Sample records for central anatolia turkey

  1. A new species of Marrubium (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    AYTAÇ, Zeki; AKGÜL, Gencay; EKİCİ, Murat


    Marrubium sivasense Aytaç, Akgül & Ekici sp. nova (Lamiaceae) is described and illustrated from Central Anatolia, Turkey. The new species most resembles Marrubium depauperatum, but it differs by 3-10 flowered verticillasters, crenate to crenulated leaf margins, and unequal calyx teeth. The ecology and phenology of the new species as well as its etymology, conservation status, and diagnostic features are discussed.

  2. [Evaluation of tularemia cases originated from Central Anatolia, Turkey].

    Akıncı, Esragül; Ulgen, Fatmanur; Kılıç, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Sevim; Yıldız, Sümeyye; Ozdemir, Burcu; Alıravcı, Deniz; Celebi, Bekir; Eren, Selim Sırrı; But, Ayşe; Ongürü, Pınar; Yetkin, M Arzu; Bodur, Hürrem


    Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis with a worldwide distribution and diverse clinical manifestations. In recent years, tularemia cases are increasing in Turkey, with a special attention to Marmara, western Blacksea and Central Anatolia regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate tularemia cases admitted to our hospital during an outbreak emerged at Central Anatolia between December 2009 and September 2010, making a point for the disease. A total of 32 patients (17 female, 15 male; age range: 15-80 years, mean age: 41 ± 16 years) with fever, sore throat, cervical mass and failure to respond to beta-lactam antibiotics, were followed up with the preliminary diagnosis of tularemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific laboratory tests. Serum samples were obtained from 25 patients and in 17 (68%) of them microagglutination test yielded positive result (≥ 1/160) in their first serum samples. All of the 8 patients who had negative results in their first samples (< 1/160), revealed seroconversion in their second samples. In 10 (91%) of the 11 patients from whom lymph node aspirates were obtained, PCR performed with species specific (tul4) primers yielded positivity and subspecies differentiation done by RD1 primers identified the agent as F.tularensis subspecies holarctica. F.tularensis growth was not detected in the cultures of lymph aspirates and/or throat swabs of the cases (n= 16). All the patients had oropharyngeal tularemia and eight of them also had oculoglandular form. The mean duration of the symptoms were 25.6 ± 17.2 (2-60) days. They had a history of oral intake of contaminated water. Cervical or submandibular lymphadenopathy were detected in all patients. One patient had cervical abscess and the other one had erythema nodosum. Elevated sedimentation rate was found in 26 (81.3%) patients and elevated CRP in 24 (75%) patients. Spontaneous drainage was detected in nine cases during follow-up. Lymph node aspiration was performed in

  3. Liquefaction severity map for Aksaray city center (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    A. Yalcin


    Full Text Available Turkey having a long history of large earthquakes have been subjected to progressive adjacent earthquakes. Starting in 1939, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ produced a sequence of major earthquakes, of which the Mw 7.4 earthquake that struck western Turkey on 17 August 1999. Following the Erzincan earthquake in 1992, the soil liquefaction has been crucial important in the agenda of Turkey. Soil liquefaction was also observed widely during the Marmara and the Düzce Earthquake in 1999 (Sönmez, 2003. Aksaray city center locates in the central part of Turkey and the Tuzgolu Fault Zone passes through near the city center. The fault zone has been generated to moderate magnitude earthquakes. The geology of the Aksaray province basin contains Quaternary alluvial deposits formed by gravel, sand, silt, and clay layers in different thickness. The Tuzgolu Fault Zone (TFZ came into being after the sedimetation of alluvial deposits. Thus, the fault is younger from lithological units and it is active. In addition, the ground water level is very shallow, within approximately 3 m from the surface. In this study, the liquefaction potential of the Aksaray province is investigated by recent procedure suggested by Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005. For this purpose, the liquefaction susceptibility map of the Aksaray city center for liquefaction is presented. In the analysis, the input parameters such as the depth of the upper and lower boundaries of soil layer, SPT-N values, fine content, clay content and the liquid limit were used for all layers within 20 m from the surface. As a result, the category of very high susceptibility liquefaction class was not observed for the earthquake scenario of Ms=5.2, 4.9% of the study area has high liquefaction susceptibility. The percentage of the moderately, low, and very low liquefied areas are 28.2%, 30.2%, and 36.3%, respectively. The rank of non-liquefied susceptibility area is less than 1%.

  4. Geochemical Constraints on Collision-related Intrusive Rocks in Central, Northwestern and Western Anatolia (Turkey)

    Ilbeyli, Nurdane


    The intrusive rocks in Anatolia occupy a broad petrological range from I- to A- type granitoids. Thus, Turkey is a natural laboratory to study collision-related magmatism, its geochemical characteristic, source region and also tectono-magmatic evolution. The central, northwestern and western Anatolian magmatic provinces are defined by a large number of Late Mesozoic to Late Cenozoic collision-related granitoids (Ilbeyli and Kibici 2009). Calc-alkaline, subalkaline and alkaline intrusive rocks in central Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, high-K and I- to A-types. They cover a petrological range from monzodiorite through quartz monzonite to granite/syenite. All these intrusive rocks are enriched in LILE and are also radiogenic in terms of Sr, and unradiogenic in terms of Nd, isotope ratios. Their geochemical characteristics show that the intrusive rocks originated from a mantle source containing large subduction components, and have experienced crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. Delamination of a thermal boundary layer, and/or slab breakoff is the likely mechanisms for the initiation of the diverse magmatism in the complex (Ilbeyli et al. 2009). Calc-alkaline plutonic rocks in northwestern Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, medium- to high-K and I-types. They are monzonite to granite, and all are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, showing features of arc-related intrusive rocks. Geochemical data reveal that these plutons were derived from partial melting of mafic lower crustal sources. These rocks are related to subduction of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Sakarya microcontinent during Cretaceous-Paleocene times (Kibici et al. 2008). Calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in western Anatolia are metaluminous, high-K and I-types. They have a compositional range from granodiorite to granite, and are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE. Geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks indicate that they could have originated

  5. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.


    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  6. Longhorned Beetles Collection of the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey (Coleoptera,Cerambycidae)

    ÖZDİKMEN, Hüseyin; ŞAHİN, Özlem


    In the present paper, specimens of Cerambycidae were examined in the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of identification of these specimens, thirty-eight species and two subspecies belonging to twenty-eight genera of five subfamilies were determined. With this paper, new faunistic data and some zoogeographical evaluations were presented on longhorned beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Turkey. The faunistic data in the pr...

  7. Organic facies characteristics of the Pliocene coaly units, central Anatolia, Ilgin (Konya / Turkey)

    Altunsoy, Mehmet; Ozdoğan, Meltem; Ozcelik, Orhan; Ünal, Neslihan


    This study aims to determine organic facies characteristics of the Pliocene coaly units in the Ilgın (Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey) area. Pliocene units (Dursunlu Formation) are composed of sandstone, siltstone, marl, mudstone and coal in the region. Lignite layers where coals are found and has a varying thickness between 100 - 300 m. Organic matter is composed predominantly of terrestrial material, with a minor contribution of algal and amorphous material. Organic matter in these units have generally low hydrogen index (HI) values and high oxygen index (OI) values, mostly characteristics type III kerogen (partly type II kerogen). Organic matters in the samples are immature to marginally mature in terms of organic maturation. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 0.03 and 51.7 %, but reach 53.4 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 392 and 433 °C. Organic facies type C, CD and D were identified in the investigated units. C, CD and D facies are related to marl, mudstone and coal lithofacies. These facies are characterized by average values of HI around 102 (equivalent to type II/ III kerogene), TOC around 12.2 %, and an average of S2 of 14.6 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is terrestrial, partly oxidized / oxidized / highly oxidized , decomposed and reworked. Organic facies C and CD are the "gas-prone" facies but Organic facies D is nongenerative. Keywords: Central Anatolia, Pliocene, Organic Facies, Ilgın, Coal

  8. Estimating the horizontal diffuse solar radiation over the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    The main objective of the present study is to develop new hybrid models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface over Turkey's Central Anatolia Region (CAR), which covers the 12 provinces (Afyon, Ankara, Cankiri, Corum, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas and Yozgat), as an example. The models proposed by many investigators to estimate the diffuse solar radiation were reviewed. Although the global solar radiation and sunshine duration have been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) over all the country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The twelve new hybrid models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the CAR were validated, and thus, the most accurate model was selected for guiding future projects

  9. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice


    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:27169173

  10. The Frequency of Exfoliation Syndrome in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Raşit Kılıç


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and to evaluate its relationship with cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Methods. Patients over the age of 45 years who presented to the clinic were included in the study. All cases underwent a comprehensive ophthalmology examination. Exfoliation syndrome was diagnosed with the presence of exfoliative material on the lens anterior capsule or iris on slit lamp examination. The patients were divided into two groups as the exfoliation syndrome group and nonexfoliation syndrome group according to the presence of exfoliative material. Results. Exfoliative material was found in one or both eyes of 212 of the 2103 patients (10.1% evaluated within the scope of the study. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and increasing age and male gender. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and phacodonesis. While no relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and hypertension or diabetes mellitus, a significant relationship was found with coronary artery disease. Conclusion. The unilateral or bilateral exfoliation syndrome frequency was 10.1% in this hospital-based study. A statistically significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and advancing age, gender, and coronary artery disease.

  11. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Catalhoyuk, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Axel K Schmitt

    Full Text Available A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ overlaps closely with (14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka. Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard.

  12. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Ahmet Sami Erol; Evgeny Shein; Evgeny Milanovskiy; Fariz Mikailsoy; Fatih Er; Sabit Ersahin


    Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district) has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay), low organic carbon content (less than 1%), but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil...

  13. Isotope and geochemical survey of geothermal systems of Yozgat province in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    In Central Anatolia, which is subject to this project area, there are many geothermal fields. Turkish State Planning Organization (DPT) gives priority and encouragement to the investments of tourism and energy production. Our studies, in Central Anatolia are planned to focus on mainly Yozgat- Nevsehir region. But only Yozgat province results will be given in this paper. Detailed hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies have been carried out and periodic hydrogeochemical analyses made in Hacettep University International Research and Application Center for Karst Water Resources (UKAM) Laboratories. Analyses of samples (2H, 18O, 3H) which were periodically collected from thermal and cold water spots in the project area have been made in IAEA. Hydrogeologic models for important geothermal fields in Yozgat region have been realized as a result of this study. Following are the results obtained from the isotopic evaluations of the geothermal fields: According to the δ18O vs. δ2H relation of rain and snow water samples, the project area represents a climatic transition zone between the East Mediterranean and Central Anatolia Climatic - Geographic Regions by the local meteoric line equation of δ2H=8*δ18O+14; according to the tritium analyses, thermal waters have deep and long groundwater flow paths and these waters are generally older than 50 years; according to the δ18O vs. δ2H relation, there are 18O shift in Yozgat-Saraykent, Bogazliyan and Sorgun; Yozgat-Saraykent, Sorgun and Bogazliyan geothermal fields are important for geothermal applications as mainly central heating and balneological utilization possibilities. (author). 21 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering


    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  15. Intraplate Deformation of the Anatolian Micro Plate on the Amasya Branch Fault in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Okumura, K.


    The discrepancy between geologic and geodetic slip rate along the North Anatolian fault has been more evident as solid incremental (Kondo et al. 2010) and cumulative (Kozaci et al. 2009, Okumura et al. 2010) slip rate data are accumulated. The strain transient effect (Kozaci et al. 2009) could be a plausible cause for the discrepancy. At the same time, the seismicity, crustal deformation, and active structures indicate significant amount of distributed tectonic strain far inside the Anatolian micro plate. The accumulation and release of the distributed strain may affect the seismic cycle of the plate boundary. However, there is almost no quantitative information on the earthquakes and faults in central Anatolia. Considering the magnitude of the discrepancy, it is important to understand the intra-plate tectonics and to prepare for the seismic hazard in less active intra-plate areas. For this purpose, the author carried out detailed survey of the Amasya fault. Amasya fault is the only major branch of the North Anatolian fault in Central Anatolia. While the main strand of the North Anatolian fault steps at the Niksar basin, the Amasya fault is the westward continuation of the North Anatolian fault along the Kerkit river valley in the east. The fault extends to southwest over 250 km into the Anatolian micro plate. In 1939 about 100 km long eastern portion of the Amasya fault ruptured together with the 200 km long main strand between Niksar and Erzincan. The location and slip distribution of the 1939 ruptures, as well as slip-rate and paleoseismicity on the Amasya fault have been studied very little. Preliminary fault mapping between 36° E and 37° E was done with Google-Earth satellite photos and 1939 rupture locations were confirmed on site by interviews to aged local people. Cumulative slip measurement and slip-rate estimation were conducted in east of Canbolat (37.6228° E) and east of Findicak (36.4572° E). At Canbolat, 11.4 m cumulative offset was measured on

  16. Eocene benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Central Anatolia (Turkey): Biostratigraphy, stable isotope data, paleoenvironmental and paleontological interpretations

    Dinçer, Feyza


    Stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) values from Eocene aged shallow marine deposits in two different basins (Haymana and Kırşehir-Kaman) of Central Anatolia and benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy's corresponding sequences were analyzed to determine paleontological and paleoenvironmental changes. The shallow marine units (Çayraz and Altıpınar formations), deposited as a result of different geological processes in the same period, show differences in paleontological and geochemical properties of the tests. The geological process controlled by environmental factors affect the formation of the chemical structure of foraminiferal calcite. These Lutetian and Bartonian aged formations are represented by five Shallow Benthic Zones. While, the Çayraz section is represented by SBZ 14-18, Boztepe section is represented by SBZ 13-17. With an increase in temperature, the variety of benthic foraminifera decreased, and Assilina exponens became the dominant species in the warm conditions. The most important proxy is δ13C, which reflects the paleoproductivity (food supply) where benthic foraminifera lived. In addition, food supply can be considered to be a more important factor than temperature, as it controls the diversity and abundance of benthic foraminifera.

  17. A survey study on hantavirus, cowpox virus, and Leptospira infections in Microtus hartingi in Kırşehir Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    AZKUR, Ahmet Kürşat; Kaygusuz, Sedat; ASLAN, Muhammet Eren


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether hantaviruses, cowpox viruses, or Leptospira infections were prevalent in Microtus hartingi trapped in Kırşehir Province, located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Leptospira spp. was detected in 20 of the 43 (46.5%) Microtus hartingi kidney samples and confirmed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Five of the 20 Leptospira spp. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced, analyzed, and confirmed as Leptospira spp. This...

  18. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Cenozoic high-K calc-alkaline volcanism in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Temel, Abidin; Gündoğdu, M. Niyazi; Gourgaud, Alain


    Late Miocene to Pliocene volcanic rocks outcrop west, northwest and southwest of the Konya area in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Volcanic products are lava domes, nuée ardentes and ignimbrite deposits, predominantly andesitic to dasitic in composition, together with rare basalt, basaltic andesite, basaltic trachyandesite and trachyandesite (50.35-69.39% SiO 2). The serie exhibits high-K calc-alkaline affinities. Fractional crystallization of pyroxene, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxides is the main process in the magmatic evolution of Konya volcanic rocks. Volcanic units exhibit typical high-K calc-alkaline character. Their geochemical characteristics (e.g., enrichments in LIL elements such as K, Rb, Ba, Sr, depletion in HFSE such as Ti, Nb, and high Ba/Nb and Low Nb/Y ratios) are consistent with those of active continental margin regions. High 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.704841-0.707340) and low 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.512390-0.512618) ratios suggest crustal involvement in their petrogenesis. Correlations between 86Sr/ 87Sr isotope with Rb, Rb/Nb, Rb/Ba, and Rb/Sr also emphasize the effect of crustal contamination on the andesitic and dacitic magmas. As a consequence, Konya volcanic rocks are products of assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) processes of a magma which seems to be linked to the subduction of the African plate underneath the Anatolian plate during Miocene.

  19. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Ahmet Sami Erol


    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  20. Radiocarbon age distribution of groundwater in the Konya Closed Basin, central Anatolia, Turkey

    Bayari, C. Serdar; Ozyurt, N. Nur; Kilani, Susan


    Annual abstraction of 2.6 × 109 m3 of groundwater in the 53,000 km2 Konya Closed Basin of central Turkey has caused a head decline of 1 m/year over the last few decades. Therefore, understanding the hydrogeology of this large endorheic basin, in a semi-arid climate, is important to sustainable resource management. For this purpose, the groundwater’s radiocarbon age distribution has been investigated along a 150-km transect parallel to regional flow. Results show that the groundwater ranges in age from Recent at the main recharge area of the Taurus Mountains in the south, to about 40,000 years around the terminal Salt Lake located in the north. In this predominantly confined flow system, radiocarbon ages increase linearly by distance from the main recharge area and are in agreement with the hydraulic ages. The mean velocity of regional groundwater flow (3 m/year) is determined by the rate of regional groundwater discharge into the Salt Lake. Calcite dissolution, dedolomitization and geogenic carbon dioxide influx appear to be the dominant geochemical processes that determine the carbon isotope composition along the regional flow path. The groundwater’s oxygen-18 content indicates more humid and cooler paleorecharge. A maximum drop of 5°C is inferred for the past recharge temperature.

  1. Age and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of partially remagnetized lacustrine sedimentary rocks (Oligocene Aktoprak basin, central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Strauss, Becky E.; Özkaptan, Murat; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Mulch, Andreas; Whitney, Donna L.; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin


    The age and paleoenvironmental record of lacustrine deposits in the Aktoprak basin of south-central Turkey provides information about the evolution of topography, including the timing of development of an orographic rain shadow caused by uplift of the mountain ranges fringing the Central Anatolian Plateau. New magnetostratigraphy-based age estimates, in combination with existing biostratigraphic ages, suggest that the partially remagnetized Kurtulmuş Tepe section of the basin is Chattian (Upper Oligocene). The mean carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ18O= 24.6 ± 2.0 ‰, δ13C= -4.9 ± 1.1‰) are largely constant through the section and indicative of a subtropical, open freshwater lake. These isotopic values are also similar to those of the Chattian Mut basin to the south, on the Mediterranean side of the modern orographic barrier (Tauride Mountains), and indicate absence of an orographic barrier during Late Oligocene basin deposition. Post-depositional partial remagnetization occurred after tilting of the basin sequence and was mineralogically controlled, affecting grey, carbonate-rich rocks (average %CaCO3= 82), whereas interlayered pink carbonate-poor rocks (average %CaCO3= 38) carry a primary, pretilt magnetization. The pink rocks are rich in clay minerals that may have reduced the permeability of these rocks that carry a primary magnetization, concentrating basinal fluid flow in the carbonate-rich grey layers and leading to the removal and reprecipitation of magnetic minerals. The normal and reverse polarities recorded by the remagnetized rocks suggest that remagnetization occurred over a protracted period of time.

  2. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies in Aksaray geothermal fields central Anatolia, Turkey

    The studied area is located at eastern part of Aksaray province in Central Anatolia. The basement rocks of studied area is Paleozoic aged Bozcaldag formation composed of marble, schist and gneiss and Cretaseous aged granitoid intrusion intrude within these basement rocks. These rock units are overlain uncomfortably by middle miocene to Quaternary aged volcanic rocks of Cappadocian volcanic belt interlayer sediments. The compositions of these units are mainly represented by tuff, ignimbrite, reworked tuff interlayer sediments, basalt lavas, ash fall deposits, pumice and dasite to rhyodasitic lava domes.The study area contains Ziga and Acigoel (Narkoey) thermal area, which they have similar geologic environments with in the Cappadocian volcanic belt of the Tertiary to Quaternary age. Existence of surface manifestation like that high regional heat flow, the presence of expanding acidic to weakly acidic hydrothermal alteration surrounding the geothermal area, hot springs which have a temperature of 44-65 degrees indicating the important of geothermal possibilities in the area. Water chemistry studies have been carried out on 34 water samples to estimate relation between hot and cold water, calculate reservoir temperature using geothermometre and mixing models, hydrological isotope studies were carried out to on 10 samples to clarify extending of recharging area and travel time from recharging area to discharging area. Water analyses results were assested using some diagram such as Fournier Cl-Entalphy, SiO2-Entalphy, Langelier- Ludwig, Piper, schoeller etc to classify them. Water-rock interaction have been tried to be define on the base of these result.On the base of water chemistry analyses, all of the cold waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and CaHCO3 type. the hot waters in Ziga field classified as Na-Cl-HCO3 type and As and B bearing mineralized hot water. Geothermal fluids in Acigoel field, classified as Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl type and B bearing mineralized hot water, and

  3. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Schmitt, Axel K; Danišík, Martin; Aydar, Erkan; Şen, Erdal; Ulusoy, İnan; Lovera, Oscar M


    A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey) has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th)/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th)/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ) overlaps closely with (14)C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka). Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard. PMID:24416270

  4. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Mehmet Şener


    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep meats purchased from retailstores in Central Anatolia, Turkey



    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic diseases of humans. In particular, sheep muscles are significant sources of infection in the transmission of toxoplasmosis. Carnivorism is the most important transmission route for human populations. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in sheep meats in retail stories of Turkey. A total of 250 boneless sheep meat samples were purchased from randomly selected retail stores in differe...

  6. Determination of Boron Level in Feeds Used in Cattle Nutrition in Regions of Central Anatolia and Mediterranean of Turkey



    Abstract: In this study, samples of forage (alfalfa hay, corn silage, silage of common vetch with triticale, wheat straw), feed ingredient (barley grain, corn grain, wheat grain, wheat bran, corn meal, corn bran, corn gluten meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal, dried digestible grain solubilty), and concentrate feed (calf grower feed, heifer feed, dairy cattle feed and beef cattle feed) were collected from various feed mills and dairy cattle farms in the Central Anatolia and M...

  7. Petrographic and Facies Properties of the Evaporites in the Cihanbeyli-Yeniceoba Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Sami Us, Muhammed; Tekin, Erdoǧan


    supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK-CAYDAG) with 113 Y 090 numbered project.

  8. Aksaray and Ecemis faults - Diapiric salt relationships: relevance to the hydrocarbon exploration in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Coskun, Bulent [Ankara Univ., Dept. of Geology, Tandogan (Turkey)


    Due to activity of the Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, volcanic intrusion and westward movement of the Anatolian plate, diapiric salt structures were occurred in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) basin in central Anatolia, Turkey. With the collisions of the Arabian and Anatolian plates during the late Cretaceous and Miocene times, prominent ophiolitic obduction occurred in the Pontides and Taurides along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF). The NAF and EAF intersect each other in the Karliova region, in eastern Turkey. At this point, due to the northward movement of the Arabian plate in SE Turkey, the Anatolian plate shifted toward the west and south along the fault zones. The same geological tectonic model is proposed at the intersection point of the Aksaray Fault (AF) and Ecemis Fault (EF) in central Anatolia. The westward movement of the Anatolian plate between these two faults resulted in the formation of the diapiric salt structures, volcanic intrusions and overpressure zones in the study area. Paleogeological reconstructions of the Tuz Golu basin indicate that the salient positive structures in the basin were formed during late Eocene-Oligocene times. These structures, like the Yeniceoba-Bezirci and Karapinar-Kochisar trends, are oriented in a NW-SE or N-S directions between the Kirsehir and Sivrihisar-Bozdag massifs. The subsidence rate and Paleogeographic evolutions in the basin show that the southeastern sector of the Tuz Golu basin remained shallower relative to the central and northwestern regions. Based on the paleostructural, subsidence and geothermal reconstructions, it has been concluded that the oil generation and migration zones and geothermal trends are oriented in a NW-SE direction in the Tuz Golu basin. (Author)

  9. Size-distribution of scoria cones within the Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Uslular, G.; Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, G.; Arcasoy, A.


    Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (EMF) is one of the five clusters of monogenetic volcanoes in Quaternary Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). EMF consists mainly of scoria cones and a few maars (e.g. Kutören, Obruk). Previous studies on monogenetic volcanoes of CAVP mainly focused on petrologic evolution of scoria cones rather than the statistical analyses of their morphological parameters. Using the database compiled by Arcasoy (2001) for the morphometric parameters of the scoria cones in the EMF, we present the power-law behavior of their size distribution with respect to basal diameters (Wco) of 77-scoria cones from the whole database. Both empirical (maximum likelihood estimation, MLE) and graphical (log-log plot) methods are used for the estimation of scaling parameter "b-value" of power-law for the scoria cones which have basal diameter greater than or equal to 0.36 km. However, graphical method gives the precise result with the b-value of 2.78 ± 0.08 for 77-scoria cones over the width range 0.1-1.23 km. Herein, b-value indicates the relative number of the small scoria cones with respect to large ones for a given area. The power-law behavior of the size distribution of scoria cones in the EMF suggests that their occurrence is self-organized critical phenomena similar to earthquakes. Since the size-distribution of scoria cones provides information about their eruptive magnitude and occurrence mechanism, our results can be directly applied to future risk assessment of the CAVP.

  10. Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    GÖKTÜRK, Ramazan Süleyman; Sümbül, Hüseyin


    A new species, Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae) is described and illustrated from south Anatolia, Turkey. The species grows on steppe and stony places in Anamur (C4 Mersin province) in south Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar taxa are discussed. The geographical distribution of the new species and two closely related species in Turkey are mapped.

  11. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    E. Sarifakioglu; Dilek, Y.; M. Sevin


    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic...

  12. The Konya earthquakes of 10–11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    R. Aksoy


    Full Text Available Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10–11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  13. The Konya earthquakes of 10-11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Aksoy, R.; Demiröz, A.


    Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10-11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  14. Planktonic and benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Middle Eocene-Lower Miocene successions from the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Hakyemez, Aynur; Özgen-Erdem, Nazire; Kangal, Özgen


    Planktonic and benthic foraminifera are described from the Middle Eocene-Lower Miocene successions in the Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia. An integrated foraminiferal zonation provides new age assignments in terms of a great number of taxa for the studied sections. Four biostratigraphical intervals are first recorded based on the concurrent ranges of sporadically occurring but well preserved planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The first interval characterized by the co-occurrences of Acarinina bullbrooki, Truncorotaloides topilensis and Turborotalia cerroazulensis is referable to the E11 Zone of late Lutetian-early Bartonian. An assemblage yielding Paragloborotalia opima accompanied by Globigerinella obesa forms a basis for the late Chattian O5 Zone. The successive interval corresponds to the late Chattian O6 Zone indicated by the presence of Globigerina ciperoensis and Globigerinoides primordius along with the absence of Paragloborotalia opima. The early Aquitanian M1 Zone can be tentatively defined based mainly on the assemblage of Globigerina, Globigerinella, Globoturborotalita and Tenuitella. The biostratigraphical data obtained from the benthic foraminifera assign the studied sections to the SBZ 21-22, SBZ 23 and SBZ 24 ranging in age from Rupelian to Aquitanian. The SBZ 23 and 24 are well constrained biozones by the occurrences of Miogypsinella complanata and Miogypsina gunteri, respectively, whereas the SBZ 21-22 defined by nummulitids and lepidocylinids in the Tethyan Shallow Benthic Zonation is characterized dominantly by peneroplids, soritids and miliolids in the studied sections. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest different paleoenvironments covering lagoon, algal reef and shallow open marine whereas planktonic foraminifera provides evidence for relatively deep marine settings on the basis of assemblages characterized by a mixture of small-sized simple and more complex morphogroups indicative for intermediate depths of the water column.

  15. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    E. Sarifakioglu


    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  16. Petrogenesis of the Çiçekdağ Igneous Complex, N of Kırşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey



    Central Anatolia typically represents well-preserved geological features of a collision zone. This collision zone is characterized by some geological events occurred in the Anatolide passive margin of the Anatolide-Pontide collision along the Ankara Erzincan suture zone. This suture zone is commonly known to be formed by the pre-Maastrichtian northward subduction of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys beneath the Pontides which was constituting the southernmost tip of Eurasiain plate at that...

  17. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.; Gemici, M.


    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  18. The Role of Fractional Crystallization and Magma Mixing/Mingling in the Genesis of Karacaali Magmatic Complex (Central Anatolia, Turkey) Fe, Mo-Cu Mineralizations

    Delibas, O.; Genc, Y.; de Campos, C. P.


    This work brings into focus different metal associations (Fe and Mo-Cu) characteristic for the Karacaali Magmatic Complex (KMC), in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The Mo-Cu mineralization is widespread hosted in rhyolitic-rhyodacitic/granidoid rocks or is related to N-S striking vertical quartz-calcite veins. The Fe mineralization, on the other hand, is hosted in gabbroic/basaltic rocks. Field relations and geochronologic studies on single zircons (U-Pb) point towards a coeval temporal relation between plutonites and volcanites. The relatively overlapping ages between monzonite (73.1 Ma) and rhyolitic rocks (67 Ma) reflect a long lasting gradual crystallization within a zoned magma chamber. This is confirmed by progressive transitional contacts from plutonites into volcanites. Based on detailed field, textural and petrographic studies, granitic and monzonitic rocks have been subdivided into four different facies. These are: porphyritic quartz monzonites, quartz-monzonites, fine-grained granites and porphyritic leucogranites. Furthermore, highly diverse textures and structures, which are typical for hybrid rocks, reveal important magma mixing/migling and fractional crystalization processes. From additional geochemical studies, granitic rocks show high Rb/Sr (1.52), nearly flat REE patterns and strong Eu negative anomalies. However; monzonitic and hybrid rocks have relatively low Rb/Sr ratios (0.37 and 0.32) and depleted HREE patterns. Thus, in this complex, granitic rocks are considered as evolved products from the felsic magma. Strong positive Mo-correlation within the granitoids can be explained by a high degree of magmatic fractionation (Ishihara and Tani, 2004). Therefore, last evolved granitic melts are enriched in Mo- rich volatiles giving rise to molybdenite-quartz-calcite veins. Field, macro-micro and chemical studies evidence a co-magmatic origin for the gabbroic/basaltic-hosted Fe-mineralization. Despite the very close relation between compositional character

  19. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Murat Türkeş


    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry trees. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  20. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Murat Türkeş


    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry forests. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  1. Biological Studies on groundwater Crustaceans in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey

    Könemann, Stefan


    In 1987 a major biospeleogical expedition, ‘Speleo Nederland’, was carried out along the coastal Taurus mountains in southwest Anatolia (Turkey). ‘Speleo Nederland’ was focused on collecting the fauna of caves, wells, subterranean waterflows, and the interstices of marine gravel beaches. The special yield of stygobiont crustaceans, predominantly amphipods of the genus Bogidiella, promised to serve as an interesting case study to the colonization of inland groundwater by marine organisms. Now,...

  2. Scaling Earthquake Ground Motions in Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Akinci, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; D'Amico, S.; University of Malta; Malagnini, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Mercuri, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia


    In this study, we provide a complete description of the ground-motion characteristics of the western Anatolia region of Turkey. The attenuation of ground motions with distance and the variability in excitation with magnitude are parameterized using three-component 0.25-10.0 Hz earthquake ground motions at distances of 15 - 250 km. The data set is comprised of more than 11,600 three-component seismograms from 902 regional earthquakes of local magnitude (ML) 2.5 to 5.8, recorded ...

  3. The dune systems of the Konya Plain (Turkey): their relation to environmental changes in Central Anatolia during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene

    Kuzucuoglu, C.; Parish, R.; Karabiyikoglu, M.


    Several sand flats located on the northern shores of the Late Pleistocene palaeolake of the Konya plain (inner Anatolia, Turkey), are related to changes in lake levels. In this paper, the two main dune systems are mapped according to their geomorphological, sedimentological and dynamic characteristics, and their significance is discussed with regard to the environmental changes since the Late Pleistocene, both at time of the former lake and during the drier periods of the Holocene. Cross-sections show the relationship of the dunes to the topography of the basement. Analyses of the sand fraction show distinct characteristics in size distribution, quartz and shell contents, wind erosion effects on the quartz grains and petrographic composition. Interpretation of the results, coupled with information provided by the geomorphology of the dune systems studied in the field and from aerial photographs and satellite images, highlights the importance and variations in time of local factors such as prevailing winds, sand sources, changes in lake levels and vegetation. A chronology of the main sand fields is proposed, based on the evidence of three main droughts during the Upper Pleistocene. The older one, much eroded (maximum height=3 m), covers a limestone surface at +50 m above the bottom of the dried lake. An Optical Scanning Luminescence (OSL) date shows a last period of accumulation at 14,328±3220 years. The younger one (maximum height=12 m) has moved over the emerged Late Pleistocene lacustrine marls. An OSL date gives an age of 5674±988 years for the last accumulation period. Evidence of very recent activation of this younger dune system is apparent as a result of overgrazing and excessive land reclamation. A third period of dominant wind action and dune construction is responsible for the installation of a younger and thin dune field over the Mid-Holocene lacustrine deposits of the Karapinar lake. The success of the stabilization programme of the dunes over the

  4. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  5. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg


    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of onychomycosis in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Central Anatolia of Turkey

    Mustafa Gulgun; Elcin Balci; Abdulbaki Karaoglu; Vural Kesik; Oguzhan Babacan; Muzaffer Kursat Fidanci; Turker Turker; Duran Tok; Nedret Koc


    Background: Onychomycosis is a world-wide public health concern in children, requiring epidemiological data for different regions for control and prevention. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predominant pathogens and risk factors for onychomycosis in school children living in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: This study included 8122 school children, aged 5-16 years, living in the rural and urban areas around Kayseri. Onychomycosis was clinically classified as distal and lateral subungu...

  7. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan;


    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distributi...

  8. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit


    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...... pink flowers with orange-brown filaments. A key to the Turkish taxa of Clematis is provided....

  9. Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from inner Anatolia, Turkey

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, H.; Pirhan, A.


    Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to the inner part of West Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to S. pamphylica and differs from that species in having a densely tufted habit with compact and much-branched woody base, subfleshy, narrowly...

  10. Petrology of the Post-Collisional, Within-Plate Yıldızdağ Gabbroic Pluton, Yıldızeli-Sivas Region, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    BOZTUĞ, DURMUŞ; YAĞMUR, Mustafa; OTLU, Nazmi; YEŞİLTAŞ, Sibel TATAR and Akif


    The Yildizdag gabbroic pluton intrudes the Paleocene-Eocene Yakupoğlan formation which is imbricated with the ophiolitic melange of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean, and the crustal metasediments of Kırsehir block or Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex. It is subdivided into some mapable subunits such as gabbroic main body, dioritic marginal facies and microdioritic dykes. Mineralogical-geochemical (major, some trace and REE) data reveal that the magnetite + olivine + augite ...

  11. Biostratigraphy of Cretaceous-Paleogene marine succession, foraminiferal changes across the K/T boundary, sequence stratigraphy and response to sedimentary cyclicity in the Haymana Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Amirov, Elnur


    The aim of this study is to establish the planktonic foraminiferal biozonation, to construct the sequence stratigraphical framework and to determine the foraminiferal response to sedimentary cyclicity in the sedimentary sequence spanning Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene in the Haymana basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey). In order to achieve this study, the stratigraphic section was measured from sedimentary sequence of the Haymana, Beyobası and Yeşilyurt formations. The sedimentary sequence is mainly characterized by flyschoidal sequence that is composed of alternating of siliciclastic and carbonate units. On the account of the detailed taxonomic study of planktonic foraminifers, the biostratigraphic framework was established for the Maastrichtian-Paleocene interval. The biozonation includes 7 zones; Pseudoguembelina hariaensis, Pα, P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 zones. The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/P) boundary was delineated between the samples HEA-105 and 106. In order to construct the sequence-stratigraphical framework, the A, B, C and D-type meter-scale cycles were identified. Based on the stacking patterns of them, six depositional sequences, six third and two second order cycles were determined. Third order cycles coincide with the Global Sea Level Change Curve. On the account of the conducted petrographic analysis sandstone, mudstone, marl, limestone and muddy-limestone lithofacies were recorded in the studied samples. In order to demonstrate the response of foraminifers to cyclicity, quantitative analysis has been carried out by counting the individuals of planktonic, benthonic foraminifers and ostracods. The best response to sedimentary cyclicity was revealed from planktonic foraminifers. The average abundance of planktonic foraminifers increases in the transgressive systems tract and decreases in the highstand systems tract. Foraminifera are the most abundant marine protozoa in the benthic, epipelagic and pelagic realm. Because of the complexity and diversity of habitats

  12. Overwintered Hatchlings of Emys orbicularis from Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Dinçer Ayaz


    Full Text Available During our monitoring survey of amphibians and Emys orbicularis in Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey, we observed four overwintered hatchlings of European pond turtle on May 4 and 10, 2010. The average straightline maximum carapace length of the neonates captured was 26.48 mm and their average weight was 4.18 g. This observation is the second record for the Turkish population of Emys orbicularis.

  13. Drainage Evolution during the Uplift of the Central Anatolia Plateau

    Brocard, G. Y.; Meijers, M. J.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaymakci, N.; Whitney, D. L.


    The Central Anatolian plateau formed in the past 8-6 Myrs, associated to a change in tectonic regime, from contraction to extensional escape tectonics. We have examined the response of the river drainage of Central Anatolia to the rise of the plateau uplift and to the formation of the Anatolian microplate, tracking changes in drainage organization. Anatolia experienced widespread rock uplift and erosion in the Late Oligocene, generating a narrow, steep, and quickly eroding mountain range above the future southern plateau margin. A regionally widespread marine transgression resulted from wholesale foundering of this orogen in Early Miocene time. Widespread planation surfaces overlapped by Miocene marine carbonates bevel this topography, indicating that relief had been reduced to a low elevation pedimented landscape by the end of the Middle Miocene. Plateau uplift initiated around 11 My ago in Eastern Anatolia; it was echoed in Central Anatolia by a short-lived phase of contraction and localized uplifts that predate escape tectonics and mark the beginning of the current topographic differentiation of the southern plateau margin. The through-going drainage network inherited disintegrated, and a vast zone of inward drainage formed at the location of the future plateau interior. Between 8 and 6 My, the southern plateau margin (i.e. the Tauride Mountains) emerged. δ18O analyses on lacustrine and pedogenic carbonates show that the southern plateau margin, if not the plateau interior, had experienced enough uplift by 5 My to generate a substantial rain shadow over the plateau interior. Being disconnected from the regional base level from the start, the plateau interior was able to rise without experiencing substantial dissection. It reconnected to all surrounding sediment sinks (Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Persian Gulf) over the past 5 My. We discuss the mechanisms that have driven this reconnection. Bottom-up processes of integration such as drainage divide retreat

  14. A New Juno Iris from North-east Anatolia, Turkey

    GÜNER, Adil; DUMAN, Hayri


    A new late flowering, reddish brown Iris L. species from the subgenus Scorpiris Spach, Iris nezahatiae Güner & H.Duman, is described and illustrated from north-east Turkey. Its distinguishing characters, affinities, and ecology are discussed and its threat category is assessed as 'Critically endangered (CR)'.

  15. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih


    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramat...

  16. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül


    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  17. Evaluation of the No-Till Demonstration Studies in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey

    S. Gürsoy


    Full Text Available The practice of no-till in crop production has gained popularity in recent years because it is a superior soil conservation practice and offers reduction in fuel and labor requirements. But, its adaption is very slow in many countries because of lack of knowledge, experience and machines. A series of demonstration studies was conducted to observe the performance of the no-till systems in farmers’ conditions in South East Anatolia region of Turkey. Four demonstration sites were established, each of which was also planted with farmers’ application for wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. after wheat, wheat after lentil (Lens Culinaris, L, wheat after cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and lentil after wheat in 2009-2010 growing season. Yield was higher under no-till planting (1.50 t ha-1 than farmers’ application (1.10 t ha-1 for lentil production after wheat. The no- till planting had similar yield to farmers’ application for wheat production after wheat and lentil. The yield performance of wheat following cotton for no-till ridge planting and farmers’ application was not consistent at three demonstration sites. In conclusion, the studies of the demonstration showed that no-till planting may be used in lentil and wheat production following wheat and lentil under these weather and soil conditions in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey.

  18. Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting

    Pamir, Dilekcan; Abgarmi, Bizhan; Arda Özacar, A.


    Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting Dilekcan Pamir, Bizhan Abgarmi, A. Arda Özacar Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Dumlupinar Bulvari 1, 06800 Ankara, Turkey Central Anatolia holds the key to connect the theories about the ongoing tectonic escape, the African Plate subduction along Cyprus Arc and the indenter-style collision of Arabian Plate along Bitlis Suture. However, the shear wave splitting measurements which are needed to characterize seismic anisotropy are very sparse in the region. Recently, seismic data recorded by national seismic networks (KOERI, ERI-DAD) with dense coverage, provided a unique opportunity to analyze the effect of present slab geometry (slab tears, slab break-off) on mantle deformation and test different models of anisotropy forming mechanisms. In this study, the anisotropic structure beneath the Central Anatolia is investigated via splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at 46 broadband seismic stations. Our measurements yielded 1171 well-constrained splitting and 433 null results. Overall, the region displays NE-SW trending fast splitting directions and delay times on the order of 1 sec. On the other hand, a large number of stations which are spatially correlated with Cyprus Slab, Neogene volcanism and major tectonic structures present significant back azimuthal variations on splitting parameters that cannot be explained by one-layered anisotropy with horizontal symmetry. Thus, we have modeled anisotropy for two-layered structures using a forward approach and identified NE-SW trending fast splitting directions with delay times close to 1 sec at the lower layer and N-S, NW-SE trending fast splitting with limited time delays (0.1 - 0.3 sec) at the upper layer. Fast directions and delay times of the lower layer are similar to one-layered anisotropy and parallel or sub-parallel to the absolute plate motions which favors asthenospheric flow model

  19. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Cahfer Güloğlu


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  20. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in central Anatolia

    Uluocak, Ebru Şengül; Pysklywec, Russell; Göğüş, Oğuz H.


    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift, and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of "dynamic topography". Two-dimensional thermo-mechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along a N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior, and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity, and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sub-lithospheric flow driven by the seismically-inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myrs. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  1. Determination of hydrocarbon prospective areas in the Tuzgolu (Saltlake) Basin, central Anatolia, by using geophysical data

    Aydemir, Attila [Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Mustafa Kemal Mah. 2.Cad. No: 86, 06100 Sogutozu, Ankara (Turkey); Ates, Abdullah [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)


    Tuzgolu Basin is the largest interior basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey, with significant hydrocarbon indications in outcrops and exploration wells. However, there is no commercial discovery since 1959 which is the beginning year of exploration activities. Because of the poor seismic quality, all available geological-geophysical data and methods should be used in integration with each other to carry out exploration activities. In previous studies, the basin was modeled three dimensionally (3D) using gravity data by the authors of this paper and results of the modeling study were published recently. The model results can be evaluated to determine probable hydrocarbon generation zones. Gravity anomalies in this region exhibit many inflections that could be prospective locations for hydrocarbons. In this study, the gravity data were subjected to the vertical derivative in order to isolate inflections and to determine concealed structurally high areas in the subsurface that could have hydrocarbon potential. These potential subsurface structures were also compared with the Analytical Signal map produced from the aeromagnetic anomalies to reveal if they are originated from a magmatic intrusion. Finally, it was determined that all exploration wells were drilled off-structure and none of these potential subsurface structures was tested. According to correlation of the previous well locations and determined subsurface structures in or around the hydrocarbon generation zones, it is possible to claim that the Tuzgolu Basin with no previous discovery remains prospective for hydrocarbon exploration activities in the future. (author)

  2. Investigation of lithospheric deformation and mantle anisotropy beneath Central Anatolia from Shear Wave Splitting Analysis

    Teoman, U.; Polat, G.; Sandvol, E. A.; Turkelli, N.; Kahraman, M.; Özacar, A.; Beck, S. L.; Delph, J. R.


    With the primary objective of investigating the upper mantle anisotropy beneath central Anatolia-Turkey, we have performed shear wave splitting analysis and calculated the fast polarization directions and time-delays benefiting from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 65 broadband sensors that were deployed in early May 2013 and operated for two years as a part of CD-CAT project (Continental Dynamics Central Anatolian Tectonics, funded by NSF with instruments supplied by PASSCAL depository). To further enhance the station coverage in the region, we also included data from 45 permanent broadband stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). During the analysis, we have used the SplitLab software to determine splitting parameters of the records from only SKS and SKKS phases. Our initial results were derived from teleseismic earthquakes (with magnitudes greater than 5.8) that occurred within the time period from May-2013 to 2014. The average fast polarization directions obtained from stations located in the vicinity of the East Anatolia Fault Zone are well aligned with the fault trend indicating NE-SW orientations. Furthermore, we did not observe significant variations in the polarization directions and the delay times along the fault zone. Stations deployed in the vicinity of Central Anatolian fault zone exhibit N-S fast directions in good agreement with the fault trend. The average delay time for the whole study area is slightly higher than 1 second. Rapid spatial variations in splitting parameters are observed only in Adana region and the surrounding area. This probably suggests that the contribution of crustal anisotropy to mantle anisotropy is quite high. This observation is also consistent with the known tectonic structure of this region, which is presumably related to fabrics within deep crustal rocks preserving a record of deformation. This point should also need to be supported with

  3. Tectonics of the Central Anatolia Plateau between the Black Sea and the East Mediterranean

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Fernandez-Blanco, David; Willett, Sean D.


    The Central Anatolia Plateau, focus point of the TopoEurope Vertical Anatolia Movement Project, is an elevated area (ca. 1.5km) with fairly smooth topography bounded to the N and to the S by mountain ranges (Pontides and Taurus) and flanked by marine domains (Black Sea and Cilicia Basin-Eastern Mediterranean). Towards the south the Cilicia Basin passes to the Island of Cyprus and eventually to the Cyprus subduction zone and African plate. To constrain the evolution of the CAP from its birth in the Miocene to present, we present the evolution of an upper crustal section stretching from the Black Sea to Cyprus with particular focus on a 350km long segment from the central part of the Plateau (Tüz Gölü) to the Cilicia Basin. This entire area occupies an upper plate position with respect to the Cyprus subduction zone. Tectonics from Early to Late Miocene times were fairly simple and characterized by a gently southward dipping basement experiencing generalized subsidence. Depositional environments gradually changed from continental in the north to shallow marine in the south. The overall tectonic regime during this stage is poorly constrained. In the Late Miocene the entire area of the future CAP began moving upward. At the same time, subsidence continued in the Cilicia basin. Uplift above sea level in the south is nicely recorded by the termination of marine sedimentation and the onset of erosion. Dominant tectonic structures during this stage are associated with N-S shortening. The largest structures caused the formation of the large S-dipping monocline characteristics of S Turkey. The coexistence of upward and downward movements (in the CAP and in the Cilicia basin respectively) as well as the dominant contractional regime suggest that the development of the CAP is related to dynamic changes in the Cyprus subduction zone. We validate this hypothesis with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled models. We demonstrate that the growth of the upper plate forearc basin system

  4. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO2. The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  5. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored.

  6. May-June precipitation reconstruction of southwestern Anatolia, Turkey during the last 900 years from tree rings

    Touchan, Ramzi; Akkemik, Ünal; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Erkan, Nesat


    A May-June precipitation reconstruction (AD 1097-2000) has been developed for southwestern Anatolia in Turkey, the longest reported to date in this region. The reconstruction was derived from a regional Juniperus excelsa chronology that was built from material sampled at four sites in the Antalya and Mersin Districts. The regional tree-ring chronology accounts for 51% of the variance of instrumentally observed May-June precipitation. The years AD 1518 to 1587 are the most humid period in the reconstruction, coinciding with a major shift in European climate. The driest 70-year period in the reconstruction is AD 1195 to 1264. The period AD 1591-1660 represents the third driest and was characterized by instability climatically, politically, and socially in Anatolia.

  7. Trouble in Anatolia

    Nick R Anthonisen


    Full Text Available In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Gulmez et al (pages 287-290 review the presentation, management and outcome of malignant mesothelioma in central Anatolia, Turkey. There is nothing particularly new about the disease here; it presents with chest pain, dyspnea and pleural effusion, is diagnosed by biopsy and has a miserable outcome whatever is done for it, just like malignant mesothelioma in Canada. Mesothelioma in Anatolia is unusual in that it is very common, with an approximately equal sex distribution, and frequently occurs in relatively young people. The reasons for this are not a mystery. Anatolia is a volcanic area; there is a lot of asbestos on or near the surface, and it is widely used as construction material, in painting, and as insulation (pages 287-290! Asbestos related disease is due to environmental, not occupational exposure, and exposure is more intense and occurs at an earlier age than in Canada. Not only that, but some areas of Anatolia are rich in erionite, and people build homes in and on erionite-bearing rocks. Erionite is apparently something like asbestos but worse in terms of carcinogenicity (1, perhaps because its crystals have large surface areas, and areas with erionite have an even higher incidence of mesothelioma.

  8. Effects of legumes, fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    Nitrogen (N) and water are the main limiting factors for good wheat production in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. A traditional wheat-fallow cropping system is used by the majority of the farmers in the region. Inserting legumes in the rotation would, however, improve the soil fertility primarily through symbiotic N2-fixation. The main objectives of the present study were: a) to determine the N2-fixation capacity of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of the 15N technique; b) to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume; c) to assess the water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed conditions by using 15N and neutron probe techniques. In order to achieve these goals field experiments were conducted in two years (1992 and 1993) at three different locations, Ankara, Eskishir and Konya. In 1992, for each experimental layout there were 7 treatments at each site consisting of 4 legume plots, 2 wheat plots and 1 fallow plot. Only the legume plots received labelled (15NH4)2SO4 fertilizer for their isotope sub-plots. In 1993, winter wheat (Gerek-79) was sown to all plots and the 15N labelled fertilizer was applied on the opposite sites of the 1992 experimental plots. These results make us to suggest a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Meanwhile, the evaluation of the soil moisture balance at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicates that the winter lentil-wheat rotation should be preferred in these areas, due to more efficient use of water by the wheat crop after this rotation. 15 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  10. Origin of postcollisional intrusions in NW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for magma chamber processes

    Aysal, Namık


    Post-collisional magmatic activities of NW Anatolia are represented by a series of granitic intrusions and volcanic successions in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. These plutonic rocks have distinct textures, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics. They consist of coarse grained, equigranular and/or hypidiomorphic textured granite, gronodiorite, monzogranite, quartz-monzonite, pyroxene-monzonite and leucocratic alkali feldspar granites. These intrusions are composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. However, leucocratic facies rocks contain tourmaline with minor amount of mafic minerals. Accessory phases are represented by zircon, apatite, monozite, magnetite, sphene and rarely allanite. ASI values of the plutonic rocks vary between 0.7 and 1.24. These intrusive rocks are therefore classified as metaluminous-peraluminous with I-type affinity. K2O contents show that the intrusive rock samples show calc-alkaline, high K-calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. Initial 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.69980-0.70835), 143Nd/144Nd(t) (0.51238-0.51247) isotope ratios and negative ɛNd(t) (-4.4 - -2.6) values imply that these intrusive rocks could have been derived from enriched mantle sources. N-MORB normalized spidergrams of NW Anatolian plutonic rocks display enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) indicating hydrous melting of a mantle wedge in a subduction zone and/or enrichment of the mantle source with an inherited subduction component from an ancient arc magmatism. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element spidergrams are indicative of the importance of plagioclase and amphibole fractionation. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, all granite samples fall into the volcanic arc granite, syn and post-collisional granite fields. The geochemical data also indicate that a number of magma chamber processes involving magma mixing, fractional

  11. Mineral and whole-rock geochemistry of the Topuk Granitoid (Bursa, Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim


    by the interaction of post-collisional, calc-alkaline, metaluminous and I-type coeval felsic and mafic magmas at shallow depths under similar physicochemical conditions. Keywords: Turkey, Western Anatolia, Topuk Granitoid, geochemistry. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK; YDABAG-111Y289).

  12. [A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].

    Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek Şentürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; Kıcıman, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder


    In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five

  13. High-K, calc-alkaline I-type granitoids from the composite Yozgat batholith generated in a post-collisional setting following continent-oceanic island arc collision in central Anatolia, Turkey

    Boztuğ, D.; Arehart, G. B.; Platevoet, B.; Harlavan, Y.; Bonin, B.


    The composite Yozgat batholith consists of a S-I-A-type granitoid association intruding the supra-subduction zone-type (SSZ-type) central Anatolian ophiolite and medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the central Anatolian crystalline complex. These rocks are unconformably covered by Palaeocene to Early Eocene sedimentary rocks. The I-type granitoids are the most common rock association of this huge batholith. In an area between the towns of Şefaatli and Yerköy, the southwestern part of the batholith can be subdivided into five mappable units: the Akçakoyunlu quartz monzodiorite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling ages of 77.6-79.3 Ma); the Cankılı monzodiorite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling age of 71.1 Ma); the Adatepe quartz monzonite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling age of 68.0 Ma); the Yassıağıl monzogranite (felsic; hornblende + biotite K-Ar cooling ages of 69.9-79.8 Ma) and the Karakaya monzogranite (felsic; hornblende + biotite K-Ar cooling ages of 71.3-77.0 Ma). All the lithological units, except the Karakaya monzogranite, include large K-feldspar megacrysts and various types of mafic microgranular enclaves in field outcrops, indicating mingling and mixing. In addition, microscopic textures showing the hybridization between the coeval mafic and felsic magma sources are present. Whole-rock major element geochemistry shows a high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type composition with an aluminium saturation index (ASI) less than 1.10 and with CIPW diopside content in all the lithological units. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE), some high field strength elements (HFSE) (except Nb) enrichments and significant crustal contribution revealed by the oxygen and sulphur stable isotope compositions in the mafic and felsic I-type granitoid units are consistent with mafic lower crustal and metasomatized mantle sources the latter of which were metasomatized by earlier supra subduction zone (SSZ)-derived fluids during the

  14. Karyotypes of Nannospalax (Palmer 1903) populations (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from centraleastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Yüksel Coskun; Servet Ulutürk; Alaettin Kaya


    Cariotipi di Nannospalax (Palmer 1903) (Rodentia, Spalacidae) dell’Anatolia centro-orientale, Turchia
    Sono stati analizzati i cariotipi di 20 (11 maschi e 9 femmine) Nannospalax catturati, nel periodo 2006-2009, in 11 località dell’Anatolia centro-orientale (Turchia). Sono state individuate sei diverse forme cromosomiche (2n=49; 2...

  15. Studies on fungal diseases of protected vegetable areas in central Anatolia region.

    Ozan, S.; Aşkın, A.


    Fungi are important pest groups causing important economic losses in protected vegetable areas. There are important lacks in both growing technique and greenhouse conditions in central Anatolia provinces. Vegetables grown in greenhouses are affected by the fungal pathogens that cause economic losses. Ror that, a study has been performed in 2003-2004 in Ankara, Çankırı, Zonguldak and Bartın provinces to detect the fungal pathogens and their prevelance in seedling, flower and fruit stage...

  16. [Evaluation of the oropharyngeal tularemia cases admitted to our hospital from the provinces of Central Anatolia].

    Uyar, Melek; Cengiz, Buğra; Unlü, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk; Eryılmaz, Adil


    Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic infection which has re-emerged in Turkey in recent years as water-borne endemics. Oropharyngeal form is the most frequently reported form of the disease from Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of oropharyngeal tularemia patients admitted to ear, nose & throat outpatient clinic between January-March 2010. A total of 10 patients (age range: 16-80 years, mean age: 43.9 years; nine were male) inhabiting in the provinces in Central Anatolia, Turkey, were admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, sore throat and painful cervical lump. They have been previously diagnosed as tonsillo-pharyngitis at different medical centers and empirical antibiotic therapy has initiated, however, their complaints have not recovered. Endoscopic laryngoscopic examination revealed that oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx were normal. Physical examination of the neck yielded localized fixed masses with diameters between 2-7 cm. The lesions were localized at right submandibular (n= 4), upper jugular (n=3) and one of each at left posterior cervical, left submandibular and left jugulodigastric regions. The patients were hospitalized with the pre-diagnosis of "neck mass with unknown origin" for further investigation and treatment. The mean white blood cell count of the cases was 9730 (7500-15.100) cells/µl; the mean erythrocyte sedimantation rate was 68.7 (46-85) mm3/hours and the mean C-reactive protein level was 4.3 (1.5-7.4) µg/dl. Salmonella, Brucella, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus and viral hepatitis serology did not indicate acute infections. Serum and tissue samples were sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency in order to test for tularemia, namely culture, microagglutination test (MAT), direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All of the patients

  17. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Kadioğlu, M.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.


    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble.

  18. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble

  19. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf;


    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  20. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit


    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes toget...... together with other serpentine plants of the Western Taurus and is rather local in distribution....

  1. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit


    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of the thermal waters from the Yenice Geothermal Field (Denizli Basin, Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat


    The chemical and isotopic properties of thermal waters (Kamara and Çizmeli) and cold springs from the Yenice Geothermal Field (YGF), in southwestern Anatolia, Turkey are investigated in order to establish a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model. These thermal waters derive from Menderes metamorphic rocks and emerge along normal faults; they are commonly used for heating of greenhouses and bathing facilities. Discharge temperatures of thermal waters are 32 °C to 57 °C (mean 51 °C) for Kamara and 35 °C to 68 °C (mean 47 °C) for Çizmeli, whereas deep groundwaters are 15 °C to 20.1 °C (mean 17 °C) and shallow groundwaters are 12 to 16 °C (mean 15 °C). Kamara and Çizmeli thermal waters are mostly of Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 type, whereas deep groundwaters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Ca-HCO3 types and shallow groundwaters are mainly Mg-Ca-SO4-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 types. In the reservoir of the geothermal system, dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions changes thermal water types. High correlation in some ionic ratios (e.g. Na vs. Cl, K vs. Cl, HCO3 vs. Cl) and high concentrations of some minor elements (e.g., As, Sr, B, Cl, F) in thermal waters likely derive from enhanced water-rock interaction. Water samples from YGF have not reached complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result mixing with groundwater during upward flow. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated as 89-102 °C for Kamara and 87-102 °C for Çizmeli fields, based on the retrograde and prograde solubilities of anhydrite and chalcedony. Based on the isotope and chemical data, a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model of the YGF has been constructed. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios (Kamara: mean of - 8.43‰ and - 56.9‰, respectively and Çizmeli: mean of - 7.96‰ and - 53.7‰, respectively) and low tritium values (< 1 TU) reflect a deep circulation pathway and a meteoric origin. Subsequent heating by conduction in the high geothermal gradient


    TABAN, SÜleyman; Alpaslan, Mehmet; HASHEMI, Aioub G.; EKEN, Dürdane


    The aim of this study was to determine the fertility status of the rice grown soils of Central Anatolia region. For this purpose, 40 soil samples were taken and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In general, the experimental soils were clay and loamy clay in texture, medium alkaline in reaction (pH) and moderately calcareous. 60, 25, 30 and 95 % of the soils studied were found to be deficient in total-N, plant available phosphorus, zinc and manganese, respectively. On the ot...

  4. G- and C-Banded Karyotype of Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Central Anatolia

    ARSLAN, Atilla; AKAN, Şükrüye


    The present study reports the banding patterns (G- and C-banding) of chromosomes of Cricetulus migratorius from Central Anatolia. Karyotype of C. migratorius comprised (2n) 22 chromosomes. The number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 44 and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 40. Subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes were very similar in size, but they differed on G- and C-banding patterns. Most autosomes in this species were C-negative. Pair no. 4 had very small centromeric C-bands, autosome no. ...

  5. Prevalence of Malocclusion Among Adolescents In Central Anatolia

    Gelgör, İbrahim Erhan; KARAMAN, Ali İhya; Ercan, Ertuḡrul


    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of malocclusion in a population of Central Anatolian adolescents in relation to gender. Methods The sample comprised 2329 teenagers (1125 boys and 1204 girls), aged between 12 and 17 years (mean age: 14.6 yrs). Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed using the Angle classification. Other variables examined were overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. Results The re...

  6. Late Holocene erosion in NW Anatolia from sediments of Lake Manyas, Lake Ulubat and the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Kazancı, N; Leroy, SAG; Ileri, O; Emre, O; Kibar, M; Oncel, S


    This paper deals with modern and ancient sedimentation in fresh water lakes and the marine shelf of the southern Marmara region, NW Anatolia, Turkey. Most of the information has been obtained from monitoring of suspended load discharged into two lakes (Manyas and Ulubat) in the last 45 years and from 8-11 m thick lacustrine sediments, in addition to radiocarbon-dated shelf sediments. This allows a holistic approach to the drainage basin denudation over time. The results show that the sediment...

  7. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou


    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  8. Analysis of SKS Phase Regarding Dynamic Structure Beneath Turkey

    Shear wave splitting parameters were determined by using tele seismic data that recorded by most of all broadband stations in Turkey. Nearly all stations in central and eastern Anatolia have a NE-SW fast direction and delay times indicate that the anisotropic fabric may be relatively uniform throughout the upper mantle beneath the Anatolia block. Also, the results in the western Anatolia showed that the fast polarization direction is parallel to extension direction of the region

  9. A radiological survey of the Egrigoz granitoid, Western Anatolia/Turkey

    A radiological survey of the granitoid areas throughout Western Anatolia was conducted during 2007-14. As a part of this radiological survey, this article presents results obtained from Egrigoz pluton, which lies in the northeastern region of Western Anatolia. In the investigated area, the activity measurements of the natural gamma-emitting radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in the granitic rock samples and soils have been carried out by means of the NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. The activity concentrations of the relevant natural radionuclides in the granite samples appeared in the ranges as follows: 226Ra, 28-95 Bq kg-1; 232Th, 50-122 Bq kg-1 and 40K, 782-1365 Bq kg-1, while the typical ranges of the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities in the soil samples were found to be 7 -184, 11-174 and 149-1622 Bq kg-1, respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed rocks/soils are calculated. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all those radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h-1 and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noted in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the data are also used for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides and the corresponding gamma dose rates of the surveyed area. (authors)

  10. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain


    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  11. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I


    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia. PMID:27432406

  12. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza


    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  13. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Özgün Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet İlker; Kuscu, Ferit


    ABSTRACT Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube ...

  14. Studies on the Dung-inhabiting Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera Community of Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Sinan Anlaş


    Full Text Available In Bozdağlar Mountain of western Turkey, the diversity and composition of the dung-inhabiting beetles in two locations situated in different altitudes (600 m and 900 m in 2004 and 2006 assemblages were sampled. A total of 5.709 individuals from 88 species belonging to the families Scarabaeidae, Aphodiidae, Geotrupidae, Carabidae, Hydrophilidae, Histeridae and Ptilidae of the order Coleoptera are recorded.

  15. Problem Identification and Priority Setting in Agricultural Research: The Case of The Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia

    UZUNLU, Vedat


    Since the resources available to research institutes are scarce, and experimentation is the most costly phase of a research program, researchers must make sure that the possible solutions to identified problems have a high chance of success. Consequently, problems should be carefully prioritized for experimentation. Factors limiting increased productivity in crop production in the Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia (EMCA) along with agro-ecological factors, apart from political concern, are a...

  16. Preliminary results on a promising long paleoclimatic archive for the Near East: the lacustrine sequence of Acigöl (Anatolia, Turkey).

    Demory, François; Perrin, Mireille; Cihat Alçiçek, Mehmet; Lebatard, Anne-Elizabeth; Nomade, Sébastien; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Djamali, Morteza; Rochette, Pierre; Helvaci, Cahit


    A 601 m long core was drilled in Lake Acigöl located in an extensional basin in SW Anatolia (Turkey). The alternation of carbonates relatively rich in evaporites, siliciclastic particles and fossils (ostracods, gastropods and bivalves) gives to the sequence a high potential for palaeoclimatic record. The Acigöl sequence is younger than 3.4 Ma, the oldest age determination recorded for lacustrine successions elsewhere in SW Anatolia (van den Hoek Ostende, 2015). The first paleomagnetic investigations show numerous reverse polarities implying that two third of the sequence is older than 0.78 Ma (Brunhes/Matuyama transition) with a base dating back to 1.7 Ma or more. Indeed, although Jaramillo subchron (from 0.9 to 1.06 Ma) is well recorded, uncertainty remains for the Odulvaï subchron (from 1.78 to 2 Ma) which is not yet robustly identified. The age model will be soon completed by radiometric dating of a tephra found in the sequence and by authigenic 10Be/9Be dating. Detrital proxies (such as magnetic susceptibility) versus biological proxies will allow discrimination between tectonic and climatic signals and may reveal the response of terrestrial ecosystems to the mid-Pleistocene climatic transition. This research is supported by a two-year bilateral cooperation between CNRS-INSU and TUBITAK (grant number 114Y723). Reference: van den Hoek Ostende L.W. Gardner J.D. van Bennekom L. Alçiçek M.C. Murray A.M. Wesselingh F.P. Alçiçek H. Tesakov A.S. 2015. Ericek, a new Pliocene vertebrate locality from the Çameli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 95, 305-320

  17. Neogene-Quaternary evolution of the Tefenni basin on the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, SW Anatolia-Turkey

    Aksoy, Rahmi; Aksarı, Süleyman


    The Fethiye-Burdur fault zone (FBFZ) is a complex belt of major break in the southwestern Anatolia. A number of basins occur within the FBFZ. The Tefenni basin is one of the NE-SW trending basins located in the central part of the FBFZ. The basin is 10-20 km wide and 60 km long. It contains two infills of fluvial, lacustrine and alluvial fan deposits from late Miocene to Recent. The older and folded infill rests on the pre-middle Miocene basement rocks with an angular unconformity and consists of fluvial and lacustrine sediments. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor sediments. The Tefenni basin is controlled by a series of NE-SW trending left lateral oblique-slip normal faults along its margins. The Tefenni and Mürseller faults bound the northwestern margin of the basin and the Kemer fault bounds the southeastern margin of the basin. The basin is also cut by NE-SW striking major and NW-SE, N-S and E-W striking small scale normal faults. Structural analyses in the basin show that NE-SW-trending contraction stress regime ended by Pliocene and was followed by NE-SW-trending extension from Pliocene onward.

  18. Studies on Variability of Lentil Genotypes in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

    B. Tuba BICER


    Full Text Available Sixty-four lentil genotypes from ICARDA were evaluated at Diyarbakir, Turkey in 2003/2004 season. Eleven characters were studied. Days to maturity ranged from 188 to 196 days, and some genotypes were earlier than the local check, or same. Total 42 genotypes, suitable for mechanical harvest, were taller than 25 cm plant height. Seed yield per plant varied from 0.5 g to 2.366 g. The genotypes for cold tolerance were determined, and the genotypes of 1-3 scale were selected future lentil-breeding programme. Grain yield ranged from 776.8 kg/ha for FLIP 96-47L to 3242.3 kg/ha for FLIP 2004-49L. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, biological yield per plant, and plant height, number of seeds and pods per plant and seed yield per plant, negatively correlated with days to flowering and number of branches per plant.

  19. Investigating viscoelastic postseismic deformation due to large earthquakes in East Anatolia, Turkey

    Sunbul, Fatih; Nalbant, Suleyman S.; Simão, Nuno M.; Steacy, Sandy


    We investigate the postseismic viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and upper mantle due to the 19th and 20th century large earthquakes in eastern Turkey. Three possible rheological models are used in the viscoelastic postseismic deformation analysis to assess the extent to which these events influence the velocity fields at GPS sites in the region. Our models show that the postseismic signal currently contributes to the observed deformation in the eastern part of the North Anatolian fault and northern and middle parts of the East Anatolian Fault Zone, primarily due to the long-lasting effect of the Ms 7.9 1939 earthquake. None of the postseismic displacement generated by the Ms 7.5 1822 earthquake, which is the earliest and the second largest event in the calculations, exceeds observed error range at the GPS stations. Our results demonstrate that a postseismic signal can be identified in the region and could contribute up to 3-25% of the observed GPS measurements.

  20. The Tethyan Upper Cretaceous in northwestern Turkey - an integrated study of pelagic sections in northwestern Anatolia and the southern Black Sea coast

    Wolfgring, Erik; Böhm, Katharina; Ömer Yilmaz, Ismael; Tüysüz, Okan; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Wagreich, Michael


    Upper Cretaceous sections in northwestern Turkey record pelagic depositional environments that are characterised by frequent volcanic events. The aim of the ongoing project is to cover a continuous cyclostratigraphic record of the Tethyan Campanian and to date palaeoenvironmental changes and volcanic events. Cyclic successions of pelagic deposits depicting shales and marl-marly limestone alternations with inter bedded tuff and turbidite layers were logged. Deposits alongside the southern Black Sea coast (in the western Pontide orogen) and in northwestern Anatolia (Göynük and Nallihan area) were examined for geochemistry and mineralogy of tuff beds, as well as for biostratigraphy and palaeoecology. Three formations of Turonian to Campanian age in the western Pontide area are present; Dereköy, Unaz and Cambu Formation are reflecting different geodynamic phases, i.e. subduction of the Neotethys as well formation of the Western Black Sea basin, overlain by the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Akveren Formation. Planktonic foraminiferal data suggest an age of upper Turonian Marginotruncana sigali -Dicarinella primitiva to lower Campanian Globotruncanita elevata Zone bracketing the first major phase of volcanism (Dereköy Fm.). The second volcanic unit (Cambu Fm.) is of early Campanian age, when spreading in the western Black Sea basin started. Geochemistry of tuff layers confirms magmatic activity of the Pontide volcanic arc from Turonian to Campanian. Discrimination diagrams using immobile elements classify calc-alkaline magma series and balsaltic-andesite and basalt rock types. Northwestern Anatolian sections are located in the Central Sakyrya region's Mudurnu-Göynük basin. Upper Cretaceous deposits of Turonian to Campanian age are recorded in pelagic limestones of the Yenipazar Formation. The cyclic pelagic Göynük section covers the Santonian-Campanian boundary, followed by a lower Campanian volcano-clastic unit and overlying turbidites and pelagic shales of late

  1. Overwinter survival of wild turkeys on central Virginia's industrial forests

    Morgan, John T.


    Overwinter survival of wild turkeys on industrial forests managed for short-rotation pines (treatment) and typical Piedmont forests and farmland (control), was investigated in Virginia's central Piedmont during 1986-1988. Ninety-six percent of the turkeys (N =106) were captured in early fall with alpha-chloralose laced bait. Sixty-three percent of the captured turkeys recovered and were released with transmitters; 15% were released without transmitters; and 21% died from capture r...

  2. Effects legumes, Fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    In order to determine the Nsub2-fixation capacities of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of N15 technique, and to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume as well as water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed Central Anatolia conditions field experiments were conducted in 1992 and 1993 at three different provinces using completely randomized block design with 5 replications. Results we obtained showed that %Ndff values among legumesdid not differ significantly neither within or between locations. Legumesvaried significantly (P<0.05) in their %Ndfa values at each location and highest values of %Ndfa were obtained at Eskisehir. In general, %Ndfa varied from59-84, and 36-85 for chickpea,lentils and vetchs. The evaluation of the yield and N data obtained in 1993 indicated that lentil (winter or summer) -wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir conditions and chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya conditions should be prefered, due to the higher seed and total yields, higher N yields and higher %NUE values obtained from these rotations in comparison to the others. In order to estimate the carry-over of nitrogen from legumes to the succeeding wheat crop, % nitrogen derived from unknown (%Ndfu) were also calculated. Highest amount of carry-over from the legumesto the succeeding wheat were 31.1 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Ankara; 16.9 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Eskisehir; and 8.0 kgN/ha from chickpea at Konya. These results obtined showed that a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Mean while, the evaluation of the soil and WUE data at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicated that winter lentil-wheat rotation should be prefered in these areas due to more efficient use of water by wheat crop after this rotation system

  3. Climate change and forestry in Turkey: impacts and adaptation measures

    Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Tüfekçioğlu, Mustafa


    Turkey has various climate types in different regions. A Mediterranean climate prevails in Turkey’s Mediterranean and Western Anatolian regions, a temperate climate with high precipitation in every season along the Black Sea coast, a continental climate in the inland regions and a semi-arid climate in Central and South-eastern Anatolia. Most precipitation occurs in the winter months. Total annual rainfall is least in the low-lying areas of eastern Anatolia (220mm), and highest along the easte...

  4. O, Sr and Nd isotopic constraints on Cenozoic granitoids of Northwestern Anatolia, Turkey: Enrichment by subduction zone fluids

    Yücel-Öztürk, Yeşim


    The oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of Cenozoic granitoids cropping out in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone help constrain the petrological evolution of magmatism in northwest Anatolia. The magmatism was mostly widespread between late Eocene (∼37 Ma) and the middle Miocene (∼14-15 Ma), and is represented by volcanic and plutonic rocks of orogenic affinity, of which Ezine, Eğrigöz, Çataldağ and Kozak are the largest Tertiary granitic plutons exposed in northwest Anatolia. They vary from granite to granodiorite, and are subalkaline, belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline I-type granite series. All these characteristics, combined with major, trace element geochemical data as well as mineralogical and textural evidence, reveal that the Oligocene-Miocene granitoids of NW Anatolia are comparable with volcanic arc granites, formed in a transitional oceanic to continental collisional tectonic setting, from a hybrid source, having crustal and mantle components that underwent further interaction with the upper crust. These plutons have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7072-0.7094, and εNd(t) values ranging from -3.48 to -1.20. These characteristics also indicate that a crustal component played an important role in the petrogenesis of NW Anatolian Oligocene-Miocene granitoids. The moderately evolved Ezine, Eğrigöz, Çataldağ and Kozak granitoids, have δ18O values that are consistent with those of normal I-type granites (6-10‰), but the δ18O relationships among minerals of samples collected from the intrusive contacts which are closest to mineralized zones, indicate a major influence of hydrothermal processes under subsolidus conditions. The oxygen isotope systematics of the samples from these plutons result from the activity of high-δ18O fluids (magmatic water), with major involvement of low-δ18O fluids (meteoric water) evident, near the edge zone of these plutons. This is most evident in δ18O quartz-feldspar pairs from these granitoids, which

  5. Internal P-T-t Structure of Subduction Complexes — Insights from Lu-Hf Geochronology on Garnet and Lawsonite (Halilbağı, Central Anatolia)

    Pourteau, A.; Scherer, E. E.; Schmidt, A.; Bast, R.


    The subduction complex near Halilbağı (Central Anatolia) is among the best sites to investigate deep-seated tectonic, petrologic, and geochemical processes taking place in subduction zones. The Halilbağı Unit comprises slices of lawsonite- and/or epidote-bearing blueschist and eclogite, as well as meta-chert and marble. The unit is overlain by an ophiolitic slab and underlain by a HP/LT metamorphosed carbonate platform. Previous studies of the Halilbağı Unit suggested tectonic blocks were metamorphosed under diverse peak conditions, but shared a common exhumation P-T path marked by syn-decompression cooling (Davis and Whitney, 2006; Çetinkaplan et al., 2008). To better understand the internal structure and dynamics of this subduction complex, we carried out Lu-Hf geochronology on garnet (grt) and lawsonite (lws) from a variety of HP oceanic rocks, as well as the sub-ophiolitic metamorphic sole. Our results suggest that intra-oceanic subduction started at ~110 Ma (grt-amph isochron from a grt amphibolite). Less than 23 Myr later, the subduction interface was refrigerated enough to allow clockwise P-T loops (~87 Ma peak grt-matrix isochron for a lws+grt-bearing eclogitic blueschist) and syn-decompression cooling (~79 Ma retrograde lws-matrix isochron) of subducted oceanic rocks. We will present further results for several HP metamorphic sub-facies (e.g., epidote (ep) eclogite, lws+ep blueschist, lws blueschist, lws eclogite). Such data may allow unraveling whether the co-occurrence of "warm" (i.e., ep-bearing), and "cold" (i.e., lws-bearing) HP rocks in the same locality results from (a) sampling of distinct levels of the subduction slab, (b) thermal maturation of the juvenile subduction zone, or (c) inaccurate P-T estimates. Novel natural constraints are thus expected on the dynamics of the Halilbağı Unit and of subduction complexes in general. Çetinkaplan M., Candan O., Oberhänsli R. and Bousquet R., 2008. Pressure-Temperature Evolution of Lawsonite

  6. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Kadioğlu, S.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Akyol, A. A.


    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  7. Data on the reproduction of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Serpentes: Viperidae from Hopa (Northeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Bayram Göçmen


    Full Text Available In the current study we report an observation of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi from Hopa (Artvin, Turkey giving birth. During our field studies, we captured a female Vipera kaznakovi on July 21, 2012 from Esenkıyı village, Hopa (Artvin, Turkey, it was brought to the laboratory and kept in a terrarium for a period until May 28, 2013. The female (SVL= 483 mm, total length, TL = 541 mm gave birth to eight young (mean SVL= 146 mm, mean TL= 161.4 mm, range= 155 – 172 mm; mean weight, W= 3.11 g, range= 2.6 – 3.4 g on August 11, 2012. In six and a half months, the juvenile snakes had reached 163 mm SVL, 187 mm TL and 5.1g W and increased their size by approximately 15%.

  8. Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Kırşehir Block and the Central Anatolian Ophiolites, Turkey

    Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Plunder, Alexis; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Ganerød, Morgan; Hendriks, Bart W. H.; Corfu, Fernando; Gürer, Derya; Gelder, Giovanni I. N. O.; Peters, Kalijn; McPhee, Peter J.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Advokaat, Eldert L.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.


    In Central and Western Anatolia two continent-derived massifs simultaneously underthrusted an oceanic lithosphere in the Cretaceous and ended up with very contrasting metamorphic grades: high pressure, low temperature in the Tavşanlı zone and the low pressure, high temperature in the Kırşehir Block. To assess why, we reconstruct the Cretaceous paleogeography and plate configuration of Central Anatolia using structural, metamorphic, and geochronological constraints and Africa-Europe plate reconstructions. We review and provide new 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages from Central Anatolian metamorphic and magmatic rocks and ophiolites and show new paleomagnetic data on the paleo-ridge orientation in a Central Anatolian Ophiolite. Intraoceanic subduction that formed within the Neotethys around 100-90 Ma along connected N-S and E-W striking segments was followed by overriding oceanic plate extension. Already during suprasubduction zone ocean spreading, continental subduction started. We show that the complex geology of central and southern Turkey can at first order be explained by a foreland-propagating thrusting of upper crustal nappes derived from a downgoing, dominantly continental lithosphere: the Kırşehir Block and Tavşanlı zone accreted around 85 Ma, the Afyon zone around 65 Ma, and Taurides accretion continued until after the middle Eocene. We find no argument for Late Cretaceous subduction initiation within a conceptual "Inner Tauride Ocean" between the Kırşehir Block and the Afyon zone as widely inferred. We propose that the major contrast in metamorphic grade between the Kırşehir Block and the Tavşanlı zone primarily results from a major contrast in subduction obliquity and the associated burial rates, higher temperature being reached upon higher subduction obliquity.

  9. Determination of the Feeding Values of Feedstuffs and Mixed Feeds Used in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey

    BARAN, Murat Sedat; DEMİREL, Ramazan; DEMİREL, Dilek ŞENTÜRK


    It is very important to know the feeding value and metabolizable energy content of feedstuffs for balancing animal diets. Feeding value and energy content of animal feeds change according to maturity stage, soil conditions, fertilization, climate, processing methods, etc. There are no adequate tables that show the basic feeding values of feedstuffs grown in different regions of Turkey; therefore, the present study analyzed 8 different feedstuffs and 56 dairy and beef cattle mixed feeds to det...

  10. Tectonic Geomorphology and 36Cl geochronology of the Camardi Alluvial Fan Complex, Central Anatolia: Implications for Neotectonic activity of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ)

    Higgins, M.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Gosse, J. C.


    Situated between an extensional province to the west and younger, compressional forces to the east, the significance of internal deformation within Central Anatolia, and particularly the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, remains poorly understood. The CAFZ, which records approximately 70+/- 10km of Cenozoic sinistral displacement, was initially described as an active, NE trending, 700km long, major intra-plate shear zone. However, the Cenozoic evolution of the CAFZ and its relevance to the modern tectonic setting of Anatolia are the subject of debate, and the kinematics, geometry and activity levels of the CAFZ remain both poorly documented and understood. The aim of this study is to constrain the extrusion related, neotectonic portion of this total displacement using methods unavailable to previous studies of the area: Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) geochronology and newly acquired high-resolution satellite imagery. Focusing on a tectonically offset alluvial fan complex, we apply In situ TCN 36Cl exposure dating to produce new geochronologically constrained quaternary slip rates for the southern, Ecemis Segment of the CAFZ. A combination of field observations, high precision GPS based fault scarp profiles and mapping on high-resolution satellite images are used to document offset geomorphic markers including: deflected streams, terrace edges and shutter ridges. These features show sinistral and normal displacement of 60 and 18 m respectively in the older alluvial surface. Determining the ages of this faulted surface, as well as a younger un-deformed alluvial surface using TCN, will yield a minimum quaternary slip-rate. Additionally, morphological characteristics of 25 drainage basins along the Ecemis Fault are determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM)data. Key geomorphic indices include: hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and the valley width-to-height ratio (Vf). The results suggest the morphology of these drainage basins is influenced by the recent

  11. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan


    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource. PMID:27007291

  12. An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey

    O. Yapkic


    Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV and no positive result was detected.

  13. Soil formation on a calcic chronosequence of Ancient Lake Konya in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Ozaytekin, Hasan Huseyin; Mutlu, Hasan Huseyin; Dedeoglu, Mert


    With the passage of time, different soils show a wide range of variation in their formation. The passage of time in soil formation affects both soil features and the rates of weathering. The aim of this research is to study and compare the pedogenic evolution of soils developed on the terraces of Ancient Lake Konya using weathering indices such as Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), and Eu and Ce anomalies. The study will also take into account other features, such as the physical and chemical properties, the analytical characteristics and how soil formation is determined according to the passage of time. For this purpose, four representative profiles were dug at different levels. After the macro-morphological identifications were completed in all the profiles, the samples were then collected from the horizons and were analysed for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and geochemical properties. Although the soils in the study field were formed in different terrace levels, no significant relationship between the age of the soil and the soil properties was found. The lone exception was the clay movement in profile 1, which resulted from the limitation in profile development caused by erosion. Moreover, this erosion was the result of an increasing slope from the low terrace to the high coastal terraces. Similar physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined in the profiles. Using geochemical characteristics, the determined weathering indexes and their anomalies showed a very limited variation between the profiles, which suggests that though they differ in terms of age, the profiles have similar weathering levels. The climatological factors continuing along the Holocene were not efficient enough to change the effect of the other soil formation factors in the last period of the Quaternary. Therefore, it was concluded that the main factors determining soil formation are climate and topography, both of which determine the leaching regime and the weathering rates.

  14. Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia, Turkey

    Mehmet Şener; Mustafa Korkanç; M Furkan Şener; Selma Yaşar Korkanç; F Zafer Özgür


    Toxic gases evolving from the soil in urbanized peatland regions constitute a serious hazard since buildings may be subject to the direct ingress of volatiles into the structures. Peat formed in swamp and rarely exposed to subaerial conditions has been associated with the development of the folded foreland of the Quaternary Kayseri pull-apart basin. The peat deposit is extensively urbanized but so far no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. In this paper, the geology, petrography and chemical variation of the Kayseri peat deposit have been studied in order to predict the public health risk from the land gases’ behaviour, especially in soil gases. The main volatile species detected are methane (CH4), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), all of which are highly toxic. The primary means of gas entry is directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and especially subsurface telephone cable pipes. Indoor vents emit 1000–70,000 ppm CH4, 330–49,000 ppm CO2 and 3.8–6.5 ppm H2S in soil and subsurface pipes; concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vents.

  15. Occupational exposures to ionising radiation in the region of Anatolia, Turkey for the period 1995-1999

    For this study, the individual annual dose information on classified workers who are occupationally exposed to extended radiation sources in Turkey, was assessed and analysed by the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Centre dosimetry service at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority for the years 1995-1999. The radiation workers monitored are divided into three main work sectors: conventional industry (8.24%), medicine (90.20%) and research-education (1.56%). The average annual dose for all workers in each particular sector was 0.14, 0.38 and 0.08 mSv, respectively, in 1995-1999. This paper contains the detailed analysis of occupational exposure. The statistical analysis provided includes the mean annual dose, the collective dose, the distributions of the dose over the different sectors and the number of workers who have exceeded any of the established dose levels. (authors)

  16. Boron content of Lake Ulubat sediment: A key to interpret the morphological history of NW Anatolia, Turkey

    Freshwater Lake Ulubat (c. 1.5 m deep and c. 138 km2) receives sediment from a 10.414 km2 area in the seismically active Susurluk Drainage Basin (SDB) of NW Turkey. The B and trace element contents of the lake infill seem to be a link between the fresh landforms of the SDB and the lacustrine sediment. Deposition in Lake Ulubat has been 1.60 cm a-1 for the last 50 a according to radionuclides; however the sedimentation rate over the last millennium was 0.37 cm a-1 based on 14C dating. The B content of the lacustrine infill displays a slight increase at 0.50 m and a drastic increase at 4 m depth occurring c. 31 a and c. 1070 a ago, respectively. Probably the topmost change corresponds to the start of open mining in the SDB and the second one to the natural trenching of borate ore-deposits. These dates also show indirectly a 1.4 cm a-1 erosion rate during the last millennium as the borate beds were trenched up to 15 m. By extrapolation, it is possible to establish that the formation of some of the present morphological features of the southern Marmara region, especially river incision, began in the late Pleistocene, and developed especially over the last 75 ka

  17. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis among Volunteers Animal Husbandry Workers and Veterinary in Southern Anatolia in Turkey in 2014

    Hamdi SOZEN


    Full Text Available Background:Human toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Toxocaracanis. We examine the Toxocara seroprevalance in veterinarians and animal husbandry workers living in the Mugla Province, Turkey to evaluate better the risk factors for Toxocara exposure.Methods: In 2014, 376 volunteers participated in the study in 2014. All blood specimens were tested using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit and ELISA positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB method.Results: The seroprevalence of Toxocara, as determined by WB, was 8%. A statistically significant correlation was evident between patient age and Toxo­cara positivity among animal husbandry workers (P = 0.029. A strong associa­tion was also evident between sex and seropositivity in the animal husbandry group (P=0.024. Veterinarians working in pet clinics did in fact exhibit higher Toxocara seropositivities relative to those of other groups (P = 0.029. A statisti­cally significant difference was detected between the rural geographic areas surveyed (P = 0.04.Conclusion: In Mugla Province, seroprevalence of Toxocara is lower than other regions. Despite the low seroprevalence observed, especially in high risk professions toxocariasis remains an important medical concern within the region. 

  18. The Role of Cultural Context in Continuing Vocational Training: A Study on Auto Repairmen in Turkey

    Akbas, Oktay


    This study analysed how auto repairmen working in micro-enterprises undertake continuing vocational training in relation to cultural context. The study was conducted in Kirikkale, a city in central Anatolia in Turkey. To this end, the descriptive research technique of structured interview was used. Interviews with 33 auto repairmen were recorded…


    BULUT, Metin


    There are also geothermal areas of low and medium enthalpy besides the high-temperature geothermal fields in the Western Anatolia. These areas are important for thermal tourism and agricultural applications. According to the surface temperature at by the lowtemperature action for known fluid high temperature fluid can be provided. They are the purpose of the study. The study area between the towns of Mendere and Seferihisar. These districts are located south-southwest of Izmir. İnvestigate th...

  20. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar;


    . cryptarum, also from east Anatolia. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum occurs on calcareous marl rich in potassium nitrate at the entrance of wet caves in Malatya and differs from C. cryptarum by its erect habit, smaller corollas, shallowly ribbed and tuberculate, bicoloured seeds. Chaenorhinum yildirimlii from...... the neighbouring province of Erzincan was found on alluvial soil of stream banks and differs from C. semispeluncarum by its seed characters which are similar to those of C. cryptarum. Chaenorhinum yildirimlii differs from C. cryptarum, most conspicuously by the violet lower corolla lip spotted dark...

  1. Examine of the Facts of Women and Migration During the Urbanization in the Scale of South-eastern Anatolia Region (Gap), in Turkey

    Sinemillioglu, M. Oguz; Baran, Mine


    Since the beginning of 1950’s the migration of population from countryside to cities constitutes a subject as an important part of demographic changing on its own. Since the second half of 1970’s, especially domestic migration from the small and medium size cities to big cities, by turning into family migration became dense in the three big metropolises in west. (Ãstanbul, Ankara, Ãzmir). In 1990’s both the migration from east and Southeast Anatolia to other regions and the obligatory migrati...

  2. Late Paleogene terrestrial fauna and paleoenvironments in Eastern Anatolia: New insights from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin

    Métais, Grégoire; Sen, Sevket; Sözeri, Koray; Peigné, Stéphane; Varol, Baki


    In Eastern Turkey, relatively little work has been undertaken to characterize the sedimentologic and stratigraphical context of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin until now. Extending across the Turkey-Armenian border, this basin documents the syn- and post-collisional evolution of Eastern Anatolia, resulting from the closure of the Neotethyan Seaways and the final collision of the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the lithology and depositional environment of the Late Paleogene Alhan Formation located on the western bank of the Aras River. This sequence of terrestrial clastics rests directly and unconformably onto the ophiolitic mélange, and it documents several depositional sequences deposited in alluvial plain and lacustrine environments. At this stage, the age of the Alhan Formation can only be calibrated by fossil evidence. Several stratigraphic levels yielding fossil data along the section have been identified, but these poor assemblages of fauna and flora hamper extensive comparisons with roughly contemporaneous localities of Central and Southern Asia. Carnivorous and ruminant mammal remains are reported for the first time from the supposed Late Oligocene Güngörmez Formation. The identified fossil mammal taxa reveal biogeographic affinities between Central Anatolia and southern Asia, thus suggesting dispersal between these areas during the Oligocene or earlier. Further studies of the fossil assemblages from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin and other basins of Eastern Anatolia and lesser Caucasus regions are needed to better constrain the paleobiogeographic models.

  3. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet


    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  4. Temporal monitoring of radiative heat flux from the craters of Tendürek volcano (East Anatolia, Turkey) using ASTER satellite imagery

    Ulusoy, İnan


    Tendürek volcano is situated in the Eastern Anatolia near Turkish-Iranian border. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia and it is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive basalt flows. Tendürek is characterized by alkaline volcanism. Holocene and historical activity has been reported. Hydrothermal activity have been observed on the twin summit craters. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. In order to quantify and to determine a base value for the current thermal state of the volcano, we used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Four ASTER daytime and nighttime images have been used to calculate radiative heat flux from the craters. Heat flux calculations have been made using three nighttime images and a daytime image acquired in 2002, 2004, 2008 and 2012. Images have been atmospherically corrected, temperature and emissivity have been separated and Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated from 5 thermal bands. LST images have been topographically corrected. Heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. Maximum temperature anomalies observed were 9.0 °C and 15.9 °C for the western and eastern craters respectively. Heat flux is estimated between 14.4 and 25.2 W/m² at the western crater and between 16.5 and 49.4 W/m² at the eastern crater. These values are well correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes such as Yellowstone, Stromboli and Nisyros, whereas they are lower than that of observed at Vulcano.

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Turkey

    Turkey has an area of 296 185 sq mi or 767 120 square kilometers. The geology is dominated lay Tertiary and post-Tertiary rocks which are very widespread but extensive outcrops of Mesozoic rocks also occur. Paleozoic rocks, mainly gneisses, mica schists and quartzites occur in the ancient massifs, principally the Istranca massif in Thrace, the Merideres massif in western Anatolia and the Karrshir massif in central Anatolia. Prospecting for uranium began in Turkey in 1953 and the Atomic Energy Raw Materials Division of the Maden Tetkikive Arama Enstitusu (M.T.A.) was founded in 1956. By 1962 a total of 78% of the whole country had been covered by serial radiometric reconnaissance prospecting. Uranium was discovered at Kasar in western Anatolia in 1961 and several hundred tons of reserves estimated two years later. Uranium prospecting was largely recessed from 1963 to 1967. IAEA/UNDP assistance was provided in 1962-63 and 1965 and between 1974 and 1977 in a detailed exploration programme in the Kasar area. In the whole country nearly 600 anomalies and occurrences had been identified by 1963. Several occurrences principally in Western Anatolia had been assigned a small reserve. A recent official estimate places the total national reserve at 3150 tonnes uranium in the less than 30% category of reasonably assured resources. A speculative Potential of between 30,000 and 50,000 tonnes uranium is considered to be reasonable. (author)

  6. The earliest securely-dated hominin artefact in Anatolia?

    Maddy, D.; Schreve, D.; Demir, T.; Veldkamp, A.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Gorp, van W.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Scaife, R.; Schoorl, J.M.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.


    Anatolia lies at the gateway from Asia into Europe and has frequently been favoured as a route for Early Pleistocene hominin dispersal. Although early hominins are known to have occupied Turkey, with numerous finds of Lower Palaeolithic artefacts documented, the chronology of their dispersal has lit

  7. Secular changes in the height of the inhabitants of Anatolia (Turkey) from the 10th millennium B.C. to the 20th century A.D.

    Ozer, Başak Koca; Sağır, Mehmet; Ozer, Ismail


    We use human-skeleton samples to estimate the height of adults living in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. We also report the results of surveys taken in the 20th century on the height of the Turkish population. Neolithic and the Chalcolithic (5000-3000 B.C.) male heights are estimated as 170.9 cm and 165.0 cm, respectively. Pronounced increases were observed for both sexes between the Chalcolithic and Iron (1000-580 B.C.) periods and sharp decreases among both males and females in the Hellenistic-Roman period (333 B.C. to 395 A.D.). Moreover, recovery to the Iron Age levels was achieved in the Anatolian Medieval period (395-1453 A.D.) for both sexes (169.4 cm for males and 158.0 cm for females). In 1884 the mean height of men was 162.2 cm and by the beginning of the 1930s it increased to 166.3 cm. In the first nationwide survey in 1937 males mean height was 165.3 cm, and females was 152.3 cm, where today current heights are 174.0 cm and 158.9 cm, respectively. PMID:21316315

  8. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi; Christiana Ibironke Odita; Philip Adeokemola Okewole; Christopher Jerry Bot; Adebowale Obalisa; Ezekiel Gyang Pam; Dakyahas John; Johnson Shallmizhili; Gabriel Ijale; Bulus Alim


    Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic La...

  9. Linking hydro-climate to the sediment archive: a combined monitoring and calibration study from a varved lake in central Turkey

    Roberts, C. Neil; Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Jones, Matthew D.; Allcock, Samantha L.; Leng, Melanie J.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Woodbridge, Jessie; Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, Hakan


    Hydro-climatic reconstructions from lake sediment proxies require an understanding of modern formation processes and calibration over multiple years. Here we use Nar Gölü, a non-outlet, monomictic maar lake in central Turkey, as a field site for such a natural experiment. Fieldwork since 1997 has included observations and measurements of lake water and sediment trap samples, and automated data logging (Jones et al., 2005; Woodbridge and Roberts, 2010; Dean et al., 2015). We compare these data to isotopic, chemical and biotic proxies preserved in the lake's annually-varved sediments. Nar Gölü underwent a 3 m lake-level fall between 2000 and 2010, and δ18O in both water and carbonates is correlated with this lake-level fall, responding to the change in water balance. Over the same period, sedimentary diatom assemblages responded via changes in habitat availability and mixing regime, while conductivity inferred from diatoms showed a rise in inferred salinity, although with a non-linear response to hydro-climatic forcing. There were also non-linear shifts in carbonate mineralogy and elemental chemistry. Building on the relationship between lake water balance and the sediment isotope record, we calibrated sedimentary δ18O against local meteorological records to derive a P/E drought index for central Anatolia. Application to of this to the longer sediment core isotope record from Nar Gölü (Jones et al. 2006) highlights major drought events over the last 600 years (Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu et al., 2015). Although this lacustrine record offers an archive of annually-dated, decadally-averaged hydro-climatic change, there were also times of non-linear lake response to climate. Robust reconstruction therefore requires understanding of physical processes as well as application of statistical correlations. Dean, J.R., Eastwood, W.J., Roberts, N., Jones, M.D., Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, H., Allcock, S.L., Woodbridge, J., Metcalfe, S.E. and Leng, M.J. (2015) Tracking the hydro

  10. Variation in C-heterochromatin and NOR distribution among chromosomal races of mole rats (Spalacidae) from Central Anatolia,Turkey

    Arslan, A.; Sükrüye, A.; Zima, Jan


    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2011), s. 28-35. ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nannospalax nehringi * Karyotype evolution * Speciation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.609, year: 2011

  11. Structure and Reproductive Characteristics of Two Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations in the Çoruh River Basin, North-eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    ARSLAN, Murat; Aras, N. Mevlüt


    The reproductive characteristics of 2 brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations were examined in 2 tributaries, the Anuri and Cenker streams, of the Çoruh River, north-eastern Turkey. Sampling was carried out by electrofishing monthly from November 2000 to October 2002. Age varied from 0 to 6 in the Anuri Stream, and from 0 to 7 in the Cenker Stream. Fork length (L) ranges were 4.29-29.9 cm and 3.7-34.4 cm for the Anuri and Cenker streams, respectively. The majority of individuals from both popu...

  12. First pressure- and temperature estimates of the metamorphic sole of the Pinarbasi ophiolite, central Turkey

    Peters, Kalijn; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; van Roermund, Herman; Brouwer, Fraukje; Drury, Martyn


    Ophiolites are interpreted as remnants of oceanic lithosphere. Many have a so-called supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signature, suggestive of formation at a spreading ridge overlying a subduction zone. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites frequently have a several-hundred-meter thick sequence of metamorphic rocks below their mantle section: the metamorphic sole. These dominantly mafic and generally heavily sheared metamorphic rocks have been shown to preserve an inverted metamorphic gradient with the highest pressures and temperatures at the top of the sole, decreasing downwards. Pressure estimates from rocks found at the top of metamorphic soles may be as much as 10-15 kbar with temperature estimates up to 875°C. The metamorphic grade varies from greenschist near the base, up to granulite facies at the top, with the bulk comprising of amphibolite facies rocks. At some locations a blueschist overprint of the amphibolite facies mineral assemblages has been described. The relative high pressures preserved in the metamorphic sole cannot simply result from overburden pressure of the currently overlying ophiolite, which is a long-standing problem. This raises the question of what process(es) can explain pressures up to 10-15 kbar in the top of metamorphic soles, in relation to the approximately synchronous formation of the SSZ oceanic lithosphere above the sole. One of the places to study the formation of SSZ ophiolites and their metamorphic soles is the Neotethyan Suture zone. Remnants of Neotethyan lithosphere are preserved as ophiolites that are discontinuously exposed from the Mediterranean region through the Himalaya to SE Asia. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites are particularly widespread in Turkey. The Pinarbaşi ophiolite is located in the SE of Central Anatolia, and overlies the Tauride fold-and-thrust belt that formed since the Late Cretaceous. It comprises mantle tectonites consisting of serpentinized harzburgite and dunite with remnants of gabbro to the

  13. An Examination of Centralized Educational Planning Practices in Turkey.

    Sisman, Mehmet


    Examines and analyzes the educational planning practices in Turkey at the national level after the planned development period (1963-2002). The principles, policies, and goals related to education in development plans and how far they were put into practice are summarized in eight sections. (Contains 2 tables and 24 references.) (MLF)

  14. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrogen and water use efficiencies of winder wheat (durum and bread) varieties under central Anatolia condition

    In order to evaluate the influence of different N rates on %N ddf at different growth stages and yields and % NUE values of two winter wheat varieties (durum and bread), field experiments on fallow were carried out four different locations in Central Anatolia, in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993 growing seasons, using 4x4 Latin square experimental design with varieties in split-plot arrangement. At each site the rates of N, viz. O, 40, 80 and 120 kgN/ha were applied as ammonium sulphate (NH4S2O4). The total amounts of N fertilizer rates were applied once after obtaining the seedling emergence at all experimental sites. Each plot (except 0 N treatment plots) was divided into yield sub-plots and N15 isotope sub-plots. The labelled (15NH4S2O4) fertilizer applied to isotope sub-plots had 4, 3 and 2% N15 a.e. at 40, 80 and 120 kgN/ha rates, respectively. Yield sub-plots received ordinary unlabelled ammonium sulphate. The isotope sub-plots were sample data tillering, booting, grain filling and harvest stages. Percent Ndff values were determined. Total dry matter (seed and straw) and N yields of the wheat varieties at different N rates were determined and also % NUE values were calculated with N15 and 'difference' methods at the harvest stage. Soil moisture was measured to a depth of 90 cm at each experimental site each year and stored soil moisture at 0-90 cm depth, ET and Wue values were calculated. The results obtained showed that: a) Gerek-79 variety used both the applied N fertilizer and the available soil moisture more efficiently, b)Percent NUE values obtained were quite low (generally less than 20) both varieties, c)With the N15-method less variable %NUE values were obtained in comparison to the 'difference-method'

  15. A Phenomenographic Approach for Exploring Conceptions of Learning and Teaching Biology in Turkey

    Özlem Sadi


    The present study aims to determine the students’ conceptions of learning and teachers’ conceptions of teaching in biology since both of them have a profound influence on the learning process and learning outcomes. The interview data, analyzed by a phenomenographic method, gathered from 60 university biology-major students and 3 university teachers in Central Region of Anatolia in Turkey. Results showed that students revealed five categories of conceptions of learning biolog...

  16. Crustal Thermal Properties of the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey) Deduced from Spectral Analysis of Magnetic Data



    The Pontides can be divided tectonically into three main sectors: Eastern, Central, and Western Pontides. Each of these represents an amalgamated tectonic mosaic consisting of remnants of oceanic, continental, and island arc segments. The Eastern and the Western Pontides meet in the Central Pontides, where they are structurally mixed and form a tectonic knot. The Central Pontides of northern Turkey is one of the best exposed segments of the southern margin of Eurasia adjacent to the Tethys Oc...

  17. Leishmaniasis in Turkey.

    Ok, U Z; Balcioğlu, I C; Taylan Ozkan, A; Ozensoy, S; Ozbel, Y


    Leishmaniases are widespread in most countries in the Mediterranean basin, including Turkey. Two forms are observed in Turkey; Leishmania infantum is responsible from visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Phlebotomus sergenti, P. papatasi, P. major and P. syriacus are considered to be the probable vectors, and dogs are the main reservoir of L. infantum, while P. sergenti is the main suspected vector of L. tropica.VL is sporadically seen mainly in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions, but CL is endemic, especially in the Southeastern and Mediterranean Regions. Major touristic sites are free of both infections, and no infection is reported in any tourist. Mean number of annual VL and CL cases reported to Ministry of Health are 40 and 1,204, respectively, in the last four years. These data suggest that both VL and CL represent a public health problem in Turkey, but a decline is observed in the number of cases with both infections in recent years. PMID:12387909

  18. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey)

    Hatice Mergen; Reyhan Öner; Cihan Öner


    Throughout human history, the region known today as the Anatolian peninsula (Turkey) has served as a junction connecting the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia, and, thus, has been subject to major population movements. The present study is undertaken to obtain information about the distribution of the existing mitochondrial D-loop sequence variations in the Turkish population of Anatolia. A few studies have previously reported mtDNA sequences in Turks. We attempted to extend these results by analysing a cohort that is not only larger, but also more representative of the Turkish population living in Anatolia. In order to obtain a descriptive picture for the phylogenetic distribution of the mitochondrial genome within Turkey, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region sequence variations in 75 individuals from different parts of Anatolia by direct sequencing. Analysis of the two hypervariable segments within the noncoding region of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of 81 nucleotide mutations at 79 sites. The neighbour-joining tree of Kimura’s distance matrix has revealed the presence of six main clusters, of which H and U are the most common. The data obtained are also compared with several European and Turkic Central Asian populations.

  19. A Part of Assemblage of Stone Artifacts from Tepecik-Çiftlik Site (Central Turkey)

    Řídký, Jaroslav; Bıçakçı, E.

    Plzeň : Adela, 2008, s. 331-339. ISBN 978-80-87094-13-6. [Orientalia Antiqua Nova VIII. Plzeň (CZ), 14.02.2008-15.02.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : stone industry * Tepecik-Çiftlik * central Turkey Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. The Variation of Several Biological Characteristics of the Chub, Squalius cephalus (L., 1758, in the Orenler Dam Lake, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey

    Sait BULUT


    Full Text Available In the present study, several growth parameters of 338 Squalius cephalus (L., 1758 specimens collected from the Orenler dam lake (Turkey between July 2005 and June 2006 were studied. The population comprised 50.74% males, 46.29% females, and 2.97% males+females. In the examined samples, the age of females and males ranged from I to VII and I to VI, respectively. The fork length and weight of females were 14.7-38.0 cm and 40.68-27.0 g, respectively; these values were 16.3-33.7 cm and 57.7-560.0 g, respectively, for males. The age-length and age-weight relationships at time t were calculated by the von Bertalanffy equation for females, and the following results were obtained: Lt = 37.12[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96], Wt = 775.6[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96]3.27, Lt = 43.59[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719], and Wt = 1123.2[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719]3.08. The calculated length-weight relationship was W = 0.36L3.27 for females and W = 0.03356L3.08 for males. The average condition factor was 1.412 for females and 1.284 for males. Consequently, in the Orenler dam lake, S. cephalus grows very well according to the study’s results.

  1. Sedimentary record of mid-Miocene seismotectonic activity in the Sinop Peninsula, north-central Turkey

    Ayhan ILGAR


    The middle Miocene shallow-marine siliciclastic succession in the Sinop Peninsula, north-central Turkey, bears a well-preserved sedimentary record of syndepositional deformation associated with the buried escarpment of an oblique-slip dextral reverse fault and attributed to seismotectonic activity. The deposition occurred in a marginal trough at the edge of a tectonically inverted retroarc foreland basin of the Central Pontides. The synsedimentary deformation involved contemporaneous shorefac...

  2. Dating of the late Quaternary volcanic events using Uranium-series technique on travertine deposit: A case study in Ihlara, Central Anatolia Volcanic Province

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, İ.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi


    Dating of late Quaternary volcanism is crucial to understanding of the recent mechanism of crustal deformation and future volcanic explosivity risk of the region. However, radiometric dating of volcanic products has been a major challenge because of high methodological error rate. In most cases, there are difficulties on discrimination of the volcanic lava flow relations in the field. Furthermore, there would be unrecorded and unpreserved volcanoclastic layers by depositional and erosional processes. We present a new method that allows precise dating of late Quaternary volcanic events (in the time range of 0-500,000 years before present) using the Uranium-series technique on travertine mass, which is thought to be controlled by the young volcanism. Since the high pressure CO2 in the spring waters are mobilized during crustal strain cycles and the carbonates are precipitated in the fissures act as conduit for hot springs, thus, travertine deposits provide important information about crustal deformation. In this study we studied Ihlara fissure ridge travertines in the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province. This region is surrounded by many eruption centers (i.e. Hasandaǧı, Acıgöl and Göllüdaǧı) known as the late Quaternary and their widespread volcanoclastic products. Recent studies have suggested at least 11 events at around Acıgöl Caldera for the last 180 ka and 2 events at Hasandaǧı Stratovolcano for the last 30 ka. Active travertine masses around Ihlara deposited from hotwaters, which rise up through deep-penetrated fissures in volcanoclastic products of surrounding volcanoes. Analyses of the joint systems indicate that these vein structures are controlled by the crustal deformation due to young volcanism in the vicinity. Thus, the geological history of Ihlara travertine mass is regarded as a record of surrounding young volcanism. We dated 9 samples from 5 ridge-type travertine masses around Ihlara region. The age distribution indicates that the crustal

  3. Thermal Evolution of Juvenile Subduction Zones ' New Constraints from Lu-Hf Geochronology on HP oceanic rocks (Halilbaǧi, Central Anatolia)

    Pourteau, Amaury; Scherer, Erik; Schmidt, Alexander; Bast, Rebecca


    The thermal structure of subduction zones plays a key role on mechanical and chemical processes taking place along the slab-mantle interface. Until now, changes through time of this thermal structure have been explored mostly by the means of numerical simulations. However, both "warm" (i.e., epidote-bearing), and "cold" (i.e., lawsonite-bearing) HP oceanic rocks have been reported in some fossil subduction complexes exposed at the Earth's surface (e.g., Franciscan Complex, California; Rio San Juan Complex, Hispañola; Halilbağı Unit, Central Anatolia). These a-priori "incompatible" rocks witness different thermal stages of ancient subduction zones and their study might provide complementary constraints to numerical models. To decipher the meaning of these contrasting metamorphic rocks in the Halilbağı Unit, we are carrying out Lu-Hf geochronology on garnet (grt) and lws from a variety of HP oceanic rocks, as well as the metamorphic sole of the overlying ophiolite. We selected five samples that are representative of the variety of metamorphic evolutions (i.e. peak conditions and P-T paths) encountered in this area. Preliminary analyses yielded 110 Ma (grt-hbl isochron) for a sub-ophiolitic grt amphibolite; 92 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogite with prograde and retrograde ep; 90 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogitic metabasite with prograde ep and retrograde ep+lws; 87 Ma (grt-gln) for a lws eclogite with prograde ep; and 86 Ma (grt-gln) for a blueschist with prograde and retrograde lws. These ages are mainly two-point isochrons. Further-refined data will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2015, in Vienna. The consistent younging trend from "warm" to "cold" metamorphic rocks revealed by these first-order results points to metamorphic-sole formation during the initiation of intra-oceanic subduction at ~110 Ma, and subsequent cooling of the slab-mantle interface between 92 and 86 Ma. Therefore, the contrasting metamorphic evolutions encountered in the Halilbağı Unit

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Turkey

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Turkey. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Turkey estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 21 000 to 55 000 tonnes of uranium. This potential is expected to lie in areas of Neogene and possibly other Tertiary sediments, in particular in the areas of the Menderes Massif and Central Anatolia. The mission describes a proposed exploration programme with expenditures over a five year period of between $80 million and $110 million, with nearly half of the amount being spent on drilling. (author)

  5. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi


    Full Text Available Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI, Vom, Nigeria between 2009 - 2014. A total of 306 turkeys from backyard flocks were presented to the Veterinary clinics between 2009-2014 with various health complaints by backyard flock owners. Viral (Pox and Newcastle disease and parasitic (Helminthosis, Coccidiosis and Ectoparasitism diseases were mostly diagnosed. During the same period, 42 samples comprising 25 carcasses and 17 cloacal swabs were submitted for post mortem examination, virus isolation and microbiological test. Colisepticaemia, colibacillosis, pullorum disease, airsacculitis and infectious sinusitis are the main diseases diagnosed at post-mortem examination and microbiological test, while none of the samples were positive for influenza by virus isolation. It was observed that turkey rearing was small-scaled and kept as backyard poultry in North-central Nigeria. It can therefore be concluded from this study that turkeys raised in north-central city of Jos are affected by diseases ranging from viral to bacterial and parasitic, which can adversely affect productivity. This can therefore be improved upon by controlling the diseases mostly affecting turkeys.


    Hovsepyan, Levon


    The post-Cold War geopolitical transformations forced the Turkish leaders to revise their foreign policy and national security/defense concepts. The Turkish military-political circles moved away from the narrow ideas of strategy and foreign policy of the former federal security conception to a wider approach of alternative foreign policies. Early in the 1990s Turkey perceived the Caucasus and Central Asia as an alternative foreign policy sphere. It used its ethnic, linguistic, and cultural ti...

  7. The last total Eclipse of teh Millenium in Turkey

    Ozguch, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.


    The last total solar eclipse of the millenium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two components and has been the cradle of so many past civilisations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificient event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of hystorical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible , Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and the Earthquake Research Institute has arranged field work on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey form south-east at 14:42 L.T. Official observational sites are given in the following table. These sites will have catering, toilet, and guidance facilities. Osmanchik 40.98D North 34.82D East Turhal 40.40D North 36.10D East Sivas 39.75D North 37.03D East Elazig 38.68D North 39.23D East Diyarbakir 37.92D North 40.23D East Batman 37.87 North 41.12D East

  8. An archaeomagnetic study of Upper Mesopotamia and Central Anatolia between 2500 and 700 BCE. Further evidence for an extremely strong geomagnetic field ca. 3000 years ago

    Ertepinar, Pinar; Langereis, Cor; Biggin, Andrew; de Groot, Lennart


    The distribution of archaeomagnetic data in eastern Europe and the Near and Middle East shows a remarkable gap in Turkey. This study presents the first archaeomagnetic results from eight different archaeological sites in Central and Southeast Turkey. We sampled furnaces, burnt mud-brick walls, and granite and ignimbrite foundation stones. The rock magnetic experiments indicate that in the majority of the samples the dominant magnetic carrier is magnetite, which is stable to heating to temperatures of 700° C. In general, the demagnetization diagrams are single component and all sets display well-defined characteristic magnetizations and clustered directions. For the period between 2500 and 700 BCE, the declinations are between 350° and 20° while inclinations are in the range of 49-64° . The directional results are compared with the global geomagnetic field models (CALS7k.2, ARCH3k_cst.1 and CALS3k.4) and the data from the archaeomagnetic database GEOMAGIA50v2. The results are coherent with both the data and the models except for two near-contemporaneous sets dating ~2000 BCE, which are offset to the east by more than 20° with respect to CALS7k.2. Archaeointensity measurements were made using the microwave and conventional thermal Thellier methods, as well as the multi-specimen method. These different methods yielded comparable and intriguing results. While intensities from the furnaces are slightly higher than the CALS7k.2 model and in agreement with the GEOMAGIA50v2 and the Middle East data, the results from mud-brick walls suggest a high intensity of 100.8μT (17.7 x 1022 Am2 )at ~1000 BCE. This result is in excellent agreement with recent claims of extremely high intensity measured in other regions of the Middle East for this time period though less consistent with these being associated with extremely short-lived events. Finally, we discuss our new and other recently published archaeointensity results in terms of geomagnetic intensity versus climate.

  9. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: status, use and some physical characteristics of mules.

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Wilson, R Trevor


    Mules are known to have been used as carriage and riding animals in Mesopotamia and Anatolia as early as the beginning of the second millennium BC but may have been first bred in Anatolia in the Third Century BC. They have thus contributed to Turkey's cultural, social and economic heritage for more than 4,000 years and were an ancient component of its guild of domestic animals and overall biodiversity. Once bred country-wide most mules are now introduced "illegally" to the southeast and east from Iraq and Iran. Mules are now bred only in one small area in north-central Turkey close to the Black Sea. The major role as a pack animal has been usurped since the mid-twentieth century by increasing use of motor transport and numbers have declined rapidly since the early 1980s. In 2009 about 51,500 mules remained in Turkey, mainly distributed in discrete areas in the extreme southeast, the centre-south, the northwest and the centre-north. In the southeast the main role is in cross-border trade (much of it described as smuggling) whereas in other areas mules are used in support of pastoral and farming operations. Mules in Turkey are of various colours but are generally large and strong compared to those found in many other countries. Pressure on numbers will continue and will exert a negative effect on a part of Turkey's national heritage and domestic animal biodiversity. PMID:24833995

  10. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lake Iznik (W Turkey) and Üçaǧizli Cave (S Turkey) - implications for human dispersal in the Upper Palaeolithic along coastal Anatolia.

    Viehberg, Finn A.; Assanov, Sergey; Kuhn, Steven; Reed, Jane; Ülgen, Umut B.; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Melles, Martin


    Transcontinental dispersal of modern humans from the Near East to the Balkans in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic is expected to have followed the coastline (i.e., Yarımburgaz, Karain and Üçaǧızlı caves). Lake Iznik is situated 80 km south of the Bosphorus (Western Turkey) close to the Marmara Sea. Here we retrieved a continuous sediment record covering the past ~40 ka cal BP. A multiproxy approach enabled us to reconstruct the environmental history. We included biological proxies i.e., diatoms, cladocerans and ostracods as biological proxies, but also physical and geochemical proxies were analysed. Geomorphological findings in the lake basin and geochemical analyses hint to changing lake water levels at least since 40 ka cal BP that lasted until c. 11 cal. kyr BP. This supports the theory of persisting dry climate conditions before the onset of the Holocene also inferred from geochemical sediment proxies (i.e., element analysis), diatoms and ostracod shell chemistry. The Upper Palaeolithic sequences (45-33 ka cal BP) at the Üçaǧızlı Cave (Hatay) yield clear evidence of the technological transition between Initial Upper Palaeolithic and Ahmarian, but also documents major shifts in diet of past hunting community. The identified animal remains in the cave sequence change from larger ungulates to smaller ungulates and increase in fish and shellfish. It is proposed that the compositional change in game is not solitarily caused by technology advances, but also by environmental and climatic changes as inferred from sediment archives of Lake Iznik.

  11. The tectonic history of the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif and the Taurides since the Late Mesozoic: Paleomagnetic evidence for two-phase orogenic curvature in Central Anatolia

    Ćinku, Mualla Cengiz; Hisarli, Z. Mümtaz; Yılmaz, Yücel; Ülker, Beyza; Kaya, Nurcan; Öksüm, Erdinç; Orbay, Naci; Özbey, Zeynep Üçtaş


    The Niğde-Kırşehir Massif, known also as the Central Anatolian Block, is bordered by the sutures of the Neotethys Ocean. The massif suffered several deformation phases during and after the consumption of the surrounding oceans and the postcollisional events of the continental pieces of Anatolia in latest Cretaceous to Miocene. Previous paleomagnetic studies on the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif and its surroundings displayed either insufficient data or have claimed large rotations and/or remagnetization. In order to understand the tectonic history of the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif and its adjacent blocks we have sampled 147 different sites in the age range of Upper Jurassic to Miocene from the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif throughout its W/SW and E/SE boundaries and the central-southeastern Taurides. The results display that except the limestones in central Taurides, all rocks examined carry a primary magnetization. Among these an important finding is that rotations between the massif and the central-eastern Taurides indicate an oroclinal bending with counterclockwise rotation of R = 41.1° ± 7.6° in the SE and clockwise rotation of R = 45.9° ± 9.3° in the central Taurides from Upper Cretaceous rocks with respect to the African reference direction. Paleomagnetic rotations in the SE Taurides are compatible with the vergent direction of the thrusts generated from consumption of the Intra-Tauride Ocean prior to postcollisional convergence between Taurides and the massif. In the central Taurides it has been shown that the clockwise rotation of 45.9 ± 9.3 started in Middle Eocene, because of a remagnetization in Upper Cretaceous limestones. The deformation was linked to the final closure of the southern Neotethys and the collision between the African and Eurasian plates. In the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif counterclockwise rotation up to 25.5° ± 7.3° is recognized during Middle Eocene and interpreted in terms of block rotation together with the Taurides. After the Miocene a

  12. Deformation History of the Haymana Basin: Structural Records of Closure-Collision and Subsequent Convergence (Indentation) Events at the North-Central Neotethys (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin


    Gondwana- (Tauride Platfrom and Kırşehir Block) and Eurasia (Pontides) - derived continental blocks bound the Haymana basin, in the south and north, respectively. Boundaries between these blocks are signed by İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and debatable Intra-Tauride Suture zones which are straddled by the Haymana Basin in the region. In this regard, deformation recorded in the upper Cretaceous to middle Eocene deposits of the basin is mainly controlled by the relative movements of these blocks. Therefore, understanding the structural evolution of the Haymana Basin in a spatio-temporal concept is crucial to shed some light on some debatable issues such as ; (1) timing of late stage subduction histories of various branches of Neotethys and subsequent collision events, (2) effects of post-collisional tectonic activity in the Haymana region. Fault kinematic analyses (based on 623 fault-slip data from 73 stations) indicate that the basin was subjected to initially N-S to NNE-SSW extension until middle Paleocene and then N-S- to NNE-SSW- directed continuous compression and coeval E-W to ESE-WNW extension up to middle Miocene. These different deformation phases correspond to the fore-arc (closure) and foreland (collision and further convergence) stages of the basin. Additionally, fold analyses (based on 1017 bedding attitudes) and structural mapping studies show that development of folds and major faults are coeval and they can be explained by principle stress orientations of the second deformation phase. The Haymana basin is, based on the trends of E-W- and WNW-ESE- directed structures at the south-eastern and the north-western parts of the basin, respectively, divided into two structural segments. The balanced cross-sections also indicate ~4% and ~25% shortening at the north-western and south-eastern segments, respectively. The differences in amounts of shortenings are explained by reduce in effectiveness zone of basin-bounding thrust faults towards west. On the other hand, the boundary of the segments is defined as an intra-basinal strike-slip system which is thought to be developed together with late stage activities of the basin bounding thrust (or reverse) faults (Dereköy and İnler faults) in response to the north-westward movement of the northern segment of the Kırşehir block. It is proposed that the Haymana basin was initially evolved under the influences of subduction related extensional setting until middle Paleocene, and latterly foreland settings in front of a south-vergent fold and thrust belt developed during collision and post-collisional convergence until middle Miocene. Additionally, the north-westward movement and indentation of the Kırşehir Block caused structural segmentation and rotation events in the basin.

  13. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike;


    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...

  14. Cross-sectional anatomy and geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogenic belt (northern Turkey)

    Hippolyte, J.-C.; Espurt, N.; Kaymakci, N.; Sangu, E.; Müller, C.


    Geophysical data allowed the construction of a ~250-km-long lithospheric-scale balanced cross section of the southern Black Sea margin (Espurt et al. in Lithosphere 6:26-34, 2014). In this paper, we combine structural field data, stratigraphic data, and fault kinematics analyses with the 70-km-long onshore part of the section to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogen. These data reveal new aspects of the structural evolution of the Pontides since the Early Cretaceous. The Central Pontides is a doubly vergent orogenic wedge that results from the inversion of normal faults. Extensional subsidence occurred with an ENE-trend from Aptian to Paleocene. We infer that the Black Sea back-arc basin also opened during this period, which was also the period of subduction of the Tethys Ocean below the Pontides. As in the Western Pontides, the Cretaceous-Paleocene subsidence was interrupted from Latest Albian to Coniacian time by uplift and erosion that was probably related to a block collision and accretion in the subduction zone. The restoration of the section to its pre-shortening state (Paleocene) shows that fault-related subsidence locally reached 3600 m within the forearc basin. Structural inversion occurred from Early Eocene to Mid-Miocene as a result of collision and indentation of the Pontides by the Kırşehir continental block to the south, with 27.5 km (~28 %) shortening along the section studied. The inversion was characterized by NNE-trending shortening that predated the Late Neogene dextral escape of Anatolia along the North Anatolian Fault and the modern stress field characterized by NW-trending compression within the Eocene Boyabat basin.

  15. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Ulrike Aspöck


    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.




    Full Text Available The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equivalent of the Tubiphytes morronensis zone, Protopeneroplis ultragranulata (with the Haplophragmoides joukowskyi subzone, Montsalevia salevensis, Hedbergella delrioensis - Hedbergella planispira - Leupoldina - Globigerinelloides and Globigerinelloides algerianus biozones. Two major stratigraphic gaps corresponding to the pre-Callovian and Hauterivian-Early Aptian ages are recognised within the successions. Lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic studies indicate strong similarities in the evolution of the successions in the Amasya region (Central Pontides and Biga-Bursa-Bilecik (BBB Platform (North-western Anatolia

  17. Inferences for the Miocene to present evolution of the Anatolia Plateau south margin

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni


    The Miocene to recent Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP) is a first-order morphotectonic feature with high average elevations, low-relief dry interior and steep humid flacks. The ESF-sponsored Vertical Anatolia Movement Project (VAMP) aims at increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of plateau-building processes, using the CAP as a case study. Unravelling the tectonic history of its margins is essential. Our component of the VAMP strives to determine the subsidence-uplift mechanisms in the south margin of the Anatolia Plateau, structures responsible for, and age of growth of this margin, as well as achieve a quantitative understanding of the regional tectonics. A common division of the study area, from north to south, is: (i) south part of the continental basins of Central Turkey, with Tuz Gölü Basin as the main representative, in the high flat area of the Anatolian Plateau, (ii) the arcuate Tauride fold-thrust belt and the Miocene Basins on top of it, forming part of the south flank of the plateau, (iii) offshore Cilicia Basin between Turkey and Cyprus, as the downward continuation of the south flank of the plateau, and (iv) the southward-thrusted Kyrenia Mountain Range and Circum-Troodos sedimentary succession. Miocene marine sediments in southern Turkey are presently found in Manavgat, Mut and Adana Basins. These sediments, possibly originally belonging to one single basin, are fundamental archives to constrain the tectonic stages immediately preceding and contemporaneous with plateau development. Miocene Mut Basin lies between Manavgat and Adana Basins, and is considered to have developed on a relatively stable area of Mesozoic Tauride basement, thus is a strategic area to solve the tectonic history that existed in southern Turkey since Miocene. Three N-S regional geological sections from Mut Basin to Mesoaria Basin (north Cyprus) that reproduce the present relationships among the units of the area have been constructed. These sections show a pre

  18. Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts

    Bayram Balci


    active in sending Islamic literature to Central Asia from 1990. One of Said Nursi’s disciples, Fethullah Gülen, founded an extensive educational network, involving young instructors from Anatolia who moved to different Central Asian cities. A second group, the Suleymanci, named for its founder Suleyman Tunahan, used Turkish migration to open several small madrasas in different Central Asian countries. Finally, disciples of the Naqshbandiyya brotherhood, named after its founder Bahauddin Naqshband, a 15th century mystic from Bukhara, also sent thousands of Turkish migrants to the region to carry out missionary projects. After settling in these Central Asian cities, Turkish migrants have had a significant effect on Islam in the region. This is especially true in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, which have excellent political relationships with Turkey. As a result, many of these countries’ new religious elites have formed as a result of cooperation with Turkish missionary movements and their disciples who immigrated to Central Asia. Turkish migrants are not part of Turkey’s official policy on religious cooperation with Central Asia. However, they support Ankara’s diplomatic efforts in the region by indirectly creating a field of influence in this Turkish-speaking region, which is of considerable importance in Turkey’s new foreign policy.

  19. How Far Ahead Does the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey Look?1

    Bulut Umit


    Full Text Available In monetary economics literature, there is an agreement that monetary policy has a lagged effect on inflation. As a result of this agreement, monetary policy reaction functions that include expected inflation, instead of current or lagged inflation, are established. On the other hand, there is uncertainty about how much time monetary policy needs to affect inflation. The purpose of this paper is to estimate empirically how far ahead the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey looks. In other words, the paper examines whether the CBRT takes into consideration 12-month ahead inflation expectations or 24-month ahead inflation expectations while steering interest rates. According to the results of the paper, the CBRT considers 12-month ahead inflation expectations while steering interest rates.

  20. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht


    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  1. Status and Future Outlook of Cultivated Mushroom Sector in Turkey

    Erkan Eren


    Full Text Available Mushroom production that started in 1960's in Turkey gained economic value from the 1990's and it started improving as a commercial sector after that time. While Turkey mushroom production was 80 tons in 1973, it increased up to 45.000 tons in 2014. There is a rapid changes and improvement in cultivated mushroom production and consumption in Turkey. The object of the study is to reveal current status of mushroom production in the world and Turkey, and the problems of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the necessary precautions and ways to solve these problems. The data obtained from the inspections of the mushroom enterprises that in mushroom production regions of Turkey, and the secondary data obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK and Union of Antalya Exporters (AIB and also national and international publication’ data has been used in this study. In Turkey, Mediterranean and Marmara Regions rank first in mushroom production and consumption with the share of 61.5 and 40%, respectively. It has been determined that big enterprises producing mushroom and compost established in the Central Anatolia in this study. The number of enterprises producing mushroom by using technology increases and 15-20% of the total production are provided by the big enterprises having 2000 m2 and over mushroom production areas. Recent years, there are serious increases in the production of different mushroom species such as especially Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, precision agriculture applications are widespread with the time. For the continuation of growth of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the solving of the sector problems, there are needs both in making the necessary changes in legislation and to be given priority researches related to mushroom production in university and public research institutions and also to support them.

  2. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet


    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%. PMID:24192673

  3. Crustal velocity structure of Central and Eastern Turkey from ambient noise tomography

    Warren, Linda M.; Beck, Susan L.; Biryol, C. Berk; Zandt, George; Özacar, A. Arda; Yang, Yingjie


    In eastern Turkey, the ongoing convergence of the Arabian and African plates with Eurasia has resulted in the westward extrusion of the Anatolian Plate. To better understand the current state and the tectonic history of this region, we image crust and uppermost mantle structure with ambient noise tomography. Our study area extends from longitudes of 32° to 44°E. We use continuous data from two temporary seismic deployments, our 2006-2008 North Anatolian Fault Passive Seismic Experiment and the 1999-2001 Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment, as well as from additional seismographs in the region. We compute daily cross-correlations of noise records between all station pairs and stack them over the entire time period for which they are available, as well as in seasonal subsets, to obtain interstation empirical Green's functions. After selecting interstation cross-correlations with high signal-to-noise ratios and measuring interstation phase velocities, we compute phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 8 to 40 s. At all periods, the phase velocity maps are similar for winter and summer subsets of the data, indicating that seasonal variations in noise sources do not bias our results. Across the study area, we invert the phase velocity estimates for shear velocity as a function of depth. The shear velocity model, which extends to 50 km depth, highlights tectonic features apparent at the surface: the Eastern Anatolian Plateau is a prominent low-velocity anomaly whereas the Kirşehir Massif has relatively fast velocities. There is a large velocity jump across the Inner Tauride Suture/Central Anataolian Fault Zone throughout the crust whereas the North Anatolian Fault does not have a consistent signature. In addition, in the southeastern part of our study area, we image a high velocity region below 20 km depth which may be the northern tip of the underthrusting Arabian Plate.

  4. An Alien Species New to the Flora of Turkey:Lysimachia japonica Thunb. (Primulaceae)

    TERZİOĞLU, Salih; KARAER, Fergan


    The Japanese species, Lysimachia japonica Thunb. (Primulaceae) has been recorded as a new alien for the Flora of Turkey from the NE Anatolia. The detailed description of the species together with its photographs is provided.

  5. Petrogenetic Characteristics Of Oyaca Kedikayası Boyalık Adakites In SW Ankara (Central Anatolia, Turkey): Evidences For Slab Melt Metasomatism

    Şen, Pınar; Şen, Erdal


    The Early Miocene Oyaca, Kedikayası and Boyalık dacites, situated approximately 50-60 km southwest of Ankara have affinities similar to adakitic rocks. They have porphyritic texture with a variable amount of plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and lesser biotite phenocrysts and a groundmass of plagioclase and quartz microcrysts. They have high Sr/Y (55-79 ppm) and (La/Yb)n (21-32 ppm) ratios, and low Y (10-19 ppm) and heavy rare earth element contents. According to their SiO2 (62.3-69.70 % wt.) ...


    Şen, Pınar; Şen, Erdal


    The Early Miocene Oyaca, Kedikayası and Boyalık dacites, situated approximately 50-60 km southwest of Ankara have affinities similar to adakitic rocks. They have porphyritic texture with a variable amount of plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and lesser biotite phenocrysts and a groundmass of plagioclase and quartz microcrysts. They have high Sr/Y (55-79 ppm) and (La/Yb)n (21-32 ppm) ratios, and low Y (10-19 ppm) and heavy rare earth element contents. According to their SiO2 (62.3-69.70 % wt.) ...

  7. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J


    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  8. Permo-Carboniferous granitoids with Jurassic high temperature metamorphism in Central Pontides, Northern Turkey

    Gücer, Mehmet Ali; Arslan, Mehmet; Sherlock, Sarah; Heaman, Larry M.


    In the northern part of the Central Pontides (N Turkey) there are different metamorphic rocks exposed, notably the Devrekani metamorphic rocks. Here, upper amphibolite-lower granulite facies metamorphic rocks contain predominantly paragneiss, orthogneiss and metacarbonate, and to a lesser extent, amphibolite and quartzite, with cross-cutting aplite, pegmatite and granite veins. This is the first report of these rocks and includes new data on the petrochemistry, geochronology and metamorphic evolution of the Devrekani orthogneisses from the Central Pontides. The orthogneisses show five different mineral parageneses with the characteristic mineral assemblage quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite ± hornblende ± opaque (± ilmenite and ± magnetite), and accessory minerals (zircon, sphene and apatite). These metamorphic rocks exhibit generally granoblastic, lepidogranoblastic and nematolepidogranoblastic with locally migmatitic and relic micrographic textures. They have well-developed centimeter-spaced gneissic banding and display gneissose structure with symmetric, asymmetric and irregular folds. The petrographic features, mineralogical assemblages and weak migmatization reflect high temperature conditions. Thermometric calculations in the orthogneisses indicate metamorphic temperatures reached 744 ± 33 °C. Field relations, petrography and petrochemistry suggest that the orthogneisses have predominantly granodioritic and some granitic protoliths, that show features of I-type, medium to high-potassic calc-alkaline volcanic arc granitoids. The orthogneisses have high contents of LILEs and low contents of HFSEs with negative Nb and Ti anomalies, which are typical of subduction-related magmas. The orthogneisses also show significant LREE enrichment relative to HREE with negative Eu anomalies (EuN/Eu* = 0.33-1.07) with LaN/LuN = 6.98-20.47 values. Based on U-Pb zircon dating data, the protoliths are related to Permo-Carboniferous (316-252 Ma) magmatism. It is

  9. Tracking the hydro-climatic signal from lake to sediment: A field study from central Turkey

    Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Roberts, Neil; Jones, Matthew D.; Yiğitbaşıoğlu, Hakan; Allcock, Samantha L.; Woodbridge, Jessie; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Leng, Melanie J.


    Palaeo-hydrological interpretations of lake sediment proxies can benefit from a robust understanding of the modern lake environment. In this study, we use Nar Gölü, a non-outlet, monomictic maar lake in central Turkey, as a field site for a natural experiment using observations and measurements over a 17-year monitoring period (1997-2014). We compare lake water and sediment trap data to isotopic, chemical and biotic proxies preserved in its varved sediments. Nar Gölü underwent a 3 m lake-level fall between 2000 and 2010. δ18Olakewater is correlated with this lake-level fall, responding to the change in water balance. Endogenic carbonate is shown to precipitate in isotopic equilibrium with lake water and there is a strong relationship between δ18Olakewater and δ18Ocarbonate, which suggests the water balance signal is accurately recorded in the sediment isotope record. Over the same period, sedimentary diatom assemblages also responded, and conductivity inferred from diatoms showed a rise. Shifts in carbonate mineralogy and elemental chemistry in the sediment record through this decade were also recorded. Intra-annual changes in δ18Olakewater and lake water chemistry are used to demonstrate the seasonal variability of the system and the influence this may have on the interpretation of δ18Ocarbonate. We use these relationships to help interpret the sedimentary record of changing lake hydrology over the last 1725 years. Nar Gölü has provided an opportunity to test critically the chain of connection from present to past, and its sedimentary record offers an archive of decadal- to centennial-scale hydro-climatic change.

  10. Pre-collisional accretionary growth of the southern Laurasian active margin, Central Pontides, Turkey

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi


    Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes crop out over wide areas in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. To the north, the wedge consists of a low-grade metaflysch sequence with blocks of marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite (PT = 7-12 kbar; 400 ± 70 °C) and serpentinite. 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from the phyllites of the metaflysch are ca. 100 Ma. The metaflysch sequence is underlain by oceanic crust-derived HP/LT metabasites and micaschists along a major detachment fault. The metabasites are epidote-blueschists consisting of glaucophane, epidote, titanite, and phengite locally with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are exposed as blocks along the detachment fault. Peak metamorphic conditions of a garnet-blueschist are constrained to 17 ± 1 kbar and 500 ± 40 °C and of a lawsonite-blueschist to 14 ± 2 kbar and 370-440 °C. 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating on the micaschists constrains the HP/LT metamorphism as 101-92 Ma, younging southward. Middle Jurassic (ca. 160 Ma) accretionary complexes consisting of blueschist to lower greenschist facies metabasites, marble and volcanogenic metasediment intercalations are exposed at the southern part of the Cretaceous wedge. In the studied area, the North Anatolian Fault forms the contact between Cretaceous and Middle Jurassic HP/LT metamorphic rocks. Wide distribution of Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes implies accretionary tectonic continental growth along the Laurasian active margin. High amount of clastic sediment flux into the trench has a major effect on enlarging the wedge during the Albian. Tectonic thickening of the oceanic HP/LT metamorphic sequence, however, was possibly achieved by propagation of the décollement along the retreating slab which can create the space necessary for progressive deep level basal underplating and extension of the wedge for subsequent syn-subduction exhumation.

  11. Minibasins and salt canopy in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: The central Sivas Basin, Turkey

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Legeay, Etienne; Callot, Jean-Paul; Kavak, Kaan Sevki; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    The Sivas Basin in the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey), which formed in the context of a foreland fold-and-thrust belt (FTB), exhibits a typical wall and basin (WAB) province characterized by symmetric minibasins separated by continuous steep-flanked walls and diapirs. Extensive fieldwork including regional and detailed local mapping of the contacts and margins of minibasins, and interpretation of a set of 2-D regional seismic lines, provide evidence for the development of a shallow evaporite level separating two generations of minibasins within the WAB province. Here beds of symmetric exposed minibasins along diapir flank are younger than minibasins observed over autochthonous evaporites. Laterally away from the WAB province, increase in wavelength of the tectonic structures suggests a deepening of the decollement level. We interpret that a shallower evaporite level developed in the form of an evaporite canopy, triggered by significant lateral shortening. The Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene autochthonous Tuzhisar evaporite level was remobilized by the northward migrating sedimentary load and the tilting of the southern basin margin during propagation of the foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Asymmetric and symmetric primary minibasins were overrun by an allochthonous sheet forming a canopy. A second generation of salt withdrawal minibasins subsided into the allochthonous salt sheet. The polygonal pattern of the WAB province influences the growing fold-and-thrust belt system during the late stage of the secondary minibasins development. The Sivas FTB basin is the result of the interaction between fold-and-thrust belt propagation, evaporite remobilization, and interaction between evaporite flow and sedimentation in the minibasins.

  12. Friedrich Sarre and the discovery of Seljuk Anatolia

    Patricia Blessing


    Full Text Available The German art historian Friedrich Sarre (1865-1945 is best known as the director, from 1925-31, of the Islamic collection of the Berlin Museums, and for his collaboration with Ernst Herzfeld on the excavation of the Abbasid palaces of Samarra, Iraq, just before the onset of the 1914-18 war. From a historiographical point of view, however, Sarre also deserves attention for his work on the Seljuk architecture of Anatolia, a subject that had been barely studied within the context of Islamic art when he ventured into it. Crucially, Sarre’s study of Seljuk architecture is rooted in the late nineteenth-century appreciation of Persian art, rather in the later focus on a unified Turkish identity that became pervasive in the late 1920s, following ideological shifts after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

  13. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

    Fahrettin Küçük


    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  14. Timing of post-collisional H-type to A-type granitic magmatism: U Pb titanite ages from the Alpine central Anatolian granitoids (Turkey)

    Köksal, Serhat; Romer, Rolf L.; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Toksoy-Köksal, Fatma


    The last stages of the continental collision during the closure of the Neotethyan ocean in central Anatolia are characterized by post-collisional H- and A-type granitoids intruding both the metamorphic country rocks and allochthonous ophiolitic rocks of the central Anatolian crystalline complex. Available Rb Sr and K Ar whole-rock and mineral age data on the H- and A-type granitoids in central Anatolia are inconsistent. To better constrain the geological relevance and the timing of the change in the chemical character of magmatism in the wake of the Alpine orogeny in Anatolia, we re-evaluated the geochemical characteristics and dated titanite from representative H- (Baranadag quartz-monzonite: BR) and A-type (Çamsari quartz-syenite: CS) granitoids by the U Pb method. BR is a high-K calc-alkaline intrusion with mafic microgranular enclaves and shows enrichment of LILE relative to HFSE. The alkaline CS displays higher SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Th and HFSE with corresponding depletion in CaO, MgO, Fe2O3tot, P2O5, Ba, Sr, and Ti. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the BR and CS samples have LREE-enriched and flat HREE patterns, whereas CS differs from BR by higher LREE enrichment and lower MREE and HREE contents. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics suggest that BR and CS were not products of the same magma source. BR was derived from a subduction-modified depleted hybrid-source and CS had an enriched mantle source with significant crustal contribution. The U Pb titanite ages of the H-type central Anatolian granitoids (BR) and the A-type granitoids (CS) are 74.0±2.8 and 74.1±0.7 Ma, respectively. The coeval evolution of post-collisional/calc-alkaline H- to A-type magmatism was possibly associated with source heterogeneity and variable involvement of continental materials during the evolution of these granitoids. These new age data constrain the timing of the onset of a post-collision extensional period following the Alpine thickening within the passive

  15. A river based stable isotope record of orographic precipitation: Taurus Mountains, south central Turkey

    Schemmel, Fabian; Mulch, Andreas; Mikes, Tamás.; Schildgen, Taylor


    Reconstructing continental precipitation and vegetation patterns has become one of the most rapidly growing fields in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Furthermore, stable isotopes in precipitation within continental plateau regions represent an increasingly important tool for reconstructing the various effects of uplift related climate change within the world's largest plateau regions. With peak elevations of more than 3,000 m the Taurus Mountains represent the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau and must have played a pivotal role in controlling the drainage and sedimentation patterns within the plateau interior. However, their surface uplift history remains largely elusive. We sampled a series of tributaries and rivers along the Ermenek valley that crosscuts the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus Mountains on the d18O and dD values of river and spring waters and to compare these values to the d18O and dD of recent precipitation gathered by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Further we try to study the trends of the recent d18O and dD isotopic composition of local rivers and precipitation in the area to create a set of isotopic data that is comparable to isotopic studies on paleosoils and can therefore be used in future paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate studies. We sampled 6 individual rivers during the fall season 2008 to capture mostly groundwater runoff in the south central Taurus Mountains. All sampled rivers belong to the same local drainage system which drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The total elevation difference within the sampling area exceeds 2,000 m and we were able to collect samples over almost 1,800 m of elevation. Our measurements show that both d18O and dD values follow the same basic trend. d18O and dD values decrease systematically with increasing elevation. The lapse rate of d18O is about -2.2 per mil/km, whereas the

  16. The kinematics of central-southern Turkey and northwest Syria revisited

    Seyrek, Ali; Demir, Tuncer; Westaway, Rob; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, Stéphane; White, Tom S.; Bridgland, David R.


    Central-southern Turkey, NW Syria, and adjacent offshore areas in the NE Mediterranean region form the boundary zone between the Turkish, African and Arabian plates. A great deal of new information has emerged in recent years regarding senses and rates of active crustal deformation in this region, but this material has not hitherto been well integrated, so the interpretations of key localities by different teams remain contradictory. We have reviewed and synthesised this evidence, combining it with new investigations targeted at key areas of uncertainty. This work has led to the inference of previously unrecognised active faults and has clarified the roles of other structures within the framework of plate motions provided by GPS studies. Roughly one third of the relative motion between the Turkish and Arabian plates is accommodated on the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, which links to the study region from the Kyrenia mountain range of northern Cyprus. Much of this motion passes NNE then eastward around the northern limit of the Amanos Mountains, as previously thought, but some of it splays northeastward to link into newly-recognised normal faulting within the Amanos Mountains. The remaining two thirds of the relative motion is accommodated along the Karasu Valley; some of this component steps leftward across the Amik Basin before passing southward onto the northern Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) but much of it continues southwestward, past the city of Antakya, then into offshore structures, ultimately linking to the subduction zone bounding the Turkish and African plates to the southwest of Cyprus. However, some of this offshore motion continues southward, west of the Syrian coast, before linking onshore into the southern DSFZ; this component of the relative motion is indeed the main reason why the slip rate on the northern DSFZ, measured geodetically, is so much lower than that on its southern counterpart. In some parts of this region, notably in the Karasu Valley, it is

  17. Statistical Modeling of Spatio-Temporal Variability in Monthly Average Daily Solar Radiation over Turkey

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Ertekin, Can


    Though one of the most significant driving forces behind ecological processes such as biogeochemical cycles and energy flows, solar radiation data are limited or non-existent by conventional ground-based measurements, and thus, often estimated from other meteorological data through (geo)statistical models. In this study, spatial and temporal patterns of monthly average daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface at the ground level were quantified using 130 climate stations for the entire Turkey and its conventionally-accepted seven geographical regions through multiple linear regression (MLR) models as a function of latitude, longitude, altitude, aspect, distance to sea; minimum, maximum and mean air temperature and relative humidity, soil temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, pan evapotranspiration, day length, maximum possible sunshine duration, monthly average daily extraterrestrial solar radiation, and time (month), and universal kriging method. The resulting 20 regional best-fit MLR models (three MLR models for each region) based on parameterization datasets had R2adj values of 91.5% for the Central Anatolia region to 98.0% for the Southeast Anatolia region. Validation of the best-fit MLR models for each region led to R2 values of 87.7% for the Mediterranean region to 98.5% for the Southeast Anatolia region. The best-fit anisotropic semi-variogram models for universal kriging as a result of one-leave-out cross-validation gave rise to R2 values of 10.9% in July to 52.4% in November. Surface maps of monthly average daily solar radiation were generated over Turkey, with a grid resolution of 500 m × 500 m.

  18. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the continental Miocene basins in southern Anatolia

    Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.


    The exposed portion of the Tauride fold-thrust belt in southern Turkey is flanked and overlain by Neogene sedimentary basins. To the south and on top of the high ranges, these basins are mainly marine, whereas previously poorly studied intra-montane basins dominated by continental deposits are exposed to the north. We have studied the stratigraphy and structure of these continental basins - the Altınapa, Yalvaç and Ilgın Basins. Their stratigraphy displays overall fining upward sequences of fluvio-lacustrine sediments, deposition of which interrupted by basin-wide unconformities; similar hiatuses seems to exist in each basin. The most prominent unconformity surface occurred during the Middle Miocene and corresponds to the timing of volcanic activity in the region. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the volcaniclastic samples from the Altınapa and Ilgın basins yielded 11.8-11.6 Ma ages. The main basin forming regional deformation phase was extensional and occurred during the Middle Miocene. The extension directions obtained from paleostress inversion techniques indicate multidirectional extension under vertical uniaxial stress which are compatible with the recent seismic activity and available focal mechanism solutions. The main basin-bounding faults, however, are constrained mainly N-S to NW-SE implying that they are reactivated structures. The Middle Miocene and onwards extensional history of these basins occurs behind and atop a thrust front along the Cyprus arc, extending towards the Antalya nappes and Aksu thrust in the heart of the Isparta angle. The synchrounous, curved pairs of thrust fronts associated with subduction and overriding plate extension suggests that the Cyprus subduction zone has been retreating relative to central Anatolia since, at least, the Middle Miocene time. In addition to extensional history of the region, these continental basins contain evidence for the post-Late Miocene differential uplift of the Taurides in southern Anatolia. All of these




    Full Text Available Lepidorbitoides bisambergensis is characterised by having a ‘quadriserial’ embryo without any chamberlet directly arising from the deuteroconch and is a very diagnostic and common species in Lower Maastrichtian flysch successions in Anatolia. Some populations of this species present an early ontogenetic morphologic feature which is characterised by distinctly asymmetric early chamber arrangement recognised in the horizontal sections. This asymmetry is mainly caused by the pronounced difference in the size of auxiliary chamberlets which rest on both, protoconch and deuteroconch and also enhanced by the development of unequal number of chamberlets in the series arising from these auxiliary chamberlets on the protoconchal side. These asymmetric specimens are commonly identified in stratigraphic horizons below the symmetric ones after the introduction of a new auxiliary chamberlet and progressively replaced by symmetric ones in the younger populations. Asymmetric "quadriserial" specimens representing the early phylogenetic stage of L. bisambergensis described in the stratigraphic horizons corresponding to G. havanensis and G. aegyptiaca (? zones are thought to deserve a particular taxonomic status and are attributed to Lepidorbitoides bisambergensis asymmetrica Özcan & Özkan-Altiner, 1999a. 

  20. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Erkan, K.


    Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995-1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100-150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85-90 mW m-2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m-2) are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90-100 mW m-2) are also observed in the peninsular (western) part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60-70 mW m-2) are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  1. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    K. Erkan


    Full Text Available Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995–1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100–150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85–90 mW m−2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m−2 are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90–100 mW m−2 are also observed in the peninsular (western part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60–70 mW m−2 are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  2. The soils of the Upper Kura watershed area (NE Anatolia)

    KOÇMAN, Asaf


    The study area is located in the northeastern part of the Anatolia. This area is belong to the Upper Kura drainage basin and from hydrographic point o f view it is connected to the Aras river basin. As a whole, the given area was composed of volcanic material, volcano-sedimentary and Plio-Quatcmary terrains. The Volcanic rocks are common on the northern, western and eastern part of the area. The volcano- sedimentary formations occur the central parts, and Quaternary alluvions occupy the tecto...

  3. Mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric characteristics of Central Anatolian fluorites (Turkey): Tracing the origin of post-magmatic fluids

    Cosanay, Pelin; Mutlu, Halim; Koc, Sükrü; Cevik, Nihal; Oztürk, Ceyda; Varol, Ece


    In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of fluorite veins in Central Anatolia with emphasis on mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric variations. The studied fluorite mineralizations (Kaman, Akçakent, Pöhrenk and Şefaatli mineralizations from west to east) are located on northern part of Kırşehir Massif which is a part of Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex that is bordered by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. The Kaman, Akçakent and Şefaatli fluorite deposits are formed in association with magmatic rocks such as syenite and monzonite / monzodiorite in composition which are of Upper Cretaceous age. Fluorite in these deposits occurs as purple- and green-colored stockwork veins and/or disseminations along fault/fracture systems and is accompanied by quartz and rare pyrite. The Pöhrenk ore, however, is precipitated as space filling-breccia type within karstic voids of Eocene limestones and marl levels. The silicification/carbonatization and barite occurrences are found as the main alteration and secondary products of mineralization. Thickness of fluorite veins is between 2 and 30 cm. ΣREE contents of host rocks and fluorite veins are in the range of 2-806 ppm and 20-390 ppm, respectively. In element variation diagrams constructed for both host rocks and fluorite mineralizations, LREE concentrations are found to be greater than HREEs. REE contents of green-colored fluorites are about 10-fold higher than those of purple-colored ones. Negative Ce and Eu anomalies indicate high oxygen fugacity for the mineralizing fluids. Fluid inclusion studies indicated three different types of inclusions: 1) two-phase (liquid-vapor) primary and secondary inclusions, 2) single-phase (liquid) primary and secondary inclusions and 3) two-phase (liquid-vapor) and single-phase (liquid) pseudo-secondary inclusions. Results of homogenization temperatures from a number of about 200 measurements chiefly on fluorite and less often quartz and barite

  4. Rock-Forming Nannofossils in Uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Rock Units of Northwest Anatolia: Nannoconusand Its Resived Taxonomy



    Nannoconids have been recorded in a rock-forming quantity in the uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous rock units in Northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Samples were collected from seventeen stratigraphic sections spanning the calciturbidities of the Yosunlukbayiri Formation and pelagic micrites of the Sogukçam Limestone. Because of rareness and difficulties for extracting of calcareous nannofossil species particularly zone markers in these type lithologies, nannoconids have particular attention in ter...


    Alexandru GRIBINCEA


    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  6. Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Central Anatolian Turkey

    Genc, Mustafa Serdar


    Clean and renewable energies obtaining from sunlight, wind or water around the earth do not make a net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Therefore, these energy sources should be used to protect our world, because of global warming and the injurious effects of carbon emissions. And so, it should be estimated the windy and sunny fields in Turkey, the unit cost of energy output of various wind and solar energy conversion systems. Today, wind energy seems to be reasonable due to...

  7. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection. PMID:25708566

  8. Mineralogy and petrology of leucite ankaratrites with affinities to kamafugites and carbonatites from the Kayıköy area, Isparta, SW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for the influences of carbonatite metasomatism into the parental mantle sources of silica-undersaturated potassic magmas

    Caran, Şemsettin


    In the Kayıköy area of Isparta-Gölcük district, Inner Isparta Angle, SW Anatolia, Turkey, a small volume of newly discovered K-rich mafic potassic magma was emplaced in the form of dome in the vicinity of graben structures under Pliocene (3.68 ± 0.5 Ma) extensional tectonics. Kayıköy leucite ankaratrites are made up of abundant diopside, barian phlogopite and leucite, and lesser olivine, that rarely contains Cr-spinel, nepheline and haüyne, with abundant magnetite. They have low SiO2 (44.00-46.04 wt.%) and Al2O3 (12.10-12.64 wt.%) with high K2O (4.00-4.42 wt.%), CaO (13.50-14.40 wt.%) and MgO (8.52-9.36 wt.%), with high Cr (397-547 ppm) and moderate Ni (57-74 ppm) contents. They represent the less evolved silica-undersaturated mafic potassic magmas within the Isparta-Gölcük volcanic province, and may be considered another parental source to the wide spectrum of the K-rich rocks. They are highly enriched in most of the incompatible elements (e.g., Ba, 2761 to > 10,000 ppm; Sr, 3700-4074 ppm; Th, 33.60-36.99 ppm; Zr, 274-321 ppm) with high LREEs, low HREEs and elevated LREEs/HREEs ratios [(La/Yb)N, 73-80] and are comparable with kamafugite and carbonatites. Trace element patterns have negative P, Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies in common with the Italian kamafugite province and lack of a Eu anomaly, in contrast to the negative Eu anomaly of the Italian province. Their Sr87/86-Nd143/144 (0.703877-0.512765) isotopic compositions, together with those of other potassic volcanics from the Inner Isparta Angle, coincide with the West Quinling (China) kamafugites with highly depleted mantle signatures, and young East African carbonatites. Olivine-Cr-spinel pairs, high Mg# (0.69-0.73) numbers and Cr values, and high incompatible and LREE contents in Kayıköy leucite ankaratritic magma are consistent with near-primary magmas equilibrated with enriched and heterogeneous (peridotitic/pyroxenitic) mantle sources. On the basis of (i) their geochemical signatures [low Ti

  9. Nature of Beypazari Granitoid: Geology and geochemistry, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey

    Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Zoroğlu, O.


    Beypazari Granitoid represents one of the widest exposure bodies within the Sakarya continent. It has several exposure bodies at Beypazari, Oymaagac, Tahir, Kirbasi and Yalnizcam of Eskisehir city. Although Beypazari Granitoid has several independence outcrops, the field geology and the aeromagnetic anomaly reveal that they are a unique body at the lower part of the crust. Field observations, mineralogical and petrographical investigations reveal that Beypazari Granitoid is composed of five different units these are monzonite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite, granite and alkali feldspar granite. Alkali feldspar granite cuts all the other subunits in the form of aplitic dyke. All the other subunits have gradual contact with the each other. Excluding alkali feldspar granite mafic enclaves are observed within the other 4 subunits as angular and elliptical in shape and changing from mm up to 20 cm in size. These enclaves can be divided genetically into three different types according to the field observation, textural features and mineralogical compositions. The first type has igneous texture, sharp contact with host rock, rimmed by fine crystalline mafic minerals and represents the abundant enclave type within the monzonite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite as elliptical to sub-angular in shape. These enclaves mostly have subophitic texture in the composition of diorite, quartz diorite and monzodiorite. Ocellar quartz, acicular apatite, poiclitic feldspars and blade shaped biotite are the most characteristic features of the first type of these enclaves, which may represent the magma mixing/mingling enclaves in origin. The second type of these enclaves has a cumulate texture and is representing a segregation of early crystallization processes of mafic minerals. The second type of these enclaves is the product of the early crystallization of magmatic differentiation and is forming the magma segregation enclave types. The third type of the enclaves have metamorphic texture with clear metamorphic lineation, sharp contact with host rock and mostly observed at the northwest part of Kirbasi and Tahir region in the form of xenolithic enclaves. They have angular to sub-angular in shape. These types of the enclaves have hornfels in composition at the contact with the host rock as a product of contact metamorphism and amphibolites in composition at the core as a product of high temperature and middle pressure metamorphism. The textural features and mineral composition of the third type of the enclaves may indicate a fragment of metapelitic rocks, which caught by the granitoid magma in the form of xenolithic enclaves. Whole rock geochemistry reveals that Beypazari granitoids are subalkaline and calcalkaline in nature. They are enriched in Light-REE and LIL with respect to High-REE and HFS elements. Tectonic discrimination diagrams of Beypazari granitoid suggest a product of plate convergence and probably belong to Volcanic Arc Granitoid (VAG). The field observations, mineralogy, petrography with the whole geochemical data reveal that the Beypazari Granitoid magmas are derived from a subduction-modified magma and metasomatized mantle source with considerable crustal contribution.

  10. Ethnomathematics in Anatolia-Turkey: Mathematical Thoughts in Multiculturalism

    Ahmet Küçük


    Full Text Available Los pensamientos matemáticos están en interacción con la cultura y forman un todo indivisible. Por consiguiente la Etnomatemática nos ayuda a comprender la naturaleza de las matemáticas y contribuye a la comprensión de uno mismo, así como a las demás personas que comparten el mismo planeta. La Etnomatemática refleja los estudios del pensamiento matemático de las sociedades multiculturales o tradicionales. El pensamiento matemático es un enfoque en que las personas intentan encontrar soluciones rápidas y sistemáticas a un problema de varias maneras. El rol de la Etnomatemática, que estudia los pensamientos matemáticos, no puede ser ignorado en un contexto histórico-cultural. Este documento examina algunas reflexiones etnomatemáticas en la cultura Anatoliana a través de la percepción de la geométrica en el campo de la ingeniería, las alfombras, los adornos de las alfombras y los juegos de inteligencia.

  11. Peridotite hosted chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits of West Anatolia: A review

    Zedef, Veysel


    Turkey has important chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits within peridotite host rocks. The peridotites (harzburgite, verlite, lherzolite and dunite) are mostly serpentinised as a result of metasomatic reaction of olivine and pyroxene minerals with percolating water. The serpentinites are generally an important part of ophiolitic complexes which displays a discontinuous belts all over the country. The chromite deposits are often related to cumulates and tectonites (as Alpine and/or podiform type deposits) and despite their small reserves, their grade can reach up to 58 %. In most deposits, a little enrichment efforts, the grade of chromite can easily be reached from 25 % to 40-45 %. The magnesite deposits of West Anatolia is especially concentrated in three provinces. These provinces are Konya, Kutahya and Eskisehir. The magnesites are of cryptocrystalline type and, like chromite deposits, their reserve are small but have high grade with low FeO-CaO and high MgO ratio. Once again, these deposits are found within serpentinised peridotites of ultramafic belts. The total (proven and inferred) magnesite reserves are approximately 200 million tons, and these are mostly cryptocrystalline character. A small amount of sedimentary magnesite deposits also present in Denizli (SW Anatolia) and Erzincan (Eastern Anatolia). The olivine deposits are found within peridotites of Western Anatolia. Especially, the Kızıldag olivine deposits (located between the border of Antalya and Konya provinces) are noteworthy with its huge (9 billion tons) reserves. The main olivine mineral is forsterite (Mg2SiO4) which has economically important when compared to other olivine mineral fayalite. The deposits have no quality problem but have a serious disadvantages since its location far from the ports and railway stations.


    O. Ozcan


    Full Text Available The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP. The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity on the watershed have been investigated

  13. The approach to frostbite in Turkey: A retrospective study.

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat


    Increased participation in outdoor activities and an epidemic of homelessness have caused the incidence of cold injuries in the civilian population of Turkey to rise dramatically during the past 20 years. Knowledge of treatment is crucial for emergency physicians in rural and urban areas. Recent developments have significantly advanced the understanding of the pathophysiology of hypothermic and frostbite injuries. The authors undertook a retrospective review of frostbite cases in the East Anatolia region of Turkey. The mean altitude of East Anatolia is 1600 m, and temperatures may be -35 degrees C at night and -18 degrees C in the morning in the cities and surrounding villages. Winter is prolonged and harsh, and freezing is a normal condition in this region. The socioeconomic level in this region is lower than other regions of Turkey. During the winter, roads may be closed for as long as five months, and most villages in East Anatolia have no medical units. Erzurum, one of the coldest cities in East Anatolia, is the only city with advanced medical hospitals in this region. Three hospitals in Erzurum were included in the present study: Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Erzurum Numune Hospital and Erzurum SSK Hospital. Frostbite case records and their properties are presented. PMID:19554225

  14. The balancing role of Turkey for the influence of China in Central Asia

    Gur, Mehmet


    Today, there is a dynamic new ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia engaging multiple players and institutions who compete for influence in Central Asia, such as the Russian-dominated Collective Security Treaty Organization, the U.S.-dominated NATO Partnership for Peace Program, and the Sino-Russian-dominated Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Of all the players, China is clearly one of the most dominant. China’s authoritarian regime, domestic problems, and huge energy demands hold potential threats f...

  15. Petrography, mineral chemistry, fluid inclusion microthermometry and Re–Os geochronology of the Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (Central Pontides, Northern Turkey).

    Akbulut, M; Oyman, T.; Çiçek, M.; Selby, D.; Özgenç, İ.; Tokçaer, M.


    The Re–Os isotopic system is applied for the first time to the sulfide ores and the overlying black-shales at the Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit of the Central Pontides, Northern Turkey. The ore samples collected include predominantly pyrite, accompanied by chalcopyrite, sphalerite and other species. Massive ore is almost free of gangues, whereas the stockwork ore includes quartz and calcite gangue. The composition of sphalerite is similar to ancient and modern massive sulfide mine...

  16. Turkey-Greece Relations Between 1919 and 1950

    Hakan UZUN


    Full Text Available The fact that Turkey and Greece have assumed their nation-state identities as a result of a war in which they have confronted has had a substantial impact on the shaping up of relations between thetwo states.The relations between Turkey and Greece, which stepped in Anatolia in 1919 as an occupying force, continued quite problematically until 1930s when the possibility of a war to break out in the world was prevalent.The relations between Greece and Turkey, which were quite favorable particularly during the period of Atatürk and Venizelos, were spoilt following the emergence of the Cyprus question in 1955.

  17. Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010

    Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan


    The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in Turkey. Turkey is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central Anatolian region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest Turkey, with less variation in precipitation.

  18. Mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological evaluation of the Plio-Quaternary paleosols and calcretes from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey

    Küçükuysal Ceren


    Full Text Available We present the mineralogical, micromorphological, and geochemical characteristics of the paleosols and their carbonates from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey. The paleosols include calcretes of powdery to nodular forms and alternate with channel deposits. The presence of pedofeatures, such as clay cutans, floating grains, circumgranular cracks, MnO linings, secondary carbonate rims, traces of past bioturbation and remnants of root fragments are all the evidence of pedogenesis. Bw is the most common soil horizon showing subangular-angular blocky to granular or prismatic microstructures. Calcretes, on the other hand, are evaluated as semi-mature massive, nodular, tubular or powdery forms. The probable faunal and floral passages may also imply the traces of life from when these alluvial deposits were soil. The presence of early diagenetic palygorskite and dolomite together with high salinization, high calcification and low chemical index of alteration values are evidence of the formation of calcretes under arid and dry conditions. δ13C compositions of the carbonates ranging from -7.11 ‰ to -7.74 ‰ VPDB are comformable with the world pedogenic carbonates favouring the C4 vegetation; likely δ18O compositions of the carbonates are between -3.97 ‰ and -4.91 ‰ which are compatible with the paleosols formed under the influence of meteroic water in the vadose zone

  19. Cenozoic tectonics of the Tuz Gölü Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey)

    FERNÁNDEZ-BLANCO, David; BERTOTTI, Giovanni; ÇİNER, T. Attila


    We present a new 3D geologic model for the architecture and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Tuz Gölü Basin, a major sedimentary basin in the Central Anatolian orogenic plateau. This model is grounded on 7 depth-converted seismic reflection profiles in combination with the analysis of backstripped subsidence curves, isochore maps, and a palinspastically restored cross-section. Two stages of basin formation are detected during Cenozoic times. During the Palaeogene, around 2 km of basement su...

  20. A survey on helminth infections of equines in the Central Black Sea region, Turkey

    UMUR, Şinasi; AÇICI, Mustafa


    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of helminth species in horses, donkeys, and mules in the Central Black Sea region, between March 2004 and July 2005. For this purpose, 140 faecal samples were taken from horses (n = 83), donkeys (n = 31), and mules (n = 26) in Samsun, Sinop, Ordu, Amasya, and Tokat provinces. Infection rates were 91.57% (76 of 83) in horses, 96.77% (30 of 31) in donkeys, and 96.15% (25 of 26) in mules. The parasite species and their prevalence in examined...

  1. Tectonic interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies of Turkey

    Complete text of publication follows. In this presentation, an interpretation of the aeromagnetic anomalies of Turkey will be discussed. Aeromagnetic data acquired by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA) is used in this study. Sensitivity of these data are suitable for regional studies. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction and advanced geophysical data processing methods were applied, and then data were gridded with 5x5 km intervals. Initially, aeromagnetic anomalies were upward continued to be at 2, 3, 5 and 7 km heights (including flight altitude). This application suppressed near surface effects and revealed that the 3 km upward continued aeromagnetic anomaly map is the most convenient map to reflect the deep-seated structures in Anatolia. Then, Reduction to the Pole (RTP) method was applied to the 3 km upward continued anomalies. Hence, it was observed that polarities of the most anomalies were aligned along the North-South direction. It is thought that the remanent magnetization is not existent in the west and the centre of Anatolia, in contrast to the east where polarities of the most anomalies are different from the north-south direction by the presence of strong remanent magnetization. In order to delineate the boundaries of the causative structures, Analytical Signal (AS) method was applied on the aeromagnetic anomalies. A sinuous boundary in the south of Turkey is apparent in the AS map which can be evaluated as suture zone between the Anatolides and non-magnetic African/Arabian Plate. Several important anomalies became more visible after AS transformation in Anatolia. These are, from west to east, the Suluklu-Cihanbeyli-Goloren (SCGA), Konya (KA), Cappadocian Volcanic Complex (CVCA) and Van Lake (VLA) magnetic anomalies. The East Anatolian Contractional Province Anomalies (EACPA) are intensively gathered in the East Anatolia where intensive earthquake activities are also observed. Magnetic

  2. Seismic Structure of Eastern Anatolia Crust

    Regional crustal structure, which is mainly, affected by the collision of the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates beneath Eastern Anatolia plateau has been investigated using seismological data. P-wave first arrivals and P-S waveforms of the earthquakes recorded by ETSE (1999-2001) and KOERI (Kandilli) stations were simulated. The crust has an average depth of 38 - 42 km and low velocity zones due to the partially melting were modeled

  3. Signature of slab fragmentation beneath Anatolia from full-waveform tomography

    Govers, Rob; Fichtner, Andreas


    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in the Tibetan plateau also. We focus on the eastern Mediterranean basin, which is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. We present new results of full-waveform tomography that allow us to image both the crust and upper mantle in great detail. We show that a major discontinuity exists between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. Also, the correlation of geological features and the crustal velocities is substantially stronger in the west than in the east. We interpret these observations as the imprint in the overriding plate of fragmentation of the neo-Tethys slab below it. This north-dipping slab may have fragmented following the Eocene (about 35 million years ago) arrival of a continental promontory (Central Anatolian Core Complex) at the subduction contact. From the Eocene through the Miocene, slab roll-back ensued in the Aegean and west Anatolia, while the Cyprus-Bitlis slab subducted horizontally beneath central and east Anatolia. Following collision of Arabia (about 16 million years ago), the Cyprus-Bitlis slab steepened, exposing the crust of central and east Anatolia to high temperature, and resulting in the velocity structure that we image today. Slab fragmentation thus was a major driver of the evolution of the overriding plate as collision unfolded.




    Full Text Available In history, Anatolia has long been known to have a complex composition, due to its unique geographical location and its role as host to many cultures. Clothes and accessories have been influenced by this cultural diversity. Headdresses used in harmony with clothing and thought to complement it, have been important and indispensable accessories, varying in color, shape and texture according to the clothing worn. These could differ in simplicity or grandeur, and vary according to cultural diffe rences or those in socio - economic levels. No matter their social class, women never ceased wearing th ese complementary accessories. Visual sources on Anatolian clothing culture revealed that although headdresses are accessories complementing clothing, their attributes were never studied with a scientific approach, which has been influential in the choice of the subject matter of this study. The aim of this study is to identify and classify the attributes of traditional women’s headdresses used in Anatol ia and to specify that the examples recorded and photographed are used in Anatolia. Historical and review methods were used in the research. Sources were studied with help of the observation form used as a data collection tool to examine women’s headdresse s used in Anatolia.




    Full Text Available The Hocaköy section measured from the Alakirçay Nappe (middle nappe of the Antalya Nappes contain rich radiolarian fauna ranging from late Norian (Late Triassic to middle-late Cenomanian (mid Cretaceous. At the basal part of the section, the Late Triassic (late Norian-Rhaetian Gökdere Formation is characterized by gray to beige cherty limestone at the base and pinkish red chert- gray to beige limestone alternation at the top, with moderately to well-preserved radiolarians in the red chert beds. The overlying Jurassic - Middle Cretaceous Hocaköy Radiolarite is mainly represented by chert-mudstone alternations with some limestone interlayers. Radiolarians of the Gökdere Formation can be well correlated with that of the fauna from the Mino Terrane, central Japan and the fauna from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Four radiolarian zones from central Japan are recognized in the fauna obtained from Gökdere Formation such as “Praemesosaturnalis multidentatus Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8A” (late Norian, “Praemesosaturnalis pseudokahleri Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8B” (late Norian, ? “ Skirt F lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8C” (late Norian-Rhaetian and partly “Haeckelicyrtium breviora Taxon Range Zone (TR8D” (Rhaetian. In comparison with the Queen Charlotte fauna, the two zones “Betraccium deweveri Zone” (late Norian and “Proparvicingula moniliformis Zone” (early Rhaetian are also encountered in the Gökdere Formation. Radiolarians of the uppermost part of the Gökdere Formation indicate that “Globolaxtorum tozeri Zone” defined in Queen Charlotte Islands corresponding to the late Rhaetian, is not present in the section. Five new taxa, Capnuchosphaera okayi, Bistarkum rhaeticum, Praemesosaturnalis heilongjiangensis aksekiensis, P. nobleae, Veghicyclia sanfilippoae were determined within the late Norian-Rhaetian radiolarian fauna of the Gökdere Formation in Hocaköy section.   

  6. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk


    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  7. First assessment on the molecular phylogeny of Anatololacerta (Squamata, Lacertidae) distributed in Southern Anatolia: insights from mtDNA and nDNA markers.

    Candan, Kamil; Kankılıç, Tolga; Güçlü, Özgür; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Çetin


    The genus Anatololacerta (Lacertidae) occurs mainly in Anatolia (western and southern Turkey) and on the Aegean islands Samos, Ikaria, and Rhodos. Although its taxonomy has long been debated and is currently nascent, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus: Anatololacerta anatolica, Anatololacerta oertzeni, and Anatololacerta danfordi. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of A. oertzeni and Anatololacerta danfordi based on both mitochondrial and nuclear markers (16S rRNA and cmos). In total, 34 Anatololacerta specimens were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Our results supported the presence of four well-supported lineages: two belongs to A. oertzeni and two to A. danfordi. The temporal diversification of these lineages probably started with the divergence of the first A. oertzeni lineage from western Antalya at 7.9 Mya. The other two major splits may have occurred in early Pliocene (4.4 Mya: the divergence of the second A. oertzeni from A. danfordi) and in late Pliocene (2.7 Mya: the divergence of the two lineages of A. danfordi). The phylogeographical scenario suggests that the major diversification events (from late Miocene to late Pliocene) could be related with climatic oscillations (such as the late Miocene aridification and the Messinian Salinity Crisis) and tectonic movements (such as the uplift of the central Taurus mountain). PMID:25489775

  8. New earthworm records from Turkey, with description of three new species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Pavlíček, Tomás; Coşkun, Yüksel; Csuzdi, Csaba


    Identifying the earthworm material recently collected in different parts of Turkey (Marmara Region, Upper Mesopotamia, Hatay Province and East Anatolia) resulted in records of 29 earthworm species including three lumbricids new to science: Dendrobaena cevdeti, D. szalokii and Eisenia patriciae spp. nov. In addition, Dendrobaena cognettii is reported for the first time from the country. With this contribution, the number of earthworm species and subspecies registered in Turkey is raised to 80. PMID:24870656

  9. A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central Anatolian plateau

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.


    During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, Turkey; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest Turkey) and (3) a regional regression across southern Turkey (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central Anatolian plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central Anatolian plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern Anatolian plateau also applies to the central Anatolian plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central Anatolian plateau. For the eastern Anatolian plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1

  10. Incidence Of Severe Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase(G6PD) Deficiency In Countryside Villages Of The Central City Of Manisa, Turkey


    Aim: The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of severe G6PD deficiency in selected countryside villages of central city of Manisa in Turkey. Secondarily to inform and protect G6PD deficient people from acute hemolytic crisis and neonatal jaundice by delivery of the updated protective food and drug list prepared in the light of the WHO- G6PD Working Committe reports. Methods: In this study, the incidence of severe G6PD deficiency were screened by Beutler\\'s Fluoresce...

  11. Palaeostress inversion in a multiphase deformed area: Kinematic and structural evolution of the Cankiri Basin (central Turkey), Part 1 - northern area

    Kaymakci, N.; White, S. H.; van Dijk, P.M.


    The kinematic and structural evolution of the major structures affecting the Çankırı Basin, central Turkey, has been deduced from a palaeostress inversion study. Four palaeostress tensor configurations indicative of four-phase structural evolution have been constructed from the fault slip data collected from the Çankırı Basin. The first two phases indicate the dominant role of thrusting and folding, and are attributed to the collision between the Pontides and the Taurides, the proposed interf...

  12. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern Anatolia

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.


    Extreme environmental events, such as floods, droughts, rainstorms, and strong winds have severe consequences for human society. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate. The cost of damage caused by extreme climate events is rising all over the world. The European Environment Agency (EEA) report ("Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Europe 2012") stated that the cost of damage had increased from € 9 billion in the 1980s to € 13 billions in the 2000s. In the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that 188 billion in damage was caused by the severe weather events in 2011 and 2012. Understanding and identifying hydrometeorologic extreme events and their changes through time are key in sustaining agriculture and socio-economic development. Planning for weather-related emergencies, agricultural and reservoir management and insurance risk calculations, all rely on knowledge of the frequency of these extreme events. The assessment of extreme precipitation is an important problem in hydrologic risk analysis and design. Erosion and removal of the fertile soil layer through hydroclimatic extreme events is also a serious problem in semi-arid to arid regions, especially in mediterranean climates. Accurate measurements of precipitation on a variety of space and time scales are important to climate scientists and decision makers, including hydrologists, agriculturalists and emergency managers. The historical record of precipitation observations is limited mostly to land areas where rain gauges can be deployed, and measurements from those instruments are sparse over large and meteorologically important regions of the Turkey, such as over the Southeastern Anatolia Region. While rain gauge measurements are often used to tune hydrologic models, they are limited by their spatial coverage. Remote sensing

  13. Surface uplift due to thermo-rheological changes in the crust: The case of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (S Turkey)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni; Cassola, Teodoro; Willett, Sean


    Late Miocene uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian orogenic plateau (SCAP) can be explained with our proposed surface uplift mechanism. This new model is based on the dynamic interactions between the growth of the Anatolian accretionary subduction margin and thermo-rheological changes at the base of its crust. Our thermo-rheological uplift mechanism fits newly obtained structural data, as well as compiled geological and geophysical data along a 550km-long arc-perpendicular transect. This transect runs between the Cyprian Arc trench and central Turkey through the area of the Anatolian upper-plate with larger uplift, i.e. central south Turkey. Observed deformation patterns and associated vertical motions along this transect indicate distributed shortening in relation to the subduction of the Cyprus slab, which still underlies this area. In the middle sectors of the transect a pre-Miocene basement gently dipping southward underwent regional subsidence since Early Miocene times. After ~8 Ma, surface uplift took place in the area of the future SCAP, as recorded by disruption of marine deposition and the onset of erosion, whereas subsidence persisted to the south of it, in the Cilicia Basin. Overall N-S shortening during this period developed regional contractional structures along the margin: the S-verging Kyrenia thrust system in N Cyprus, the S-dipping thrusts in the center of the Cilicia Basin, and the large-wavelength S-dipping monocline in S Turkey. We tested our proposed mechanism with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled finite elements models. The models demonstrate that sediment accretion and deposition in the central Cyprus accretionary forearc basin system led to crustal thickening of the Anatolian upper-plate, which in turn forced a sedimentary "blanketing" effect. This sedimentary "blanketing" effect controlled the temperature gradient in the crust, with decreased temperatures within the blanket and increased underneath it. Higher temperatures

  14. New seismological evidence for fragmentation of the Tethys slab beneath Anatolia

    Govers, R. M. A.; Fichtner, A.


    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. The eastern Mediterranean basin is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. New results from full waveform inversion for Anatolia give an unprecedented view on the crust and the upper mantle of the region. Based on highly accurate spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous Earth models, full waveform inversion exploits complete seismograms - including body and surface waves - for the benefit of improved resolution. Furthermore, 3D structure in both crust and mantle is constrained jointly, thereby avoiding contamination from commonly applied crustal corrections. Second-order adjoint techniques provide quantitative estimates of direction- and position-dependent resolution length, which is essential for the interpretation of the model. The images connect major structures in the crust as documented in the geology, to features in the upper mantle that reflect the remnants of the convergence and collision. The results show a major discontinuity between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. It is the imprint of syn-collisional segmentation of the neo-Tethys slab, and separates the Aegean and west Anatolia regions from central and east Anatolia. While convergence between Africa and Europe continued, this initiated a period of lithospheric extension in the west and flat slab subduction in the east that set the stage for earthquake and volcanic activity in the region today. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in, for instance, the Tibetan plateau also.

  15. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Turkan Dogan


    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  16. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin


    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  17. Petrogenesis and geochronology of the Deliktas, Sivrikaya and Devrekani granitoids and basement, Kastamonu belt-Central Pontides (NW Turkey): evidence for Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic plutonism, and geodynamic interpretation

    Nzegge, Odilia Mbonguh


    The Pontides orogenic belt (Ketin, 1966), is the central portion of an extensive belt running from western Bulgaria (Rhodope Mountains) through northern Turkey to the Caucasus. Three tectono-stratigraphically different sectors can be distinguished: the Western Pontides (Istanbul zone), the Central Pontides and the Eastern Pontides (Sakarya zone). The Central Pontides, located between the Izmir-Ankara suture to the south and the Black Sea to the north is the geographical term for the arched ce...

  18. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan


    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  19. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin


    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region. PMID:27156082

  20. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan


    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  1. Regional development goals and distributive politics in the allocation of Turkey's central investments: socioeconomic criteria, parties and legislators' personal networks

    Luca, Davide


    A growing body of theoretical contributions and empirical studies has explored how the spatial distribution of public resources and governmental transfers is likely to be driven by efficiency and equity, as well as by political considerations. This article applies this line of research to regional development policy making and explores the territorial distribution of public resources aimed at reducing interregional imbalances ? namely fixed capital investments ? in Turkey, a fast-growing, Med...

  2. Distribution of the tribe Osmiini bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) of Turkey Part II: the genera Haetosmia, Osmia and Protosmia

    ÖZBEK, Hikmet


    In the present study, research materials consisting of approximately 1200 bee samples, which have been collected from almost the entire country since the 1960s, but mainly from the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, were evaluated, a total of 101 species andsubspecies in three genera, Haetosmia (1), Osmia (87) and Protosmia (13) were recognized. Of these, Osmia (Helicosmia) labialis Pérez, 1879 is new for Turkey as well Asian Continenet. For the known species new distribution records were pro...

  3. Weed Control and Crop Production Practices in Cotton Production in Diyarbakır Province of Turkey

    ÖZASLAN, Cumali; AKIN, Songül; GÜRSOY, Songül


    Cotton agriculture is very important in South Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Weeds are major problems in cotton farming systems. In this study, a survey was conducted in Diyarbakır Province of Turkey to evaluate weed management practices being opted, crop production methods in use, most important weed species and major production problems in the region. Moreover, effect of agricultural extension activities on weed control was investigated. For this purpose, over 75 cotton growers were sur...

  4. Geochemical and mantle-like isotopic (Nd, Sr) composition of the Baklan Granite from the Muratdağı Region (Banaz, Uşak), western Turkey: Implications for input of juvenile magmas in the source domains of western Anatolia Eocene Miocene granites

    Aydoğan, M. Selman; Çoban, Hakan; Bozcu, Mustafa; Akıncı, Ömer


    The (late syn)- post-collisional magmatic activities of western and northwestern Anatolia are characterized by intrusion of a great number of granitoids. Amongst them, Baklan Granite, located in the southern part of the Muratdağı Region from the Menderes Massif (Banaz, Uşak), has peculiar chemical and isotopic characteristics. The Baklan rocks are made up by K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite and hornblende, with accessory apatite, titanite and magnetite, and include mafic microgranular enclaves (MME). Chemically, the Baklan intrusion is of sub-alkaline character, belongs to the high-K, calc-alkaline series and displays features of I-type affinity. It is typically metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, and classified predominantly as granodiorite in composition. The spider and REE patterns show that the rocks are fractionated and have small negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu ∗ = 0.62-0.86), with the depletion of Nb, Ti, P and, to a lesser extent, Ba and Sr. The pluton was dated by the K-Ar method on the whole-rock, yielded ages between 17.8 ± 0.7 and 19.4 ± 0.9 Ma (Early Miocene). The intrusion possesses primitive low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.70331-0.70452) and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.0 to -5.6). The chemical contrast between evolved Baklan rocks (SiO 2, 62-71 wt.%; Cr, 7-27 ppm; Ni, 5-11 ppm; Mg#, 45-51) and more primitive clinopyroxene-bearing monzonitic enclaves (SiO 2, 54-59 wt.%; Cr, 20-310 ppm; Ni, 10-70 ppm; Mg#, 50-61) signifies that there is no co-genetic link between host granite and enclaves. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the Baklan intrusion argue for an important role of a juvenile component, such as underplated mantle-derived basalt, in the generation of the granitoids. Crustal contamination has not contributed significantly to their origin. However, with respect to those of the Baklan intrusion, the generation of the (late syn)- post-collisional intrusions with higher Nd(t) values from the western Anatolia require a much

  5. An Investigation of Seismicity for Western Anatolia

    In order to determine the seismicity of western Anatolia limited with the coordinates of 36degree-40degreeN, 26degree-32degreeE, Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, seismic risk and recurrence period have been computed. The data belonging to both the historical period before 1900 (I03 6.0 corresponding to MS3 5.0) and the instrumental period until 2005 (MS3 4.0) have been used in the analysis. The study area has been divided into 13 sub-regions due to certain seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic models and geology of the region. Computations from a and b parameters and seismic risk and recurrence period for each sub-regions have showed that subregions 1 and 8 (Balikesir and Izmir-Sakiz Island), where have the lowest b values, have the highest risks and the shortest recurrence periods

  6. Mineral and Whole-rock Geochemistry of the Kestanbol Granitoid (Ezine-Çanakkale) and its Mafic Microgranular Enclaves in Northwestern Anatolia: Evidence of Felsic and Mafic Magma Interaction



    The Miocene Kestanbol granitoid, in Ezine-Çanakkale, Turkey, is one of post-collision granitoids of western Anatolia, which have been related to the the late Cretaceous collision between the Anatolide-Tauride platform and the Pontides. Magmatism began during the early Miocene, with coeval alkaline to calc-alkaline plutonism and volcanism, controlled by the regional tectonic evolution. The Kestanbol pluton intruded regionally metamorphosed basement rocks. Volcanic and volcano-clastic sedimenta...

  7. A multi-proxy intercomparison of environmental change in two maar lake records from central Turkey during the last 14 ka

    Roberts, C. Neil; Allcock, Samantha L.; Arnaud, Fabien; Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Jones, Matthew D.; Leng, Melanie J.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Malet, Emmanuel; Woodbridge, Jessie; Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, Hakan


    Individual palaeoenvironmental records are a combination of regional-scale (e.g. climatic) and local factors. In order to separate these signals, we compare multiple proxies from two nearby maar lake records, on the assumption that common signals are due to regional-scale forcing. On the other side, we infer that residual signals are likely to be local and site-specific, rather than reflecting regional climate changes. A new core sequence from Nar lake has been dated by varve counting and U-Th as covering the last 13,800 years (Dean et al., 2015; Roberts et al., 2016). Periods of marked dryness are associated with peaks in Mg/dolomite, elevated Diatom-Inferred Electrical Conductivity, an absence of laminated sediments, and low Quercus/chenopod ratios. These conditions occurred during the Late-Glacial stadial, at 4.3-3.7 and 3.2-2.6 ka BP. Wet phases occurred during the early Holocene and again 1.5-0.6 ka, characterised by negative δ18O values, calcite precipitation, high Ca/Sr ratios, a high % of planktonic diatoms, laminated sediments, and high Quercus/chenopod ratios. Comparison with the independently dated record from Eski Acıgöl (Roberts et al., 2001) shows good correspondence for many proxies, especially for δ18O. A ranking of multiple proxies shows the worst correspondence is for clastic lithogenic elements (e.g. Ti flux). Differences between the two lake records are caused by basin infilling at Eski Acıgöl, which fails to register climatic changes during the last 2 ka, and to catchment erosion and increased flux of lithogenic elements into Nar lake; this is catchment-specific and primarily anthropogenic rather than climatic in origin. In separating a regional signal from site-specific "noise", two lakes may therefore be better than one. Dean, J.R. et al. 2015 Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate over the late glacial and Holocene, reconstructed from the sediments of Nar lake, central Turkey, using stable isotopes and carbonate mineralogy. Quaternary

  8. The Turkey oak high forests in the Molise region (central Italy. Analysis of past silvicultural system and current management choices.

    Paolo Cantiani


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Aim of the work is to provide further knowledge on the silvicultural system applied to Quercus cerris hight forests in the Molise Region (Central Italy. An historical analysis, based on a number of forest management plans applied since 1940 referred to 19 municipalities and on other historical documents, is provided in the paper. Forest management has been traditionally applied in the Molise Region and therefore is at now possible to reconstruct in detail the management of the forests of Molise Region. The historical study has been integrated with the analysis of a chronosequence including four steps of stand development in a Turkey oak stand: the regeneration phase (1-2 yrs - the unthinned young stand (46 yrs - the unthinned adult stand (aged 60 to 100 - the mature stand (126 yrs. Mensurational surveys were carried out at each phase in order to characterize both stand structure and derive information on the silvicultural practices applied in the past, but not documented in the available papers. The stand age was determined by tree coring and count of annual rings. At the beginning of the last century, the silvicultural system to be applied in oak high forests wasn’t strictly defined and a particular kind of selection cutting was carried out. It was named taglio a salto per sezioni i.e. “compartment selection cutting”, partly leading back to a real selection cutting, partly to a shelterwood system. The use of the reported silvicultural system gave rise to irregular forest structures and led to management problems well-described in the management plans at the end of 1940s. Another consequence of the applied practices was the absence or the inadequate natural regeneration establishment. The contemporary unregulated practice of grazing the forest floor contributed to the unsuccessful regeneration and made the situation worse. The presence of an understorey layer made up by sproutings

  9. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar


    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  10. Coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey, using multitemporal landsat imagery.

    Durduran, S Savas


    This paper focuses mainly on the coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey. The Konya Closed Basin exists at the Central Anatolia Region and covers a region of 50,000 km(2) area corresponding to the 7% cumulative area of Turkey in which three million people live, 45% in rural areas and 55% in urban areas. The basin is surrounded with the city centers of Konya, Aksaray, Karaman, Isparta, Niğde, Ankara, Nevşehir, and Antalya cities. In this study, these changes were examined using Landsat TM and ETM+ 1987-2006 and 1990-2000. In the image processing step, image and vectorization of the satellite images were carried out to monitor coastline changes over the lakes located in the Konya Closed Basin Area. At the end of the study, significant coastline movements were detected for a 19-year period due to drought effects, agricultural watering, and planning mistakes experienced in the basin. PMID:19399635

  11. Evaluation of Groundwater Storage changes at Konya Closed Basin, Turkey using GRACE-based and in-situ measurements

    Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Saber, Mohamed; Tugrul Yilmaz, Mustafa


    The Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in Central Anatolia, Turkey, is the primary grain producer in Turkey. The lack of sufficient surface water resources and recently changing crop patterns have led to over-exploitation of groundwater resources and resulted in significant drop in groundwater levels. For this reason monitoring of the groundwater storage change in this region is critical to understand the potential of the current water resources and to devise effective water management strategies to avoid further depletion of the groundwater resources. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to examine and assess the utility of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to monitor and investigate the groundwater storage changes in the Konya Closed Basin. Groundwater storage changes are derived using GRACE and GLDAS data and then are compared with the groundwater changes derived from the observed groundwater levels. The initial results of the comparison indicate an acceptable agreement between declining trends in GRACE-based and observed groundwater storage change during the study time period (2002 to 2015). Additionally, the results indicated that the study region exhibited remarkable drought conditions during 2007-2008 period. This study shows that the GRACE/GLDAS datasets can be used to monitor the equivalent groundwater storage changes which is crucial for long-term effective water management strategies.

  12. Air mass patterns and temporal variation of the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation over Central Turkey and groundwater recharge

    Full text: Water vapour and event precipitation have been collected within the program of coordinated research project about isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate at Ankara since January 2001. The purpose of this study is the determination of the interaction between climate conditions, chemical composition and isotopic composition (δ18O, δ2H) of precipitation and water vapor in Turkey. For this purpose we have been collecting samples at Ankara station to understand the variation of daily/event and seasonal isotopic values of precipitation and water vapor. The study focuses on the systematic collection of basic data on isotope content of precipitation and water vapor in Ankara, Turkey to determine temporal variations of environmental isotopes in precipitation and consequently to provide basic isotopic data for the use of environmental isotopes in hydrological investigations within the scope of water resources inventory, planning and development. Sampling of rain water and water vapor have been carried out in Ankara Turkey, from January 2001 to December 2001, by means of a pluviometer, water vapor sampling system respectively. The relation between the isotopic composition of precipitation and synoptic parameters is examined. The rain samples can be separated into three group based on 'deuterium excess' for year 2001 and long term observation of Ankara, Antalya and Adana stations of Turkey. The majority of the samples have a 'deuterium excess' between 10 and 22 per mille and other has values less than 10 per mille and greater than 22. The rains with a 'deuterium excess' of more than 22 per mille, between 10 and 22 and less than 10 are associated with air masses which comes from East Mediterranean (SW), North Atlantic (N, NW) and Central Atlantic (W, SW) respectively. Although it is not possible to derive the isotopic composition of the water vapor from isotopic composition of

  13. Tibet and Beyond: Magmatic Records from CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Southern Tibet with Implications for Asian Orogeny and Continental Growth

    Chung, Sun-Lin


    This study, based on an ongoing joint research project "Tibet and Beyond", presents a synthesis of principal magmatic records from the CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Tibet-Himalaya orogens resulting from the continental collisions of Arabia and India, respectively, with Eurasia. In both orogens, through this and other recent studies, the temporal and spatial variations in magmatism pre-, syn- and post-dating the collisions can now be much better defined, thus improving our understanding of collision zone magmatism that appears to have evolved with changes in the lithospheric structures over time and space by collisional processes. The two "collisional" Tethyan orogens were preceded by accretionary orogenic processes, which not only had produced a substantial amount of juvenile continental crust but also fulfill the "orogenic cycle" that evolved from an accretionary into a collisional system. Geochemical data reveal that in contrast to generating vast portions of juvenile crust in the early, accretionary stages of orogenic development, crustal recycling plays a more important role in the later, collisional stages. The latter, as exemplified in SE Turkey and southern Tibet, involves addition of older continental crust material back into the mantle, which subsequently melted and caused compositional transformation of the juvenile crust produced in the accretionary stages. Similar features are observed in young volcanic rocks from eastern Taiwan, the northern Luzon arc complex and part of the active subduction/accretion/collision system in Southeast Asia that may evolve one day to resemble the eastern Tethyan and central Asian orogenic belts by collision with the advancing Australian continent.

  14. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H


    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved. PMID:17057981


    ATALAY, İbrahim


    The study area named NE Anatolia which is bounded by the Erzurum-Rize line on the west, the Erzurum-Tuzluca line or the Aras river valley on the south, comprises the subregion of the Eastern Black Sea and the subregion of Erzurum- Kars in Eastern Anatolia. From the vegetational point of view, the lower part of the Eastern Black Sea Mountains was covered by broad-leaved forests, and the upper section was occupied by pine forests. The southern slopes of the East Black Sea Mountains were covered...

  16. The determination of natural tourism potential of Eastern Anatolia Region and propositions for the planning of concerning Potential

    Nurettin Özgen


    Full Text Available Today, tourism is regarded as one of the most important factors that facilitate global approach and development. Among the alternatives of the tourism industry nicknamed as the chimneyless industry in the 21st century, especially cultural and natural tourism have gained momentum in recent years. Although the number of tourists of cultural and natural tourism is low in comparison to the coasts (sea tourism, the income they gained is well above the income of coast tourism. This situation has given way to the investments related to cultural and natural tourism in our country as it has in the world. The Eastern Anatolia Region with its vast lands, the highest and the most colourful natural geography in Turkey houses a rich natural tourism potential in terms of morphological climatic and floristic conditions. Changing climatic conditions throughout the altitude zones of the region and winter sports that arise in reflection to this situation improve the potential natural tourism in the region. The water volume of rich river network that appears in accordance with climate, heights and tectonic structure shows significant increases in rainy seasons (spring. In this season, the rivers whose volume of water rises form an important tourism potential for water sports. The purpose of this study is to reveal the tourism potential originating from natural geography of the Eastern Anatolia Region and to develop strategies for the alternatives of the natural tourism with SWOT analyses in the region as a sustainable economic source.

  17. Banded karyotypes of Allactaga williamsi from Central Anatolia

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan


    Roč. 34, - (2010), s. 533-537. ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Jerboa * comparative cytogenetics * G- and C-banding * AgNOR staining Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2010

  18. Azerbaycan Türkçesi İle Doğu Anadolu Ağızlarındaki Ortaklıklar Üzerine
    On The Common Traits Of The Azerbaijan Turkish And The Eastern Anatolia Dialects

    Engin GÖKÇÜR


    We call Oghuz Turkish spoken from Central Asia to Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, since 11th century, as the Western Turkic. This period is divided into two branches in time. One of them is the Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani and the other one is the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field. The Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani, and the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field are represented by a single written la...

  19. Late Neogene and active orogenic uplift in the Central Pontides associated with the North Anatolian Fault; implications for the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey

    Yildirim, C.; Schildgen, T.F.; Helmut Echtler; H. Melnick; Strecker, M. R.


    Surface uplift at the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) is integrally tied to the evolution of the Central Pontides (CP), between the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the Black Sea. Our regional morphometric and plate kinematic analyses reveal topographic anomalies, steep channel gradients, and local high relief areas as indicators of ongoing differential surface uplift, which is higher in the western CP compared to the eastern CP and fault-normal components of geodetic sl...

  20. Understanding the intraplate deformation of the Anatolian Scholle: Insights from the study of the Ovacik Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Akçar, Naki


    The tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly defined by the interaction between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, Arabia and the smaller Anatolian 'scholle'. The Anatolia is being extruded westward along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian (NASZ) and the East Anatolian (EASZ) shear zones, respectively forming its northern and eastern boundaries. Although there are many geologic and geodetic studies infer that the deformation is mainly concentrated along the NASZ and the EASZ, it is also well documented that the central 'ova' neotectonic province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the NASZ in the north and the EASZ in the east, is also deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. These active structures clearly fit to the passive-Prandtl cell model of an internally deforming body, which is originally suggested by Sengör (1979) to interpret the neotectonics of the central Anatolia. The Malatya-Ovacik Fault Zone (MOFZ) and it is northeastern member, the Ovacik Fault (OF), is one the sinistral faults of the 'ova' province, located close to its eastern boundary. In the framework of the TUBITAK project no. 114Y227, we started to study the (a) the geologic slip rate, (b) the palaeoseismology and (c) the cumulative displacement of the OF in order to understand not only the short and long term spatio-temporal behaviour of this 110 km-long strike slip fault, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian 'scholle'. The faulting is clearly observed along the well-preserved scarps and displaced fluvial landforms at the northern margin of the Ovacik Basin (Tunceli, Turkey), where the deformation is mainly localised along a single strand. The preliminary cosmogenic 36Cl dates of two independent terrace risers at a single site yield slip rates about 1.5 and 1.9 mm/yr (Zabci et al. 2014), which slightly exceed the GPS-based block model

  1. A 3000-year record of ground-rupturing earthquakes along the central North Anatolian fault near Lake Ladik, Turkey

    Fraser, J.; Pigati, J.S.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Vanneste, K.; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.


    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a ???1500 km long, arcuate, dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey that extends from the Karliova triple junction to the Aegean Sea. East of Bolu, the fault zone exhibits evidence of a sequence of large (Mw >7) earthquakes that occurred during the twentieth century that displayed a migrating earthquake sequence from east to west. Prolonged human occupation in this region provides an extensive, but not exhaustive, historical record of large earthquakes prior to the twentieth century that covers much of the last 2000 yr. In this study, we extend our knowledge of rupture events in the region by evaluating the stratigraphy and chronology of sediments exposed in a paleoseismic trench across a splay of the NAF at Destek, ???6:5 km east of Lake Ladik (40.868?? N, 36.121?? E). The trenched fault strand forms an uphill-facing scarp and associated sediment trap below a small catchment area. The trench exposed a narrow fault zone that has juxtaposed a sequence of weakly defined paleosols interbedded with colluvium against highly fractured bedrock. We mapped magnetic susceptibility variations on the trench walls and found evidence for multiple visually unrecognized colluvial wedges. This technique was also used to constrain a predominantly dip-slip style of displacement on this fault splay. Sediments exposed in the trench were dated using both charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells to constrain the timing of the earthquake events. While the gastropod shells consistently yielded 14 C ages that were too old (by ???900 yr), we obtained highly reliable 14 C ages from the charcoal by dating multiple components of the sample material. Our radiocarbon chronology constrains the timing of seven large earthquakes over the past 3000 yr prior to the 1943 Tosya earthquake, including event ages of (2?? error): A.D. 1437-1788, A.D. 1034-1321, A.D. 549-719, A.D. 17-585 (1-3 events), 35 B.C.-A.D. 28, 700-392 B.C., 912-596 B.C. Our results

  2. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet


    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  3. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz


    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.




    The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equi...

  5. Turkey - Improving Conditions for SME Growth Finance and Innovation

    World Bank


    Facilitating the growth of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is central to creating jobs for an underutilized and growing labor force in Turkey as SMEs account for 79 percent of jobs in Turkey. Creating jobs for Turkey's unemployed and for the rapidly growing labor force, though partly a social challenge, is an important economic opportunity. Turkish SME growth performance and pro...

  6. Geology and the conservation of antique monuments in Turkey

    Bowen, Robert


    This article deals with a geological investigation carried out as a fundamental part of the conservation and static restoration of several antique churches excavated in andesitic tuff in the Göreme valley and adjacent areas of Cappadocia in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Two stages have been completed already, in 1982 and 1985, respectively, and the work is still in progress. Seismicity is not regarded as a structural hazard, but the geological history includes a series of volcanic episodes since the Oligocene (about 38 million years ago), which persisted into fairly recent times and laid down a great thickness of tuff rock. Erosion sculptured this tuff preferentially because of irregular harder, basaltic layers, which later capped rock pinnacles, the so-called peribacalars, in which churches were hewn over a thousand years ago. Because the host rock is heavily fissured, precipitation has entered and has damaged many mural paintings. These are also subject to vandalism, and efforts have been made to restore them by the usual conservation intervention. However, grouting is necessary and must take into account the porosity of the tuff, which also permits capillary rise from crypts. Sometimes, during wet episodes, water flushes into these and scours the interior walls as well. The basic problem remains geological, and the contribution of the earth sciences is very important. Thus, an engineering geology study has determined that the tuff rock is suitable both for building retaining walls and acting as a constituent in cement grout. It is expected that the UNESCO/ICCROM program to save the churches will be completed successfully within the next five years or so.


    Pervin ŞENOL


    Full Text Available Cities and towns are characterized by various types of buildings constructed with local materials, specifically detailed for indigenous conditions. In addition to environmental circumstances – such as climate, topography etc.- and availability of the materials, local cultural practices determine both housing types and architectural styles of the regions. Vernacular buildings in Anatolia typically were designed and constructed by residents of the regions who utilized traditional building techniques for their own types of daily life.In this context, this study investigates the general characteristics and sustainable properties of traditional residential buildings in Korkuteli region of Antalya, Turkey. Three different traditional structural systems of the region are selected to examine in terms of spatial organization, building type and material, and structural properties in relation with existing user profile. For this purpose, along with the measurements and drawings of these three houses, face to face interviews with residents of the case buildings were conducted. The data gained through the process are evaluated in terms of sustainability of traditional structural systems and way of life.

  8. Petrogenesis of the Kösedağ Pluton, Suşehri-NE Sivas, East-Central Pontides, Turkey



    The Kösedağ syenite crops out as a shallow-seated pluton within the Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks and is unconformably overlain by Lower Miocene limestones in the Suşehri-NE Sivas region, east-central Pontides. It consists of syenites and quartz syenites with a phaneritic, porphyritic texture characterized by K-feldspar megacrysts set in a coarse- to medium-grained groundmass comprising K-feldspar, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite and quartz. Major element geochemistry data r...

  9. Kinematics of the Central Taurides during Neotethys closure and collision, the nappes in the Sultan Mountains, Turkey

    Güngör, Talip


    In the Central Taurides, the Sultan Mountains comprise in ascending order the Çimendere unit and the Akşehir, Doğanhisar, Çay nappes composed of metasedimentary sequences deposited from Cambrian to Tertiary. The overthrust of the Çay nappe on the Lutetian Celeptaş formation representing the uppermost stratigraphic position in the Çimendere unit indicates that the latest nappe emplacement occurred during the Middle Eocene. The Oligocene and Miocene rocks are in post-tectonic facies in the west Central Taurides. The kinematic data from these nappes related to closure of the Neotethys reveal a top-NE shear sense in the northwest part and a top-SE shear sense in the southeast part of the Sultan Mountains. The Sultan Mountains are located in the north part of the Isparta Angle which was tectonically assembled by the Lycian, Hoyran-Beyşehir-Hadim and Antalya allochthons on the Bey Dağları and Anamas-Akseki autochthons from the Latest Cretaceous to the Late Pliocene. The previous paleomagnetic data showed that the west and east subsections of the Isparta Angle were subjected to post-Eocene 30°-40° anticlockwise and clockwise rotations, respectively. In consideration of these paleomagnetic data, the kinematic data measured in the Sultan Mountains might be restored into approximately E-W-trending linear fabric associated with a top-E shear sense. These new kinematic data from the nappes in the Sultan Mountains disagree with the existing tectonic models that suggest N-S nappe translation over the Central Taurides during the latest Cretaceous-Middle Eocene. The alternative tectonic model for the Antalya nappes in the core of the Isparta Angle related to east-west compression suggests westward and eastward nappe emplacements on the surrounding autochthons. However, the new kinematic data presented here point consistently to a top-E shear sense in all tectonostratigraphic units in the Sultan Mountains currently located in the north part of the Anamas

  10. Ceramic workshops in Hellenistic and Roman Anatolia : production characteristics and regional comparisons

    Sökeli, Heves


    This thesis aims to study local ceramic productions in Anatolia during the Hellenistic and the Roman periods. It analyzes the ceramic productions of Phocaea, Magnesia ad Maeandrum and Cnidus in the western coast, Sagalassos in the inner Anatolia, and Sinope in the southern Black sea region. The aim of the thesis is to examine whether it is possible to group shape production geographically in Anatolia and to detect whether local centers influenced each other or if external influ...