest stands are colonising abandoned agricultural meadows. The present study seeks to define the economic conditions for a new fuel-wood local economy based on these extensions of the forest cover. Farmer/forest owners are capable of exploiting this resource, involving logging, hauling and cutting the wood to size, to meet their own heating needs. In this way, owners could thus recuperate a maximum unit value estimated at 11.2 to 22.3 € per stere (1 cubic metre, or an average value of 16.8 € per stere after deduction of all costs. An economy based on wood energy, using wood from spontaneously generated forest growth on private land, is therefore possible. A development policy for such an activity could be envisaged with appropriate initiatives to stimulate the owners of land where spontaneous ash reforestation has occurred to harvest this potential resource.

  15. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    G. Herrera


    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  16. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio


    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  17. Thrust kinematics deduced by primary and secondary magnetizations in the Internal Sierras (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Oliva, B.; Pueyo, E.


    The Central Southern Pyrenees are composed (from N to S) by the Axial Zone (made by several basement-involved nappes; (Gavarnie and Guarga), the Internal Sierras (IS) fold and thrust belt (Larra and Monte Perdido units), the Jaca piggyback basin (turbiditic and molassic) and the External Sierras. Several paleomagnetic studies have been carried out during the last decades in all units except for the IS. Different amounts of rotation were reported, usually from primary directions. This work shows paleomagnetic results derived from recent investigations in the IS. 78 sites were sampled in different thrust sheets in the Larra and Monte Perdido units. Sites were collected in Upper Cretaceous rocks; all of them were homogeneously distributed along the range strike. A N-S section through the Eocene turbiditic basin was also done (9 sites) to link our results to previous data. Stepwise thermal demagnetization every 25-50^oC was performed to unravel the NRM components. Magnetic mineralogy essays (IRM, IST and low temperature) confirm magnetite as the major magnetic carrier. Two paleomagnetic components can be distinguished; A) an intermediate direction unblocking from 350^o to 450^oC and B) a high temperature component (from 500^o -575^oC). The B component displays two polarities and a positive fold and reverse tests whereas the A component shows only reverse polarity and a pervasive negative fold test. The A component has been also found in the Eocene transect. Two major clues help to constrain the remagnetization age; on one hand the deformation age (Early-Middle Eocene in the Larra and Monte Perdido units) and, on the other hand, the age of the turbiditic rocks (Middle Eocene). Therefore the remagnetization process took place by the end of the IS thrust system configuration or in a later period. Since the rotation detected by the A and B components are similar, the rotation age can be constrained as younger than the remagnetization. All these deductions have important

  18. Relating actual with subfossil chironomid assemblages. Holocene habitat changes and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees)

    Tarrats, Pol; Rieradevall, Maria; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Moreno, Ana


    Analyses of subfossil and actual macroinvertebrate fauna and Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera) assemblages of Basa de la Mora Lake (Central Pyrenees, Spain, 1914 m a.s.l.) improves the environmental calibration for lake paleoreconstruction and allow to infer lake habitat changes throughout the Holocene. The results of the actual Chironomidae community are consistent with other mountain lake studies (either in the Pyrenees or other regions), with a few mismatching due to lake specific conditions. The actual and the subfossil Chironomidae taxa present in Basa de la Mora Lake are the same, which is an essential requirement to apply the analogue methods. Although we could not find habitat-specific taxa, significant differences between the different habitats present in the lake were found. This circumstance allowed applying the Modern Analogue Technique (MAT) to infer lake habitat changes. The MAT method relates the actual community, defined from the species abundance matrix and an environmental variable (which is the object of the inference), and the past community, defined from the species abundance matrix downcore. Because the first axis of DCA carried out for the study of the actual Chironomidae larvae explained the assemblage changes between the different habitats, the scores of this first axis were used as representative of the environmental variable (dominant habitat type) to be inferred. The application of the MAT has allowed identifying two periods of lake productivity increase through the Holocene: i) around 2800 cal. yrs BP, which coincides with the first documented human occupation of the area, and ii) the last four centuries, synchronous to the maximum population of mountain areas in the Pyrenees and development of stockbreeding activities.

  19. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    Martínez-Castroviejo, Ricardo


    Full Text Available The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees. Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in diameter, are up to six times more abundant, in percentage of total weight, in transports caused by heavy rainfalls than in the material collected after snowmelt flows. In its turn, bed load mobilized by snowmelt flows is mainly composed by medium and fine gravel, from 2 to 8 mm. These may amount up to 60 % of total weight of bed load. The reasons for these so different size distributions are discussed.

    [es] En una cuenca de alta montaña localizada en el alto valle del río Gallego (Pirineo central se comparan las distribuciones por tamaños de los acarreos movilizados por diferentes tipos de caudal. Tres tipos de eventos hidrológicos han podido ser caracterizados: los ocasionados por intensas lluvias de otoño, los originados por tormentas estivales aisladas y los producidos por la fusión de la nieve acumulada durante el invierno. Se concluye que cada uno de ellos lleva asociada una distribución por tamaños típica de la carga de fondo. Así, se ha comprobado que las fracciones más gruesas consideradas -superiores a los 30 mm de diámetro- son hasta seis veces más abundantes -en porcentaje sobre el peso total- en las exportaciones causadas por lluvias de gran intensidad que en las generadas por caudales de fusión. A su vez, las descargas ocasionadas por la fusión arrastran principalmente gravas de calibre medio y fino -entre 2y8 mm- que llegan a suponer el 60 % en peso del volumen movilizado. Este artículo discute las razones que provocan

  20. Long-term entrenchment and consequences in present flood hazard in the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees)

    Victoriano, A.; García-Silvestre, M.; Furdada, G.; Bordonau, J.


    On 18 June 2013, a damaging flood of the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees, Spain) caused losses exceeding EUR 100 million. Flood events are rarely related to the geologic, tectonic and geomorphologic context. This study bridges the gap between the short- and long-term processes scope. The upper reach of the Garona River was studied considering different space and time scales in order to establish a relationship between present short-term fluvial processes and the long-term evolution of the area. There is a clear entrenchment tendency of the drainage network since the Miocene. Post-orogenic exhumation and uplift of the Axial Pyrenees proves the recent and active tectonics of the area which leads to valley entrenchment. The last Upper Pleistocene glaciation affected the Aran valley and gave rise to a destabilisation period during the glacial-interglacial transition, characterised by a postglacial incision tendency. Mean entrenchment rates between 0.68 and 1.56 mm yr-1 since deglaciation have been estimated. During the Holocene, the valley evolution is mostly marked by vertical incision and recent fluvial dynamics is characterised by the predominance of erosive processes. The 2013 flood produced lateral and/or vertical erosion along almost all the river length in Val d'Aran. These results suggest that the long-term tendency of the fluvial system is reflected in short-term processes. Thus, understanding the fluvial network development and evolution of the upper reach of the Garona River will serve to predict river response during flood events. This study helps to improve flood risk management, which needs to take into account the long-term river dynamics.

  1. Supercritical bedforms in deep-marine lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor setting, Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Pickering, K. T.


    There is an increasing appreciation that seafloor gradients in many ancient deep-marine clastic environments are likely to have been steep enough to promote upper flow regime (Froude Number >1) processes and deposits. This issue was addressed by Komar (1971) who concluded that for a reasonable friction factor, f = 0.02, turbidity currents would be supercritical on slopes > 0.5°, a value exceeded on many basin-margin slopes and on the upper parts of submarine fans. Many deep-water depositional systems, therefore, probably contain significant volumes of deposits that have been misinterpreted using the classic Bouma Ta-Te divisions for a waning flow rather than as upper flow-regime (supercritical) bedforms. Using outcrop examples from lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor settings in the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, linked with recent experimental and theoretical work, this paper considers the range of deposits that can be reinterpreted as upper-flow regime bedforms in what might be termed "supercritical clastic systems". Such sedimentary structures involve a very wide range of grain sizes and include discontinuous and irregular sandwaves, backset (upstream-inclined) bedding in mounded gravels and sands and scour-and-fill structures. Irrespective of varying relative base level in the staging area for such flows, supercritical clastic systems show complex facies relationships. Komar, P.D. 1971. Hydraulic jumps in turbidity currents. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82, 1477-1488.

  2. Les foraminifères benthiques ladino-carniens du "Muschelkalk" des Pyrénées françaises à l'est de la Garonne = Ladinian-carnian benthonic foraminifera from the "Muschelkalk" of the french and spanish Pyrenees to the east of the Garonne

    Fréchengues, Michel; Peybernès, Bernard; Martini, Rossana; Zaninetti, Louisette


    The carbonate Transgressive Systems Tracts included within the two Depositional Sequences from the "Muschelkalk" of Pyrenees (DS2.17, Late Anisian - Early Ladinian and DS2.12, Late Ladinian-Carnian pro parte) contain assemblages of alpine-type benthonic Foraminifera and palynomorphs. The first sequence is pointed by the local presence of Meandrospira gr. pusilla-dinarica which was only recognized in the Spanish Pyrenees, not studied herein. The second one includes a diversified microfauna whi...

  3. Low-frequency noise in δ13C and δ18O tree ring data: A case study of Pinus uncinata in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Esper, Jan; Frank, David C.; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Büntgen, Ulf; Holert, Christopher; Treydte, Kerstin; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias


    Isotopic discrimination measurements in tree rings are becoming increasingly important estimators of past environmental change. Potential biases inherent to these parameters, including age trend and level offset are, however, not well understood. We here perform measurements on a new millennium-long data set of decadally resolved δ18O and δ13C discrimination from 25 high-elevation pine trees in the Spanish Pyrenees to investigate whether such low-frequency biases exist and how they alter the long-term behavior of derived time series. Alignment of the tree ring data by biological age reveals age trends over the first one to four centuries after germination. On average, isotope values change by -0.089‰ δ18O and +0.064‰ δ13C per decade over the first 100 years of tree growth. This trend persists into the forth century after germination for δ18O but diminishes to ˜0‰ over the 100-390 year period for δ13C. We also find level offsets up to 7‰ δ18O and 3‰ δ13C between single trees. Analysis of the shape of age trends reveals negative exponential functions as reasonable choices for detrending of δ18O and (inverted) δ13C time series. The detrended isotope chronologies share low-frequency variance with traditional ring width and density measurements beyond statistical chance, suggesting that the various parameters reflect some of the same environmental forcing. Our results show that δ18O and δ13C from these Spanish pines need to be detrended to assess long-term environmental changes. To evaluate the general applicability of this conclusion, production of (1) well-replicated, (2) nonpooled, and (3) composite chronologies from other species and regions will be required. Increases in measurement speed and technology will make these tests feasible in the coming years.

  4. Variabilidad espacial y diferencias estacionales en la producción vegetal de los usos del suelo en el Pirineo Central Español

    Vicente Serrano, Sergio M.; Lasanta Martínez, Teodoro; Romo, Alfredo


    [EN]: Spatial variability and seasonal changes in the vegetal productivity of land uses in the Central Spanish Pyrenees.- This paper anlyses vegetal activity and seasonal biomass productivity of the land uses in the Aragón basin river (Spanish Central Pyrenees). Using a multitemporal series of NOAA-AVHRR images from 1993 to 2000, we calculated the mean NDVI and its coefficient of variation for the eight most representative land uses in the study area. The results show import...

  5. Early Pragian conodont-based correlations between the Barrandian area and the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Hladil, Jindřich; Carls, P.


    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2007), s. 499-512. ISSN 0072-1050 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300130613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : conodont biostratigraphy * stratigraphic correlation * Pragian Stage Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2007

  6. Qualitative approach to residual hazard from the 2013 flood effects in the Garonne River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees)

    Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria


    The Val d'Aran is a region located in the central, axial part of the Pyrenees. The Garona River, the main river that drains it, produces relatively frequent flood events. The last significant flood occurred in June 2013 and it caused extensive damages, as well as a large impact on the media. Based on the 2013 flood effects, a qualitative approach to the residual hazard was performed in order to understand the characteristics of the main zones that were affected and, therefore, may be affected in the future. Two representative sectors along the Garona River were chosen for the study: Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les stretches. The qualitative approach to the residual hazard has been performed considering that the study of the landforms and the flood effects can give orientation to identify the major flood prone areas. The residual hazard is considered as the hazard that remains even when effective mitigation measures to minimize flood processes are in place. The geomorphology in quasi-natural conditions provides information about the natural dynamic of the river. The geomorphology was studied by analysing the landforms from the 1956 aerial pictures that indicate fluvial processes of the area in quasi-natural conditions. Comparing the effects and flooded areas with the fluvial geomorphology and ancient maps, the most significant flood prone areas can be predicted for future episodes. Administration agencies (CHE, ACA) considered the return-period of this flood lower than 50 years. For this low to medium frequency event, two main types of flood effects were identified: erosions and overflows. Erosions were much more significant than overflows. Regarding to erosions, different cases were found: 1) anthropically narrowed channel stretches recovered their original width; 2) the erosions along the river coincided mostly with landfills that nowadays occupy the floodplain; 3) anthropically deviated stretches recovered their natural paths. Furthermore, these erosions caused

  7. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum record in the organic matter of the Claret and Tendruy continental sections (South-central Pyrenees, Lleida, Spain)

    Domingo, Laura; López-Martínez, Nieves; Leng, Melanie J.; Grimes, Stephen T.


    The Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) has been detected for the first time in the total organic carbon (TOC) contained within the continental sediments of the Tremp Formation (South Central Pyrenees, Lleida, Spain). The δ13C TOC magnitude of the CIE is ~ 4.3‰ in the Claret section and ~ 3.0‰ in the Tendruy section with minimum values of - 27.6‰ and - 26.7‰, respectively. Previous studies have detected the CIE in the South Central Pyrenees in both marine carbonates and within continental soil carbonate nodules. These studies have located the onset of the CIE either above or within the Claret Conglomerate, interpreted as a megafan produced by a profound change in the precipitation regimen at the beginning of the PETM. Our higher resolution δ13C TOC study in the Claret and Tendruy sections places the onset of the CIE below the base of the Claret Conglomerate and therefore suggests a 4 to 9 kyr time lag between the onset of the CIE and an increase in intense seasonal precipitation rates. Furthermore, this study suggests that the CIE took place ~ 30-55 kyr after the deposition of important late Cernaysian Tremp mammalian sites (Claret-4, Tendruy-V, Tendruy and Palau) which contain the youngest known occurrence of endemic Paleocene mammalian taxa in Europe before the Mammalian Dispersal Event (MDE, migration of new mammal groups, such as perissodactyls, artiodactyls, primates, marsupials, carnivores, creodonts and rodents). The first immigrant mammals in Europe are recorded at Dormaal (Belgium) above a hiatus, the base of which has been dated to around the start of the CIE. Our data indicate that the MDE might have in fact occurred in Europe within a time interval of about 67 kyr around the CIE onset.

  8. Application of MAGIC to Lake Redó (Central Pyrenees): an assessment of the effects of possible climate driven changes in atmospheric precipitation, base cation deposition, and weathering rates on lake water chemistry.

    Ventura, Marc; Wright, Richard F.; Catalan, Jordi; Camarero, Lluís


    The process-oriented catchment-scale model MAGIC was used to simulate water chemistry at Lake Redó, a high mountain lake in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. Data on lakewater and atmospheric deposition chemistry for the period 1984-1998 were used to calibrate the model, which was then used to reconstruct past and to provide forecasts for three hypothetical future scenarios of deposition. Forecast scenarios considered several combinations of changes in S and N deposition due to abatement strategie...

  9. ¿Hacia dónde evolucionaría la composición del paisaje si la actividad humana fuera mínima? Una aproximación a los cambios probables del paisaje actual en el Pirineo central español

    Sferi, E.; Lasanta, T.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.


    What direction would landscape composition evolve if human activities were minimal?. An approach to probable changes in current landscape in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. This paper compares the current landscape composition, in the Aragon Subordán Basin (Central Pyrenees), a potential one charecterized by lov^ human intervention. To evaluate these changes a land uses map was generated, using Landsat satellite images, as well as a potential vegetation map. Several transitio...

  10. Long-term entrenchment and consequences in present flood hazard in Garona River (Val d'Aran, central Pyrenees)

    Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria


    Flood risk is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in mountainous areas. Risk management and mitigation have to be based on exhaustive risk evaluation. Moreover, hazard analysis requires a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a complete understanding of the dynamics of the phenomena. The Val d'Aran valley is located in the axial part of the Pyrenees and is drained by the Garona River. Flooding events are relatively frequent there. The last extraordinary episode occurred in June 2013. Considering both the main effects of this flooding and the geomorphology, the long-term dynamics of the Garona River was studied in two different areas (Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les), which are representative of the whole length along the Val d'Aran. In fact, present short-term processes can be partly explained as a result of the long-term fluvial tendency. During the analysis of the 2013 flood effects, several entrenchment and incision indicators were found. Under the hypothesis that the fluvial network tends to incise, an entrenchment indicator analysis was carried out. Firstly, we considered the geomorphologic features, such as two generations of alluvial fans, two generations of alluvial terraces and, incisions on geomorphologic features and in Paleozoic bedrock. Secondly, we found out that erosion dominated over overflow and deposition during the 2013 flooding. Finally, great erosion was identified in engineering structures, for instance, in bridges, channelization dikes, gauging stations and dams. The geomorphologic analysis and the entrenchment indicators are essential to perform a post-glacial evolution interpretation. During the last Pleistocene glacial retreat, a fluvio-torrential network was developed at the bottom of the ancient glacial valley. An early post-glacial phase with a high sediment transport lead to the formation of first generation alluvial fans and alluvial terraces (nowadays located ≈15m above the channel). As sediment transport decreased

  11. Short-term effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil water repellency in the Central Pyrenees (NE-Spain)

    Girona García, Antonio; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Badía-Villas, David; Ortiz-Perpiñán, Oriol


    The decrease of livestock grazing during the last decades in the Central Pyrenees has led to a regression of grasslands in favour of shrublands, mainly composed by Echinospartum horridum. Prescribed burning might be a suitable tool for the control of this species that limits pastures development and therefore, the reclamation of grasslands; although, its effects on soil properties are still uncertain [1]. Controlled burnings are usually performed in spring or autumn, when soil moisture is high and temperature low, being easier to control and also reducing its effects on soil properties. However, burning during the wet seasons can increase the risk of soil erosion as the vegetation cover is partially destroyed. In this sense, soil water repellency (SWR) plays an important role reducing the infiltration rates and, thus, increasing runoff and soil erosion [2]. Then, it is of special interest to study parameters that influence SWR such as soil moisture, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil biological activity [3]. The aim of this work is, to analyse the effects of controlled burning on SWR as well as some of the influencing factors on this parameter. To achieve this, soil sampling was carried out in two prescribed fire events that took place in the Central Pyrenees: Tella (April, 2015) and Buisán (November, 2015). Temperature was simultaneously recorded during the fire via thermocouples placed at the surface level and at 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm depth. In each event, topsoil was scrapped and sampled from 0-1 cm, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm depth in each sampling point (3 for Tella and 4 for Buisán) just before and immediately after burning. We analysed SWR persistence (Water Drop Penetration Time, WDPT) and intensity (Ethanol Percentage Test, EPT) as well as total C and N, microbial C, β-glucosidase activity, soil moisture and pH. Temperature measurements indicated a higher fire intensity in Tella than in Buisán burning. Surface unburned samples presented extreme SWR values

  12. Influence of the Yesa reservoir on floods of the Aragón River, central Spanish Pyrenees

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.


    The Yesa reservoir, the largest Pyrenean reservoir, was constructed in 1959 to supply water to new irrigated areas in the Ebro Depression, NE Spain. It is filled from October to May-June and then releases large quantities of water in the summer via the Bardenas Canal. The results confirm that the frequency of floods downstream of the dam decreased. The reduction mainly depends on two factors: i) the water storage level, and ii) the season of the year. Floods are very well co...

  13. Reply to the discussion by Pinyol et al. (2016) on Gutiérrez et al. (2015) "Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging"

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Rosell, Joan; Gutiérrez, Mateo


    Gutiérrez et al. (2015) in their paper published in Geomorphology document for the first time five large landslides (L1, L2, L3, L5, L6) in the Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees) on the basis of detailed geomorphological-geological mapping. They also analyse a large 40 × 106 m3 translational landslide reactivated in 2006 by a severe decline in the reservoir water level (L4 or Canelles landslide). This landslide was discovered because a 1.1 km long fissure-scarp less than 0.5 m in width and height developed along the head of the landslide. The investigation concerning the Canelles landslide included the construction of site-specific stratigraphic columns, detailed mapping, electrical resistivity imaging, and trenching in the upper part of the landslide. The retrodeformation analysis of the trench log together with radiocarbon dates revealed two displacement events older and larger in magnitude than the 2006 event. Those episodes occurred in the 6th to 7th Centuries and in 1262-1679 yr AD, the latter one probably triggered by the 1373 Ribagorza earthquake (Mw 6.2). Based on these new data, Gutiérrez et al. (2015) discuss the hypothesis proposed in a previous paper by Pinyol et al. (2012) on the kinematic behaviour of the Canelles landslide. Pinyol et al. (2012), based on a thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical model that assumes dilation in the sliding surface induced by frictional heating under undrained conditions, predict a catastrophic reactivation. They forecast that at 35 s after the initiation of the movement, the landslide would reach a displacement of 250 m and a speed of 16 m s- 1, capable of generating an impulse-water wave (tsunami). Pinyol et al. (2016) address three issues in their discussion on Gutiérrez et al. (2015): (1) the geological model used; (2) the validity of the prediction of an extremely rapid reactivation; (3) the effectiveness of the corrective measures proposed. They also add a section with additional comments.

  14. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    Ballesteros Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez Morata, Clara; Garofano Gomez, Virginia; Rubiales Jimenez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Salguero, Raul; Stoffel, Markus


    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a ...

  15. Orobanche montserratii A. Pujadas & D. Gómez (Orobanchaceae) new species from the Huesean Pyrenees

    Pujadas Salva, Antonio J.; Gómez García, Daniel


    [EN] Orobanche montserratii A. Pujadas & D. Gómez a new species of the spanish Pyrenees is described. The diagnosis, description, original illustration and the analysis of the morphological differences between the new species and O. alsatica Kirschl., O. bartlingü Griseb, and O. mayeri (Suess. & Ronniger) Bertsch & F. Bertsch, are given.

  16. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Mariana Haedo


    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  17. Spanish Cooperation with Central America: Political will or Transfer of Resources?

    Mª Àngels Miralpeix i Güell


    Full Text Available The economies of the six states of Central America do not form a homogeneous block although they share the common denominators of underdevelopment and dependence. The great dependence of Central American economies on only a few export products whose value has been drastically reduced in international markets was one of the fundamental causes of the economic crisis. The reactivation of the subregional economy largely depends on the opening up of foreign markets, the availability of modern technology, debt renegotiation and the fostering of direct investments.Spanish foreign policy towards Central America has been characterized by a clear political committment to the peace process which set it on the long road towards the end of the so-called Central American crisis. But we can show that the Spanish Policy for Development and Cooperation towards the isthmus has not always been translated into the transfer of resources. The present study which has, as its objective, the analysis of this policy, is based on the study of the PACI-Report (1990-1992 and on the PACIPrevisions (1987-1989 and 1993-1994 given the non-availability of its documented achievements in these years. In order that the political committments taken on by Spain are translated into the assuming of economic responsibilites, it is inevitable that the cooperation be largely technical, based on projects designed in connection with the governments of the isthmus as well as with regional institutions.Political peace will be impossible to reach if the grave economic and social problems are not solved and if the process of democratization and modernization of the State is not consolidated. All these challenges cannot be confronted without intense external support such as that given during the political crisis; regional integration both political (strengthening the Central American Parlament and economic (reactivation of the Central American Common Market offers a clear opportunity for

  18. Respuesta hidrológica del Pirineo central al cambio ambiental proyectado para el siglo XXI

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Zabalza, J.; J. Revuelto; Gilaberte, M.; C. Azorín-Molina; Morán-Tejeda, E.; García-Ruiz, J.M.; Tague, C.


    Streamflows in five Mediterranean mountain headwaters in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). The results show that changes in precipitation and temperature could cause a decline of annual streamflow between 13% and 23%, depending on the considered catchment. When the effect of increased forest cover in the basins is added to climate change effe...

  19. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System

    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  20. Presence of Plecotus macrobullaris (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Pyrenees

    Garin, Inazio; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Aihartza, J. R.; Goiti, Urtzi; Juste, Javier


    In July 2002, several bats of the genus Plecotus (Geoffroy, 1818) were captured at two localities of ‘Ordesa y Monte Perdido’ National Park (Central Pyrenees, Spain). They showed external characters that appeared intermediate between those of P. auritus and P. austriacus. Morphometric and genetic analysis have revealed that these long-eared bats should be ascribed to the recently recognized species P. macrobullaris. This study extends the distribution of this new species, whose western ...

  1. Application of MAGIC to Lake Redó (Central Pyrenees: an assessment of the effects of possible climate driven changes in atmospheric precipitation, base cation deposition, and weathering rates on lake water chemistry

    Marc VENTURA


    Full Text Available The process-oriented catchment-scale model MAGIC was used to simulate water chemistry at Lake Redó, a high mountain lake in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. Data on lakewater and atmospheric deposition chemistry for the period 1984-1998 were used to calibrate the model, which was then used to reconstruct past and to provide forecasts for three hypothetical future scenarios of deposition. Forecast scenarios considered several combinations of changes in S and N deposition due to abatement strategies, and in base cation deposition due to climate-induced changes in air-mass trajectories from northern Africa. Scenario 1 assumed constant deposition of base cations at the present level plus the expected decrease in S and N deposition resulting from reduced emissions; scenario 2 (best case assumed an increase in base cation deposition plus the same decrease in S and N deposition as in scenario 1; scenario 3 (worst case assumed a decrease in base cation deposition plus no decrease in S and N deposition. The hindcast indicated that during the past 140-year period changes in lake water chemistry have been significant for a remote mountain catchment, although no substantial acidification has occurred. In this regard Lake Redó can be described as a "non-sensitive lake" maintaining a reference condition. The forecasts indicated changes that do not affect this status, but the trends, even if slight, were different between scenarios. A slight decline in the surface water ANC is predicted by Scenario 3. The N budget indicates an unusually low retention in the catchment, which may result in enhanced sensitivity to further increased N deposition. Some of the discrepancy between modelled and measured Ca2+ in lake water during 1984-98 could be explained by changes in rainfall amounts and by increased weathering rates due to increases in air temperature.

  2. Regional scale modeling of hillslope sediment delivery: a case study in the Ésera—Isábena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Alatorre, L. C.; BEGUERÍA Santiago; García-Ruiz, José María


    Soil erosion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2; centra...

  3. The middle and upper Lochkovian (Lower Devonian) conodont successions in key peri-Gondwana localities (Spanish Central Pyrenees and Prague Synform) and their relevance for global correlations

    Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Slavík, Ladislav; Liao, J.-Ch.; Calvo, H.; Hušková, Aneta; Chadimová, Leona


    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2015), s. 409-415. ISSN 0954-4879 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100131201 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Lochkovian * conodonts * peri-Gondwana localities Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.639, year: 2014

  4. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    José Mª Prat Forga


    This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tou...

  5. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    José Mª Prat Forga


    This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tou...

  6. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel


    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  7. Re-evaluating sheet erosion rates in a popular trekking trail located at the Spanish Central System

    Bodoque del Pozo, Jose Maria; Ballesteros Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Rubiales Jimenez, Juan Manuel; Martín-Duque, José F.; Genova Fuster, Maria del Mar; Díez-Herrero, Andrés


    Degradation of walking tracks, mainly due to sheet erosion associated with hiking activities, damages the natural and recreational value of protected natural areas. Senda Schmidt is a popular trail located on the northern slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Spanish System), that shows high denudation morphologies on account of accelerated soil-erosion processes basically caused by human influence (trampling by continuous trekking), resulted in exposed roots. Previous works hav...

  8. Petrogenesis of Permian alkaline lamprophyres and diabases from the Spanish Central System and their geodynamic context within western Europe

    Orejana García, David; Villaseca González, Carlos; Billstrom, Kjell; Paterson, Bruce A.


    Basic to ultrabasic alkaline lamprophyres and diabases intruded within the Spanish Central System (SCS) during Upper Permian. Their high LREE, LILE and HFSE contents, together with positive Nb–Ta anomalies, link their origin with the infiltration of sublithospheric K-rich fluids. These alkaline dykes may be classified in two distinct groups according to the Sr–Nd isotope ratios: (1) a depleted PREMA-like asthenospheric component, and (2) a BSE-like lithospheric compone...

  9. The Effects of Work Values and Work Centrality on Job Satisfaction. A study with older spanish workers

    Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos


    Full Text Available Since workforces are ageing throughout Europe, interest in the role of age in the workplace is increasing. Older workers with high work centrality are more likely to negotiate a relational contract and express higher levels of job satisfaction than older workers with low work centrality (Armstrong-Stassen and Schlosser, 2008. This study examines the role of work centrality and valued work outcomes as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 203 Spanish employees (M age = 55.78, SD = 3.01. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by needed income and work centrality. When work is not an important part of older workers’ lives, they will prefer extrinsic outcomes and will not invest in the relationship with their organization (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009. Implications for research and theory are explored in the conclusion.

  10. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    José Mª Prat Forga


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  11. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    José Mª Prat Forga


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.

  12. Weathering landforms exposure and erosion phases in Pedriza de Manzanares (Spanish Central Range)

    García-Rodríguez, M.; Centeno Carrillo, J. D.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.


    The phases of erosion can be reconstructed measuring the position and dimensions of exposed granite underground weathering landforms. We afford a first approach of this kind of "erosion history" in the area of Pedriza de Manzanares. Pedriza de Manzanares is the main part of the Natural Park of High Manzanares River Basin. The area is part also of the Late Paleozoic granites of the Spanish Central Range, intruded during the Variscan orogeny, and uplifted to its present position during Alpine orogeny. The granite shows a complex fracture pattern (related to Variscan and Alpine processes) that defines a landscape with alternance of regolith-connected-depressions and fresh granite outcrops with abundant bornhards and boulders. Pedriza (as most people call it) is a well known area for its granite landforms which attract tourism, educators and rock climbers. In this area, the contrasting hydrological behaviour of fresh and weathered granite, especially in fractures areas, produces small aquifers with a high recharge from adjacent impermeable surfaces. These conditions have been studied in relation to the soil water availability (for both human and ecosystems), and in relation to the geomorphic edaphic processes (taffoni, flared slopes, etc.). In previous works (García et al., 2008, Centeno et al., 2010) a conceptual model using MS-Excel was devised which provided the basis by which were defined the relevant variables and their interconnections (landforms, climate, hydrogeology). From the standpoint of soils water (and the related weathering processes or ecosystem characteristics), this is especially important in semi-arid and arid climates, as has been appreciated by practising farmers for many years, for the contrast in productive potential in stark between the regolithic and rocky areas. At the same time, granite weathering is enhanced by the persistent presence of water in the regolith and, as a consequence, many microforms are initiated or evolve under the regolith

  13. Abiotic ecotypes in south-central Spanish rivers: Reference conditions and pollution

    Physico-chemical water quality in five of Spain's main rivers was assessed during the years 2001-2003. A previous physiographical river typology was carried out by applying System B of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) which distinguished four main river ecotypes: calcareous headwaters, siliceous rivers, plain rivers, and large rivers. The physiographical classification into river ecotypes also corresponded to distinct hydrochemical types. Reference values of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate fitted for local river ecotypes surpassed only slightly Natural and background levels established by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 2003). Half of the sampled sites were above the limits established as reference conditions. Additionally, concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to agriculture and less to forest land. - Agriculture by means of nutrient surpluses and water diversion for irrigation, along with poor sewage treatment of urban wastes are the main environmental problems in Spanish rivers

  14. Circulation of whale-bone artifacts in the northern Pyrenees during the late Upper Paleolithic.

    Pétillon, Jean-Marc


    The importance of coastal resources in the late Upper Paleolithic of western Europe has been reevaluated in recent years thanks to a growing body of new archeological evidence, including the identification of more than 50 implements made of whale bone in the Magdalenian level of the Isturitz cave (western Pyrenees). In the present study, the assemblages of osseous industry from 23 Magdalenian sites and site clusters in the northern Pyrenees were investigated, systematically searching for whale-bone implements. The objective of this research was to determine if, and how, tools and weapons of coastal origin were circulated beyond Isturitz into the inland, and if similar implements existed on the eastern, Mediterranean side of the Pyrenees. A total of 109 whale-bone artifacts, mostly projectile heads of large dimensions, were identified in 11 sites. Their geographic distribution shows that whale bone in the Pyrenean Magdalenian is exclusively of Atlantic origin, and that objects made of this material were transported along the Pyrenees up to the central part of the range at travel distances of at least 350 km from the seashore. This phenomenon seems to have taken place during the second half of the Middle Magdalenian and the first half of the Late Magdalenian, ca. 17,500-15,000 cal BP (calibrated years before present). The existence of a durable, extended coastal-inland interaction network including the circulation of regular tools is thus demonstrated. Additionally, differences between the whale-bone projectile heads of the Middle Magdalenian and those of the Late Magdalenian document an evolutionary process in the design of hunting weapons. PMID:24103459

  15. Understanding the lithosphere in complex tectonic scenarios by integrating geophysical data: The Pyrenees case study

    Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montserrat; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    Tectonic processes dominate the development of the outermost layer of the Earth over a timescale of millions of years. The locations where these processes take place provide a great opportunity for Earth scientists to study and understand the dynamics and properties of the lithosphere. The Pyrenees are a particular case of continental collision formed as a result of the collision between the Iberian and European plates, which caused the subduction of the Iberian lower crust below the European crust. Large amounts of geophysical data have been acquired in the area providing spectacular images of lithospheric subduction beneath the Western and Central Pyrenees, confirming the occurrence of this generally well-understood process. The Eastern Pyrenees, however, are a most puzzling part of the orogen and the geodynamical evolution of this area cannot be understood without the influence of the Neogene Mediterranean rifting, following the continental collision. The complexity of this area and the controversy of the geophysical results set in debate concepts well recognized in the other parts of the Pyrenees such as the subduction of the Iberian lower crust and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The aims of this study are to characterise major tectonic and geophysical variations along the Pyrenean mountain range at a lithospheric-scale and constrain the causes of the observed lateral variations. A preliminary model of the lithospheric configuration and dynamics, based on magnetotelluric geophysical results, has been developed and constrained using independent and available geophysical, geological and geochemical data. Computational petrology methods, using Litmod, were used for integrated modelling of all data.

  16. We are family? Spanish law and lesbian normalization in Hospital Central.

    Calvo, Mónica; Escudero, Maite


    After four decades of a repressive dictatorial regime during which homosexuality was banned and punished with prison sentence and electroshock, Spain became a democratic country in 1978. The social, political, and legal debates previous to the passing of the law on same-sex marriage in June 2005 fueled lesbian visibility in the media. Considering that the emergence of lesbian representation has been linked to these social and political changes, our contribution centers on the ways in which the prime time TV series Hospital Central unravels as a vehicle for the normalization of lesbian relationships and families as addressed to a mostly heterosexual audience. PMID:19197662

  17. Growth response to thinning in Quercus pyrenaica Willd. coppice stands in Spanish central mountain

    Cañellas, Isabel; Río, Miren; Roig, Sonia; Montero, Gregorio


    Croissance de taillis de chêne tauzin (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) soumis à différentes intensités d'éclaircie dans la chaîne montagneuse centrale de l'Espagne. Cet article présente la réponse de taillis de chêne tauzins (Quercuspyrenaica Willd.) à des éclaircies par le bas de différentes intensités. Au total, quatre traitements ont été appliqués: éclaircie faible, moyenne et forte en enlevant respectivement 25, 35 et 50 % de la surface terrière et un traitement sans éclaircie (contrôle). Les r...

  18. Reactivation of a syn-growth unconformity during flexural-slip folding (Bóixols Anticline, Pyrenees, Spain)

    Tavani, Stefano; Granado, Pablo; Arbués, Pau; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    The contractive growth strata of the Bóixols anticline (Spanish Pyrenees) include a major Upper Cretaceous syn-kinematic unconformity outstandingly exposed at the anticline forelimb. The unconformity divides and decouples the growth-sequence in two units of contrasting geometry. In the outer sector of the forelimb, the unconformity preserves its stratigraphic attitude, showing an angle of less than 20° and separating near-vertical to south-dipping upper and lower unit syn-kinematic strata. In the central portion of the forelimb, the multilayered lower unit acquires a near-vertical attitude, whereas layers of the upper unit become shallow-dipping. The angular unconformity there is about 90° and the unconformity is affected by meso-faults and S-C structures providing a top to the foreland shear sense. Such a shear zone is offset by high-angle reverse faults propagating from the underlying layer-parallel faults of the lower syn-kinematic unit. In the inner sector of the forelimb, strata of the lower and upper units are overturned and near-vertical, respectively. Still, the unconformable contact represents a shear zone, indicating a top to the crest shear sense. Shear senses along with relative timing and cross-sectional distribution of deformation structures, indicate flexural-slip folding in the growth sequence. Layer-parallel anisotropies oblique to each other were active at the same time and only during the later stage of folding, when layers of the lower unit were becoming orthogonal to those of the upper package, the flexural-slip mechanism arrested in the upper package. These observations point out that, regardless of its orientation, layering in the growth sequence of the Bóixols anticline promoted stress channeling, with the maximum stress keeping about parallel to beds almost for the entire folding process.

  19. Hydropower landscapes and tourism development in the Pyrenees

    Rodriguez, Jean-François


    Since the development of hydroelectric power at the end of the 19th century, most of the high mountain valleys in the Pyrenees have been equipped with hydropower facilities (dams, water intake structures, aqueducts, penstocks, access routes, etc.). Thus, today many landscapes in the Pyrenees bear witness to the exploitation of this renewable resource. But in the classical imaginary world, these mountain areas are seen as the archetype of the beautiful natural landscape, in accordance with aes...

  20. The Representation of Immigrants in Spanish television fiction. A proposal for a Content Analysis. El Comisario y Hospital Central

    Dra. Elena Galán Fajardo


    Full Text Available Spanish society is getting more and more multicultural. Demographys has changed considerably. Anyway, hegemonic media, especially televisión fiction as one of the most demanded genres on prime-time, avoiding or just showing them into ilegality, exclusion or margination plots. This research analyzes the image of immigrants in the plots of two of the Spanish workplace series with more audience nowadays. They were from 1999 to 2005. Using a content analyses these series has been estudied and the stereotypes used has been observed. In addition, the results of this study has been compared with the information from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics to show similarities and differences with the results obtained of the reality in the same temporary period. Finally, it has been observed a massive employment of negative stereotypes assigned to the image of the immigrant in both series and a correlation between reality and fiction.

  1. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants; Sistemas de gestion ambiental implantados en las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.


    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  2. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF); Analisis termico de la celda de desarga del almacen temporal centralizado (ATC)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.


    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  3. Description and analysis of the debris flows occurred during 2008 in the Eastern Pyrenees

    M. Portilla


    Full Text Available Rainfall-triggered landslides taking place in the Spanish Eastern Pyrenees have usually been analysed on a regional scale. Most research focussed either on terrain susceptibility or on the characteristics of the critical rainfall, neglecting a detailed analysis of individual events. In contrast to other mountainous regions, research on debris flow has only been performed marginally and associated hazard has mostly been neglected.

    In this study, five debris flows, which occurred in 2008, are selected; and site specific descriptions and analysis regarding geology, morphology, rainfall data and runout were performed. The results are compared with worldwide data and some conclusions on hazard assessment are presented.

    The five events can be divided into two in-channel debris flows and three landslide-triggered debris flows. The in-channel generated debris flows exceeded 10 000 m3, which are unusually large mass movements compared to historic events which occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees. In contrast, the other events mobilised total volumes less than 2000 m3. The geomorphologic analysis showed that the studied events emphasize similar patterns when compared to published data focussing on slope angle in the initiation zone or catchment area.

    Rainfall data revealed that all debris flows were triggered by high intensity-short duration rainstorms during the summer season. Unfortunately, existing rainfall thresholds in the Eastern Pyrenees consider long-lasting rainfall, usually occurring in autumn/winter. Therefore, new thresholds should be established taking into account the rainfall peak intensity in mm/h, which seems to be a much more relevant factor for summer than the event's total precipitation.

    The runout analysis of the 2008 debris flows confirms the trend that larger volumes generally induce higher mobility. The numerical simulation of the Riu Runer event shows that its dynamic behaviour

  4. Detrital zircons from the Ordovician rocks of the Pyrenees: Geochronological constraints and provenance

    Margalef, Aina; Castiñeiras, Pedro; Casas, Josep Maria; Navidad, Marina; Liesa, Montserrat; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Gärtner, Andreas


    The first LA-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon ages from quartzites located below (three samples) and above (one sample) the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Central Pyrenees (the Rabassa Dome, Andorra) were investigated. The maximum depositional age for the Jújols Group, below the unconformity, based on the youngest detrital zircon population, is around 475 Ma (Early Ordovician), whereas for the Bar Quartzite Fm., above the unconformity, the presence of only two zircons of 442 and 443 Ma precludes obtaining a precise maximum sedimentation age. A time gap of ~ 20 million years for the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Pyrenees can be proposed, similar to that of the Sardic unconformity in Sardinia. The similar age patterns obtained on both sides of the Upper Ordovician unconformity suggest that there was no change in the source area of these series, while the absence of a Middle Ordovician age population may be due to a lack of sedimentation at that time. The four study samples present very similar U-Pb age patterns: the main age populations correspond to Neoproterozoic (Ediacarian-Cryogenian, ca. 550-750 Ma); Grenvillian (Tonian-Stenian, ca. 850-1100 Ma); Paleoproterozoic (Orosirian, ca.1900-2100 Ma) and Neoarchean (ca. 2500-2650 Ma). The similarity with the Sardinian age distribution suggests that these two terranes could share the same source area and that they were paleogeographically close in Ordovician times in front of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  5. The stress tests performed by the Spanish nuclear power plants.; Las pruebas de resistencia realizadas a las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Alonso, J. R.


    In the wake of the accident that occurred at Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan, the European Union decided to subject the European plants to a reassessment of their safety margins, in accordance with the lessons learned from that accident. On December 31st last, following a process of exhaustive analysis, the Nuclear Safety Council submitted the final reports corresponding to the evaluations performed by the Spanish nuclear power plants, with the results obtained and conclusions drawn. Also detailed are the actions proposed to improve the nuclear safety of these facilities in response to extreme situations. (Author)

  6. First comprehensive contribution to medical ethnobotany of Western Pyrenees

    Calvo María


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical and medical study was carried out in the Navarre Pyrenees, an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance. As well as the compilation of an ethnopharmacological catalogue, a quantitative ethnobotanical comparison has been carried out in relation to the outcomes from other studies about the Pyrenees. A review of all drugs used in the area has also been carried out, through a study of the monographs published by the institutions and organizations responsible for the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants (WHO, ESCOP, and the E Commission of the German Department of Health in order to ascertain the extent to which the Navarre Pyrenees ethnopharmacology has been officially evaluated. Methods Fieldwork was carried out over two years, from November 2004 to December 2006. During that time we interviewed 88 local people in 40 villages. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews and the data was analyzed using quantitave indexes: Ethnobotonicity Index, Shannon-Wiener's Diversity, Equitability and The Informant Consensus Factor. The official review has been performed using the official monographs published by the WHO, ESCOP and the E Commission of the German Department of Health. Results The ethnobotanical and medical catalogue of the Navarre Pyrenees Area comprises 92 species, of which 39 have been mentioned by at least three interviewees. The quantitative ethnobotany results show lower values than those found in other studies about the Pyrenees; and 57.6% of the Pyrenees medical ethnobotany described does not figure in documents published by the above mentioned institutions. Conclusion The results show a reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in the area of study, when compared to other studies carried out in the Pyrenees. Nevertheless, the use of several species that may be regarded as possible sources for pharmacological studies is

  7. Regional structure of the southern segment of Central Iberian Zone (Spanish Variscan Belt) interpreted from potential field images and 2.5 D modelling of Alcudia gravity transect

    García-Lobón, J. L.; Rey-Moral, C.; Ayala, C.; Martín-Parra, L. M.; Matas, J.; Reguera, M. I.


    This study presents a structural interpretation of potential field data at the southern segment of the Spanish Central Iberian Zone, where little is known about its geometry and physical properties in depth. We used ground gravity and aeromagnetic data from the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) databases, together with a gravity survey recently acquired along the Alcudia deep seismic reflection profile, and also petrophysical data from rock samples, in part specifically acquired for this work. The aim is to characterize with potential fields the depth structure and physical properties of a complex area, focusing on features of the upper crust where the potential fields can provide a useful insight, as these features appear to be transparent in the images of seismic surveys carried up to date. After building a 2.5 D model of the magnetic susceptibility and density distribution for the whole crust with the constraints of the Alcudia seismic transect, relationships between lower and upper crustal structures can be better established, and surface geophysical maps allow estimating the lateral extensions of the main structures characterized by the potential field modelling. Interpreted gravity and magnetic Alcudia features consist of: 1) long-wavelength anomalies due to changes in crustal thickness and structure, identified along the Alcudia seismic reflection profile; some crustal boundaries and the seismic Moho have been slightly modified in the potential field model to fit the observed data; and, 2) short wavelength anomalies related to upper crustal features as large NW-SE faults and folds, and plutonic alignments. Northern and southern Alcudia segments show relevant lower-middle crust shortening structures underneath extensive Variscan plutons (Mora, Pedroches) and folded basins (Pedroches). Potential field imaging and modelling of these structures have provided a better understanding of the subsurface geology, particularly in non-reflective areas, unravelling the

  8. Modelisation of northerly snow episodes over Andorra (Pyrenees) using WRF

    Trapero, L.; Esteban, P.


    North episodes over the Pyrenees represent a challenge in terms of forecasting associated effects, especially during the winter season. Andorra, a small country located in the Pyrenees, between France and Spain, is highly sensitive to these episodes. Usually these episodes generate heavy snowfalls and intense windstorms which can substantially increase hazards and accident occurrence in this mountainous region. Slight variations of the forecasted snowfall distribution and accumulation can cause a severe impact to the population: avalanche hazard, incidents on the communication systems and transports and other derivates social impacts. With north episodes, precipitation mainly affects the North Slope of the Pyrenees and nearby areas. However, in some cases, certain factors allow the precipitation to cross over to the leeward mountain slope and intense snowfalls can affect an extended area and low elevations. The challenge comes down to the difficulty that the models have in forecasting the regional effects of these events and how far over the southern side of the Pyrenees range will precipitation extend. The episode that took place on the 10-11th February 2009 is a recent example. Previous research done by Esteban et al. (2005) over this area, examined the relationship between circulation types and heavy snowfall days in Andorra. Additionally, this study has provided a first climatology of N-NW episodes with at least 30 cm of snow in a 24h period during the winter seasons from 1986 to 2001 and has pointed out differences between similar atmospheric fluxes in the snow precipitation amount and distribution. The specific objective of this study is to determine common features of these events and evaluate the ability of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) over complex terrain to predict them, especially the spatial precipitation distribution. Preliminary experiments for 10-11 February 2009 case have tested the performance of two different land

  9. Spanish I

    Rodriguez, Jill


    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  10. Detecting human mobility in the Pyrenees through the analysis of chert tools during the Upper Palaeolithic

    Marta Sánchez de la Torre


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of PhD research focused on hunter-gatherer groups that occupied the Central and Eastern Pyrenees during the Magdalenian period. This research aims to improve the knowledge we have about those Magdalenian groups, specifically concerning their lithic procurement strategies. The core of the study is based on the lithic tools collected from two archaeological sites - Alonsé Cave and Forcas I Shelter, both in Huesca, Spain-, and in particular those made from chert, because they are both a spatial and a cultural marker at the same time. These cherts have been studied using petroarchaeological methods, and as a result, it has been possible to detect the type of procurement strategies carried out and to guess the relation existing between those human groups and their environment, especially in what refers to mobility strategies.

  11. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.


    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  12. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from the Aragonese Pyrenees

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa


    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (YSNP) markers, respectively. Po...

  13. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from Aragonese Pyrenees

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa


    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) markers, respectively. Possible familial relationsh...

  14. Snowpack modelling in the Pyrenees driven by kilometric-resolution meteorological forecasts

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Dumont, Marie; Karbou, Fatima


    Distributed snowpack simulations in the French and Spanish Pyrenees are carried out using the detailed snowpack model Crocus driven by the numerical weather prediction system AROME at 2.5 km grid spacing, during four consecutive winters from 2010 to 2014. The aim of this study is to assess the benefits of a kilometric-resolution atmospheric forcing to a snowpack model for describing the spatial variability of the seasonal snow cover over a mountain range. The evaluation is performed by comparisons to ground-based measurements of the snow depth, the snow water equivalent and precipitations, to satellite snow cover images and to snowpack simulations driven by the SAFRAN analysis system. Snow depths simulated by AROME-Crocus exhibit an overall positive bias, particularly marked over the first summits near the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation of mesoscale orographic effects by AROME gives a realistic regional snowpack variability, unlike SAFRAN-Crocus. The categorical study of daily snow depth variations gives a differentiated perspective of accumulation and ablation processes. Both models underestimate strong snow accumulations and strong snow depth decreases, which is mainly due to the non-simulated wind-induced erosion, the underestimation of strong melting and an insufficient settling after snowfalls. The problematic assimilation of precipitation gauge measurements is also emphasized, which raises the issue of a need for a dedicated analysis to complement the benefits of AROME kilometric resolution and dynamical behaviour in mountainous terrain.

  15. Available data on-budget and off-budget activities of Spanish central, state and local governments

    Isabel Argimón; Francisco Martí


    In this paper we present an analysis of the informative content of available public sector data for Central, State (Regional) and Local Governments in Spain. We first review the framework that defines budgetary arrangements in place in Spain, with a special emphasis on the decentralization process. We then present official budgetary projections for the balance of the different levels of Government and compare them with both outturn and national accounts data. We assess the magnitude of the di...

  16. The Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC) Spanish. General and operational readiness in the management of high level radioactive waste

    The high-level waste will go to Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC) in Villar de Canas (Cuenca), which is the solution to your management until finished designing its final disposal in the Deep Geological Storage (AGP). Transport containers of high activity radioactive waste will be stored on arrival at the ATC. In time of management, waste will be taken remotely, will be encapsulated in secure conditions and stored in vaults designed to be cooled by natural convection of air confinement. The buildings in the facility will have a general provision optimize the movement of packages and people for the development of all these activities. (Author)

  17. Spatial and temporal changes in apportionments by using sediment fingerprinting in a Spanish Pyrenean river catchment.

    Palazón, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana


    The Barasona reservoir has suffered from siltation since its construction, with the loss of over one third of its storage volume in around 30 years (period 1972-1996). Information on sediment contribution and transport dynamics from the contributing catchment to the reservoir is needed to develop management plans for maintaining reservoir sustainability. Large variability in sediment delivery was found in previous studies in the Barasona catchment (1509 km2, Central Spanish Pyrenees) and the major sediment sources identified included badlands developed in the middle part of the catchment and the agricultural fields in its lower part. In this study the soils in the southern part of the catchment are main source of sediments (> 50%) for the southern tributaries. Differences in source apportionments between the two time-spanning reservoir samples reveal that agricultural fields contributed more in the 90s. Study fine sediment characteristics and their contributions in river catchments provide unique and diverse information to address catchment management problems, improving the spatial and temporal knowledge of land use sediment source contributions along the catchment to the reservoir infill.

  18. Spanish Football


    The authors analyze the financial situation of the Spanish football industry. They first argue that a relevant analysis of the industry's financial results relies on a careful description of how historical and cultural factors have influenced its organization. Moreover, they stress the important relationship between the industry and television. The authors suggest that the situation of the Spanish football industry suffers from some structural weaknesses in its accounts. However, the situatio...

  19. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    André Suchet


    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  20. Morphological description and ecology of some rare macroalgae in south-central Spanish rivers (Castilla-La Mancha Region

    Moreno Alcaraz, Jose Luis


    Full Text Available The Castilla-La Mancha Region (south-central Spain is scarcely studied in terms of freshwater algae. However, both the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE and the evaluation of the ecological state of European aquatic ecosystems have increased the intensity and frequency of water body monitoring, including the rivers, lakes and wetlands of this region. Thus, our knowledge on algal biodiversity and the geographical distribution of many species is rapidly increasing. In this study we describe the occurrence, ecological conditions and morphological characteristics of five algal species which are rare at the European level: Nostochopsis lobata Wood ex Bornet & Flahault, Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, Chroothece richteriana Hansg., Oocardium stratum Nägeli and Tetrasporidium javanicum Möbius. In addition, we include Hydrurus foetidus (Vill. Trev., a more common alga in Spain, since this is the first record for the region. Finally, we compare morphological and ecological characteristics of the studied populations with other European records.El conocimiento sobre la biodiversidad algal de la región de Castilla-La Mancha, situada en la zona centro-sur de España, es escaso en comparación con el de otras regiones peninsulares. Sin embargo, la aplicación de la Directiva Marco del Agua (2000/60/CE, y la evaluación del estado ecológico de los ecosistemas acuáticos europeos, ha traído consigo un aumento en la frecuencia e intensidad en el muestreo de ríos, lagos y humedales. De esta forma, durante los últimos años se han producido nuevos hallazgos en la región que han permitido ampliar el conocimiento de la biodiversidad de algas así como de la distribución geográfica de muchas de sus especies. En este trabajo se describen las condiciones ecológicas y las características morfológicas de cinco especies que pueden considerarse raras a nivel europeo: Nostochopsis lobata Wood & Bornet & Flahault, Batrachospermum

  1. Landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics: comparison of methods and case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Beguería, S.; Lorente, A


    This paper, written as a deliverable of the DAMOCLES project, is a review of the different existing methodologies to landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics. Within the DAMOCLES project, multivariate statistical modeis have been applied to different study regions in Italy and Spain. The experience gained has allowed to write this revision, addressing to the differences and advantages of the different tested procedures.

  2. Architecture and processes of deep-marine sandbodies, Ainsa basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Bayliss, N. J.


    The integration of sedimentology, architectural element analysis and stratigraphy has been applied to characterise the complex depositional history of the Ainsa basin fill, and document the evolution of the proximal parts of eight, channelised deep-marine systems of the Hecho Group. The Eocene Ainsa basin provides an opportunity to research three-dimensional organisation through an entire deep-marine slope to proximal basin-floor fill, and records a range of depositional proces...

  3. Validation of snow depth reconstruction from lapse-rate webcam images against terrestrial laser scanner measurements in centrel Pyrenees

    Revuelto, Jesús; Jonas, Tobias; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio


    Snow distribution in mountain areas plays a key role in many processes as runoff dynamics, ecological cycles or erosion rates. Nevertheless, the acquisition of high resolution snow depth data (SD) in space-time is a complex task that needs the application of remote sensing techniques as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). Such kind of techniques requires intense field work for obtaining high quality snowpack evolution during a specific time period. Combining TLS data with other remote sensing techniques (satellite images, photogrammetry…) and in-situ measurements could represent an improvement of the available information of a variable with rapid topographic changes. The aim of this study is to reconstruct daily SD distribution from lapse-rate images from a webcam and data from two to three TLS acquisitions during the snow melting periods of 2012, 2013 and 2014. This information is obtained at Izas Experimental catchment in Central Spanish Pyrenees; a catchment of 33ha, with an elevation ranging from 2050 to 2350m a.s.l. The lapse-rate images provide the Snow Covered Area (SCA) evolution at the study site, while TLS allows obtaining high resolution information of SD distribution. With ground control points, lapse-rate images are georrectified and their information is rasterized into a 1-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model. Subsequently, for each snow season, the Melt-Out Date (MOD) of each pixel is obtained. The reconstruction increases the estimated SD lose for each time step (day) in a distributed manner; starting the reconstruction for each grid cell at the MOD (note the reverse time evolution). To do so, the reconstruction has been previously adjusted in time and space as follows. Firstly, the degree day factor (SD lose/positive average temperatures) is calculated from the information measured at an automatic weather station (AWS) located in the catchment. Afterwards, comparing the SD lose at the AWS during a specific time period (i.e. between two TLS

  4. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael


    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  5. Spanish Visit


    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  6. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer.

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I


    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species. PMID:26833754

  7. The 3000-4000 cal. BP anthropogenic shift in fire regime in the French Pyrenees.

    Rius, D.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Richard, H.


    Fire is a key disturbing agent in a wide range of ecosystems: boreal biome (Pitkanen, 2000), Mediterranean area (Colombaroli et al., 2008) as well as temperate European mountain zones (Tinner et al., 1999). During the Holocene, climate may control fire regime by both ignition and fire spread-favouring conditions (i.e. composition, structure and moisture of biomass) whereas man may change charcoal accumulation patterns through type and intensity of agro-pastoral activities. In western and Mediterranean Europe, single sites charcoal analysis recorded the anthropogenic forcing over fire regime broadly between the mid and the late-Holocene. Turner et al (2008) showed that climate and fire had been disconnected since 1700 cal. BP in Turkey. In central Swiss, Mean Fire Interval decreased by two times 2000 years ago due to increasing human impact (Stahli et al., 2006). In Italy, climate and man have had a combined influence on fire-hazard since ca 4000 cal. BP (Vannière et al., 2008). In the Pyrenees Mountains, the linkage between agro-pastoral practices and fire could be dated back to ca 4000-3000 cal. BP with a clear succession of a clearance phase (high fire frequency) followed by a quite linear trend throughout Middle Ages and Modern times corresponding to a change in fire use (Vanniere et al., 2001; Galop et al., 2002, Rius et al., in press). The quantification of fire regimes parameters such as frequency with robust methodological tools (Inferred Fire Frequency, Mean Fire Interval) is needed to understand and characterise such shifts. Here we present two sequences from the Lourdes basin (col d'Ech peat bog) and from the occidental Pyrenees (Gabarn peat bog), which cover the last 9000 years with high temporal resolution. The main goals of this study were to (1) assess control factors of fire regime throughout the lateglacial and Holocene (climate and/or man) on the local scale, (2) evidence the local/regional significance of these control factors , (3) discuss the

  8. Quantifying retro-foreland evolution in the Eastern Pyrenees.

    Grool, Arjan R.; Ford, Mary; Huismans, Ritske S.


    The northern Pyrenees form the retro-foreland of the Pyrenean orogen. Modelling studies show that retro-forelands have several contrasting characteristics compared to pro-forelands: They tend to show a constant tectonic subsidence during the growth phase of an orogen, and no tectonic subsidence during the steady-state phase. Retro-forelands are also not displaced into the core of the orogen once the steady state phase is achieved. This means they tend to preserve the subsidence history from the growth phase of the orogen, but little or no history from the steady state phase. The northeastern Pyrenees (Carcassonne high) are a good location to test these characteristics against real-world data, because syn-orogenic sediments are preserved and the lack of postrift thermal subsidence and Triassic salt reduce complicating factors. In order to test the model, quantification of the following parameters is needed: Timing, amount and distribution of deformation, subsidence and sedimentation. We use subsurface, field, map and literature data to construct 2 balanced and restored cross sections through the eastern north Pyrenean foreland, stretching from the Montagne Noire in the north, to the Axial Zone in the south. We will link this to published thermochronology data to further constrain the evolution of the retro-foreland and investigate the link with the Axial Zone towards the south. We will quantify subsidence, deformation and sedimentation and link them to exhumation phases in the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and the Axial Zone. The north Pyrenean retro-foreland is divided into two parts: the external foreland basin (Aquitaine basin) to the north and the North Pyrenean Zone to the south, separated by the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust (NPFT). South of the NPZ lies the Axial Zone, separated from the retro-foreland by the North Pyrenean Fault which is believed to be the suture between Iberia and Europe. The NPFT was the breakaway fault on the European continent during the

  9. From hyper-extended rifts to orogens: the example of the Mauléon rift basin in the Western Pyrenees (SW France)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.


    -extended rift system. In our presentation, we discuss the compressional reactivation of the rift structures by the study of dip sections across the basin, from weakly reactivated sections in the west to strongly reactivated sections in the east. Comparing the sections, it results that the compression reactivated the rift structures (mainly the detachment faults) and that this reactivation occurred in 2 steps. It corresponds to the reactivation through time of the NMB before the SMB. This evolution is in line with an early proto-subduction of the hyper-extended domain beneath the European plate whereas the NMB sediments are wedged, folded and thrust onto the Iberia and Europe margins ("thin-skin" tectonics). The second step occurs when the deformation started to migrate southward resulting in the formation of the axial Pyrenees nappe stack (thick-skin tectonics). These results suggest that the inherited rift structures strongly controlled the initial convergence. Future work will revisit the more reactivated Albian basins throughout the chain to investigate how far the results from western Pyrenees can be used to understand the Central and Eastern Pyrenees. Moreover, this field-oriented study can serve as an example of how rift structures may control style and timing of orogenic processes.

  10. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) since the end of the Little Ice Age

    Marti, R.; Gascoin, S.; Houet, T.; Ribière, O.; Laffly, D.; Condom, T.; Monnier, S.; Schmutz, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Tihay, J. P.; Soubeyroux, J. M.; René, P.


    Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciological measurements (2001-2013), a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey (2006), and stereoscopic satellite images (2013). The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60 % of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion were identified: 1850-1890, 1928-1950, and 1983-2013, as well as two short periods of stabilization: 1890-1894, 1905-1913, and a longer period of slight growth: 1950-1983; these agree with other Pyrenean glacier reconstructions (Maladeta, Coronas, Taillon glaciers). Pyrenean and Alpine glaciers exhibit similar multidecadal variations during the 20th century, with a stable period detected at the end of the 1970s and periods of ice depletion during the 1940s and since the 1980s. Ossoue Glacier fluctuations generally concur with climatic data (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation). Geodetic mass balance over 1983-2013 was -1.04 ± 0.06 w.e.a-1 (-31.3 ± 1.9 m w.e.), whereas glaciological mass balance was -1.45 ± 0.85 m w.e. a-1 (-17.3 ± 2.9 m w.e.) over 2001-2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate remains constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  11. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees since the end of the Little Ice Age

    R. Marti


    Full Text Available Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2, which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciological measurements (2001–2013, a ground penetrating radar (GPR survey (2006, and stereoscopic satellite images (2013. The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60 % of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion were identified: 1850–1890, 1928–1950, and 1983–2013, as well as two short periods of stabilization: 1890–1894, 1905–1913, and a longer period of slight growth: 1950–1983; these agree with other Pyrenean glacier reconstructions (Maladeta, Coronas, Taillon glaciers. Pyrenean and Alpine glaciers exhibit similar multidecadal variations during the 20th century, with a stable period detected at the end of the 1970s and periods of ice depletion during the 1940s and since the 1980s. Ossoue Glacier fluctuations generally concur with climatic data (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geodetic mass balance over 1983–2013 was −1.04 ± 0.06 w.e.a−1 (−31.3 ± 1.9 m w.e., whereas glaciological mass balance was −1.45 ± 0.85 m w.e. a−1 (−17.3 ± 2.9 m w.e. over 2001–2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate remains constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  12. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.


    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  13. Spanish clitic clusters

    María Cristina Cuervo


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a small set of data from clusters of three clitics in Spanish that questions the empirical adequacy and scope of previous analyses of clitic clusters in Romance. It is shown that the output of the Spurious se Rule is not identical to genuine se, at some level that is relevant for linearization of clitics within a cluster. A proposal is presented to capture the neglected data, and this is done in a way that illuminates the debate on the division of labour in clitic phenomena between phonology, morphology and syntax. Central questions in morphology, such as ordering of operations, syncretisms, linearization principles and consequences of lexical insertion are addressed and re-examined.

  14. Transnational Spanish Language Project.

    Gavillan, Eva; And Others

    The Transnational Spanish Language Project curriculum is a set of instructional materials designed to enhance intercultural business communication between North American and Spanish American cultures. The curriculum covers three areas: office procedures; banking; and import/export business. Lessons, all in Spanish, are intended for…

  15. Crustal structure and composition to the S of the Spanish Central System: Effect of Alpine reactivation in an internal Variscan domain

    Ayarza, Puy; Carbonell, Ramón; Ehsan, Siddique; Martí, David; Palomeras, Immaculada; Martínez Poyatos, David


    The ALCUDIA Project has acquired vertical incidence and wide-angle reflection seismic data in the Variscan Central Iberian Zone of Spain. The NE-SW, ~300 km long profiles sample an area going from the suture between the Variscan Central Iberian and the Ossa-Morena Zones in the S to the boundary between the former and the Alpine Central System to the N. Although crustal thickness appears to be fairly constant along most of the Central Iberian Zone, a gradual increase of 3-5 km in the northern half of the profile is clearly imaged by the wide-angle data. This increase in the Moho depth is accompanied by a decrease in the thickness of the layered lower crust from the Toledo Anatectic Complex to the N. Right in this area, the amount of Variscan metasediments diminish and the surface geology is characterized by granites, migmatites and by the Madrid Basin, a foreland basin of the Alpine Central System that is part of the bigger Tagus Basin. The increase in crustal thickness identified in the neighborhood of the Central System is also accompanied by a slight increase in the Poisson ratio values, which even though still below 0.25, they are higher than those observed in the southern part of the profile, far from the influence of the late Variscan melting episode and of that of the Alpine tectonics. Two scenarios are considered to take part in the Moho deepening near the Central System: Firstly, the Alpine reactivation causing this mountain belt has increased the crustal load giving rise to a foreland basin and a moderate crustal thickening. Also, a gradual change in crustal composition to the N, incorporating denser and more basic rocks, might also play a role in the average crustal density and contribute to Moho deepening by isostatic readjustment. The importance of each of these process is, as yet, unknown. However, the next acquisition of the CIMDEF project wide-angle reflection dataset across the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, crossing the Central System, will

  16. Rheotanytarsus dactylophoreus, a new mountain species from streams in the Eastern Pyrenees and Corsica (Diptera: Chironomidae

    Joel Moubayed-Breil


    Full Text Available The description of Rheotanytarsus dactylophoreus sp. nov. is based on adult males, pharate males and pupal exuviae collected in low and middle mountain streams located in the Eastern Pyrenees and Corsica is presented. The most distinctive character in the adult male is the unusually long, finger-like, digitus and in the pupal exuviae is the thoracic horn which is spinulate laterally (extending from swollen base into tapered apical half. The distribution of R. dactylophoreus sp. nov. indicates that this pyreneocorsican species is a Tyrrhenian faunal element which spread westwards to mountain streams of the Eastern Pyrenees perhaps during the repeated waves of migration from the Paleocene (Montian till the late Miocene.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1375.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  17. Serological survey of Coxiella burnetii at the wildlife–livestock interface in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Cabezón, Óscar; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón


    Background Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease Q fever. Both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiology of C. burnetii infection. In order to investigate the significance of the ruminant host community in the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees, Northeastern Spain, in the epidemiology of Q fever, a serological survey was performed on samples from 599 wild and 353 sympatric domesti...

  18. Rheotanytarsus dactylophoreus, a new mountain species from streams in the Eastern Pyrenees and Corsica (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Joel Moubayed-Breil; Peter H. Langton; Patrick Ashe


    The description of Rheotanytarsus dactylophoreus sp. nov. is based on adult males, pharate males and pupal exuviae collected in low and middle mountain streams located in the Eastern Pyrenees and Corsica is presented. The most distinctive character in the adult male is the unusually long, finger-like, digitus and in the pupal exuviae is the thoracic horn which is spinulate laterally (extending from swollen base into tapered apical half). The distribution of R. dactylophoreus sp. nov. indicate...

  19. Zircon geochronology of intrusive rocks from Cap de Creus, eastern Pyrenees

    Druguet, Elena; de Castro, Antonio; Chichorro, Martim; Pereira, M. Francisco; Fernandez, Carlos


    New petrological and U–Pb zircon geochronological information has been obtained from intrusive plutonic rocks and migmatites from the Cap de Creus massif (Eastern Pyrenees) in order to constrain the timing of the thermal and tectonic evolution of this northeasternmost segment of Iberia during late Palaeozoic time. Zircons from a deformed syntectonic quartz diorite from the northern Cap de Creus Tudela migmatitic complex yield a mean age of 298.8±3.8 Ma. A syntectonic granodiori...

  20. Tracing the Cambro-Ordovician ferrosilicic to calc-alkaline magmatic association in Iberia by in situ U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology (Gredos massif, Spanish Central System batholith)

    Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Fernández, Carlos; Chichorro, Martim; Castro, Antonio; Pereira, Manuel Francisco


    U-Pb geochronological study of zircons from nodular granites and Qtz-diorites comprising part of Variscan high-grade metamorphic complexes in Gredos massif (Spanish Central System batholith) points out the significant presence of Cambro-Ordovician protoliths among the Variscan migmatitic rocks that host the Late Carboniferous intrusive granitoids. Indeed, the studied zone was affected by two contrasted tectono-magmatic episodes, Carboniferous (Variscan) and Cambro-Ordovician. Three main characteristics denote a close relation between the Cambro-Ordovician protholiths of the Prado de las Pozas high-grade metamorphic complex, strongly reworked during the Variscan Orogeny, and other Cambro-Ordovician igneous domains in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif: (1) geochemical features show the ferrosilicic signature of nodular granites. They plot very close to the average analysis of the metavolcanic rocks of the Ollo de Sapo formation (Iberia). Qtz-diorites present typical calc-alkaline signatures and are geochemically similar to intermediate cordilleran granitoids. (2) Both Qtz-diorite and nodular granite samples yield a significant population of Cambro-Ordovician ages, ranging between 483 and 473 Ma and between 487 and 457 Ma, respectively. Besides, (3) the abundance of zircon inheritance observed on nodular granites matches the significant component of inheritance reported on Cambro-Ordovician metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of central and NW Iberia. The spatial and temporal coincidence of both peraluminous and intermediate granitoids, and specifically in nodular granites and Qtz-diorite enclaves of the Prado de las Pozas high-grade complex, is conducive to a common petrogenetic context for the formation of both magmatic types. Tectonic and geochemical characteristics describe the activity of a Cambro-Ordovician arc-back-arc tectonic setting associated with the subduction of the Iapetus-Tornquist Ocean and the birth of the Rheic Ocean. The extensional

  1. The geology of the Upper Ribagorzana and Baliera valleys, Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Mey, P.H.W.


    In the mapped area there is a well-exposed low-grade metamorphic marine sequence from Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous, unconformably overlain by Permo-Triassic continental deposits. Determinable fossils are rare. The Ordovician consists of a quartzite/shale sequence with one marly limestone interc

  2. Impacts of land use changes on physical and chemical soil properties in the Central Pyrenees

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Hoitinga, Leo; Valdivielso, Sergio; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Serrano Muela, Pili; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cammeraat, Erik


    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. Afforestation has been one of the main policies for environmental management of forest landscapes in Mediterranean areas. Afforestation has been based mainly on conifers because they are fast-growing species, and also because it was believed that this would lead to rapid restoration of soil properties and hydrological processes, and the formation of protective vegetation cover. This study analyses the effects of afforestation on physical and chemical soil properties. Specifically, we addressed this research question: (i) How do soil properties change after land abandonment? The 11 microsites considered were: Afforestation Pinus sylvestris (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), Afforestation Pinus nigra (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), natural shrubland, grasslands, bare lands, and undisturbed forest site (pine cover and close to the stem). An extensive single sampling was carried out in September 2014. We systematically collected 5 top soil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 deep soil samples (10-20 cm) per microsite (88 composite samples in total). These properties were analysed: (i) soil texture, (ii) bulk density, (iii) pH and electrical conductivity, (iv) total SOC, (v) Total Nitrogen, (vi) organic matter, (vii) CaCO3 and (viii) aggregate stability. Statistical tests have been applied to determine relationships between the different soil properties and are used to assess differences between different soil samples, land use areas and soil depths. Implications of reafforestation for soil development and environmental response are discussed. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974).

  3. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Saalfeld, Anita K.


    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  4. Mountain accidents associated with winter northern flows in the Mediterranean Pyrenees

    Pascual, R.; A. Callado


    The Mediterranean Pyrenees, at the eastern end of the range, is a very popular area. Its highest peak is at 2900 m a.s.l. and there are numerous peaks above 2000 m, with rounded relief and sparse vegetation on the latter height. One of its significant winter climatic features is the sudden entrance of cold air with violent northern winds, drop in temperatures and very low wind chill values. Such advections are established after the passage of a snowy cold front and, consequently, there is abu...

  5. Spanish Case Study

    Thomas C. Bruneau


    Spain has frequently and correctly been offered as a model of how to negotiate a democratic transition and consolidate a democracy. The transition from authoritarianism to democracy was initiated in the late 1970s and completed with the election of the Spanish Socialist Party (PSOE) in 1982. It was the forerunner in the contemporary “third wave” of democracy. A, if not the, crucial factor in the overall process of the Spanish transition was the resolution of civil–military rela...

  6. Spanish Visit to CERN


    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  7. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    de Luxán, M. P.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  8. Subalpine Pyrenees received higher nitrogen deposition than predicted by EMEP and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models

    Boutin, Marion; Lamaze, Thierry; Couvidat, Florian; Pornon, André


    Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m-2 year-1. These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world’s biodiversity.

  9. Structural and petrofabric analysis of an “Alpine-type” peridotite: the lherzolite of the French Pyrenees

    Avé Lallemant, H.G.


    A narrow E-W-striking “graben” containing Mesozoic sediments is separated from the Hercynian mountain chain of the Pyrenees in the south by the North-Pyrenean fault and in the north by a detachment plane. In the region around Vicdessos and the Etang de Lers (Ariège, France), three Alpine phases of d

  10. Succession of Permian and Mesozoic metasomatic events in the eastern Pyrenees with emphasis on the Trimouns talc-chlorite deposit

    Boutin, Alexandre; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Poujol, Marc; Boulvais, Philippe; de Parseval, Philippe; Rouleau, Caroline; Robert, Jean-François


    Recent studies proposing pre-orogenic mantle exhumation models have helped renew the interest of the geosciences community in the Pyrenees, which should be now interpreted as a hyper-extended passive margin before the convergence between Iberia and Eurasia occurred. Unresolved questions of the Pyrenean geology, as well as the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended passive margins, are how the crust was thinned, and when, where and how the crustal breakoff occurred. The study of the Variscan and pre-Variscan Pyrenean basement is thus critical to document and understand this Cretaceous crustal thinning. In order to specify the timing of Mesozoic metasomatism and the associated deformation in the pre-Mesozoic basement of the Pyrenees, we carried out a U-Th-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS study on a large panel of REE and titanium-rich minerals (titanite and rutile) from talc-chlorite ores from the eastern Pyrenees, with a special emphasis on the Trimouns deposit, the world's largest talc quarry. Our results suggest that the Trimouns talc formation was restricted to the upper Aptian-Cenomanian time, while the talc and chlorite formation in the eastern Pyrenees occurred during several distinct Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous episodes. These results give strong constraints on the tectonic setting of the Pyrenean domain during the transition between the Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles, and particularly on when and how the upper crust was thinned before the crustal breakoff and the final mantle exhumation.

  11. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.


    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper thrust system) affecting the Marboré sandstones and the Paleocene limestones, deformed by angular south-vergent folds and their related axial plane foliation. The transect explained above clearly summarizes the alpine evolution of northern part of the Sierras Interiores. Moreover, well data available indicate the presence of two thrust soled in the lower calcareous section covering Triassic evaporites at 5 km depth and 8 km to the south of the Sierras Interiores. Because the Triassic evaporites constitute a main decollement level in the South Pyrenean Zone, the deeper thrust system is associated to the emplacement of the Gavarnie nappe. Lanaja, J.M., 1987, Contribución de la exploración petrolífera al conocimiento de la Geología de España, IGME, Madrid, 465 p. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., 2008. Geogaceta 44, 51-54. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., Tubia, J.M., 2011. Geophysical Research Abstracts 13, 2273.

  12. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Hollingsworth, C.


    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  13. interpretation of Spanish architecuture


    While Spanish architecture has experienced a remarkable creative flourishing over the last 25 years, this boom has occurred chiefly in the public sector under the patronage of new national and regional institutions. The private and business sectors have generally been much more conservative in their building, less willing to take risks and less interested in design innovation.

  14. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez


    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  15. ¿Hacia dónde evolucionaría la composición del paisaje si la actividad humana fuera mínima? Una aproximación a los cambios probables del paisaje actual en el Pirineo central español

    Sferi, E.


    Full Text Available What direction would landscape composition evolve if human activities were minimal?. An approach to probable changes in current landscape in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. This paper compares the current landscape composition, in the Aragon Subordán Basin (Central Pyrenees, a potential one charecterized by lov^ human intervention. To evaluate these changes a land uses map was generated, using Landsat satellite images, as well as a potential vegetation map. Several transitions in land uses are evaluated and the different landscape compositions are analyzed using the diversity, dominance and equitability index. The results show that current landscape presenst higher biodiversity and lower dominance indexes than the potential landscape.

    [es] Se analizan, en la cuenca del Aragón Subordán (Pirineo Central, los cambios en la composición del paisaje desde una situación actual a otra potencial, originada por una escasa intervención humana. Para ello se han elaborado un mapa de cubiertas vegetales actuales, a partir de imágenes del satélite Landsat, y otro de cubiertas potenciales. Se presentan las transiciones en las cubiertas del suelo y se estudia la distinta composición del paisaje, aplicando los índices de diversidad, dominancia y equitabilidad. Los resultados señalan que el paisaje actual presenta mayor diversidad y menor dominancia que el potencial. [fr] Dans quel sens évoluerait la composition du paysage si l´activité humaine aurait été minime? Une approximation des changements probables du paysage actuel dans les Pyrénées Centrales. On analyse, dans le bassin de Aragón Subordán (Pyrénées Centrales, les changements dans la composition du paysage, à partir d'une situation actuelle jusqu'à une situation potentielle, qui serait le résultat d'une légère intervention humaine. Ainsi, on a élaboré une carte de couvertures végétales actuelle, à partir d'images de satellite Landsat, et une autre de

  16. External controls on Quaternary fluvial incision and terrace formation at the Segre River, Southern Pyrenees

    Stange, Kurt Martin; van Balen, Ronald; Vandenberghe, Jef; Peña, Jose Luis; Sancho, Carlos


    Focusing on climatic- and structural (tectonic) controls, we aim to determine their relative importance for the (Pliocene to Quaternary) fluvial landscape evolution in the Southern Pyrenees foreland. We investigate the Segre River, which is one of the major streams of the Southern Pyrenees that drains the elevated chain towards the Ebro foreland basin. Along its course, the Segre River has a flight of fluvial cut-and-fill (and strath-type) terraces preserved that have been mapped based on DEM's and geomorphological fieldwork. This paper presents the first results of our study and reports on the Segre terrace staircase, which is characterized by seven major Quaternary terrace levels with elevations up to more than 110 m above the modern floodplain. At the upper and middle reaches, the semi-parallel terraces of the Segre River occasionally show anomalies featuring extensive gravel thickness and deformation caused by faulting, folding and local subsidence. The longitudinal correlations of terrace levels reveal increased vertical terrace spacing in the foreland, which could originate from enhanced fluvial erosion after the Mid-Pleistocene climate transition in combination with base level lowering controlled by the progressive downcutting of the Catalan Coastal Range. Since the Ebro Basin opening (Late Miocene), the Catalan Coastal Range, which borders the Ebro foreland basin to the Mediterranean Sea, was progressively cut down and the exorheic drainage system gradually adjusted to sea level. The Segre longitudinal terrace profiles and the Ebro gorge morphology at the Catalan Coastal Range indicate a base-level of about 200 m.s.l. at the beginning of (Pleistocene) terrace formation, which implies that the Catalan Coastal Range might have functioned as a local base-level upstream of the sea outlet, presumably until the Late Pleistocene. Alternatively, a yet unknown tectonic process might have caused base level lowering and the preservation of terrace staircases at the

  17. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Sayler, Kristi L.


    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  18. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: Combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains

    Blasco, Maria; Domeno, Celia; Nerin, Cristina [Grupo GUIA-Instituto de Investigacion de Ingenieria en Aragon (I3A), Centro Superior de Ingenieros (CPS), Zaragoza (Spain)


    The air quality in the Aragon valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragon valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g{sup -1} and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g{sup -1}), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs. (orig.)

  19. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  20. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees.

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte


    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  1. The safety analysis and thermohydraulic methodologies for the power updating analyses in Spanish PWR plants; Methodologias de diseno termohidraulico y de analisis de seguridad en los aumentos de potencia de centrales PWR

    Salesa, F.


    This article describes the Safety Analysis and Thermohydraulic methodologies used by ENUSA for the Power Updating analyses in Spanish PWR plants of Westinghouse design: Design tools have been developed over the first cycles resulting new correlations of DNB, fitted to the new fuel assemblies, new DNBR calculation methodology and other improvements in the design areas. Using these methodologies, the available margins between design and limit values are wider. These new margins have allowed to accomplish the design criteria under the new power updating operational conditions. (Author)

  2. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains

    Leigh, David


    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  3. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    O. Monserrat


    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  4. Significance of organic matter in Eocene turbidite sediments (SE Pyrenees, Spain)

    Caja, M. A.; Permanyer, A.


    Although turbidite deposits are classically considered to be good reservoir rocks for oil and gas, there are no reports concerning their source rock potential in the literature. The sediments from the Vallfogona Formation in the South-Eastern Pyrenees present numerous organic matter-rich levels interbedded in sandstones and coarse turbidite deposits. Two types of organic matter deposits were differentiated on the basis of organic geochemistry and petrography: type A and type B. Type A was deposited in a carbonate marine environment under hypersaline conditions as indicated mainly by even/odd n-alkane predominance, pristane and phytane ratio (Pr/Ph) 1. Type B was deposited in a more mud-rich marine environment evidenced by the predominance of odd n-alkane, Pr/Ph ≥ 1, Ts/Tm < 1, the absence of gammacerane, similar concentrations of the C27 and C29 regular steranes, and the greater abundance of C27 diasteranes. Turbidite facies can be regarded as an environment where organic matter sedimentation is heterogeneous in type and amount. This study suggests that turbidite deposits with interbedded organic matter-rich levels may act as a combined source reservoir system.

  5. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel


    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  6. Managerial style in Spanish

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  7. The spanish nuclear choice

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the present state and projections of the nuclear energy development in Spain, the limits and conditions of this development, as also the industrial and politic-economical stakes resulting. The analysis is considered through the evolution of the energetic balance up to 1990, taking into account the exceptional role of the nuclear energy: description of the various economic and social development plans since 1964, history of the energy consumption in Spain, structures of the nuclear sector (mining, production, and the private industry), importance of the electric energy in the spanish industry, structures of the electric sector in Spain, roles and interventions of the government in the nuclear electric subsector

  8. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570ma.s.l.)

    Ripoll, Anna; Pey, Jorge; Minguillón, María Cruz; Pérez, Noemí; Pandolfi, Marco; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés


    Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1&minus10), black carbon (BC) and number of particles (N3: number of particles with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 3 nm, andN10: higher than 10 nm) concentrations at the high-altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. At MSC, PM10 (12 Î1/4g mĝ̂'3) andN7 (2140 # cmĝ̂'3) three-year arithmetic average concentrations were higher than those measured at other high-altitude sites in cent...

  9. How the Pyrenees influence the δ18O and δD compositions of rain and rivers?

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frederic; Sebilo, Mathieu; Segalen, Loic


    Documenting Earth surface past elevation is critical to understand the dynamics of collisional domains and to investigate tectonics vs. climate interactions and their relative influence on erosion and sedimentation. Topography exerts a direct control on precipitation and it is possible to determine the paleoelevation of a mountain range from analyses of minerals created from paleorainfall, because the isotopic composition of rain (δ18O & δD) decreases with elevation. Topography modifies the patterns of atmospheric circulation and thus the local isotopic lapse rate and the resulting isotope-in-precipitation patterns at high elevation. Thus, before reconstructing paleoelevation, the local modern isotope lapse rate has to be documented to quantify the amount of orographic effect on precipitation and get a first-order understanding of the interactions of topography and rainfall in the study area. Here, we characterize the modern isotope lapse rate in the Pyrenees, a well-know collisional orogen, which is a privileged area for paleotopographic investigations. It presents the advantage to be a small orogen, with mean maximum elevation of ~3000 m, which allows for a reliable and large sampling. We sampled streams and creeks from small catchments that integrate near-surface runoff (i.e., precipitation) over months to years and hence provide a time-averaged signal of elevation. We collected 100 samples in 9 different valleys from N and S Pyrenees during the dry season (August and July), because it is the period during which groundwater, which is comprised by a mixture of rainfall of the annual cycle, dominates the stream water budget. Results reveal a good correlation of δ18O vs. δD values and mean δ18O and δD altitudinal gradients of -3.6‰ and -29‰ /km respectively. Distinct areas can be distinguished over the range according to their isotopic features. In particular, the southern Pyrenees exhibit lowers ratios than the north, suggesting an orographic effect of

  10. A Spanish Tagset for the CRATER Project

    León, Fernando Sánchez


    This working paper describes the Spanish tagset to be used in the context of CRATER, a CEC funded project aiming at the creation of a multilingual (English, French, Spanish) aligned corpus using the International Telecommunications Union corpus. In this respect, each version of the corpus will be (or is currently) tagged. Xerox PARC tagger will be adapted to Spanish in order to perform the tagging of the Spanish version. This tagset has been devised as the ideal one for Spanish, and has been ...

  11. Spanish Multinational Firm and its Internationalization Process

    David de Matías Batalla


    The article responds to the need to study and analyze the evolution of the Spanish multinational firm in order to be able to identify the characteristics of success and what kind of factors are drivers to internationalize the activities in the Spanish economy. The first part reviews the evolution of the Spanish firm internationalization; meanwhile the second part describes the characteristics of Spanish multinational firm, resulted of a survey of 166 Spanish multinational firms.

  12. Restoring paleomagnetic data in complex superposed folding settings: The Boltaña anticline (Southern Pyrenees)

    Mochales, T.; Pueyo, E. L.; Casas, A. M.; Barnolas, A.


    Complex kinematic scenarios in fold-and-thrust belts often produce superposed and non-coaxial folding. Interpretation of primary linear indicators must be based on a careful restoration to the undeformed stage following the reverse order of the deformation events. Therefore, sequential restoration to the ancient coordinate system is of key importance to obtain reliable kinematic interpretations using paleomagnetic data. In this paper, a new paleomagnetic study in the western flank of the Boltaña anticline (Southern Pyrenees) illustrates a case study of a complex tectonic setting having superposed, non-coaxial folds. The first stage of NW-SE folding linked to the oblique Boltaña anticline took place during Lutetian times. The second stage was linked to the vertical axis rotation and placed the Boltaña anticline in its present-day N-S configuration. Our data support a long-lasting Lutetian to Priabonian period with main rotational activity during the Bartonian-Priabonian; other authors support a VAR coeval with anticlinal growth. The third stage resulted in southwards tilting related to the emplacement of the N120E striking Guarga basement thrust (Oligocene-Early Miocene). Based on this deformational history, a sequential restoration was applied and compared with the classic bedding correction. At the site scale, single bedding correction gives errors ranging between 31° and - 31° in the estimation of vertical axis rotations. At the locality scale, in sites grouped in three folds (from W to E Arbella, Planillo and San Felizes), the bedding corrected data display rotation values in accordance with those found in the Ainsa Basin by other authors. Sequential restoration (based on the afore-mentioned evolution in three-steps) improves both some locality-means and the internal consistency of the data. Therefore, reasonably-constrained sequential restoration becomes essential to reconstruct the actual history of superposed folding areas.

  13. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees since the end of the Little Ice Age

    R. Marti


    Full Text Available Long-term climate records are rare at high elevations in Southern Europe. Here, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2, located in the Pyrenees (3404 m a.s.l., since the Little Ice Age (LIA. Glacier length, area, thickness and mass changes indicators were generated from historical datasets, topographic surveys, glaciological measurements (2001–2013, a GPR survey (2006 and stereoscopic satellite images (2013. The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60% of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion can be identified: 1850–1890, 1928–1950 and 1983–2013, as well as two periods of stabilization or slightly growth: 1905–1928 and 1950–1983; these agree with climatic datasets (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. In the early 2000s, the area of the glacier dropped below 50% of its area at the end of the LIA. Geodetic mass balance measurements over 1983–2013 indicated −30.1 ± 1.7 m w.e. (−1 m w.e. yr−1 whereas glaciological mass balance measurements show −17.36 ± 2.9 m w.e. (−1.45 m w.e. yr−1 over 2001–2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate stays constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  14. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Damase-Michel C


    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Mountain accidents associated with winter northern flows in the Mediterranean Pyrenees

    R. Pascual


    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Pyrenees, at the eastern end of the range, is a very popular area. Its highest peak is at 2900 m a.s.l. and there are numerous peaks above 2000 m, with rounded relief and sparse vegetation on the latter height. One of its significant winter climatic features is the sudden entrance of cold air with violent northern winds, drop in temperatures and very low wind chill values. Such advections are established after the passage of a snowy cold front and, consequently, there is abundant transport of both new and existing snow that reduces horizontal visibility. The post-frontal conditions at high altitudes represent a serious threat to humans. The review done shows that the hikers immersed in an environment of low visibility, strong winds and very low temperatures can quickly become disoriented, suffer frostbite and hypothermia and slip on the ice. The characterization of a series of accidents occurred in this geographical area, identified in the press, shows in this paper that the phenomena associated with northern winter advections is an element of danger to be considered in the evaluation of natural hazards in that area. In addition, the multiple character of many of the events suggests that there is high vulnerability to such dangers. The climatological analysis presented suggests that such weather conditions are not uncommon in the winter, although the most serious accidents have been registered under especially strong and cold flows. The conclusions recommend that the weather conditions described, locally called torb, should be known by the visitors to these mountains in the winter, and its appearance should be announced in weather reports, which in turn must be sufficiently disseminated in the areas of greater abundance of tourists and hikers.

  16. Annual and seasonal analysis of temperature and precipitation in Andorra (Pyrenees) from 1934 to 2008: quality check, homogenization and trends

    Esteban, Pere; Prohom, Marc; Aguilar, Enric; Mestre, Olivier


    The analysis of temperature and precipitation change and variability in high elevations is a difficult issue due to the lack of long term climatic series in those environments. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate how much high elevations follow the same climate evolution than low lying sites. In this work, using daily data from three Andorran weather stations (maintained by the power company Forces Elèctriques d'Andorra, FEDA), climate trends of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation were obtained for the period 1934-2008. The series are complete (99.9%) and are located in a mountainous area ranging from 1110 m to 1600 m asl. As a previous step to the analysis, data rescue, quality control and homogeneity tests were applied to the daily data. For quality control, several procedures were applied to identify and flag suspicious or erroneous data: duplicated days, outliers, excessive differences between consecutive days, flat line checking, days with maximum temperature lower that minimum temperature, and rounding analysis. All the station sites were visited to gather the available metadata. Concerning homogeneity, a homogeneous climate time series is defined as one where variations are caused only by variations in climate and not to non-climatic factors (i.e., changes in site location, instruments, station environment…). As a result, homogeneity of the series was inspected from several methodologies that have been used in a complementary and independent way in order to attain solid results: C3-SNHT (with software developed under the Spanish Government Grant CGL2007-65546-C03-02), and Caussinus-Mestre (C-M) approaches. In both cases, tests were applied to mean annual temperature and precipitation series, using Catalan and French series as references (provided respectively by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia and Météo-France, in the framework of the Action COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated

  17. Visit of Spanish Government delegation


    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  18. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  19. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  20. Imprints of multiple glacial refugia in the Pyrenees revealed by phylogeography and palaeodistribution modelling of an endemic spider.

    Bidegaray-Batista, Leticia; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Santulli, Giulia; Maiorano, Luigi; Guisan, Antoine; Vogler, Alfried P; Arnedo, Miquel A


    Mediterranean mountain ranges harbour highly endemic biota in islandlike habitats. Their topographic diversity offered the opportunity for mountain species to persist in refugial areas during episodes of major climatic change. We investigate the role of Quaternary climatic oscillations in shaping the demographic history and distribution ranges in the spider Harpactocrates ravastellus, endemic to the Pyrenees. Gene trees and multispecies coalescent analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences unveiled two distinct lineages with a hybrid zone around the northwestern area of the Catalan Pyrenees. The lineages were further supported by morphological differences. Climatic niche-based species distribution models (SDMs) identified two lowland refugia at the western and eastern extremes of the mountain range, which would suggest secondary contact following postglacial expansion of populations from both refugia. Neutrality test and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses indicated that several local populations underwent severe bottlenecks followed by population expansions, which in combination with the deep population differentiation provided evidence for population survival during glacial periods in microrefugia across the mountain range, in addition to the main Atlantic and Mediterranean (western and eastern) refugia. This study sheds light on the complexities of Quaternary climatic oscillations in building up genetic diversity and local endemicity in the southern Europe mountain ranges. PMID:26878195

  1. Western Pyrenees facing global change: comparison of the effects of climatic and anthropogenic change on water abstractions

    In the French Western Pyrenees, the trend to the decrease of low water flows that has been observed during the current years should be going on in the future. This may increase the hydric stress on aquatic ecosystems, and the competition among water uses and users for accessing water resources. The research project ANR-VULCAIN compared the impacts of climatic and socio-economic change on the hydro-systems of the French Western Pyrenees. Modeling and participative prospect analysis have been coupled to quantify the evolution of water abstractions under these two types of change. Socio-economic scenarios have been built together with local stakeholders during workshops (urbanism / land planning on the one hand and agriculture on the other hand). Their results have been quantified with the models developed so as to assess anthropogenic change impacts on domestic and agricultural abstractions. In parallel, the agricultural model has been fed with climatic scenarios so as to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural water needs. In the created scenarios, the evolution of agricultural water needs under climate change have a bigger range than the evolution of abstractions for domestic water and agricultural needs under anthropic change, which are the same order of magnitude. To satisfy this evolution, there are some rooms to maneuver: make distribution modalities more efficient, optimize the management of storage capacity, or use substitution resources. This paper presents the approach that has been followed, and some of the main results. (authors)

  2. Rockfall travel distance analysis by using empirical models (Solà d'Andorra la Vella, Central Pyrenees)

    Copons, R.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Linares, R.


    The prediction of rockfall travel distance below a rock cliff is an indispensable activity in rockfall susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment. Although the size of the detached rock mass may differ considerably at each specific rock cliff, small rockfall (government has been documenting rockfalls since 1999. This documentation consists in mapping the release point and the individual fallen blocks immediately after the event. The documentation of historical rockfalls by morphological analysis, eye-witness accounts and historical images serve to increase available information. In total, data from twenty small rockfalls have been gathered which reveal an amount of a hundred individual fallen rock blocks. The data acquired has been used to check the reliability of the main empirical models widely adopted (reach and shadow angle models) and to analyse the influence of parameters which affecting the travel distance (rockfall size, height of fall along the rock cliff and volume of the individual fallen rock block). For predicting travel distances in maps with medium scales, a method has been proposed based on the "reach probability" concept. The accuracy of results has been tested from the line entailing the farthest fallen boulders which represents the maximum travel distance of past rockfalls. The paper concludes with a discussion of the application of both empirical models to other study areas.

  3. Rockfall travel distance analysis by using empirical models (Solà d'Andorra la Vella, Central Pyrenees

    R. Copons


    Full Text Available The prediction of rockfall travel distance below a rock cliff is an indispensable activity in rockfall susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment. Although the size of the detached rock mass may differ considerably at each specific rock cliff, small rockfall (<100 m3 is the most frequent process. Empirical models may provide us with suitable information for predicting the travel distance of small rockfalls over an extensive area at a medium scale (1:100 000–1:25 000. "Solà d'Andorra la Vella" is a rocky slope located close to the town of Andorra la Vella, where the government has been documenting rockfalls since 1999. This documentation consists in mapping the release point and the individual fallen blocks immediately after the event. The documentation of historical rockfalls by morphological analysis, eye-witness accounts and historical images serve to increase available information. In total, data from twenty small rockfalls have been gathered which reveal an amount of a hundred individual fallen rock blocks. The data acquired has been used to check the reliability of the main empirical models widely adopted (reach and shadow angle models and to analyse the influence of parameters which affecting the travel distance (rockfall size, height of fall along the rock cliff and volume of the individual fallen rock block. For predicting travel distances in maps with medium scales, a method has been proposed based on the "reach probability" concept. The accuracy of results has been tested from the line entailing the farthest fallen boulders which represents the maximum travel distance of past rockfalls. The paper concludes with a discussion of the application of both empirical models to other study areas.

  4. Spanish opinion polls 1998

    There is widespread conviction among the professionals working in the nuclear sector that the image of nuclear energy held by the general public is poor. In Spain we insist again and again that an overwhelming majority of people consider nuclear energy to be dangerous, contaminating and relating to war. Depending on individual experience, we even go as far as to venture percentages of acceptability. When asked to explain the reasons for this, some claim that the cause of this attitude of rejection is to do with wastes, others that it is fear of radiation, and so on. Most of these claims are 'subjective perceptions' based on our own personal contacts and xperiences. With a view to establishing a reliable analytical basis and thus be able to carry out an objective study of the problem of public perception of nuclear energy in Spain, the Forum of the Spanish Nuclear Industry commissioned a group of external consultants specializing in this type of studies to carry out a survey designed to provide information on the causes underlying the rejection of nuclear energy and its measure. This survey is one of the first performed in this country since the decision was taken to use nuclear power in the nineteen sixties. The survey, performed by way of telephone conversations, included 2,000 people aged between 15 and 60 years. Of the total number of interviewees, 25 percent lived in areas surrounding a nuclear power plant, but had no direct professional or family ties with the plant. In addition to the 2000 telephone interviews, the study included also a qualitative investigation based on open interviews and focus groups. In general, the image detected during the qualitative phase is that in spite of its being technologically advanced and professionally directed and managed, nuclear energy arouses fear and mistrust. The structure of the survey was based on overall issues: the concerns of Spanish society. Twenty-four percent of the interviewees claimed that the environment was

  5. At Last the Internationalization of Retail Banking? The Case of the Spanish Banks in Latin America

    Mauro F. Guillén; Tschoegl, Adrian E.


    Since 1995 two Spanish banks -- Banco Santander Central Hispano and Banco Bilbao Vizcaya -- have become the largest foreign banks in retail banking in Latin America. This recent development merits careful analysis because foreign direct investment is rare in retail banking. We find that the Spanish banks are exhibiting asset-seeking, asset-exploiting, and oligopolistic behaviors, thus posing no serious challenge to established theories of foreign investment. We discuss the implications for re...

  6. The mountainous space as a commodity: the Pyrenees at the age of globalization

    Ismael Vaccaro


    Full Text Available In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activities to become the space where resorts and parks are built. The paper analyzes the process of commodification and patrimonialization that have reintegrated the area into the national and international leisure markets paying special attention to the role of conservation practices, ski resorts and second residences in such a process. Finally, we attempt to identify the similarities and differences that characterize the two emergent tourism models: mass tourism versus small scale ecotourism.Au fil de ces pages, nous réfléchissons au processus de transformation des Pyrénées catalanes de zone périphérique et en déclin économique en centre touristique de qualité. La spéculation immobilière a remplacé le dépeuplement. La valeur économique et sociale du territoire a radicalement changé, la promotion des activités d’élevage peu rentables ayant cédé la place aux stations touristiques et aux parcs. Cet article analyse le processus de marchandisation et de patrimonialisation qui a réintégré la région sur les marchés de loisirs nationaux et internationaux en prêtant une attention particulière au rôle des pratiques de conservation, des stations de ski et des résidences secondaires. Enfin, nous tentons d’identifier les similitudes et les différences qui caractérisent les deux modèles touristiques émergents : le tourisme de masse contre l’écotourisme à l’échelle locale.

  7. Magnetostratigraphy of Lutetian marine sediments in the External Sierras (Southern Pyrenees)

    Rodriguez-Pinto, A.; Pueyo, E. L.; Barnolas, A.; Pocovi, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Villain, J. J.; Mochales, T.; Samso, J. M.


    Magnetostratigraphy has been extensively applied in the southern Pyrenees (Spain). At the moment there are more than 50 km of series most of them in continental and transitional facies and only a few in marine sediments. Seeing that Lutetian age has received very little attention and Ypresian - Lutetian transit in marine series has been rarely studied, in this work we present a composite Lutetian magnetostratigraphic study made of three sections of carbonate platform facies. The composite section has been calibrated with the available biostratigraphic studies (mostly benthonic faunas). The three sections are located in hanging wall of the Southwestern Pyrenean sole thrust (External Sierras). The SIV section (260 m and 105 samples), is located in the southeastern limb of the Balzez anticline, and comprises lower Guara Formation. The BZ profile (600 m and 285 samples) is located in the northwestern flank and cuts a progressive unconformity within the Guara formation. The ISU section (550 m and 237 samples) is located along the Isuela valley immediately south of the well-known Pico del Aguila anticline. In total more than 600 standard cores were sampled every 2 - 3 meters of section. Paleomagnetic analyses were conducted in the University of Burgos paleomagnetic laboratory. Detailed stepwise thermal demagnetization (every 25-50°C) and some AF demagnetizations were able to unravel the NRM components. IRM essays and the thermal demagnetization of three components IRM allowed controlling the magnetic mineralogy. A 2G magnetometer, an ASC TD-SC oven and a M2T-1 pulse magnetizer were utilized. Only one paleomagnetic component has been characterized between 200° - 250° and 450°C - 575°. This component represents a primary record of the Eocene magnetic field because it presents two antipodal directions and passes the fold test (Balzez data). Comparison with the global polarity time scale (GPTS) displays the following correlation; chrons C21 and C20 were unambiguously

  8. Positive effects of millennial grazing on soils in the western French Pyrenees

    Leigh, David; Gragson, Ted; Coughlan, Michael


    Many hillslopes of the western French Pyrenees have been grazed for thousands of years following the introduction of sheep about 7500 years ago, yet little is known about the long-term effects of pastoral activities on soil properties and pedogenic processes in this humid-temperate mountain range. In the 13 square kilometer Basque commune of Larrau we compare the status of soils under old pastures to those under old-growth forests at elevations ranging from 1000 to 1600 masl. Four separate tracts of side-by-side pairs of pasture and old-growth forest were sampled to discriminate differences in physical and chemical soil properties. Five paired soil profile samples were taken from each vegetation type on each tract so that all factors of soil formation, except vegetation type, were similar for each pair. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. We also developed radiocarbon chronologies of sedimentation rates from colluvial deposits at four other pasture sites to evaluate possible differences in the magnitude of soil erosion and sedimentation before and after conversion to pastures during the Holocene. Results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, have significantly lower soil bulk densities, and much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils. Thus, very significant pedogenic reorganization occurred in the pastures that can be viewed as improvements in soil quality. Inorganic nutrients in the pastured soils have significantly lower concentrations than in forested soils, except that amorphous silica is more abundant within pastured soils presumably due to greater phytolith production. The amount of nutrient depletion does not appear to be a limiting factor for grass growth and biomass production. Sedimentation chronologies indicate that erosion and sedimentation rates slightly increased following the earliest

  9. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Cristina Pulido


    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  10. Invertebrate drift during in-channel gravel mining: the Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees)

    Béjar, Maria; Gibbins, Chris; Vericat, Damià; Batalla, Ramon J.; Muñoz, Efrén; Ramos, Ester; Lobera, Gemma; Andrés López-Tarazón, Jose; Piqué, Gemma; Tena, Álvaro; Buendía, Cristina; Rennie, Colin D.


    Invertebrate drift has been widely studied as an important mechanism to structure the benthic assemblages and as a part of invertebrate behavior in fluvial systems. River channel disturbance is considered the main factor affecting the organization of riverine communities and contributes to key ecological processes. However, little is known about involuntary drift associated to bed disturbance due to the difficulties associated with sampling during floods. In-channel gravel mining offers an opportunity to study involuntary drift associated not only to local bed disturbances but also to sudden changes on suspended sediment concentrations and flow. High suspended sediment concentrations and sudden changes in flow also prompt drift due to the limiting conditions (i.e. lack of oxygen, hydric stress). Within this context, invertebrate drift was monitored in the Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees) during two gravel mining activities performed in summer 2014. The data acquisition design includes: drift, suspended sediment, bedload, bed mobility and flow. Data was acquired before, during and after mining at different sampling locations located upstream and downstream the perturbation. Drift and suspended sediment transport were sampled at 5 sections: 1 control site upstream the mining and 4 downstream. Bedload samples were collected just downstream the channel where gravels were extracted. Bed mobility and changes on topography were assessed by means of GPS-aDcp and repeat topographic surveys. Discharge was continuously recorded 2.5 km downstream the mining location. Additionally, two turbidity meters registered water turbidity at 15 minute intervals in two of the four sampling sections located downstream. This experimental design provides data on the spatial and temporal variability of drift associated to a local bed disturbance that (i) changes the distribution of flow across the section where mining was performed, (ii) increase substantially suspended sediment

  11. Job creation under liquidity constraints: The Spanish case

    Rend??n, Silvio


    This paper shows that liquidity constraints restrict job creation even when labor markets are flexible. In a dynamic model of labor demand, I show that in an environment of imperfect capital and imperfect labor markets, firms use temporary contracts to relax financial constraints. Evidence for the predictions of the model is presented using Spanish data from the CBBE (Central de Balances del Banco de Espa?a - Balance Sheet data from the Bank of Spain). It is shown...

  12. Predicting runoff and sediment connectivity and soil erosion by water for different land use scenarios in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Poesen, Jean; Navas Izquierdo, Ana; Gaspar Ferrer, Leticia


    Overland flow connectivity and runoff and sediment trap effectiveness are currently the cutting edge topics in soil erosion research. The effect of agricultural terraces, irrigation channels and trails on runoff and soil erosion modelling at catchment scale is still a remaining research question. In this study we run the index of connectivity of Borselli et al. (2008) and a modified version of the revised Morgan, Morgan and Finney (RMMF) model to predict the hydrological connectivity and the ...

  13. Sinkholes and caves related to evaporite dissolution in a stratigraphically and structurally complex setting, Fluvia Valley, eastern Spanish Pyrenees. Geological, geomorphological and environmental implications

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Fabregat, Ivan; Roqué, Carles; Carbonel, Domingo; Guerrero, Jesús; García-Hermoso, Fernando; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio


    Evaporite karst and sinkhole development is analysed in a geologically complex area of NE Spain, including four evaporite units with different characteristics and affected by compressional and extensional tectonic structures. The exposed paleosinkholes, including remarkable Early Pleistocene paleontological sites, provide valuable information on the subsidence mechanisms and reveal the significant role played by interstratal karstification in the area. These gravitational deformation structures, including hectometre-scale bending folds and oversteepened normal faults, strongly suggest that the present-day compressional regime inferred in previous studies may be largely based on the analysis of non-tectonic structures. Two gypsum caves ca. 1 km long show that passages with restricted cross-sectional area may produce large breccia pipes and sinkholes thanks to the removal of breakdown boulders by high-competence episodic floods. Moreover, the upward progression of cave ceilings by paragenesis and condensation dissolution contributes to increase the probability of sinkhole occurrence. An inventory of 135 sinkholes together with their geological and geomorphological context has been developed. This data base has been used to infer several properties of the sinkholes with practical implications: a magnitude and frequency scaling relationship, spatial distribution patterns, dominant controlling factors and risk implications.

  14. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle


    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  15. Attitudes of Teachers of Spanish as a Foreign Language towards Teaching Spanish to Hispanic Students.

    Boyd, Rossana R.

    This study explored the attitudes of high school teachers of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the following: the use of Spanish, teaching Spanish as a heritage language to Hispanic students, the role of English in the United States, and the use of English at school or home. Participants were teachers of Spanish in three Louisiana school…

  16. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean


    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  17. The Sources of Error in Spanish Writing.

    Justicia, Fernando; Defior, Sylvia; Pelegrina, Santiago; Martos, Francisco J.


    Determines the pattern of errors in Spanish spelling. Analyzes and proposes a classification system for the errors made by children in the initial stages of the acquisition of spelling skills. Finds the diverse forms of only 20 Spanish words produces 36% of the spelling errors in Spanish; and substitution is the most frequent type of error. (RS)

  18. Groundwater resources from carbonate rocks in mountainous regions - Hydrochemical and isotopic survey of groundwaters in the Western Pyrenees (France)

    Carbonate rock aquifers are one of the main water supply sources for the French Western Pyrenees. The discontinuous structure of these reservoirs is a main obstacle to the development of such resources. By the way, since no other aquifer can be tapped, many communities have decided to improve their knowledge of the main springs over the whole region. Four sites have been considered from 2003 to 2006 and have been the object of multidisciplinary investigations including: geological mapping, geophysical investigations, dye tracing experiments and in situ hydrochemical survey. Stable isotopes have been analysed on both rainfall (18O, 2H) and spring's waters (18O, 2H, 13C, 34S) in order to evaluate the origin of groundwaters, their residence time within the systems and to appreciate the occurrence of exchanges with other aquifers. Finally this study provides a good example of how to include hydrogeochemistry and isotopic tools in a water supply management policy. (author)

  19. A 2D finite volume model for bebris flow and its application to events occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees



    FLATModel is a 2D finite volume code that contains several original approaches to improve debris-flow simulation.Firstly,FLATModel incorporates a "stop-and-go" technique in each cell to allow continuous collapses and remobilizations of the debris-flow mass.Secondly,flow velocity and consequently yield stress is directly associated with the type of rheology to improve boundary accuracy.Thirdly,a simple approach for entrainment is also included in the model to analyse the effect of basal erosion of debris flows.FLATMODEL was tested at several events that occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees and simulation results indicated that the model can represent rather well the different characteristics observed in the field.

  20. High resolution imaging of lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees by full waveform inversion of shortperiod teleseismic P waves

    Wang, Yi; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Monteiller, Vadim; Durochat, Clément


    Thanks to the deployment of permanent and temporary broadband arrays, coverage and data quality have dramatically improved in the last decade, especially for regional-scale studies. In addition, owing to the progress of high-performance resources and numerical simulation techniques, waveform inversion approaches nowadays become a viable alternative to classical asymptotic ray based tomographic approaches. Exploiting full waveforms in seismic tomography requires an efficient and precise method to solve the elastic wave equation in 3D inhomogeneous media. Since resolution of waveform inversion is limited by the seismic wavelength as well as the wavefield sampling density, it is crucial to exploit short-period teleseismic waves recorded by dense regional arrays. However, modeling the propagation of short-period body waves in heterogeneous media is still very challenging, even on the largest modern supercomputers. For this reason, we have developed a hybrid method that couples a global wave propagation method in a 1D Earth to a 3D spectral-element method in a regional domain. This hybrid method restricts the costly 3D computations to inside the regional domain, which dramatically decreases the computational cost, allows us to compute teleseismic wavefields down to 1s period, thus accounting for the complexities that affect the propagation of seismic waves in the regional domain. We present the first application of this new waveform inversion approach to broadband data coming from two dense transects deployed during the PYROPE experiment across the Pyrenees mountains. We obtain the first high-resolution lithospheric section of compressional and shear velocities across an orogenic belt. The tomographic model provides clear evidence for the under-thrusting of the thinned Iberian crust beneath the European plate and for the important role of rift-inherited mantle structures during the formation of the Pyrenees.

  1. Tree-ring proxy based temperature reconstructions and climate model simulations: cross-comparison at the Pyrenees

    I. Dorado Liñán


    Full Text Available May-to-September mean temperatures over the larger Pyrenees area (Northern Spain and Southern France are reconstructed for the last Millennium from 22 maximum density (MXD tree-ring chronologies. For the standardization of the tree-ring series, two detrending methods (Regional Curve Standardization (RCS and 300-yr spline were combined with and without an adaptive power transform (PT for variance stabilization in the individual series. Thus, four different standardization procedures were applied to the data. Additionally, different regional chronologies were generated by computing a mean composite, averaging the local chronologies, or by applying Principal Components Analysis (PCA to extract common variance from the subsets of individual MXD chronologies.

    Calibration-verification trials were performed using the product of the three regional aggregation methods in split periods: 1900–1952 and 1953–2006. Two methods were used to calibrate the regional chronology: regression and a simple variance-matching, sometimes also known as composite-plus-scaling. The resulting set of temperature reconstructions was compared with climate simulations performed with global (ECHO-G over the last Millennium for the target region and regional (MM5 climate models.

    The reconstructions reveal inter-annual to multi-centennial temperature variations at the Pyrenees region for the last 750 yr. Generally, variations at inter-decadal timescales, including the cold periods associated with the solar minima, are common to all reconstruction variants although some discrepancies are found at longer timescales.

    The simulations of the global circulation model ECHO-G and the regional model MM5 agree with the tree-ring based reconstructions at decadal to multi-decadal time-scales. However, the comparison also highlights differences that need to be understood, such as the amplitude of the temperature variations and the discrepancies regarding the 20th

  2. Present-day deformation of the Pyrenees revealed by GPS surveying and earthquake focal mechanisms until 2011

    Rigo, A.; Vernant, P.; Feigl, K. L.; Goula, X.; Khazaradze, G.; Talaya, J.; Morel, L.; Nicolas, J.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; Sylvander, M.


    The Pyrenean mountain range is a slowly deforming belt with continuous and moderate seismic activity. To quantify its deformation field, we present the velocity field estimated from a GPS survey of the Pyrenees spanning 18 yr. The PotSis and ResPyr networks, including a total of 85 GPS sites, were installed and first measured in 1992 and 1995-1997, respectively, and remeasured in 2008 and 2010. We obtain a deformation field with velocities less than 1 mm yr-1 across the range. The estimated velocities for individual stations do not differ significantly from zero with 95 per cent confidence. Even so, we estimate a maximum extensional horizontal strain rate of 2.0 ± 1.7 nanostrain per year in a N-S direction in the western part of the range. We do not interpret the vertical displacements due to their large uncertainties. In order to compare the horizontal strain rates with the seismic activity, we analyse a set of 194 focal mechanisms using three methods: (i) the `r' factor relating their P and T axes, (ii) the stress tensors obtained by fault slip inversion and (iii) the strain-rate tensors. Stress and strain-rate tensors are estimated for: (i) the whole data set, (ii) the eastern and western parts of the range separately, and (iii) eight zones, which are defined based on the seismicity and the tectonic patterns of the Pyrenees. Each of these analyses reveals a lateral variation of the deformation style from compression and extension in the east to extension and strike-slip in the west of the range. Although the horizontal components of the strain-rate tensors estimated from the seismic data are slightly smaller in magnitude than those computed from the GPS velocity field, they are consistent within the 2σ uncertainties. Furthermore, the orientations of their principal axes agree with the mapped active faults.

  3. Soil formation on Holocene moraines in the cirque de Troumouse, Pyrenees

    Parkinson, Robert


    Full Text Available Factors affecting rates and degree of soil formation on Holocene moraines are discussed with reference to moraine sequences in the Cirque de Troumouse, French Pyrenees. In particular, the role of time, slope position and post-depositional history are evaluated for three moraines ranging in age from c. 5000 to c. 1000 yr BP. Soil profile development, as determined by visual criteria, indicates differences in soil development between moraines of different age as well as between soils developed on the same moraine but occupying different slope positions. Particle size analysis and soil chemical analyses confirm that microtopography exerts a strong control on the extent and rate of soil formation, and must therefore be considered when sampling and describing soil chronosequences on glacial moraines.

    [es] Se discuten los factores que afectan a las tasas y al grado de formación del suelo en morrenas Holocenas, con referencia a la secuencia de morrenas en el Circo de Troumouse, Pirineo francés. En particular, se evalúa el papel del tiempo, la posición de la pendiente y la historia postdeposicional para tres morrenas ordenadas en edad desde c. 5000 a c. 1000 años BP. El desarrollo del perfil del suelo, determinado por criterios visuales, indica diferencias de desarrollo del suelo entre morrenas de diferente edad así como entre suelos desarrollados en la misma morrena, pero ocupando diferentes posiciones de la pendiente. Análisis granulométricos y químicos del suelo confirman que la microtopografía ejerce un fuerte control en la extensión y en la tasa de formación del suelo y, por tanto, deberla ser tenida en cuenta en los muéstreos y descripciones de las cronosecuencias del suelo en morrenas glaciares.
    [fr] On discute les facteurs qui affectent les taux et le degré de formation du sol en moraines Holocènes, avec référence à la séquence de moraines du Cirque de Troumouse, Pyrénées français. En particulier, on

  4. Progressing in Spanish: Part III.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Contents of this Spanish text of instructional materials focus on a city in Spain, a city in South America, and a hypothetical visit to a railroad station. Students learn about the imperfect tense, reflexive pronouns, and several other grammatical concepts. Exercises and readings related to the stories "La Despedida" and "Recuerdos Juveniles" are…

  5. On the Entropy of Written Spanish

    Guerrero, Fabio G


    This paper reports on results on the entropy of the Spanish language. They are based on an analysis of natural language for n-word symbols (n = 1 to 18), trigrams, digrams, and characters. The results obtained in this work are based on the analysis of twelve different literary works in Spanish, as well as a 279917 word news file provided by the Spanish press agency EFE. Entropy values are calculated by a direct method using computer processing and the probability law of large numbers. Three samples of artificial Spanish language produced by a first-order model software source are also analyzed and compared with natural Spanish language.

  6. A Spanish Tagset for the CRATER Project

    Sánchez-León, F


    This working paper describes the Spanish tagset to be used in the context of CRATER, a CEC funded project aiming at the creation of a multilingual (English, French, Spanish) aligned corpus using the International Telecommunications Union corpus. In this respect, each version of the corpus will be (or is currently) tagged. Xerox PARC tagger will be adapted to Spanish in order to perform the tagging of the Spanish version. This tagset has been devised as the ideal one for Spanish, and has been posted to several lists in order to get feedback to it.

  7. Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits: Isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence for formation during the mesozoic extension in the pyrenees of Spain

    Johnson, C.A.; Cardellach, E.; Tritlla, J.; Hanan, B.B.


    The Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits, located in the central Pyrenees of Spain, crosscut Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks and are in close proximity to Hercynian granodiorite dikes and plutons. Galena and sphalerite in the deposits have average ??34S values of -4.3 and -0.8 per mil (CDT), respectively. Coexisting mineral pairs give an isotopic equilibration temperature range of 89?? to 163??C which overlaps with the 112?? to 198??C range obtained from primary fluid inclusions. Coexisting quartz has a ??18O value of 19 ?? 1 per mil (VSMOW). The fluid which deposited these minerals is inferred to have had ??18OH2o and ??34SH2s values of 5 ?? 1 and -1 ?? 1 per mil, respectively. Chemical and microthermometric analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite indicate salinities of 3 to 29 wt percent NaCl equiv with Na+ and Ca2+ as the dominant cations in solution. The Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios differ from those characteristic of magmatic waters and pristine seawater, but show some similarity to those observed in deep ground waters in crystalline terranes, basinal brines, and evaporated seawater, Barite, which postdates the sulfides, spans isotopic ranges of 13 to 21 per mil, 10 to 15 per mil, and 0.7109 to 0.7123 for ??34S, ??18O, and 87Sr/86Sr, respectively. The three parameters are correlated providing strong evidence that the barites are products of fluid mixing. We propose that the Cierco deposits formed along an extensional fault system at the margin of a marine basin during the breakup of Pangea at some time between the Early Triassic and Early Cretaceous. Sulfide deposition corresponded to an upwelling of hydrothermal fluid from the Paleozoic basement and was limited by the amount of metals carried by the fluid. Barite deposition corresponded to the waning of upward flow and the collapse of sulfate-rich surface waters onto the retreating hydrothermal plume. Calcite precipitated late in the paragenesis as meteoric or marine waters descended into the fault system

  8. Post-orogenic evolution of the coupled foreland megafan/mountainous catchment system : the Lannemezan megafan and its cactchment in the Northern Pyrenees (SW France)

    Mouchené, Margaux


    This thesis aims at deciphering the respective roles of autogenic processes and allogenic forcing in the post-orogenic evolution of a coupled mountain catchment/foreland megafan system, with a focus on the Lannemezan megafan and its mountainous catchment in the northern Pyrenees (France). AFT data are consistent with previously published thermochronological data, showing (i) the main exhumation phase of the Axial Zone (AZ; ~50-30 Ma) with lateral variations in the exhumation rates, (ii) a lat...


    Leroy, Stéphanie


    This provenance study concerns the trade understanding in the Middle Ages of iron objects originally from specific ironmaking processes linked to the use of manganese rich ores. We were particularly interested in the case studies of the Ariège (French Pyrenees) and the Lombardy (Italian Alps) areas, two separate geographic areas that held a major place in the medieval economy of their region. This work deals with three specific historical questions. The first part is to clarify the trade rout...

  10. Paleosol charcoal : Reconstructing vegetation history in relation to agro−pastoral activities since the Neolithic. A case study in the Eastern French Pyrenees.

    Bal, Marie; Bal, Marie-Claude; Rendu, Christine; Ruas, Marie-Pierre; Campmajo, Pierre


    International audience This article uses a method that combines pedoanthracological and pedo-archaeological approaches to terraces, complemented with archaeological pastoral data, in order to reconstruct the history of ancient agricultural terraces on a slope of the Enveitg Mountain in the French Pyrenees. Four excavations revealed two stages of terrace construction that have been linked with vegetation dynamics, which had been established by analyses of charcoal from the paleosols and soi...

  11. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels;


    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for...... early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20...

  12. Visualizing archives: Spanish archives map

    Colmenero-Ruiz, María-Jesús


    The 2014/2015 academic year was the first to be taught the Master in Archives, Records Management and Digital Continuity at the University Carlos III Madrid, based on a blended learning model of attendance. This article describes the implementation of a visualization project based on geolocation of Spanish archives and its justification. The project arose from an optional practice proposed to the students of the subject “Re-use of data and documents” of this master course. This subject is opt...

  13. Accounting for Spanish business cycles.

    Jesús Rodríguez-López; Mario Solís-García


    We apply the business cycle methodology proposed by Chari, Kehoe, and McGrattan (2007) to identify the sources of Spanish business fluctuations during two outstanding cyclical episodes: the recession alongside the transition to democracy in 1977 and the great recession of 2008. We find that the labor wedge plays a key role during both recessions and that taxes and labor market institutions are likely behind the wedge movements. We conclude that any model that tries to understand the causes of...

  14. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  15. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

    Antonio Tarriño


    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  16. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  17. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto


    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  18. A portrait of the Spanish accounting community

    Amat, Oriol; Gowthorpe, Catherine; Moya, Soledad; Oliveras, Ester


    This study presents a portrait of the Spanish academic accounting community in 1995, based upon a questionnaire circulated to Spanish accounting academics in 1995 and upon an analysis of authorship and citations in the main Spanish accounting journals. The approach to these analyses is grounded in similar studies which have been carried out in the United States, Spain and elsewhere. but the combination of techniques used in this study is particularly broad in range. The r...

  19. An on-line, cloud-based Spanish-Spanish Sign Language translation system

    Tejedor Noguerales, Javier; López-Colino, Fernando; Porta, Jordi; Colás, José


    An on-line Spanish-Spanish Sign Language (LSE) translation system is presented in which Spanish speech content is translated into LSE to provide Spanish deaf people access to speech information. It is cloud-based, built over a speech recognition module, a transfer-based machine translation module and a Sign Language synthesis module that employs an avatar to present the signed content.

  20. Overview of the Spanish Fuel Cycle: Technical Tours Organized by Spanish young Generation in Nuclear.

    Rubio Oviedo, I.P.; Jimenez Varas, Gonzalo; Ochoa Valero, Raquel


    Spanish Young Generation in Nuclear (Jóvenes Nucleares, JJNN) is a non-profrt organization that depends on the Spanish Nuclear Society (Sociedad Nuclear Española, SNE).Since one of rts main goals is to spread the knowledge about nuclear power,severa! technical tours to facilities wrth an importan!role in the nuclear fuel cycle have been organized for the purpose ofleaming about the different stages of the Spanish tuel cycle. Spanish Young Generation in Nuclear h...

  1. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.


    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  2. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne


    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  3. Recent Children's Books about Hispanics [and] Recent Notable Books in Spanish for the Very Young.

    Schon, Isabel


    The first of two bibliographies describes 20 children's books about Mexican Americans; the history, government, people and economics of Central and South American countries; the artists, food and government of Spain; and legends from Nicaragua, Mexico and Puerto Rico. The second identifies 21 books for young Spanish speaking children and children…

  4. Atlantic and Mediterranean synoptic drivers of central Spanish juniper growth

    Esper, J.; Großjean, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Garcia-Cervigón, A. I.; Olano, J. M.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Dominiguez-Castro, F.; Büntgen, Ulf


    Roč. 121, 3-4 (2015), s. 571-579. ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : rogation ceremonies * Nort-atlantic * temporal patterns * climate * Spain * variability * reconstruction Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2014

  5. A simulation model proposed to Spanish electricity pool

    In the last decade, a liberalization process of the electricity sector was undertaken in many countries with the objective of increasing the internal efficiency of electricity enterprises. In this context, the creation of the wholesaler electricity market is the central element of the new electricity systems. However, although the functioning of such a market is based, in many cases, on a mechanism of competitive auctions, the international experience shows the presence of higher prices compared to the competitive levels. This paper develops a simulation model of the Spanish electricity pool with the objective of analyzing if such a market is really competitive or if generator enterprises have developed strategic behaviours. (Author)

  6. The influence of knowledge on the public policy making process: the case of renewable energies in Midi Pyrenees

    Even though energy policy makers were novices when wind power was introduced in the Midi Pyrenees region, the situation had changed when the photovoltaic was implemented. The new challenges policy makers experimented about the wind power and their opponents, the wood energy and the primacy of the wood's industrials, the photovoltaic and the preservation of the agricultural lands, fostered their learning and gradually lead them to change their perception of inherent issues. The coalitions forged between technical experts and policy makers unbind along the progressive empowerment of the formers. Shared between different forms of knowledge, however, the resources needed to implement renewable energies projects cannot be reduced to the technical dimension. Local knowledge and engineering knowledge increasingly compete with expert knowledge. This evolution corresponds to a policy arrangement change. Since the dynamic but also the elements that compose this political system change, a new reality gradually emerges. This whole process will be the main concern of this thesis. We will finally notice that there are some differences between the implementation of these renewable energies among the territories but also among the three forms of renewable energies we analyze. This means that although renewable energy policy are based on interactions between actors' resources, discourse and rules, they also emerge from the action of intermediates actors, and from the characteristic of each territories in which they are implemented. (author)

  7. Feasibility and Interest in Earthquake Early Warning Systems for Areas of Moderate Seismicity: Case Study for the Pyrenees

    Auclair, Samuel; Goula, Xavier; Jara, Jose-Antonio; Colom, Yolanda


    Seismic risk in areas of moderate seismicity (AMS) is a reality and destructive earthquakes may occur there. This is why stakeholders and risk managers in these areas show an increasing interest in Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) and are wondering about the possibility of equipping their territories with such systems. This question of feasibility has to be broached globally: distinguishing technical feasibility from notions of opportunity and utility, an, thus, it has to involve both scientific experts and stakeholders. Moreover, it is necessary to consider each situation specifically without any preconceptions, specifically concerning potential uses that can be made of early warnings, in particular, it is clear that when applied to AMS, the EEWS principles translate into shorter lead times than the ones expected for more seismic areas and would, consequently, require considering new ways of using early warnings. Through the experience conducted for the Pyrenees (France-Spain border) as part of the SISPyr project, this study aims at identifying responses to the potential value of EEWS as real-time seismic risk mitigation tools for AMS as well as to offer a methodological framework to guide stakeholders in their assessment of opportunities to set up EEWS.

  8. Mylonitic shear-zones in the Millas granite (Pyrenees, France). 40Ar/39Ar cretaceous ages and tectonic interpretation

    Within the Axial Zone of the eastern Pyrenees, the granite of Millas is affected by mylonitic shear zones of controversial age. The kinematic development of these E-W to NW-SE trending shear zones results from heterogeneous, non-coaxial deformation along steep south-dipping reverse faults generated under greenschist facies conditions. A 40Ar/39Ar geochronological study of multi-grain populations and single grain by laser microprobe yields ages in the range 90-100 Ma which are believed to indicate that the mylonitic shear zones were active in mid-Cretaceous times. Therefore, this mylonitisation is coeval with the high-temperature metamorphism of the North-Pyrenean Mesozoic basins and more generally with the episode of crustal thinning which accompanied the sinistral strike-slip motion of Iberia. This extensional setting of the Axial Zone would have been modified by subsequent deformations related to Eocene Pyrenean compression that partly overprinted the Cretaceous mylonites. (authors). 74 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  9. Individuos centrales como protagonistas del proceso de innovación: un estudio con blogs españoles relacionados con alimentación = Central individuals as leading actors in the innovation process: a case study with Spanish food-related weblogs

    César Sahelices Pinto


    Full Text Available En el momento actual, el sector agroalimentario español atraviesa una de sus etapas más inciertas. Mientras el consumo extradoméstico se desploma, el doméstico se ralentiza por la búsqueda de fórmulas más racionales que resulten en un menor gasto. Las exportaciones, la válvula de escape, crecen a ritmos nunca antes vistos abriéndose paso en escenarios internacionales especialmente regulados. Como consecuencia de este entorno, el esfuerzo dirigido hacia la innovación se convierte en ineludible para las compañías del sector. Ante este hecho, el mismo consumidor se perfila como un recurso muy importante para la obtención de información acerca de nuevas ideas y necesidades no satisfechas que, gracias a Internet y a la Web 2.0, se encuentra ahora más que nunca al alcance de la empresa. Este trabajo de investigación aborda el estudio de una de estas redes sociales online, basado en el examen del comportamiento innovador de los individuos que las forman y en la identificación de aquéllos que socialmente destacan sobre los demás. El documento finaliza con una reflexión y justificación globales e indica además ciertos aspectos de utilidad para el mundo empresarial y sendas líneas de investigación futura.The Spanish food sector experiences at the present an especially uncertain conjunction. Whereas the extra-domestic consumption collapses, the domestic consumption slows down. Moreover, consumers look for more rational options at lower costs. In contrast, exports grow at really high rates in particularly regulated international scenarios. As a result of this scene, innovation efforts are unavoidable for food companies. In view of this, the very consumer, who is now easily reachable on the Internet and Web 2.0, represents a valuable resource for obtaining information about new ideas and uncovered needs. This research paper, working with one of these online social networks, presents an examination of the innovative behavior of

  10. Reflexive intensification in Spanish: Toward a complex reflexive?

    Pedersen, Johan


    Spanish, intensifier, intensification, reflexive pronouns, anaphor, reanalysis, grammaticalization, sí, mismo......Spanish, intensifier, intensification, reflexive pronouns, anaphor, reanalysis, grammaticalization, sí, mismo...

  11. Learning Spanish dialects through Twitter

    Gonçalves, Bruno


    We map the large-scale variation of the Spanish language by employing a corpus based on geographically tagged Twitter messages. Lexical dialects are extracted from an analysis of variants of tens of concepts. The resulting maps show linguistic variations on an unprecedented scale across the globe. We discuss the properties of the main dialects within a machine learning approach and find that varieties spoken in urban areas have an international character in contrast to country areas where dialects show a more regional uniformity.

  12. A Marketing Strategy for Spanish for Business.

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    The development of a marketing strategy for business Spanish courses by means of situational analysis is described. The planner of marketing strategy must consider demand for a course, institutional acceptance, and financial support. A survey of 508 universities revealed a low level of demand for business Spanish which could potentially be…

  13. Testing Standard Spanish as a Second Dialect.

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This discussion begins with a brief description of three approaches to teaching standard Spanish as a second dialect (S.S.S.D.), called the "eradication" approach, the "second dialect" approach, and the "both dialects" approach, which is favored here. Because the teacher of standard Spanish as a second dialect is concerned with developing in the…

  14. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Adolescents.

    Schon, Isabel


    This annotated bibliography includes 18 titles that appeal to Spanish-speaking teens under the categories of contemporary novels, historical fiction, longtime favorites, health, and myths and legends. A sidebar lists dealers of books in Spanish for children and young adults. (LRW)

  15. The Spanish quest for a national champion

    The Spanish government is trying to improve Spain's vulnerable position in relation to energy by creating a national champion. Whether it will succeed in doing so is far from certain. The article is followed by a one-page discussion on the Spanish market for biofuels

  16. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    Fernandez, Enrique


    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  17. Foreign Language: Introductory Spanish. Part I.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This introductory course teaches students to speak contemporary Spanish through the use of short dialogues based on typical school activities. Emphasis is on oral Spanish, "-ar" verbs in the present, interrogatives, and hints on how to read. Objectives for culture study and the development of student attitudes are also presented. Performance…

  18. The Spanish Economy at a Glance

    Enas Abdallah


    This report is a brief synopsis of the Spanish economy aiming a introducing a descriptive analysis that highlights recent developments in different aspects of the economy as well as summarizing stylized facts related to the demographic profile of the country. The report also presents an assessment of the performance of the Spanish economy in light of key international indicators.

  19. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    Alvord, Scott M.


    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  20. Should Jose Be Tested In Spanish?

    Hardy, Roy

    To prepare for the national norming of El Circo (the Spanish-language equivalent of the Circus Assessment Battery) three research questions were posed. First, will the presentation of test instructions in both English and Spanish significantly increase achievement? Second, what level of language competency is necessary for valid use of the various…

  1. The Liberalisation Process of the Spanish Electricity Sector

    At the beginning of 1998, the 54/1997 Electricity Law entered into force, introducing a new configuration for the Spanish electricity system. Before this, the electric utilities and the Spanish Ministry of Industry and Energy signed a Protocol outlining the general structure of the future changes which would lead to the transformation of the Spanish electricity system from one based on a central purchasing agent model to one based on wholesale and retail competition. The structure of the power industry prior to the 54/1997 Electricity Law consisted of a number of vertically integrated electricity companies, most of them privately owned. One company (REE, Red Electrica de Espana) controlled by the State, was the System Operator, with the property of most of the Transmission Network. This company was created in 1984, as an attempt to improve overall efficiency in the sector by central co-ordination of all available resources and by central planning of new investments. Later, in 1987 a New Legal Framework (Marco Legal Estable) was established in order to assure financial stabilisation to the electric utilities, fixing revenues based on standard costs and setting a National tariff system. The start for the liberalisation process began with the 1994 Electricity Act (LOSEN) with the creation of the Regulatory Commission and the allowance to open access to new entrants. The Spanish electricity model finally set in 1998 seeks the introduction of competitiveness in the power sector through a few basic principles: Shorter state intervention by rationalisation of the energy policy constraints and by leaving to the market forces the system operation and planning (except for transmission planning); Separation of activities: Regulated activities (transmission and distribution) are separated form non-regulated activities (generation, trading); The design of a bulk power competitive market, including competition in generation, freedom of entry, a power pool managed by a market

  2. Revisiting the crustal evolution of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains: inferences from new concepts and data

    Teixell, Antonio; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves


    The evolution of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian orogenic system at the crustal scale is currently reformulated in the light of new concepts of continental hyperextension and mantle exhumation applied to the preorogenic stages. Major advances are being obtained in the frame of programs as TOPOIBERIA, TOPOEUROPE, GDR Marge, PYRAMID, PYROPE and BRGM-RGF. Crustal models developed in the 80's and 90's after the ECORS reflection profiles depicted a precursor Mesozoic rift basin floored by a strongly thinned, but entirely continental substratum, using Airy isostasy. In the past years, a restatement of the significance of the Pyrenean peridotites and the application of concepts from passive continental margins has led to scenarios of extreme crustal attenuation and mantle exhumation during mid-Cretaceous times. New paleothermometrical databases show a generalized high heat flow during the mid and late Cretaceous that accounts for thermal isostasy and explains the apparent disequilibrium between extreme crustal thinning and not so great synrift sedimentary thickness and paleobathymetry. Models for the evolution of the Pyrenean orogeny must consider feedbacks between the Cretaceous hyperextension and the late Cretaceous to Cenozoic inversion. A key challenge is to identify the ancient continental margins of the European and Iberian plates and their suture. New sequential restorations of the compressional structure to selected steps allow a reassessment of the style of convergence through time. In preorogenic reconstructions, end-member models show a tilted-block structure vs. smoothly thinned (boudinaged) margins, overlain by a sedimentary lid detached in the Triassic evaporites. As for the Pyrenees, different models agree that the early stages of convergence involved the subduction of the peridotite "ocean", which was followed by early collision of the thinned continental margins until the crust regained thickness. Late collision involved northward subduction of decoupled lower

  3. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use...

  4. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  5. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  6. Examining the concept of “mousterian variability” at Roca dels Bous (Southeast pre-pyrenees, Lleida

    Mora, Rafael


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the implications arising from changes in the movement of raw materials from levels N10 and N12 of Roca dels Bous (Southeastern Prepyrenees. Studies of the lithic assemblages reveal differences in stone tool technologies, especially knapping and retouching. These variations enable us to reflect on the function of the settlement within the context of Neanderthal mobility patterns in the area that connects the Ebro Valley with the Pyrenees. The characteristics of the artefacts suggest changes in the strategies employed in the acquisition, production, use and discard of stone tools. Importantly, these observations allow us to examine issues related to “variability”, a key concept in any discussion related to the cultural change in the Middle Palaeolithic.

    En este artículo se discute las implicaciones derivadas del cambio en la aportación de materias primas detectado en los niveles N10 y N12 de Roca dels Bous (Prepirineo suroriental. En estos contextos se recuperan conjuntos líticos con unos atributos en los métodos de talla y en el instrumental retocado que sugieren modificaciones en los comportamientos relacionados con la adquisición, elaboración, uso y abandono del instrumental. De estas observaciones se derivan varias implicaciones sobre la función del asentamiento dentro de los patrones de movilidad de los neandertales que habitan en la vertiente sur de los Pirineos. Paralelamente, permite abordar la noción de “variabilidad”, concepto clave al referir el significado cultural del Paleolítico Medio.

  7. Intercultural education in spanish shools

    Henar Rodríguez Navarro


    Full Text Available There are many initiatives about intercultural education in our country. This work focuses on highlighting intercultural teaching practices that have been done in Spain in recent decades. Firstly, Spanish educational policies are presented; then some teaching practices are described. The analysis has been divided into seven areas: I.- Welcome Plans; II.- Linguistic and Cultural Attention; III.- Cooperative Management Strategies in classrooms; IV.- Community Implication; V.-Intercultural Mediation and resolution of conflicts ; VI.- Teachers´ training and VII.- Observatories of several communities. We could analyze these topics from two points of view: one related to inclusive education and, on the other hand, the related to compensatory education. Finally, intercultural practices and learning Communities experiences are connected, considering that both could give an answer to intercultural practices described before. This article presents part of a research project carried out by the group ACOGE of the University of Valladolid.

  8. Slovenian and Spanish electricity markets

    Spanish electricity market has served as a basic model in the construction of the electricity market in Slovenia. However, in the final phase of its development additional solutions were adopted from other European and worldwide electricity markets. The electricity market thus obtained is in some aspects more complex and in others simpler with regard to the original model. This article describes two of the new solutions on the Slovenian electricity market: the introduction of numerous standardized electric energy products (Band, Peak, Off-peak, Hourly power etc.) to be traded on completely separate markets, and the introduction of continuous, real-time type trading on all of them but the hourly market.(author)

  9. The Dawns of the Spanish Geo technic

    From a personal perspective, there are analyzed the first steps of the spanish Geotechnical Engineering history understood as an academic discipline but also linked in a very directly way the profession. This evolution is not foreign to the own history of the Geneticist in other countries of our cultural or geographical environment. The contributions discover that our predecessors transmitted important achievements to the international community. The direct presence in the international congresses of that time of the spanish geo technicians is analysed. Three consecutive stages are distinguished, personalizing in each of them the participation of celebrated spanish Civil Engineers. (Author)

  10. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith


    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  11. Respuesta hidrológica del Pirineo central al cambio ambiental proyectado para el siglo XXI

    López-Moreno, J. I.


    Full Text Available Streamflows in five Mediterranean mountain headwaters in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys. The results show that changes in precipitation and temperature could cause a decline of annual streamflow between 13% and 23%, depending on the considered catchment. When the effect of increased forest cover in the basins is added to climate change effects, the decrease in annual streamflow is enhanced up to 19% and 32%. The largest hydrological changes resulting from environmental change are projected mainly in early spring, summer and autumn, when the decline may exceed 40%. Winter is the least affected season by environmental change because of increased runoff as a consequence of reduced storage of water in the snowpack and an earlier onset of the snowmelt, and the lower consumption of water by vegetation during the cold season. The magnitude of hydrological change as a result of the assumed environmental change scenarios may lead to serious impacts on water management and ecology of the studied region, as well as the water availability in the Ebro basin.Se han simulado los caudales de cinco cabeceras de ríos en los Pirineos centrales españoles, considerando diferentes escenarios de cambio climático y de uso del suelo. Los caudales fueron simulados utilizando el modelo hidroecológico RHESSys (Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System. Los resultados muestran que los cambios proyectados por un conjunto de modelos climáticos regionales en precipitaciones y temperaturas en el siglo XXI podrían causar una disminución del caudal anual entre el 13% y el 23%, dependiendo de la cuenca considerada. Cuando se añade a los efectos del cambio climático el efecto del aumento de la cubierta forestal en las cuencas, la disminución de los caudales anuales oscila entre el 19% y el 32%, dependiendo de la cuenca

  12. Systematic mapping of the Spanish continental margin

    Acosta, Juan; Muñoz, Araceli; Uchupi, Elazar


    For economic, environmental, recreational, military, and political reasons it is critical for coastal states to have up-to-date information on their marine margins. Spain began to acquire such data 17 years ago. From 1995 to the present, the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), a research organization of the state, has carried out a systematic geological and geophysical study of the Spanish margins. Among these projects are (1) the hydrographic and oceanographic study of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that was implemented by the Navy Hydrographic Institute (IHM); (2) the Espace Project, a study of the Spanish continental shelf; and (3) the Capesme Project, which created fisheries maps of the Mediterranean Sea. The latter two projects were carried out in collaboration with the Secretariat General of the Sea (SGM).

  13. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    Bosch, X


    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  14. Intonational phonology description of Porteno Spanish

    Barjam, John P.


    In this study the intonational patterns of Porteno Spanish (PS) are described within an Autosegmental Metrical (AM) (Ladd, 1996) approach. Porteno Spanish is the Spanish spoken in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and because of the influence from Italian and other languages, it differs markedly from varieties of Spanish that have been previously described. Six monolingual PS speakers were recorded saying 99 sentences which include declaratives, interrogatives, imperatives, and focused declarative and interrogative sentences. A ToBI framework, based on the F0 contour, was developed for labeling the sentences intonation. Preliminary results suggest that each phrase contains a somewhat regular pattern: (1) the stressed syllables of content words carry one of five pre-nuclear pitch accents, (2) nuclear pitch accents are more restrictive and tend to vary depending on the sentence type, and (3) boundary tones, both intermediate and intonational, are regular but also vary depending on sentence type.


    Amy E. Gregory


    Full Text Available This study deals with the discourse function of the Spanish subjunctive mood. Traditional approaches focus on its semantics, invoking the notions of volition, doubt, negation, and emotion while maintaining the importance of the clause's subordinate status and change of subject from matrix verb to subordinate verb. Notwithstanding, thirty years of linguistic research on the Spanish mood contrast have given rise to the descriptors ± assertion: indicative is +assertive while subjunctive is -assertive. Although these descriptors are appropriate, viewing the subjunctive mood as a discourse cohesive device makes apparent the true nature of the mood contrast. Anaphoric, exophoric, and cataphoric features of languages refer to antecedents, elements of the physical context, or foreshadowed events/information, respectively. This article proposes a mechanism by which Spanish subjunctive clauses fulfill all three functions, circumscribing the Spanish mood contrast within the language's deictic system, and suggests avenues for future research.

  16. Poetry for Spanish-Speaking Adolescents.

    Schon, Isabel


    Describes 12 collections and anthologies, many of them bilingual editions and published in Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and the United States, that include poems by Spanish and Latin American poets. Provides tentative grade levels for each selection. (HOD)

  17. MedlinePlus Spanish Widgets and Buttons

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Widgets are small applications that allow you to access Spanish-language health information from MedlinePlus content directly from your own Web sites. You can embed...

  18. K-Ar age of hornblende from a hornblendite vein in the Alpine-type ultramafic mass of the Étang de Lers (Ariège), French Pyrenees

    Verschure, R.H.; Hebeda, E.H.; Boelrijk, N.A.I.M.; Priem, H.N.A.; Avé Lallemant, H.G.


    The Alpine-type ultramafic mass of Étang de Lers in the French Pyrenees (the type locality of lherzolite) is transected by a number of hornblendite veins. These veins cut through the lherzolite-pyroxenite layering and obviously are the youngest ultramafic rocks present. Geological field evidence and

  19. Spanish Constitution and Education. Parliamentary debates

    Juan Carlos Hernández Beltrán


    Alter thirty years of being passed the spanish Constitution in 1978, the aim of this paper try to remind the on-going debates celebrated at the House of Representatives about one of the most controversy issues: the education. Through the parliamentary debates we can take into account the political figh- ting between the differents parties on how education should be set up in Spanish democracy. Finally, the Constitution shows a balance between the recognition of right of education and the free...

  20. Geographical Linked Data: a Spanish Use Case

    A. León; Saquicela, V.; Vilches-Blázquez, LM.; Villazón-Terrazas, B.; Priyatna, F.; Corcho, Oscar


    We present the process that has been followed for the development of an application that makes use of several heterogeneous Spanish public datasets that are related to administrative, hydrographic, and statistical domains. Our application aims at analysing existing relations between the Spanish coastal area and dierent statistical variables such as unemployment, population, dwelling, industry, and building trade. Moreover, we provide an important innovation with respect to other similar proce...

  1. Advertising in digital television: The spanish case

    Sádaba, Ch. (Charo)


    Over the last decade, the Spanish television market has radically changed, buttelevision has never ceased being a favourite medium for advertisers, not only because of its potential to communicate emotions with a unique touch but above all because it reaches 98 per cent of Spanish households. In recent years, consumption of television has increased in Spain, now on the digital threshold, and there is already evidence from the US that households with access to fully interactive digital televis...

  2. Development of taxonomy For Spanish Credit Institutions

    Seguí Alcaraz, Antoni


    This article describes the classification of stakeholders. The goal is to find distinct profiles of credit institutions, depending on their degree of concern about CSR. 57 Spanish credit institutions answered a survey. The results show the interest of such institutions in CSR in relation to the whole Spanish financial sector. The article distinguishes 3 clusters depending on the institutions' approach to CSR, that is, whether they focus on employees, society or regulations.

  3. The spanish mood/subordination/reference interface

    Gregory, Amy E.


    This study deals with the discourse function of the Spanish subjunctive mood. Traditional approaches focus on its semantics, invoking the notions of volition, doubt, negation, and emotion while maintaining the importance of the clause's subordinate status and change of subject from matrix verb to subordinate verb. Notwithstanding, thirty years of linguistic research on the Spanish mood contrast have given rise to the descriptors ± assertion: indicative is +assertive while subjunctive is -asse...

  4. Disentangling discrimination on spanish boards of directors

    Mateos de Cabo, Ruth; Gimeno, Ricardo; Escot, Lorenzo


    Abstract Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to find evidence of discrimination behind the scarce presence women on Spanish boards of directors through factors within firms linked with different theories of discrimination. Research findings/Insights: Using data on the boards of directors from the top 1000 Spanish companies in 2005 and 2008, we identify some signals of discrimination. We find that women directors are scarcer in those sectors wh...

  5. [Estimation of the prevalence of bovine hydatid cyst in the south Pyrenees].

    Bichet, H; Dorchies, P


    Since 1994 "Réseau VEGA" (veterinary survey network) has organized a record of sanitary information in 14 slaughterhouses in the Midi-Pyrénées. Data about hydatidosis in cattle are centralized, analysed, then sent namely to each stockbreeder concerned. Estimation of the prevalence rate from 1994 to 1996 is 0.28% for animals and 2.5% for livestock. A marked decrease of rates was noticed during this three year monitoring period. Nevertheless, the Pyrenean area remains more affected than the North of the region. In an outbreak of hydatidosis, a few animals are carriers. Bovine infestation must be considered as revealing a rural cycle. Moreover, the link between bovine hydatidosis and ovine transhumance seems to be confirmed. Using livestock as epidemiological units is innovative in terms of hydatidosis. This approach allows a better adjustment of parasitism control and introduces the notions of the outbreak and the risk of human contamination. In the Midi-Pyrénées region, local human cases of hydatidosis are few. However, the absence of compulsory notification and of databases, on the one hand, and the extreme difficulty of confirming the autochthonous nature of the contamination, on the other hand, limit the reliability of data. A better collaboration between physicians and veterinarians would reduce animal prevalence and the risk of human contamination. PMID:9754298

  6. The Spanish diet: an update

    Gregorio Varela-Moreiras


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Food Consumption Survey, conducted for over 20 years by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA, is the most reliable source of data to evaluate the food consumption and dietary patterns of Spain. The aim of the present article was to review the diet trends in Spain and its evolution. Food availability assessment per capita per day, which allows the calculation of energy and nutrient intake and comparison with the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for the Spanish population is described. In addition, different markers of the quality of the diet have been also evaluated. Methods: The sample consisted of consumption and distribution data, obtained from the nationwide representative Food Consumption Survey for the period 2000-2012. A two-stage sampling method was applied, where in the first stage the units to be sampled were towns or local entities, and in the second stage households which were going to be part of the final sample from those entities were selected. Units consisted of towns or local entities in the national territory. The data allowed the calculation of energy and nutrient intakes, using the Food Composition Tables (Moreiras et al, 2013. The quality of the diet was also evaluated: the adequacy of the diet in meeting the recommended intakes for energy and nutrients; energy profile; dietary fat quality; dietary protein quality; nutrient density; Mediterranean diet adequacy indices. The present data were compared with previous data obtained by our research group in 1964, 1981 and 1991. Results: Using the most recent data, average intake comprised: milk and derivatives (356 g/person/day, fruits (323 g/person/day, vegetables and greens (339 g/ person/day, cereals and derivatives (197 g/person/day, meat and meat products (181 g/day, fish (88,6 g/person/ day, oils and fats (41,6 g/person/day, sugar and derivatives (25,6 g/person/day, eggs (27,1 g/person/day, legumes (13,9 g/person/day. There was


    Ana Rojo


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes fictive motion expressions in English and Spanish with the twofold aim of (a finding out whether the differences that have been reported in the expression of motion in English and Spanish also apply to fictive motion, and (b checking whether the similarities and differences reported by Matsumoto for English and Japanese also apply to English and Spanish. We start by offering a detailed account of the similarities and differences between the expression of motion in English and Spanish; subsequently, we take a closer look at fictive motion expressions in English and Japanese. We then present two different studies carried out with the aim of gathering additional data on Spanish fictive motion expressions. The first study focuses on the strategies used by translators in rendering fictive motion expressions from English into Spanish. The second experiment analyses a Corpus of expressions generated using elicitation from drawings. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and directions of future research.

  8. Multi-proxy record of land use change derived from colluvial soils of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

    Leigh, David S.; Gragson, Theodore L.; Coughlan, Michael R.


    Archaeological evidence and paleoenvironmental proxies from wetland bogs (e.g. charcoal, pastoral pollen, fungal spores of sheep dung) clearly outline the regional chronology of Holocene pastoral activity in the Pyrenees. We increase the spatial and temporal resolution of this chronology through a place-based, millennial-scale investigation of land use activities within individual fields in the commune of Larrau, Pyrénées Atlantiques, France. We have identified several stratigraphic records of slopewash colluvium that span the entire Holocene that occur at the outlets of zero-order watersheds, each draining several hectares. To examine forest-to-pasture transformation, two to three meter long auger holes were sampled in contiguous five centimeter intervals. These samples were analyzed for charcoal content, radiocarbon age, magnetic susceptibility, particle size, organic matter, and n-alkane concentrations. Results indicate that intentional burning and clearing were initiated by the Late Neolithic (ca. 5000-6000 cal. BP), but more intense burning, clearing, and pronounced soil erosion occurred later during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Charcoal concentrations and low frequency magnetic susceptibility provide evidence of initial burning and subsequent variation in the intensity of fire use. Radiocarbon chronologies exhibit order-of-magnitude spikes in sedimentation rates (1-10 mm/yr) during the Bronze Age and Iron Age that are asynchronous between sites. Asynchronous records suggest anthropic, rather than climatic, drivers and imply that land use varied in intensity across the landscape, unlike the uniform intensity of pasture use typical of the modern landscape. Sedimentation rates, and presumably erosion rates, returned to very near pre-pastoral background levels (<1mm/yr) during the last 1500 years. A pristine-degraded-recovery cycle is thus indicated for the span of the Holocene illustrating that not all pastures around the world persist with stereotypical

  9. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Swanson, Peter B.


    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  10. Spanish-for-Native-Speaker Matters: Narrowing the Latino Achievement Gap through Spanish Language Instruction

    Carreira, Maria


    This paper argues that Spanish-for-native-speakers (SNS) instruction at the secondary level can play a key role in narrowing the Latino achievement gap. To this end, SNS curricula and practices should be configured to: 1) support Spanish-English biliteracy, 2) support and facilitate learning across the curriculum, 3) socialize Latino students and…