WorldWideScience
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Micro-ion beam accelerator at QSEC of Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brief introduction is given of the new accelerator installed this March at the Quantum Science and Engineering Center (QSEC) of Kyoto University. The tandem type accelerator (6SDH-2, NEC, USA) has the maximum terminal voltage of 2 MV and is capable of delivering energies of 2(q+1)[MeV] for ions with charge state q. Chief specification of the machine and the aim of research and education are described. Historical role of the accelerator laboratory of QSEC and the budget strategy network of universities are also introduced. (author)

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Pew Center on Global Climate Change: Beyond Kyoto  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change "brings together business leaders, policy makers, scientists, and other experts to bring a new approach to a complex and often-controversial issue." Visitors to this Pew Center Web site will find six downloadable working papers from former Kyoto Protocol negotiators and other climate experts as part of a new initiative titled Beyond Kyoto: Advancing the International Effort Against Climate Change. For the rest of August, readers may review and offer feedback on these working papers, which are intended as "think pieces" to explore the challenges facing the international climate effort. The site includes a useful glossary of important terms.

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Present status of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, we have two facilities for BNCT such as a reactor-based and an accelerator-based neutron source. In this article, we will present the characteristics overview of both facilities. (author)

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Present status of Kyoto University MIR-FEL facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a linac based Mid Infrared Free electron Laser (MIR-FEL) facility in Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University. The Kyoto University Free electron laser (KU-FEL) consists of 4.5-cell thermionic RF gun, S-band accelerator tube and Halbach undulator. The lasing wavelength is 12-14 ?m at present. The limitation of the lasing wavelength mainly comes from instability of the thermionic RF gun and performance of the undulator. In order to extend tuning range of wavelength and improve stability we have been working on the study of electron source, beam diagnostic and control, and replacement of the undulator. As a pilot application to evaluate selective phonon excitation processes in solid materials by irradiating with MIR-FEL, a PL measurement system was installed and we have started test measurement. In 2011, the Joint Usage/Research Center program 'The core research center program on Zero-Emission Energy' was authorized by the MEXT and the KU-FEL facility is open for users through the program. (author)

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Polarized ionic source of the tandem accelerator in Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A polarized ion source developed under the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics was transferred to the tandem accelerator in Kyoto University at beginning of 1993 to constitute a displacement of incidence into the accelerator. This was an atomic beam type polarized ion source, which is designed to adopt permanent magnets for 6 poles magnet to polarize the electron, to take out atomic nucleus on a shape of positive ion by ECR ionizer after transferring its polarization through transition using radio frequency (RFT), to make it negative ion by charge conversion using alkaline metal vapor, and to put it into the tandem accelerator. Test of the positive ion was finished at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics, and test in Kyoto University was required after its negative ionization. As the estimated cost was unsufficient and entrance into the ion source facility in the tandem accelerator building was limited in Kyoto University, step of development was slow. Here is reported on present state of the ion source which is now operating stably. (G.K.)

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Safety considerations of new critical assembly for the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new critical assembly type of nuclear reactor having three cores for the first time in the world was completed successfully at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University in autumn of 1974. It is called KUCA (Kyoto University Critical Assembly). Safety of the critical assembly was considered sufficiently in consequence of discussions between the researchers of the institute and the design group of our company, and then many bright ideas were created through the discussions. This paper is described the new safety design of main equipments - oil pressure type center core drive mechanism, removable water overflow mechanism, core division mechanism, control rod drive mechansim, protection instrumentation system and interlock key system - for the critical assembly. (author)

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Satellite pulsed tiny neutron source at Kyoto University, Sakyo  

Science.gov (United States)

A pulsed neutron source facility will be constructed at Kyoto University, where the accelerated 3.5 MeV proton beam will bombard a Li or Be target to generate neutrons. The average current, the pulse width and the typical repetition rate are 100 ?A, 100 ?s and 70 Hz, respectively. The purposes of the system are neutron imaging, material science, fundamental physics, etc. This kind of compact facility, which can be distributed at modest cost, will help to incubate new ideas and promote growth of neutron science worldwide.

Iwashita, Y.; Nagae, T.; Tanimori, T.; Fujioka, H.; Shimizu, H. M.

2011-04-01

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Trial of very cold neutron radiography in Kyoto University reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A practical very cold neutron (VCN) radiography using a neutron imaging plate was carried out in VCN facility, Kyoto University Reactor (KUR: 5 MW). The neutron flux from the VCN bender with the characteristic wavelength of 4.8 nm gives a good image with 5 min irradiation time when CNS was operated. The macroscopic total cross sections of water were measured by imaging plates. It is ?th=0.87 cm-1 measured in KUR E2 thermal neutron radiography facility and that of VCN is ?VCN=9.4 cm-1. The resolution of water thickness is less than 0.1 mm for VCN radiography and close to the positional resolution of an imaging plate. VCN radiography can show the change of water quantity in gypsophila during a drying procedure

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PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

2001-03-15

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Some experiences of upgrading research reactor performance for effective utilization in Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University research Reactor (KUR) was remodeled in order to upgrade the performance of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) in the fiscal year 1995. A new materials irradiation facility was installed in the KUR during fiscal year 1996-1998. These facilities have been used effectively to promote the joint use program among Japanese universities. (author)

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Management of radioactive liquid and solid wastes at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, (3)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, the management of radioactive liquid and solid wastes at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University during past 6 years, from April in 1971 to March in 1977 are reviewed. (auth.)

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Operational safety and reactor life improvements of Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent important experience in improving the operational safety and life of a reactor are described. The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is a 25-year-old 5 MW light water reactor provided with two thermal columns of graphite and heavy water as well as other kinds of experimental facilities. In the graphite thermal column, noticeable amounts of neutron irradiation effects had accumulated in the graphite blocks near the core. Before the possible release of the stored energy, all the graphite blocks in the column were successfully replaced with new blocks using the opportunity provided by the installation of a liquid deuterium cold neutron source in the column. At the same time, special seal mechanisms were provided for essential improvements to the problem of radioactive argon production in the column. In the heavy-water thermal column we have accomplished the successful repair of a slow leak of heavy water through a thin instrumentation tube failure. The repair work included the removal and reconstructions of the lead and graphite shielding layers and welding of the instrumentation tube under radiation fields. Several mechanical components in the reactor cooling system were also exchanged for new components with improved designs and materials. On-line data logging of almost all instrumentation signals is continuously performed with a high speed data analysis system to diagnose operational conditions of the reactor. Furthermore, through detailed investigations on critical components, operational safety during further extended reactor life will be supported by well scheduled maintenance programs

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Nuclear and process instrumentations of Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) is a new type critical assembly with three cores which consist of highly enriched uranium and of solid moderator or light water moderator. Three fission chambers, three un-compensated ionization chambers and co-axial cables connected to preamplifiers or to a cable junction box are located at each core assembly. By the junction box near at the entrance of the reactor room, each channel of amplifier, high voltage and some interlock cables are connected to a set of six neutron detectors of the operating core. The basic role of the operating staff of a nuclear research reactor is, of course, to operate the reactor safety and efficiently. In achieving this, the philosophy of ''fail safe'', ''fool proof'', ''high reliability'' and many other contrivances are employed in designing the nuclear instrumentation. the initial critical experiment of KUCA was performed in August 1974. Since then, several troubles occured in the first one year, e.g. spurious scram LOG-N amplifier, but these troubles have been solved. In a whole, the nuclear instrumention has been operated as expected. In the present report, the basic concept of instrumentation, its construction, and the operation experience are described. (author)

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History of the research reactor institute of Kyoto University in view of nuclear science information data base (KURRIP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University was established as an inter-university research institute in 1963, a large number of cooperative research projects have been achieved by visiting scientists and its own staff in various research fields, making use of facilities centered around the Kyoto University Reactor, as well as the other experimental facilities. Ten years ago, the construction of the 'KURRIP' data base was initiated to grasp the whole aspect of the research activities at the Institute, in commemoration of its 20th anniversary. At the present time, KURRIP contains the information on 5,910 papers published for 29 years from 1963 to 1991. As this academic year is the 30th anniversary of the Institute, the history of its research activities was reviewed again using this data base. All of the publications were classified by authors's affiliations, kinds of papers, publishers, fields of studies, and research facilities used, and their historical variations are checked and discussed. (author)

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Research on neutron radiography in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and activities related to it  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research on neutron radiography in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University was begun in 1974 using the E-2 experimental hole which was designed for neutron irradiation. It was reconstructed for the excellent performance as neutron radiography facility by fixing aluminum plugs, a collimator and so on. The research activities thereafter are briefly described. In 1989, the cold neutron facility was installed in the graphite thermal neutron facility, and the experiment on cold neutron radiography became feasible. The reactor in Kyoto University is of the thermal output of 5 MW, and is put to the joint utilization by universities and research institutes in whole Japan. The experimental items carried out so far are enumerated. At present, the main subjects of research are the development of the standard for establishing image evaluation method, the analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow, the construction of the data base for the literatures and images of neutron radiography, the application of cold neutron radiography, the development of the imaging method using fast neutrons and so on. The thermal neutron radiography and the cold neutron radiography facilities of Kyoto University research reactor are described. The research and activities at Kyoto University research reactor and the investigation of problems are reported. (K.I.) 56 refs

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Annual report of Radiation Laboratory Department of Nuclear Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is the collection of the papers presented research activities of Radiation laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University during the 1992 academic/fiscal year (April, 1992 - March, 1993). The 48 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

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Present status of operation and utilization of Kyoto University Reactor, KUR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Research Reactor Institute was established as an inter-university research institute in 1963. The main installation of the Institute is the KUR, a light water moderated, tank type reactor of 5,000 kW. In addition, a 46 MeV electron linear accelerator and a gamma ray irradiation facility with 10,000 Ci Co-60 are actively used for research. In 1974, Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) was constructed, and it has been used for research and education. The Reactor Utilization Center and the Fundamental Research Laboratory for Neutron Therapy were established in 1975 and 1976, respectively. Approximately 200 people work there, of them, some 80 do research and education, including 13 professors and 12 associate professors. All the experimental facilities of the Institute are available for the cooperative research projects of other universities and public research institutions in the fields of natural science and engineering, medical science, agriculture and forestry, fishery and stock-raising, environment science, cultural science and others. As a rule, the KUR is operated for about 70 hours from Tuesday morning to Friday evening every week. The annual examination by the government is carried out in spring. The total operation time was about 45,000 hours as of the end of 1987. The recent topics are reported. (Kako, I.)

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Data base of reactor physics experimental results in Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities belong to the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and are the versatile critical assembly constructed for experimentally studying reactor physics and reactor engineering. The facilities are those for common utilization by universities in whole Japan. During more than ten years since the initial criticality in 1974, various experiments on reactor physics and reactor engineering have been carried out using many experimental facilities such as two solidmoderated cores, a light water-moderated core and a neutron generator. The kinds of the experiment carried out were diverse, and to find out the required data from them is very troublesome, accordingly it has become necessary to make a data base which can be processed by a computer with the data accumulated during the past more than ten years. The outline of the data base, the data base CAEX using personal computers, the data base supported by a large computer and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

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Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2011 : Special Edition of Jointed Symposium of Kyoto University Global COE “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming” and Ajou University BK21  

CERN Document Server

The nuclear plant accident at Fukushima in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami has had a major impact on the energy strategy of Japan and the world. From a global perspective, approach to energy is of greater and greater consequence. The Global Center of Excellence (COE) Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, with the support of university faculty members, has established an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies for establishing a CO2 zero-emission society no longer dependent on fossil fuels by the year 2100. Since 2008, a program called “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming—Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System” has been in progress at Kyoto University. A third international symposium, titled “Zero-Carbon Energy, Kyoto 2011,” was held jointly with Ajou University, Korea, in August 2011, and this book is a compila...

2012-01-01

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Analysis of kyoto university reactor physics critical experiments using NCNSRC calculation methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kyoto university reactor physics experiments on the university critical assembly is used to benchmark validate the NCNSRC calculations methodology. This methodology has two lines, diffusion and Monte Carlo. The diffusion line includes the codes WIMSD4 for cell calculations and the two dimensional diffusion code DIXY2 for core calculations. The transport line uses the MULTIKENO-Code vax Version. Analysis is performed for the criticality, and the temperature coefficients of reactivity (TCR) for the light water moderated and reflected cores, of the different cores utilized in the experiments. The results of both Eigen value and TCR approximately reproduced the experimental and theoretical Kyoto results. However, some conclusions are drawn about the adequacy of the standard wimsd4 library. This paper is an extension of the NCNSRC efforts to assess and validate computer tools and methods for both Et-R R-1 and Et-MMpr-2 research reactors. 7 figs., 1 tab

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Safety system and 10 years experience in the maintenance of Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) is a new type facility for joint use program among universities and research institutes. It consists of two solid-moderated cores and a water-moderated core. In order to keep safe operation of the critical assembly, safety system has been designed to meet the complex operating systems. The first critical experiment of KUCA was performed in August 1974. Since then, this safety system has served for the safety operation of KUCA. In the present report, the outline of this system and the maintenance are described. (author)

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First lasing of mid infrared free electron laser in Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have constructed a Mid Infrared Free Electron Laser facility for advanced energy researches in Kyoto University. Beam commissioning has been completed by the end of Mar. 2008 and the first lasing at 12.4 ?m has been achieved in Mar. 2008. In the first lasing experiment, due to the inadequate macro pulse duration of the electron beam, power saturation was not observed. To achieve power saturation, we have applied a new beam loading compensation method. As the results, the saturation of the FEL at 13.6 ?m was successfully achieved. (author)

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Interim report on construction of data base for atomic energy science documents (concerning Kyoto University Reactor)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute was established in 1963 as a research institute for all universities in Japan utilizing the facilities in common. The construction of a document data base has been undertaken in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the institute. The data base concerns the research works performed at the institute and also the publications and reports on the research made by the personnel belonging to the institute. Input data are gathered from concerned researchers. In this interim report, the structure and contents of this data base are shortly described. One of the features of this data base is that it handles data with both Japanese and English at the same time. (Aoki, K.)

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Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

2015-01-01

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Conceptional study of remodeling of the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heavy water facility of the Kyoto University reactor is required to be remodelled in order to improve the safety of the whole facility. The main objectives of the remodeling are: 1) easy maintenance, 2) no leakage of heavy water or light water for cooling of the heavy water tank, and 3) to enable medical irradiation during continuous operation of the reactor. Improvement of the performance as a thermal neutron irradiation field is also intended. The outline of the present heavy water thermal neutron facility is described, and conceptional study of the remodeling is presented. A shutter system enabling the use during continuous operation is mentioned. The method and procedure of the remodeling is examined and outlined. (T.H.)

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Clinical experience of BNCT for brain and skin tumors at Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research nuclear reactor of Kyoto University (KUR), which was established in 1963, has the power of 5 MW and has rendered services to scientists in various fields including biology and medicine. The first clinical application was carried out on a brain tumor patient by Professor Hatanaka in 1974. Eight Japanese, 2 German and one American patients were treated. The ages of patients were 9-66 years and all were male. Skin tumors were irradiated at KUR to measure 10B content in the tissues by Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube (NMNGT) attached to KUR, before BNCT. Except in a few cases, patients had recurrent tumours after previous treatment by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgical treatments. The absorbed dose used in the previous radiotherapy before BNCT was a curative dose. The time intervals between previous radiotherapy and BNCT varied. The treated skin tumours included various grades of melanoma. Some cases appeared to be astrocytoma grade IV

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Lasing at 12 µm Mid-Infrared Free-Electron Laser in Kyoto University  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser amplification using a 12 µm mid-infrared free-electron laser (MIR-FEL) was observed at the Institute of Advanced Energy (IAE), Kyoto University. A 25 MeV electron beam of 17 A peak current was used for the lasing experiment. A beam loading compensation method with an RF amplitude control in the thermionic RF gun was used to extend the macropulse duration against the backbombardment effect in the thermionic RF gun. As a result, an electron beam with a 4 µs duration was generated. A laser output with an intensity 50 times as high as the spontaneous emission intensity was observed. FEL gain was estimated to be 16% from the exponential growth of the laser output signal, and a cavity loss of 2.8% was estimated from the decay of the laser output signal. Three-dimensional (3D) FEL simulation was also performed to achieve the gain saturation in our FEL device.

Ohgaki, Hideaki; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Zen, Heishun; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shiiyama, Takumi; Kinjo, Ryota; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

2008-10-01

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Development of IR-FEL facility for energy science in Kyoto University  

Science.gov (United States)

A mid-infrared free electron laser (FEL) has been constructed for energy science in the Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University. The FEL system consists of a compact S-band Linac and an undulator to generate 4-13 ?m coherent mid-infrared radiations. The Linac consists of a 4.5 cell rf gun with a thermionic cathode and a 3-m traveling-wave-type accelerator tube fed by 10 MW and 20 MW rf power, respectively. We have succeeded to produce 40 MeV, 40 mA and 3 ?s electron beams. Last December, the 9.2 ?m spontaneous emission from the undulator generated by 29.5 MeV electron beams was observed for the first time. Further optimization parameters of both the electron beam and the optical cavity are being pursued for an FEL lasing in the near future.

Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

2008-05-01

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Design studies of IR-FEL system at IAE, Kyoto University  

Science.gov (United States)

An infrared FEL facility for bio/chemical energy research is under construction at the Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University. The electron beam of 25-40 MeV with macropulse duration up to 3 ?s will be generated by an S-band linac with a thermionic RF gun. Numerical studies to estimate the electron beam parameters and expected FEL gain of the present system have been performed to settle the goal for the system commissioning and the first operational condition. The results show that the present system can provide lasing in the wavelength from 4 to 13 ?m by using a 180° arc. However, the macropulse duration is too short to deliver stable FEL for a practical usage.

Ohgaki, H.; Tometaka, I.; Yamane, K.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamazaki, T.

2003-07-01

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Summary reports of activities under visiting research program in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Technical Report of Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, is published on occasion summarizing in the form of prompt report the results of the functional test on various experimental facilities, the test results of the articles made for trial, the circumstance of radiation control and waste treatment, the data required for research and experiment such as the reports of study meetings, the remarkable results obtained amid research, new method, the discussion on other papers and reports and others. In this report, 40 summaries of the Visiting Research Projects utilizing the KUR and 13 summaries of those utilizing the KUCA in 1988, and 2 unreported summaries before 1988 are collected. In each summary, the number of adoption, title, the names of reporters and the gist of report are given. (K.I.)

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Progress review of accelerator-driven system at Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is going ahead with a research project on the accelerator-driven system (ADS) using the fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator. The goal of the research project is to demonstrate the basic feasibility of ADS as an energy amplifier system using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) coupled with the FFAG accelerator. A series of basic ADS experiments on nuclear reactor physics has been carried out using a solid-moderated and reflected core (A-core) with 14 MeV pulsed neutrons generated by deuterium-tritium reactions. Static and kinetic experiments have been conducted for examination of the neutronic characteristics in the subcritical systems: reaction rate distribution and neutron spectrum using the foil activation method; subcriticality using several methods; neutron decay constant and neutron multiplication using the optical fibre detection systems. In the new ADS experiments using the FFAG accelerator (protons: 100 MeV energy; 5 pA intensity), the high-energy neutrons generated at a tungsten target were successfully injected into the KUCA A-core in March 2009. In March 2010, thorium-loaded ADS experiments (100 MeV energy; 30 pA intensity) were carried out to conduct a feasibility study on neutron multiplication by thorium fission reactions generated by the high-energy neutrons. In the future, on the basis of the experiments conducted in the past at KUCA relating to the minor actinides (MA) of 2ting to the minor actinides (MA) of 237Np and 241Am, ADS experiments with 150 MeV protons are planned to be carried out to investigate the MA characteristics through their reaction rate analyses, and to examine the feasibility of ADS with MA in high-energy neutron spectrum combined with several fuels (highly-enriched uranium, natural uranium and thorium) and reflectors (polyethylene, aluminium, graphite and beryllium). (authors)

32

Transmutation research and fuel cycle (report on discussion at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A symposium was held on a topic of 'Transmutation Research' on Dec. 21 and 22, 1999 at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. This meeting was held as a joint-meeting of KUR's specialist meeting and Tokyo University's activity supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture of Japan. This paper describes the overview of the discussions of this joint-meeting, and interprets their significance. Major themes discussed are, needed discussions on the transmutation research, policy and concepts of the organizations doing transmutation researches, a view from university side, transmutation researches in the oversea countries, opinions from various standpoints of the nuclear fuel cycle, conclusive discussions. 'the meanings of the transmutation research should be discussed together with the geological disposal and fast reactor system', 'transmutation may be a cooperative option for the disposal, thus, they should not be in a independent relation', and Balance evaluation will be needed' are the examples of the conclusive remarks of this meeting. (author)

33

Control desk and graphic pannel of Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) is a unique critical assembly with three cores; two solid-moderator, one water-moderator heterogeneous cores with highly enriched uranium. In order to keep the safety and to operate this critical assembly smoothly and effectively, a man-machine communication system between the operator and facility has been designed in detail from the various points of view. The control desk and graphical pannel were made so that an operator in the control room can operate the reactor and its attachments in the reactor room and can know their conditions exactly. The following items were considered their sizes, shapes and the mutual arrangements in the control room, furthermore the ways of the display and annunciator, and their arrangements in the pannel. For example, the alarm annunciators are classified both in color and sound so that the tension of an operator increases gradually according to the degree of emergency. Since the first critical experiment, the control desk and graphical pannel have been successfully used to transmit the information precisely to many operators including the researchers from other universities, and have contributed to operate the reactor safely and smoothly. In the present report, the outline of structure of the system and the practical experience are described. (author)

34

Early period of particle accelerator development and nuclear physics experiments at Taihoku Imperial University and Kyoto University (1/2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1926 Dr. Arakatsu was appointed Professor to Taipei Imperial University in Taiwan which was under the government by Japan in that time, and stared the construction of an electrostatic accelerator in 1930 for nuclear transmutations. He measured the detailed branching ratio of deuteron-lithium reaction following the investigation by Lawrence and Rutherford. In 1936 he was transferred to the physics laboratory of Kyoto University, and constructed a 600kV accelerator of Cockcroft-Walton type. His team studied photo-nuclear reactions using gamma rays produced by the proton-lithium reaction. In 1942 he started on the construction of a cyclotron, which was taken away by US army after the war. He participated in the investigation of the atomic bomb to Hiroshima. (K.Y.)

35

Research on the reactor physics using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University Critical Assembly [KUCA] is a multi-core type critical assembly established in 1974, as a facility for the joint use study by researchers of all universities in Japan. Thereafter, many reactor physics experiments have been carried out using three cores (A-, B-, and C-cores) in the KUCA. In the A- and B-cores, solid moderator such as polyethylene or graphite is used, whereas light-water is utilized as moderator in the C-core. The A-core has been employed mainly in connection with the Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator installed in the KUCA, to measure (1) the subcriticality by the pulsed neutron technique for the critical safety research and (2) the neutron spectrum by the time-of-flight technique. Recently, a basic study on the tight lattice core has also launched using the A-core. The B-core has been employed for the research on the thorium fuel cycle ever since. The C-core has been employed (1) for the basic studies on the nuclear characteristics of light-water moderated high-flux research reactors, including coupled-cores, and (2) for a research related to reducing enrichment of uranium fuel used in research reactors. The C-core is being utilized in the reactor laboratory course experiment for students of ten universities in Japan. The data base of the KUCA critical experiments is generated so far on the basis of approximately 350 experimental reports accumulated in the KUCA. Besides, the assessed KUCA code system has been established through analyses on the various KUCA experiments. In addition to the KUCA itself, both of them are provided for the joint use study by researchers of all universities in Japan. (author)

36

A design study on hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy at Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study about the installation of a hyper-thermal neutron converter to a clinical collimator was performed, as a series of the design study on a hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. From the parametric-surveys by Monte Carlo calculation, it was confirmed that the practical irradiation field of hyper-thermal neutrons would be feasible by the modifications of the clinical collimator and the bismuth-layer structure. (author)

37

The irradiation system and dose estimation joint-system for NCT wider application in Kyoto University.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research for neutron capture therapy (NCT) at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) has been remarkably developing after December 2001. However, the most important subject is the preparations for the KUR provisional shutdown coming in March 2006. In this paper, our present concept and plan are reported about the novel irradiation system and dose estimation system for wider applications of NCT. For the irradiation field, the target nuclear reaction was selected to (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be and the neutron moderator was selected to heavy water. The minimum proton current was about 13 mA for epi-thermal neutron irradiation, and about 9 mA for mix-neutron irradiation. In thermal neutron irradiation, the proton current needed more than 18 mA for 2.5-MeV protons, but only 4 mA for 5.0-MeV protons. For the dose estimation system, we are aiming at the completion of the "dose estimation joint-system". The data from the on-line measurement systems such as beam monitors and gamma-ray telescopes are fed back to the results for the in-body dose estimation, and then the dose estimations for irradiation field and a living body are jointed. For the beam-monitor system, multi-chamber method was adopted. The surveys were performed for the wall materials and chamber gases. PMID:15308152

Sakurai, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

2004-11-01

38

Analysis of critical experiments using medium-enriched-uranium fuel in Kyoto University critical assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The critical experiments using medium-enriched-uranium (MEU) fuel in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), a light-water-moderated and heavy-water-reflected cylindrical core, were started in May 1981, as a part of the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The following KUCA critical experiments were analyzed: (1) the criticality measurements for high-enriched-uranium (HEU) and MEU cores and (2) the reactivity effect measurements of boron burnable-poison (BP) for MEU cores. Five-group constants were generated using the EPRI-CELL code, and two-dimensional diffusion calculations were performed using a conventional finite-difference code DIF3D(2D), and a finite-element code 2D-FEM-KUR. Some of the results from the two diffusion codes were compared with each other. Advantage was taken of the finite-element method for the application of the 2D-FEM-KUR code to a detailed analysis of the BP effect measurements. Differences between the results of calculations and experiments were less than 1.8 % in C/E ratios for eigenvalues. The agreement between the results obtained using the DIF3D(2D) code and the 2D-FEM-KUR code was excellent. The calculated results of the BP effects with use of the 2D-FEM-KUR code approximately agreed with the experiments. (author)

39

Assessment of 232Th nuclear data through critical experiments using the Kyoto University critical assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of 232Th nuclear data was conducted through the analysis of critical experiments using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) of the thermal neutron system. The impact of the difference among evaluated nuclear data files was also examined for 232Th and 233U through the neutronics calculation. It was found that C/E values for cores containing 232Th became larger with hardening neutron spectrum, whereas these values for cores without 232Th were rather constant regardless of neutron spectrum. This fact indicates that there remains a certain problem in the evaluation of 232Th capture cross sections, which would be desirable to be solved for the purpose of developing the Th-U fuel cycle. It was also found that the difference in 233U fission and capture cross sections compiled in different nuclear data files could lead to a significant difference in reactivity. This result indicates that the assessment of 233U nuclear data through the systematic critical experiments would be inevitable to develop the Th-U fuel cycle. (author)

40

Sensitivity analysis for Kyoto University Research Reactor using JENDL-4.0  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity analysis of effective multiplication factor (keff) for Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) core is performed using JENDL-4.0 and JENDL-3.3. The keff is 1.0414 by SRAC/CITATION with JENDL-4.0. This value is 6.00×10-2%dk/k larger than that by JENDL-3.3. 235U capture cross section in energy range 1eV - 10keV, and 238U capture cross section in energy range less than 10keV have main effects on keff change. The uncertainty of keff is evaluated by the sensitivity coefficients and cross section covariance. The uncertainty is 0.36%dk/k by JENDL-4.0. On the other hand, the uncertainty is 0.55%dk/k by JENDL-3.3. The reason is that the uncertainty of 235U capture cross section by JENDL-4.0 is remarkably reduced. (author)

41

Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaborationoration

42

Experimental study on thorium fuel cycle by using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was recognized from the early days of nuclear energy history that thorium (Th) would become a practical energy source, although the transmutation of 232Th into 233U is inevitable in the Th fuel cycle. Attractive points of the Th fuel cycle are as follows: (1) The abundance of Th resource is estimated to be triple of the uranium resource. (2) The thermal breeding is feasible, whereas the fast breeding is necessary in the current uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) fuel cycle. (3) The production of transuranium (TRU) is essentially lower compared with the U-Pu fuel cycle. Recently, under the delay of practical use of fast breeder reactors, the Th fuel cycle has internationally been paid attention especially in relation to the transmutation or incineration of TRU including both Pu and minor actinides (MAs). An experimental study on the Th fuel cycle was initiated in 1977 by using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) established in 1974 for the joint use program among Japanese universities including the research and education of reactor physics. Thereafter, the experimental study on the Th fuel cycle has being performed in the KUCA by using Th metal plates. A solid moderator core is utilized for the series of critical experiments on the Th fuel cycle. In addition, basic experiments on Th hybrid reactors were performed by using a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator installed in the KUCA. In order to promote the experimental study on the Th fuel cycle i experimental study on the Th fuel cycle in the KUCA, a future plan is being investigated to perform various experiments by introducing the 233U fuel from US. (author)

43

Report of research by common utilization in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in latter half of fiscal 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the technical report, the data required for research and experiment, such as the result of functional test of various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste treatment, and the reports of study meetings, or the remarkable results and new methods obtained in research and the discussion on other papers and reports in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, are summarized as prompt report. The subject, reporters and synopsis of 69 papers are reported in this publication. (Kako, I.)

44

Report of research by common utilization in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in first half of fiscal 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the technical report, the data required for research and experiment, such as the result of functional test of various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste treatment, and the reports of study meetings, or the remarkable results and new methods obtained in research, and the discussion on other papers and reports in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, are summarized as prompt report. The subject, reporters and synopsis of 54 papers are reported in this publication. (Kako, I.)

45

Report of researches by common utilization of facilities in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, latter half of fiscal year 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical report of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is published any time to immediately report on the results of the functional tests of various experimental facilities, the test results for the products made for trial, radiation control, the situation of waste treatment, the data required for research and experiment such as the reports of study meetings, the conspicuous results obtained amid researches, new processes, and the discussion on other papers and reports. In this report, the title, the names of reporters and the summary of 61 researches carried out by the common utilization of the facilities in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute are collected. The themes of the researches are such as radioactivation analysis of trace elements in rocks and minerals, anodic oxidation films of GaAs and structure, measurement of yield of uranium isotopes produced by reactor neutron irradiation of thorium, geochemical study of trace elements in hydrosphere by radio-activation analysis, various diseases and variation of elements in rat furs, Moessbauer spectroscopic study of gold compounds with singular coupling by Au-197, measurement of grass-eating quantity and rate of digestion of cows using Au and Eu, sickness biochemical study of trace elements in hair samples of patients and others. (Kako, I.)

46

Report of researches by common utilization of facilities in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, first half of fiscal year 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical report of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is published any time to immediately report on the results of the functional tests of various experimental facilities, the test results for the products made for trial, radiation control, the situation of waste treatment, the data required for research and experiment such as the reports of study meetings, the conspicuous results obtained amid researches, new processes, and the discussion on other papers and reports. In this report, the title, the names of reporters and the summary of 57 researches carried out by the common utilization of the facilities in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute are collected. The themes of the researches are such as neutron radiography using a research reactor, measurement of Zr/Hf ratio in zirconium, interstitial germanium atoms in thermal neutron irradiation study, measurement of induced radioactivity due to neutrons in Nagasaki and Hiroshima atomic bombings, properties of semiconductor electrons in radiation study, induction of mutation in crops by neutron irradiation and utilization for breeding, thermal fluorescence mechanism of alkali halide and MgO single crystals, atomic configuration in PZT rhombohedron phase, modulated structure of Cu-Co alloys, excitation of nuclei by positron annihilation and others. (Kako, I.)

47

Performance of the 100 MeV injector linac for the electron storage ring at Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron linear accelerator has been constructed as an injector of a 300 MeV electron storage ring (Kaken Storage Ring, KSR) at Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University. The output beam energy of the linac is 100 MeV and the designed beam current is 100 mA at the 1 ?sec long pulse mode. The transverse and longitudinal emittance are measured to evaluate the beam quality for the beam injection into the KSR. They are observed by the profile monitors combined with quadrupole magnets or an RF accelerator. The results are that the normalized transverse emittance is 120 ?.mm.mrad. The longitudinal emittance is 15 ?.deg.MeV and the energy spread is ±2.2 %. (author)

48

Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy response for imaging plate by single ion irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

A heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation has been developed using an accelerator at Kyoto University. We have successfully developed proton-, carbon-, fluorine- and silicon-beams in order to irradiate a micro-meter sized area with ion counting, especially single ion irradiation. In the heavy-ion microbeam system, an imaging plate (IP) was utilized for beam diagnostics on the irradiation. The IP is widely used for radiography studies in biology. However, there are a few studies on the low linear energy transfer (LET) by single ions, i.e., low-intensity exposure. Thus we have investigated the energy response for the IP, which can be utilized for microbeam diagnostics.

Tosaki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hirose, M.; Matsumoto, H.

2011-12-01

49

Kyoto ugly?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a personal consideration of the issues surrounding the Kyoto Protocol, the author argues that economic access to fossil fuels will not last forever and that their direct and indirect prices will eventually increase faster than we can afford. The Kyoto Protocol was drawn up by politicians in response to concerns about global warming resulting from man-made carbon dioxide emissions, but has received considerable criticism. Renewable energy will only be able to replace part of the current use of fossil fuels for energy generation; cost-effective use of energy will also be necessary. To improve their standard of living, developing countries are likely to reach similar rates of consumption and pollution as developed countries. The author acknowledges nuclear power as a means of power generation without carbon dioxide emissions, but notes that nuclear fusion could avoid the problems associated with nuclear fission. He also stresses the need to plan for the period when short-term emergency measures have been taken

50

Summary reports of activities under visiting research program in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, first half of 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains 56 brief reports of studies carried out at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. These reports deal with 'Neutron Transmutation Doping on Compound Semiconductor', 'Study on the Influence of the Neutron Irradiation on the Low Temperature Strength of Various Welded Joint of Dissimilar Materials', 'Low Temperature Irradiation Effect on Iron-Alloys and Ceramics', 'Luminescent Phenomena from Some Kinds of Rock and Mineral Slices Accompanied with Gamma-irradiation', 'Study of Irradiation Effects on Simulated Waste Glass Irradiated Using 10B(n,?)7Li Reaction', 'Neutron Spectrometry with CR-39 Track Detector', 'Performance Study on Superconducting Magnet Materials in Thermonuclear Fusion Conditions', 'Fast Neutron Radiography with KUR-Linac', 'Study of Photo-Excited Metastable State and Their Relaxation of Irradiation Defects in Silicon and Diamond by Using a SQUID Magnetometer', 'Moessbauer Study on Radiation Damage of Metals and Alloys', 'Radiation Damages in Super Ionic Conductors', 'Basic Study on 74As Production by (?,n) Reaction', etc. (N.K.)

51

Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods

52

Measurement of large negative reactivity of an accelerator-driven system in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large negative reactivity of a subcritical system driven by a pulsed 14 MeV neutron source has been measured in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. The subcriticality of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) ranged in effective multiplication factor roughly from 0.98 to 0.92, which corresponded to an operational range of an actual ADS proposed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As the measurement technique, pulsed neutron method, power spectral analysis for pulsed neutron source, accelerator-beam trip method were employed. From neutron count decay data obtained by the pulsed neutron experiment, not only the prompt-neutron decay constant of fundamental mode but also a higher spatial mode could be derived. The subcriticality was also determined from the fundamental decay constant. The measured cross-power spectral density consisted of a familiar correlated reactor-noise component and many uncorrelated delta-function-like peaks at the integral multiple of pulse repetition frequency. The fundamental prompt-neutron decay constant, i.e., the subcriticality determined from the latter uncorrelated peaks was consistent with that obtained by the above pulsed neutron experiment. However, the magnitude of the former correlated component was reduced with an increase in the subcriticality and eventually this component became almost white at deeply subcritical state ranging in the multiplication factor under 0.95. Consequently, the determination of the decay constant from the correlated component was impossible under such a subcritical state. As data analysis method for the beam trip experiment, both the conventional integral count method and the least-squares inverse kinetics method (LSIKM) were employed. The LSIKM analysis led to the consistent subcriticality with that obtained by the pulsed neutron experiment, while the integral count method significantly underestimated the subcriticality. This underestimation originated from a residual background count, which was maintained after the beam trip. The LSIKM was mostly not influenced by such a slight count rate. (author)

53

Installation modification of nuclear reactor (adding high neutron flux research reactor) in Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The head of Japan Atomic Energy Commission submitted to the Prime Minister the report that the safety of the high neutron flux research reactor being installed in the Nuclear Experimental Laboratory of Kyoto University can be secured sufficiently, on September 29, 1978, annexing the evaluating report that had been deliberated by the Nuclear Reactor Safety Evaluation Committee. This high neutron flux research reactor will be constructed newly for the sake of science research, education and medical irradiation in addition to the KUCA and KUR which had been already constructed and operated. The core of this reactor is light water-moderated and cooled and heavy water-reflected type with thermal output of 30,000 kW. As the special feature in this reactor, the core has two separate regions where a double annular fuel subassembly is contained in each reactor vessel of 400 mm in diameter. These two reactor vessels are set in one spherical heavy water tank of about 2.7 m in diameter, and the thermal neutron flux of about 1015 n/cm2.s is obtained in the gap between the two reactor vessels. The maximum excess reactivity is 8% ?k/k, and the outlet temperature of primary cooling water is lower than 65 deg C in the reactor vessel. The fuel is plate type made of uranium aluminum alloy with about 93% enriched uranium. The key equipment specifications in this reactor are enumerated. Concerning the safety evaluation report, the philosophy and the procedure of the, the philosophy and the procedure of the evaluation are described at first, then the concrete evaluated items, for example, the conditions of location including the site ground, earthquakes, weather condition and the social environment, the safety evaluation including the aseismatic design, the core design, the reactor proper, the cooling system, the instrumentation and control system, the waste disposal system, the radiation control system and the electric system, etc., are written. (Nakai, Y.)

54

Indiana University Molecular Structure Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by the Indiana University Molecular Structure Center, this site has x-ray crystallographic data on the structure of organic and inorganic molecules as well as three dimensional models for molecules of various types including, for example, tysine, strychnine, and buckyballs. The page also contains links to publications, molecular graphics, information on morphology and mineralogy, and crystallography informatics. A useful links section is also given for those looking to do additional research on these topics.

Huffman, John

55

Saint Louis University Earthquake Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saint Louis University (SLU) Earthquake Center provides recent Midwest earthquake locations, the history of central U.S. earthquakes, a link for reporting an earthquake, historic earthquake and instrument photographs, and explanations of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. There are earthquake information flyers, links to course websites and course notes, a textbook description, computer tools and earthquake catalogs, and recent theses and dissertations. There are also links to seismic systems and networks as well as SLU network reports.

56

13 CFR 306.7 - Performance evaluations of University Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Performance evaluations of University Centers. 306.7 Section...TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE INVESTMENTS University Center Economic Development Program...7 Performance evaluations of University Centers. (a) EDA will:...

2010-01-01

57

The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

2002-04-01

58

Kyoto without the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on simulations with the general equilibrium model WorldScan (describes and analyses long-term developments) the economic and environmental consequences of the USA attitude towards the Kyoto Protocol for Europe and for the rest of the world are briefly discussed. 2 refs

59

Kyotos helte og skurke  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

USA blev på Kyoto-konferencen i december kritiseret af energi- og miljøminister Svend Auken for at ville tjene på et globalt CO2-marked. Men håndhæves dette effektivt af FN, kommer det alle til gode. Et globalt CO2-marked kan blive et banebrydende styringsmiddel, som kan løse globale miljøproblemer i fremtiden. Udgivelsesdato: 7. januar

Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

1998-01-01

60

Cornell University Life Sciences Core Laboratories Center  

OpenAIRE

The Cornell University Life Sciences Core Laboratories Center (CLC) provides an array of genomics, proteomics, imaging and informatics shared research resources and services to the university community and to outside investigators. The CLC includes fee-for-service research, technology testing and development, and educational components. The Center has seven core facilities, including genomics (DNA sequencing, genotyping, and microarrays), epigenomics, proteomics and mass spectrometry, microsc...

Vanee, J.; Schweitzer, P.; Wang, W.; Li, Y.; Zhang, S.; Williams, R; Deng, K. Y.; Pillardy, J.; Sun, Q.; Stelick, T.; Spisak, J.; Paronett, E.; Cote, L.; Cameron, R.; Zhao, J.

2011-01-01

61

The National Center Test for University Admissions  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the National Center Test for University Admissions, a unified national test in Japan, which is taken by 500,000 students every year. It states that implementation of the Center Test began in 1990, with the English component consisting only of the written section until 2005, when the listening section was first implemented…

Watanabe, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

62

Open University Center of the Pontifical Javeriana University, Colombia  

OpenAIRE

According to Garcia Canclini (1990) there is the assumption that Colombia is a hybrid society. Upon this standpoint, and within a traditional higher education structure characterized by being fundamentally conventional or campus based, the Open University Center of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana was created as an education program that breaks with every traditional scheme, which in turn, encourages a new learning pattern. The Open University Center emerges as a "social response" focused...

Omayra Parra de Marroquin; Lina Claricia Corredor Moyano

2002-01-01

63

The Writing Center at Harvard University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Writing Center at Harvard University is perhaps the oldest formal writing center at an American university, and their complementary website presents a valuable trove of instructional handouts for writers young and old. On this page, visitors will find over a dozen helpful handouts with titles such as "How to Read an Assignment", "Essay Structure", "Developing a Thesis", "Summary", and "Revising the Draft". Each piece is written in clear prose, and the advice offered is sound and practical. Also, visitors should note that the site also includes a link to Harvard's guide to citation and integration of sources, "Writing with Sources", and a selection of links to other related writing style guides.

64

Increasing Counseling Center Utilization: Yeshiva University's Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeshiva University established a counseling center during the 2004-2005 academic year. As a religiously based institution, the administration recognized that there would likely be significant impediments to utilization of on-campus mental health services as a result of negative attitudes about mental illness and its treatment--stigma. To combat…

Schwartz, Victor; Nissel, Chaim; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kay, Jerald; Brown, Joshua T.

2012-01-01

65

The industrial Center at Mississippi State University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mississippi State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) is one of 26 centers supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at universities across the country. The Mississippi State University IAC in existence since 1994 provides plant assessments at no cost to eligible small and mid-sized manufacturers categorized in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes 20-39. Client eligibility is based on gross sales below $100 million, fewer than 500 employees at the plant, annual utility bills more than $100,000 and less than $2 million, and no in-house professional staff to perform an assessment. IAC assessment benefits include no cost to the clients, increased profitability and competitiveness, confidentiality, non-regulatory, nonobligatory, and student involvement.

b.K. Hodge; Mary C. Emplaincourt

2007-04-30

66

University of Montana: Avian Science Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Montana's Avian Science Center promotes ecological awareness and informed decision making through the collection, synthesis, and dissemination of science-based information on birds of the western United States. The center's website features information on its research programs (coordinated monitoring, habitat restoration, avian fire research, and others), including downloadable versions of publications. There are also discussions on syntheses of research and knowledge about avian habitat relationships and fire effects on ecosystems in the Northern Rocky Mountains. The center's education page features information on professional development opportunities for teachers and a fire ecology program for students, as well as college-level courses at the university, information on graduate students, workshops and field trips, and links to online resources for teachers and students. Other materials include resources for birdwatchers, including checklists of Montana birds, and discussions of conservation issues and initiatives.

67

Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at Lehigh University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the period September, 2001, through August, 2006, the Lehigh University Industrial Assessment Center provided assessments for 147 companies in the Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey. In reports sent to the companies, a total of 1,079 assessment recommendations were suggested, with an annual cost savings of $22,980,654, to save energy, reduce waste, and improve productivity. The energy saved if all ARs were implemented would be 1,843,202 MMBtu.

Sudhakar Neti and Alparslan Oztekin

2007-07-10

68

Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center is a leading academic cancer research center in the United States. It is located in Indianapolis on the IU School of Medicine campus.Established in 1992 as the Indiana University (IU) Cancer Center, the IU center became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1999. The center was renamed the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center in 2006.

69

Global climate negotiations begin in Kyoto  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient temples and shrines and weathered cherry trees speckle the city of Kyoto, Japan, on the Island of Honshu. The edifices, many of them world heritage sites filled with statues of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hearken back to the thousand year period from 794 A.D. until 1868 A.D. when Kyoto held sway as the country's center of government, culture, and commerce—and to a different climate, when the atmosphere contained less carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.From December 1-10, thousands of delegates from about 150 countries, along with additional thousands of observers from non-governmental organizations, converge on this ancient city to discuss a very modern problem.

Showstack, Randy

70

Center for Social Media at American University  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission statement for the Center for Social Media states that it "showcases and analyzes strategies to use media as creative tools for public knowledge and action. It focuses on social documentaries for civil society and democracy, and on the public media environment that supports them. The Center is part of the School of Communication at American University." The website provides a wealth of resources in its library ranging from policy issues such as copyright and fair use, funding social media and policy issues. The site also includes to teaching materials on fair use as well as syllabi and tips submitted by professors in the broadcast field. Furthermore, the site includes online videos and related links for each of its many resources.

71

University of Buffalo Teaching & Learning Center  

Science.gov (United States)

For folks studying evolutionary biology, this collection from the University of Buffalo's Teaching and Learning Center is a gem. The site contains materials that cover sixteen different animals in a form that resembles a digital image narrative. Visitors can view multiple, fully labeled external and internal views and details of each animal. These materials were developed by Professor Clyde F. Herreid and a team of librarians, graduate student assistants and other staff. Users can browse around by subject heading (such as grasshoppers) or they can also search the entire collection. Each specimen is very well marked and it's a great way to learn about the world of evolutionary biology.

72

University of Southern California: Tsunami Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California "is actively involved with all aspects of tsunami research; inundation field surveys, numerical and analytical modeling, and hazard assessment, mitigation and planning." The website supplies interactive maps and chilling images of the destruction caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Visitors can find out the latest tsunami news and research. Students and educators can view animations of seismic activity, landslides, and additional tsunami-related activity in various locations across the globe. Researchers can find abstracts and lists of publications of papers discussing field surveys, physical models, numerical methods, tsunami hazards, and more.

73

Kyoto valed prioriteedid / Bjorn Lomborg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Raamatu "Skeptiline keskkonnakaitsja" autor ütleb, et Kyoto protokolliga kulutab maailm 150 miljardit aastas, tehes vähe heategusid. ÜRO on seisukohal, et poolega sellest summast suudaksime hankida puhta joogivee, kanalisatsiooni, elementaarse tervishoiusüsteemi ja hariduse igale inimesele maailmas

Lomborg, Bjorn

2005-01-01

74

Duke University Wetland Center: Everglades Field Trip  

Science.gov (United States)

The prestigious Duke University Wetland Center, headed up by Dr. Curtis Richardson, brings this gem of a resource to the Web. The Everglades Field Trip is a wonderful learning site, loaded with information and accompanied by color photographs, figures, and illustrative graphics. Although the resource lacks a Table of Contents, information is presented in a logical order with several points at which to select more or less detail. The trip begins with an explanation of the Everglades' natural processes: hydrology (of the Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee, Central Everglades, Taylor Slough, Florida Bay, and Shark River Slough), biology (Distribution of plant communities, Animals, and Endangered Species), and geology (the Eastern Coastal Ridge). From there, users learn about Anthropogenic effects on the system, with emphasis on: the Central & Florida Project; creation of parks, refuges and preserves; and current problems facing the region. For anyone with an interest in learning more about the Everglades -- or processes of wetland ecosystems -- this is an excellent site.

75

The University of Mississippi Geoinformatics Center (UMGC)  

Science.gov (United States)

The overarching goal of the University of Mississippi Geoinformatics Center (UMGC) is to promote application of geospatial information technologies through technology education, research support, and infrastructure development. During the initial two- year phase of operation the UMGC has successfully met those goals and is uniquely positioned to continue operation and further expand the UMGC into additional academic programs. At the end of the first funding cycle, the goals of the UMGC have been and are being met through research and educational activities in the original four participating programs; Biology, Computer and Information Science, Geology and Geological Engineering, and Sociology and Anthropology, with the School of Business joining the UMGC in early 2001. Each of these departments is supporting graduate students conducting research, has created combination teaching and research laboratories, and supported faculty during the summer months.

Easson, Gregory L.

2003-01-01

76

77 FR 60012 - University Transportation Centers Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...institution or a collaborative partner provided...Program (LTAP) Center? 4. Is the size...Centers, ten Regional Centers, and up to 20 Tier I Centers will be selected...investments, and innovations that bring...

2012-10-01

77

Rice University observations of the galactic center  

Science.gov (United States)

The most sensitive of the four balloon fight observations of the galactic center made by Rice University was conducted in 1974 from Rio Cuarto, Argentina at a float altitude of 4 mbar. The count rate spectrum of the observed background and the energy spectrum of the galactic center region are discussed. The detector used consists of a 6 inch Nal(T 1ambda) central detector collimated to approximately 15 deg FWHM by a Nal(T lamdba) anticoincidence shield. The shield in at least two interaction mean free paths thick at all gamma ray energies. The instrumental resolution is approximately 11% FWHM at 662 keV. Pulses from the central detector are analyzed by two 256 channel PHA's covering the energy range approximately 20 keV to approximately 12 MeV. The detector is equatorially mounted and pointed by command from the ground. Observations are made by measuring source and background alternately for 10 minute periods. Background is measured by rotating the detector 180 deg about the azimuthal axis.

Meegan, C. A.

1978-01-01

78

Centers and Institutes for the "Resource-Challenged" Catholic University  

Science.gov (United States)

Founded in 2001, the Center for Religion and Public Discourse at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, illustrates how centers and institutes can express Catholic identity and serve the university community and society by providing opportunities for thoughtful and civil discourse. Although the Center does not currently support basic research or fund…

Sanders, Susan M.; Clough, Joy

2011-01-01

79

Venemaa vehib Kyoto trumpässaga / Jüri Piirisild  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

1997. aastal vastuvõetud Kyoto protokoll, mis peaks panema piiri Maa atmosfääri saastamisele ja sellega otseselt seotud kliima soojenemisele, pole siiani vajalikku arvu ratifitseerimisallkirju saanud. Kui Venemaa lepingule alla kirjutab, saab vajalik arv allkirju kokku ning Kyoto lepingu täitmine muutub kohustuslikuks

Piirisild, Jüri

2004-01-01

80

Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) was originally established in July 1991 as the Jefferson Cancer Center (JCC), with Dr. Carlo Croce appointed as its first Director.

81

The Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Social Work Research Center is an innovative university-community partnership within the School of Social Work in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. The center is focused on working with county and state child welfare agencies to generate applied research that translates into evidence-based practice for serving…

Winokur, Marc A.; Valentine, Deborah P.; Drendel, James M.

2009-01-01

82

Medulloblastoma: the Duke University Medical Center experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have reviewed the clinical experience in the treatment of medulloblastoma with radiotherapy at Duke University Medical Center. One hundred and twenty-seven patients treated between January 1, 1940 and December 31, 1983 were evaluated. The irradiation technique was reviewed and all irradiation doses were recalculated as minimum tumor doses in Gray (Gy). The mean follow-up was 24.4 years and the median follow-up was 26.5 years. The energy of the treatment machine was known in 102 cases. Sixty patients were treated with orthovoltage equipment and 42 patients were treated with megavoltage equipment. As a gross assessment of the impact of the details of radiotherapy treatment upon outcome, patients were grouped into excellent, good, fair, and poor treatment groups. Patients undergoing cranio-spinal axis (CSA) irradiation and receiving greater than or equal to 52 Gy to the posterior fossa and greater than or equal to 30 Gy to the clinically uninvolved remainder of the CSA were classified as having "excellent" technique. Patients undergoing CSA irradiation and receiving 40 to 52 Gy to the posterior fossa and greater than or equal to 20 Gy to the remainder of the CSA were classified as "good." Patients receiving 20 to 40 Gy to the posterior fossa and greater than or equal to 10 Gy to the spinal axis with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation were designated "fair." Any patient not fulfilling the above minimum criteria was categorized as "poor." The actuarial 5-year survival for the entire population was 33%. The 10-year survival was 21%. In 93 patients for whom records were detailed enough to allow categorization of treatment technique, 5-year actuarial survivals were: Excellent 37% (n = 17), Good 55% (n = 13), Fair 35% (n = 23), Poor 20% (n = 40). A complete surgical resection was not correlated with improved disease-free survival (DFS) in the excellent and good groups, but was correlated with an improved DFS in the fair and poor groups. The posterior fossa accounted for 62% of the failures in the 55 patients completing irradiation where the initial site of failure was known. An examination of patterns of failure in the spinal canal failed to demonstrate a dose response relationship above 10 Gy for spinal canal prophylactic irradiation. No patient developed recurrence beyond their period of risk as defined by "Collins' Law."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3759529

Hershatter, B W; Halperin, E C; Cox, E B

1986-10-01

83

Center for International Development at Harvard University  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1998 by the Harvard Institute for International Development and the Kennedy School of Government, the Center for International Development (CID) is Harvard's primary center for research on sustainable international development. The CID is currently headed by Professor Dani Rodrik, who provides oversight and direction for the Center. On the site, visitors can learn about upcoming international development conferences sponsored by the Center, read about the various persons working at the Center, learn about various research programs, along with reading various reports associated with each area of inquiry. The site also contains a host of links to online research data sets for persons working in the field of international development, and to the Center's working papers and special reports. Some of the more compelling working papers address the situation of sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa and the rise and fall of the Indonesian economy.

84

Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero

85

Center for Catalysis at Iowa State University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this proposal is to enable Iowa State University to establish a Center that enjoys world-class stature and eventually enhances the economy through the transfer of innovation from the laboratory to the marketplace. The funds have been used to support experimental proposals from interdisciplinary research teams in areas related to catalysis and green chemistry. Specific focus areas included: • Catalytic conversion of renewable natural resources to industrial materials • Development of new catalysts for the oxidation or reduction of commodity chemicals • Use of enzymes and microorganisms in biocatalysis • Development of new, environmentally friendly reactions of industrial importance These focus areas intersect with barriers from the MYTP draft document. Specifically, section 2.4.3.1 Processing and Conversion has a list of bulleted items under Improved Chemical Conversions that includes new hydrogenation catalysts, milder oxidation catalysts, new catalysts for dehydration and selective bond cleavage catalysts. Specifically, the four sections are: 1. Catalyst development (7.4.12.A) 2. Conversion of glycerol (7.4.12.B) 3. Conversion of biodiesel (7.4.12.C) 4. Glucose from starch (7.4.12.D) All funded projects are part of a soybean or corn biorefinery. Two funded projects that have made significant progress toward goals of the MYTP draft document are: Catalysts to convert feedstocks with high fatty acid content to biodiesel (Kraus, Lin, Verkade) and Conversion of Glycerol into 1,3-Propanediol (Lin, Kraus). Currently, biodiesel is prepared using homogeneous base catalysis. However, as producers look for feedstocks other than soybean oil, such as waste restaurant oils and rendered animal fats, they have observed a large amount of free fatty acids contained in the feedstocks. Free fatty acids cannot be converted into biodiesel using homogeneous base-mediated processes. The CCAT catalyst system offers an integrated and cooperative catalytic system that performs both esterification (of free fatty acids) and transesterification (of soybean oil) in a one-pot fashion. This will allow the biodiesel producers to use the aforementioned cheap feedstocks without any pretreatment. In addition, the catalyst system is heterogeneous and is highly recyclable and reusable. Although markets currently exist for glycerin, concern is mounting that the price of glycerin may plummet to $.05 - $.10 per pound if future production exceeds demand. Developing a system to make high value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol from the glycerin stream will add value for biodiesel producers who implement the new technology. Given the fact that both DuPont and Shell chemicals have announced the commercialization of two new PDO-based polymers, a rapid increase of market demand for a cheaper PDO source is very likely. 4. Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives From our progress reports, the four areas are: 1. Catalyst development (7.4.12.A) 2. Conversion of glycerol (7.4.12.B) 3. Conversion of biodiesel (7.4.12.C) 4. Glucose from starch (7.4.12.D)

Kraus, George A.

2006-10-17

86

The Kyoto Mechanisms and Technological Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Climate change response, including implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. One of the important agreements in several declarations, including the Kyoto protocol, has been to promote and coordinate the collaboration between the countries in the necessary technological development. The paper encourage that the Kyoto mechanisms will be used for acceleration of the necessary technical innovation in Denmark.

Lund, Henrik

2003-01-01

87

University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary project is to focus upon translation of imaging agents and devices developed at The Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) and translated in Phase I studies at The Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Administration Medical Center (MEDVAMC) as well as at Ben Taub General Hospital (BTGH).

88

Austraalia uus valitsus ühines Kyoto lepinguga  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Austraalia uus peaminister Kevin Rudd ratifitseeris kasvuhoonegaaside õhkupaiskamist piirava Kyoto lepingu. Austraalia senine valitsus on olnud seisukohal, et heitgaaside piiramine kahjustab riigi majandust

2007-01-01

89

Harvard University's Joint Center for Housing Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Founded in 1959, the Joint Center for Housing Studies (JCHS) at Harvard is a collaborative unit affiliated with the Graduate School of Design and the Kennedy School of Government. The Center's central focus is to "analyze the dynamic relationships between housing markets and economic, demographic, and social trends, providing leaders in government, business, and the non-profit sector with the knowledge needed to develop effective policies and strategies." The site contains links to information about ongoing research projects, educational opportunities in the field, publications, and people affiliated with JCHS. The publication section is quite strong, as visitors can browse through a diverse set of publications (many of which are available at not cost) by thematic focus, including finance, community, development, and industry studies. One of the more compelling recent publications (most of which is available here) is the monograph titled Low-Income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined Goal.

90

Memphis State University Center for Nuclear Studies progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This quarterly report outlines the progress made by the Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University in the development of specialized educational programs for the nuclear industry through the month of February, 1976

91

Hail Columbia: Fairchild Center, Columbia University, New York  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of the Sherman Fairchild Center for the Life Sciences at Columbia University emphasizes the lightness necessitated by the building's placement on an existing five-story podium structure. (Author/MLF)

Progressive Architecture, 1978

1978-01-01

92

Darling Marine Center of University of Maine  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in Walpole, Maine, the Center functions year round as a research and educational facility serving the marine interests of faculty, staff, students, and visiting investigators from around the world. Lab research interests range from microbial ecology, biogeochemistry and marine archaeology, to invertebrate taxonomy and ecology, deep-sea biology, and phytoplankton physiology. Undergraduate and K-12 opportunities are available both during the school year and summer. Species lists and downloadable data are also available.

93

Agreement reached on Kyoto Protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Environment ministers from 178 nations meeting in Bonn, Germany, reached a broad political agreement July 23 on the rules for the Kyoto Protocol on climate change. The agreement, which came despite United States opposition to the treaty, keeps the protocol alive and on track for potential final approval later this year by the signatories.Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, who indicated he prefers U.S. participation, said he was basically pleased with the outcome of the negotiations. “I welcome the basic agreement on ‘core elements’ which has been consequently reached,’ he said.

Showstack, Randy

94

Hydro in the Kyoto era  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quebec has the best performance in North America in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Unlike neighbouring provinces and states which rely heavily on coal for power generation, Quebec generates 96 per cent of its electricity from hydroelectric power. However, no new dams have been built in the past decade in Quebec due to land disputes with Aboriginal communities and general distrust among many ecologists. It takes about 12 years for a hydroelectric project to come to fruition. For that reason, and in order to capitalize on energy market opportunities, Hydro-Quebec is seriously considering expanding its generating capability beyond the needs of Quebec consumers, with gas-fired thermal generating stations. Environmental groups claim that the proposal to build the Suroit combined-cycle facility near the United States border destroys Quebec's efforts to honour the Kyoto Protocol. Economists argue that it is entirely in the spirit of Kyoto if exports of hydroelectricity or natural gas from Canada to the United States leads to less use of oil or coal. But one energy modeling expert at INRS-Energie et Materiaux claims that Quebec has a moral obligation to develop hydroelectricity for its own use as well as for export purposes, noting that any country with the good fortune to have renewable forms of energy, such as wind and hydro, should develop them to lower world GHG emissions. Quebec has many opportunities to sell hydroelectricity even while domestic demand grows. Hricity even while domestic demand grows. Hydroelectricity from Quebec should interest some states that have adopted their own GHG reduction standards, despite the U.S. government's refusal to ratify Kyoto. It should also interest Ontario and the Maritimes because they will be trying to reduce emissions from their thermal plants. The current situation does not favour the Kyoto Protocol. Exports of electricity from Quebec have dropped because no new dams have been built in recent years and gas-fired plants are looking more attractive to power producers because they can be built quickly. In addition, the rules for environmental processes for hydroelectric projects unfairly favour thermal projects. This paper also cautioned that the low price of energy does not help energy conservation programs. It was suggested that the only simple and efficient way to reduce GHG emissions and lower energy consumption is to charge a price that reflects the real cost of energy. It was suggested that coal and gas should be taxed as motivation to choose renewable forms of energy, and that electricity should not be subsidized for energy-intensive industries such as aluminium smelters. 5 figs

95

University of Tokyo: Volcano Research Center (VRC)  

Science.gov (United States)

This website discusses the Volcano Research Center's (VRC) work to improve predictions of volcanic eruptions by conducting research on volcanic processes. Users can find out about Asama, Kirishima, Izu-Oshima, and other VRC volcano observatories. The website features information on many continuing and recent eruptions in Japan. Visitors can view many images of volcanic eruptions and disaster relief missions. Researchers can learn about the international cooperative drilling operation at the Unzen Volcano to understand the eruption mechanisms and magnetic activity. This site is also reviewed in the February 20, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

96

The University of Chicago Martin Marty Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The idea for establishing an institute for the advanced study of religion at the University of Chicago originated in the early 1970s, and it seemed to be a natural fit for the school. After all, the oldest part of the University was the Divinity School. Just such an institute was established in 1979, and in 1998, it was renamed after Professor Martin Marty, who had served as a professor in the Divinity School since 1963. On the site, visitors can learn about their various programs, including public conferences, publications, and faculty research projects. Within the publications area of the site, there are two important initiatives that should not be overlooked. The first is "Sightings", which is a bi-weekly email report on the role of religion in public life. Visitors can view the current edition here, or peruse the archive all the way back to April 30, 1999. Also, there is the Religion & Culture Web Forum, which presents a series of online dialogues with scholars about such topics as the religious identities of Latin American immigrants and intelligent design.

97

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MD Anderson) was established by the Texas State Legislature in 1941and is a free-standing, degree-granting health institution within The University of Texas System. Mission areas include patient care, research, education, and prevention.

98

Environmental Finance Center: The University System of Maryland  

Science.gov (United States)

Supported by the Environmental Protection Agency and the University of Maryland Sea Grant College, the Region 3 Environmental Finance Center promotes alternative and innovative ways to manage the cost of environmental activities. It provides training, technical assistance, and program planning and evaluation among its many services. Additionally, the Resource Center and Publications tabs offer further material to explore this topic.

99

New markets for kyoto mechanisms; Nye markeder for Kyoto mekanismer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Initiatives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions have been taken since the mid 1990's. After the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, industries and authorities have shown an increasing interest in testing Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). JI and CDM enable a country to finance projects abroad and use the emission reductions created to fulfil its own commitments. CO{sub 2} trading has been effected, but in a smaller scale. This note describes experiences and characteristics of the growing market focusing on JI. The aim is to elucidate current project types, and point out some barriers for starting projects. Furthermore, the note throws light on the current trade prices, and the actors' expectations to future prices. (ba)

NONE

2003-02-01

100

75 FR 10219 - Solicitation of Applications for the FY 2010 University Center Economic Development Program...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the University Center Economic Development...agenda by promoting innovation and competitiveness...the University Center will engage to...Encourage collaborative regional innovation. Priority will...proposed University Center will...

2010-03-05

101

Kyoto survives - after extensive care  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

180 countries, but not the US, agreed to a compromise political solution to break the deadlock between two groups of countries who face targets under the Kyoto Protocol meeting in late July. The article discusses how this could affect the coal trade, quoting largely from a paper by Mark O'Neill, director of Sustainable Development at the Australian Coal Association, presented at CoalTrans Asia 2001. He considered that it is a fossil fuel fantasy to say all fossil fuels are bad, their use must be ended as soon as possible and they have no role to play in sustainable development. He agreed that a policy framework should recognise the need to develop emission reduction solutions from fossil fuels. 2 photos.

NONE

2001-08-01

102

Natural disturbances and Kyoto protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent letter published in Nature (Kurz et al. 2008a reports an outbreak of mountain pine beetles in British Columbia, destroying millions of trees; according to the authors, by 2020, the beetles will have done so much damage that the forest is expected to release more carbon dioxide than it absorbs. All those natural disturbances could overwhelmed all the efforts made by Canada to influence the carbon balance through forest management. Considering that Canada decided not to elect forest management within the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that future climate mitigation agreements, aimed to encourage changes in forest management, should account for and protect against the impacts of natural disturbances.

Teobaldelli M

2008-06-01

103

How to make progress post-Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides papers presented during the workshop on ''how to make progress post-Kyoto'', hold at the French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) in Paris on march 19, 2003. The following topics were presented: reflections on Kyoto, guidance for the future, how to make progress post-kyoto, the lessons from the past; the Bonn voyage; US climate policy after Kyoto, elements of success; preparing for widening and deepening the kyoto protocol; capping emissions and costs; absolute versus intensity-based emissions caps; intensity targets in perspective; negotiating commitments for further emission reductions; exploring new tools; defining meaningful participation of developing countries in climate change mitigation; economic and environmental effectiveness of a technology-based climate regime; US participation in the linkage between research and development and climate cooperation; designing a technology strategy; ''greening'' economic development; some critical comments post-Kyoto; the foreign policy perspective of climate negotiations; Kyoto and the double spiral; burden-sharing rules for stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations and their equity implications. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2003-07-01

104

THE OUTPATIENTS? SATISFACTION AT TWO HEALTH CENTERS OF A UNIVERSITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the outpatients? satisfaction at two health center of a university. Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 40 % of the patients participated out of 980 patients who applied to the health centers within a week. Results: The majority of the participants were between 20-24 ages. The patients who applied for examination were 71.4% and 79.6% respectively for the first and the second health centers. One of four of the patients were not satisfied with the working hours of both centers. 52.6 % of the patients in the first and 59.7% of the patients in the second health center told that no preventive messages were given by the physcians. 69.3% of the applicants of the first center stated that they were generally satisfied with the health care given where as this percent was 80.6 for the second student health center. General satisfaction was higher for the second health center (p=0.01 and higher percent of the students would prefer the II. Health center for their families (p=0.000. Recommendations: A standard student satisfaction form developed and evaluated regularly for these health centers may be helpful to improve the health care services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 25-36

N. Ercument BEYHUN

2005-02-01

105

Energy Efficient Service Delivery in Clouds in Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol  

CERN Document Server

Cloud computing is revolutionizing the ICT landscape by providing scalable and efficient computing resources on demand. The ICT industry - especially data centers, are responsible for considerable amounts of CO2 emissions and will very soon be faced with legislative restrictions, such as the Kyoto protocol, defining caps at different organizational levels (country, industry branch etc.) A lot has been done around energy efficient data centers, yet there is very little work done in defining flexible models considering CO2. In this paper we present a first attempt of modeling data centers in compliance with the Kyoto protocol. We discuss a novel approach for trading credits for emission reductions across data centers to comply with their constraints. CO2 caps can be integrated with Service Level Agreements and juxtaposed to other computing commodities (e.g. computational power, storage), setting a foundation for implementing next-generation schedulers and pricing models that support Kyoto-compliant CO2 trading ...

Lucanin, Drazen; Mastelic, Toni; Brandic, Ivona

2012-01-01

106

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

1999-01-01

107

Center for Research Libraries Study, Concordia University. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This discussion of the implementation of services related to the Center for Research Libraries (CRL) if Concordia University Libraries were to join CRL includes policies and procedures designed to assist Concordia in making effective use of CRL's services without sacrificing regular services or incurring large expenses in addition to the…

Tallon, J.

108

Group Treatment of Eating Disorders in a University Counseling Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sociocultural pressures to pursue an unrealistic ideal of thinness have contributed to an increasing number of students seeking help at a university counseling center for the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. To help these students, a group treatment technique was developed using a cognitive-behavioral approach. Treatment…

Snodgrass, Gregory; And Others

109

Bulimia: Issues a University Counseling Center Needs To Address.  

Science.gov (United States)

The eating disorder known as bulimia is a relatively new and baffling phenomenon. This paper raises questions that college and university counseling center professionals need to address regarding this phenomenon. The first section focuses on defining the term "bulimia" and its evolution. The second section identifies numerous symptoms that need to…

Whitner, Phillip A.; Shetterly, Arminta

110

University Center and Community Hospital: Problems in Integration.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study of the University of Chicago Medical Center highlights the tensions, strains, and resistances that inhibit the development of an urban health care system. It raises questions about the role of the research and teaching hospital in regional health care planning, especially as suburban facilities are drawing away patients. (Author/LBH)

Tarlov, Alvin R.; And Others

1979-01-01

111

Integrating Mindfulness Meditation within a University Counseling Center Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper documents the development of a mindfulness meditation component within a University Counseling Center setting. The specific focus is upon the inclusion of meditation as it pertains to both organizational structure and psychotherapy training. The integration of a meditation practice into any organization is a slow process that poses…

Kurash, Cheryl; Schaul, Jonathan

2006-01-01

112

Rice University: Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the author, the setting for their nonprofit education center was close to ideal: Support from a dean who cares deeply about nonprofit organizations; encouragement from the university and its renewed focus on reaching beyond its walls on the eve of its centennial; and a generous gift from alumni who have been affiliated with the…

Seaworth, Angela

2012-01-01

113

Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes  

CERN Document Server

Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulas are applied to Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first which allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry with no scale factor function being specified (model IIA), and the second which has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at $3\\sigma$ CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 3-4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center about 270 Mpc for Model IIA. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about ...

Balcerzak, Adam; Denkiewicz, Tomasz

2013-01-01

114

Off-center Observers Versus Supernovae in Inhomogeneous Pressure Universes  

Science.gov (United States)

Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulae are applied to the Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain the possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry without the need to specify a scale factor function (model IIA). The second has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at 3? CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 4.4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry, which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center at about 341 Mpc for model IIA and 68 Mpc for model IIB. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about 577 Mpc for model IIB at 3? CL. It is determined that the best-fit parameters which characterize inhomogeneity are ?inh = 0.77 (dimensionless: model IIA) and ? = 7.31 × 10-9 (s km-1)2/3 Mpc-4/3 (model IIB).

Balcerzak, Adam; D?browski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz

2014-09-01

115

Implementation of the Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

116

Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

117

The Stocker AstroScience Center at Florida International University  

Science.gov (United States)

The new Stocker AstroScience Center located on the MMC campus at Florida International University in Miami Florida represents a unique facility for STEM education that arose from a combination of private, State and university funding. The building, completed in the fall of 2013, contains some unique spaces designed not only to educate, but also to inspire students interested in science and space exploration. The observatory consists of a 4-story building (3 floors) with a 24” ACE automated telescope in an Ash dome, and an observing platform above surrounding buildings. Some of the unique features of the observatory include an entrance/exhibition hall with a 6-ft glass tile floor mural linking the Florida climate to space travel, a state-of-the art telescope control that looks like a starship bridge, and displays such as “Music from the universe”. The observatory will also be the focus of our extensive public outreach program that is entering its 20 year.

Webb, James R.

2014-01-01

118

The University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Two recent major reports on the health of the oceans in the United States have warned that coastal development and population pressures are responsible for the dramatic degradation of U.S. ocean and coastal environments. The significant consequences of this increased population density, particularly in sub/tropical coastal regions, can be seen in recent weather events: Hurricanes Andrew, Ivan, and Katrina in the US Gulf of Mexico states, and the Tsunami in Southeast Asia in December 2004, all causing significant deaths and destruction. Microbial contamination, man-made chemicals, and a variety of harmful algal blooms and their toxins are increasingly affecting the health of coastal human populations via the seafood supply, as well as the commercial and recreational use of coastal marine waters. At the same time, there has been the realization that the oceans are a source of unexplored biological diversity able to provide medicinal, as well as nutritional, benefits. Therefore, the exploration and preservation of the earth's oceans have significant worldwide public health implications for current and future generations. The NSF/NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health Center (COHH) at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School and its collaborators builds on several decades of collaborative and interdisciplinary research, education, and training to address the NIEHS-NSF research initiative in Oceans and Human Health. The COHH focuses on issues relevant to the Southeastern US and Caribbean, as well as global Sub/Tropical areas worldwide, to integrate interdisciplinary research between biomedical and oceanographic scientists. The Center includes three Research Projects: (1) research into the application of toxic algal culture, toxin analysis, remote sensing, oceanography, and genomics to subtropical/tropical Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) organism and toxin distribution; (2) exploring the interaction between functional genomics and oceanography of the subtropical/tropical HAB organism, Karenia brevis, and its environmental interactions; and (3) exploring the relationship between microbial indicators and human health effects in sub/tropical recreational marine waters. There are three Facilities Cores supporting this research in Genomics, Remote Sensing, and Toxic Algal Culture. To accomplish this research program in subtropical/tropical oceans and human health, the University of Miami Oceans & Human Health Center collaborates with interdisciplinary scientists at Florida International University (FIU), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Miami Dade County Dept of Health, the University of Florida, and other institutions, as well as other Oceans and Human Health Centers and researchers.

Fleming, L. E.; Smith, S. L.; Minnett, P. J.

2007-05-01

119

University of Colorado at Boulder: Discovery Learning Center (DLC)  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Colorado at Boulder established the Engineering Center Complex in order to support Discovery Learning, a project in which "undergraduates work alongside graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, faculty, and industry representatives, as collaborative partners on original research." Summer research internships and other opportunities are also available for the K-12 community. The website devotes significant attention to the (elaborate) Discovery Learning Center (DLC) building design by including Architectural Diagrams and Floorplans and a photo gallery of the facility. The DLC is "designed to support vertically integrated research teams working on interdisciplinary projects, ranging from genomics-based research to the latest in space experiments." The Research section provides links to the websites of the eleven projects within this facility: Biotechnology/Biomaterials Discovery Laboratory, Center for Drinking Water Optimization, Center for LifeLong Learning and Design, Colorado Center for Information Storage, Colorado Space Grant Consortium, Coleman Computing Discovery House, Interdisciplinary Telecommunications Systems Laboratory, Small Communicating Computer Laboratory, Space Experiments Institute, Micro/Nano Electro- Mechanical Systems, and BP 3-D Visualization Laboratory Biotech/Biolab.

120

The Kyoto mechanisms and technological innovation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark managed to stabilize primary energy supply, and CO2 emissions decreased by 10%, during a period of 20 years. However, after the introduction of the Kyoto Mechanisms, Denmark has changed its strategy. Instead of continuing the domestic CO2 emission controls, Denmark plans to buy CO2 reductions in other countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation. (author)

121

Klimadiplomatiets afveje i Kyoto-processen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Operationaliseringen af de i 1992 i Rio indgåede forpligtelser i forhold til UNFCCC (FNs Rammekonventionom klimaforandringerne) blev siden COP3 i Kyoto under dominerende indflydelse af USAs forhandlere. Kritik af resultaterne kom allerede i 1998 fra den tyske regerings rådgivere i WGBU, men blev tilsidesat. Efter USAs vægring mod at ratificere Kyoto-aftalen burde cirkusset have standset for at undgå de huller, der viser sig f.eks. hvad angår international handel med skovbaserede brændsler, hvor regnskabet ikke går op. En Plan B ligesom den tidligere forhandler fra EU-side i Kyoto, Jørgen Henningsen, allerede foreslog i 2009 er stadigvæk nødvendig, hvor man fokuserer på enkelte sektorer og enes om reduktionsmåder af drivhusgasser.

Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

2014-01-01

122

Greenhouse Effect International Cooperation: Rethink Kyoto Protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The greenhouse gas emission has the closed relation with the economic growth in the every country, therefore reducing the greenhouse gas emission level or decreasing its increasing speed affect the national economic growth. If developed countries take the unconcern of the developing countries as the reason, they didn’t adopt any measurements. If developing countries think the developed countries must be responsible for the climate change, they reject any action, also including Kyoto protocol. Every country governments lack national support so that the promise can’t be realized in the international negotiates. Whether Kyoto Protocol finally can formally become effective depends on the economy and sustainable development.

Longlong Guo

2009-06-01

123

Venemaa avas tee Kyoto protokolli jõustumiseks / Arko Olesk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kuigi USA on 1997. aastal sõlmitud globaalse soojenemise vastu suunatud Kyoto protokolli vastu, võib see rakenduda, sest Venemaa valitsus kiitis 30. septembril leppe heaks. Lisa: Venemaa Kyoto protokolli kaalukeelena

Olesk, Arko, 1981-

2004-01-01

124

Kyoto leppe jõustumine toob Eestile kasu / Tõnis Arnover  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kyoto protokollist, mis kohustab sellega ühinenud riike vähendama kasvuhoonegaase. Eesti võttis endale leppe ratifitseerimisel kohustuse vähendada aastaks 2012 heitekogust 1990. aastaga võrreldes 8%. Lisa: Eestile Kyoto lepe raskusi ei valmista

Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

2005-01-01

125

University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this meeting were to capture the observations, insights, issues, concerns, and ideas of those involved in the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center (TAMU NSC) TRIGA Reactor Conversion so that future efforts can be conducted with greater effectiveness, efficiency, and with fewer challenges. This workshop was held in conjunction with a similar workshop for the University of Florida Reactor Conversion. Some of the generic lessons from that workshop are included in this report for completeness.

Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Meyer

2007-04-01

126

University of Maryland component of the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Final Technical Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics (CMPD) was a five-year Fusion Science Center. The University of Maryland (UMD) and UCLA were the host universities. This final technical report describes the physics results from the UMD CMPD.

Dorland, William [University of Maryland

2014-11-18

127

The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, was adopted and entered into force in 2005. But several countries, including the USA, have had doubts about the potential negative consequences of the planned 5% global joint reduction of GHG. However, studies generally show that on a macroeconomic level: (1 welfare loss in terms of GDP and lost growth in EU is low; (2 it differs among economies; and (3 permit trading and permit price (in either global or regional markets is highly correlated with the welfare loss. The main objective of the paper is to describe the attitudes and responses to the Kyoto Protocol from a global perspective. The paper has three objectives. First, to provide an overview of global greenhouse gas emissions and the big drivers behind these emissions. Second, to present where different countries, both developed and less developed countries, such as India, China and the countries of South-east Europe currently stand as regards their efforts to achieve the Kyoto Protocol requirements. Third, to analyse the responses and attitudes to the Kyoto Protocol from a country development perspective.

Tjaša Redek

2009-11-01

128

Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

129

Teadlased : USA liitub Kyoto protokolliga / Neeme Raud  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

USA ja Austraalia on ainsad riigid, mis pole Kyoto protokollile alla kirjutanud. Princetoni ülikooli professori Michael Oppenheimeri arvates võib USA president George W. Bush oma seisukohti keskkonnaküsimustes muuta, sest teiseks ametiajaks valitud presidendid ei pea mõtlema uuele kampaaniale ning püüavad enne Valgest Majast lahkumist oma mainet maailma silmis parandada

Raud, Neeme, 1969-

2004-01-01

130

Setting the stage: Outcome from Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commitment of the upstream oil and gas industry to implement actions to help Canadians become more efficient in their use of energy was discussed. The goals of the Rio Framework convention revolved around achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the least costly manner. The industrial sector responded to that challenge through voluntary efforts to reduce greenhouse gases. However, from an industry perspective, the VCR (voluntary challenge registry) performance was inconsistent. While the upstream oil and gas industry participated aggressively, other industrial sectors, particularly the transportation sector, failed to participate. Progress was too slow and too late. The Third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto, resulted in a binding commitment of between 20 and 25 per cent per annum reduction for Canada. Emissions trading among developed countries is also included in the Kyoto Protocols. The speaker considered the reduction commitment of 20 to 25 per cent for Canada unrealistic, and suggested that the Kyoto protocol may be flawed, if only because so many of the details have not been spelled out. The importance of the roles of the federal and provincial governments in enforcing their consultative processes was emphasized. In the view of this speaker and that of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the biggest disappointments coming out of Kyoto, was the failure to gain meaningful involvement from the developing world. A global effort to reduce eeloping world. A global effort to reduce emissions cannot be achieved without the participation of the developing countries

131

Interpersonal Communications Curriculum. Claretian Medical Center for the Worker Education Program of Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago Teacher's Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching guide contains the materials required to teach a 6-week course in interpersonal communications that was developed for the workers of a Chicago medical center through a partnership involving the medical center, its employees, their union, and Northeastern Illinois University. Based on the student-centered philosophy of teaching, the…

Estes, Florence S.

132

EU CLIMATE POLICY FROM KYOTO TO DURBAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The risks posed by climate change are real and its impacts are already taking place. The biggest challenge about climate change is that there is no one single answer, no one single solution. This characteristic, together with the long history of political frictions and disputes worsened by environmental stresses suggests that global climatic changes have the potential to exacerbate existing international tensions. On December 31, 2012, the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period will expire. Unless states agree to a second commitment period, requiring a further round of emissions cuts, the Protocol will no longer impose any quantitative limits on states' greenhouse gas emissions. Although, as a legal matter, the Protocol will continue in force, it will be a largely empty shell, doing little if anything to curb global warming. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol negotiations, which focused exclusively on developed country emissions, the ongoing negotiations on a post-2012 climate change regime have also addressed developing country mitigation actions, without which a solution to the climate change problem is impossible. This has made the current negotiations as much between developed and developing countries as between the U.S. and the European Union. Key issues include: Legal Form; Regulatory approach; and Differentiation. By the Durban conference in December 2011 the EU needs to decide whether - and how - it will sign-up to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. This article focuses on the European Union needs to decide whether – and – how it will sign- up a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. Because asking, whether others will act is the wrong question. The real question is whether signing- up to some form of second Kyoto commitment period will support Europe’s fundamental interests.

ELENA ANDREEVSKA

2012-05-01

133

Joint development utility and university and utility and research center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the background acquired by CEMIG in dealing with projects associated with R and D (Research and Development), carried out as a result of the establishment of contracts or governants with universities and research center for direct application on the solution of problems related to the operation of the system, within the scope of electrical operation planning. The various aspects of a project of this nature such as legal questions, characterization of a contract or a covenant, main developments and new opportunity areas should be covered. Finally the subject shall be dealt with under the Total Quality approach, involving the proposition of control items associated to the process and goals to be reached. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs.

Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Valgas, Helio Moreira [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

1994-12-31

134

The Center for Digital Initiatives: Arkansas State University  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of the Center for Digital Initiatives (CDI) at Arkansas State University is "to promote ASU's position as a leader in the use of virtual environments for cross-disciplinary teaching, research, and service." To that end, they continue to post their engaging projects on this website, and visitors can get started by clicking on the "Projects" tab. All of these projects are hosted in Second Life, which is an immersive virtual environment that allows users to wander around and act with people, buildings, and so on. There are several heritage sites here, including the "Lost" town of Napoleon, Arkansas and the Southern Tenant Farmers' Museum. Visitors can also read about the motivating principles behind each project and listen to their podcasts, which provide more details on each project. Overall, the site will be quite compelling to people with an interest in new and emergent technologies, and it is one that visitors will want to share with others.

135

New Mexico State University Arrowhead Center PROSPER Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the final technical report of the Arrowhead Center Prosper Project at New Mexico State University. The Prosper Project was a research and public policy initiative funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Prosper project (DOE Grant Number DE-NT0004397) began on October 1, 2008 (FY2009, Quarter 1) and ended on December 31, 2012 (FY2013, Quarter 1). All project milestones were completed on time and within the budget. This report contains a summary of ten technical reports resulting from research conducted during the project. This report also contains a detailed description of the research dissemination and outreach activities of the project including a description of the policy impacts of the project. The report also describes project activities that will be maintained after the end of the project.

Peach, James

2012-12-31

136

Activities of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

Science.gov (United States)

This annual report includes the research activities and the technical developments carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center in University of Tsukuba for the period from April 1992 to March 1993. New experimental investigations were made on (1) nuclear spectroscopy was initiated by a new (gamma) ray spectrometer; (2) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions; (3) the application of energetic heavy ions to solid state physics; (4) the behavior of self interstitial atoms and its migration mechanism in Mo metal; (5) the studies on electronic conduction of metal oxides and bronzes by NMR; (6) Moessbauer studies on Fe-Cr alloy and the RBS analysis of YBCO superconductor films; and (7) a new field was challenged on the micro cluster physics. Nuclear collective motion and the relativistic mean-field theory is also included in this report.

1993-10-01

137

University of Michigan Population Studies Center: Survey Methodology Paper Series  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Survey of Family Growth Survey Methodology Paper Series "includes pre-publication reports and published articles on research conducted by affiliates of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan." On this site, visitors and public policy types can scan through these past papers at their leisure. The series is partially supported by a contract with the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, and some of the papers have a strong bent towards biostatistical research methods. Recent paper titles here include "A Practical Technique for Improving the Accuracy of Interviewer Observation: Evidence from the National Survey of Family Growth" and "A Management Model for Continuous Data Collection: Reflections from the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010". The site also includes links to their "Elderly in Asia" reports and additional works on aging in the United States.

138

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Report covers the research activities and the technical developments of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, for the period from April 1989 to March 1990. Laborious but promising work of refreshing 12UD has continued throughout the year, in the intervals of the regular machine-time service. The terminal voltage of 12UD has gone beyond 12MV. At the time of writing this manuscript, 12UD is running up stably around 12.4MV, the loss current being essentially zero. She has recovered and further begins to flesh up without a surgical operation of grafting 'compressed tubes'. In the course of conditioning, the voltage has reached to 12.78MV. In spite of the considerable time consumed by the refreshing, the total machine-time has exceeded 2,000 hours. In addition to the improvement of 12UD, activities at the Center covered a wide area of research field, viz. 1) nuclear spectroscopy of transitional nuclei, 2) heavy ion fusion and fission processes, 3) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, 4) charge exchange process in atomic collisions, 5) application of energetic heavy ions investigating solid-state physics, and 6) effect of ion-irradiation on the fatigue properties of metal. Theoretical work pertinent to the nuclear structure is also included in this report. (author)

139

Stanford University: Center for the Study of Language and Information  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) "is devoted to research in the emerging science of information, computing, and cognition." This "new science" is an interdisciplinary project that developed through a shared interest among computer scientists, linguists, logicians, philosophers, psychologists, and artificial intelligence researchers "in how agents, whether biological or artificial, acquire, process, and convey information." The Center, initiated by researchers from Stanford, SRI International, and Xerox PARC, now also collaborates with researchers from other universities, laboratories, and companies around the world. The website provides information on projects from the Interface Laboratory and the Research in the Cognitive Sciences program. Projects from the Interface Laboratory "constitute a concerted effort at CSLI to address human/computer interface problems emerging in the world of telecommunications, information processing, and consumer electronics." Research in the Cognitive Sciences program addresses interdisciplinary projects that cover a range of topics in computer science, linguistics, logic and semantics, philosophy, psychology, and education. The Publications section includes proceedings from annual conferences, a few older technical reports, and a one-page summary of all publications, including several books available for purchase.

140

Clean energy exports and the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed Canada's attempt in international negotiations to gain credits for energy exports that may result in greenhouse gas emission reductions in the United States. It examined how well founded this position is from an environmental perspective and in terms of international equity and political reality. The author emphasized that the clean energy export issue does not provide a legitimate reason to delay Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, and cautioned that further renegotiation of Kyoto targets for the first commitment period would not be practical and would jeopardize Canada's international standing. The author did note, however, that for the second commitment period, this issue could be reintroduced. Although the problem can potentially be resolved by granting credits to producers and exempting emissions, it was suggested that the most effective approach would be for countries to factor energy export considerations into their negotiating positions

141

The Kyoto Protocol Is Cost-effective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite recent advances, there is a high degree of uncertainty concerning the climate change that would result from increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Also, opponents of the Kyoto Protocol raised the key objection that reducing emissions would impose an unacceptable economic burden on businesses and consumers. Based on an analysis of alternative scenarios for electricity generation in Italy, we show that if the costs in terms of damage to human health, material goods, agriculture, and the environment caused by greenhouse gas emissions are included in the balance, the economic argument against Kyoto is untenable. Most importantly, the argument holds true even if we exclude global external costs (those due to global warming, and account for local external costs only (such as those due to acidic precipitation and lung diseases resulting from air pollution.

Giulio A. De Leo

2002-06-01

142

Kyoto mechanisms: market incentives for hydro?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article considers whether the Joint Implementation (JI) of climate protection projects and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), introduced by the Kyoto Protocol, could offer incentives to make hydro power more attractive since only 2 of the 130 pilot projects approved by participating countries to test the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms involve hydroelectric power. The calculation of the emission reduction due to JI and CDM projects, and the International Emission Trading (IET) mechanism are discussed. Experiences with the hydroelectric power projects in Costa Rica and Bhutan are outlined, and the promotion of hydroelectric power for climate friendly power generation, and the problem of assessing additional climate impact from new installations financed by the JI/CDM investments are examined. (UK)

143

Kyoto. The Hague, via Buenos Aires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article focuses on the Sixth Conference of the Parties (COP6) and the unfinished Kyoto business that COP 6 was unable to clarify. Particularly, it investigates the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and carbon sinks issues. The article shows the top events that led to the COP6, analyses the main aspects of the United Framework Convention on Climate Change, enlightens its critical elements and hopes for its solutions

144

EU CLIMATE POLICY FROM KYOTO TO DURBAN  

OpenAIRE

The risks posed by climate change are real and its impacts are already taking place. The biggest challenge about climate change is that there is no one single answer, no one single solution. This characteristic, together with the long history of political frictions and disputes worsened by environmental stresses suggests that global climatic changes have the potential to exacerbate existing international tensions. On December 31, 2012, the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period will expire....

ELENA ANDREEVSKA

2012-01-01

145

Energy Economist Briefing - the Kyoto Protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was unanimously agreed in the early hours of December 11, 1997. The Protocol itself has been variously described by the US Administration`s Stuart Eizenstat as `an important achievement in the best interests of the United States`, by the non-governmental organisation Friends of the Earth as `weak and sickly, but it lives... insufficient to slow down global warming, but nevertheless an historic watershed`, and the World Coal Institute as `a new level of risk for industry` but a world in which the coal industry `will continue to grow`. These differing response give clues to what actually happened in Kyoto. It was a modest though important step forward, yes, but more importantly, a great deal has yet to be clarified. It leaves a full agenda for the next Conference of the Parties in Buenos Aires (COP-4) on 2-13 November this year. This article discusses the key articles of the Kyoto Protocol and reports on actions and comments since its issue. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

NONE

1998-08-01

146

University Hospitals Case Medical Center presents promising data for novel pancreatic cancer vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists from University Hospitals Case Medical Center’s Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine presented results of a Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with pancreatic cancer testing the Algenpantucel-L vaccine today at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, part of Digestive Disease Week in San Diego.

147

Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements

148

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual report includes the research activities and the technical developments carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center in University of Tsukuba for the period from April 1991 to March 1992. Research activities covered the following subjects. Experimental investigations were made on 1) nuclear spectroscopy of high-spin rotational states and high-spin isomers in odd-odd nuclei, anomalous Fermi-coupling constant in the ? decay of 35Ar and the search for new isotopes around the mass number 90; 2) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions; 3) the application of energetic heavy ions to solid state physics; 4) the properties of defects in metal produced by proton irradiation; 5) the magnetic properties of LiVO2 by NMR; 6) off line Moessbauer studies; and 7) the mechanism of micro-cluster formation at the surface of material by heavy-ion bombardment. Theoretical work pertinent to the nuclear collective motion and the relativistic mean-field theory is also included in this report. (J.P.N.)

149

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual report covers the work carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, during fiscal year 1984. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was operated very stably. In addition, the heavy ion post accelerator with interdigital-H structure has worked well, providing additional energy of 2 MeV per charge for heavy ions. The constructions of a new Lamb-shift polarized ion source, a multi-computer control system for the ion sources of the UTTA, an electrostatic inflection system of incident ions for the UTTA, a new beam bunching system, and a new SF6 gas handling system were under way. The development and performance test of various radiation detector systems were carried out. Two thirds of the research works were performed by using the beam from the Lamb-shift polarized ion source (PIS). A newly constructed fast spin state interchange control system for the PIS made polarization experiment more effective and accurate. The research activities in the fields of nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, and biology and medical science are reported. (Kako, I.)

150

Tufts University Center for Engineering Education and Outreach  

Science.gov (United States)

The staff members at the Tufts University Center for Engineering Education and Outreach (CEEO) are committed to providing engineering students and those with a curiosity about engineering with a range of new resources in order to help them learn more about its various fields. On their homepage, visitors will note sections such as "Outreach", "Workshops", "Research", and "News & Events". The "Research" area is a good place to start, as it includes a list of current education and educational technology research going on at the CEEO. This area also includes a list of publications produced from their research projects. Moving along, the "Products" area includes the free SAM Animation software, which allows users to create their own animation and they can upload it to a shared community. This area also includes "Robolab", which is a graphical programming language for their popular LEGO MINDSTORMS robotics toolkit. Finally, the site also includes a link to SAM Animation website where visitors can see the latest movies created by students and teachers using these resources from CEEO. [KMG

151

Ihatud ja vihatud Kyoto kliimalepe jõustus viimaks / Kaivo Kopli  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kaheksa aastat peale sõlmimist jõustus Kyoto protokoll ehk ülemaailmne kliimakokkulepe kasvuhoonegaaside õhkupaiskamise vähendamiseks. ÜRO peasekretäri Kofi Annani läkitusest, lepingu nõrkadest külgedest ning kliimalepingu täitmisest. Lisa: Võitlus kasvuhoonegaasidega

Kopli, Kaivo

2005-01-01

152

Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project benefited the public by assisting manufacturing plants in the United States to save costly energy resources and become more profitable. Energy equivalent to over 75,000 barrels of oil was conserved. The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) visited 96 manufacturing plants and spent 101 days in those plants during the contract period from August 9, 2002, through November 30, 2006. Recommended annual energy savings for manufacturers were 37,400,000 kWh (127,600 MMBtu—site basis) of electricity and 309,000 MCF (309,000 MMBtu) of natural gas. Each manufacturer subsequently was surveyed, and based on these surveys reportedly implemented 79% of the electricity savings and 36% of the natural gas savings for an overall energy savings of 48% of recommended. Almost 800 (798) projects were recommended to manufacturers, and they accomplished two-thirds of the projects. Cost savings recommended were $12.3 million and implemented savings were $5.7 million or 47%. During the contract period our average time between site visit and report submittal averaged 46 days; and decreased from 48 days in 2003 to 44 days in 2006. Serving clients well and promptly has been a priority. We visited five ESA overflow clients during FY 06. The Texas A&M University IAC pioneered the presentation of air pollution information in reports, and includes NOx and CO2 reductions due to energy savings in all reports. We also experimented with formal PowerPoint BestPractices presentations called Lunchtime/Showtime in each plant and with delivering electronic versions of the report. During the period of the contract, the director served on the Texas Industries of the Future (IOF) Refining and Chemicals Committee, which oversaw the showcases in 2003 and 2006. The assistant director was the Executive Director of the International Energy Technology Conference held annually. The director and assistant director became qualified specialists in the Process Heating Assessment Scoping Tool and the Steam System Scoping Tool, respectively. Research was performed relating to energy conservation and IAC needs, resulting in a paper presented at the ACEEE meeting in 2005, and an internet software tool through the Texas IOF office.

Heffington, Warren M.; Eggebrecht, James A.

2007-02-24

153

Positioning a University Outreach Center: Strategies for Support and Continuation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that a strong case can be made for supporting outreach as a value-added function in a university. Specific strategies for positioning outreach within the university by developing a power base are outlined. The case of the University of Michigan-Flint is offered as an example of this approach. Seven lessons learned in the process are noted.…

Skivington, Kristen D.

1998-01-01

154

The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during the 1999 conference in Buenos Aires. Nothing was decided at this conference, leaving open the question of how emission trade is supposed to take place. Therefore, this article aims to propose a design which is both politically and administratively feasible. It may, as such, catch the interest of both academics and political decision-makers.

Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

1999-01-01

155

Global post-Kyoto scenario analyses at PSI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scenario analyses are described here using the Global MARKAL-Macro Trade (GMMT) model to study the economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Convention on Climate change. Some conclusions are derived in terms of efficient implementations of the post-Kyoto extensions of the Protocol. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1999-08-01

156

Environment. Planet warming: the expected effects of the Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors wonder on the effects of the Kyoto protocol objectives, on the global warming: what are the consequences of the Kyoto Protocol ratification? Which changes? Why and how reducing the emissions? What will happen in 2012? What about the problem of emissions resulting from the transports? (A.L.B.)

157

Peripheries and Centers: Research Universities in Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

The research university is a central institution of the twenty-first century--providing access to global science, producing basic and applied research, and educating leaders of the academe and society. Worldwide, there are very few research universities--they are expensive to develop and support, and the pressures of massification have placed…

Altbach, Philip G.

2009-01-01

158

Energy Economist Briefings - Climate change at Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the run-up to the Kyoto meeting on climate change attitudes have become polarised, with one side advocating immediate drastic action to cut CO{sub 2} emissions, while the others talk only about catastrophic economic impacts. The real situation is more ambiguous. While the IPCC said that on balance, the climate did seem to be being influenced by human activities, none of the advocates of cutting CO{sub 2} emissions have any idea how much this will cost. The politicians involved are now taking much more extreme positions than the scientists, and appear unaware of the speed at which CO{sub 2} producing technologies can be replaced. Current solar and wind technologies are incapable of replacing coal and oil at a reasonable cost. Either the costs will be unreasonable or the world will have to get used to living with more CO{sub 2}. 2 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01

159

Kyoto commitments: CHP will help the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet the United Kingdom's targets for carbon dioxide emissions reduction, agreed at the Kyoto Summit, the UK Government is promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Such schemes need to offer over 70% efficiency, have on-site or nearby heat uses, and allow flexibility for the export of electricity where this is appropriate. Electricity trading arrangements will need to be re-organised in line with similar commodities, in order to facilitate and promote the growth of CHP and renewable energy schemes. Financial incentives and regulation of electricity prices will also contribute to the promotion of CHP schemes, ultimately leading to reduced CO2 pollution as a result of the growth in the UK's CHP capacity. (UK)

160

Kyoto discord: who bears the cost?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1990, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions are up 20 per cent, meaning that Canada must reduce its emissions by 30 per cent between 2005 and 2010 to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Ottawa has indicated that no one sector of the economy should bear the burden of this adjustment. The energy production sector accounts for almost 40 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions. Our per capita emissions have risen 50 per cent faster than emissions in the United States. The authors compared our situation to that of Europe, where only a 5 per cent reduction is required, which can be explained by high taxes on energy users, and the closure of obsolete East German capacity which led to reductions of 100 million tonne in carbon dioxide emissions. Transportation is the second largest generator of greenhouse gas emissions with approximately 16 per cent. A quick overview of the energy sector was provided, touching on topics such as electric power generation, including coal-fired electrical production, and tar sands with its increasing importance to Canada's economy. Ottawa has released a plan in October 2002, where it indicates that industrial emitters will be required to cut 80 million tonnes through investments in more efficient technology. Tighter vehicle fuel and home insulation standards would account for 35 to 40 million tonnes of reduction, and 40 million tonnes would come from agriculture and forest management. It means there is a 60 million shortfall, and thes there is a 60 million shortfall, and the tar sands industry will more than likely have to adjust, raising investor uncertainty over further development in that area. Climate change is unlikely to be modified by meeting the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors questioned whether the government shouldn't instead devote its resources to addressing the actual impact of climate change. 9 figs

161

The Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland: the first complementary and alternative medicine center in a US medical school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland was founded in 1991 and was the first center dedicated to evaluating complementary and alternative medicine at a US medical school. The center has been a National Institutes of Health center of excellence since 1995 focused on evaluating the efficacy, safety and mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, and mind-body modalities including Qigong and mindfulness meditation. The Center functions as an interdisciplinary center in the university and is composed of four main areas—research, patient care, informatics, and education—that mutually enhance each other and create a cohesive unit. The Center has recently increased its international collaboration on acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine research, particularly with universities in China such as Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and other TCM universities.

Lixing LAO

2008-11-01

162

Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics at Harvard University  

Science.gov (United States)

Practical ethics are the focus of this appealing website from Harvard's Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics. Practical ethics courses were rare when the Center opened its doors 30 years ago, but the founders wisely felt the need to focus on it. Those visitors who are unfamiliar with practical ethics should start by clicking on "Center" found on the top right side of the homepage. From there, visitors can click on "What is Practical Ethics". After this introduction to the field, visitors should skip down to the "News & Events" link, also on the right side of the page, and then go to the "Lectures & Events" category. A thorough summary of each lecture from the Center's free public lecture series, is accessible by clicking on "More", at the bottom of each lecture description. Visitors interested in searching the lectures from earlier years can click on "Past Lectures & Events" located below the "Lectures & Events" category. The "Research & Publications" link has "Working Papers", "Publications", and "Reports" to view, along with the "Prandial Philosophy Post", a brief argument raised during one of the center's lunch seminars or at one of their public lectures.

163

Chalcogenide materials at the research center of Pardubice University.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Pardubice : University of Pardubice, 2011. s. 39-40. ISBN 978-80-7395-419-2. [International Days of Materials Science 2011. 16.09.2011-16.09.2011, Pardubice] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : crystalline chalcogenides * amorphous chalcogenides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

Frumar, M.; Wágner, T.; Málek, J.; N?mec, P.; Frumarová, Božena; P?ikryl, J.; Orava, J.; Kohoutek, T.

164

Learning Centered Universities: The Changing Face of Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Universities across the United States are beginning to systematically implement a paradigm shift in the way faculty are expected to teach and how students learn. Moving away from viewing the traditional role of the teacher as one whose primary job is to deliver lessons ("fill the pail" of students' brains), many college campuses are recognizing…

Scott, Whitney; Lisagor, Terri; Marachi, Roxana

2009-01-01

165

What will be the fate of the Kyoto protocol?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

n this paper authors deal with the Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 as well as with Kyoto protocol. For the Slovak Republic the Convention on Climate Change took effect in November 1994. For Slovakia arised from Kyoto Protocol to the Convention, that in the period of 2008-2012 the level of emissions cannot exceed the amount from 1990, reduced by 8 per cent (as well as whole Europe). In the next part authors describe mechanisms of flexibility in the frame of Kyoto protocol, principles for realisation of trade with greenhouse carbon dioxide and supported projects. (author)

166

CLUSTER: University-Science Center Partnership for Science Teacher Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to describe and present results from the fourth year of a five-year collaborative research project between an interactive science center and a local college. The purpose of the project is not only to recruit and train approximately 50 highly qualified science teachers who will teach in New York City public schools, but…

Saxman, Laura J.; Gupta, Preeti; Steinberg, Richard N.

2010-01-01

167

Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

Atreya, Arvind

2007-04-17

168

The red shift hypothesis for quasars: is the Earth the center of the universe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the cosmological interpretation of the red shift in the spectra of quasars leads to yet another paradoxical result: namely, that the Earth is the center of the Universe. Consequences of this result are examined. (Auth.)

169

University Hospitals Case Medical Center researchers develop new radiation therapy for gynecologic cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers from University Hospitals Case Medical Center have developed a more effective way to treat gynecologic cancers, shortening radiation treatment time from five weeks to three days. The method was published in the Journal of Visualized Experiments on April 17. The new method, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been used on other types of cancer, but University Hospitals Case Medical Center is the first treatment facility to apply it to gynecologic cancers.

170

Miks on täna jõustuv Kyoto protokoll oluline? / Liisi Poll  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

1997. aastal vastu võetud Kyoto protokollist, selle üle toimunud läbirääkimistest, leppe ratifitseerimisest riikides. USA vastuseisust leppele. Autori sõnul peaks selleks, et lepe tõesti mõjus oleks, selle eesmärke veelgi karmistama ning seda ka arenguriikidele laiendama. Diagramm: Kasvuhoonegaaside kogused

Poll, Liisi, 1980-

2005-01-01

171

Kyoto, coal and sharing the cost burden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Rio Treaty) at their first conference in 1995 agreed that the commitments entered into under the Convention were 'not adequate' to achieve its objective. These nations determined to proceed to strengthen those commitments under a protocol to be prepared for the third conference at Kyoto. Also it was to contain 'quantified emissions limitation objectives' (binding targets) on the industrial countries. For such targets to be consistent with Australia's interests, they would need to recognise Australia's relatively fast population and economic growth (both of which imply relatively faster growth in emissions), the increasing preponderance of energy intensive industries in the Australian economy, and our dependence on the export of energy intensive manufactures (like aluminium and other metals) and direct export of fossil fuels (including coal and natural gas). Major parties to the protocol negotiations - the USA and the EU - were advocates of uniform percentage emissions reductions from 1990 levels. Uniform percentage reductions, however intuitively appealing, impose widely different costs on different parties on account of their different circumstances. Australia would have been penalised by uniform reductions because our projected business-as-usual emissions trajectory is relatively steep, and measures adopted internationally to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions impact disproportionately on this economy (notct disproportionately on this economy (notably on account of reduced demand for Australian coal). The accompanying charts depict ABAREs 'less stringent' emissions scenario - addressing a goal of stabilising industrial countries' emissions of C02 rather than reducing them. ABARE's simulation for Australia by sector shows big negative impacts on output of non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, and coal. The metals industries, directly or indirectly are the coal industry's most important domestic customers. It is argued that because of the impact of Kyoto agreement on the international markets for coal, both in volume and price,coal is disproportionately disadvantaged. what the coal industry should be aiming to achieve, on equity grounds, is not simply a target allocation sufficient to cover its own emissions, but one greatly surplus to its own needs that can be sold

172

How Effective is the Kyoto Protocol in Impelling Emission Reduction  

OpenAIRE

The Kyoto Protocol is one of the most important international climate change treaties aimed at fighting global warming. On January 1st 2005, the protocol was enforced with its first commitment period 2008-2012. However, the effectiveness of reducing CO2 emission has long been debated. The purpose of this thesis is to empirically as-sess the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide reduction across countries, whether the protocol led significant difference after entering force in 2005. T...

Yang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Qian

2011-01-01

173

Greenhouse gas emissions and the role of the Kyoto Protocol  

OpenAIRE

Our study empirically investigates the effects of the Kyoto Protocol’s quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments on various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as CO2, CH4, N2O and other greenhouse gases, consisting of HFCs, PFCs and SF6. These GHG emissions are considered to be the main source of global warming issues and 39 countries approved to meet the commitments by ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. Our empirical analysis is based on the STIRPAT model, the stochastic version ...

Iwata, Hiroki; Okada, Keisuke

2010-01-01

174

A Place of Her Own: The Case for University-Based Centers for Women Entrepreneurs  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes the benefits of university-based women entrepreneur centers as an educational and outreach strategy and argues for their establishment and support by universities interested in educating women entrepreneurs and advancing women-owned businesses. Based on extensive research on women business owners and firsthand experience with…

Riebe, Mary

2012-01-01

175

Schools of Promise: A School District-University Partnership Centered on Inclusive School Reform  

Science.gov (United States)

A university-school district partnership, Schools of Promise (SOP), was formed to improve elementary schools for all children through whole-school reform. This effort focused on the concepts of belonging and inclusion, positioning the needs of marginalized students at the center of the reform through a university-facilitated restructuring of…

Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George; Bull, Thomas; Cosier, Meghan; Dempf-Aldrich, Kathy

2011-01-01

176

University of Colorado Cancer Center genetically sequences most common bladder cancer:  

Science.gov (United States)

In an article published online this week in Nature Genetics, a University of Colorado Cancer Center team in partnership with universities in China and Denmark, reports the first genetic sequencing of urothelial (transitional) carcinoma, the most prevalent type of bladder cancer.

177

Center for Space Power, Texas A and M University  

Science.gov (United States)

Johnson Controls is a 106 year old company employing 42,000 people worldwide with $4.7 billion annual sales. Though we are new to the aerospace industry we are a world leader in automobile battery manufacturing, automotive seating, plastic bottling, and facilities environment controls. The battery division produces over 24,000,000 batteries annually under private label for the new car manufacturers and the replacement market. We are entering the aerospace market with the nickel hydrogen battery with the help of NASA's Center for Space Power at Texas A&M. Unlike traditional nickel hydrogen battery manufacturers, we are reaching beyond the space applications to the higher volume markets of aircraft starting and utility load leveling. Though space applications alone will not provide sufficient volume to support the economies of scale and opportunities for statistical process control, these additional terrestrial applications will. For example, nickel hydrogen batteries do not have the environmental problems of nickel cadmium or lead acid and may someday start your car or power your electric vehicle. However you envision the future, keep in mind that no manufacturer moves into a large volume market without fine tuning their process. The Center for Space Power at Texas A&M is providing indepth technical analysis of all of the materials and fabricated parts of our battery as well as thermal and mechanical design computer modeling. Several examples of what we are doing with nickel hydrogen chemistry to lead to these production efficiencies are presented.

Jones, Ken

178

Meteor radar study of ionospheric wind at Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of meteor radar observations which have been carried out at Kyoto University since December, 1977. The radar, a coherent pulse doppler radar with a transmitting frequency of 31.57 MHz and a nominal peak power of 10 kW, is able to detect wind fields at meteor regions of 80 - 110 km. The solar semidiurnal tide generally dominates the wind oscillations at these heights, while a diurnal tide of comparable magnitude reveals itself in a less regular manner. Some anomalies in the amplitude and phase characteristics of the tides are shown, which might be related to a possible interaction with winds and waves, or to some disturbed conditions in the earth's atmosphere. Also planetary scale waves such as quasi-2-day oscillations and resonantly magnified gravity-mode waves have also been found there. Hence, the meteor radar, together with its cooperation with other observations, will helps us understand the dynamical process of atmospheric waves on a global scale. (author)

179

Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection, Tel-Aviv University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection operates within the Bob Shapell School of Social Work at Tel-Aviv University in Israel. The main aims of this research center are to facilitate study and knowledge about the welfare of children experiencing abuse or neglect or children at risk and to link such knowledge to…

Ronen, Tammie

2011-01-01

180

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CONTINUING EDUCATION CENTERS AT TURKISH UNIVERSITIES  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Continuing education centers mainly organize activities for the society in the fields that have gained importance on the improvement of individuals with a view of career building, improving professional knowledge and skills, achieving new skills and supplying individual development needs. Such centers have been established within universities through the principle of making continuing education accessible to everyone as a starting point for a lifelong learning process. These centers ...

Arslan, Mehmet Metin

2008-01-01

181

Climate economics: post-Kyoto tracks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commitments obtained by the Kyoto protocol will end in 2012. An impressive series of conferences - Bali (2007), Copenhagen (2009), Cancun (2010) to mention the main ones - were organised to prepare the post-2012 regime. Everything was supposed to be decided at the Copenhagen meeting but the state representatives came up against the obstacle. The pre-Copenhagen hope has given place to disillusion and has led to a turn-off towards a weekly coordinated regime which requires a strategic revision of approaches. This book presents the lessons learnt from the relative failure of these negotiations and proposes new paths for the future. It puts forward some strategic stakes that have to be taken into account for the future: the equity between very heterogeneous countries and populations, the industrial competitiveness, the carbon leaks and the violation of the most ambitious climate policies due to the heterogeneity of commitment levels, and the geopolitical reality. The world will have to live for a long time with heterogeneous carbon prices, themselves reflecting heterogeneous commitment levels. New modalities have to be defined which would manage to combine justice and efficiency. Two complementary paths are developed in this book: the establishing of adjustment mechanisms at borders and of international sectoral agreements. (J.S.)

182

Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

1998-12-01

183

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CONTINUING EDUCATION CENTERS AT TURKISH UNIVERSITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT Continuing education centers mainly organize activities for the society in the fields that have gained importance on the improvement of individuals with a view of career building, improving professional knowledge and skills, achieving new skills and supplying individual development needs. Such centers have been established within universities through the principle of making continuing education accessible to everyone as a starting point for a lifelong learning process. These centers which aim at providing continuing education, implement more flexible programs compared to those executed at higher education institutions. In this study, the structure and functions of Continuing Education Centers at Turkish Universities are investigated. The scope of the study includes all the centers that have web pages established under state and public universities in Turkey. Data pertaining to structure and functions of the centers meeting this criterion, the number of which is 43 in total comprising 34 state and 9 private universities, have been evaluated. As a result of the study it was discovered that these centers had very similar foundation principles and organizational structures.

Mehmet Metin ARSLAN

2008-07-01

184

Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

Brown, G.Z.

1990-01-01

185

Where is the center of the universe? : here, there, and everywhere  

Science.gov (United States)

An interactive illustration is provided here to reveal that the Earth is not the center of the expanding universe, despite apparent evidence to the contrary. The illustration consists of an image of the universe as it was a billion years ago layered beneath an image of the universe's present layout. By following the instructions and positioning the top image in two different locations, the user will see that the universe appears to be expanding from any observation point selected. A paragraph explains why this is the case. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Paul Doherty

2001-01-01

186

A project for increasing the rate of participation in mammographic breast cancer screening in Kyoto prefecture to 50%  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of participation in breast cancer screening carried out by inspection and palpation associated with mammography in Kyoto Prefecture has been still low. In order to decrease the rate of breast cancer death, a high rate of screening participation must be achieved. We have organized the Kyoto Executive Committee of Pink Ribbon Activity aiming at the goal of achieving a 50% rate of participation in mammography screening by the end of 2010, and undertaken the following campaign activities: performing free screening, distribution and display of posters and leaflets about breast cancer screening, cooperation with various media to spread educational and informative messages, cooperation with a commercial institute in Kyoto City to distribute useful information, performing free breast cancer screening, and holding public lecture meetings, distribution of leaflets at student festivals at universities and colleges in Kyoto, and holding a ''Pink Ribbon symposium'' in a cosponsored company. All the above projects were performed successfully and many participants attended. We will continue these activities until the 50% participation rate is achieved. (author)

187

Just transition : a labour perspective on the Kyoto jobs debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) represents workers in the oil, gas, petrochemicals, electricity, uranium and related industries. In a recent national convention in 2002, the CEP voted to support ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The decision was made after an 18 month process that included research, debate, and a look at their responsibilities to defend members in addressing environmental issues. This paper presents a labour perspective of the impact of the Kyoto Accord and the Canada Climate Change Action Plan. It was emphasized that a broad social analysis is needed to understand the implications of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol on labour and society. The CEP seriously considered the claims made by the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters Association which predicted major job losses resulting from ratification of Kyoto. It also examined the link between energy supplies and the opposition by some energy industries to the Kyoto Protocol. The CEP decided that responsibility to the environment must come before concerns over economic impacts on members, but by the same token did not accept claims of major job losses. The Analysis and Modeling Group of the National Climate Change Process has projected that 1.26 million new jobs will be created in Canada over the period 2002 to 2010, which is 60,000 less jobs than would have been created in the Business as Usual Scenario. It was emphasized that the impacts of Kyoto compliance on d that the impacts of Kyoto compliance on Canada will be modest in comparison with the normal activities of a trillion dollar economy. 5 refs., 1 tab

188

The Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland: the first complementary and alternative medicine center in a US medical school  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: The Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland was founded in 1991 and was the first center dedicated to evaluating complementary and alternative medicine at a US medical school. The center has been a National Institutes of Health center of excellence since 1995 focused on evaluating the efficacy, safety and mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, and mind-body modalities including Qigong and mindfulness meditation. The Center functions a...

Lao, Lixing

2008-01-01

189

The center of excellence on elder abuse and neglect at the University of California, Irvine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center of Excellence on Elder Abuse and Neglect at the University of California, Irvine, integrates the work of five discrete but interacting domains related to elder mistreatment. These domains are local projects, research, training and education, technical assistance, and policy and advocacy. The Center is structured in such a way as to maximize information sharing and cross-pollination between the domains, build on lessons learned, and explore new ideas. This article describes the history of the Center, offers examples that highlight how the Center works, and considers the future of this model for the field of elder mistreatment. PMID:20711912

Chen, Elaine A; Twomey, Mary S; Mosqueda, Laura

2010-07-01

190

Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

1999-04-18

191

Explicit and implicit issues at the Kyoto meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto meeting has to set binding objectives for reducing the emission of 'greenhouse gases' in developed nations. It also has to decide which, among several proposed instruments, is best suited for reaching these objectives. Have the eventual signatories weighed the treat's full implications? To quantify matters in this field entails working out common technical standards and, thus, restricting national sovereignty. Nor should we forget the hard to assess economic impact. For example, what about the 'pollution permits', which may take quite different forms and have unmanageable consequences if left unregulated and uncontrolled? Will delegations at the kyoto meeting be able to lay down such regulations? Will they find the formulas for both launching significant actions and making up for the risks of uncontrolled institutional mechanisms? That is one thing at stake in Kyoto. (author)

192

The Kyoto Protocol under the Climate Convention: commitments and compliance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of the Third Conference of the Parties of the climate convention - CoP III, December 1997 in Kyoto - came the Kyoto Protocol: sharp, quantitative greenhouse gas emissions commitments that tightened up the Climate Convention. These are explicit commitments that reveal the tension between the attack on the problem and the limitations of traditional principles of international law, such as sovereignty, territoriality and equality. The implementation of the commitments into national legislation demands a close collaboration between international and national legal experts, with a knowledge of both environmental law and economic law, in the widest sense. The article surveys what has been or has yet to be regulated by the parties to the Kyoto Protocol in regard to the compliance of the Protocol commitments, and presents the current situation. The authors propose a number of suggestions

193

Climate Change and Kyoto. What next? Key Issues and Challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over seven years after the negotiations in Kyoto and three years after the main detailed rules of the Kyoto Protocol were agreed in Marrakech, the Protocol finally entered into force on 16 February, 2005. It is timely therefore to explore a range of what next issues. While touching on the period from now to the end of the Protocol's first commitment period (2012), the major focus is on the future, out 'Beyond Kyoto'. In particular, the article seeks to draw out the major challenges for the public sector, both in domestic policy and the next round of international negotiations. While the science of climate change has been getting considerable media attention lately, the policy implications are less discussed

194

The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on questionnaires was determine too the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus type II. Analysis of the results revealed the strong correlations between lifestyle and cardio-metabolic risk in these students.

Mihaela ORAVI?AN

2013-12-01

195

Just transition : a labour perspective on the Kyoto jobs debate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) represents workers in the oil, gas, petrochemicals, electricity, uranium and related industries. In a recent national convention in 2002, the CEP voted to support ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The decision was made after an 18 month process that included research, debate, and a look at their responsibilities to defend members in addressing environmental issues. This paper presents a labour perspective of the impact of the Kyoto Accord and the Canada Climate Change Action Plan. It was emphasized that a broad social analysis is needed to understand the implications of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol on labour and society. The CEP seriously considered the claims made by the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters Association which predicted major job losses resulting from ratification of Kyoto. It also examined the link between energy supplies and the opposition by some energy industries to the Kyoto Protocol. The CEP decided that responsibility to the environment must come before concerns over economic impacts on members, but by the same token did not accept claims of major job losses. The Analysis and Modeling Group of the National Climate Change Process has projected that 1.26 million new jobs will be created in Canada over the period 2002 to 2010, which is 60,000 less jobs than would have been created in the Business as Usual Scenario. It was emphasized that the impacts of Kyoto compliance on Canada will be modest in comparison with the normal activities of a trillion dollar economy. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Wilson, F. [Communications, Energy and Paperworks Union of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2003-07-01

196

Report: demonstrable progresses of the France according the Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document constitutes the report of the France on the demonstrable progresses according the application of the 3 article of the Kyoto protocol. The first chapter is a description of the french climatic policy, as the second presents the tendencies and the projections concerning the greenhouse effect gases emissions. The chapter 3 details the policies effects and the measures ( energy, transport, industry and wastes). The last chapter is devoted to the respect of the other engagements articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

197

Dismantling of a breakthrough: the Kyoto Protocol - just symbolic policy!  

OpenAIRE

We show that U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol is straightforward under political economy considerations. The reason is that U.S. compliance costs exceed low willingness to pay for dealing with global warming in the U.S. The withdrawal had a crucial impact on the concretion of the Protocol prior to its likely ratification at the end of 2002. Remaining non-EU Parties to the Kyoto Protocol gained veto bargaining power and, thus, were successful in asserting far reaching concessions from t...

Bo?hringer, Christoph; Vogt, Carsten

2002-01-01

198

Implementation of Cooperative Learning in the Center for Community Service and Continuing Education at Kuwait University  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to review the success of implementation of cooperative learning in various courses delivered at the Center for Community Service and Continuing Education at Kuwait University. According to recent research in the field of social cognition, learning situations which make use of the social context often achieve superior…

Alansari, Eissa M.

2006-01-01

199

Implementing the Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity in University Counseling Center Internships  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the potential contribution of the "Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity" (henceforth the "Values Statement") to predoctoral internship training programs housed in university counseling centers. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for how to best implement the Values…

Illfelder-Kaye, Joyce; Lese-Fowler, Karen; Bursley, Kevin; Reyes, Elizabeth; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

2009-01-01

200

The University of California Area Health Education Center Biomedical Library Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the University of California's Central San Joaquin Valley Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Biomedical Library Program, which is intended to improve library services in hospitals and other medical care institutions in the region and to coordinate future development of these services. A summary of the San Joaquin Valley AHEC…

Jordan, Lynette G.

201

Broom Closet or Fish Bowl? An Ethnographic Exploration of a University Queer Center and Oneself  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors detail an educational ethnography of a university queer cultural center's role on campus and in the surrounding community. The data include participant observation, in-depth interviews, and artifacts. The authors review lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, ally, and questioning (LGBTAQ) issues in higher education, heterosexual…

Teman, Eric D.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

2012-01-01

202

Thirty years of derivation of geomagnetic indices at the WDC for geomagnetism, Kyoto and lessons learnt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The derivation of AE, Dst and ASY/SYM indices started at the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, in 1978, 1985 and 1990, respectively. Before we started derivation of the AE indices, they were derived at the University of Alaska and then at NOAA. On the Dst index, it was derived and distributed by Prof. Masahisa Sugiura for long time at NASA/GSFC and when he moved to Kyoto University, we succeeded the service. The method of derivation of the AE and the Dst indices had been established when we succeeded derivation and they were rather simple. Most of the problems we had so far relate to obtaining the data used for the derivation. It is essential to get continuous data with high quality, however, it is not so easy for each observatory to keep the quality high under severe conditions in economic, political or technical aspects. International supports such as IAGA resolutions helped very much to improve the situation and continue derivation. Another problem we experienced was the change (or variety) of needs. Progress in space weather research or many new satellite programs requested more quick (or real-time) derivation of the indices, and our efforts were devoted to near real-time data transfer and derivation since middle of 1990's. The efforts still continue under the collaboration with various groups, institutions and observatories. In this talk, we report our current status.

203

Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University. Environmental Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease (CNMR) at the Health Sciences Center, at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia for the construction and operation was prepared by DOE. The EA documents analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts that might occur as a result of these actions, and characterizes potential impacts on the environment. In the EA, DOE presents its evaluation of potential impacts of construction and operation of the CNMR on health and safety of both workers and the public, as well as on the external environment. Construction impacts include the effects of erosion, waste disposal, air emissions, noise, and construction traffic and parking. Operational impacts include the effects of waste generation (domestic, sanitary, hazardous, medical/biological, radioactive and mixed wastes), radiation exposures, air emissions (radioactive, criteria, and air toxics), noise, and new workers. No sensitive resources (wetlands, special sources of groundwater, protected species) exist in the area of project effect.

1994-04-01

204

Costs and results of the implementation of the Kyoto Mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unrestricted use of the Kyoto Mechanisms yields substantial cost savings on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Annex-I emission trading can cut compliance costs by more than a third while global trading can further reduce costs to a fraction of the amount without emission trading. In absolute terms, emission trading may reduce compliance costs up to $300 billion and bring down the permit price below $5 t/CO2. Restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms, such as ceiling on the sales or purchases of emission permits wipes out a substantial part of these cost savings. A ceiling on permits sales has probably a larger impact on emission trading than limiting purchases; mainly the buyers suffer since they have to pay more for emission permits as well as take more expensive domestic measures to reduce emissions. The EU-proposal for a ceiling on both permit sales and purchases favours the USA but harms the EU, a result opposite the negotiating positions of both parties on this subject. Market power and market segmentation also imply limiting the flexibility of emission trading and hence increase compliance costs. The Kyoto Mechanisms have a strong but varying impact on carbon leakage. Without emission trading, carbon leakage is about 10-20% but since Annex-I trading lowers the permit price, the impact on energy prices is lower and hence carbon leakage is only 3-7%. CDM on the other hand increases carbon leakage to 30-40%

205

Making it work: Kyoto, trade and politics : Executive summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this document, the author examines the constraints that would be placed on policy makers in the event of the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and how it would affect trade agreements and federalism in Canada. A description of the Protocol and the concessions (carbon sinks and international emissions trading) gained by Canada are presented at the beginning of the document. The author offers several conclusions that could disturb both proponents and opponents of the Kyoto Protocol. It is said that the implementation of Kyoto can take a route other than that of drastic domestic emissions reductions, and this position is explored in the second section. The author indicates that corporate competitiveness could be boosted by strict environmental regulations. A range of policies that could be adopted by Canada, as proposed by numerous organizations, are highlighted in the third section of the document. The point of the World Trade Organization and the constraints imposed are not necessarily preventing all types of actions. However, the author is of the opinion that the North America Free Trade Agreement represents a real threat to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, it is indicated that Canada requires a national electricity policy, where big hydro utilities and public investment have major roles to play

206

Clinical application of ET-Kyoto solution for lung transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the severe donor shortage in Japan, even after the revision of the Organ Transplant Law in 2010, the frequency of recovery of extended criteria lungs has increased in Japan. We developed a new lung preservation solution, "ET-Kyoto solution," to enhance lung preservation, to minimize primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and to improve the post-transplant outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed our results of lung transplantation using the ET-Kyoto solution. From 2002 to 2012, 26 patients underwent transplantation of lungs preserved with ET-Kyoto solution from brain-dead donors. We retrospectively reviewed the post-transplant pulmonary function and long-term survival. The graft performance was assessed by the PGD grading system. The mean graft ischemic time was 483.8 ± 19.0 min. The oxygenation capacity after reperfusion and recovery of respiratory function were both acceptable despite the long ischemic time. The survival rate at 5 years after transplantation was 85.1 %. Lungs preserved by ET-Kyoto solution had satisfactory postoperative lung function, despite the long preservation time, with excellent long-term survival. The results were acceptable for the use of grafts with a long ischemic time. PMID:24845738

Ikeda, Masaki; Bando, Toru; Yamada, Tetsu; Sato, Masaaki; Menjyu, Toshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Chen, Fengshi; Sonobe, Makoto; Omasa, Mitsugu; Date, Hiroshi

2015-04-01

207

Rio, Kyoto, Marrakesh - groundrules for the global climate policy regime  

OpenAIRE

Nach vier Jahren aufreibender Verhandlungen ist mit den Beschlüssen von Marrakesch das internationale Klimaregime hinreichend klar, um umsetzbar zu sein. Außer den USA und Australien haben alle Industrieländer angekündigt, das Kyoto-Protokoll zu ratifizieren. Die Industrieländer unterliegen damit für die Verpflichtungsperiode 2008 ? 2012 verbindlichen Treibhausgasemissionszielen. Einige Länder werden durch Ausnahmeregeln begünstigt, die die Ziele abschwächen. Die Verfügbarkeit von f...

Michaelowa, Axel

2001-01-01

208

Response by the energy industry to the Kyoto agreement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto agreement has called for an appropriate response by the energy industry to the perceived problem of global warming. However, while governments are justify in researching low-probability energy technologies to solve uncertain problems, the private sector has non such luxury. The experience of oil crises in the '70s should be a good lesson

209

Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged in the development of measures to reduce the intensity of emissions of the province's economy

210

University of Tokyo-Institute of Medical Science: Human Genome Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Genome Center was established in 1991 at the University of Tokyo's Institute of Medical Science. In pursuit of progress in the areas of human disease diagnosis, care, and prevention, the Center conducts genome research in Japan and participates in "international activities in database construction, mapping, and sequencing of the human genome." The Genome Center website contains links to its nine Laboratories which conduct research in the following areas: Genome Structure, Sequence Analysis, Molecular Medicine, and DNA Information Analysis, to name a few. Laboratory pages contain information about research, publications, staff, and services. The Center site also links to a number of databases and software tools including a database of Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (JSNP), Microbial Genome Database for Comparative Analysis (MBGD), PSI-BLAST, TFBIND (software for searching transcription factor binding sites), and more.

211

Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ocean iron fertilization is currently discussed as a potential measure to mitigate climate change by enhancing oceanic CO2 uptake. Its mitigation potential is not yet well explored, and carbon offsets generated through iron fertilization activities could currently not be traded on regulated carbon markets. Still, commercial interests in ocean iron fertilization already exist, which underlines the need to investigate a possible regulatory framework for it. To this end, I first discuss important basic aspects of ocean iron fertilization, namely its scientific background, quantitative potential, side effects, and costs. In a second step, I review regulatory aspects connected to ocean iron fertilization, like its legal status and open access issues. Moreover, I analyze how the regulations for afforestation and reforestation activities within the framework of the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be applied to ocean iron fertilization. Main findings are that the quantitative potential of ocean iron fertilization is limited, that costs are higher than initially hoped, and that potential adverse side effects are severe. Moreover, the legal status of ocean iron fertilization is currently not well defined, open access might cause inefficiencies, and the CDM regulations could not be easily applied to ocean iron fertilization.

212

Kyoto and beyond : A plan of action to meet and exceed Manitoba's Kyoto targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document represents the next step in Manitoba's effort to mitigate the effects of climate change. A message from the Manitoba Premier and the Minister of Conservation of Manitoba are included in the introduction. The Action Plan is based in part on the discussion among climate experts and public input gathered in the course of the 2001 task force and the 2001 public forum on climate change. A rise in average global temperatures is affecting most of the planet, which is due in part to the upsetting of the balance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activities. It is affecting weather patterns, water, agriculture, forests, health and welfare, and life in the North. The Manitoba government is committed to meeting and exceeding the reduction targets set under the Kyoto Protocol through renewable electricity, Selkirk conversion, ethanol, methane capture, and other measures targeted toward industry. Energy efficiency also plays a big part in the process of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The government is leading by example, and also investing in knowledge. It is promoting technology development and innovation while enhancing awareness and understanding. All sectors are being encouraged to implement appropriate measures. The various initiatives undertaken by each department and organization under each of those headings are described. figs

213

Annual review of Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, July, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the Heliotron E was completed in June, 1980. After the preliminary examination for two months and the improvement of the power supply, the Joule heating experiment was carried out from September, 1980, to January, 1981. The experiment of electron cyclotron resonance heating was also carried out in January, 1981. Then, experiment was stopped to install the neutral beam injection apparatus. The results obtained by both experiments are reported. The target may be attained by producing high density plasma with low plasma current, and heating the plasma by NBI additionally. In the ECRH experiment, plasma was produced and heated successfully without Joule heating current, by the Gyrotron with 200 kW power output. The favorable results of the confinement experiment with current-free plasma indicate the possibility of a stationary fusion reactor of Heliotron type. The Heliotron magnetic field configuration was proposed in 1959, and since then, the experiments of Heliotron A, B, C, D and DM were carried out in succession. Now, the purpose of the experiment to prove the principle is being achieved with Heliotron E. Hope is placed on the NBI experiment in preparation. (Kako, I.)

214

Annual review of Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, April, 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The devices for additionally heating joul-heated plasma in the Heliotron E, such as electron cyclotron resonance heating and neutral beam injection, were in operation in 1982. In the ECRH experiment, the microwaves of 200 kW at 28 GHz were generated by a gyrotron, but the pulse width was extended from 10 ms to 40 ms this year. By this, a currentless plasma of Te-1 keV was achieved. In the NB1 experiment, the neutral beam of about 1.5 MW was injected into joule-heated plasma, and the plasma of Ti(O)-950 eV, Te(O)-800 eV and Ne = 3 x 1019/m3 was attained. The first experiment to inject neutral beam into ECRH currentless plasma was carried out. By this method, the density of the plasma increased as well as the ion temperature and electron temperature. As to the theory, a critical beta was calculated by using stellarator expansion, which should be 3 to 7 % in the Heliotron E. Two gyrotrons of 200 kW at 53 GHz each and an ion cyclotron resonance heating equipment of 1.5 MW at 26.7 MHz are prepared. As to the reactor study, the design of Heliotron H in the first phase was completed. The location of impurity sources in NB1 ion sources and beam lines was found. (Kako, I.)

215

Wave heating tokamak, WT-III, in Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WT-III is a research tokamak for studying steady-state operation, combined RF heating, by using ECH, LHH and ICH. The main body vacuum vessel has ports as large as possible between all toroidal coils; the automatic lip-seal welding/cutting technique, which is under development for a fusion reactor, has been applied to minimizing the working space on the final assembly. Regarding the power supply and control equipment, contrivance has been exerted to save energy by effective operation and to increase reliability. The heating system, incorporating the high-power gyrotron and klystron developed originally by Toshiba, has effected an increase in the system's output. This equipment is scheduled to be installed and tested at the site in this fiscal year, and good results are expected to be obtained. (author)

216

Reconstruction of pneumatic irradiation facility in Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are three pneumatic sub-facilities in KUR allowing simultaneous irradiation of three samples. The Pn facility is sub-divided as follows, hot cave room (Pn-1), junior cave room (Pn-2), chemical laboratory (Pn-3). The capsule to be tested is sent into the KUR core, via the Pn facility by CO2 gas pressure and irradiated by neutrons and gamma rays in the KUR core. After irradiation, the capsule returns to the desired Pn station by similar means. The dispatch-return mechanism for the capsules was altered during this reconstruction. One major alteration in the system was the replacement of the one machine used for dispatch and return, by two machines for despatch and return. In consequence of this new design, the dispatch machine has a capsule setting box, and the return machine has a return ball valve. The electric circuitry for this system was improved at this time. A new emergency return circuit was added, and the photodetector system that indicated the insertion of the capsule into the core was refined. In addition, the CO2 gas tank, use for the capsule propulsion, was transfered from the reactor basement to the rear area of the hot laboratory. This was done to facilitate easy access to the gas tank for future repressurization of low CO2 gas tank pressures. (author)

217

Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2014-04-27

218

A universal scaling of planar fault energy barriers in face-centered cubic metals  

OpenAIRE

Minimum energy paths for generating intrinsic, extrinsic and twin planar faults were calculated for a number of face-centered cubic (fcc) metals via ab initio techniques. It is found that when the lattice is faulted sequentially, the interaction with the existing fault tends to remain minimal for nearly all the fcc metals. Accordingly, a universal scaling law may be deduced based on a single parameter, namely the ratio between the intrinsic stacking fault energy and the relevant energy barrier.

Jin, Z. H.; Dunham, S. T.; Gleiter, H.; Hahn, H.; Gumbsch, P.

2011-01-01

219

Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in the university medical center of Rabat, Morocco  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The aims of this study were to determine the hospital-acquired infections (HAI) prevalence in all institutions of Rabat University Medical Center, to ascertain risk factors, to describe the pathogens associated with HAI and their susceptibility profile to antibiotics. Materials and methods Point-prevalence survey in January 2010 concerning all patients who had been in the hospital for at least 48 hours. At bedside, 27 investigators filled a standardized questionnaire from ...

Razine Rachid; Azzouzi Abderrahim; Barkat Amina; Khoudri Ibtissam; Hassouni Fadil; Chefchaouni Almontacer; Abouqal Redouane

2012-01-01

220

Fossil fuels: Kyoto initiatives and opportunities. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GHG emission in the upstream step of fossil fuel chains could give an environmental as well as economic opportunity for traditional sectors. This study deepens the matter showing an increasing number of initiative over the last few years taken both the involved sectors and by various stake holders (public and private subjects) within the Kyoto flexible mechanism (CDM and JI) or linked to voluntary national or at a global level actions. The above undertakings give evidence for an increased interest and an actual activity dealing with GHG reduction whose results play an evident and positive role for the environment too. Part 1. of this study deals with fossil fuel actions within the Kyoto protocol mechanism. Part 2. will show international and national voluntary initiative

221

U.S. State Department weathers Kyoto Protocol criticisms  

Science.gov (United States)

On future occasions, Frank Loy, U.S. Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs, may want to cite his September 28 U.S. Senate testimony as one more sign of global warming.In the hot seat for nearly two hours, Loy was grilled by several Republican senators suspicious of the Clinton Administration's continued efforts to promote and negotiate the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change—despite the Senate's expressed overwhelming concern about what they have called the treaty's shortcomings.

Showstack, Randy

222

The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides academic support and small-group supplemental instruction to students studying introductory algebra-based and calculus-based physics. These classes are gateway courses for majors in the biological and physical sciences, pre-health fields, engineering, and secondary science education. The Physics Learning Center offers supplemental instruction groups twice weekly where students can discuss concepts and practice with problem-solving techniques. The Center also provides students with access on-line resources that stress conceptual understanding, and to exam review sessions. Participants in our program include returning adults, people from historically underrepresented racial/ethnic groups, students from families in lower-income circumstances, students in the first generation of their family to attend college, transfer students, veterans, and people with disabilities, all of whom might feel isolated in their large introductory course and thus have a more difficult time finding study partners. We also work with students potentially at-risk for having academic difficulty (due to factors academic probation, weak math background, low first exam score, or no high school physics). A second mission of the Physics Learning Center is to provide teacher training and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors. These Peer Tutors lead the majority of the weekly group sessions in close supervision by PLC staff members. We will describe our work to support students in the Physics Learning Center, including our teacher-training program for our undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors

Nossal, S. M.; Watson, L. E.; Hooper, E.; Huesmann, A.; Schenker, B.; Timbie, P.; Rzchowski, M.

2013-03-01

223

Is Kyoto Fatally Flawed? An Analysis with MacGEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present some numerical simulations with the MacGEM model to evaluate the consequences of the recent Marrakesh agreements and the defection of the USA for the Kyoto Protocol. MacGEM is a global marginal abatement cost model for carbon emissions from fossil fuel use based on the GEM-E3-World general equilibrium. Nonparticipation of the USA causes the equilibrium carbon price in Annex B countries to fall by approximately 50% since an important share of permit demand falls out. Carbon sinks enhancement activities enable Parties to fulfil their reduction commitment at lower compliance costs and cause the equilibrium permit price to decrease by 40%. Finally, it is shown that the former Soviet Union and central European countries have substantial monopoly power in the Kyoto carbon permit market. We conclude that the recent accords have eroded completely the Kyoto Protocol's emission targets but that they have the merit to have saved the international climate change negotiation framework

224

Rethinking the options. Kyoto's flexible mechanisms and nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cutting emissions of greenhouse gases is a major aim of the Kyoto Protocol that countries have adopted in december 1997. But the cuts will not be easy to achieve, reductions of the magnitude postulated in the Protocol would involve a substantial restructuring of energy production and use in most industrialised countries. In November this year, the Sixth Conference of Parties will continue negotiating the rules and regulations for the flexible mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol. Previous Conferences of Parties avoided a formal debate about a nuclear role. It remains to be seen whether nuclear power will be included as a clean and sustainable technology. The role of nuclear power needs to be reconsidered, given the potential risk of climatic change, and the very technically and economically feasible means of drastically mitigating greenhouse gases emission in the short run. Nuclear energy can generate cost-effective tradable emissions credits and it would be highly discriminatory not to allow developing countries to exercise similar options as the industrialised ones, like Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) modeled after the concept of Joint Implementation adopted at the Kyoto Conference. The CDM reinforces the key role developing countries can play in solving the problem of limiting future emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, while meeting their justifiable needs for economic development. Financing nuclear power projects in developing countries in exchange jects in developing countries in exchange for emission credits meets both goals

225

As if Kyoto mattered: The clean development mechanism and transportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most rapidly growing anthropogenic source. In the future, the developing world will account for the largest share of transport GHG increases. Four basic components drive transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions: activities (A), mode share (S), fuel intensity (I) and fuel choice (F) (ASIF). Currently, the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) serves as the main international market-based tool designed to reduce GHG emissions from the developing world. Theoretically, the CDM has the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve 'sustainable development' goals and industrialized countries meet their Kyoto emissions reduction commitments. This paper reviews overall CDM activities and transportation CDM activities to date and then presents findings from three case studies of transportation CDM possibilities examined with the ASIF framework in Santiago de Chile. The analysis suggests that bus technology switch (I) provides a fairly good project fit for the CDM, while options aimed at inducing mode share (S) to bicycle, or modifying travel demand via land use changes (ASI) face considerable challenges. The implications of the findings for the CDM and the 'post-Kyoto' world are discussed

226

The Project Based Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Credible Instruments or Challenges to the Integrity of the Kyoto Protocol?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are innovative instruments which allow projects to earn credits for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The credits can in turn be used by countries to reach their emissions targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Project based mechanisms are known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI). If the project based mechanisms are to be effective policy instruments they must ensure the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol, and their ability to promote and prove real emission reductions is critical. The environmental credibility of the project based mechanisms will also ensure their ability to promote cost effectiveness. Key concepts in this context are environmental and project additionality, and their role and value for the project based mechanisms are analyzed. Environmental additionality is established by comparing a project's emissions to a baseline. The baseline's credibility is thus vital. The concept of project additionality is somewhat controversial, but is nonetheless of equal importance. The case studies of CDM approved methodologies (AMs) and proposed projects suggest that there are credibility issues that need to be addressed if the project based mechanisms are to promote real emissions reductions.

Takeuchi Waldegren, Linn

2006-03-15

227

Hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center, Tuscaloosa, Alabama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves storing thermal energy such as winter chill, summer heat, and industrial waste heat for future use in heat and/or cooling buildings or for industrial processes. Widespread development and implementation of STES would significantly reduce the need to generate primary energy in the United States. Recent data indicate that STES is technically suitable for providing 5% to 10% of the nation`s energy, with major contributions in the commercial and industrial sectors and in district heating and cooling applications. This report describes aquifer characterization at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The purpose of the testing is to provide design data for the University`s use in modifying and expanding an existing ATES well field. The aquifer characterization work was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program) in cooperation with the University of Alabama as part of efforts to assess the use of chill ATES for space cooling.

Hall, S.H.; Newcomer, D.R.

1992-02-01

228

Introductory Astronomy Student-Centered Active Learning at the George Washington University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Department at the George Washington University has been successfully using student-centered active learning (SCALE-UP) in physics classes since 2008. Recently (since fall 2011), we have been developing and implementing introductory (non-majors) astronomy classes taught in the student-centered active learning mode. Class time is devoted to engaging in hands-on activities and laboratories and tackling questions and problems in a workbook. Students work in small groups, and multiple instructors circulate to answer questions and engage students in the material. Research has shown that students who are engaged in this manner have an increased conceptual understanding of the material. In developing our “Stars, Planets and Life” course into an interactive class, we encountered many challenges, but there have also been positive outcomes. Improvements to this class are ongoing, and in fall of 2013 we will begin full implementation of SCALE-UP in our “Introduction to the Cosmos” course.

Cobb, B. E.

2014-07-01

229

Digital Forensics and Cyber Security Center at the University of Rhode Island  

Science.gov (United States)

Based at the University of Rhode Island, the Digital Forensics and Cyber Security Center (DFCSC) "supports state, national, and international public welfare through education, research, training, and service in forensic investigations and securing information systems." The website provides access to news from the fields of digital forensics and cyber security, along with working papers, materials on ongoing research projects, and academic programs. In the "Resources" area, visitors can look over information from the Department of Homeland Security, along with a collection of free cyber security tools. In the "Academics" area, visitors can learn about the Center's academic degree and certificate programs. Finally, the "Research" area contains their technical reports and student theses on a diverse set of topics.

2012-06-15

230

Development of scanning irradiation system in Gunma University Heavy-Ion Medical Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scanning irradiation is a novel irradiation technique for particle cancer therapy, recently. Cancer therapy using pencil beam scanning has already started at several proton centers. However, for carbon beams, scanning is still not in widespread use. In order to investigate the scanning irradiation technique using our compact synchrotron for carbon treatment, we developed a scanning port in Gunma University Heavy-ion Medical Center and have been performing the experiments using carbon beam. Recently, we succeeded in improving the time structure of the extracted beam current and in suppressing the beam-spot motion during each extraction spill that were originally present. As a result, the flatness of the 2-D irradiation field was significantly improved. This fall, we plan to perform the first biological experiment with this scanning port and we will continue to check the performance of our scanning irradiation system. (author)

231

Present status of the accelerator in Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research Center for Electron Photon Science (RCEPS) was established in December 2009 in the Mikamine Campus of the Tohoku University as an Electron Photon Science User Facility. The center carried on all electron accelerators from Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS). Such impressive advances have been supported by advanced developments of beam-delivery and accelerator technologies and by maintenance works for high-reliability operation. Furthermore, it was authorized as a base research facility of the national collaboration use from 1 April 2011 by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. However, the accelerators ware serious damaged by the 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We had no effect of tsunami and no one was injured. It is predicted, unfortunately, that a considerably long period would be required until the accelerators could resume operations. The report describes the status of the accelerators and recovery of the damaged accelerators for RCEPS. (author)

232

Status of IR-FEL Research Center at Tokyo University of Science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IR-FEL Research Center at Tokyo University of Science, FEL-TUS, was constructed with the aim to develop FEL technology and perform experiments in the infrared wavelength range. Mid-Infrared FEL, MIR-FEL, is operated as user facility, providing continuous tunable radiation in the range of 5 - 14 ?m. We also perform accelerator research and development. The RF electron gun with Disk and Washer cavity was developed for the electron source of FIR-FEL device. We present the status of FEL-TUS in this paper. (author)

233

University of California -- Davis: Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center (FNRIC) aids in the "coordination and dissemination of University of California (UC) research-based information, accomplishments, and statewide research and extension activities related to fruit and nut crops." The site contains a wide variety of information for many fruits and nuts including avocados, macadamia nuts, strawberries, and walnuts -- just to name a few. Most of the individual crop pages link to a handful of general publications as well as information about production management, production economics, meetings, related organizations, and more. The site also links to sections for UCCE Pomology Farm Advisor Newsletters and Publications, Pomology Weather Services, California Backyard Orchard services, and related links.

234

Chelation research at the Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chelation research should be continued in order to improve the effectiveness and safety of this mode of decontamination therapy. At the New York University Medical Center we are evaluating various treatment procedures using Na3(Zn-DTPA) and Na3(CA-DTPA) for removing americium, curium, and plutonium from the baboon, an animal whose blood and urine chemistries are similar to those of man. It has been determined, thus far, that the treatment schedules presently recommended for man may not be optimal

235

Neutron dose rate in the facility at the cyclotron center of Chung Shan Medical University.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neutron dose equivalent rate (DR) leaking from the self-shielded cyclotron was measured using an FHT-751 neutron counting system in the facility at the Cyclotron Center of Chung Shan Medical University. This system was calibrated using two (252)Cf neutron sources and simulated according to MCNP code. The results show various DRs up to 120 microSv h(-1) in the cyclotron room. Two-dimensional distributions of measured neutron DRs indicate an explicit, heavy leakage of neutrons through the self-shielded interlock. The neutron DR of the operating cyclotron that is hazardous to the health of medical personal and the public is evaluated. PMID:18303178

Lee, Jui-Ping; Chen, Chien-Yi

2008-03-01

236

The University of Nebraska at Omaha Center for Space Data Use in Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the context of innovative coursework and other educational activities, we are proposing the establishment of a University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Center for the Use of Space Data in Teaching and Learning. This Center will provide an exciting and motivating process for educators at all levels to become involved in professional development and training which engages real life applications of mathematics, science, and technology. The Center will facilitate innovative courses (including online and distance education formats), systematic degree programs, classroom research initiatives, new instructional methods and tools, engaging curriculum materials, and various symposiums. It will involve the active participation of several Departments and Colleges on the UNO campus and be well integrated into the campus environment. It will have a direct impact on pre-service and in-service educators, the K12 (kindergarten through 12th grade) students that they teach, and other college students of various science, mathematics, and technology related disciplines, in which they share coursework. It is our belief that there are many exciting opportunities represented by space data and imagery, as a context for engaging mathematics, science, and technology education. The UNO Center for Space Data Use in Teaching and Learning being proposed in this document will encompass a comprehensive training and dissemination strategy that targets the improvement of K-12 education, through changes in the undergraduate and graduate preparation of teachers in science, mathematics and technology education.

Grandgenett, Neal

2000-01-01

237

Application of the Kyoto Mechanisms in Finland's climate policy. Report of the Finnish Committee on the Kyoto mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol are meant project-specific Joint Implementation, JI, intended for emissions reduction in the industrialised countries and the Clean Development Mechanism, CDM, designed for emissions reduction in the developing countries. Joint Implementation Projects can be found particularly in the economies-in-transition The flexible mechanisms under the Protocol also include Emissions Trading, ET, which States - and according to the view of several parties, enterprises, too - can conduct subject to rules to be later agreed upon in connection with emissions rights The international climate negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol and on drafting more detailed rules on the use of the mechanisms are still pending. In fact, the Working Group thinks that the uncertainties so far connected with the flexible mechanisms will lead to a situation in which the national climate policy must, at this stage, be primarily based on domestic reduction measures. Even if Finland were prepared to meet her climate policy obligations through domestic measures, there is, in the Working Group's opinion, skill reason to continue the preparations for the possibilities of using the Kyoto flexible mechanisms, too. The prime goal of the flexible mechanisms is an internationally cost-efficient climate policy, which creates the preconditions for the gradual tightening of emission limitations in a manner that will hinder economic and other societal activity as little mic and other societal activity as little as possible. Thus the flexible mechanisms can become more important during later commitment periods. According to model calculations, using the mechanisms would probably be inexpensive compared to the domestic emission reduction measures. It seems that the international markets for assigned amount units obtained through the use of the mechanisms would be big enough in view of the relatively limited immediate needs of the Finnish Climate Policy. The larger the group of countries and operators trading in the mechanisms is, the bigger cost benefits for the entire area would be achieved with the mechanisms. However, many uncertainties are connected with the picture given by the model calculations on the inexpensiveness of the project-specific mechanisms. In the opinion of the Working Group, preparations should be made for the use of the flexible mechanisms. The aim should be that the use of the Kyoto mechanisms would be based in the longer term on well functioning international markets on which enterprises can buy and sell assigned amount units within the limits laid down by the parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Working Group suggests that a task force be set up at the beginning of 2001 to prepare for the bureaucracy related to the use of the mechanisms and to make a draft for legislation concerning the organisation of these bureaucratic functions. The Working Group proposes that a broadly-based body be set up to prepare for the operating models for the use of the mechanisms and to draft the necessary legislation no later than at the stage when the main principles and rules on the use of the Kyoto mechanisms have been agreed upon in international negotiations. The Working Group states that it is important to analyse the various options for emissions trading and project-specific mechanisms in terms of their implementation. The preparedness of taking a position to possible emissions trading on the EU level and to the issues related to the Kyoto mechanisms coming up in international negotiations must be improved. The Working Group proposes that, while drafting the Finnish positions, such broadly-based analysis work on the mechanisms could be utilised more than before in which the expertise and views of the different authorities and operators would be made avail of Interaction between the authorities and operators should be increased. (orig.)

238

Hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center, Tuscaloosa, Alabama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves storing thermal energy such as winter chill, summer heat, and industrial waste heat for future use in heat and/or cooling buildings or for industrial processes. Widespread development and implementation of STES would significantly reduce the need to generate primary energy in the United States. Recent data indicate that STES is technically suitable for providing 5% to 10% of the nation's energy, with major contributions in the commercial and industrial sectors and in district heating and cooling applications. This report describes aquifer characterization at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The purpose of the testing is to provide design data for the University's use in modifying and expanding an existing ATES well field. The aquifer characterization work was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program) in cooperation with the University of Alabama as part of efforts to assess the use of chill ATES for space cooling.

Hall, S.H.; Newcomer, D.R.

1992-02-01

239

Evidence-Informed Leadership in the Japanese Context: Middle Managers at a University Self-Access Center  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the steering of a self-access learning center in a Japanese university by its "middle management" committee over the first years of its operation. Middle management practice was informed by an ethnographic archive of various facets of center use, particularly concerning language policy and curriculum integration, issues about…

Adamson, John; Brown, Howard

2012-01-01

240

Employee Communication at a University-Based R & D Center: An Analysis Using Grunig's Theory of Communication Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 80% of the 282 employees at a university-based educational research and development center completed questionnaires based on J.E. Grunig's theory of communication behavior in a study to define communication types, discover communication patterns, and make recommendations for improving the center's communication program. Grunig's theory…

Schneider, Larissa J.

241

The University of Maine's Advanced Manufacturing Center: Lessons Learned During the First Two Years of Operation  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Maine's College of Engineering has created an Advanced Manufacturing Center with a student-oriented mission. This center provides a distinctive engineering approach to solving manufacturing problems and gives Engineering Technology students hands-on experience working on engineering and manufacturing projects. With much of the centers work coming from off-campus businesses; the students gain practical experience with client communication, teamwork, business and project management and presentations in addition to technical skills. The program provides a paid internship opportunity for undergraduate students to gain skills in machining, manufacturing processes and fabrication by being involved in these projects. Students usually start by fabricating parts under supervision, move on to training and supervising other students and by the time they're seniors, they will likely be running projects on their own. The objective is to graduate students who have an entrepreneurial vision, combined with experience on industrial machining and fabricating equipment acquired through involvement in this unique experience of an on-campus internship in a real workplace environment. The paper will discuss the experiences and lessons learned in the first two years of operation with dozens of students participating and hundreds of projects being completed.

Christensen, Thomas E.

242

Fossil fuels: Kyoto initiatives and opportunities. Part 2.: International scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GHG emission reduction in the upstream step of fossil fuel chains could give an environmental as well as economic opportunity for traditional energy sectors. This study deepens the matter showing an increasing numbers of initiatives over the last few years taken both by the involved sectors and by various stake holders (public and private subjects) within the Kyoto flexible mechanism (CDM and JI) or linked to voluntary national or at a global level actions. The above undertakings give evidence for an increased interest and an actual activity dealing with GHG reduction whose results play an evident and positive role for the environment too

243

Cogeneration's European future: cogeneration in a post-Kyoto world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article focuses on the future of cogeneration in Europe, and considers the results of the completed 'future cogen' study. The ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, liberalising energy markets, the vulnerability of cogeneration in the face of competition in the electricity sector, and the European Commission's call for a doubling of cogeneration power generation are discussed. Details are given of tbe SAFIRE model to assess the potential future of cogeneration and the development of 4 scenarios, and the potential for cogeneration in Europe to 2020 is plotted against capacity. Brief overviews of cogeneration in 28 countries are presented, and recommendations resulting from 'future cogen' study are listed

244

An evaluation of business implications of the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been commissioned by Norsk Hydro ASA and written in November-December 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly the seventh Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention in Marrakech, Morocco, in October/November 2001, and to provide an evaluation of what the finalized Kyoto Protocol means for business. The report is organized as a collection of slides with supporting text explaining the background and contents of each slide. (author)

245

Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade public goods have been shown to require a measure of equity to ensure efficiency (Chichilnisky 1996, Chichilnisky and Heal 2002). This conclusion has been validated theoretically and is also in line with what was agreed by 160 nations in the Kyoto Protocol. Somewhat surprisingly, the same conclusion applies also to trading knowledge goods. Knowledge is a global public good. This paper proposes a new property rights regimes for knowledge goods and for environmental assets that seem crucial for economic progress in the era of the Knowledge RevolutionTM. (author)

246

Energy projects within Kyoto mechanisms: environmental stakes and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author highlights the fact that the Kyoto protocol did not produce an economically rational sharing of the burden as it assigns emission constraints only to developed countries. This fact lead to new mechanisms to exploit differences in reduction costs and opportunities: the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The article discusses the implementation of these mechanisms and outlines the requirements for them to be successful. More precisely, the article addresses the concept of additionality and the sustainability issue for energy projects, notably in the case of nuclear energy and of 'clean coal' projects

247

Building Bob: A Project Exploring the Human Body at Western Illinois University Preschool Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When the children at Western Illinois University Preschool Center embarked on a study of human bodies, they decided to build a life-size model of a body, organ by organ from the inside out, to represent some of the things they were learning. This article describes the building of "Bob," the human body model, highlighting the children's problem solving at various points in the construction process. The article also explains other activities that the class engaged in during the three phases of project work. The project culminated in the creation of a classroom book, written and illustrated by all of the children, which could be shared with families and visitors to the classroom.

Scott Brouette

2008-01-01

248

Annual report 1992 of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual report includes the research activities and the technical developments carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center in University of Tsukuba for the period from April 1992 to March 1993. New experimental investigations were made on (1) nuclear spectroscopy was initiated by a new ? ray spectrometer; (2) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions; (3) the application of energetic heavy ions to solid state physics; (4) the behavior of self interstitial atoms and its migration mechanism in Mo metal (5) the studies on electronic conduction of metal oxides and bronzes by NMR; (6) Moessbauer studies on Fe-Cr alloy and the RBS analysis of YBCO superconductor films; and (7) a new field was challenged on the micro cluster physics. Nuclear collective motion and the relativistic mean-field theory is also included in this report. (J.P.N.)

249

The University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives: Fletcher Family  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives has continued to add to their online offerings in recent years. This latest collection is quite a pip, and it contains family correspondence from the Fletcher Family of Vermont. The family correspondence begins in 1826, and it is primarily focused around several family members who moved west to New York, Ohio, and other parts of the heartland. Throughout these letters, the various correspondents detail the process of creating and managing their new farms and the documents leave no fact (or price) unexplored as they discuss the land, grains, stock, and groceries. All told, there are 139 letters in the collection, and visitors can click on the "Browse the Collection" section to view the letters listed by author. Additionally, visitors can search the collection by keyword, title, or subject.

250

Status of IR-FEL research center of Tokyo University of Science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IR-FEL research center of Tokyo University of Science (FEL-TUS) is a facility for aiming at the development of high performance FEL device and promotion of photo-science using it. The main part of FEL-TUS is a mid-infrared FEL (MIR-FEL) which consists of an S-band linac and an undulator combined with an optical resonance cavity. MIR-FEL provides continuously tunable radiation in the range of 5-14 ?m and a variety of experiments by the use of this photon energy corresponding to the various vibrational modes of molecules are now underway. We also develop far-infrared FEL (FIR-FEL) installed an RF-gun with Disk-and-Washer accelerating cavity for high quality electron beam. We report the present status of FEL-TUS. (author)

251

UCSD-San Diego Supercomputer Center/University of Massachusetts: Protein Explorer  

Science.gov (United States)

While certainly a fantastic educational resource, the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) website is definitely geared towards those with a background in or who are currently studying proteins. The site, authored by Eric Martz of the University of Massachusetts, offers several flash-enabled movies that allow viewers to study protein molecules from a three dimensional point of view. As the site notes, "for visualizing the three-dimensional structures of protein, DNA, and RNA macromolecules, and their interactions and binding of ligands, inhibitors, and drugs. It is arguably the easiest-to-use software of its kind. It is suitable for high school and college students (ages 16 years and older), yet it is also widely used by graduate students and researchers." Thus, beginners to the site will want to check out the Beginners Start Here section so not to get too overwhelmed with the many other areas of the site.

252

Research and education at the NASA Fisk University Center for Photonic Materials and Devices  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1992, NASA awarded Fisk University a 5 year grant to establish a center for research and education on photonic materials are synthesized, characterized and, in some cases, developed into devices with applications in the fields of radiation detectors and nonlinear optical crystals, glasses and nanomaterials. The educational components include participation in the research by 3 types of students majoring in Physics, Chemistry and Biology: 1) Fisk undergraduates participating during the academic year. 2) Fisk graduates performing their Maser Thesis research. 3) Fisk and other HBCU's and Minority Institutions' undergraduates attending a 10 week summer workshop with a very rigorous program of study, research and progress reporting. Funds are available for supporting participating students. Prerequisite, schedules of activities, evaluation procedures and typical examples of the outcome are presented.

Silberman, Enrique

1996-07-01

253

Lessons from the Kyoto Protocol Lições do Protocolo de Quioto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to undertake a critical evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol. The evolution of the discussions that produced the final document is sketched through the analysis of official documents of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, relevant papers and material from the press. We also discuss the factors that cast doubts on the continuation and feasibility of the Protocol and the prospects for the post-Kyoto period and a new compromise.O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma avaliação crítica do Protocolo de Quioto. Descreve-se inicialmente a evolução das discussões que produziram o documento final, utilizando como fontes documentos oficiais da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas para Mudança do Clima (CQNUMC, artigos importantes e material jornalístico. Enfatizam-se a seguir os fatores que colocam em dúvida a continuidade e a factibilidade do Protocolo. Discutem-se em último lugar as expectativas para o período pós-Quioto e para um novo acordo.

Eliezer Martins Diniz

2007-06-01

254

The road from Kyoto : A U.S. industry view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An American industry perspective of the Kyoto Protocol and its ability to produce a viable solution to global warming was offered. The Protocol would require most industrialized nations (including Canada and the United States) to cut their carbon dioxide emissions by 6 to 8 per cent below 1990 levels by year 2008 to 2012. Developing countries would not have to meet this target. It was argued that this set of targets and timetables assumes that climate risks are known with great certainty, when in fact, the long term risks of climate change are highly uncertain and near-term risks are small. It was also argued that developing countries account for more than half of the growth in CO2 emissions, therefore, their exemption from the Kyoto Protocol would make the Protocol ineffective against even a moderate warming scenario. Furthermore, the Protocol has the potential to create reactionary incentives for energy-intensive industries to move their facilities and jobs to countries without the curbs on CO2 emissions. It was suggested that a better climate policy would include all countries in CO2 reductions. It would be less expensive to achieve a target CO2 atmospheric concentration by curbing emissions slowly at first, developing technology to do so more cheaply and moving more aggressively in later years. The reality is that if the climate policy is too expensive, it is less practical and more difficult to achieve, both economicallore difficult to achieve, both economically and politically. 1 tab., 2 figs

255

Implementing the Kyoto Protocol. The role of environmental agreements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines under what circumstances voluntary agreements to curb greenhouse gas emissions could be an attractive policy option from the government`s perspective. The report begins by defining the term Environmental Agreement (EA) and then explores EAs in three steps: (1) Advantages and disadvantages of EAs compared to other policy tools (direct regulation, taxes and tradable permits), based on theoretical studies and experience from practical use, (2) The potential of EAs as an international policy tool, either in a bilateral or regional setting, (3) The attractiveness of EAs to implement the Kyoto Protocol, and the relation to joint implementation and international emissions trading. The main conclusions are: (1) Experience from OECD countries suggests that EAs are most attractive as a supplement to traditional command and control, or to market-based policy tools. (2) Skillful design of EAs can improve their efficiency. (3) Bilateral EAs is an interesting policy option to regulate pollution from other countries. (4) Regional EAs are rare but could have important advantages. (5) EAs can play a role in a soft transition stage from traditional command and control to domestic emission trading, and further on to a Kyoto Protocol regime of emission trading and joint implementation. 52 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Torvanger, Asbjoern; Skodvin, Tora

1999-09-01

256

An overview of multidisciplinary research resources at the Osaka University Center for Twin Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osaka University Center for Twin Research is currently organizing a government-funded, multidisciplinary research project using a large registry of aged twins living in Japan. The purpose of the project is to collect various information as well as biological resources from registered twins, and to establish a biobank and databases for preserving and managing these data and resources. The Center is collecting data from twin pairs, both of whom have agreed to participate in a one-day comprehensive medical examination. The following data are being collected: physical data (e.g., height, body mass, blood pressure, theoretical visceral fat, pulse wave velocity, and bone density), data regarding epidemiology (e.g., medical history, lifestyle, quality of life, mood status, cognitive function, and nutrition), electrocardiogram, ultrasonography (carotid artery and thyroid), dentistry, plastic surgery, positron emission tomography, magnetoencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging of brain. These data are then aggregated and systematically stored in specific databases. In addition, peripheral blood is obtained from the participants, and then genomic DNA is purified and sera are stored. A wide variety of studies are ongoing, and more are in the planning stage. PMID:23298684

Hayakawa, Kazuo; Iwatani, Yoshinori

2013-02-01

257

Spin S = 1 centers: a universal type of paramagnetic defects in nanodiamonds of dynamic synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intrinsic paramagnetic defects in ?5 nm sized nanodiamonds, produced by various dynamic synthesis (DySND) techniques (detonation, shock-wave, pulsed laser ablation of solid carbon containing targets), have been studied by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). X-band (9-10 GHz) EPR spectra of DySND, in addition to the main intensive singlet Lorentzian-like EPR signal, reveal a low intensity doublet pattern within the half-field (HF) region (g ? 4). On transferring spectra to the Q-band (34 GHz) the shape of the HF pattern changes and splitting between doublet components is reduced from 10.4 to 2.6 mT. The HF patterns observed are attributed to the ‘forbidden’ ?MS = 2 transitions between the Zeeman levels of some spin-triplet (S = 1) centers. The model of two triplet centers with g ? 2.003 and zero-field splitting parameters D1 = 0.095 cm-1 (TR1) and D2 = 0.030 cm-1 (TR2) satisfactorily describes experimental results at both microwave frequencies. The spin-triplet-type defects are observed in a wide variety of DySND samples irrespective of industrial supplier, cooling and carbon soot refinement methods, initial purity, disintegration, or subsequent targeted chemical modification. This indicates that the intrinsic defects with S = 1 in DySND systems are of universal origin. (paper)

258

"Phased Implementation Of AT&T PACS At Duke University Medical Center"  

Science.gov (United States)

"Help me communicate more quickly and more effectively with referring clinicians". This request was the driving force behind the installation of the AT&T CommView System at Duke. The CommView System is a type of Digital Image Management System and Picture Archival Communication System whose chief purpose is to deliver interpreted diagnostic images to referring clinicians and attending physicians. The system acquires electronic images from modalities in a diagnostic imaging facility, stores these images in computer managed patient files and distributes these on demand over fiber optic cable to Display Consoles. The CommView System was designed at AT&T Bell Labs; it uses fiber optic ribbon cable between buildings fused to multistrand lightguide building cables to distribute images, typically around a medical center or campus at data transfer rates of 40 Mbps. This paper gives the rationale used in designing a start-up network and placing the initial equipment for a field trial of the AT&T CommView System in the Radiology Department of Duke University Medical Center.

Stockbridge, Chris; Ravin, Carl E.

1986-06-01

259

Phased implementation of AT and T PACS at Duke University Medical Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

''Help me communicate more quickly and more effectively with referring clinicians''. This request was the driving behind the installation of the AT and T CommView System at Duke. The CommView System is a type of Digital Image Management System and Picture Archival Communication System whose chief purpose is to deliver interpolated diagnostic images to referring clinicians and attending physicians. The system acquires electronic images from modalities in a diagnostic imaging facility, stores these images in computer managed patient files and distributes these on demand over fiber optic cable to Display Consoles. The CommView System was designed at AT and T Bell Labs; it uses fiber optic ribbon cable between buildings fused to multistrand lightguide building cables to distribute images, typically around a medical center or campus at data transfer rates of 40 Mbps. This paper gives the rationale used in designing a start-up network and placing the initial equipment for a field of the AT and T CommView System in the Radiology Department of Duke University Medical Center

260

Phased Implementation Of At&T PACS At Duke University Medical Center  

Science.gov (United States)

"Help me communicate more quickly and more effectively with referring clinicians". This request was the driving force behind the installation of the AT&T CommViewm System at Duke. The CommView System is a type of Digital Image Management System and Picture Archival Communication System whose chief purpose is to deliver interpreted diagnostic images to referring clinicians and attending physicians. The system acquires electronic images from modal-ities in a diagnostic imaging facility, stores these images in computer managed patient files and distributes these on demand over fiber optic cable to Display Consoles. The CommView System was designed at AT&T Bell Labs; it uses fiber optic ribbon cable between buildings fused to multistrand lightguide building cables to distribute images, typically around a medical center or campus at data transfer rates of 40 Mbps. This paper gives the rationale used in designing a start-up network and placing the initial equipment for a field trial of the AT&T CommView System in the Radiology Department of Duke University Medical Center.

Stockbridge, Chris; Ravin, Carl E.

1986-01-01

261

UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of carbon if a global system of emissions mitigation could be quickly and effectively implemented. But it could also exceed $250 per tonne of carbon if the US must meet its emissions limitations entirely through domestic actions, and if mitigation obligations are not adequately anticipated by decision-makers.

JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

2000-07-06

262

New Cosmic Center Universe Model Matches Eight of Big Bang's Major Predictions Without The F-L Paradigm  

CERN Document Server

Accompanying disproof of the F-L expansion paradigm eliminates the basis for expansion redshifts, which in turn eliminates the basis for the Cosmological Principle. The universe is not the same everywhere. Instead the spherical symmetry of the cosmos demanded by the Hubble redshift relation proves the universe is isotropic about a nearby universal Center. This is the foundation of the relatively new Cosmic Center Universe (CCU) model, which accounts for, explains, or predicts: (i) The Hubble redshift relation, (ii) a CBR redshift relation that fits all current CBR measurements, (iii) the recently discovered velocity dipole distribution of radiogalaxies, (iv) the well-known time dilation of SNeIa light curves, (v) the Sunyaev-Zeldovich thermal effect, (vi) Olber's paradox, (vii) SN dimming for z 1 an enhanced brightness that fits SN 1997ff measurements, (ix) the existence of extreme redshift (z > 10) objects which, when observed, will further distinguish it from the big bang. The CCU model also plausibly expl...

Gentry, R V

2003-01-01

263

The emperor's new clothes. Redressing the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

US President Bush repudiated the Kyoto Protocol because, in his view, it is 'fatally flawed in fundamental ways'. This paper evaluates seven proposals to redress the protocol according to their potential to deal with three key issues that have reinforced US intransigence: hot air, cost uncertainty and developing country participation. It argues that negotiations on intensity targets hold the most promise. Because intensity targets limit hot air, but do not limit economic growth, and a high variance of carbon intensity exists among countries with similar GDP per capita, intensity targets based on best practice levels might be agreeable to developing countries and the US. If a protocol specifying such targets were implemented, less warming would be associated with larger world GDP than would otherwise be the case, and countries' carbon intensity and emissions per capita would tend to converge to best practice levels at every stage of development

264

From Kyoto to Bonn: implications and opportunities for renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the need for the uptake of renewable energy sources to increase to meet the commitments made in Bonn in July for compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. The article is presented under the sub-headings of: (i) the Bonn Agreement; (ii) implications and opportunities for renewable energy; (iii) the commercialisation and mainstreaming of renewable energy technologies; (iv) greenhouse gas-reducing projects (v) renewable portfolio standards and renewable certificate trading programmes; (vi) increased funding for product and technology development; (vii) emissions trading; (viii) domestic legislation and initiatives; (ix) regulatory effects in Annex I countries specifically impacting renewable energy (UK, Germany, Australia, EU Renewable Energy Law) and (x) US efforts in the absence of a national climate policy

265

Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in the university medical center of Rabat, Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to determine the hospital-acquired infections (HAI prevalence in all institutions of Rabat University Medical Center, to ascertain risk factors, to describe the pathogens associated with HAI and their susceptibility profile to antibiotics. Materials and methods Point-prevalence survey in January 2010 concerning all patients who had been in the hospital for at least 48 hours. At bedside, 27 investigators filled a standardized questionnaire from medical records, temperature charts, radiographs, laboratory reports and by consultation with the ward’s collaborating health professionals. Risk factors were determined using logistic regression. Results 1195 patients involved, occupancy rate was 51%. The prevalence of HAI was 10.3%. Intensive care units were the most affected wards (34.5%. Urinary tract infection was the most common infected site (35%. Microbiological documentation was available in 61% of HAI. Staphylococcus was the organism most commonly isolated (18.7% and was methicillin-resistant in 50% of cases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with HAI were advanced age, longer length of hospital stay, presence of comorbidity, invasive devices and use of antibiotic use. Conclusion HAI prevalence was high in this study. Future prevention program should focus on patients with longer length of stay, invasive devices, and overprescribing antibiotics.

Razine Rachid

2012-10-01

266

Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0?years; interquartile range, 26.8-34.5?years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer. PMID:24764635

Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário Dos Santos, Patrícia

2014-04-01

267

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this annual report, the research activities and the technical developments carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, for the period from April, 1993 to March, 1994 are described. The tandem accelerator worked with high stability, and provided with sufficient beam time for experiments till the middle of November, however, one of the charging chains broke on November 18. The replacement of the chain was finished in a short time, and experiments were continued to the end of December. From January, 1994, the operation of the accelerator was shut down to replace the cooling towers for building air conditioning and to reconstruct the cooling system for the accelerator. In this book, the activities in the accelerator and experimental facilities and the departments of the experiment and theory on nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, and ion beam application are reported. As the new development of experimental instruments, a new rf amplifier for the heavy ion postaccelerator was constructed, and with a liquid helium polarimeter, test experiments are in progress. (K.I.)

268

Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. 1985 ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This includes many reports on nuclear physics presented by various different authors at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Japan, during the period from April 1985 to March 1986. Chapter One consists of five reports on elastic scattering. Chapter Two is composed of 14 studies on inelastic scattering and charge exchange reactions. Ten reports which address transfer and breakup reactions are included in Chapter Three. Chapters Four and Five present five and two studies, which deal with heavy ion reactions and electroweak studies, respectively. Four reports are presented in Chapter Six, which deal with interdisciplinary fields. Chapter Seven is composed of eight theoretical studies, which are focused on realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction, nucleon-antinucleon interaction, heavy-ion induced one-nucleon transfer reactions, etc. Chapter Eight is devoted to studies on accelerator project and consists of seven reports. Five studies on cyclotron and beam line are presented in Chapter Nine. Chapters Ten, Eleven and Twelve comprise reports on instrumentation, computer systems and radiation protection, respectively. Works carried out by the Tehoretical Division are outlined in Chapter Thirteen. Chapter Fourteen lists publications, conference and symposium contributions, reports and oral presentations which have been given by RCNP members. Colloquia and symposia are listed in Chapter Fifteen while personel and committees are presented in Chapter Sixteen. mittees are presented in Chapter Sixteen. (Nogami, K.)

269

Twenty years' experience at the Heart Transplant Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objectives. The Heart Transplantation Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, now has 20 years' experience with heart transplantation (HTX). This study aims to evaluate long-term outcome after HTX including incidences of cancer and severe renal dysfunction. Design. Outcomes were reviewed using the transplant database of our department, the Scandiatransplant database, hospital medical records, and national database of biopsies. Results. From December 31, 1992 to February 27, 2013, a total of 258 patients underwent index HTX. Survival for the whole patient cohort at 1 month and 1 year was 95% and 88%. Long-term survival estimates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 80%, 70%, 55%, and 40%, respectively. Median survival time was 15.6 years. Significant improvement in survival was observed from the 1992-1998 vs. 1999-2005 era and the 1992-1998 vs. the 2006-2012 era. Three patients (1%) underwent renal transplantation, and 29 patients (11%) developed severe renal dysfunction requiring dialysis. Sixty-four (25%) patients developed cancer, with skin cancer being most common. Conclusion. HTX is an excellent treatment for selected patients with end-stage heart failure. The prognosis has improved in the latest transplantation eras. With balanced immunosuppressive treatment, severe renal dysfunction and cancer can be limited to an acceptable level.

Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Munk, Kim

2013-01-01

270

Transfusion treatment at Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center during a twelve-year period.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfusion treatment is administered according to clinical and laboratory results, with ongoing patient assessments. Decisions on necessary measures to prevent any adverse and unexpected events and reactions are made on the basis ofhemovigilance and ongoing gathering and analysis of relevant data. Information about transfusion treatment at the Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Vinogradska site, was retrospectively collected for a period of twelve years (2001-2012). In that period, 14137.25 ± 1693.07 units of all blood products were used, where red blood cells (RBC) accounted for 67.34%, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for 17.55%, and platelet concentrates (PC) for 14.32%. During the study period, the consumption of RBC was even, of FFP decreased by 45% and of PC increased by 58%. RBC transfusions were received by 10.43% of hospitalized patients, 1.46% of them during surgical procedures. Transfusions of all blood products were received by 14.63% of patients. We found 247 adverse reactions to all blood products. Febrile nonhemolytic and allergic reactions were quite equally represented, 49.5% each. As for other reactions (1%), one transfusion associated circulatory overload and one transfusion related acute lung injury were recorded. There were no fatal post-transfusion reactions. PMID:25509245

Sovi?, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Banovi?, Miroslav; Julari?, Anamarija

2014-09-01

271

Kyoto and the economics of global warming; Kyoto et l'economie de l'effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report sheds light on the economic issues surrounding climate change. The objective is to fuel a longer term reflexions. The greenhouse effect raises many questions dealing with economic policy. In particular what is the right agenda for action taking into account the low reversibility of the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases? What about the Kyoto protocol architecture? How to deal with countries that will not participate in the effort for controlling emissions, while enjoying the benefits of the preservation of the climate, a collective good? How to protect the competitiveness of countries that impose environmental constraints on their producers? This report is then discussed by P. Champsaur and A. Lipietz. (A.L.B.)

Guesnerie, R.

2003-07-01

272

Kyoto or non-Kyoto - people or politics: results of recent public opinion surveys on energy and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We present the results of a survey of an Australian public opinion survey in the area of climate change and energy technologies and compare the results with similar studies conducted in the other major non-Kyoto-adherent party, the United States, as well as to Kyoto-adherent countries including the UK, Japan, Sweden and Spain. We explore some of the differences and similarities in attitudes and understandings. In our survey, Australians place environment, health care and petrol prices as the most important issues facing their country, while in America it is terrorism, health care and the economy and in the UK it is asylum seekers, crime and health care. In many other areas, the differences are considerably smaller and there are some remarkable similarities. Whereas climate change is increasingly cited as the leading environmental issue in most countries surveyed, in Australia, climate change is second to water availability as the top environmental concern. The study examines where climate change and energy technologies fit within these broader national and environmental priorities and identifies the general public's preferred solutions. We find clear support in Australia and the other countries surveyed for renewable energy technologies, particularly solar energy and to a lesser extent wind and biomass energy. We also find considerable disagreement in all countries regarding the future of nuclear power as well as with regard to carbon dioxide capture and stth regard to carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (albeit the latter with much larger uncertainty). The paper also explores the current knowledge levels of the general public in a number of countries about carbon dioxide emissions and how much as individuals, they are prepared to pay to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. We find that, in general, at a more detailed level in terms of both attitudes and understandings of energy and climate issues there is considerable agreement across disparate countries Gudged on their national climate policies)

273

Industry-University Projects and Centers: An Empirical Comparison of Two Federally Funded Models of Cooperative Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes an empirical evaluation and comparison of two federally funded programs designed to foster Industry-University (I-U) cooperation. Results indicate that participants in I-U Projects perceive applied objectives like patent development as the most important goal of their collaboration, whereas I-U Centers promote a more basic…

Gray, Denis; And Others

1986-01-01

274

Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more accessible to outside users (5) provide support to graduate students for conducting research on lightweight automotive materials and structures (6) provide industry/university interaction through a graduate certificate program on automotive materials and technology idea exchange through focused seminars and symposia on automotive materials.

Mallick, P. K.

2012-08-30

275

An overview of the comprehensive proton therapy machine quality assurance procedures implemented at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center-Houston.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of proton and carbon ion therapy centers is increasing; however, since the publication of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report, there has been no dedicated report dealing with proton therapy quality assurance. The purpose of this article is to describe the quality assurance procedures performed on the passively scattered proton therapy beams at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center in Houston. The majorities of these procedures are either adopted from procedures outlined in the American Association of Physicists in Medical Task Group (TG) 40 report or are a modified version of the TG 40 procedures. In addition, new procedures, which were designed specifically to be applicable to the synchrotron at the author's center, have been implemented. The authors' procedures were developed and customized to ensure patient safety and accurate operation of synchrotron to within explicit limits. This article describes these procedures and can be used by others as a guideline for developing QA procedures based on particle accelerator specific parameters and local regulations pertinent to any new facility. PMID:19610316

Arjomandy, Bijan; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X Ronald; Zullo, John R; Wu, Richard Y; Zhu, Mingping; Ding, Xiaoning; Martin, Craig; Ciangaru, George; Gillin, Michael T

2009-06-01

276

An overview of the comprehensive proton therapy machine quality assurance procedures implemented at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center-Houston  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of proton and carbon ion therapy centers is increasing; however, since the publication of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report, there has been no dedicated report dealing with proton therapy quality assurance. The purpose of this article is to describe the quality assurance procedures performed on the passively scattered proton therapy beams at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center in Houston. The majorities of these procedures are either adopted from procedures outlined in the American Association of Physicists in Medical Task Group (TG) 40 report or are a modified version of the TG 40 procedures. In addition, new procedures, which were designed specifically to be applicable to the synchrotron at the author's center, have been implemented. The authors' procedures were developed and customized to ensure patient safety and accurate operation of synchrotron to within explicit limits. This article describes these procedures and can be used by others as a guideline for developing QA procedures based on particle accelerator specific parameters and local regulations pertinent to any new facility.

Arjomandy, Bijan; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zullo, John R.; Wu, Richard Y.; Zhu Mingping; Ding Xiaoning; Martin, Craig; Ciangaru, George; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1840 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, Texas 77025 (United States)

2009-06-15

277

An overview of the comprehensive proton therapy machine quality assurance procedures implemented at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center-Houston  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of proton and carbon ion therapy centers is increasing; however, since the publication of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report, there has been no dedicated report dealing with proton therapy quality assurance. The purpose of this article is to describe the quality assurance procedures performed on the passively scattered proton therapy beams at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center in Houston. The majorities of these procedures are either adopted from procedures outlined in the American Association of Physicists in Medical Task Group (TG) 40 report or are a modified version of the TG 40 procedures. In addition, new procedures, which were designed specifically to be applicable to the synchrotron at the author's center, have been implemented. The authors' procedures were developed and customized to ensure patient safety and accurate operation of synchrotron to within explicit limits. This article describes these procedures and can be used by others as a guideline for developing QA procedures based on particle accelerator specific parameters and local regulations pertinent to any new facility.

278

Nasopharyngeal cancer in the Middle East: Experience of the American University of Beirut Medical Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To review the data of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated at the American University of Beirut Medical Center and reflect on the characteristics and treatment outcome of NPC in the Middle East compared with those of Western countries and countries in which NPC is endemic. Methods and Materials: Between 1966 and 1998, 151 patients with the diagnosis of NPC received definitive radiotherapy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Of the 151 patients, 111 were males (gender ratio, 2.78); the median age was 45 years (range, 11-75 years). Most (95%) patients (n = 144) were Lebanese, 4 were Syrians, and 3 were from the Gulf countries. Most (60%) patients (n = 91) had Stage IV disease, 27% had Stage III, and 13% had Stage I or II disease; nodal disease was present in 117 patients (77%). The pathologic type was predominantly lymphoepithelioma or World Health Organization type III (95 patients, 63%). Treatment consisted of definitive radiotherapy alone for 116 patients (77%). All others received induction chemotherapy, primarily with cisplatin-containing regimens. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy (range, 47-73 Gy) to the primary and 67 Gy (range, 49-85 Gy) to involved neck nodes given at 2 Gy/fraction. The average follow-up was 3.02 years (range, 0.1-24.5 years). Results: The 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 46%. Using univariate analyses, the following factors significantly affected DFS: node size (6 cm; p = 0.S: node size (6 cm; p = 0.01), node level (upper vs. mid vs. lower neck; p = 0.004), and duration of radiotherapy (p = 0.002). However, T stage, age, gender, radiation dose, use of chemotherapy, and histologic features had no statistically significant influence on DFS. The actuarial rate of local control at 5 and 10 years was 81% and 73%. T stage, N stage, and histologic features were statistically significant variables for local control in the univariate analyses. Using a Cox regression model, N stage (N1-N2 vs. N3; relative risk 2.09, p = 0.004) was identified as an independent variable for DFS, and N stage and pathologic features were identified as independent variables for local control. The actuarial rate of distant metastases was 32% at both 5 and 10 years. Distant metastases were only affected by N stage (upper-mid vs. lower neck; p = 0.004). Six patients (4%) were reported to have Grade 4 late complications. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the characteristics of NPC patients in Lebanon and their parameters of outcome are comparable to those reported in Western series, particularly for the relative frequency and effect of lymphoepithelial histologic type. Because of potential confounding factors, no definite conclusions about induction chemotherapy could be drawn from this retrospective study

279

Experience with multimodality telepathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several modes of telepathology exist including static (store-and-forward), dynamic (live video streaming or robotic microscopy), and hybrid technology involving whole slide imaging (WSI). Telepathology has been employed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) for over a decade at local, national, and international sites. All modes of telepathology have been successfully utilized to exploit our institutions subspecialty expertise and to compete for pathology services. This article discusses the experience garnered at UPMC with each of these teleconsultation methods. Static and WSI telepathology systems have been utilized for many years in transplant pathology using a private network and client-server architecture. Only minor clinically significant differences of opinion were documented. In hematopathology, the CellaVision(®) system is used to transmit, via email, static images of blood cells in peripheral blood smears for remote interpretation. While live video streaming has remained the mode of choice for providing immediate adequacy assessment of cytology specimens by telecytology, other methods such as robotic microscopy have been validated and shown to be effective. Robotic telepathology has been extensively used to remotely interpret intra-operative neuropathology consultations (frozen sections). Adoption of newer technology and increased pathologist experience has improved accuracy and deferral rates in teleneuropathology. A digital pathology consultation portal (https://pathconsult.upmc.com/) was recently created at our institution to facilitate digital pathology second opinion consults, especially for WSI. The success of this web-based tool is the ability to handle vendor agnostic, large image files of digitized slides, and ongoing user-friendly customization for clients and teleconsultants. It is evident that the practice of telepathology at our institution has evolved in concert with advances in technology and user experience. Early and continued adoption of telepathology has promoted additional digital pathology resources that are now being leveraged for other clinical, educational, and research purposes. PMID:23372986

Pantanowitz, Liron; Wiley, Clayton A; Demetris, Anthony; Lesniak, Andrew; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Cable, William; Contis, Lydia; Parwani, Anil V

2012-01-01

280

Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients at a large Midwestern university transplant center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histoplasma capsulatum sporadically causes severe infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients in the Midwest, but it has been an unusual infection among those patients followed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), located at the western edge of the 'histo belt.' Nine SOT patients with histoplasmosis are described (6 renal or renal-pancreas and 3 liver recipients) who developed severe histoplasmosis over a recent 2.5-year period at UNMC. Symptoms started a median of 11 months (range, 1.2-90 months) after organ transplant and consisted primarily of fever, cough, shortness of breath, and malaise or fatigue present for approximately 30 days prior to medical evaluation. All patients had an abnormal chest radiograph and/or computed tomographic scan. Tacrolimus was the main immunosuppressant in all 9 patients, along with prednisone or mycophenolate. Dacluzimab or thymoglobulin had been given around the time of transplant in 6 of 9. None was treated for an episode of acute rejection within 2 months before onset of histoplasmosis, although 2 were on high-dose immunosuppression after recent transplants. Diagnosis was made by culture in 8 of the 9 patients, with positive serum and urine histoplasma antigen tests in all 9 cases. From 1997 to 2001, during a period of relative quiescence of the disease in the general population, the rate of clinical histoplasmosis among SOT patients at UNMC was estimated at 0.11%, whereas during 2002 through the first half of 2004, the rate rose 17-fold to 1.9%. Histoplasmosis can present as a prolonged febrile illness with subacute pulmonary symptoms in a cohort of SOT patients, despite the absence of a regional outbreak. PMID:16390398

Freifeld, A G; Iwen, P C; Lesiak, B L; Gilroy, R K; Stevens, R B; Kalil, A C

2005-01-01

281

Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume of the RCNP annual report gives briefly research activities of the RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics), Osaka University, in the academic year of 1993 (April 1993 - March 1994). RCNP is a national nuclear physics laboratory with the AVF cyclotron and the ring cyclotron. This annual report includes major research activities at RCNP as follows. 1) Low-energy nuclear physics by means of the K=140 MeV AVF cyclotron. Nuclear reactions and nuclear structures were studied. 2) Medium-energy nuclear physics by means of the 0.4 GeV ring cyclotron. The new ring cyclotron is in full operation, and several new progresses in the medium energy nuclear physics have been made. In particular, spin-isospin responses for discrete states, giant resonances and for quasi-free scattering processes have been studied by means of charge exchange reactions. 3) Heavy-ion physics with the secondary radio-active nuclear beams. It includes production of radioactive nuclei with large spin-polarization and studies of snow-balls. 4) Non-accelerator physics programs have started in collaboration with the Dept. Phys. group. Neutrino studies by means of double beta decays and dark matter searches by means of scintillators are under progress at the Kamioka underground laboratory. 5) Theoretical works on nuclear structures and nuclear reactions. The RCNP computers are widely used for theoretical studies all over Japan. 6) Developments of accelerators and detector systems. The new external ion-source and the new axial injection line are build in order to increase beam currents. (J.P.N.)

282

WW instituudi direktor Christopher Flavin : Kyoto protokoll viiakse ellu Bushita / Christopher Flavin ; interv. Tarmo Virki  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

World Watch Instituudi direktor leiab, et maailm vajaks globaalset keskkonnaorganisatsiooni, mis tasakaalustaks Maailma Kaubandusorganisatsiooni mõju. Euroopa Liit ja Jaapan suudavad Kyoto protokolli ratifitseerimise ellu viia ka ilma USA-ta. Lisa: Tuumaenergia pole lahendus

Flavin, Christopher

2002-01-01

283

Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

2002-06-01

284

Kyoto, the oil sands and the GHG emissions market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews uncertainties in the oil sands industry in relation to climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and the Kyoto Protocol. Other issues contributing to uncertainties in the industry were also discussed, including water and natural gas issues, refinery capacity and markets, price and exchange rates as well as capital availability and project cost overruns. The potential economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol on oil sands was outlined with prices per barrel. Government regulations were examined in the context of the evolving expectations of the Canadian public. U.S. actions on climate change were examined at the federal and state level. Emissions trading systems were reviewed with reference to a post 2012 regime. The 2005 budget was discussed, along with the Canadian legislative agenda and domestic offsets program, as well as the regulatory agenda in June of 2005. Post 2012 issues were examined, including discussions on the next commitment period, with reference to the fact that there was no support for new commitments among developing countries but that domestic pressures was building in the U.S. for air and climate regulations. Pressures from shareholders and the scientific community were discussed. Emissions trading in the European Union was reviewed. Stabilization goals will mean significant cuts to emissions in order to accommodate growth. Scenario planning and climate change uncertainties were also reviewed. The benefits of scenario planning in complex situations were outlined and were seen to encourage the development of strategic options. Issues concerning environmental stewardship and possible responses by the Unites States were discussed. Three scenarios were outlined: that climate change is not man-made and all the problems will go away; that technology will evolve to accommodate changes; and that policy will be insensitive to the economy, technology will lag and the energy sector will be faced with much higher costs. Various risk management strategies were reviewed, including the determining of risk exposures; an evaluation of internal options; hedging of deemed risk via market mechanisms, investments and divestments; and an incorporation of scenarios and market information into capital allocation and operating decisions. A Natsource buyer's pool was presented, with a pool of $200 million to purchase project based compliance instruments aimed at lowest cost compliance. Seven entities are currently committed with $70 million raised. tabs, figs.

Vickers, P. [Natsource Tullett Ltd., AB (Canada)

2004-09-01

285

Kyoto, the oil sands and the GHG emissions market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews uncertainties in the oil sands industry in relation to climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and the Kyoto Protocol. Other issues contributing to uncertainties in the industry were also discussed, including water and natural gas issues, refinery capacity and markets, price and exchange rates as well as capital availability and project cost overruns. The potential economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol on oil sands was outlined with prices per barrel. Government regulations were examined in the context of the evolving expectations of the Canadian public. U.S. actions on climate change were examined at the federal and state level. Emissions trading systems were reviewed with reference to a post 2012 regime. The 2005 budget was discussed, along with the Canadian legislative agenda and domestic offsets program, as well as the regulatory agenda in June of 2005. Post 2012 issues were examined, including discussions on the next commitment period, with reference to the fact that there was no support for new commitments among developing countries but that domestic pressures was building in the U.S. for air and climate regulations. Pressures from shareholders and the scientific community were discussed. Emissions trading in the European Union was reviewed. Stabilization goals will mean significant cuts to emissions in order to accommodate growth. Scenario planning and climate change uncertainties were also reviewed. The benefits of scenario planning in comp The benefits of scenario planning in complex situations were outlined and were seen to encourage the development of strategic options. Issues concerning environmental stewardship and possible responses by the Unites States were discussed. Three scenarios were outlined: that climate change is not man-made and all the problems will go away; that technology will evolve to accommodate changes; and that policy will be insensitive to the economy, technology will lag and the energy sector will be faced with much higher costs. Various risk management strategies were reviewed, including the determining of risk exposures; an evaluation of internal options; hedging of deemed risk via market mechanisms, investments and divestments; and an incorporation of scenarios and market information into capital allocation and operating decisions. A Natsource buyer's pool was presented, with a pool of $200 million to purchase project based compliance instruments aimed at lowest cost compliance. Seven entities are currently committed with $70 million raised. tabs, figs

286

The Kyoto Protocol without USA and Australia - with the Russian Federation as a strategic permit seller  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: After the U.S. and Australian withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, and the extension of national quotas in the Bonn- and Marrakesh-agreements, meager environmental effects and a low price of emission permits is likely to be the outcome of implementation. This paper provides an analysis of these prospects for the Kyoto Protocol and the international permit market based on different assumptions related to the baseline scenario. Possible strategic behavior in the permit market is emphas...

Holtsmark, Bjart

2003-01-01

287

Architecture of the Kyoto Protocol and Prospects for Public Climate Policy  

OpenAIRE

Options for government’s future climate policy are discussed as a function of the architecture of the present regime; the latter is anchored in the Kyoto Protocol, which is aimed at reducing the human impact on climate change. We describe the basic tenets of this agreement, and explain how it was realised despite the widely divergent interests. The strengths and weaknesses of the Kyoto regime, and related future opportunities and threats, are presented. The degrees of collective decision-ma...

Wijen, F. H.; Zoeteman, K.

2005-01-01

288

Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol. PMID:18597918

Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

2009-02-01

289

Cooling down hot air: a global CGE analysis of post-Kyoto carbon abatement strategies  

OpenAIRE

The Kyoto Protocol marks a break-through in global warming mitigation policies as it sets legally binding emissions targets for major emitting regions. However, realisation of the Protocol depends on the clarification of several issues one of which is the permissible scope of international emissions trading between signatory countries. Unrestricted trade produces hot air when signatory countries whose Kyoto targets are well above their business as usual emissions trade in larger amounts of ?a...

Bo?hringer, Christoph

1999-01-01

290

Report: demonstrable progresses of the France according the Kyoto protocol; Rapport: progres demontrables de la France selon le protocole de Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document constitutes the report of the France on the demonstrable progresses according the application of the 3 article of the Kyoto protocol. The first chapter is a description of the french climatic policy, as the second presents the tendencies and the projections concerning the greenhouse effect gases emissions. The chapter 3 details the policies effects and the measures ( energy, transport, industry and wastes). The last chapter is devoted to the respect of the other engagements articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2006-06-15

291

Takeshi Sasaki (center), president of the University of Tokyo, visited CERN on 29 July when the renewal of the memorandum for the academic exchange agreement between the university and CERN was signed  

CERN Multimedia

Takeshi Sasaki (center), president of the University of Tokyo, visited CERN on 29 July when the renewal of the memorandum for the academic exchange agreement between the university and CERN was signed

Patrice Loïez

2003-01-01

292

Sixteenth progress report of the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Science Center is operated by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station as a service to Texas A and M University and the State of Texas. The facility is available to the University, other educational institutions, governmental agencies, and private organizations and individuals. Reactor utilization continued to grow during 1979 with an increase in the total number of irradiations, sample irradiation hours, number of samples irradiated, and total experiment hours. Reactor operation of 85.71 Mw-days for 1979 was essentially the same as the previous year. The reactor was not pulsed during the reporting period due to a restriction on pulsing until the fuel damage study is completed

293

Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Why did the climate negotiations in The Hague fail? Our contribution is to argue that the conflict between the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) stems mainly from disagreement on the cost issue. We argue that three main concerns promoted by the EU in The Hague. First, a 50% national emission ceiling (the supplementarity principle), second the use of carbon sinks, and third an international market control system. These issues can be solved by removing all restrictions on free greenhouse gas (GHG) trade and by establishing the World Trade Organization as an international authority. The US will face considerably higher costs than foreseen at the negotiations in Kyoto and will have strong incentives to free ride. Our main hypothesis is that the EU proposal on supplementarity made the US turn to free riding. Thus, to make the US stay in an international GHG emission-trading scheme, the EU must reconsider and acknowledge US claims for cheaper reduction options and the right to trade 'hot air.' This point is important. If the US does not participate, the increase in emissions will be much higher than the emission reduction following the EU supplementarity proposal. Udgivelsesdato: OCT

Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

2002-01-01

294

Political realities and economic realities towards a Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current climate change commitments and the negotiating positions of Annex I countries were discussed. It was pointed out that the energy sector is not homogeneous and therefore, climate change should focus on the areas all over the world which are most sensitive to a carbon value. It was also noted that while the present time is ripe for action on climate change, actions should not take place at any cost. A scenario based on the three principal functions of energy, i.e. to supply mobility, electricity and heat was proposed. It was claimed that this proposal had the potential to bridge the gap between the political reality of Kyoto and the economic realities of the energy sector. The essence of the proposal centred around the concept of 'carbon value'. The effect of establishing carbon values for each of the different energy services worldwide, was discussed. Various mechanisms for establishing carbon values, such as emission trading, joint implementation with non-Annex I parties, penalties for non-compliance, mitigation efforts in least-cost options, were also reviewed

295

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. MET [...] HODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG

Vitor E., Valenti; Luiz Carlos de, Abreu; Caio, Imaizumi; Márcio, Petenusso; Celso, Ferreira.

296

Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article analyses the abatement costs of three post-Kyoto regimes for differentiating commitments compatible with stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations at 550 ppmv CO2 equivalent in 2100. The three regimes explored are: (1) the Multi-Stage approach assumes a gradual increase in the number of Parties involved who are adopting either emission intensity or reductions targets; (2) the Brazilian Proposal approach, i.e. the allocation or reductions based on countries' contribution to temperature increase; (3) Contraction and Convergence, with full participation in convergence of per capita emission allowances. In 2050, the global costs increase up to about 1% of the world GDP, ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, depending on baseline scenario and marginal abatement costs. Four groups of regions can be identified on the basis of similar costs (expressed as the percentage of GDP). These are: (1) OECD regions with average costs; (2) FSU, the Middle East and Latin America with high costs; (3) South-East Asia and East Asia (incl. China) with low costs; and (4) South Asia (incl. India) and Africa with net gains from emissions trading for most regimes. The Brazilian Proposal approach gives the highest costs for groups 1 and 2. The distribution of costs for the Contraction and Convergence approach highly depends on the convergence year. The Multi-Stage approach and Contraction and Convergence (convergence year 2050) seem to result in relatively the most evenseem to result in relatively the most even distribution of costs amongst all Parties

297

The potential contribution of sinks to meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Kyoto Protocol to the climate convention makes provision for sink enhancement activities to contribute to meeting the greenhouse gas emissions limitation commitments of industrialised countries. This paper analyses the potential contribution of sink enhancement activities to meeting commitments of industrialised countries. Six scenarios covering different categories of eligible sinks are analysed. A range of the potential magnitude of the carbon sequestered by each category of sinks is tested. Since cost curves for the different types of sink enhancement activities are not available for most countries, a range of average costs is used with the lowest cost allowing maximum use of sinks. The effects considered are the impacts on compliance costs for OECD countries, economies in transition, and developing countries and the mix of actions used by industrialised countries to achieve compliance. In every scenario, at least some of the sinks have costs lower than the market price, so the larger the eligible sinks, the lower the compliance costs for industrialised countries. Greater use of sinks also reduces the net income received by the economies in transition and developing countries. Increased use of sinks lowers emission reductions implemented in industrialised countries and reduces non-sink activity under the Clean Development Mechanism.

Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

2001-01-01

298

ARPEL's approach : Kyoto Protocol: Clean Development Mechanisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ARPEL's (Regional Association of Oil and Natural Gas Companies in Latin America and the Carribean) interest in clean development mechanisms is described. Several uncertainties related to the Kyoto Protocol and the CDM were addressed, such as the science behind the climate change phenomena, the impact on oil demand, the cost of emission reduction to the oil industry and the 'additionality' criteria. Relative benefits of participating in CDM projects by member companies of ARPEL were examined, with due regard to the fact that Latin American countries are not now required to reduce emissions. Some actions that individual companies in ARPEL could take to consider investing in CDM projects were also reviewed. With reference to PEMEX (Petroleos Mexicanos), the speaker explained the PEMEX view of the climate change issue, how it is integrated into the company's sustainable development strategy, and how CDM could become an important means to accessing the financial and technology support needed to implement CDM projects. An industrial prototype project that PEMEX could implement to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions was also described as an indication of PEMEX's capacity to contribute towards mitigating global climate change.

Bocanegra, J. [PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

2000-07-01

299

Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, annual report 1998. April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operation of the 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerators was very stable until December 12, 1998. A total beam time for experiments is 2383 hours. This report describes the activities at Tandem Accelerator Center of the University of Tsukuba in fiscal year 1998. The 32 reports are presented in the 4 categories; that are (1) Accelerator and Experimental Facilities (7 reports), (2) Nuclear Physics (12 reports), (3) Atomic and Solid State Physics, and Cluster Science (10 reports), (4) Ion Beam Application (3 reports). New development of experimental instruments were made on a proton polarimeter at very low energies, a detector of atomic cluster at low velocity, a long focal-plane position sensitive detector, and a liquid-helium-free superconducting solenoid for an Ecr ion source. In the field of nuclear physics, progresses were made in proton total-reaction cross sections, the continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) theory, (d, ?X) reactions, 7Li breakup reactions, hole states via (p, d) reaction, and nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam ? ray spectroscopy. New approaches were initiated on the precise measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering to search for magnetic monopole, and on perturbed angular correlations to measure nuclear g-factors in the pico second region. The investigation of ion-induced secondary electron is made in the binary-encounter electron emission from crystalline and non crystalline targets. An applicability of ion-induced Auger electrons to structure analysis was also demonstrated. An experiments of Br and I ions opened a new approach to the study of structural defects in amorphous silica. The study of deuteron implantation into silicon single crystal resulted in an interpretation of macroscopic migration. Microscopic migration was investigated on some metals. In atomic cluster physics, angular distributions of several noble-gas ions were measured to derive a new interaction potential. Mass spectra of semiconductor and 3d-transition metal clusters were also studied. A careful test experiment of PIXE was performed on the trace element analysis of single fluid inclusions in minerals. (Y. Tanaka)

300

Center of excellence at Kathmandu University for R and D and test certification of hydraulic turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growth in global demand of clean energy has also increased hydropower development activities. This has also increased the necessity of overall efficiency improvements in hydropower plants for producing larger power with same site conditions. Efficiency improvement by design optimization of turbines is primary task in elevating performance of any hydropower projects. Institutional laboratory test facilities, which are expensive and demand high level of proficiency, are needed to certify performance of turbines. Due to the lack of well equipped and standard test facilities at South Asia region, efficiency measurement of turbines is mostly done at project sites. Kathmandu University (KU) is an autonomous, not-for-profit, non-government institution dedicated to maintain high standards of academic excellence. With technical support from Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology (NTNU), KU has been upgrading its competency to support the ambitious plan of Government of Nepal (2010) to develop 38,000 MW of Hydropower in 25 years. KU is collaborating with national and international experts and institutions for this venture. Turbine Testing Laboratory (TTL), under construction at KU with financial assistance from NORAD, Norway, aims to deliver its facilities to local and international developers and consultants by the mid of 2011. With 30 meter open head and 150 meter closed head, TTL is capable of testing different range prototypes up to 300kW and conduct model tests for larger sizes. Internationally recognized certification endorsed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC-60193) will be maintained at TTL for model tests. The technical support for the laboratory will be provided by Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU which has experience of turbine testing for almost 100 years. In coming years, TTL intends to include state of the art technologies such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis for new design or upgrading existing turbines, innovative design of hydro-mechanical components for power plants, and specialized training to engineers and technicians. This paper elaborates the utility of TTL in South Asia region with its objectives and specifications. Scope and partnerships for developing a center of excellence at TTL for R and D of hydraulic turbines are also presented. Need and possibilities of creating a new turbine manufacturer in Nepal, by the combined effort of academic institutions and manufacturing industries has been analyzed. Beside these, the progress of design optimization of Francis turbine at Jhimruk power plant for reduction of adverse impact of sediment erosion has been discussed. (author)

Thapa, Biraj Singh [Kathmandu University (KU), Dhulikhel (Nepal). Mechanical Engineering Department], E-mail: bst@ku.edu.np; Thapa, Bhola [The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway). Department of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: bhola@ku.edu.np; Dahlhaug, Ole G. [The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway). Waterpower Laboratory], E-mail: ole.g.dahlhaug@ntnu.no

2011-07-15

301

High Throughput and High Content Screening Capabilities of the University of Cincinnati Drug Discovery Center  

OpenAIRE

The Drug Discovery Center collaborates with a wide range of academic and industrial research centers to facilitate the identification of active small molecules with high potential for use as biological probes or as starting points for drug discovery programs. The DDC operates state-of-the-art high throughput and high content screening instrumentation and a diverse 350,000 compound library. The center's personnel provide collaborators with advice in assay design, analytical technology selectio...

Kirby, Jason; Tang, Hong; Najm, Fadi J.; Tesar, Paul J.; Greis, Ken; Seibel, William; Papoian, Ruben; Rathore, Rakesh

2013-01-01

302

The Sensitivity of Hela Kyoto Cell Line Transfected with Sensor HyPer2 to Cisplatin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to compare by means of MTT assay cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on the cells of HeLa Kyoto line and HeLa Kyoto line containing genetically-encoded sensor of hydrogen peroxide HyPer2 (HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 line, and using staining by trypan blue to identify the doses of cisplatin causing cell death at different exposure time. Materials and Methods. A HeLa Kyoto cell line of human cervical carcinoma and HeLa Kyota line transfected with the cytoplasmic sensor of hydrogen peroxide (HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 were used in the study. The analysis of cytotoxic and antiproliferative action of cisplatin in relation to the given cells was performed using MTT assay. Cell viability was determined after 24 h of incubation with the preparation at concentrations from 0 to 50 ?mol/L, then within the period from 0 to 24 h with an interval of 2 h at concentration of IC50; and also after 2, 4, 6, 8 h at concentrations from 9.3 to 833.3 ?mol/L a quantity of live and destructed cells was counted using staining by trypan blue. Results. After cisplatin expose the dose-response curves for cell viability of Hela Kyoto and HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 cell lines were built according to MTT assay data. It was established that concentration of IC50 corresponding to the dose causing a loss of viability of 50% of cells is 1.3 times lower for HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 compared to HeLa Kyoto. The results of staining by a vital agent trypan blue showed that inhibiting effects of cisplatin in concentration of IC50 by 24 h are mainly linked with the delay of cell division but not with their death. At concentrations up to 52 ?mol/L damage of the membranes does not occur during 8 h, and at superhigh concentrations — 416.7 ?mol/L — the damage is possible already 4 h after the exposure. Conclusion. Comparison of sensibility of the two cell lines to the effect of cisplatin showed that transfection of the cells with the fluorescent protein results in the increase of the sensitivity to cisplatin. When HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 cells are exposed to the preparation at concentration of IC50 during 24 h, inhibition of cell division is observed; higher concentrations of the preparation cause increase of the number of dead cells and diminish the terms of their destruction.

A.S. Belova

2015-01-01

303

Accreditation the Education Development Centers of Medical-Sciences Universities: Another Step toward Quality Improvement in Education  

OpenAIRE

Background: : In order to improve the quality of education in universities of medical sciences (UMS), and because of the key role of education development centers (EDCs), an accreditation scheme was developed to evaluate their performance.Method: A group of experts in the medical education field was selected based on pre-defined criteria by EDC of Ministry of Health and Medical education. The team, worked intensively for 6 months to develop a list of essential standards to assess the performa...

Mohagheghi, M.; Shoghi, F.; Momtazmanesh, N.; Aa, Haghdoost; Mh, Mehrolhassani

2013-01-01

304

University of Colorado Cancer Center study finds misidentified and contaminated cell lines lead to faulty cancer science  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern cancer therapies start in cells – researchers compare cancer samples to healthy cells to discover how cancer is genetically different, and use cell lines to test promising new drugs. However, a University of Colorado Cancer Center study published this week in the journal Gynecologic Oncology shows that due to a high rate of contamination, misidentification and redundancy in widely available cell lines, researchers may be drawing faulty conclusions.

305

Operation of the Nuclear Radiation Center as an all-university facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TRIGA at WSU is part of an all university research unit and its structure and work organization are presented. The facility seeks users from the university and from outside the university. In many cases projects are jointly sponsored by NRC faculty together with faculty from elsewhere on campus. In other cases neutrons or free use of other equipment is provided. The promotional efforts are rather sharply focused on environmental and health related problems. The effects of the institutional arrangement on the operation of the Centre are discussed

306

Kyoto and liberalization ongoing transformation of the energy market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

COGEN Europe believes that the single most important influence on the electricity sector in the future will be the policy response to climate change and that cogeneration offers one of the very best, prospects for cutting emissions in the power sector. In the EU, cogeneration was put at the head of the list of Policies and Measures laid down before Kyoto as the means of achieving its then progressive target of a 15% reduction in emissions by 2010 over 1990. COGEN Europe has estimated that EU-15 as a whole could reach a 30% cogeneration share of total electricity production by 2010. Indeed, three of the 15 countries have already reached 30% (Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland). On a conservative basis this would save 221 Mt of CO2/yr by 2010, or 46% of the EU 15% negotiating target agreed in 1997. This also represents 30% of the 'gap' between the achievement of the 15% target and the 8% increase in emissions anticipated for 2010 in the absence of abatement measures. Most, if not all, of these savings would be based on zero or negative cost investments. COGEN Europe supports the trend towards liberalization and the European Commission's efforts to introduce competition into electricity and gas markets for the simple reason that they provide the best means to remove market and monopoly barriers to the development of high efficiency cogeneration. This paper presents a COGEN Europe vision for meeting and overcoming the challenges of global climate change - and challenges of global climate change - and some suggestions for governments which can help them achieve that elusive double dividend: environmental improvement and economic competitiveness. Governments should: where possible use the market to achieve your environmental objectives; avoid detailed regulation; avoid subsidizing pollution; set clear and ambitious CO2 objectives; redouble political pressure to achieve international consensus on internalization of environmental costs

307

Endogenous induced technical change and the costs of Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many predictions and conclusions in the climate change literature have been made and drawn on the basis of theoretical analyses and quantitative models that are either static or that allow for simple forms of changes in technology, often along exogenously given time paths. It is therefore not clear a priori whether those conclusions and policy recipes still hold in the more realistic case of endogenously evolving technologies. In this paper, a quantitative tool with the features of an endogenous growth model is presented, which also accounts for the possibility that technical change can be induced by environmental policy measures. Both the output production technology and the emission-output ratio depend upon the stock of knowledge, which accumulates through R and D activities. R and D is thus an additional policy variable that comes into play along with pollution abatement and capital investment. Two versions of this climate model are studied, one with endogenous technical change but exogenous environmental technical change (i.e. no induced technical change) and the other with both endogenous and induced technical change. Hence, in both models technical change evolves endogenously as far as the production technology is concerned, but endogenous environmental (or induced) technical change is only accounted for in the second version. Finally, a third version of the model also captures technological spillover effects. As an application, the three versions of the model aication, the three versions of the model are simulated allowing for trade of pollution permits as specified in the Kyoto Protocol and assessing the implications in terms of cost efficiency, economic growth and R and D efforts of the three different specifications of technical change

308

Muusikamaailm : Gergievi festival Rotterdamis. Los Angelese Ooper alustas. Luzerni festival tänaseni. Yaltah Menuhin lahkunud. Kyoto auhind György Ligetile / Priit Kuusk  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Rotterdami Filharmoonikute peadirigendi V. Gergijevi korraldatud muusikafestivalist. Los Angelese Ooperi hooaja algusest. Luzerni festivalist šveitsis. Lühidalt Yaltah Menuhinist. G. Ligeti pälvis Kyoto elutöö-auhinna

Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

2001-01-01

309

The role of university hospitals as centers of excellence for shared health-care-delivery of in- and outpatients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problem. Health care delivery in Germany has to face severe challenges that will lead to a closer integration of services for in- and out-patients. University hospitals play an important role due to their activities in research, education and health care delivery. They are requested to promote and evaluate new means and ways for health care delivery. Methods. The Institute of Clinical Radiology at the University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University started teleradiological services for hospitals and general practices in January 1999 in the framework of the ''Imaging services - teleradiological center of excellence''. Legal, technical and organizational prerequisites were analyzed. Results. Networks between university hospitals and general practices are not likely to solve all future problems. They will, however, increase the availability of the knowledge of experts even in rural areas and contribute to a quality ensured health care at the patients home. Future developments may lead to international co-operations and such services may be available to patients abroad. Conclusion. Legal, technical and organizational obstacles have to be overcome to create a framework for high quality telemedical applications. University hospitals will play an important role in promoting and evaluating teleradiological services. (orig.)

310

Number Theory : A Seminar held at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York  

CERN Document Server

The New York Number Theory Seminar was organized in 1982 to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in higher arithmetic and its applications. Papers included in this volume are based on the lectures presented by their authors at the Seminar at the Graduate Center of C.U.N.Y. in 1985-88. Papers in the volume cover a wide spectrum of number theoretic topics ranging from additive number theory and diophantine approximations to algebraic number theory and relations with algebraic geometry and topology.

Chudnovsky, Gregory; Cohn, Harvey; Nathanson, Melvyn

1989-01-01

311

Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

2012-10-15

312

Yoga for Stress Management Program as a Complementary Alternative Counseling Resource in a University Counseling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

A Yoga for Stress Management Program (YSMP) that served as a complementary alternative therapy resource was successfully implemented at a midsize, predominantly undergraduate university. It was offered in addition to traditional treatments for student mental health. Counselors, Residence Life staff, and faculty found that the program was useful…

Milligan, Colleen K.

2006-01-01

313

DCCPS: HCIRB: CECCR: Center for Health Communication Research, University of Michigan  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Strecher founded the University of Michigan’s Health Media Research Laboratory (HMRL), a multidisciplinary team of behavioral scientists, health educators, instructional designers, computer engineers, graphic artists, project managers, and students from a wide variety of disciplines (public health, epidemiology, psychology, computer engineering, information science, art, music, and others). The HMRL, along with Dr.

314

A Collaborative Effort at Marketing the University: Detailing a Student-Centered Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors describe the use of an experiential team-based project in a capstone marketing management course. In the project, students worked with the university administration to develop a marketing plan for the Admissions Office's Tour Guide Program. The authors discuss why such marketing activities are important to colleges and…

Washburn, Judith H.; Petroshius, Susan M.

2004-01-01

315

The Role of Research Centers in Fulfilling the Community Engagement Mission of Public Research Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutions of higher education are seen by the public as having unique resources to identify and solve complex societal problems. Public universities, in particular, were originally established to be of service to communities and the nation to advance public good and solve problems. However, community engagement is not an easy task for…

Toof, Robin A.

2012-01-01

316

The Social Welfare Practice and Research Center at the Chinese University of Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

The organization and research programs of the Social Welfare Practice and Research Centre (SWPRC) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong are outlined. There are five regular research programs (Family and Group Practice Research Centre, Human Behavior and the Social Environment Research Program, Mutual Aid and Social Capital Research Program,…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2009-01-01

317

An example of a DOE [Department of Energy]/university partnership: South Carolina Pilot Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consortium of educational institutions in South Carolina proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in July 1989 a working partnership for mutual improvement of technical capability in the environmental restoration and waste management fields. The institutions forming the consortium are Clemson University, the University of South Carolina, the Medical University of South Carolina, and South Carolina State College. A major component of the partnership is applied research closely coupled with the problems and issues of the Savannah River site regarding demonstration of waste management processes and concepts of disposal and disposal site closure. A primary benefit to DOE from this partnership is expected to be improved public perception of the actions being taken by DOE to protect the public, particularly in areas of environmental restoration and waste management. It is evident at the Savannah River site that this is a key factor in successfully achieving the site's mission. The strength of the interest of the South Carolina institutions in developing initiatives in waste management forecasts a healthy long-term prospect for the partnership. The State of South Carolina has established a hazardous waste research fund of approximately $650 thousand annually for research by the partnership universities to seek better ways to maintain a healthy environment and to reduce, dispose of, or store waste products safely

318

Emission trading in Slovakia is not bound to Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Pentagon published its report problems related to changes in climate became an important discussion topic again. The report indicates that future temperature increase could have fatal impacts like flooding of Netherlands. Representatives of Slovak National Climate Program do not completely share this view. They consider it to be the worst scenario - catastrophic scenario. And they are also positive that the emissions of greenhouse gases that are the main reason for these changes of climate will decrease. EU is currently working on Directives that will support one of the possible solutions - emission trading and will make this trade independent from ratification of the Kyoto protocol. The basic principle is simple - a country with production of the greenhouse gases below the legally set level or below the level set out by international agreement on climatic changes will have some spare emission quotas that can be traded i.e. sold to a country that produces more gases then allowed. And based on such an agreement signed between a Slovak and Japanese company, Japan will be allowed to produce more greenhouse gases if it can prove that there is an area in the world where the production is below the limit. But, at the same time, it will have to pay for this over-production. Starting next year over 12-thousand companies will be allowed to participate in this business. At the moment an act on emission trading is being prepared in Slovakia. It should have been completed b Slovakia. It should have been completed by end of January but the approval process is being delayed. Similar acts are under preparation also in other countries and not even the EU member states have passed them yet. The National Allocation Plan in Slovakia should distribute the emission quotas to about 200 companies. Many European politicians consider the emission trade an effective economic tool provided it will be used as motivation for decrease of greenhouse gas production. And so all companies participating in this project will handle in accordance with European Commission Directives and the future Slovak Act on Emission Trading

319

The future of energy in the post-Kyoto world  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy use represents up to a quarter of the costs associated with production in the pulp and paper industry. Therefore, reductions in energy use can have a significant impact on the profitability of this industry. This article discussed the advantages of the Kyoto Accord for the pulp and paper industry, with specific reference to the impetus to transform wood wastes into biogas, bio-oil and bio-chemicals. An outline of the carbon trading and carbon credit program was presented, as well as details of planned greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions in Canada and in the pulp and paper industry. Issues concerning co-generation were examined. It was noted that the Canadian pulp and paper industry is a leader in biomass co-generation, operating 45 co-generation plants which produce 1,500 MW of electricity. Concerns over the pricing of bark and wood chips were examined. It was suggested that government policies are needed to ensure the viability of developing cogeneration capacity. It was noted that energy prices are higher in Canada than in Finland and Sweden. Various mill energy practices were discussed, including the increased use of computer modelling and energy conservation programs such as the corporate department set up by Tembec Inc., whose aim is to reduce energy consumption by 10 per cent per year. Alternative energy sources such as the use of biomass, liquor cogeneration and hydro were reviewed along with ethanol plants and an anaerobic effluent-treatment plant. Issues concerning steam production and other electricity demands were also discussed. Biogas generated from the decomposition of non-recyclable waste captured at landfills was reviewed. Various research initiatives, such as bio-fuels and bio-refining were also examined, including the use of sugar-based chemicals in ethylene chemistry; petrochemical-based products or bio-based sources such as wood and pulp residues and the use of wood residues in bio-refining. A time-frame for the use of these products was estimated at between 2 and 10 years. 2 figs.

Greenbaum, P.J.

2005-08-01

320

Market-based implementation of Kyoto commitments: how the financial/insurance sector can support industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in the context of the Framework Convention on Climate Change will probably lead to economic winners and losers in various sectors of the economy. Especially carbon intensive industries will need to develop hedging strategies to prevent potential negative effects and to optimise market opportunities. Such strategies can be based on technological innovation, market and product diversification, and on financial/legal offsets. The Kyoto Protocol has introduced new market-based instruments, which can, in a near future provide such hedging opportunities. These include joint implementation, the so-called clean development mechanism, and international emissions trading. The financial services and insurance sector are the natural partners of industry in designing tailored hedging strategies. It is recommended that industry, financial services and insurance companies take a more proactive role in further developing the market-based instruments established by the Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

321

The roles of parties with different commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and implications for NAFTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A government perspective on climate change negotiations was presented with particular reference to Canada's cleaner energy exports, the Kyoto mechanism and the second commitment period. The author emphasized the importance of cleaner energy exports for Canada, although progress is likely to be slow in this area because of the opposition among other Parties. Whatever approach the United States takes to trading, it must be compatible with the Kyoto Protocol. Eligibility for trading in North America was discussed with reference to what effect Canada's ratification of the Protocol would have on energy exports. It was noted that if Canada ratifies, it could be both a buyer and a seller, whereas the United States could only buy and Mexico could only sell. The author also suggested that developing countries or major emitters should take on commitments in order to provide greater compatibility in the North American context, especially if the United States rejoined the Kyoto Protocol

322

Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO2-emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO2-emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO2-emission prices over EUR15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies). (author)

323

A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

Daltry, Rachel M.

2015-01-01

324

New England Multifunctional Resource Center for Language and Culture in Education, Brown University. Annual Performance Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the New England Multifunctional Resource Center (MRC) during the second year of its current contract with the United States Department of Education. The mission of the MRC is to provide training and technical assistance to educators and parents of limited English proficient (LEP)…

Massachusetts Univ., Boston. New England Multifunctional Resource Center for Language and Culture in Education.

325

University-community mental health center collaboration: encouraging the dissemination of empirically-based treatment and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community Mental Health Centers (CMHC) are valuable resources for urban youth and families across the nation. Community demands for high volumes of clinical service, however, often render these agencies without ability to fully evaluate provided services or conduct rigorous research with their target populations. This report asserts the importance of establishing effective collaborations between research-oriented universities and CMHCs in an effort to bridge the gap between empirically-based treatments and "real world" clinical practice. Furthermore, this report explains the establishment of a mutually informative and beneficial university-CMHC collaboration between the Disruptive Behavior Clinic at the University of Illinois-Chicago and the Community Mental Health Council (CMHC) on an evidence-based outpatient family therapy protocol for urban youth with behavior problems. Values and guidelines to facilitate evidence-based practice for fellow academic institutions are asserted. University-CMHC collaboration is an effective way to bring empirically-based practice to the "real world," front-line practice settings of community-based agencies that serve urban youth. Further research with regard to the maintenance and sustainability of these collaborations is suggested. PMID:19847648

Abdul-Adil, Jaleel; Drozd, Olena; Irie, Ivan; Riley, Rachel; Silas, Alexis; Farmer, A David; Tolan, Pat H

2010-10-01

326

Exploring the ancillary benefits of the Kyoto Protocol for air pollution in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integrated approach to climate change and regional air pollution can harvest considerable ancillary benefits in terms of environmental impacts and costs. This is because both problems are caused to a large extent by the same activity (fossil fuel combustion). Substantial ancillary benefits were found for regional air pollution (SO2, NO x , VOC and particulate matter) of implementing the Kyoto Protocol (intended to control greenhouse gas emissions) in Europe. For instance, while three different scenarios on Kyoto implementation were found to reduce European CO2 emissions by 4-7%, they also reduced European emissions of SO2 by 5-14% compared with a no Kyoto policies case. The magnitude of ancillary benefits depends on how flexible mechanisms and surplus emission allowances are used in meeting the Kyoto targets. The total cost savings for implementing current policies for regional air pollution of the Kyoto Protocol are of an order of 2.5-7 billion Euro. In all cases, this is in the order of half the costs of the climate policy (4-12 billion Euro). Using flexible mechanisms reduces emissions of air pollutants for Europe as a whole even further than domestic implementation (e.g. 10-14% versus 5% for SO2 emissions), but the reductions are shifted from Western Europe to Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. The use of surplus emission allowances to achieve the Kyoto targets decreases the ancillary benefits, in partidecreases the ancillary benefits, in particular for the latter group of countries (e.g. unprotected area against acidification increases from 1.3 to 1.7 million ha)

327

Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A 'lessons learned' section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

328

The ALOS Kyoto &Carbon Initiative Wetlands Products: New Datasets for Wetlands Mapping and Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

The successsful launch on January 24, 2006 of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) initiated the acquisition of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) datasets dedicated to monitoring the world's major wetland regions. The Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1, operational from 1992 to 1998, demonstrated the unique capabilities of L-band SAR for mapping wetland hydrology. While inundation and freeze-thaw mapping were successfully carried out over the Amazon and Congo basins and the boreal forest region through the Global Rainforest and Boreal Forest Mapping Projects using 1990s-era JERS-1 mosaics, the limited temporal coverage of these datasets did not permit full characterization of seasonal inundation or freeze-thaw dynamics. The ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative of JAXA's Earth Observation Research and Applications Center has designed an acquisition plan for ALOS Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) datasets specifically aimed at seasonal mapping of wetland hydrology. Observations with the ScanSAR mode (~150 m resolution, 350 km swath width) are targeted to the major wetland regions of the globe at a 45-day repeat interval. Planned datasets to be derived from PALSAR include wetland extent, vegetation structure, and seasonal inundation or freeze-thaw extent for the tropical and boreal regions, and mapping and assessment of key wetland functional types such as mangroves, tropical peatlands, paddy rice, and lakes. These products will provide the basis for science applications such as trace gas and hydrologic modeling, as well as for habitat mapping for biodiversity assessment and conservation planning.

Hess, L. L.; McDonald, K.; Rosenqvist, A.; Shimada, M.

2006-12-01

329

Update and Expansion of the Center of Automotive Technology Excellence Under the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its seventh year of operation under this agreement, its thirteenth year in total. During this period the Center has involved eleven GATE Fellows and three GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center’s focus area: Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Control Systems. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $2,000,000.

Irick, David

2012-08-30

330

Climate change ratification of the Kyoto Protocol : clearing the air on the debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change would commit Canada to limit emissions of greenhouse gases to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. The Canadian Chamber of Commerce has outlined the following 3 key prerequisites that the federal government should and will have in place before any decision on ratification is made: (1) a detailed plan for achieving the Kyoto reductions, (2) a detailed analysis of environmental and economic impacts associated with Kyoto implementation, and (3) consultations with all stakeholder and the Canadian public once the plan has been released. Currently, Canadian businesses are taking voluntary actions to reduce industrial sector emissions through programs such as the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation. Between 1990 and 1999, industrial sector emissions fell by 6 per cent. However, it was emphasized that despite these efforts, the gap between Canada's Kyoto target and its current greenhouse gas emissions continues to grow because of population and economic growth and rising exports. At the current rate of growth, it is estimated that meeting the Kyoto target could cost the economy up to $30 billion in 2010. The paper also discusses the implementation of key flexibility mechanisms such as carbon sinks, Joint Implementation, the Clean Development Mechanism and credits for export of cleaner energy to the United States, a non-Kyoto country. It is argued that ratification of Kyoto could hurt investments and impact jobs in Canad hurt investments and impact jobs in Canada by making Canadian industries uncompetitive relative to their American counterparts. It is emphasized that full participation by the Canadian public is required in adapting to major lifestyle changes to reduce the use of fossil fuels and other sources of greenhouse gases. In conclusion, the Canadian Chamber of Commerce does not believe that the Kyoto Protocol is the most effective and efficient way of moving forward on the climate change issue and recommends that the federal government develop a made-in Canada plan that focuses on longer-term actions designed to reduce Canadian emissions in a cost-efficient manner. refs

331

How well did the Kyoto Protocol work? A dynamic-GMM approach with external instruments  

OpenAIRE

This paper assesses the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on CO2 emissions. With this aim a dynamic panel data model is estimated for a cross-section of 213 countries over the period 1960 to 2009. The model, based on a STIRPAT approach, also integrates the EKC approach and specifically considers the endogeneity of the policy variable. To sort out causality the number of financed CDM projects is used as an external instrument. The main results indicate that obligations from the Kyoto Protocol have ...

Grunewald, Nicole; Marti?nez-zarzoso, Inmaculada

2011-01-01

332

Prospective analysis of beyond Kyoto climate policy: a sequential game framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article proposes a sequential game methodology to analyse the long-term climate policy prospects. Players can sequentially choose the best policy, among a series of policy options, while reacting to past moves of the other players. In order to illustrate the game methodology, a numerical optimisation exercise is made, based on a simple integrated assessment model. The non-cooperative equilibrium arising from a five-stage sequential game with two large players (Annex B and non-Annex B regions), which tries to replicate the Kyoto and beyond Kyoto scenarios, is studied

333

Operationalising the Kyoto Protocol's adaptation fund: A new proposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1997 Kyoto Protocol states that 'a share of the proceeds from certified project activities' of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) should be used 'to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.' In the 2003 KP rule-book – known as the 'Marrakech Accords' – this share was specified as 2% of the Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) to be administered through a special Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund.

Abdullah, Amjad; Jallow, Bubu Pateh; Reazuddin, Mohammad

2006-10-15

334

From small to insignificant. Climate impact of the Kyoto Protocol with and without US  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

American president George W. Bush has declared that he will not ask the Senate to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. This commentary explores the potential impact of implementing the Kyoto Protocol without the participation of the United States. Because, in practice, the United States would have taken on a relatively large share of the Protocol's abatement commitments, we conclude that implementing the Protocol without the participation of United States will lead to significantly less reductions in global emissions. The international permit price will be considerably lower if the United States does not participate. (author)

Hagem, Cathrine; Holtsmark, Bjart

2001-06-01

335

On the Universality of Jordan Centers for Estimating Infection Sources in Tree Networks  

CERN Document Server

Finding the infection sources in a network when we only know the network topology and infected nodes, but not the rates of infection, is a challenging combinatorial problem, and it is even more difficult in practice where the underlying infection spreading model is usually unknown a priori. In this paper, we are interested in finding a source estimator that is applicable to various spreading models, including the Susceptible-Infected (SI), Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR), Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Infected (SIRI), and Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) models. We show that under the SI, SIR and SIRI spreading models and with mild technical assumptions, the Jordan center is the infection source associated with the most likely infection path in a tree network with a single infection source. This conclusion applies for a wide range of spreading parameters, while it holds for regular trees under the SIS model with homogeneous infection and recovery rates. Since the Jordan center does not depend on t...

Luo, Wuqiong; Leng, Mei

2014-01-01

336

When the library is located in prime real estate: a case study on the loss of space from the Duke University Medical Center Library and Archives  

OpenAIRE

The Duke University Medical Center Library and Archives is located in the heart of the Duke Medicine campus, surrounded by Duke Hospital, ambulatory clinics, and numerous research facilities. Its location is considered prime real estate, given its adjacency to patient care, research, and educational activities. In 2005, the Duke University Library Space Planning Committee had recommended creating a learning center in the library that would support a variety of educational activities. However,...

Thibodeau, Patricia L.

2010-01-01

337

Annual Report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1977, 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated by the University's researchers and engineers. Except for the tank opening for regular inspection we met twice the troubles which forced to change the accelerating tube. The experiences teach us that it needs about 20 days to finish the conditioning after changing the accelerating tube. A sputter ion source of new version is now being installed on the top floor. Two devices for the detection of X-rays were tested. An apparatus for bombardment of samples in air for biological and medical sciences has been successfully used. The subjects of researches on nuclear physics cover the light-ion reactions, heavy-ion reactions and nuclear spectroscopy. A special emphasis has been put on the measurements on vector- and tensor-analyzing powers in the light-ion reactions, because of a higher efficiency of the polarized ion source. Elaborate works on the heavy-ion reactions including the angular correlation patterns and excitation functions have been made in parallel. Papers of these works are now being prepared, a few having been published already. Moreover, in the University of Tsukuba, a new research system, called Special Research Project on Nuclear and Solid State Sciences Using Accelerated Beams (Nuclear and Solid State Research Project) started in 1978 and will continue for five years. In this research project, researchers from various Institutes in the University of Tsukuba, as well as visiting researchers from other institutions in Japan and from abroad, participate. Using a variety of accelerated beams, i.e. of heavy, light and polarized beams, this research project aims mainly at the high excitation, short life, transient and inhomogeneous states both in nuclear and extra-nuclear world. It covers both fundamental research in nuclear, atomic and solid state sciences as well as their application in various fields. (J.P.N.)

338

Quality assessment of family planning counseling in health and treatment centers, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study is a descriptive one made for the purpose of quality assessment of family planning counseling in health and treatment centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in year 2000. 410 client of the Family Planning Social Services who had attended 25 health and treatment centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were participated in this research study. A checklist was completed through the observation of family planning counseling sessions. The finding and results of this study showed that personnel's behaviour and the quality of family planning counseling for the majority of samples in the first section have been suitable. In the section of the history taking from clients helping them to select suitable method and to determine next appointment, data for the majority of samples in this study have been in an average level. In the section of need understanding of clients introductory methods providing information the audiovisual training equipments used during family planning counseling, explanation of way of utilizing the selected method, and finally the environment for family planning counseling have not been suitable for majority of the samples. The findings of this study can be beneficial for public health planning in order to improve the quality of the family planning services.

Pakgohar

2002-11-01

339

Corrosion Research Center of the University of Minnesota. Progress report, July 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, the research ranges from the quantum mechanics of the corrosion unit reactions, organic and inorganic coatings, surface reactions on polymers, metals and semiconductors to high-temperature chemistry of interest to solar-energy conversion. A second objective of the Center is to increase the utilization of corrosion data by the technical community through education and through the dissemination of appropriately formatted information. At present, two projects are in the planning stage for the near future. One is a pedagogical symposium on corrosion in microelectronic components and systems; the other is a series of lectures and videotapes, as well as a workshop on cathodic protection

340

Corrosion Research Center of the University of Minnesota. Progress report, July 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present, the research ranges from the quantum mechanics of the corrosion unit reactions, organic and inorganic coatings, surface reactions on polymers, metals and semiconductors to high-temperature chemistry of interest to solar-energy conversion. A second objective of the Center is to increase the utilization of corrosion data by the technical community through education and through the dissemination of appropriately formatted information. At present, two projects are in the planning stage for the near future. One is a pedagogical symposium on corrosion in microelectronic components and systems; the other is a series of lectures and videotapes, as well as a workshop on cathodic protection.

Oriani, R.A.

1981-01-30

341

University 4.4 – A Development Strategy for Education and Research Centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to increased demand for qualified human resources, for 'new & rare skills', for software solutions, reliable products and services in the field of applied informatics, there are large available financial funds that can be accessed by Informatics and Cybernetics schools. Edu-cational and research departments must capitalize funds provided by the Europe-an/international institutions and private companies, by supporting the creation of spin-off en-tities that will conduct technology transfer projects. These funds must be used to increase the quality of teaching and to improve research results by assuring the financial needs and tech-nical resources of teachers (project based payments, students (scholarships projects and the community (public available projects. The presented strategy, University 4.4 describes four development directions for a four years period. It has been developed by Catalin Boja, Razvan Bologa, Marius Popa and Cristian Toma and since November 2011 it represents the assumed development strategy of The Department of Economic Informatics and Cybernetics (DICE from The Bucharest University of Economic Studies.

Catalin BOJA

2011-01-01

342

Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems and Career Counseling Services. Eleventh Annual Report [of the] Oakland University Adult Career Counseling Center: September 1993-June 1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report profiles the Adult Career Counseling Center (ACCC) at Oakland University, Michigan. Conceived in 1982, the Center provides services for adults seeking career guidance. The ACCC supplies career information, counseling, advice in preparation and interviewing skills, and referral information, all at no charge. The ACCC employed computers…

Splete, Howard

343

Students’ Common Writing Problems & Practices at King Abdulaziz University: An Inquiry to Move a Writing Center From Conception Towards Conceptualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the results of a quantitative investigation of the most shared writing problems and practices King Abdulaziz University (KAU students have in common, the students’ attitudes towards the teaching of basic writing and research methods, their readiness and attitude towards the kinds of activities writing centers usually have, and their self-perceptions with regards to writing skills. The study also attempts to shed some light on how the student service centers (SSC affect students’ self-reliance and their academic achievement. The study also examines the feasibility of using the concept of writing center at King Abdulaziz. Findings of the questionnaire to which 543 subjects have responded rendered indications that a history of seeking help from SSCs exists among students, who also pointed out the need for professional academic help to be provided on campus, and the determination to use such services if conceptualized. The study also found that a US model of WCs is feasible and reliable to adopt. A number of recommendations conclude the study.

Khalid Mohammed Abalhassan

2014-12-01

344

EFFECTIVENESS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN DIRECTLY RAW MILK SELLING AT “E. AVANZI” CENTER OF PISA UNIVERSITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors show the results about the effectiveness verification of prevention measures adopted in raw milk directly selling at “E. Avanzi” Centre of Pisa University. The good hygienic practices applied during production, storage and selling phases demonstrated to guarantee, in raw milk, conditions complying to hygienic criteria provided for the current regulation in Tuscany. The effectiveness verification about risk communication, carried out interviewing a sample of buyers, shows as, beside a predominant attitude towards attention to potential hygienic risks, overstay areas of reduced awareness about food risk and the ways to manage prevention. Authors hope for, in this context, such as in other similar productions, the approach yet launched towards continuous improvement of good hygienic practices adopted by businesses, could be extended to risk communication, with the aim to promote conscious and responsable choices of consumer.

S. Rindi

2010-03-01

345

Issue-centered Earth Science undergraduate instruction in U.S. colleges and universities  

Science.gov (United States)

Semester-long introductory courses in Earth Science at U.S. colleges and universities often contain astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, and geology taught as single entities. My experience teaching Earth Science that way and using a trade Earth Science textbook results in cursory knowledge and poor retention of each topic area. This seems to be especially true for liberal arts students who take Earth Science to satisfy a distribution requirement in the sciences. Instead, my method of teaching Earth Science at the State University of New York is to use two books that together explore consequences of global warming caused by the combustion of fossil fuels by humans. In this way, students who do not intend to major in science are given in-depth information about how and why this challenge to the well-being of life on Earth in the present century and beyond must be addressed in a thoughtful way. The books, Tyler Volk's CO2 Rising - The World's Greatest Environmental Challenge and James Edinger's Watching for the Wind, are inexpensive paperbacks that the students read in their entirety. Besides supplemental information I provide in the lectures, students have weekly examinations that are narrative in form, and there are written assignments for exhibits at science and other museums in NYC that complement some of the topics. The benefit of teaching Earth Science in this non-traditional way is that students seem more interested in the subject because it is relevant to everyday experience and news accounts about a serious global science problem for which an informed public must take a positive role to solve.

Liddicoat, J. C.

2011-12-01

346

Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on US Energy Markets and Economic Activity (EIA)  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 1997, more than 160 nations met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limitations on greenhouse gases (for developed nations). The outcome of the meeting was the Kyoto Protocol, in which developed nations "agreed to limit their greenhouse gas emissions, relative to the levels emitted in 1990." Consequently, the US agreed to reduce emissions from 1990 levels by a modest 7 percent during the period 2008 to 2012. This report, from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), analyzes the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on US energy markets and the economy during the 2008-2012 time frame, using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report (.pdf, .zip formats) "provides background discussion of the Kyoto Protocol and the framework and methodology of the analysis; ... summarizes the energy market results from the various carbon reduction cases;" provides the results of "EIA's analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of carbon reduction under different monetary and fiscal policy assumptions;" and compares study results of the costs of carbon reduction with results from previous studies.

347

Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol. Together on the road towards a better, controllable environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main questions to be answered in this report concern the control on the compliance of the most important obligations as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol. Also attention is paid to the monitoring and reporting requirements of so-called flexible mechanisms, in particular joint implementation. 29 refs

348

Estimates of the costs of Kyoto: Marrakesh versus the McKibbin-Wilcoxen blueprint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we update our earlier estimates of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol using the G-Cubed model, taking into account the new sink allowances from recent negotiations as well as allowing for multiple gases and new land clearing estimates. We then compare the protocol to an alternative policy outlined in McKibbin et al. (Brookings Policy Brief, No. 17. June, The Brookings Institution, Washington, 1997; Climate Change Policy After Kyoto: A Blueprint for a Realistic Approach, The Brookings Institution, Washington, 2002a; J. Econom. Perspect. 16(2) (2002b) 107) that does not impose rigid emissions targets. We focus particular attention on the sensitivity of compliance costs under each policy to unexpected changes in future economic conditions. To illustrate the issue, we evaluate the policies under two plausible alternative assumptions about a single aspect of the future world economy: the rate of productivity growth in Russia. We find that moderate growth in Russia would raise the cost of the Kyoto Protocol by as much as 50 percent but would have little effect on the cost of the alternative policy. We conclude that the Kyoto Protocol is inherently unstable because unexpected future events could raise compliance costs substantially and place enormous pressure on governments to abrogate the agreement. The alternative policy would be far more stable because it does not subject future governments to adverse shocks in compliance costsce costs

349

Reading the Kyoto Protocol. Ethical aspects of the convention on climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by urging the international community to take measures preventing 'dangerous man-made interference with the climate system'. Since its publication in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol has triggered heated debates among scientists and politicians. According to a number of critics, the questions as to whether global warming is caused by human intervention, and whether taking appropriate measures could reduce the trend, has not yet been conclusively answered. In a limited number of countries, this situation has led to a delay in the ratification process. Only when these disputes were settled in February 2005 the Kyoto Protocol became legally binding on all the signatories. If predictions are accurate, measures have to be taken to prevent a global catastrophe. This leads to another, much overlooked, but no less important question, namely how mankind can be motivated to accept the burden attached to the measures proposed by the Kyoto Protocol; in other words, how do we find and formulate an ethical basis for measures forcing us to sacrifice some of our wealth and riches, for a cleaner, more sustainable world?.

Vermeersch, E. (ed.) [University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Weiler, R.; Petrella, R. [Catholic University of Louvain, Leuven (Belgium); Krause, F. [International Project for Sustainable Energy Paths IPSEP, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sachs, W. [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, Wuppertal (Germany); Zwart, H. [Faculty of Science, Mathematics and Computing Science, Catholic University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Keulartz, J. [University of Wageningen, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-01

350

Educational Reform in International Perspective. (Chiba and Kyoto, Japan, October 1985).  

Science.gov (United States)

Five papers from the International Seminar on Educational Reform, in Chiba and Kyoto, Japan, 14-17 October 1985, are presented. Trends in educational reforms, goal and structure, and curriculum; and content of secondary education, selection and admission in higher education, and undergraduate education are discussed. Educational reform in Japan…

Amagi, Isao, Ed.

1988-01-01

351

Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Center (JCPRG), Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Steering Committee. Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Nuclear Reaction Data center (JCPRG) started at Apri1, 2007. The center has three main tasks: 1) database activities, 2) data evaluations and 3) Asian network activities. We are continuing data compilation for charged-particle nuclear reaction data obtained in Japan. We are scanning 17 journals for Japanese charged-particle and photo-nuclear nuclear reaction data compilation: PR/C, PRL, PL/B, EPJ/A, NST, NIM/A, NIM/B, JPJ, ARI, RCA, JRN, KPS, NSTS, CPL, ZP/A, PAN and JNRS. After Memo CP-E No.136, we newly found up 6 mistakes (Memo CP-E No.137) of the CINDA master file in bibliographic information. These 2 memos were reviewed at NEA Data Bank (A45, NRDC 2008). Cooperating with them, we verified error propagation from EXFOR to CINDA. Actually that had happened in the 34 lines (Memo CP-D No.561). Current EXFOR or NRDF Format is specific to itself. We suppose that a nuclear data exchange format of the next generation should be defined based on XML. If the exchange format was redefined based on XML, the data available from libraries (EXFOR, NRDF, etc.) would enable us to have wider common bases for our various software applications. We highly appreciate the presentation of Viktor Zerkin and discussions held in Sapporo, on March, 2009. To achieve an exchange format agreed, we will continue to gain various experiences with using XML and to apply the IntelligentPad technology for EXFOR systems

352

Workshop on APEC virtual center for environmental technology exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu virtual center workshop hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the 'policy maker workshop of the virtual center of APEC technology exchange' held in November 1997 in Osaka, Japan, it was agreed to organize study groups to discuss the scope of information provided by the virtual center, and to make common the classification systems and retrieval functions. In addition, the necessity was confirmed on international cooperation to promote establishment of virtual centers in different countries and territories. On the first day, Professor Ueda at the Kyoto University gave the basic lecture entitled 'global environment preservation and environmental technology transfer: problems and prospects'. Mr. Dan, the workshop manager gave the basic proposal entitled 'the future directionality of environmental technology exchange inside the APEC territories by using Internet'. Based on the basic proposal made on the first day, reports and discussions were given in the following sessions, where confirmation was made on the future directions. S1: establishment of the virtual centers in other countries and territories; S2: assurance of interchangeability of classification systems and retrieval functions in providing information, and S3: presentation of examples of inter-territorial exchange and the future directionality. (NEDO)

NONE

1999-07-01

353

Hurricane Public Health Research Center at Louisiana State University a Case of Academia Being Prepared  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent floods along the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards and elsewhere in the world before Katrina had demonstrated the complexity of public health impacts including trauma; fires; chemical, sewerage, and corpse contamination of air and water; and diseases. We realized that Louisiana's vulnerability was exacerbated because forty percent of the state is coastal zone in which 70% of the population resides. Ninety percent of this zone is near or below sea level and protected by man-made hurricane-protection levees. New Orleans ranked among the highest in the nation with respect to potential societal, mortality, and economic impacts. Recognizing that emergency responders had in the past been unprepared for the extent of the public health impacts of these complex flooding disasters, we created a multi-disciplinary, multi-campus research center to address these issues for New Orleans. The Louisiana Board of Regents, through its millennium Health Excellence Fund, awarded a 5-year contract to the Center in 2001. The research team combined the resources of natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, and the mental health and medical communities. We met annually with a Board of Advisors, made up of federal, state, local government, and non-governmental agency officials, first responders and emergency managers. Their advice was invaluable in acquiring various datasets and directing aspects of the various research efforts. Our center developed detailed models for assessment and amelioration of public health impacts due to hurricanes and major floods. Initial research had showed that a Category 3 storm would cause levee overtopping, and that most levee systems were unprotected from the impacts of storm-induced wave erosion. Sections of levees with distinct sags suggested the beginnings of foundation and subsidence problems. We recognized that a slow moving Cat 3 could flood up to the eaves of houses and would have residence times of weeks. The resultant mix of sewage, corpses and chemicals in these standing flood waters would set the stage for massive disease outbreaks and prolonged chemical exposure. Before Katrina, population evacuation behavior had been determined, computer models could be used to predict storm surge flooding, government databases and GIS technology allowed documentation of at-risk areas, probable chemical and sewerage release sites had been mapped, tropical disease experts and social scientists had determined possible public health impacts; that injured and displaced animal pets and wild animals would be a major problem had been identified; and, an interactive GIS database was available for utilization in all aspects of the assessment and remediation post landfall. The value of this project has been many-fold. First, before Katrina it had a positive impact on emergency preparedness in the state of Louisiana. Second, during the hurricane Katrina catastrophe the project offered a major service to the state as the various data sets and research outputs were extensively used throughout the flooding thus reducing deaths, disease, pain, and suffering. Third, the model of academia aiding in disaster science and management is being exported nationally and internationally. Finally, our research results are applicable to other complex disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, chemical spills or terrorism.

van Heerden, I. L.

2006-12-01

354

The Kyoto Protocol Emissions Trading Mechanisms - A Model for financing future nuclear development in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the beginning of 2001 Romania ratified the Kyoto Protocol (Law 3/2001) thus becoming the first European country to do so. The mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are now opening new ways to sponsor the financing of nuclear projects. In May 2001 Societatea Nationala Nuclearoelectrica S.S. (SNN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and ANSALDO of Italy signed a contract to complete the second CANDU unit at Cernavoda thus giving a new momentum to the nuclear program in Romania. The Government of Romania has indicated its desire to proceed with the completion of the other units on the Cernavoda site and is open to explore every potential financing mechanism to make this a reality. Although the Kyoto Protocol was not ratified by those countries that have the greatest need to reduce emissions, a market for emissions trading has developed, Canada being one of the important players in this market. Since the emission reduction per dollar invested in the Romanian nuclear program would bring much more reduction than the marginal reduction per dollar invested in environmental protection programs in Canada, where the saturation effect is already taking place, we consider that the application of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms represents a realistic source for a sustainable cooperation of the two countries. This trend is in line with the latest activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper analyzes the impact that the use of emissions credits would have on a use of emissions credits would have on a typical financing scheme for a future CANDU project in Romania given the present situation and also proposes a model for the structure of the emissions trade that would generate a source of funding for the project. The conclusion is that there is real potential in using Kyoto Protocol mechanisms for financing nuclear development with benefits for both Romania and Canada. (authors)

355

Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

2011-10-15

356

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated successfully from April, 1996 to January, 1997. Although the operation of the accelerator became unstable in the middle of January, it was a short period. The research in the Tandem Accelerator Center covers wide fields, that is, polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the nonresonant breakup of Li-7, the further refinement of the CDCC theory, fusion and fission in heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam {gamma} ray spectroscopy, solid state physics using fast ion bemas, Moessbauer effect, NMR, the application of accelerated ion beams to PIXE, and accelerator mass spectrometry. In addition, two major installations were carried out in this academic year. One is a small tandem accelerator which was moved from Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, and the other is a system for the production and analysis of atomic clusters. The research activities at the accelerator and experimental facilities and on experimental nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, cluster science, and ion beam application are reported in this book. Also the list of the publications by these groups is given. Ph. D. and M. Sc. theses are listed, and the speakers and the titles of seminars are reported. (K.I.)

NONE

1997-06-01

357

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report briefly described the investigations performed during the period from April 1997 to March 1998 in Tandem Accelerator Center. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was reconstructed and the first beam test was carried out in Nov. 1997. In nuclear physics, the measurement of total reaction cross sections, the non-resonant breakup of 7Li and 9Be, the investigation of hole states via (p,d) reaction, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam ? ray spectroscopy and the study of the three dimensional cranking model have been performed. In interdisciplinary fields, the development of AMS system has been continued. The trace element analysis of mineral samples has been carried out by means of PIXE with the proton beam which was focused on the sample as narrow as 50 ?m2. The hydrogen analysis using H(19F,??) reaction has been started aiming at the extension of the measurement of depth profile down to a few tens of ?m deep region. (M.N.)

358

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated successfully from April, 1996 to January, 1997. Although the operation of the accelerator became unstable in the middle of January, it was a short period. The research in the Tandem Accelerator Center covers wide fields, that is, polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the nonresonant breakup of Li-7, the further refinement of the CDCC theory, fusion and fission in heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam ? ray spectroscopy, solid state physics using fast ion bemas, Moessbauer effect, NMR, the application of accelerated ion beams to PIXE, and accelerator mass spectrometry. In addition, two major installations were carried out in this academic year. One is a small tandem accelerator which was moved from Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, and the other is a system for the production and analysis of atomic clusters. The research activities at the accelerator and experimental facilities and on experimental nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, cluster science, and ion beam application are reported in this book. Also the list of the publications by these groups is given. Ph. D. and M. Sc. theses are listed, and the speakers and the titles of seminars are reported. (K.I.)

359

Bali: an agreement in principle for post-Kyoto negotiations but no emissions reduction targets - Panorama 2008; Bali: un accord de principe pour des negociations post-Kyoto mais pas d'objectif de reduction - Panorama 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten years have passed since December 1997, when the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed in Kyoto. It's been a decade of tough international negotiations, leading to the beginnings of an international CO{sub 2} emissions trading market, whose future past 2012 remains uncertain. The December negotiations in Bali may not have produced a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, but they did get all parties to the Convention to sign an agreement in principle to post- Kyoto negotiations.

NONE

2008-07-01

360

Increasing Internal Stakeholder Consensus about a University Science Center's Outreach Policies and Procedures  

Science.gov (United States)

For decades the United States has tried to increase the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and careers. Educators and policy makers continue to seek strategies to increase the number of students in the STEM education pipeline. Public institutions of higher education are involved in this effort through education and public outreach (EPO) initiatives. Arizona State University opened its largest research facility, the new Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building IV (ISTB4) in September, 2012. As the new home of the School of Earth & Space Exploration (SESE), ISTB4 was designed to serve the school's dedication to K-12 education and public outreach. This dissertation presents a menu of ideas for revamping the EPO program for SESE. Utilizing the Delphi method, I was able to clarify which ideas would be most supported, and those that would not, by a variety of important SESE stakeholders. The study revealed that consensus exists in areas related to staffing and expansion of free programming, whereas less consensus exist in the areas of fee-based programs. The following most promising ideas for improving the SESE's EPO effort were identified and will be presented to SESE's incoming director in July, 2013: (a) hire a full-time director, theater manager, and program coordinator; (b) establish a service-learning requirement obligating undergraduate SESE majors to serve as docent support for outreach programs; (c) obligate all EPO operations to advise, assist, and contribute to the development of curricula, activities, and exhibits; (d) perform a market and cost analysis of other informational education venues offering similar programming; (3) establish a schedule of fee-based planetarium and film offerings; and (f) create an ISTB4 centric, fee-based package of programs specifically correlated to K12 education standards that can be delivered as a fieldtrip experience.

Fisher, Richard D.

361

Development of low emittance electron-gun system for linac in Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new electron gun with low emittance using a LaB6 thermionic cathode and low voltage but high field gradient has been developed for use injection into old 300 MeV linac in Research Center for Electron Photon Science Tohoku University. A maximum energy of 50 kV, a current of up to 300 mA , pulse width of 1-5 ?s and repetition rate of up to 300 pps were obtained respectively. The normalized emittance were measured to be less than 2?mm mrad. Moreover, an S-bund prebuncher was fabricated for the new electron gun. An integrated long run operating was examined which has satisfied the most strict requirements. (author)

362

Observation of immuno-labeled cells at high resolution using soft X-ray microscope at Ritsumeikan University SR Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 cells were labeled with the heavy metal (silver and gold) and observed intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope. Microtubules, Golgi apparatus and early endosomes of NIH3T3 cells were stained with immuno-gold nanoparticles, and immuno-staining was intensified by silver or gold enhancement procedure. Using a transmission soft X-ray microscope beamline (BL12) at Ritsumeikan University SR center, we observed immuno-stained NIH3T3 cells with several wavelengths just below and above oxygen edge ({lambda} = 2.32 nm). Using this method, cytoskeleton (microtubules) and organelles (Golgi apparatus and early endosomes) were successfully imaged with high resolution. Thus, immuno-gold silver and gold enhancement technique is useful for specific labeling of intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope.

Yamamoto, A [Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266, Tamura-cho, Nagahama, Shiga, 526-0829 (Japan); Takemoto, K; Kihara, H [Department of Physics, Kansai Medical University, 18-89 Uyamahigashi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1136 (Japan); Fukui, T; Yoshimura, Y; Namba, H [Department of Physical Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan); Okuno, K, E-mail: takemoto@makino.kmu.ac.j [SR Center, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-Higashi Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan)

2009-09-01

363

Participation of SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation) in the LLUMC (Loma Linda University Medical Center) proton synchrotron project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) is constructing a 250 MeV proton synchrotron and associated treatment facilities for the purpose of the control of cancer through particle beam irradiation or proton therapy. The synchrotron and beam transport line are being developed by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) with participation by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) as an industrial partner for technology transfer. SAIC is supporting the project in three ways: (1) by accomplishing specific tasks in the design and development of the facility; (2) by participating directly with LLUMC and FNAL in areas of technology transfer; and (3) by being directly responsible for the installation, commissioning, and early operation of the facility. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

364

Proceeding of the symposium on the plan for establishment of Health Physics Research Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of the establishment of the Health Physics Research Center are for much more development of health physics researches in higher level and systematic educations for the younger researchers. This research center was planned out for the co-operative research institute where can be used by not only visiting researchers of universities and academic institutions in Japan but also foreign researchers. The establishment of the Research Center has been authorized by the Japan Academy of Science in 1983, and the requests for obtaining the funds of the establishment has been carried out by the Kyoto University Authority to the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japanese Government in 1984. In this academic year, 1989, a symposium on the plan for the establishment of the Health Physics Research Center was held as one of the activities of Health Physics Research Meeting at Research Reactor Institute. The attendants was more than 120 scientists, and many valuable comments have been stated for the plan on the establishment. This report includes these comments. We editors many tank to the commentators and discussors. We hope to give much more cooperation and supports to the plan for the establishment of the Health Physics Research Center. (author)

365

Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center. Twenty-first progress report, January 1-December 31, 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Science Center is operated by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station as a service to the Texas A and M University System and the State of Texas. The facility is available to the University, other educational institutions, governmental agencies, and private organizations and individuals. Reactor utilization decreased from 1983 as indicated by a slightly smaller number of samples irradiated and of total irradiations. Core VIII, established in December 1982, was used throughout 1984. Several major facility projects modifications, and improvements were completed during the past year. Experimentally the Beam Port No. 4 reflector and shutter was improved, the pulsing instrumentation is being expanded, and the pneumatic system controller developed for Lab No. 4 is now in use in the Center for Trace Characterization (CTC) and Shell Development labs. Several operational problems occurred in 1984 but did not result in a significant loss of reactor operating time. During this reporting period there were no changes made to the site area; however, there has been made a proposal to extend the runway at nearby Easterwood Airport such tha larger aircraft can be accommodated. This extension should occur in 1985 and should have no affect on the air traffic patterns relative to the NSC. Administratively during 1984 efforts have been made to stabilize the reactor operations staff following the mid year resignations of both a Reactor Supervisor and Manager of Reactor Operations. A long term replacement has been hired to fill the vacated Reactor Supervisor position; however, the manager position has not yet been filled and those duties have been assumed by the Assistant Director

366

Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms at the University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the NSF-NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health at the University of Miami, research is being conducted into the remote sensing of ocean color signatures associated with the occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are down-linked at the University of Miami's Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing (CSTARS) and processed in near-real time to produce mapped fields of water leaving radiance in the ocean color bands, derived quantities including inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, chlorophyll concentration, and sea-surface temperature. Images of these fields are available in near-real time on a web-server. The server also provides access to the data files themselves. One of the applications currently being researched using these data is the identification of HABs over the Central West Florida Shelf where blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis have a nearly annual occurance. Since chlorophyll concentration alone cannot be used as a unique variable to determine algal taxonomy, other spectral features or optical properties must be brought into play to discriminate among different phytoplankton types. A published technique developed for SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) to detect K. brevis (based on high concentration of chlorophyll and low particulate backscatter) was transitioned to measurements of Terra MODIS and replicated the results. These were confirmed by comparisons with in situ measurements. This technique is currently being applied to a multi-year time series of remote measurements from the Aqua MODIS and tested against ship-based data.

Minnett, P. J.; Carvalho, G.; Baringer, W.; Banzon, V.

2007-05-01

367

Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) University of Utah SAPP 2007. Final Status Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the third and final period of this grant, our goal was to refine the algorithmic approaches used to detect and visualize magnetic islands and their corresponding null points within both the NIMROD and M3D data sets. We refined our geometric approach, which gave a greater confidence in the accuracy of the Poincareplots created. The final results are best demonstrated through Figures 2-6 attached to the report. Technical details this work was reported in both the Physics and Visualization communities. The algorithms used to analyze the magnetic field lines and detect magnetic islands have been packaged into a library and were used within the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment which is being used by members of the CEMM for visualization. In addition, the library interface was developed so that it could be used by both the NIMROD and M3D codes directly. Thus allowing the fusion scientist to perform this analysis while their simulations were actively running. The use of the library for analysis and visualization was not limited to just within the CEMM SciDAC. Other groups such as the SciDAC for the Simulation of Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics using Silo code have used the tools for the analysis of their simulations, Figure 1. Though the funding of this project had concluded there is still much work to be performed on this analysis. The techniques developed are fast and robust when not in the presence of chaos. Magnetic field lines that are near the separatrices where chaos is most often present can be difficult to analyze yet these are the field lines that are greatest interest. We believe that investigating and developing techniques based on time frequency analysis may hold some promise. Two other issues that need to be address is the ability to automatically search for the magnetic islands and the ability to track the development of the magnetic islands over time. Our initial effort into automatically searching for the islands did not prove as robust as hoped and required more effort than could be allocated. These areas as well as other issues related to 'orbit analysis' are of interest to many members within of each of the Fusion SciDAC Centers and should be the subject of continuing SAPs such as this one.

368

Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on regional and local scale for middle- and long term adaptation and mitigation strategies, providing information on optimum technologies and energy balances. Cooperation with already existing Climate Service Centres and national and international collaboration in monitoring and research are important elements of the activity of the Centre. In the future, the Centre is planned to form part of a national information system on climate change adaptation and mitigation, supported by the Ministry of Development. Keywords: climate change impacts, forestry, rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry

Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

2012-04-01

369

The Study of Quality of Life in Aphasic Stroke Patients in University- Medical Centers of Hamedan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesAs clinical improvement of patients surviving stroke is frequently incomplete and is followed by residual neurologic deficit, evaluation of the consequent function of these patients in three respects i.e; physical, social and emotional, which are considered as quality of life is useful in decision making for health care providers. Since few studies have been carried out in this regard, the aim of the present study was to obtain the average life quality score in four levels in aphasic stroke patients and comparing it with the quality of life score of the healthy population which is 5.Methods This study was a descriptive-cross sectional research carried out on 105 aphasic stroke patients referring to medical centers in Hamadan, Iran. Their diagnoses were confirmed by clinical and radiological findings. These patients were eligible for the study and had survived the stroke for at least six months. Sampling was non randomized and goal-oriented. Dependent variables included psychological, communicational, energy and physical status of the patients measured quantitatively. Data were gathered using the SAQOL-39 questionnaire.Results In this study the female population (58.1% was greater than the male. The greater number of the aphasic patients (42% was between 71 to 85 years old and the smallest number (6.7% was between 39 to 50 years old. The greatest average score of life quality in the studied patients was related to the psychological state (2.17, while the smallest was related to the energy state (1.49. Average score of the life quality in the total population of the studied patients was calculated to be (1.88.ConclusionThe findings of the present study can lead to special supportive measures with the aim of improving life quality in aphasic stroke patients. We suggest that life quality of the patient after stroke should be compared to his/her own quality of life before stroke. Because there is no special service for care providers of stroke patients, an international program should be planned so that by reducing stress, they could have a better relation with the patients.Keywords: Life Quality; Stroke; Aphasia.

M. Mazdeh

2009-06-01

370

Development and assessment of quality improvement education for medical students at The Ohio State University Medical Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested the feasibility of a quality improvement (QI) program that provided first and second year medical students with education in QI processes and demonstrate their utility within the framework of a real-world QI project. Medical students assessed the use of the Surgical Safety Checklist at The Ohio State University Medical Center. Before performing audits students were required to complete a self-paced online program that provided preliminary education in QI, patient safety, leadership, teamwork, and patient-centered care. A 2.5-hr orientation introduced basic operating room protocol, and the surgical checklist audit tool. Orientation included a multimedia simulation of checklist usage and a role-playing exercise simulating its use. Students completed pre- and postparticipation assessments. Results included an increased knowledge of QI methodology, an improved understanding of the evidence supporting the need for QI projects within health systems, and a greater awareness of available QI projects. Students' perspectives changed to indicate an increased belief that QI is the responsibility of all health professionals including physicians, administrators and other staff. This study concluded that QI education can be effectively disseminated to medical students early in their education using existing online tools and experiential QI projects, and can result in actionable QI data supporting hospital improvement initiatives. PMID:23163971

Gonsenhauser, Iahn; Beal, Eliza; Shihadeh, Fadi; Mekhjian, Hagop S; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

2012-01-01

371

Patient dose from radiographic rejects/repeats in radiology centers of Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical diagnostic X-rays are the largest manmade source of ionizing radiation received by the members of the general public. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic reject/repeat rate and also to determine dose to the patients from radiographic rejects/repeats in radiology centers of Urmia University of Medical Sciences. During a 4 month period the most frequently examinations were chosen in three radiology centers. A form was designed as a reject/repeat analysis form for radiographers to complete each time a film was rejected by radiologists or repeated. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. The results of this study showed that highest and lowest repetition rates were for pelvis, 14.01% and upper limb, 4.17%, respectively. The main reasons of repetition of radiographs were due to exposure (54% and positioning (18% errors. The average repeat rate in all three hospitals was 7.20%. It was found that human error has important role to repetition of radiographs. It is demonstrated that those patients having repeated radiographs received an average of 3.23 Gy·cm2. Based on the findings of this study it must be remembered that the highest repetition rate was for pelvis. Considering the radiosensitive organs related to pelvis especially in pediatric patients some special considerations must be applied for pelvis examinations.

Leili Rahmatnezhad

2012-02-01

372

Strong leadership and teamwork drive culture and performance change: Ohio State University Medical Center 2000-2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several characteristics of academic health centers have the potential to create high levels of internal conflict and misalignment that can pose significant leadership challenges. In September 2000, the positions of Ohio State University (OSU) senior vice president for health sciences, dean of the medical school, and the newly created position of chief executive officer of the OSU Medical Center (OSUMC) were combined under a single leader to oversee the OSUMC. This mandate from the president and trustees was modeled after top institutions with similar structures. The leader who assumed the role was tasked with improving OSUMC's academic, clinical, and financial performance. To achieve this goal, the senior vice president and his team employed the service value chain model of improving performance, based on the premise that leadership behavior/culture drives employee engagement/satisfaction, leading to customer satisfaction and improved organizational performance. Implementing this approach was a seven-step process: (1) selecting the right leadership team, (2) assessing the challenges and opportunities, (3) setting expectations for performance and leadership behavior, (4) aligning structures and functions, (5) engaging constituents, (6) developing leadership skills, and (7) defining strategies and tracking goals. The OSUMC setting during this period provides an observational case study to examine how these stepwise changes, instituted by strong leadership and teamwork, were able to make and implement sound decisions that drove substantial and measurable improvements in the engagement and satisfaction of faculty and staff; the satisfaction of students and patients; and academic, clinical, and financial performance. PMID:18728440

Sanfilippo, Fred; Bendapudi, Neeli; Rucci, Anthony; Schlesinger, Leonard

2008-09-01

373

Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have measured environmental radiation dose rates in several Prefectures, such as Ai chi Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture, and Mie Prefecture, in central Japan. Recently, we measured the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures that are also located in central Japan with a car-borne survey system. At the time of measurement, Kyoto Prefecture (area: 4,613 km2) had a total of 36 districts, and Shiga Prefecture (area: 3,387 km2) a total of 26. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and secondary cosmic ray dose rates were measured by a 2 inches ? x 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation counter and a handy-type altimeter (GPS eTrex Legend by Gamin), respectively. The following factors were taken into consideration the shielding effect of the car body, the effect of the road pavement, radon progeny borne by precipitation, and increases in tunnels and near the walls. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were estimated to be 51.7 ± 6.0 n Gy/h (district average: 52.4 ± 4.7 n Gy/h), 52.2 ± 10.5 n Gy/h (district average: 51.9 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. Secondary cosmic ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 30.0 ± 0.6 n Gy/h (district average: 29.9 ±0.3 n Gy/h), 30.1 ± 0.3 n Gy/h (district average: 30.0 ± 0.2 n Gy/h), respectively. The environmental radiation dose rates due to the sum dose rates of terrestrial gamma ray and secondary cosmic ray in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 81.7 ± 6.2 n Gy/h (district average: 82.3 ± 4.8 n Gy/h), 82.3 ± 10.6 n Gy/h (district average: 82.0 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. We confirmed that the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures mainly depended on the change of the terrestrial gamma ray dose rates, since the secondary cosmic ray dose rates had little change. Therefore, radiation dose-rate maps of the terrestrial gamma rays as well as maps of the environmental radiation dose-rate were drawn. (author)

374

PENERAPAN KONSEP FUZZY DALAM VARIABLE-CENTERED INTELLIGENT RULE SYSTEM (Studi Kasus: Pemilihan Jurusan di Chinese University of Hongkong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variable-Centered Intelligent Rule System (VCIRS is a system which is inspired by Rule-based System (RBS and Ripple Down Rules (RDR. The system architecture is adapted from RBS, while from RDR this system obtained its advantages. The system organized Rule Base (RB in a special structure so that easy knowledge building, powerful knowledge inferencing and evolutionally system performance refining can be obtained in the same time. In this paper, the architecture of VCIRS is used to build an expert system for helping students to choose a department at a university. The application of this expert system is able to handle fuzzy concepts (e.g., such as good, high or rather high which is a prominent part of sentences in natural language. This system is able to cope with exact values, fuzzy (or inexact values and combined reasoning, allowing fuzzy and normal terms to be freely mixed in the rules and facts. An application example in this paper is a RBS which is employed fuzzy logic and fuzzy number for inexact reasoning. It uses two inexact basic concepts, i.e., fuzziness and uncertainty. A case study presented here is the department admission at Chinese University of Hongkong, formed in a RB containing with fuzzy and normal terms. From experiments performed, there's the proper result obtained comparing with the result from Z-II system (i.e., a comprehensive expert system builder tool developed by Chinese University of Hongkong which is this paper refers to. So that the conclusion is a fuzzy VCIRS proposed here, is working properly and producing the right and true results. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Variable-Centered Intelligent Rule System (VCIRS adalah sistem yang terinspirasi dari Rule-based System (RBS dan Ripple Down Rules (RDR. Arsitektur sistem diadaptasi dari RBS dan ia mengambil kelebihan-kelebihan dari RDR. Sistem ini mengorganisasikan basis aturan dalam sebuah struktur yang spesial sehingga kemudahan pembangunan pengetahuan, penelusuran pengetahuan yang kuat, dan perbaikan unjuk kerja sistem yang selalu berkembang dapat diperoleh pada waktu yang sama. Dalam paper ini, arsitektur VCIRS dimanfaatkan untuk membangun sebuah sistem pakar yang dapat membantu calon mahasiswa memilih jurusan pada suatu Perguruan Tinggi. Aplikasi sistem pakar ini dapat menangani konsep fuzzy seperti good, high, atau rather high, yang merupakan bagian kalimat yang sangat berarti dalam bahasa sehari-hari. Sistem ini dapat menangani nilai yang tepat/teliti, nilai fuzzy (atau tidak tepat/tidak teliti, dan jenis pertimbangan gabungan, serta mengijinkan istilah fuzzy dan istilah normal untuk digabungkan secara bebas dalam aturan dan fakta. Contoh aplikasi dalam paper ini adalah sebuah sistem berbasis aturan yang menggunakan logika fuzzy dan bilangan fuzzy untuk jenis pertimbangan yang tidak tepat/tidak teliti. Sistem ini menggunakan dua konsep dasar ketidaktepatan/ketidaktelitian, yaitu fuzziness dan uncertainty. Kasus dalam penelian ini adalah pemilihan jurusan di Chinese University of Hongkong dalam bentuk basis aturan yang didalamnya mengandung istilah fuzzy dan istilah normal. Dari uji coba yang dilakukan, didapat hasil yang sesuai dengan hasil dari sistem Z-II, yaitu alat bantu pembangun sistem pakar komprehensif yang dikembangkan di Chinese University of Hongkong, yang menjadi acuan dari paper ini. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa fuzzy VCIRS dapat bekerja dengan baik, serta memberikan hasil yang benar dan dapat dipercaya. Kata kunci: rule-based systems, VCIRS, knowledge building, knowledge inferencing, knowledge refining, logika fuzzy, bilangan fuzzy.

Irfan Subakti

2006-01-01

375

Kyoto Protocol: Debate on environment and development in the discussions on Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The climatic behavior of the planet and its consequences has favored debates about the models of development of the countries responsible for the accelerated deterioration of the atmosphere and of the natural phenomena by these recurrent days. Nevertheless, countries as United States, after signing commitments as the Convention on Climatic Change, refuse to acquire the obligations of the Kyoto Protocol, from fear of undergoing deterioration in their economies. In this setting, where the nation responsible for the emission of approximately 36% of the turned out effect greenhouse gases result of the human action in the planet does not commit itself to adopt restrictive policies to make its models of production but friendly with the nature although these measures begin to be imposed to other nations as determining factors in the international commercial negotiations, seems to be that the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol for developing countries as Colombia is not absolutely beneficial

376

Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions and the impact from Kyoto Protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the driving factors of CO2 for developed and developing countries to test the theory of the EKC in the context of environmental regulations using a static and dynamic panel data model. We consider the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results from this study indicate that the Kyoto obligations have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions in developed and developing countries. (orig.)

Grunewald, Nicole [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada [Jaume I Univ. (Spain). International Economics Institute

2009-08-15

377

Russian behaviour in the market for permits under the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the US withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol and the extension of national quotas in the Bonn and Marrakesh agreements, meagre environmental effects and a low price of emission permits are likely to be the outcome of implementation. This paper attempts to analyze this scenario, mainly in relation to the Russian case. I discuss on the basis of certain key assumptions the strategic options open to the supply side of the permit market and Russia's potentially incompatible interests as a producer of oil and gas on the one hand and a dominating seller of emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol on the other. The analysis shows that Russian oil and gas interests are likely to boost Russia's inclination to sell permits, ultimately resulting in lower permit prices

378

5 years of experience implementing a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus search and destroy policy at the largest university medical center in the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a rigorous search and destroy policy for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection or colonization. DESIGN: Hospital-based observational follow-up study. SETTING: Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, a 1,200-bed tertiary care center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Outbreak control was accomplished by the use of active surveillance cultures for persons at risk, by the preemptive isolation of patients at ...

Vos, M. C.; Behrendt, M. D.; Melles, D. C.; Mollema, F. P. N.; Groot, W.; Parlevliet, G.; Ott, A.; Horst-kreft, D.; Belkum, A. F.; Verbrugh, H. A.

2009-01-01

379

The effect of Kyoto emission targets on domestic CO2 emissions: A synthetic control approach  

OpenAIRE

We use recent developments in the empirics of comparative case studies to analyze the effect of binding emission targets under the Kyoto Protocol on the development of CO2 emissions of seven major Annex B countries. In particular, we investigate whether committing to a specific greenhouse gas emissions target had an effect on actual CO2 emissions of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and Japan by using a synthetic control approach. With the exception of Great Britain, we...

Almer, Christian; Winkler, Ralph

2012-01-01

380

Exploring the ancillary benefits of the Kyoto Protocol for air pollution in Europe  

OpenAIRE

An integrated approach to climate change and regional air pollution can harvest considerable ancillary benefits in terms of environmental impacts and costs.This is because both problems are caused to a large extent by the same activity (fossil fuel combustion).Substantial ancillary benefits were found for regional air pollution (SO2, NOx, VOC and particulate matter) of implementing the Kyoto Protocol (intended to control greenhouse gas emissions) in Europe.For instance, while three d...

Vuuren, D. P.; Cofala, J.; Eerens, H. E.; Oostenrijk, R.; Heyes, H.; Klimont, Z.; Elzen, M. G. J. Den; Amann, M.

2006-01-01

381

PathwayVoyager: pathway mapping using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Equally important and challenging as genome annotation, is the subsequent classification of predicted genes into their respective pathways. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) represents a database consisting of known genes and their respective biochemical functionalities. Although accessible online, analyses of multiple genes are time consuming and are not suitable for analyzing data sets that are proprietary. Results Presented here is a new software soluti...

Klaenhammer Todd R; Altermann Eric

2005-01-01

382

The European Union's potential for strategic emissions trading in a post-Kyoto climate agreement  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: The literature suggests that Russia and Ukraine may become large sellers of greenhouse gas emissions permits under the Kyoto Protocol and might exploit their market power to maximize trading profits. The EU countries taken together will probably be net buyers of permits. For any given global target for emission, participation by developing countries with low-cost abatement options would benefit the net buyers of permits because the market price for carbon permits would go down. We e...

Eyckmans, Johan; Hagem, Cathrine

2008-01-01

383

Wistar-Kyoto rats as an animal model of anxiety vulnerability: Support for a hypervigilance hypothesis  

OpenAIRE

Inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats have been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability as they display behavioral inhibition and a constellation of learning and reactivity abnormalities relative to outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Together, the behaviors of the WKY rat suggest a hypervigilant state may contribute to its anxiety vulnerability. To test this hypothesis, open-field behavior, acoustic startle, pre-pulse inhibition and timing behavior were assessed in WKY and Sprague Dawley (SD) ra...

Mcauley, J. D.; Stewart, A. L.; Webber, E. S.; Cromwell, H. C.; Servatius, R. J.; Pang, K. C. H.

2009-01-01

384

Kyoto Protocol implementation in Serbia as precognition of sustainable energetic and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives reasons for low energy efficiency typical of the Serbian economy, which is based on outdated and dirty technologies. The comparison of selected economic indicators and indicators of energy efficiency in both Serbia and the European Union points out the benefits of the Kyoto Protocol implementation due to the growth of competitiveness in the global market. Serbia has no obligation to reduce GHG emissions, the authors point to the proposals whose implementation along with the mechanisms of the Protocol can enable Serbia the access to markets that trade GHG emissions and the access to dedicated funds, self-financing or attracting foreign investments to raise energy efficiency, which will be accompanied by adequate economic benefits. A similar principle can be applied in all countries that are not obliged to reduce GHG emissions. The application of different mechanisms aiming to increase energy efficiency in Serbia, could contribute to the increase of GDP annual growth rate from 5% to 7%, which cannot be achieved by any other economic instrument. Energy efficiency, which is actually a question of competitiveness of each economy, can finance itself through the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol by selling excess emissions resulting from improved energy efficiency. - Research highlights: ? Serbia is a country with the outdated technology and low energy efficiency values. ? Sustainable economic and energetic growth can be stirred by inserting Kyoto Protocolbe stirred by inserting Kyoto Protocol. ? By investing in modern technology Serbia could lessen emission into the atmosphere. ? Cut of emission in the atmosphere could help reaching certain carbon credit values. ? By selling the carbon credit Serbia could do economic growth of 5-7% on a year level.

385

25th Taniguchi International Symposium and the Conference held in Kyoto  

CERN Document Server

In the Teichmüller theory of Riemann surfaces, besides the classical theory of quasi-conformal mappings, vari- ous approaches from differential geometry and algebraic geometry have merged in recent years. Thus the central subject of "Complex Structure" was a timely choice for the joint meetings in Katata and Kyoto in 1989. The invited participants exchanged ideas on different approaches to related topics in complex geometry and mapped out the prospects for the next few years of research.

Ohsawa, Takeo

1991-01-01

386

An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms  

OpenAIRE

The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the Articles defining the three flexibility mechanisms carries wording that the use of the mechanism must be supplemental to domestic actions, the supplementarity provisions have been the focus of the international climat...

Zhang, Zhongxiang

2000-01-01

387

Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

388

Selection and quantification of forestry measures targeted at the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention on Biodiversity  

OpenAIRE

Forests sequester large amounts of carbon and are important for nature conservation. These functions can be important in contributing to targets set by the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nation¿s Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD). This report lists possible measures to increase the capacity of forest ecosystems to act as carbon sink. The most promising options are evaluated quantitatively in terms of carbon and qualitatively in terms of bi...

Schelhaas, M. J.; Cienciala, E.; Lindner, M.; Nabuurs, G. J.; Zianchi, G.

2007-01-01

389

Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat  

OpenAIRE

The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We f...

Hyungwoo Nam

2014-01-01

390

Creation and sharing of credits through the clean development mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol  

OpenAIRE

The implementation of activities aimed to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions is more cost-efficient in developing countries than in most of the industrialized world. Thus it has been a major, but contentious topic in the climate negotiations to allow crediting of emissions reduction in developing countries towards domestic emission targets of industrial countries. The Kyoto Protocol instituted a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that is to assure that the interests of all parties from i...

Dutschke, Michael; Michaelowa, Axel

1998-01-01

391

Issues and open questions of greenhouse gas emission trading under the Kyoto protocol  

OpenAIRE

For the first time, the Protocol negotiated by the third Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto sets legally binding emission targets for the commitment period 2008-2012 for the industrial countries and countries in transition listed in Annex I. These targets encompass a basket of six greenhouse gases and do not have to be reached by domestic emission reduction alone. The Protocol allows the use of less costly emission reduction potential abroad ...

Dutschke, Michael; Michaelowa, Axel

1998-01-01

392

Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March, 31, 1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a compilation of the research activities and operations of the Research Center For Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, during the period of the academic year 1994, April 1994 to March 1995. RCNP is the national laboratory for nuclear physics in Japan. The AVF cyclotron with K = 0.14GeV and the ring cyclotron with K = 0.4GeV and EP = 0.4GeV are the major user facilities at RCNP. They have been extensively used for studying nuclear nucleon-meson systems. All facilities are open for users from universities and research institutes in Japan as well as those in foreign countries. The research activities at the RCNP cyclotron laboratory include studies of nuclear interactions and nuclear potentials, spin isospin excitations and decays nuclear reaction dynamics and others. Studies of solid state and atomic physics and medical applications were carried out also at the cyclotron laboratory. New external ion sources have been instaled for the injector cyclotron. New extensions of the RCNP research activities are under progress. One is the possible use of the 8 GeV electron storage ring built at the synchrotron radiation laboratory SPring-8. It is located 100 Km west of Osaka. It is expected to start its operation in 1997. The Compton back-scattering of laser photons from the 8 GeV electron beam provides 1-3.5 GeV ?-rays, which are very promising for studying nuclear quark and meson systems. Other is the non-accelerator physics for ultra-rare nuclear processes at the new under ground laboratory 'Ohto Cosmo Observatory'. It is located 100 km south of Osaka. Neutrino studies by investigating double beta decays, dark matter studies by investigating nuclear responses to them, and studies of other weak processes are planned to be studied there. (J.P.N.)

393

Turkish support to Kyoto Protocol: A reality or just an illusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term increase in Earth's temperature is known as the global warming or the greenhouse effect. Taking into account the fact that the ice age only involved a global temperature variation of around 4 C, it is clear climate change is arguably one of the greatest environmental threats the world is facing today. The impacts of disruptive change leading to catastrophic events such as storms, droughts, sea level rise and floods are already being felt across the world. In this context, the signing of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 has been argued to be a historic step in reversing the inexorable increase in the emission of the greenhouse gases. The primary achievement of the Protocol has been so-called commitment of countries referred in the Annex I of the Protocol to reduce their emission of GHGs some 5% below their country specific 1990 level. On February 5, 2009, Turkish Parliament ratified an agreement to sign the Kyoto Protocol after intense pressure from both the European Union and international environmental organizations; however, so far it has not taken any step to bring about real reductions in emissions. In short, Turkey simply signed but ignored the Protocol. Present paper investigates Turkish position vis-a-vis Kyoto Protocol and critically questions Turkish policies in that area. (author)

394

Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over "leakage" of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

Gaines, Sanford E.

2009-11-01

395

Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over 'leakage' of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

396

Is the Kyoto Protocol an adequate environmental agreement to resolve the climate change problem?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lack of understanding on how to handle the issue of global warming, which is embodied by the Kyoto Protocol, among the various nations of the world reached a point where environmental policy-makers saw a number of possible scenarios to global warming before the last meeting on Climate Change in July 2001 in Bonn: Amendments to the Kyoto Protocol, by changing the current targets and timetable into a long-term view of the global warming issue. The U.S. does not agree with the Kyoto Protocol Therefore, it will not do anything about it in terms of its ratification. A middle ground between the two previous options. The idea is the creation of a new mechanism where nations meet in international environmental for a voluntarily exchange of views with no legal commitments. In order to move forward, we should stop thinking of the global warming issue only in a cost-benefit analysis and instead take more into account public health and safety requirements. Since the U.S. and EU representatives may well find themselves deadlocked again when they meet at the end of October 2001 in Morocco for the next climate change convention, the author would like to make some recommendations at the end of this article. (author)

397

Nuclear power for greenhouse gas mitigation under the Kyoto protocol: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the 43rd regular session of the IAEA General Conference, Member States requested the IAEA to help countries in assessing nuclear power's role in light of global environmental challenges and energy needs. Such assistance should include support for implementing national case studies, and facilitating access to relevant information about nuclear power's role in achieving sustainable development in developing countries and in mitigating GHG emissions. The dissemination of information on CDM is of particular importance to developing countries, so as to enable Member States interested in the mechanism to take an active and informed role in the debate regarding the Kyoto Protocol and eligible CDM technologies. Therefore, the Secretariat organized a series of information seminars, workshops and training courses for Member States on the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading with particular emphasis on the potential role of nuclear power for GHG mitigation. On request, the Secretariat also provided training and assistance to several Member States in the preparation of national case studies that explore the potential role of nuclear power as a CDM technology. These case studies will be presented by the respective national study teams during this side event at the 44th IAEA General Conference. Within the general criteria included in the Kyoto Protocol, the decision on which technologies are eligible for GHG mitigation under the flexibility mechanisms is a sovereign decision of each country

398

Evaluation of the mental problems of menopausal women referred to the health care centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause, the permanent cessation of menstruation, is an important event in the long process of climactrium, signaling a change from the years of fertility to infertility. Postmenopausal women have many physical and mental problems. Materials and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the mental problems of menopausal women referred to the health care centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2003. The research tools in this analytical-descriptive study were a questionnaire, record sheet and standard tests composed of Beck and Cattle scales. The data were collected by interview. The samples consisted of 150 menopausal women who had been selected by random sampling method. The data analysis was done by SPSS software. Results: The results showed that short-term memory disorder (39.3%, mild depression (32% and mild anxiety (27.7% were the most common mental problems. There was a significant relationship between depression and marital status (p=0.029 and having knowledge about menopause (p = 0.04. Anxiety had no relationship with any variables (p>0.05 but there was an association between depression and anxiety (p = 0.002. Conclusion: The findings show that the menopausal women suffer from mental problems, which influence their quality of life and community health. Thus, planning educational and health care programs to help them overcome these obstacles is essential.

Rasooli

2004-08-01

399

[Sexual violence: a descriptive study of rape victims and care in a university referral center in São Paulo State, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rape is a global public health problem, and steps have been taken to encourage studies on the issue and propose interventions for its prevention and appropriate care. This study aimed to characterize the population of female rape victims and describe the characteristics of the sexual assault and the care provided at a university referral center. This was a quantitative retrospective study of care provided to female rape victims from June 2006 to December 2010. The majority of the women (n = 687) were white, single, had no children, with a mean age of 23.7 years and primary to secondary schooling, employed, and practiced a religion. One-fourth of the victims reported no sexual intercourse prior to the sexual assault. Rape occurred mainly at night, on the street, perpetrated by a single stranger, with vaginal penetration, and with threatened or actual force. Most of the victims had reported the rape to someone and felt supported. Early care occurred for almost 90% of women, allowing preventive measures. From 2006 to 2010 there was an increase in the proportion of women that sought help. Better knowledge of the characteristics of this group and the event itself can help improve the structure and functioning of models to assist rape victims. PMID:23702995

Facuri, Cláudia de Oliveira; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Oliveira, Karina Diniz; Andrade, Tiago Dos Santos; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de

2013-05-01

400

Wafer and bulk high-purity silicon trace element analysis at the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A trace element analysis program for wafer and bulk high-purity silicon (Si) samples has been operating at the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (TAMU NSC) since 1996. Samples are irradiated in the NSC's 1-MW TRIGA research reactor at a thermal neutron fluence rate of 1013 n/cm2/s for 14 hours. After an appropriate decay length, bulk samples are chemically etched to remove surface contamination while wafer surfaces are first rinsed with acid to determine surface contamination and then etched to obtain epitaxial layer contamination information. All samples, along with the appropriate etching solutions are analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy to quantitatively determine the various radioisotopes created during irradiation. Elements typically determined are antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), bromine (Br), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), gallium (Ga), gold (Au), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), potassium (K), silver (Ag), sodium (Na) tungsten (W) and zinc (Zn). The potential exists to also determine cesium (Cs), iridium (Ir), lanthanum (La), mercury (Hg), rubidium (Rb), scandium (Sc), and zirconium (Zr). Detection limits range from 1014 down to 107 atoms/cm2 in surface analysis and 1013 down to 108 atoms/cm3 in bulk Si

401

An Evaluation of the Dynamics of the Plan to Develop First-Class Universities and Top-Level Research Centers in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent rise in globalization has brought forth a global wave of academic competitiveness, which has taken its strongest hold in East Asia. In order to attain world class status, Taiwan's Ministry of Education (MoE) initiated a project called Plan to Develop First-class Universities and Top-level Research Centers. The project is often coined…

Chang, Dian-fu; Wu, Cheng-ta; Ching, Gregory S.; Tang, Chia-wei

2009-01-01

402

Present status of dark-matter axion search in Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The axion, invoked to solve the so called 'strong CP problem' in the standard QCD theory, is one of the mostly attractive candidates for the non-baryonic dark matter in the Universe. The dark matter axions can be converted into a microwave photon in a resonant cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field via the Primakoff effect. It has been recently proposed to search for axions with Rydberg atoms in a microwave resonant cavity: Rydberg atoms in beam are passed through the cavity, and the excited atoms by absorbing axion-converted photons are selectively detected by the method of filed ionization outside of the cavity passed. Based on this new scheme, an experimental apparatus is under construction to search for dark matter axions of mass around 10 ?eV with a sensitivity enough to pin down the existence of the DFSZ axions in our dark halo. Prior to the construction of the final apparatus, a prototype experimental system was set up and various test experiments have been successfully performed. Principle of the present axion-search scheme, the experimental apparatus under construction to realize this scheme, and some results of the test experiments with the prototype experimental system are presented and discussed. (K.A.)

403

A study on abdomen ultrasonography classified by particular disease practiced in health promotion center of a university hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is to get preliminary data for an effectiveness evaluation of abdominal examination and improvement of it. Abnormal cases of abdominal ultrasonography are classified by sex, frequency, diagnosis and age, 4.924 examinees were included at a university hospital of health promotion center from January to December in 1999. The results are as follow. According to the distribution of sex, there are more male patients(55.0%) than females patients (48.0%). for men, 40's showed the highest percentage among examinees. For women, 50's were the highest. The reason that 'they visited the health promotion center was that they wanted to check their health status'. This answers were reported the highest (59.3%). Patients that had abnormal cases of abdominal ultrasonography were 48.3%. Liver, kidney, gallbladder showed the highest percentage of abnormal cases in order of organs. Additionally, abnormal cases were discovered in liver cases. According to the frequency of abnormal cases among examinees, the slight fatty liver were the highest regardless of sex. Men had the slight fatty liver, kidney simple cyst, liver calcification and liver simple cyst in order of abnormal cases. Women showed the slight fatty liver kidney simple cyst, kidney calcification, liver simple cyst, and blood vessel tumor in order of abnormal cases. For the abnormal cases of live by sex and age, the 50's reported the highest number of abnormal cases in men (299 patients). In addition, 60's had the high patients). In addition, 60's had the highest of disease rata 47.8%. For women, 50's reported the highest number of abnormal cases (361 patients).. Over 70's patients had the highest of disease rata 52.6%. For kidney, men and women showed the highest number of abnormal cases -62 vs 44 respectively. Over 70's patients had the highest percentage of disease rata -23.2% vs 14.0% respectively. For gallbladder, the number of abnormal cases were the most in men's 60's (31 patients) and in women's in the same age group (32 patients). According to malignant tumor, 17 patients were liver cancer, 2 patients stomach ca and 1pt kidney cancer. The relationship between the malignant tumor and the examination motive was that 'they wanted to check their health status (41.0%)' and 'regular checkup (24.0%)'

404

The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI): instrument overview and radiometric performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectrally resolved infrared (IR) and far infrared (FIR) radiances measured from orbit with extremely high absolute accuracy are a critical observation for future climate benchmark missions. For the infrared radiance spectra, it has been determined that a measurement accuracy, expressed as an equivalent brightness temperature error, of 0.1 K (k = 3) confirmed on orbit is required for signal detection above natural variability for decadal climate signatures [1, 2]. The challenge in the sensor development for a climate benchmark measurement mission is to achieve ultra-high accuracy with a design that can be flight qualified, has long design life, and is reasonably small, simple, and affordable. The required simplicity is achievable due to the large differences in the sampling and noise requirements for the benchmark climate measurement from those of the typical remote sensing infrared sounders for weather research or operational weather prediction. The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center, with funding from the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), developed the Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI), which is designed to meet the uncertainty requirements needed to establish spectrally resolved thermal infrared climate benchmark measurements from space. The ARI is a prototype instrument designed to have a short upgrade path to a spaceflight instrument. Recent vacuum testing of the ARI, conducted under funding from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office, has demonstrated the capability to meet the 0.1 K (k = 3) uncertainty requirement on-orbit. An overview of the instrument design and summary of the radiometric performance verification of the UW-SSEC ARI will be presented.

Taylor, Joseph K.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Best, Fred A.; Gero, P. Jonathan; Genest, Jerome; Buijs, Henry; Grandmont, Frederic J.; Tobin, David C.; Knuteson, Robert O.

2014-11-01

405

Seven years of experience in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in Ege University Hospital: diagnostic approach of a single center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a term used to define a variety of progressive conditions that have in common, increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right heart failure and death. There has been considerable decrease in mortality and morbidity with the advances in PAH treatment over the past decade. However, since there is no epidemiologic study in Turkey, the prevalence of PAH and its importance is not known yet. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic clinical experience of Ege University Medical School Cardiology Department with PAH patients. Methods: We evaluated the diagnostic approach to patients referred to our department with the diagnosis of PAH since 2000 by retrospective analysis method.Results: The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was definite in 70 patients (mean age 47±16 years, 61% women. Etiology from most prevalent to least was as following: congenital heart diseases (27%, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (24%, connective tissue diseases-scleroderma (14%, idiopathic PAH (8%, diastolic dysfunction (3%, pulmonary disease (3%, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (2%, hepatopulmonary hypertension (1%, and HIV-infection associated PAH (1%. At diagnosis, 68% of patients were in NYHA functional class-III or IV. Six-minute walk test was 263±127m. Mean pulmonary artery pressure was 65±20 mmHg. The rognostic marker pro-BNP (brain natriuretic peptid level was 3208±4145 pg/ml.Conclusion: Our practice shows that PAH is diagnosed late in the course of the disease in Turkey. This can be overcome with structured management in designated centers with ultidisciplinary team-working in a shared care approach. There is also an urgent need for an epidemiological registry in order to determine the burden of PAH in Turkey and increase the awareness of doctors.

Meral Kayikcioglu

2008-08-01

406

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainees at a university psychotherapy training center.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the psychotherapy training center at Karlstad University, a study was carried out to examine the levels of symptom change and satisfaction with therapy in a heterogeneous population of clients treated using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) by less experienced trainee therapists with limited theoretical education. The clients received an average of 11 therapy sessions. The results suggested that CBT performed by less experienced trainee therapists can be effective. According to client estimations, a statistically significant reduction in symptoms, measured using the Symptoms Checklist, was achieved for seven of nine variables (p???.006), as well as a significant increase in satisfaction with life (p???.001). Also, the pre- and posttherapy measurements using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale showed a statistically significant improvement in the clients' condition. According to the therapists' estimations, 64% (SD?=?32.01) of the clients experienced a significant improvement in their condition. In addition, the results of a survey of client satisfaction demonstrated that the clients were very pleased with the therapy received. Also the therapists were, to a great extent, satisfied with the treatment process itself, including the supervision received, and very satisfied with the client alliance. A correlation analysis between the clients' perceived level of improvement and therapist satisfaction showed a strong correlation between the two variables (r?=?.50, p?analysis of the CPPS results confirmed that the form of therapy used at the training site was more strongly CBT than psychodynamic interpersonal treatment (p???.001). The CBT subscale score indicated that the therapy was characteristic of CBT, confirming that the interventions used in the therapy belong to the CBT genre. PMID:24436779

Hiltunen, Arto J; Kocys, Elo; Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée

2013-08-01

407

PREFACE: MEM05: The 3rd International Workshop on Mechano-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Kyoto, Japan, 17 20 July 2005)  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the important challenges facing the international scientific community at the beginning of the third millennium is how to manage the world's energy resources properly. Superconductivity will provide one of the strategies employed to avoid an energy crisis. Of course the ITER Fusion Tokomak that is to be built in France provides an exciting focus for the whole superconductivity community. In parallel, we can expect that other key technologies for superconductivity such as large capacity transmission cables, energy storage systems, and generators and motors will have a real impact in technologically advanced countries. There is broadly a consensus that the prototype stage for high-current high-field superconducting applications is largely completed, and the required performance has been demonstrated. However, before we move to full industrialization of large-scale superconducting technologies, feasibility studies suggest there are two types of problem that remain. The first is the development of high performance and low cost materials which are fully optimized in terms of critical current, low ac loss and high strength. The second is the establishment of optimal procedures for system design accompanying scale up. As the system design is dependent on material development, there is a critical need to study the key issues for developing high performance superconducting materials. Under the activities of the NEDO Grant Project (Applied Superconductivity), MEM05 was organized by Professor Osamura (Kyoto University), Professor Itoh (NIMS), Professor Hojo (Kyoto University) and Professor Matsumoto (Kyoto University) and held in Kyoto, Japan. The focus for the workshop was the elimination of grain boundary weak links, the creation of strong flux pinning sites, the optimal arrangement of filaments and barriers for reducing ac losses, and the design of high strength strain tolerant composite conductors. Five subsessions were held at MEM05. ? Mechanical properties of superconductors including the influence of stress and strain on the critical current of practical conductors such as YBCO and ReBCO coated conductors, BiSCCO tapes, MgB2 wires and Nb3Sn filamentary conductors. ? The intrinsic strain effects on the critical current density in Nb3Sn YBCO, BiSCCO and MgB2. ? Recent advances in the critical current, mechanical properties and reduction in ac losses of HTS tapes and wires. ? The compositional and microstructural dependence of E-J characteristics and its explanation based on flux pinning, grain boundary weak links and other mechanisms. ? Standardized test methods: international cooperative research work to establish test methods for assessing the mechano-electromagnetic properties of superconductors based on the activities of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA-16. More than 70 researchers attended the MEM05 workshop, coming from more than ten countries. In total, more than 50 presentations were made at the workshop. In this special issue of Superconductor Science and Technology selected papers have been included that are concerned with the comprehensive scientific research subjects mentioned above. The aim of this issue is to provide a snapshot of some of the current state-of-the-art research, and to promote further international research into the mechano-electromagnetic properties of composite superconductors. The workshop was organized under the activities of the NEDO Grant Project (Applied Superconductivity, 2004EA004) and VAMAS/TWA-16. We wish to thank the following for their contribution to the success of the workshop: AFOSR/AOARD and IEC/TC90-JNC.

Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

2005-12-01

408

Development of control rod driving mechanism for high neutron flux reactor in Kyoto University (KUHFR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KUHFR is a coupling type reactor of 30 MW power output, which have two light-water-moderated and cooled cores inside the heavy water reflector. There are six sets of control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) in each core, each set driving one control rod. The newly developed driving system for CRDM is a unique one not employed in any other reactor. The main specifications required are as follows: Drive length 650 mm, driving speed 100 mm/min; control rod magnet deenergizing time 0.3 sec or less, control rod falling time to 90% stroke 1 sec or less, finished O.D. 190 mm or less. There were difficulties in selecting the driving system, because various control rod driving systems adopted in power and research reactors have both merits and demerits. As a result of investigation, three systems have been produced for trial, experimented and compared, and the moving coil type CRDM has been employed because it is suitable in many points, e.g. it allows continuous motion of control rods. The construction of moving coil type CRDM is explained. In the progress of development from No. 1 to No. 3 system is described, starting at the magnetic circuit calculation. As the running performance of the CRDM, the relationship between the plunger shift in a coil and upward force, and the differential linear running performance, following properties and stopping characteristics of control rods for coil movement are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

409

Development for inspection system of the superconducting cavities at Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray and temperature mapping (XT-map), the eddy-current testing and other methods for inspection of the a superconducting accelerator cavity interior surface is under development. XT-map system can find heat sources that may be caused by defects on the cavity surfaces. The main purpose of our studies on T-map is to realize a high spatial resolution and easy installation of the sensors. The production yield of such cavities would be improved by using these inspection systems. The sensor products and the preliminary tests for the XT-map inspection are reported. (author)

410

Status of the Kyoto University proton linac and development of the 4-rod RFQ ion implanter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ICR 433MHz proton linac has been improved since the successful first beam acceleration. A pulsed power supply system has been constructed for the ion source. Properties of the ion source and the 2MeV-RFQ linac beam have been measured. The intensity of the 7MeV proton beam has been obtained to be 240?A without an RF buncher at the matching section between the RFQ and Alvarez cavities. A cw 34MHz 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implanter has been also developed at the ICR accelerator laboratory in collaboration with a company. This linac has successfully accelerated the light-heavy ion of which charge to mass ratio is larger than 1/16. Measurements of the properties of the beam are now in progress. (author)

411

Emisiones de compuestos, incluidos o no en el protocolo de Kyoto, climáticamente activos, durante la producción de etanol de caña de azúcar / Emissões de compostos, incluidos ou não no protocolo de Kyoto, climaticamente ativos, durante a produção de etanol de cana de açucar / Potential emissions of Kyoto and Non-Kyoto climate active compounds in the production of sugarcane ethanol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El etanol producido de caña de azúcar es el biocombustible más desarrollado comercialmente. En este trabajo se evalúan las emisiones de compuestos climáticamente activos, incluidos y no incluidos en el Protocolo de Kyoto. Se consideran varios escenarios, tales como bajas o altas emisiones de N2O por [...] fertilización con N, inclusión o no de quema pre-cosecha, emisiones controladas o no en las calderas que utilizan bagazo, y horizontes de 20 o 100 años en los GWPs. El CO2 emitido en la combustión de bioetanol es reciclado en la resiembra de la caña de azúcar y no cuenta como gas de invernadero. Sin embargo, a pesar de muchas incertidumbres, la información disponible permite estimar que las emisiones de CO2-eq son altas cuando se realiza quema precosecha y no hay control de las emisiones de las calderas. En estos escenarios ocurrirían emisiones de CO2-eq mayores que las correspondientes a la combustión de una cantidad equivalente de gasolina. Eliminar la quema precosecha no sería suficiente para revertir la situación, especialmente cuando se considera un horizonte de 20 años. Solo si se realizasen procedimientos ambientales más amigables habría ahorro significativo en emisiones de CO2-eq (a 20 y 100 años). En todos los escenarios, los compuestos no incluidos en el Protocolo de Kyoto contribuyen significativamente. Por ello, para evaluar el impacto real de los compuestos climáticamente activos es crucial incluir estos compuestos en los estudios de ciclo de vida. Para reducir las incertidumbres, especialmente las relacionadas con compuestos no incluidos en el Protocolo, se requieren investigaciones adicionales. Abstract in english Sugarcane ethanol is the most commercially developed liquid biofuel. The potential emissions of Kyoto and non-Kyoto Protocol climate active compounds in the production of sugarcane ethanol in agricultural lands are evaluated herein. Various scenarios are considered, such as low or high N2O emission [...] from N-fertilizers, inclusion or not of pre-harvest burning, uncontrolled or controlled emissions in bagasse based boilers, and 20 or 100 years time horizons in GWPs. The CO2 emitted in ethanol fuel combustion is recycled during sugarcane "re-growing" and does not count as greenhouse gas. However, even though many uncertainties remain, the available information allows estimating that CO2-eq emissions are very large when ethanol production is based on pre-harvest burning and there is non-controlled particle emission in boilers. In these scenarios, compared with the combustion of equivalent amounts of gasoline, higher CO2-eq emission would take place. Halting sugarcane field burning would not be sufficient to revert the situation, especially in a 20-years time horizon. Only when more environmental friendly procedures are applied, a significant saving of CO2-eq emissions occurs at 20 and 100-years horizon scenarios. In all scenarios, non-Kyoto Protocol compounds make an important net contribution. Therefore, if a real evaluation of climate active compounds emissions is to be reached, it would be crucial to include these compounds in life cycles studies. To reduce uncertainties, especially of non-Kyoto compounds, additional research is needed.

Eugenio, Sanhueza.

2009-01-01

412

GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing intern, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced

413

Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We started to use virtual slide (VS and virtual microscopy (VM systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a fulltime pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use ×10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis.

Nakano Kooji

2008-07-01

414

[Offsets under the Kyoto Protocol : a perspective on COP 4 negotiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The achievements of the Kyoto Protocol were highlighted. These achievements include recognition of the need for Annex 1 countries (developed countries) to define concrete emissions reduction targets to be accomplished by 2012; recognition of specific needs of developing countries; need for measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change; recognition of the need that climate change policies and measures be cost effective; taking into account that economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change; recognition of the principle that corporations should promote a supportive and open international economic system leading to sustainable growth; and recognition that measures taken to combat climate change should not lead to unjustifiable discrimination in international trade. If the targets set at Kyoto are achieved, there will be an effective reduction in greenhouse gases of 5.2 per cent in relation to 1990 levels. The meeting in Buenos Aires should focus on strengthening the guidelines for actions agreed upon in Kyoto. Other major issues on the Buenos Aires Conference of Parties (COP 4) agenda should be to discuss ways and means to helping developing countries to deal with climate change issues within their own territories, agreement about definitive status of the Global Environmental Fund, arriving at a more precise definition of the Clean Development Mechanism, and first and foremost the development of credible nati foremost the development of credible national systems (i.e. Annex 1 countries) for the estimation of anthropogenic emission sources and removal by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol on the Ozone Layer, and shaping an adequate non-compliance system

415

GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

2008-01-15

416

GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

2008-01-15

417

An assessment of the economic and environmental implications for Canada of the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Climate Change Process was launched in April 1998 to examine the feasibility and implications of Canada's commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. The Analysis Modelling Group (AMG) was designated to assess the economic and environmental consequences for Canada in achieving the target. This report summarizes the analytical approach, the assumptions, the results and the main findings of the AMG's efforts to analyse the macro-/micro-economic, social, health and environmental implications of the Kyoto Protocol. The role of the AMG was to provide policymakers with guidance on some issues such as the economic implications of different broad policy approaches, the potential costs of greater access to the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms, the sectoral and regional distributions of emissions reductions, and the degree to which Canada's competitive position could be affected by the achievement of the Protocol. The relative importance of greenhouse gas reduction was also discussed along with a review of actions that offer significant potential for emissions reductions. The AMG examined five policy packages or Paths which are differentiated by different degrees of reliance on specific measures and tradable permit systems and by the imposition of sectoral versus national targets. It was concluded that at the national level, attainment of the target results in sustained, long-term negative economic impacts. In the long run, the reduction in gross domestic product (GDP) relative in gross domestic product (GDP) relative to the business-as-usual case, ranges from 0 to 3 per cent depending on the path-scenario combination. It was emphasized that it is important to provide perspective on these estimates. 37 refs., 64 figs

418

Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol: a citizen's guide to the Canadian climate change policy process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada is faced with the important decision of whether it should ratify the Kyoto Protocol. A reference for stakeholders and non-expert interested parties, this document is a guide into the Canadian Climate Change Policy Process. An understanding of climate science is required for climate policy, as is a knowledge of policy options available to overcome the challenges posed by climate change. The situation is further complicated by international and federal-provincial negotiations over the measures that should be implemented, if any. Climate policy affects all aspects of our lives, especially how we produce and use energy. An overview of climate science is provided in the first section, and the relationship between climate and rising temperatures due to greenhouse gas emissions is established. The sources of greenhouse gases in Canada are identified, with a closer look at the current trends. The Kyoto Protocol, if ratified, calls for Canada to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases to six per cent below 1990 levels. It is noted that to date, Canada's emissions have risen 19.7 per cent above 1990 levels. The process underlying the international negotiations associated with the Kyoto Protocol, and especially Canada's role in it, are discussed. Flexibility mechanisms are strongly supported by Canada, such as credits for sinks, international carbon trading and credits for Clean Energy Exports. By approving such measures, the integrity of the Protocol would be considerabegrity of the Protocol would be considerably weakened. The domestic policy-making environment is examined, presenting key federal, provincial business and environmental players. In addition, the policy process in Canada is described, as well as the decisions made up to September 2002. Bibliographic and contact information is added in the last section of the document. 89 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

419

Education and making human resources activities in japanese universities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Education systems of Japanese Universities for developing human resources in nuclear industry are described. As examples, the present nuclear engineering curricula of the University of Tokyo, of the Tokyo Institute of Technology and of the Osaka University are presented. The experimental courses on reactor physics using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, the Kinki University Training Reactor, and the Joyo reactor and Monju are also presented. (authors)

Toshikazu, Takeda [Osaka Univ., Div. of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Suita Osaka (Japan); Yoshiaki, Oka [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Management (Japan); Seiji, Shiroya [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan)

2007-07-01

420

The Global Trend of Energy Saving and Carbon Reducing in Post-Kyoto Protocol Era  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, with increased focus on extreme global climates, the drastic population growth, and the exhaustion of resources, humanity has a greater need for and reliance on intelligent, technology-enhanced living, as well as more effective means of production. Being sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly is becoming more and more a global priority. Energy saving and carbon reduction are the keys to achieving intelligent living, clean production, and environmental responsibility. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. One hundred and fifty five countries jointly signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC. This treaty and the Conference of the Parties are the origins of the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol became effective in February, 2005, and required 38 industrially developed countries in the European Union and the United States to reduce emissions of six kinds of greenhouse gases, including CO2, from their 1990 levels by a further 5.2%, which equates to about 12.86 billion tons between 2008 and 2012. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC stated in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4 [1], issued in 2007, that global warming resulted from anthropogenic global warming (AGW. In addition, AGW further caused extreme climates, melting icecaps, and rising sea levels. Although the causes and effects have been debated among nations, it is undeniable that global warming resulted in the wheat-producing areas of the world moving north, as well as the clear opening of the Northwest Passage, which has facilitated the exploitation of the resources in the polar region. Russia, the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Norway have all longed to benefit from the resources in the polar region. Sustainability and development are now not only environmental issues, but also political and economic battlefields for nations.In 2012, with the expiration date of Kyoto Protocol approaching, how should people set goals toward energy saving and carbon reduction in the post-Kyoto Protocol era? The future is full of uncertainties because of the scrambling for benefits between countries and groups. The intelligent living and the developments of automation and energy saving technologies based on the theory of energy saving and carbon reduction are also turbulent. The COP17 of UNFCCC will be held in Durban, South Africa in November, where it is possible to end the present dissent.

Chih-Lun Chen

2011-12-01

421

The Kyoto Protocol: one more stage in the climate change negotiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article notices on the internal difficulties that will be generated around the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in developed countries as United States, Canada and Japan, given the position of industries like the vehicles and the energetic, that try to dilate the commitments assumed in December of 1997. It is emphasized in the North American case, taking into account their contribution in the global greenhouse gases emissions and the importance of their participation in an international agreement on the topic of the climate change, assuming a critical position about the Senate's decision of conditioning the agreement's ratification to the assumption of commitments of developing countries

422

Mudança climática, protocolo de Kyoto e mercado de créditos de carbono: desafios à governança ambiental global  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é compreender os desafios enfrentados pela governança ambiental global devido às mudanças climáticas a partir da discussão sobre o Protocolo de Kyoto e o mercado internacional de créditos de carbono. A pesquisa teve caráter exploratório-descritivo e foi feita a partir das seg [...] uintes técnicas de coleta de dados: revisão bibliográfica, análise documental e observações. O trabalho estrutura-se em torno da discussão de 4 (quatro) questões-chave: (1) Qual a evolução das negociações sobre mudança climática e a arquitetura do Protocolo de Kyoto? (2) Quais os grupos de interesses envolvidos e as conseqüências da não ratificação do Protocolo pelos Estados Unidos? (3) Quais as características do mercado de créditos de carbono e a participação brasileira nesse mercado? (4) Quais os principais obstáculos para a efetividade de uma ação coletiva global requerida pela mudança climática? Conclui-se que a abrangência do problema ambiental requer ações coletivas globais, porém, até o momento, os países desenvolvidos pouco fizeram para reduzir as suas emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Os custos econômicos significativos e a alta complexidade do problema têm deixado muitos países hesitantes em cooperar, explicitando a tensão entre os interesses nacionais e a criação de um regime climático global. Abstract in english This article is concerned with global environmental governance of climate change. We focus on four key questions: (1) What is the evolution of the negotiations on climate change regime and the institutional architecture of the Kyoto Protocol? (2) What are the interest groups in the climate change po [...] litical arena and the consequences of non-ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the United States? (3) What are the characteristics of the international carbon market and Brazilian participation in this market? (4) What are the main obstacles blocking the effectiveness of the global collective action which is required to mitigate the threat of global warming? This article explores these questions, seeking a better understanding of the challenges for implementation of international climate change agreements.

José Célio Silveira, Andrade; Paulo, Costa.

2008-06-01

423

Why company investments into the nuclear education at universities and research center in Germany will pay off in the future. The view of a plant manufacturer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the political decision towards a renaissance of nuclear energy the interest of industry, authorities and surveyors for scientific technical personnel is increasing. The author describes the engagement of AREVA in the nuclear education. The concept includes in Germany the AREVA Nuclear Professional School at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), cooperation contracts with the research center Rossendorf, the technical university Dresden and the technical university in Zittau/Goerlitz. The further operation of nuclear installations in Germany including retrofitting activities will need a sound technical-scientific base of educational efforts within the nuclear education.

424

The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Five-year report, September 15, 1987--December 31, 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) is the home of ten independent but complementary interdisciplinary research groups led by nine regular faculty and one adjunct faculty. The research of these groups represents a broad spectrum of interests, and they are involved in about 90 collaborations with their CCRC and UGA colleagues and with scientists at other institutions and companies in the US, Canada, Europe, Israel, and Japan. The hallmark of the CCRC is the collaborative, interactive environment encouraged by its directors, faculty and tong-term staff. Newcomers to the CCRC or short-term members soon learn that everyone benefits from this process. The team-oriented approach in carbohydrate science translates into the day-today generous giving of one's time and expertise to the work of others, whether it be in sharing specialized instrumentation, participating in the design of experiments and interpretalon of data, providing service to scientists outside the CCRC, or joining collaborative projects. The CCRC is founded on the principle that the cross-fertilization of ideas and know-how leads to the synergistic advancement of science. This report contains a series of appendices that document the extent and breadth of the Plant and Microbial Carbohydrate Center's contributions to collaborative research and education. Several collaborative research projects that have received postdoctoral research associate support from the Grant are highlighted, as these projects are particularly illustrative of the wide-ranging collaborations that have evolved as a result of this Grant and the quality of the science that the Grant enables.

Albersheim, Peter; Darvill, Alan

1992-05-01

425

Management of a comprehensive radiation safety program in a major American University and affiliated academic medical center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Duke University, which operates under eight radiation licenses issued by the State of North Carolina, consists of a leading medical center including extensive inpatient and outpatient facilities, a medical school, biomedical research labs, and an academic campus including two major accelerator facilities. The Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Oncology departments handle over 40,000 diagnostic and therapeutic procedures annually, including approximately 160 radioiodine therapeutic cases. In biomedical research labs, about 300 professors are authorized to use radioactive materials. Over 2,000 radiation workers are identified on campus. Over the past two years, we have transformed the existing radiation safety program into a more responsive and more accountable one. Simultaneously, the institutional 'culture' changed, and the Radiation Safety Division came to be viewed as a helpful ally by investigators. The purpose of this paper is to present our experiences that have made this transformation possible. Our initiatives included; (a) defining short-term and long-term goals; (b) establishing a definitive chain of authority; (c) obtaining an external review by a consultant Health Physicist; (d) improving existing radiation safety programs; (e) reorganizing the Radiation Safety Division, with creation of multidisciplinary professional staff positions; (f) implementing campus-wide radiation safety training, (g) increasing technician positions; (h) establishing monthly medical cetions; (h) establishing monthly medical center radiation safety executive meeting. As a result progress made at the Divisional level includes; (a) culture change by recruiting professionals with academic credentials and recent college graduates; (b) implementing weekly staff meetings and monthly quality assurance meetings; (c) achieving academic prominence by publishing and presenting papers in national meetings; (d) senior staff achieving faculty appointments with academic departments; (e) senior staff participating in graduate student lectures, and instituting a seminar series. Progress made at the institutional level includes; (a) implementing training programs; (b) developing an in-house TLD program; (c) initiating in-house diagnostic x-ray machine testing for units outside the Radiology Department; (d) centralizing radioactive package distribution; (e) simplifying the radiation licensing application process; (f) implementing written lab operating procedures in individual labs; (g) developing radioactive package order and receipt software; (h) implementing special shielding design and radioiodine patient waste management projects. We conclude: (1) involvement of executive management is critical for radiation protection management in multidisciplinary institutions; (2) consultant review is useful in guiding management support of RSO initiatives; (3) increased visibility of the radiation safety program, through training sessions and grand rounds, increases cooperation from users and subsequently improves regulatory compliance; (4) radiation safety division quality assurance meetings help identify weaknesses and provide motivation for improvement; (5) a clear chain of authority is critical in program oversight; (6) open participation in division projects by staff members fosters an intellectually stimulating environment in the group; (7) participation of senior administrators from Occupational and Environmental Safety Office (OESO) in the radiation safety staff meetings helps maintain a professional working relationship between the Radiation Safety Officer and the Director of OESO. (author)

426

Kyoto protocol and cogeneration in rural areas: institutional and organizational configuration and perspectives; Protocolo de Kyoto e co-geracao no meio rural: configuracao institucional e organizacional e perspectivas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents a brief historical record concerning the Brazilian institutional arrangement given to the Kyoto Protocol and, based on the Brazilian emissions profile, discusses general perspectives to the use of the CDM, mainly in projects involving co-generation in the agricultural sector. It is observed high uncertainty about the liquidity and development of the carbon credit market, above all, with reference to the definition of the second period of the Kyoto Protocol commitments. Even so, with the consolidation of the institutional environment, the carbon credit market must become favorable to the projects of co-generation in agricultural sector, especially in countries as Brazil. (author)

Souza, Zilmar Jose de; Azevedo, Paulo Furquim de [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (EESP/FGV), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Economia de Sao Paulo], e-mails: zilmar.souza@energiasdobrasil.com.br, pfa@fgvsp.br

2006-07-01

427

Is the nuclear phaseout compatible with the respect of the Kyoto protocol? The example of Belgium; La sortie du nucleaire est-elle compatible avec le respect du protocole de Kyoto? l'exemple de la Belgique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides data and operations needed to evaluate the impacts of the nuclear phaseout on the respect of the Kyoto protocol. The data are based on the belgium electricity production. The author concludes that the nuclear power plants shutdown will lead to a non respect of the kyoto protocol in unacceptable limits. To respect the protocol, he presents two possibilities: the today nuclear park and the use of 1600 wind turbines of 2 MW, or the improvement of the energy efficiency of the thermal power plants. (A.L.B.)

Berger, A

2008-12-15

428

Blow-down activity performed at the Scalbatraio Center of the Pisa University: comparison between experimental results and RELAP-3 calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The facility for blowdown experiments at the Scalbatraio Center of the Pisa University and the experimental program are briefly described. The results of the tests have been compared with the output of calculations performed with RELAP-3 code. A large number of computer runs have been made varying bubble-gradient parameter, bubble velocity and contraction coefficient of leak for evaluate code's sensibility and correlate the main blowdown parameters with different test conditions

429

Splenomegaly in 2,505 patients at a large university medical center from 1913 to 1995. 1963 to 1995: 449 patients.  

OpenAIRE

Splenomegaly was studied retrospectively at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), School of Medicine in 301 patients from 1963 to 1995 and compared with the UCSF service of the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center (SFGH) in 148 patients from 1979 to 1994. The combined 449 patients were classified into several diagnostic groups and were studied by means of several clinical and laboratory associations. Hepatic disease in the percentage of patients at UCSF (with those at S...

O Reilly, R. A.

1998-01-01

430

Making lemonade from lemons: a case study on loss of space at the Dolph Briscoe, Jr. Library, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio  

OpenAIRE

The setting for this case study is the Dolph Briscoe, Jr. Library, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, a health sciences campus with medical, dental, nursing, health professions, and graduate schools. During 2008–2009, major renovations to the library building were completed including office space for a faculty development department, multipurpose classrooms, a 24/7 study area, study rooms, library staff office space, and an information commons. The impetus for changes...

Tobia, Rajia C.; Feldman, Jonquil D.

2010-01-01

431

The Kyoto Protocol and climate change mitigation : implications for Canada's forest industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol establishes a policy framework and mechanisms by which countries can mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It imposes legally binding targets and provides for the use of economic instruments to help achieve its long-term objectives which will take decades to achieve. This paper discussed the effect that the Kyoto Protocol will have on the Canadian forest sector which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The production of forest products is energy intensive and the forest sector can contribute to climate change mitigation through reductions in GHG emissions and increases in carbon sequestration. Participation by the forest sector will require long-term adjustment in how energy is used and how forest carbon is managed. This paper discussed the implications of the Canadian Domestic Emissions Trading (DET) system, a carbon trading system designed to control GHG emissions through the creation and sale of credits in an international marketplace. The impact that DET may have on the competitiveness of companies in the Canadian forest products sector was discussed. 41 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs

432

Post-Kyoto energy consumption strategies for the Greek interconnected electric system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the Greek electric market (Law 2773/99, updated with Laws 3175/2003 and 3426/2005 for incorporating Directive 2003/54 into the Greek legislation) is in its final structural transformation, which includes the fact that from 1.7.2007 each customer can select its electricity provider. This new status together with the procedure towards the formation of a post-Kyoto plan, raise the need of examining different energy saving strategies in the consumption side for evaluating their economic and environmental consequences. Such strategies may be useful for the decision makers or the electricity retail companies. This paper examines the influence of several post-Kyoto electricity consumption strategies in the Greek interconnected electric system for the period 2005-2025. The aim of the paper is to be used as a decision makers' tool for investigating the potential of electricity consumption policies. The results show that policies related either to seasonal peak demand control, or targeting at the total electric consumption lead to significant gains and emission reduction. Moreover the influence of factors, such as the weather conditions, the discount rate of the energy investments, the fuel prices evolution and the consumers' behavior linkage with oil prices are examined

433

Increased Energy Efficiency in Slovenian Industry - A Contribution to the Kyoto Target  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Slovenia the actual fast growth of greenhouse emissions will require substantial efforts to fulfil the target set in Kyoto. The end-use emissions in the in the industrial sectors represented one third of the total CO2 emissions in the country in 1996. The cost-effective potential in the sector for CO2 emission reduction is significant. In the paper, the most important ongoing energy efficiency activities in the industrial sector are presented: information and awareness building, energy advising to larger industrial consumers, energy audition programme, demonstration programme of energy efficiency technologies, financial incentives for energy efficiency investment and the energy efficiency investment fund. A CO2 tax has been in force since 1997. The results of an evaluation of energy efficiency strategies in industry in the frame of the project 'Integrated resource planning for the energy efficiency in Slovenia' are discussed from the viewpoint of greenhouse gases reduction targets set by Slovenia, and a brief information on the ongoing and expected post Kyoto activities and studies is given. The most important points of the future GHG reduction strategy related to industrial sector in Slovenia will be focused on intensified energy efficiency programme, increased combined heat and power production (CHP), and the effects of incentives through the CO2 tax. (author)

434

Kyoto Mechanisms and the Sustainable Development of the African Energy Sector. The Case of Cameroon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the African countries have been attending the Conference of Parties where the Kyoto mechanisms were being discussed and adopted, especially parties agreed in Marrakech on the principles of implementing the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that is of interest for developing countries. The Kyoto protocol requires Annex I parties to reduce their GHG emissions below their 1990 emissions level by an average of 5,2% in the period 2008 - 20012. Satisfying this ultimate objective of the UNFCC will require collective efforts by all nations. African countries are willing to take part to actions combating climate change if they also satisfy their development goals. One of these goals is the sustainable development of their energy sector. The aim of this paper is to analyze the Cameroon's case and to enlighten the possible influence of the CDM on adopting cleaner development of the African energy sector, compared to past practices. Three renewable energy routes are examined in the Cameroon context : biomass gasification, anaerobic digestion of industrial, agricultural and urban waste, small hydro plants. For each energy route regarding the production of electricity, the resource potential is evaluated and the Cost benefit analysis (CBA) and Life cycle analysis (LCA) are performed. The yearly potential of GHG emissions reduction is hence quantified and its influence on different electricity system planning scenarios estimated

435

Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important