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1

Pew Center on Global Climate Change: Beyond Kyoto  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change "brings together business leaders, policy makers, scientists, and other experts to bring a new approach to a complex and often-controversial issue." Visitors to this Pew Center Web site will find six downloadable working papers from former Kyoto Protocol negotiators and other climate experts as part of a new initiative titled Beyond Kyoto: Advancing the International Effort Against Climate Change. For the rest of August, readers may review and offer feedback on these working papers, which are intended as "think pieces" to explore the challenges facing the international climate effort. The site includes a useful glossary of important terms.

2

Experimental Equipments for Microwave Power Transmission in Kyoto University  

Science.gov (United States)

RISH, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere, of Kyoto University is one of the most active research laboratories for a microwave power transmission (MPT) and SSPS (Space Solar Power System) in Japan. Since the first MPT rocket experiment in the ionosphere was conducted in early 1980's by Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere (RASC), the former institute of the RISH, the RISH has conducted a variety of theoretical and experimental studies on the MPT and SSPS both in laboratory and field. In the paper, we will show the experimental equipments for the MPT and the SSPS research in the RISH. We have two facilities of METLAB (Microwave Energy Transmission LABoratory) and SPSLAB (SPS LABoratory) for the MPT researches. The METLAB is composed of an anechoic radio wave chamber and an experimental system specially designed for the MPT experiment. The SPSLAB is a facility to promote a systematic research for conceptual, technical and coordinative research with our colleagues in all parts of Japan including the industrial partners. These facilities are now open for inter-universities collaborations. The other available experimental facilities are multiple MPT systems with a phased array transmitter using phase controlled magnetrons (PCMs) at both 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz, and a semiconductor-based beam control system and a retrodirective target detecting system. These facilities are named SPORTS (Space POwer Radio Transmission System) 2.45 and SPORTS5.8.

Matsumoto, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Shinohara, N.; Mitani, T.

2004-12-01

3

Light-water moderator core of Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kyoto University Critical Assembly KUCA is of new type with three cores which consist of highly enriched uranium and solid moderator or light water moderator. The first critical experiment of KUCA was performed in August, 1974. In the present report, the basic concepts of the system and the construction of the light water moderator assembly are described, including the design policy and the matters which demand special attention in its construction. The design of KUCA was done on the basis of the original and unique idea and of the experience of the operation, maintenance and improvement of more than ten years in the research reactor at Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Any compromise was excluded from the viewpoint of reactor safety. (author)

4

UCN-VCN facility and experiments in Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ultracold and very cold neutron facility was installed in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The facility consists of a very cold neutron (VCN) guide tube, a VCN bender, a supermirror neutron turbine and experimental equipments with ultracold neutrons (UCN). The properties of each equipments are presented. UCN is generated by a supermirror neutron turbine combined with the cold neutron source operated with liquid deuterium, and the UCN output spectrum was measured by the time-of-flight method. A gravity analyzer for high resolution spectroscopy and a neutron bottle for decay experiments are now developing as the UCN research in KUR. (author)

5

Aseismatic design of Kyoto University No.2 reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University, the additional installation of a high neutron flux reactor (hereinafter, called KUHFR) with thermal output of 30,000 kW was approved in 1978, and at present, the deliberation is continued in the nuclear reactor problem council of Osaka Prefecture. In this report, the aseismatic design of the facility is mainly reported, which is one of the safety evaluations carried out at the time of the application for the approval of the installation of the KUHFR. In case of the reactor facilities for research, the thermal output is smaller than power reactors, and also the temperature and pressure in the primary system are lower, but the aseismatic design of the KUHFR is as severe as that of power reactors. The investigation of the ground in the site of the expected construction, the classification of the importance of the facilities, the determination of the earthquake motion for design, the analysis of the earthquake response of the reactor building, and the examination of the aseismatic safety of the supporting ground are reported. It is required to determine the earthquake motion for design by adequately evaluating the vibration characteristics peculiar to the place of location. For the purpose, the observation of earthquakes simultaneously at many points has been carried out since 1982 at the Kyoto University reactor. (Kako, I.)

6

Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactors in Japanese Universities: Experimental Study Using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of basic experiments for an accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor (ADSR) was officially launched in financial year 2000 at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) as a joint-use program among Japanese universities. These experiments are closely related to the future plan of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. A final goal of this plan is to establish a next-generation neutron source as a substitute for the 5-MW Kyoto University Reactor and based on the ADSR concept to promote joint research among Japanese universities. An attractive point of the ADSR system is that either pulsed or steady neutrons can be provided depending on the accelerator's operation mode

7

A new materials irradiation facility at the Kyoto university reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

A new materials irradiation facility with improved control capabilities has been installed at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Several deficiencies of conventional fission neutron material irradiation systems have been corrected. The specimen temperature is controlled both by an electric heater and by the helium pressure in the irradiation tube without exposure to neutrons at temperatures different from the design test conditions. The neutron spectrum is varied by the irradiation position. Irradiation dose is changed by pulling the irradiation capsule up and down during irradiation. Several characteristics of the irradiation field were measured. The typical irradiation intensity is 9.4×10 12 n/cm 2 s (>0.1 MeV) and the irradiation temperature of specimens is controllable from 363 to 773 K with a precision of ±2 K.

Yoshiie, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Yanagita, S.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Tsujimoto, H.; Kozuka, T.; Kamae, K.; Mishima, K.; Shiroya, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Utsuro, M.; Fujita, Y.

2003-02-01

8

Future plans on the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Research Reactor Institute (RRI), Kyoto University, for aiming at performing the 'Experiments using a reactor and its related research', was established in Showa 38 (1963) as a cooperative research institute for universities and so on in allover Japan. Operation using KUR of one of main facilities in RRI was started by 1 MW of its rated output in 1964, and converted to 5 MW in 1968, after which through development , addition and modification of various research apparatus it has been proposed to the cooperative application researches with universities and so on in allover Japan, hitherto. Among these periods, its research organization is improved to six departments containing twenty divisions and two attached research facilities to progress some investigations on future plans at RRI for response to new researching trends. Here were described on present state of research on use of low concentrated uranium fuels at research reactor, and future plans on neutron factory and hybrid reactor. The former aims at establishment of a new research facility capable of alternating to KUR for future academic research on research reactor containing high quality and high degree application of neutron field and safety management and feature upgrading of nuclear energy. And, the latter aims at development on an accelerator drive uncritical reactor combined an accelerator neutron source and an uncritical reactor. (G.K.)

9

Operational safety and reactor life improvements of Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent important experience in improving the operational safety and life of a reactor are described. The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is a 25-year-old 5 MW light water reactor provided with two thermal columns of graphite and heavy water as well as other kinds of experimental facilities. In the graphite thermal column, noticeable amounts of neutron irradiation effects had accumulated in the graphite blocks near the core. Before the possible release of the stored energy, all the graphite blocks in the column were successfully replaced with new blocks using the opportunity provided by the installation of a liquid deuterium cold neutron source in the column. At the same time, special seal mechanisms were provided for essential improvements to the problem of radioactive argon production in the column. In the heavy-water thermal column we have accomplished the successful repair of a slow leak of heavy water through a thin instrumentation tube failure. The repair work included the removal and reconstructions of the lead and graphite shielding layers and welding of the instrumentation tube under radiation fields. Several mechanical components in the reactor cooling system were also exchanged for new components with improved designs and materials. On-line data logging of almost all instrumentation signals is continuously performed with a high speed data analysis system to diagnose operational conditions of the reactor. Furthermore, through detailed investigations on critical components, operational safety during further extended reactor life will be supported by well scheduled maintenance programs

10

History of the research reactor institute of Kyoto University in view of nuclear science information data base (KURRIP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University was established as an inter-university research institute in 1963, a large number of cooperative research projects have been achieved by visiting scientists and its own staff in various research fields, making use of facilities centered around the Kyoto University Reactor, as well as the other experimental facilities. Ten years ago, the construction of the 'KURRIP' data base was initiated to grasp the whole aspect of the research activities at the Institute, in commemoration of its 20th anniversary. At the present time, KURRIP contains the information on 5,910 papers published for 29 years from 1963 to 1991. As this academic year is the 30th anniversary of the Institute, the history of its research activities was reviewed again using this data base. All of the publications were classified by authors's affiliations, kinds of papers, publishers, fields of studies, and research facilities used, and their historical variations are checked and discussed. (author)

11

Annual report of Radiation Laboratory Department of Nuclear Engineering Kyoto University for fiscal 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is the collection of the papers presented research activities of Radiation Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University during the 1993 academic/fiscal year (April, 1993 - March, 1994). The 47 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

12

Data base of reactor physics experimental results in Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities belong to the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and are the versatile critical assembly constructed for experimentally studying reactor physics and reactor engineering. The facilities are those for common utilization by universities in whole Japan. During more than ten years since the initial criticality in 1974, various experiments on reactor physics and reactor engineering have been carried out using many experimental facilities such as two solidmoderated cores, a light water-moderated core and a neutron generator. The kinds of the experiment carried out were diverse, and to find out the required data from them is very troublesome, accordingly it has become necessary to make a data base which can be processed by a computer with the data accumulated during the past more than ten years. The outline of the data base, the data base CAEX using personal computers, the data base supported by a large computer and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

13

Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2011 : Special Edition of Jointed Symposium of Kyoto University Global COE “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming” and Ajou University BK21  

CERN Document Server

The nuclear plant accident at Fukushima in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami has had a major impact on the energy strategy of Japan and the world. From a global perspective, approach to energy is of greater and greater consequence. The Global Center of Excellence (COE) Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, with the support of university faculty members, has established an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies for establishing a CO2 zero-emission society no longer dependent on fossil fuels by the year 2100. Since 2008, a program called “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming—Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System” has been in progress at Kyoto University. A third international symposium, titled “Zero-Carbon Energy, Kyoto 2011,” was held jointly with Ajou University, Korea, in August 2011, and this book is a compila...

2012-01-01

14

Reactor laboratory course for students majoring in nuclear engineering with the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the use of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), a joint reactor laboratory course of graduate level is offered every summer since 1975 by nine associated Japanese universities (Hokkaido University, Tohoku University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokai University, Nagoya University, Osaka University, Kobe University of Mercantile Marine and Kyushu University) in addition to a reactor laboratory course of undergraduate level for Kyoto University. These courses are opened for three weeks (two weeks for the joint course and one week for the undergraduate course) to students majoring in nuclear engineering and a total of 1,360 students have taken the course in the last 21 years. The joint course has been institutionalized with the background that it is extremely difficult for a single university in Japan to have her own research or training reactor. By their effort, the united faculty team of the joint course have succeeded in giving an effective, unique one-week course, taking advantage of their collaboration. Last year, an enquete (questionnaire survey) was conducted to survey the needs for the educational experiments of graduate level and precious data have been obtained for promoting reactor laboratory courses. (author)

15

Experiments on the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is going ahead with an innovative research project on the accelerator-driven system (ADS) using a Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator. The goal of the research project was to demonstrate the basic feasibility of ADS as a next-generation neutron source using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) coupled with the FFAG accelerator. At the ADS using the FFAG accelerator, the high-energy neutrons generated by spallation reactions with 100 MeV protons, which had a few pA intensity at a tungsten target, were successfully injected into a highly-enriched uranium (U) and polyethylene-moderated core (Fig. 1) of thermal neutron field at KUCA in 2009. In addition, the experiments on thorium (Th)-loaded ADS were also conducted by the injection of spallation neutrons generated by 100 MeV protons with 30 pA in 2010

Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Lim, Jae Yong; Yagi, Takahiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi [Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

2011-05-15

16

Analysis of kyoto university reactor physics critical experiments using NCNSRC calculation methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kyoto university reactor physics experiments on the university critical assembly is used to benchmark validate the NCNSRC calculations methodology. This methodology has two lines, diffusion and Monte Carlo. The diffusion line includes the codes WIMSD4 for cell calculations and the two dimensional diffusion code DIXY2 for core calculations. The transport line uses the MULTIKENO-Code vax Version. Analysis is performed for the criticality, and the temperature coefficients of reactivity (TCR) for the light water moderated and reflected cores, of the different cores utilized in the experiments. The results of both Eigen value and TCR approximately reproduced the experimental and theoretical Kyoto results. However, some conclusions are drawn about the adequacy of the standard wimsd4 library. This paper is an extension of the NCNSRC efforts to assess and validate computer tools and methods for both Et-R R-1 and Et-MMpr-2 research reactors. 7 figs., 1 tab

17

Safety system and 10 years experience in the maintenance of Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) is a new type facility for joint use program among universities and research institutes. It consists of two solid-moderated cores and a water-moderated core. In order to keep safe operation of the critical assembly, safety system has been designed to meet the complex operating systems. The first critical experiment of KUCA was performed in August 1974. Since then, this safety system has served for the safety operation of KUCA. In the present report, the outline of this system and the maintenance are described. (author)

18

Heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation at Kyoto University  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation that uses an 8-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Kyoto University. Using a pair of apertures as the final collimator, microbeams of carbon, fluorine, and silicon were extracted to the atmosphere with few background particles. We used a thin transmission scintillator and a photomultiplier detector to accurately measure the number of extracted particles. To examine beam spreading, the beam profile was measured by observing tracks of an irradiated CR-39 track detector. The two disks with holes which were added to the collimating apertures reduced background radiation due to secondary X-rays and electrons from the apertures.

Nakamura, M.; Imai, K.; Hirose, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Tosaki, M.; Ohsawa, D.; Makino, S.

2011-12-01

19

Collision researches using MeV energy heavy ion accelerators of Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current status of MeV energy heavy ion accelerators of Kyoto University (Faculty of Engineering) is reported. Two types of ion accelerators with terminal voltages 2.5 MV (VdG) and 1.7 MV (Tandem) are utilized for both fundamental and application researches covering atomic collision physics, materials science and element analysis. A brief introduction is given of experimental techniques, developed in our laboratory, concerning multi-coincidence for 3D-imaging of molecular fragmentation, liquid-in-vacuum for ion interactions with liquid targets and positron annihilation for in-situ observation of ion-irradiated materials. (author)

20

Present status of PACS at Kyoto University Hospital: image workstation for clinical education  

Science.gov (United States)

The PAC system: KIDS (Kyoto University Hospital Image Database and Communication System) has been expanded to include several major digital imaging modalities such as X-ray CT, MRI, DSA and CR. The fiber optic high-speed local area network and the workstation with quick image handling are newly designed. The system (new KIDS) is intended to achieve a film-less environment in the department of radiology and to evaluate the feasibility of a hospital-wide PAC system. The present status of the system at the end of 1989 including a image workstation installed in a lecture hall for clinical education is described.

Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Okajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Ishu; Takahashi, Takashi; Konishi, Junji; Abe, Mituyuki; Gotoh, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiro

1990-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

Heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation at Kyoto University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation that uses an 8-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Kyoto University. Using a pair of apertures as the final collimator, microbeams of carbon, fluorine, and silicon were extracted to the atmosphere with few background particles. We used a thin transmission scintillator and a photomultiplier detector to accurately measure the number of extracted particles. To examine beam spreading, the beam profile was measured by observing tracks of an irradiated CR-39 track detector. The two disks with holes which were added to the collimating apertures reduced background radiation due to secondary X-rays and electrons from the apertures.

Nakamura, M., E-mail: nakamura@wakayama-med.ac.jp [School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Mikazura, Wakayama 641-0011 (Japan); Imai, K.; Hirose, M.; Matsumoto, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tosaki, M.; Ohsawa, D. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Makino, S. [School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Mikazura, Wakayama 641-0011 (Japan)

2011-12-15

22

First lasing of mid infrared free electron laser in Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have constructed a Mid Infrared Free Electron Laser facility for advanced energy researches in Kyoto University. Beam commissioning has been completed by the end of Mar. 2008 and the first lasing at 12.4 ?m has been achieved in Mar. 2008. In the first lasing experiment, due to the inadequate macro pulse duration of the electron beam, power saturation was not observed. To achieve power saturation, we have applied a new beam loading compensation method. As the results, the saturation of the FEL at 13.6 ?m was successfully achieved. (author)

23

Production and use of thermal and cold neutron with tandem accelerator in Kyoto University  

Science.gov (United States)

As a graduate research in the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, we are developing a miniature neutron source and conducting experiments with neutrons produced. Compared with X-rays, neutrons haven't been very widely used for material science until now. It is because there are few facilities for experiments, for an experiment with neutrons requires large-scale ones, such as a nuclear reactor or a high-energy accelerator for spallation reaction. However, neutrons can be also produced by nuclear reactions with much lower energy. Using this method, facilities can be smaller and lower in price than traditional methods.We are building a small neutron source using the tandem accelerator of Kyoto University. To produce neutrons, we used 7Li(p, n) reaction with 3MeV protons. In order to obtain thermal and cold neutrons, we used polyethylene and the mesitylene moderator, which was cooled down to 10K with a refrigerator, respectively. The production of the thermal neutrons was already confirmed, by measuring the time-of-flight of moderated neutrons. However, we could not confirm the production of cold neutrons. Finally, we are planning to utilize thermal neutrons for experiments, such as neutron capture.

Jin, Tashiro

2009-10-01

24

Research project on accelerator-driven subcritical system using FFAG accelerator and Kyoto University critical assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KART (Kumatori Accelerator-driven Reactor Test facility) project started in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University in fiscal year 2002 with the grant by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The purpose of this research project is to demonstrate the basis feasibility of accelerator driven system (ADS), studying the effect of incident neutron energy on the effective multiplication factor in a subcritical nuclear fuel system. For this purpose, a variable-energy FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) accelerator complex is being constructed to be coupled with the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). The FFAG proton accelerator complex consists of ion-beta, booster and main rings. This system aims to attain 1 ?A proton beam with energy range from 20 to 150 MeV with a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The first beam from the FFAG complex is expected to be available by the end of FY 2005, and the experiment on ADS with KUCA and the FFAG complex (FFAG-KUCA experiment) will start in FY 2006. Before the FFAG-KUCA experiment starts, preliminary experiments with 14 MeV neutrons are currently being performed using a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator coupled with the KUCA. Experimental data are analyzed using continuous energy Monte-Carlo codes MVP, MCNP and MNCP-X. (author)

25

Biomedical irradiation system for boron neutron capture therapy at the Kyoto University reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physics studies related to radiation source, spectroscopy, beam quality, dosimetry, and biomedical applications using the Kyoto University Reactor Heavy Water Facility are described. Also, described are a Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube and a Super Mirror Neutron Guide Tube that are used both for the measurement of boron concentration in phantom and living tissue and for precise measurements of neutron flux in phantom in the presence of both light and heavy water. Discussed are: (1) spectrum measurements using the time of flight technique, (2) the elimination of gamma rays and fast neutrons from a thermal neutron irradiation field, (3) neutron collimation without producing secondary gamma rays, (4) precise neutron flux measurements, dose estimation, and the measurement of boron concentration in tumor and its periphery using guide tubes, (5) the dose estimation of boron-10 for the first melanoma patient, and (6) special-purpose biological irradiation equipment. Other related subjects are also described

26

Clinical experience of BNCT for brain and skin tumors at Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research nuclear reactor of Kyoto University (KUR), which was established in 1963, has the power of 5 MW and has rendered services to scientists in various fields including biology and medicine. The first clinical application was carried out on a brain tumor patient by Professor Hatanaka in 1974. Eight Japanese, 2 German and one American patients were treated. The ages of patients were 9-66 years and all were male. Skin tumors were irradiated at KUR to measure 10B content in the tissues by Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube (NMNGT) attached to KUR, before BNCT. Except in a few cases, patients had recurrent tumours after previous treatment by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgical treatments. The absorbed dose used in the previous radiotherapy before BNCT was a curative dose. The time intervals between previous radiotherapy and BNCT varied. The treated skin tumours included various grades of melanoma. Some cases appeared to be astrocytoma grade IV

27

Research activities on a MIR-FEL and table-top THz generation in Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free Electron Lasers (FEL), which could be useful for developing energy materials, have been exploited at the Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University. A mid-infrared FEL has been developed, and FEL gain saturation at 13.2 ?m was achieved for the first time in May 2008. A FEL beam characterization was performed. A macro pulse energy of 5 mJ/pulse and a peak power of about 3 MW were achieved. A FEL beam transport system was constructed in the user room. Furthermore a tabletop THz FEL amplifier for the spectral range from 150 to 300 ?m, which consists of a photocathode RF gun and an undulator, has been proposed to strengthen the materials research. For evaluation of the proposed design, a start-to-end simulation was carried out. An output power of about 350 kW is expected with the proposed system.

28

Conceptional study of remodeling of the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heavy water facility of the Kyoto University reactor is required to be remodelled in order to improve the safety of the whole facility. The main objectives of the remodeling are: 1) easy maintenance, 2) no leakage of heavy water or light water for cooling of the heavy water tank, and 3) to enable medical irradiation during continuous operation of the reactor. Improvement of the performance as a thermal neutron irradiation field is also intended. The outline of the present heavy water thermal neutron facility is described, and conceptional study of the remodeling is presented. A shutter system enabling the use during continuous operation is mentioned. The method and procedure of the remodeling is examined and outlined. (T.H.)

29

University of Colorado Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Colorado Cancer Center was founded and became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1988. CU Cancer Center became a comprehensive cancer center in 1997. The Center is headquartered on the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora.

30

Research on reactor physics using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) was constructed for the purpose of carrying out the basic research on the nuclear characteristics of reactors, the research for development, and education and training, and it is the research facilities used by the universities in whole Japan in common. As the initial concrete objective of use, the basic research on high neutron flux reactors, the basic research on intermediate neutron reactors, the basic research on tritium breeder reactors, the research as the extension of subcritical experiment, the education and training of the students majoring in atomic energy and so on were listed. This experimental facilities are the type with plural racks, which are rare in the world, and are composed of two solid moderator racks, on light water moderator rack and one additional accelerator. The initial criticality was attained in 1974. The critical assembly special research group has played extremely large role in the research on reactor physics. The research on reactor physics at KUCA, for example tritium breeder reactors and tight lattice reactors, the research on criticality safety and so on are reported. (K.I.)

31

Control desk and graphic pannel of Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) is a unique critical assembly with three cores; two solid-moderator, one water-moderator heterogeneous cores with highly enriched uranium. In order to keep the safety and to operate this critical assembly smoothly and effectively, a man-machine communication system between the operator and facility has been designed in detail from the various points of view. The control desk and graphical pannel were made so that an operator in the control room can operate the reactor and its attachments in the reactor room and can know their conditions exactly. The following items were considered their sizes, shapes and the mutual arrangements in the control room, furthermore the ways of the display and annunciator, and their arrangements in the pannel. For example, the alarm annunciators are classified both in color and sound so that the tension of an operator increases gradually according to the degree of emergency. Since the first critical experiment, the control desk and graphical pannel have been successfully used to transmit the information precisely to many operators including the researchers from other universities, and have contributed to operate the reactor safely and smoothly. In the present report, the outline of structure of the system and the practical experience are described. (author)

32

Research on the reactor physics using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto University Critical Assembly [KUCA] is a multi-core type critical assembly established in 1974, as a facility for the joint use study by researchers of all universities in Japan. Thereafter, many reactor physics experiments have been carried out using three cores (A-, B-, and C-cores) in the KUCA. In the A- and B-cores, solid moderator such as polyethylene or graphite is used, whereas light-water is utilized as moderator in the C-core. The A-core has been employed mainly in connection with the Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator installed in the KUCA, to measure (1) the subcriticality by the pulsed neutron technique for the critical safety research and (2) the neutron spectrum by the time-of-flight technique. Recently, a basic study on the tight lattice core has also launched using the A-core. The B-core has been employed for the research on the thorium fuel cycle ever since. The C-core has been employed (1) for the basic studies on the nuclear characteristics of light-water moderated high-flux research reactors, including coupled-cores, and (2) for a research related to reducing enrichment of uranium fuel used in research reactors. The C-core is being utilized in the reactor laboratory course experiment for students of ten universities in Japan. The data base of the KUCA critical experiments is generated so far on the basis of approximately 350 experimental reports accumulated in the KUCA. Besides, the assessed KUCA code system has been established through analyses on the various KUCA experiments. In addition to the KUCA itself, both of them are provided for the joint use study by researchers of all universities in Japan. (author)

33

Early period of particle accelerator development and nuclear physics experiments at Taihoku Imperial University and Kyoto University (2/2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to an advice by Lawrence, the inventor of the cyclotron, in 1951, Professor Kimura from Kyoto University decided to reconstruct the cyclotron, and the project started in 1952. The cyclotron was designed to accelerate deuterium ion up to 15MeV in an electromagnet with a pole diameter of 105cm. The construction was completed in 1955 and the accelerated beam was extracted in the end of 1955. The nuclear physics experiments using the cyclotron, started in 1966, covered elastic/inelastic scatterings of protons, deuterons and alpha particles. The cyclotron was upgraded in early 1970's to accelerate heavy ions and the utilization extended to various scientific fields. The cyclotron facility was closed in 1990. (K.Y.)

34

Preliminary analysis on nonuniformly-loaded cores of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, KUCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Special safety measures are required in reprocessing facilities, where various physical and chemical forms of fissionable materials are involved in various processes. In particular, special care should be given to the systems handling solutions. In these solution-handling systems, inhomogeneous conditions are very likely to occur due to concentration gredients cause by gravity and local accumulation of solvents and fuel substances. A plan has been worked out for study on the inhomogeneity in these systems by using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). The present report describes a preliminary analysis of nonuniformly-loaded cores by Monte Carlo Calculation. Calculations are made to determine: (1) effect of the ratio II-U-235 on the infinite multiplication factor of a homogeneous model consisting of basic elements (fuel plate + polyethylene plate) as unit cells and (2) effective multiplication factor of a model consisting of inhomogeneous fuel units and polyethyle reflectors. Results show that some inhomogeneous models can give a larger effective multiplication factor than that for the homogeneous model. (Nogami, K.)

35

Analysis of critical experiments using medium-enriched-uranium fuel in Kyoto University critical assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The critical experiments using medium-enriched-uranium (MEU) fuel in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), a light-water-moderated and heavy-water-reflected cylindrical core, were started in May 1981, as a part of the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The following KUCA critical experiments were analyzed: (1) the criticality measurements for high-enriched-uranium (HEU) and MEU cores and (2) the reactivity effect measurements of boron burnable-poison (BP) for MEU cores. Five-group constants were generated using the EPRI-CELL code, and two-dimensional diffusion calculations were performed using a conventional finite-difference code DIF3D(2D), and a finite-element code 2D-FEM-KUR. Some of the results from the two diffusion codes were compared with each other. Advantage was taken of the finite-element method for the application of the 2D-FEM-KUR code to a detailed analysis of the BP effect measurements. Differences between the results of calculations and experiments were less than 1.8 % in C/E ratios for eigenvalues. The agreement between the results obtained using the DIF3D(2D) code and the 2D-FEM-KUR code was excellent. The calculated results of the BP effects with use of the 2D-FEM-KUR code approximately agreed with the experiments. (author)

36

Trend of tritium concentration in air in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Containment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the history of tritium concentration in condensate in the containment building air of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KURR) which supports two major sources of tritium: a D2O (heavy water) facility and a Cold Neutron Source (CNS) facility (liquid deuterium). Mathematical models were developed to predict both the changes in HTO concentrations in water pools and the emission of HTO soaked in the concrete material during the leakage incident from the D2O facility in late 1980's. After the renewal of distribution pipes and a tank for the D2O facility in 1997 the cause in growth of HTO concentration in the building air has appeared during venting cessation as before the renewal. This may be attributable to the fact that the higher HTO concentration in exhaust condensate than 2x105 Bq/mL was detected from not only the CNS but also the D2O facility. This suggests that the increases in the HTO concentration in air are due not to the leak from tritium source in theses facilities, but to the production of tritium caused by the irradiation of nitrogen in air by the fast neutrons near the reactor core. (author)

37

Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaboration.

Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu; Ichihara, Chihiro; Shiroya, Seiji [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

38

Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaborationoration

39

Experimental study on thorium fuel cycle by using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was recognized from the early days of nuclear energy history that thorium (Th) would become a practical energy source, although the transmutation of 232Th into 233U is inevitable in the Th fuel cycle. Attractive points of the Th fuel cycle are as follows: (1) The abundance of Th resource is estimated to be triple of the uranium resource. (2) The thermal breeding is feasible, whereas the fast breeding is necessary in the current uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) fuel cycle. (3) The production of transuranium (TRU) is essentially lower compared with the U-Pu fuel cycle. Recently, under the delay of practical use of fast breeder reactors, the Th fuel cycle has internationally been paid attention especially in relation to the transmutation or incineration of TRU including both Pu and minor actinides (MAs). An experimental study on the Th fuel cycle was initiated in 1977 by using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) established in 1974 for the joint use program among Japanese universities including the research and education of reactor physics. Thereafter, the experimental study on the Th fuel cycle has being performed in the KUCA by using Th metal plates. A solid moderator core is utilized for the series of critical experiments on the Th fuel cycle. In addition, basic experiments on Th hybrid reactors were performed by using a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator installed in the KUCA. In order to promote the experimental study on the Th fuel cycle in the KUCA, a future plan is being investigated to perform various experiments by introducing the 233U fuel from US. (author)

40

A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. Results A total of 51.5% (310 of 602 of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Conclusions Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available.

Yokode Masayuki

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

77 FR 60012 - University Transportation Centers Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...grant applications for national university transportation Centers, regional university transportation Centers, and Tier I university transportation Centers as set...disciplines that comprise the field of transportation through...

2012-10-01

42

University of Hawaii Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Hawaii Cancer Center (UH Cancer Center) was founded in 1981 and became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1996. The Center’s mission is to reduce the burden of cancer through research, education, and outreach, with an emphasis on the unique ethnic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of Hawaii and the Pacific.

43

Safety Re-evaluation of Kyoto University Research Reactor by reflecting the Accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at rated thermal power of 5MW. After the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we have settled a 40-ton water tank near the reactor room, and prepared a mobile fire pump and a mobile power generator as additional safety measures for beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). We also have conducted the safety re-evaluation of KUR, and confirmed that the integrity of KUR fuels could be kept against the BDBA with the use of the additional safety measures when the several restrictions were imposed on the reactor operation

44

Report of research by common utilization in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in first half of fiscal 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the technical report, the data required for research and experiment, such as the result of functional test of various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste treatment, and the reports of study meetings, or the remarkable results and new methods obtained in research, and the discussion on other papers and reports in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, are summarized as prompt report. The subject, reporters and synopsis of 54 papers are reported in this publication. (Kako, I.)

45

Report of researches by common utilization of facilities in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, latter half of fiscal year 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical report of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is published any time to immediately report on the results of the functional tests of various experimental facilities, the test results for the products made for trial, radiation control, the situation of waste treatment, the data required for research and experiment such as the reports of study meetings, the conspicuous results obtained amid researches, new processes, and the discussion on other papers and reports. In this report, the title, the names of reporters and the summary of 65 researches carried out by the common utilization of the facilities in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute are collected. The themes of the researches are such as Moessbauer spectroscopic study of ferrocene and its derivative iodides by I-129, decomposition of cadmium telluride during heat treatment, element distribution in resource living things and environmental substances produced in northern ocean, radioactivation analysis of trace elements in blood of tumor-bearing animals, radioactivation analysis of noble metal elements in geochemical samples, relaxation phenomena by gamma-gamma perturbation angle correlation, separation of components in Allende meteorite and their radioactivation analysis, measurement of cross section of Pa-231 (n, gamma) reaction and others. (Kako, I.)

46

Report of researches by common utilization of facilities in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, first half of fiscal year 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical report of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is published any time to immediately report on the results of the functional tests of various experimental facilities, the test results for the products made for trial, radiation control, the situation of waste treatment, the data required for research and experiment such as the reports of study meetings, the conspicuous results obtained amid researches, new processes, and the discussion on other papers and reports. In this report, the title, the names of reporters and the summary of 57 researches carried out by the common utilization of the facilities in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute are collected. The themes of the researches are such as neutron radiography using a research reactor, measurement of Zr/Hf ratio in zirconium, interstitial germanium atoms in thermal neutron irradiation study, measurement of induced radioactivity due to neutrons in Nagasaki and Hiroshima atomic bombings, properties of semiconductor electrons in radiation study, induction of mutation in crops by neutron irradiation and utilization for breeding, thermal fluorescence mechanism of alkali halide and MgO single crystals, atomic configuration in PZT rhombohedron phase, modulated structure of Cu-Co alloys, excitation of nuclei by positron annihilation and others. (Kako, I.)

47

Report of researches by common utilization of facilities in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, latter half of fiscal year 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical report of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute is published any time to immediately report on the results of the functional tests of various experimental facilities, the test results for the products made for trial, radiation control, the situation of waste treatment, the data required for research and experiment such as the reports of study meetings, the conspicuous results obtained amid researches, new processes, and the discussion on other papers and reports. In this report, the title, the names of reporters and the summary of 61 researches carried out by the common utilization of the facilities in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute are collected. The themes of the researches are such as radioactivation analysis of trace elements in rocks and minerals, anodic oxidation films of GaAs and structure, measurement of yield of uranium isotopes produced by reactor neutron irradiation of thorium, geochemical study of trace elements in hydrosphere by radio-activation analysis, various diseases and variation of elements in rat furs, Moessbauer spectroscopic study of gold compounds with singular coupling by Au-197, measurement of grass-eating quantity and rate of digestion of cows using Au and Eu, sickness biochemical study of trace elements in hair samples of patients and others. (Kako, I.)

48

Reactor laboratory course for Korean under-graduate students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students has been carried out at Kyoto University Critical Assembly of Japan. This course has been launched from fiscal year 2003 and has been founded by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government. Since then, the total number of 43 Korean under-graduate students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of 6 universities in all over the Korea, has been taken part in this course. The reactor physics experiments have been performed in this course, such as Approach to criticality, Control rod calibration, Measurement of neutron flux and power calibration, and Educational reactor operation. As technical tour of Japan, nuclear site tour has been taken during their stay in Japan, such as PWR, FBR, nuclear fuel company and some institutes

49

Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy response for imaging plate by single ion irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

A heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation has been developed using an accelerator at Kyoto University. We have successfully developed proton-, carbon-, fluorine- and silicon-beams in order to irradiate a micro-meter sized area with ion counting, especially single ion irradiation. In the heavy-ion microbeam system, an imaging plate (IP) was utilized for beam diagnostics on the irradiation. The IP is widely used for radiography studies in biology. However, there are a few studies on the low linear energy transfer (LET) by single ions, i.e., low-intensity exposure. Thus we have investigated the energy response for the IP, which can be utilized for microbeam diagnostics.

Tosaki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hirose, M.; Matsumoto, H.

2011-12-01

50

Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy response for imaging plate by single ion irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation has been developed using an accelerator at Kyoto University. We have successfully developed proton-, carbon-, fluorine- and silicon-beams in order to irradiate a micro-meter sized area with ion counting, especially single ion irradiation. In the heavy-ion microbeam system, an imaging plate (IP) was utilized for beam diagnostics on the irradiation. The IP is widely used for radiography studies in biology. However, there are a few studies on the low linear energy transfer (LET) by single ions, i.e., low-intensity exposure. Thus we have investigated the energy response for the IP, which can be utilized for microbeam diagnostics.

51

Application of heavy-ion microbeam system at Kyoto University: Energy response for imaging plate by single ion irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heavy-ion microbeam system for cell irradiation has been developed using an accelerator at Kyoto University. We have successfully developed proton-, carbon-, fluorine- and silicon-beams in order to irradiate a micro-meter sized area with ion counting, especially single ion irradiation. In the heavy-ion microbeam system, an imaging plate (IP) was utilized for beam diagnostics on the irradiation. The IP is widely used for radiography studies in biology. However, there are a few studies on the low linear energy transfer (LET) by single ions, i.e., low-intensity exposure. Thus we have investigated the energy response for the IP, which can be utilized for microbeam diagnostics.

Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, M., E-mail: nakamura@wakayama-med.ac.jp [School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Mikazura, Wakayama 641-0011 (Japan); Hirose, M., E-mail: hirose@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Matsumoto, H., E-mail: mhiroshi@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2011-12-15

52

Microdosimetric evaluation of the neutron field for BNCT at Kyoto University reactor by using the PHITS code.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, microdosimetric energy distributions of secondary charged particles from the (10)B(n,?)(7)Li reaction in boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) field were calculated using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The PHITS simulation was performed to reproduce the geometrical set-up of an experiment that measured the microdosimetric energy distributions at the Kyoto University Reactor where two types of tissue-equivalent proportional counters were used, one with A-150 wall alone and another with a 50-ppm-boron-loaded A-150 wall. It was found that the PHITS code is a useful tool for the simulation of the energy deposited in tissue in BNCT based on the comparisons with experimental results. PMID:21199830

Baba, H; Onizuka, Y; Nakao, M; Fukahori, M; Sato, T; Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Endo, S

2011-02-01

53

University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1940, the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research was founded at the University of Wisconsin (UW) at Madison. In 1973, the University started the University of Wisconsin Clinical Cancer Center. They were combined as the University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center and received their NCI designation in 1973. The Center was renamed the UW Carbone Cancer Center (UWCCC) in 2006.

54

Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles, Scotland (2009); and Helsingør, Denmark (2011). The Kyoto meeting drew more than 200 attendees from 18 different countries. There were 47 main oral presentations, and approximately 75 posters covered virtually all aspects of the pancreas function, development and genetics of disease. Here we will review some of the newest highlights.

Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D

2013-01-01

55

Saint Louis University Earthquake Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saint Louis University (SLU) Earthquake Center provides recent Midwest earthquake locations, the history of central U.S. earthquakes, a link for reporting an earthquake, historic earthquake and instrument photographs, and explanations of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. There are earthquake information flyers, links to course websites and course notes, a textbook description, computer tools and earthquake catalogs, and recent theses and dissertations. There are also links to seismic systems and networks as well as SLU network reports.

56

Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods.

Yoneda, Minoru E-mail: myoneda@nies.go.jp; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Plicht, Johannes van der; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

2000-10-01

57

Experimental analyses of spallation neutrons generated by 100 MeV protons at the Kyoto University critical assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutron spectrum analyses of spallation neutrons are conducted in the accelerator-driven system (ADS) facility at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). High-energy protons (100 MeV) obtained from the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator are injected onto a tungsten target, whereby the spallation neutrons are generated. For neutronic characteristics of spallation neutrons, the reaction rates and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons are measured by the foil activation method and by an organic liquid scintillator, respectively. Numerical calculations are executed by MCNPX with JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VI libraries to evaluate the reaction rates of activation foils (bismuth and indium) set at the target and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons set in front of the target. For the reaction rates by the foil activation method, the C/E values between the experiments and the calculations are found around a relative difference of 10%, except for some reactions. For continuous energy distribution by the organic liquid scintillator, the spallation neutrons are observed up to 45 MeV. From these results, the neutron spectrum information on the spallation neutrons generated at the target are attained successfully in injecting 100 MeV protons onto the tungsten target.

Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Yagi, Takahiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi [Nuclear Engineering Science Division, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Takemoto, Yuki; Azuma, Tetsushi [Dept. of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

2013-02-15

58

Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods

59

Installation modification of nuclear reactor (adding high neutron flux research reactor) in Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The head of Japan Atomic Energy Commission submitted to the Prime Minister the report that the safety of the high neutron flux research reactor being installed in the Nuclear Experimental Laboratory of Kyoto University can be secured sufficiently, on September 29, 1978, annexing the evaluating report that had been deliberated by the Nuclear Reactor Safety Evaluation Committee. This high neutron flux research reactor will be constructed newly for the sake of science research, education and medical irradiation in addition to the KUCA and KUR which had been already constructed and operated. The core of this reactor is light water-moderated and cooled and heavy water-reflected type with thermal output of 30,000 kW. As the special feature in this reactor, the core has two separate regions where a double annular fuel subassembly is contained in each reactor vessel of 400 mm in diameter. These two reactor vessels are set in one spherical heavy water tank of about 2.7 m in diameter, and the thermal neutron flux of about 1015 n/cm2.s is obtained in the gap between the two reactor vessels. The maximum excess reactivity is 8% ?k/k, and the outlet temperature of primary cooling water is lower than 65 deg C in the reactor vessel. The fuel is plate type made of uranium aluminum alloy with about 93% enriched uranium. The key equipment specifications in this reactor are enumerated. Concerning the safety evaluation report, the philosophy and the procedure of the, the philosophy and the procedure of the evaluation are described at first, then the concrete evaluated items, for example, the conditions of location including the site ground, earthquakes, weather condition and the social environment, the safety evaluation including the aseismatic design, the core design, the reactor proper, the cooling system, the instrumentation and control system, the waste disposal system, the radiation control system and the electric system, etc., are written. (Nakai, Y.)

60

The University of Kansas Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Kansas Cancer Center (KUCC) was founded in 2002 and became an NCI-designated cancer center in 2012. The Center’s mission, through its innovative approach to drug discovery, delivery, and development, is to transform cancer research and clinical care delivered in Kansas and Missouri.

 
 
 
 
61

University of New Mexico Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of New Mexico Cancer Center (UNMCC) was founded in 1971 by the New Mexico State Legislature and received its NCI designation in 2005. It is the official state cancer center for New Mexico.

62

University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (UMCCC) was founded in 1986. UMCCC received its NCI designation as a cancer center in 1988 and its comprehensive designation in 1991. The Center is also a founding member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. As part of the University of Michigan Health System, UMCCC brings together in one place more than 400 scientists and clinicians in multidisciplinary teams devoted to cancer research and patient care.

63

A review of material processing by low energy ion beams at the Ion Beam Engineering Laboratory of Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews some of the applications of ion beams for material processing in Kyoto Univesity. Ionized cluster beams and low energy ion beams of several eV to a few hundreds of eV are utilized for film formation. The ionized cluster beam method is a unique technique that produces a low energy and hig flux ion beam without the problem of space charge limitation. Mass-separated ion beams of hundreds of keV are applied for the formation of a buried layer and the study of the fundamental effects of ion-surface interaction. The results have shown that the formation of unique materials, which would not have been formed by conventional thermal equilibrium methods, is possible. (orig.)

64

University of Virginia Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The special mission of the Center is to identify new frontiers of knowledge that can be brought to bear in the fight against cancer. UVA has a long tradition of discovery research in cancer cell regulation, especially in the area of signal transduction.

65

Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed

66

Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed. PMID:12408308

Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

2002-10-01

67

Analysis of integral experiment on erbia-loaded thermal spectrum cores using Kyoto University critical assembly by MCNP code with various cross section libraries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the project on high burnup nuclear fuel development using erbium as a burnable poison, a series of experiments were performed at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. The experimental results have formed the basis for this study which aims to analyze the suitability of various evaluated nuclear data libraries for using them in neutronic calculations under the project. The MCNP code was used for the analysis. Calculation model geometry was fully detailed, and ENDF, JENDL, JEFF, and TENDL libraries were used during calculation. For the cross sections of erbium nuclides, the analysis revealed that calculated results upon all the libraries corresponded with experimental data within the errors. However, in some libraries, significant differences were found in case of carbon and uranium nuclides under certain conditions. (author)

68

University of Wisconsin Center for Limnology  

Science.gov (United States)

Limnology (the study of lakes) in North America was developed at the University of Wisconsin by E.A. Birge and Chancey Juday, so it is not surprising that the Center for Limnology Web site contains a wealth of information about their activities and research projects. The site includes a virtual tour of the Center's main research facility on Lake Mendota in Madison and their research center on Trout Lake in north central Wisconsin. More importantly, a page dedicated to research contains valuable information about ongoing research on lake ecology, bioenergetics, and an online system for identifying Wisconsin fishes. An events calendar and employment listing area round out the site.

2000-01-01

69

University Center Surveys, Spring 2001. Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The office of Institutional Development and Technology at the Santa Clarita Community College District, California, conducted surveys of Santa Clarita Valley (SCV) Residents and Santa Clarita Valley business executives during the Spring 2001 semester to assess the advanced training and degree program needs for the proposed University Center.…

Gribbons, Barry C; Meuschke, Daylene M; Dixon, P. Scott

70

Kyoto, Italy, carbon tax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measures under discussion for the achievement of the Kyoto objective and the carbon tax introduced by the 1999 Budget Law make useful some consideration. The Kyoto target implies and effort that, considering the huge financial resources involved, forces to be very cautious in defining new energy policy. The carbon tax is more simply confirming the leadership of Italy as the country with one of the highest taxation of energy

71

13 CFR 306.7 - Performance evaluations of University Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance evaluations of University Centers. 306...Development Program § 306.7 Performance evaluations of University Centers. (a...evaluation period. (b) The performance evaluation will determine in part...

2010-01-01

72

Carbon credits after Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Kyoto Protocol to the FCCC three different forms of GHG emission reduction titles through market-based international cooperation are defined: emission reduction units under Article 6; certified emission reductions in the framework of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under Article 12; and emissions trading under Article 17. Although defined under different Articles in the Protocol, it seems reasonable to assume that the three mechanisms will not operate separately. After CoP3 the author registered several comments, opinions and concerns related to the flexibility provisions under the Kyoto Protocol

73

The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

2002-04-01

74

Center for Social Media at American University  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission statement for the Center for Social Media states that it "showcases and analyzes strategies to use media as creative tools for public knowledge and action. It focuses on social documentaries for civil society and democracy, and on the public media environment that supports them. The Center is part of the School of Communication at American University." The website provides a wealth of resources in its library ranging from policy issues such as copyright and fair use, funding social media and policy issues. The site also includes to teaching materials on fair use as well as syllabi and tips submitted by professors in the broadcast field. Furthermore, the site includes online videos and related links for each of its many resources.

2006-12-27

75

The 6 m point-focusing small-angle X-ray scattering camera at the High-Intensity X-ray Laboratory of Kyoto University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new multipurpose X-ray small-angle scattering camera system consisting of a rotating-anode X-ray generator, a double-focusing collimator and a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector has been developed at the High-Intensity X-ray Laboratory of Kyoto University. The overall camera length is 6 m, and the sample-to-detector distance can be varied in 0.5 m increments up to 3 m to cover scattering angles ranging from 0.001 to 0.18 rad. The collimator consists of a pair of crossed-plane total-reflection mirrors of 40 cm in length. The mirrors, which are mechanically bent to form cylindrical surfaces, provide point collimation free of collimation error. Gemeral-purpose sample holders equipped with a programmable temperature controller are provided for both transmission and scattering measurements; the temperature is maintained within ±0.1 K in the range of 223-573 K. A cryostat for measurements down to 20 K, a dynamic sample deformation apparatus, and a temperature-jump equipment are also available. The multi-wire delay-line position-sensitive proportional counter has an active area of 128x128 mm with a spatial resolution of 0.5x1.0 mm. The data acquisition is controlled by a real-time front-end processor though a CAMAC interface. The data are recorded in a dual-port histogramming memory of 32 bit x 1 Mwords, which enables direct access to the data from the main computer for real-time monitoring and analysis. The performance of the camera is demonstrated with some selected examples: Diffraction patterns from carp lateral line nerve myelin and chicken-tendon collagen fibrils, a Guinier plot of the scattering from polystryrene in dilute solution, and time-resolved measurements of polypropylene during the annealing process. (orig.)

76

Assessment of 232Th nuclear data through analysis of thorium-loaded critical experiments in thermal-neutron systems using the Kyoto University critical assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this study is to make an assessment of 232Th nuclear data through the analysis of thorium-loaded critical experiments in thermal neutron systems using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). The impact of the difference among the nuclear data libraries of 232Th was examined through neutronics calculations. Using JENDL-3.2, keff for thorium-loaded KUCA cores were overestimated by 0.9% to 1.2%. Although approximately 0.7% of the overestimation is due to the 235U cross section used in the driver region, the overestimation for thorium-loaded cores is apparently larger than those for cores free of thorium by about 0.2% to 0.5%. This overestimation depends on the neutron spectrum, and becomes larger for hard-spectrum cores. The use of 232Th cross sections from ENDF/B-VI or JEF2.2 also lead to overestimation of keff. The overall trend of the overestimation by ENDF/B-VI and JEF2.2 is the opposite of that by JENDL-3.2, and becomes smaller in hard-spectrum cores. The reactivity difference caused by different 232Th evaluations reaches up to -0.5% in hard-spectrum cores. Those significant discrepancies in reactivity of thorium-loaded thermal systems, caused by the difference of 232Th cross sections compiled in different nuclear data libraries, are mainly due to the difference in the capture cross section at thermal region, lower resonance and unresolved resonance regions, and also due to the difference in scattering cross section at MeV region. It became clear that none of the current 232Th evaluations can accurately simulate the criticality of the thorium-loaded KUCA experiments. These facts indicate that there remains a certain ambiguity in the evaluated 232Th cross sections, which is desirable to be eliminated for further design studies of thorium-based fuel cycle. (author)

77

Summary of dose plan system for boron neutron capture therapy 'SERA' and it's application at Kyoto University Reactor (KUR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is difficult for epithermal neutron irradiation to measure doses of thermal and fast neutron at near the surface of body in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Dose plan system for the BNCT, 'SERA' (Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications) was developed by the groups of INEEL (Idaho National Engineering and Environment Laboratory) and MSU (Montana State University) in USA. The SERA system consists of seven modules in which contain image data of CT or MRI, three dimensional image data, two or three dimensional calculation, Monte Carlo simulation calculation, plan of irradiation conditions including boron concentration, one dimensional dose distribution and dose-volume histogram, and two dimensional dose distribution each. The BNCT using epithermal neutron irradiation and the SERA system was carried out to eight patients of tumor, six persons of oral tumor and two persons of brain tumor, in the KUR during Dec. 2001 - Oct. 2002. Thermal neutron flux, epithermal neutron flux and gamma ray doses are measured by phantom experiments. The calculated results of the SERA system give good agreement with the values obtained by the phantom experiments, within accuracy of 10%. (M. Suetake)

78

Climate change after Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent climate change conference at Kyoto, Japan, ended with unanimous agreement on a legally-binding protocol for greenhouse gas emissions. Wide-ranging environmental consequences and policy considerations influenced the negotiating positions of the EU, Japan and US and the compromise which emerged. This paper also reviews the scientific evidence that human activities are responsible for global warming. (author)

Danby, Grahame

1997-12-24

79

The marbles of Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reduction of greenhouse gases can result in considerable costs and benefits for businesses. Financial institutes (e.g. banking and assurance companies) can develop and provide financial products to support industry and businesses which have to meet environmental regulations as set in the Kyoto Protocol and national environmental regulations. 6 refs

80

Present status of reactor physics in the United States and Japan-IV. 6. Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactors in Japanese Universities: Experimental Study Using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of basic experiments for an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) was officially launched in financial year 2000 at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) as a joint-use program among Japanese universities. These experiments are closely related to the future plan of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. A final goal of this plan is to establish a next-generation neutron source as a substitute for the 5-MW Kyoto University Reactor and based on the ADSR concept to promote joint research among Japanese universities. An attractive point of the ADSR system is that either pulsed or steady neutrons can be provided depending on the accelerator's operation mode. In this series of experiments, a solid moderator core among the KUCA's three cores (A, B, and C) is combined with a Cockcroft-Walton-type pulsed neutron generator installed in the KUCA. A polyethylene moderated and reflected core loaded with 93% enriched uranium-aluminum (U-Al) alloy fuel is assembled at the A-core position. The fuel rod consists of polyethylene and U-Al plates 5.08 x 5.08 cm (2 x 2 in.) square with upper and lower polyethylene reflectors of >50 cm, respectively. The active height of the core is ?35 cm. The neutron spectrum of the core can be varied by changing a combination of ?1.6-mm ((1/16-in.)-thick U-Al plates and ?3.2-mm (1/8-in.)-thick polyethylene plates in the fuel rod. The deuteron beam accelerated up to 200 keV is led to a tritium target to generate 1ed to a tritium target to generate 14-MeV pulsed neutrons. These pulsed neutrons are injected into the assembly maintained at the subcritical state as shown in Fig. 1. An optical-fiber detector system is utilized to measure the neutron flux distribution and the behavior of neutron decay. A mixture of 6Li-enriched LiF and ZnS(Ag) scintillator is pasted on one end of a 1-mm-diam optical fiber with the instant adhesive. A fiber detector of ThO2 in place of LiF is employed to monitor generated 14-MeV neutrons. By varying the subcriticality with adjusting the stroke of the control rod insertion or the number of fuel rods loaded in the core, experiments are carried out. The subcriticality was measured by the area ratio method of the pulsed neutron technique. The analyses of these experiments are executed with the MVP continuous Monte Carlo code based on the JENDL-3.2 library. So far, this has been a joint study of Prof. Yoshihiro Yamane's group at Nagoya University and Prof. Toshikazu Takeda's group at Osaka University. Through the analysis, it has become strongly recognized that the accuracy of the keff calculation is essential to examine the neutron multiplication in the ADSR system as well as that of the subcriticality measurement. The calculated neutron decay constant agreed well with the measured one, although the correction for the effect of delayed neutrons is necessary because of the current limitation in the MVP code on their treatment. (authors)

 
 
 
 
81

University of Kentucky Agricultural Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

If you're just starting to learn about agriculture, biology, animal welfare or human environmental sciences, it can be a bit daunting. There are hundreds of online resources dealing with such matters, and separating the wheat from the chaff can be taxing and time-consuming. Valerie Perry and Jo Staggs-Neel at the University of Kentucky Library's Agricultural Information Center have created these three excellent research guides to the aforementioned subjects. The guides contain seven or eight separate subsections, including "Electronic Resources", "Best Databases", and "Frequently Cited Journals". Each guide also contains a "New Resource" area which profiles a newly added resource that complements the existing set of resources. A number of the links lead to resources that require a password or subscription, but there are enough here with open access to pique the interest of persons new to the field. Overall, it's a good way to get a basic grounding in the important online and offline resources in these three scholarly subjects.

2010-03-26

82

Status of Tsukuba University tandem accelerator center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tandem Accelerator Center of Tsukuba University was established on 1974. The 12UD pelletron tandem accelerator started its operation on 1976. In 1999, the operation times of the accelerator and beam use times were 2905 and 2316 hours, respectively. The new electrostatic quadra-pole lens was installed on March 1999. On July 1999, troubles happened in corona needles under 11 MV conditioning. The 25 years old SF6 compressor was to meet regular overhauling. There were three types of ion sources; those were 1) sputter ion source for hydrogen and deuterium, 2) polarized ion source and 3) AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy) ion source. The operation time of sputter ion source took up 34% of total operation time. The operation time of the AMS ion source was approximately 6%. The time for experiments on nuclear physics took up 60%. However, the experiments on material physics using the AMS ion source were increasing. Developments of 129I measurement are scheduled on 2000. The 20% of the total operation time was dedicated to on terrestrial science as the higher priority research. There was a use for bachelor students in the summer school. The 1 MV tandetron started its operation on the fiscal year of 1999. We had two type of ion source; those were 1) sputter ion source and 2) duo-plasmatron ion source for He acceleration. There are 5 beam lines, in which RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) and PIXE (Photon-Induced X-ray Emission) had been commissioned. The beam-line for micro-PIXE and others are under construction. The beam operation times were 225 hours in 1999, due to many troubles in duo-plasmatron cooling system and so on. On the other hand, many users are expecting experiments on crystal physics using He beams. (Y. Tanaka)

83

Status of Tsukuba University tandem accelerator center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tandem Accelerator Center of Tsukuba University was established on 1974. The 12UD pelletron tandem accelerator started its operation on 1976. In 1999, the operation times of the accelerator and beam use times were 2905 and 2316 hours, respectively. The new electrostatic quadra-pole lens was installed on March 1999. On July 1999, troubles happened in corona needles under 11 MV conditioning. The 25 years old SF{sub 6} compressor was to meet regular overhauling. There were three types of ion sources; those were 1) sputter ion source for hydrogen and deuterium, 2) polarized ion source and 3) AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy) ion source. The operation time of sputter ion source took up 34% of total operation time. The operation time of the AMS ion source was approximately 6%. The time for experiments on nuclear physics took up 60%. However, the experiments on material physics using the AMS ion source were increasing. Developments of {sup 129}I measurement are scheduled on 2000. The 20% of the total operation time was dedicated to on terrestrial science as the higher priority research. There was a use for bachelor students in the summer school. The 1 MV tandetron started its operation on the fiscal year of 1999. We had two type of ion source; those were 1) sputter ion source and 2) duo-plasmatron ion source for He acceleration. There are 5 beam lines, in which RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) and PIXE (Photon-Induced X-ray Emission) had been commissioned. The beam-line for micro-PIXE and others are under construction. The beam operation times were 225 hours in 1999, due to many troubles in duo-plasmatron cooling system and so on. On the other hand, many users are expecting experiments on crystal physics using He beams. (Y. Tanaka)

Sasa, Kimikazu; Ishii, Satoshi; Oshima, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)] (and others)

2001-02-01

84

Kyoto and other tales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The worsening ecological crisis, as part of the multidimensional crisis, was in the limelight again this week when the Kyoto protocol came into force among futile, if not disorientating, celebrations by the ‘progressive’ part of the transnational elite. Some 141 countries - which account for about 55% of greenhouse gas emissions thought by most experts to be the cause of drastic climatic change - have ratified the treaty, which pledges to cut these emissions by 5.2% by 2012. Still, the USA and Australia, which, together with China and India in the periphery, are mainly responsible for the remaining 45% of the greenhouse gas emissions, have put themselves outside the treaty’s framework, assigning greater priority to the market economy’s dynamic and its complement, the growth economy[1], rather than to the threatening climatic disaster.

Takis Fotopoulos

2005-07-01

85

Climate policy after Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Convention recommends reductions in emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, to mitigate the rate of climate change. Lively debate has taken place in many countries, not least over the political and economic implications. The basis for the Kyoto discussions was a set of studies commissioned, compiled and published by the UN's International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). At first glance this scientific foundation plainly shows that significant climate change will occur unless emissions of greenhouse gases are sharply curtailed. On closer examination, the scientific evidence provided in the IPCC material is far from clear. Reputable scientists have expressed critical views about the interpretation of the scientific results and, even more, of the way the material is being used for policy purposes. The main purpose of this book is to voice this critique. To give the reader some context, a central section from the IPCC's basic document is presented first. There follow nine papers, by prominent natural and social scientists, in which the reasons for their sceptical attitudes are developed. A final paper by Professor Bert Bolin, chairman of the IPCC during the time when most of the material was produced, provides a response and commentary to the critique. The aim of the editor and authors, in presenting the material in this way, rather than as a polemical tract, is to leave open to the reader the question: Is global warming a consequence of man's acs global warming a consequence of man's activities, or are there other reasons; if so, is adopting policies with significant economic consequences, a reasonable response? (Author)

86

Center for Catalysis at Iowa State University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this proposal is to enable Iowa State University to establish a Center that enjoys world-class stature and eventually enhances the economy through the transfer of innovation from the laboratory to the marketplace. The funds have been used to support experimental proposals from interdisciplinary research teams in areas related to catalysis and green chemistry. Specific focus areas included: • Catalytic conversion of renewable natural resources to industrial materials • Development of new catalysts for the oxidation or reduction of commodity chemicals • Use of enzymes and microorganisms in biocatalysis • Development of new, environmentally friendly reactions of industrial importance These focus areas intersect with barriers from the MYTP draft document. Specifically, section 2.4.3.1 Processing and Conversion has a list of bulleted items under Improved Chemical Conversions that includes new hydrogenation catalysts, milder oxidation catalysts, new catalysts for dehydration and selective bond cleavage catalysts. Specifically, the four sections are: 1. Catalyst development (7.4.12.A) 2. Conversion of glycerol (7.4.12.B) 3. Conversion of biodiesel (7.4.12.C) 4. Glucose from starch (7.4.12.D) All funded projects are part of a soybean or corn biorefinery. Two funded projects that have made significant progress toward goals of the MYTP draft document are: Catalysts to convert feedstocks with high fatty acid content to biodiesel (Kraus, Lin, Verkade) and Conversion of Glycerol into 1,3-Propanediol (Lin, Kraus). Currently, biodiesel is prepared using homogeneous base catalysis. However, as producers look for feedstocks other than soybean oil, such as waste restaurant oils and rendered animal fats, they have observed a large amount of free fatty acids contained in the feedstocks. Free fatty acids cannot be converted into biodiesel using homogeneous base-mediated processes. The CCAT catalyst system offers an integrated and cooperative catalytic system that performs both esterification (of free fatty acids) and transesterification (of soybean oil) in a one-pot fashion. This will allow the biodiesel producers to use the aforementioned cheap feedstocks without any pretreatment. In addition, the catalyst system is heterogeneous and is highly recyclable and reusable. Although markets currently exist for glycerin, concern is mounting that the price of glycerin may plummet to $.05 - $.10 per pound if future production exceeds demand. Developing a system to make high value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol from the glycerin stream will add value for biodiesel producers who implement the new technology. Given the fact that both DuPont and Shell chemicals have announced the commercialization of two new PDO-based polymers, a rapid increase of market demand for a cheaper PDO source is very likely. 4. Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives From our progress reports, the four areas are: 1. Catalyst development (7.4.12.A) 2. Conversion of glycerol (7.4.12.B) 3. Conversion of biodiesel (7.4.12.C) 4. Glucose from starch (7.4.12.D)

Kraus, George A.

2006-10-17

87

Memphis State University Center for Nuclear Studies progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This quarterly report outlines the progress made by the Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University in the development of specialized educational programs for the nuclear industry through the month of February, 1976

88

Kyoto valed prioriteedid / Bjorn Lomborg  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Raamatu "Skeptiline keskkonnakaitsja" autor ütleb, et Kyoto protokolliga kulutab maailm 150 miljardit aastas, tehes vähe heategusid. ÜRO on seisukohal, et poolega sellest summast suudaksime hankida puhta joogivee, kanalisatsiooni, elementaarse tervishoiusüsteemi ja hariduse igale inimesele maailmas

Lomborg, Bjorn

2005-01-01

89

Industry/University Cooperative Fellowship Supplement to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program Solicitation (NSF 01-116)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Centers Industry/University Cooperative Research Center Program Industry/University ... Supplement to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program Solicitation (NSF ...

90

Environmental Finance Center: The University System of Maryland  

Science.gov (United States)

Supported by the Environmental Protection Agency and the University of Maryland Sea Grant College, the Region 3 Environmental Finance Center promotes alternative and innovative ways to manage the cost of environmental activities. It provides training, technical assistance, and program planning and evaluation among its many services. Additionally, the Resource Center and Publications tabs offer further material to explore this topic.

2007-10-12

91

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MD Anderson) was established by the Texas State Legislature in 1941. In 1971, after the passage of the National Cancer Act, MD Anderson became one of the nation’s first NCI-designated comprehensive cancer centers.

92

College and University Counseling Centers: Questions in Search of Answers  

Science.gov (United States)

College and university counseling centers are being influenced by changing populations of students and the concerns of a variety of constituencies and stakeholders about mental health issues. Although counseling centers can be important institutional resources in matters of recruitment, retention, and risk management, new legal and ethical issues…

Bishop, John B.

2006-01-01

93

Establishing a University-Based Mars Mission Research Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines one university's process of planning and preparing a successful proposal for a space research center which focused on a broad, cross-disciplinary study. States that as a result of the center, four new graduate courses were offered and a higher than average enrollment was attracted to the school. (RT)

DeJarnette, Fred R.

1988-01-01

94

Student-Centered Integrated Anatomy Resource Sessions at Alfaisal University  

Science.gov (United States)

Alfaisal University is a new medical school in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that matriculates eligible students directly from high school and requires them to participate in a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. PBL is a well-established student-centered approach, and the authors have sought to examine if a student-centered,…

Cowan, Michele; Arain, Nasir Nisar; Assale, Tawfic Samer Abu; Assi, Abdulelah Hassan; Albar, Raed Alwai; Ganguly, Paul K.

2010-01-01

95

77 FR 59660 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology Center has completed an inventory of...may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human...

2012-09-28

96

77 FR 59968 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology Center, in consultation with the appropriate...may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center. DATES: Representatives...

2012-10-01

97

77 FR 59661 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology Center has completed an inventory of...may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human...

2012-09-28

98

Purdue University Center for Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Purdue is an interdisciplinary cancer research center. Its mission is to promote discovery in the areas of biological phenomena, new chemical entities, and newtechnology that leads to the development of innovative instrumentation, new diagnostic tools, and noveltherapeutics. By studying cancers at the cellular level, researchers are discovering how such diseases develop, progress, and respond to treatment. The goal is to find ways to detect cancer sooner and treat it more effectively.

99

GAME ANALYSIS OF KYOTO AND POST-KYOTO SCHEMES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kyoto protocol, put in force in Feb. 2005, is criticized from both sides, those demanding a stricter target for GHG (green house gas) emission reduction on the one side, and those claiming for more flexible and comprehensive controls of the emission on the other side, for its modest target and narrow coverage. Even though its value could be that of a mere precedent and experimentation, Kyoto protocol includes very special experimentation to assist the world wide cooperation for a mitigation of climate change, i.e. the introduction of three mechanisms, emissions trading, joint implementation, and clean development mechanism (CDM). Together, they are called Kyoto mechanisms. Evaluation of mechanisms is one important role of microeconomics and the game theory is a major tool for it. We shall scrutinize these mechanisms from such viewpoint. A special attention is placed on CDM, as it is the novel mechanism introduced by Kyoto protocol, and gives a unique link between Annex I nations (mostly developed countries) and non-Annex I nations (mostly developing countries). Next, we examine some of the currently proposed schemes after 2013, the post Kyoto schemes. One of the chief issues is the possibility of making a comprehensive agreement including both the USA and large developing countries with rapidly increasing emission levels of GHG like China and India. Adding to these, not only the proposed schemes themselves, but the process of negotiation itself inspired several researches in cooperative game theory and in particular, coalition formation theory. We shall touch upon this issue separately, and examine how successfully they predicted the outcome leading to Kyoto, retrospectively. Finally, we end our discussion with a brief consideration over the underlining normative argument concerning these schemes.

Haruo Imai [Kyoto Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto (Japan)

2008-09-30

100

Smartphone use at a university health science center.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the results of a survey of library patrons conducted by librarians and information technology specialists at the Health Science Center Libraries at the University of Florida. The purpose of the survey was to learn if and how library patrons were using smartphones to perform their work-related tasks and how patrons felt the library could support smartphone use at the Health Science Center. PMID:23394420

Bushhousen, Ellie; Norton, Hannah F; Butson, Linda C; Auten, Beth; Jesano, Rae; David, Don; Tennant, Michele R

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greene-Baum Cancer Center (UMGCC) traces its origins to 1965, when NCI created an off-campus intramural program in the Division of Cancer Treatment at NCI and located it in the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital in Baltimore. After the USPHS hospitals were closed in 1974, the program was transferred to the University of Maryland (UM).

102

A trans-university center for global health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Can the challenge of improving health engage university faculty and students across all disciplines to more deeply understand the world and its people in order to make it a better place? Faculty and staff at the University of Virginia's (UVa) Center for Global Health (CGH) think it can. The authors argue that by working to understand, teach, and improve the human condition, universities can engage multiple disciplines, help reverse the "brain drain," and even change perspectives.The transuniversity Center for Global Health (CGH) at UVa employs three components for addressing global health issues: (1) scholars: sending UVa students abroad to conduct international fieldwork focused on global health, (2) fellows: inviting international colleagues selected by collaborating institutions abroad to work and train at UVa and return to become leaders in their home institutions, and (3) curricula: supporting and developing global health-related curricula throughout the university.UVa's CGH is associated with sister CGHs in Fortaleza, Brazil; Hefei, China; Manila, Philippines; Accra, Ghana; and Thohoyandou, South Africa. Work with international colleagues in these centers provides opportunities for bilateral training of the next generations of leaders in global health around the world. Universities are uniquely positioned to enlist multiple disciplines to unravel the complex causes of health disparities, sustain international collaborations, and change students' outlook on the world through overseas experiences. A university that actively supports global health becomes increasingly internationalized, grounded in scientific excellence, and committed to addressing the most pressing issues humanity faces today. PMID:18303362

Lorntz, Breyette; Boissevain, Jane R; Dillingham, Rebecca; Kelly, Jane; Ballard, April; Scheld, W Michael; Guerrant, Richard L

2008-02-01

103

The Kyoto conference: French perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

104

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

1999-01-01

105

Integrating Mindfulness Meditation within a University Counseling Center Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper documents the development of a mindfulness meditation component within a University Counseling Center setting. The specific focus is upon the inclusion of meditation as it pertains to both organizational structure and psychotherapy training. The integration of a meditation practice into any organization is a slow process that poses…

Kurash, Cheryl; Schaul, Jonathan

2006-01-01

106

The Center for Talent Development at Northwestern University  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer and on weekends, it is not unusual to see many children, the youngest holding their parents' hands, walking to classes amongst the beautiful landscaping and old buildings of Northwestern University on Lake Michigan's shores in Evanston, Illinois. The Center for Talent Development (CTD) has been offering services and programs to…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

2004-01-01

107

University Center and Community Hospital: Problems in Integration.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study of the University of Chicago Medical Center highlights the tensions, strains, and resistances that inhibit the development of an urban health care system. It raises questions about the role of the research and teaching hospital in regional health care planning, especially as suburban facilities are drawing away patients. (Author/LBH)

Tarlov, Alvin R.; And Others

1979-01-01

108

Off-center Observers Versus Supernovae in Inhomogeneous Pressure Universes  

Science.gov (United States)

Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulae are applied to the Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain the possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry without the need to specify a scale factor function (model IIA). The second has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at 3? CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 4.4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry, which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center at about 341 Mpc for model IIA and 68 Mpc for model IIB. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about 577 Mpc for model IIB at 3? CL. It is determined that the best-fit parameters which characterize inhomogeneity are ?inh = 0.77 (dimensionless: model IIA) and ? = 7.31 × 10–9 (s km–1)2/3 Mpc–4/3 (model IIB).

Balcerzak, Adam; Da¸browski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz

2014-09-01

109

UAE University Students’ Awareness of Using the Writing Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing has always been regarded as playing a prominent role in learning a second language. UAE university writing center provides a key support service within the institution, and as such must find ways to evaluate the impact of the instruction they provide. However, many studies of tutorial effectiveness lack adequate analyses of tutorial services and of both student and tutor awareness and outcomes. The purpose of the study is to explore the effectiveness of the writing center and its proposed services to improve students’ academic writing skills. The study combined quantitative and qualitative strategies involving surveying 50 students followed by in-depth interview with the supervisor of the UAEU’s writing center. Some major findings are that the study indicated that some students who visit the writing center are not aware of how to use it effectively. The study shows that 76% of students stated that the role of the writing center is to edit their assignments. The study indicates that 32% of students who visited the writing center were encouraged by their instructors to visit the writing center. This study implies some strategies to raise the students’ awareness of the writing center purpose and services.

Ghadah Al Murshidi

2014-05-01

110

Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero

111

Kyoto : implications for utility regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author provided a historical perspective of energy use and the role of carbon in the western hemisphere by displaying a series of graphs showing carbon intensity of energy, carbon emissions from energy, and the long path to green power. The 1990s represented a decade of progress. Almost three times as much wind capacity as nuclear capacity was added worldwide in 2001. The main challenge for the 21st century will be to bring under-developed countries into the fold while perpetuating the economic and human progress of the twentieth century. It was emphasized that environmental damage caused by utilities must be reversed. The contemporary context for the Kyoto Protocol was reviewed. Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The challenge for utility regulators to meet this commitment was examined. The costs are not entirely excessive. Some of the regulatory issues were discussed, namely revising a broad rate making framework, cost recovery and others. The Kyoto compliance plan was also reviewed with reference to internal options, external options, identification of regulatory barriers, and consideration of greenhouse gas credit markets. figs

112

The Stocker AstroScience Center at Florida International University  

Science.gov (United States)

The new Stocker AstroScience Center located on the MMC campus at Florida International University in Miami Florida represents a unique facility for STEM education that arose from a combination of private, State and university funding. The building, completed in the fall of 2013, contains some unique spaces designed not only to educate, but also to inspire students interested in science and space exploration. The observatory consists of a 4-story building (3 floors) with a 24” ACE automated telescope in an Ash dome, and an observing platform above surrounding buildings. Some of the unique features of the observatory include an entrance/exhibition hall with a 6-ft glass tile floor mural linking the Florida climate to space travel, a state-of-the art telescope control that looks like a starship bridge, and displays such as “Music from the universe”. The observatory will also be the focus of our extensive public outreach program that is entering its 20 year.

Webb, James R.

2014-01-01

113

The University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Two recent major reports on the health of the oceans in the United States have warned that coastal development and population pressures are responsible for the dramatic degradation of U.S. ocean and coastal environments. The significant consequences of this increased population density, particularly in sub/tropical coastal regions, can be seen in recent weather events: Hurricanes Andrew, Ivan, and Katrina in the US Gulf of Mexico states, and the Tsunami in Southeast Asia in December 2004, all causing significant deaths and destruction. Microbial contamination, man-made chemicals, and a variety of harmful algal blooms and their toxins are increasingly affecting the health of coastal human populations via the seafood supply, as well as the commercial and recreational use of coastal marine waters. At the same time, there has been the realization that the oceans are a source of unexplored biological diversity able to provide medicinal, as well as nutritional, benefits. Therefore, the exploration and preservation of the earth's oceans have significant worldwide public health implications for current and future generations. The NSF/NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health Center (COHH) at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School and its collaborators builds on several decades of collaborative and interdisciplinary research, education, and training to address the NIEHS-NSF research initiative in Oceans and Human Health. The COHH focuses on issues relevant to the Southeastern US and Caribbean, as well as global Sub/Tropical areas worldwide, to integrate interdisciplinary research between biomedical and oceanographic scientists. The Center includes three Research Projects: (1) research into the application of toxic algal culture, toxin analysis, remote sensing, oceanography, and genomics to subtropical/tropical Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) organism and toxin distribution; (2) exploring the interaction between functional genomics and oceanography of the subtropical/tropical HAB organism, Karenia brevis, and its environmental interactions; and (3) exploring the relationship between microbial indicators and human health effects in sub/tropical recreational marine waters. There are three Facilities Cores supporting this research in Genomics, Remote Sensing, and Toxic Algal Culture. To accomplish this research program in subtropical/tropical oceans and human health, the University of Miami Oceans & Human Health Center collaborates with interdisciplinary scientists at Florida International University (FIU), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Miami Dade County Dept of Health, the University of Florida, and other institutions, as well as other Oceans and Human Health Centers and researchers.

Fleming, L. E.; Smith, S. L.; Minnett, P. J.

2007-05-01

114

University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this meeting were to capture the observations, insights, issues, concerns, and ideas of those involved in the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center (TAMU NSC) TRIGA Reactor Conversion so that future efforts can be conducted with greater effectiveness, efficiency, and with fewer challenges. This workshop was held in conjunction with a similar workshop for the University of Florida Reactor Conversion. Some of the generic lessons from that workshop are included in this report for completeness.

Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Meyer

2007-04-01

115

The Kyoto Mechanisms and Technological Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Climate change response, including implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. One of the important agreements in several declarations, including the Kyoto protocol, has been to promote and coordinate the collaboration between the countries in the necessary technological development. The paper encourage that the Kyoto mechanisms will be used for acceleration of the necessary technical innovation in Denmark.

Lund, Henrik

2003-01-01

116

The Population Research Center at NORC & The University of Chicago  

Science.gov (United States)

With its world-renowned departments of sociology and economics, the University of Chicago has a number of research centers dedicated to looking at various issues of social organization and demography. Founded in 1983, the Population Research Center at NORC (National Opinion Research Center) and the University of Chicago bring together researchers from a variety of fields (including psychology, business, public policy, and economics, among others) to research a number of compelling questions in this broad ranging field. The website is easy to navigate and contains information on post- and pre-doctoral fellowships, staff biographies, and a listing of current research projects. There is a wealth of online data available on current research projects, including work on Chinese health and family life and data from the National Health and Social Life Survey. Equally valuable is the online collection of discussion papers, dating back to 1983, and containing titles such as Movin' on Up? Racial Inequality in Children's Neighborhood Socioecnomic Status, and Marriage Patterns among Israel Palestinians.

117

The Center for Natural Hazards Research at East Carolina University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for Natural Hazards Research (CNHR) in the Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences at East Carolina University (ECU) was established in 2004 to foster a multidisciplinary research community that seeks to understand and, thereby, improve our ability to withstand and recover from adverse events caused by natural processes. In keeping with its mission "to promote research and analysis that ultimately reduces the harm caused by forces of nature to life, business, and the environment" the CNHR has 15 core faculty and faculty associates and supports graduate student research. Projects range from examining the economic impact and rebuilding plans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina to analyzing global precipitation extremes.

Curtis, S.; Kruse, J. B.

2007-05-01

118

Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

NONE

1995-06-01

119

Cancer Research Institute, Loma Linda University Medical Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) DOE/EA-0975, evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) on its campus in Loma Linda, California. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This document describes alternatives, the affected environment and environmental consequences of the proposed action.

NONE

1994-08-01

120

Hydro in the Kyoto era  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ricity even while domestic demand grows. Hydroelectricity from Quebec should interest some states that have adopted their own GHG reduction standards, despite the U.S. government's refusal to ratify Kyoto. It should also interest Ontario and the Maritimes because they will be trying to reduce emissions from their thermal plants. The current situation does not favour the Kyoto Protocol. Exports of electricity from Quebec have dropped because no new dams have been built in recent years and gas-fired plants are looking more attractive to power producers because they can be built quickly. In addition, the rules for environmental processes for hydroelectric projects unfairly favour thermal projects. This paper also cautioned that the low price of energy does not help energy conservation programs. It was suggested that the only simple and efficient way to reduce GHG emissions and lower energy consumption is to charge a price that reflects the real cost of energy. It was suggested that coal and gas should be taxed as motivation to choose renewable forms of energy, and that electricity should not be subsidized for energy-intensive industries such as aluminium smelters. 5 figs

 
 
 
 
121

Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

122

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Report covers the research activities and the technical developments of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, for the period from April 1988 to March 1989. Laborious work of refreshing 12UD has continued throughout the year, in parallel with the regular machine-time service. Almost 95% of the work has been completed by the end of March 1989. At the time of writing this manuscript, 12UD is running up modestly beyond 11.0MV, raising joyous murmur of pellet chains. She has recovered up to the hilt. In spite of the considerable time consumed by the refreshing, the total machine-time has exceeded 3,000 hours. Activities at the Center covered a wide area of research field, viz. 1) nuclear spectroscopy of transitional nuclei, 2) heavy ion fusion and fission processes, 3) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, 4) charge exchange process in atomic collisions, 5) application of energetic heavy ions to investigating solid-state physics, and 6) effect of ion-irradiation on the fatigue properties of metal. Theoretical work pertinent to the nuclear structure is also included in this report. Prospects for a project attempting to equip the Center with a crystal-ball spectrometer is, at least, not gloomy. First streaks of light seems to begin glimmering. (author)

123

Energy Efficient Service Delivery in Clouds in Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol  

CERN Document Server

Cloud computing is revolutionizing the ICT landscape by providing scalable and efficient computing resources on demand. The ICT industry - especially data centers, are responsible for considerable amounts of CO2 emissions and will very soon be faced with legislative restrictions, such as the Kyoto protocol, defining caps at different organizational levels (country, industry branch etc.) A lot has been done around energy efficient data centers, yet there is very little work done in defining flexible models considering CO2. In this paper we present a first attempt of modeling data centers in compliance with the Kyoto protocol. We discuss a novel approach for trading credits for emission reductions across data centers to comply with their constraints. CO2 caps can be integrated with Service Level Agreements and juxtaposed to other computing commodities (e.g. computational power, storage), setting a foundation for implementing next-generation schedulers and pricing models that support Kyoto-compliant CO2 trading ...

Lucanin, Drazen; Mastelic, Toni; Brandic, Ivona

2012-01-01

124

Natural disturbances and Kyoto protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent letter published in Nature (Kurz et al. 2008a reports an outbreak of mountain pine beetles in British Columbia, destroying millions of trees; according to the authors, by 2020, the beetles will have done so much damage that the forest is expected to release more carbon dioxide than it absorbs. All those natural disturbances could overwhelmed all the efforts made by Canada to influence the carbon balance through forest management. Considering that Canada decided not to elect forest management within the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that future climate mitigation agreements, aimed to encourage changes in forest management, should account for and protect against the impacts of natural disturbances.

Teobaldelli M

2008-06-01

125

Kyoto protocol: the unfinished agenda  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The groups and negotiations at the Third Conference of Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto are described. The lobbying groups included: the fossil fuel industry; the environmentalist groups. the Europeans; the Developing world; and the USA. The compromise reached. The author considered that all countries should be involved in the reduction of emissions, but this may best be done by transferring highly efficient new technologies to developing countries, thus leapfrogging the older highly polluting type of plant. Funds for the leapfrogging could best be provide by carbon taxes, permits would not raise revenue in the same way. Carbon taxes could also be used to fund environmental protection or restoration initiatives. Any new institutions should be flexible in their approach. 46 refs

126

Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing community with both the science and policy communities.

Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

2000-01-01

127

New Mexico State University Arrowhead Center PROSPER Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the final technical report of the Arrowhead Center Prosper Project at New Mexico State University. The Prosper Project was a research and public policy initiative funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Prosper project (DOE Grant Number DE-NT0004397) began on October 1, 2008 (FY2009, Quarter 1) and ended on December 31, 2012 (FY2013, Quarter 1). All project milestones were completed on time and within the budget. This report contains a summary of ten technical reports resulting from research conducted during the project. This report also contains a detailed description of the research dissemination and outreach activities of the project including a description of the policy impacts of the project. The report also describes project activities that will be maintained after the end of the project.

Peach, James

2012-12-31

128

How to make progress post-Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides papers presented during the workshop on ''how to make progress post-Kyoto'', hold at the French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) in Paris on march 19, 2003. The following topics were presented: reflections on Kyoto, guidance for the future, how to make progress post-kyoto, the lessons from the past; the Bonn voyage; US climate policy after Kyoto, elements of success; preparing for widening and deepening the kyoto protocol; capping emissions and costs; absolute versus intensity-based emissions caps; intensity targets in perspective; negotiating commitments for further emission reductions; exploring new tools; defining meaningful participation of developing countries in climate change mitigation; economic and environmental effectiveness of a technology-based climate regime; US participation in the linkage between research and development and climate cooperation; designing a technology strategy; ''greening'' economic development; some critical comments post-Kyoto; the foreign policy perspective of climate negotiations; Kyoto and the double spiral; burden-sharing rules for stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations and their equity implications. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2003-07-01

129

Centers and Institutes in the Research University: Issues, Problems, and Prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

A discussion of the role of university-based organized research units reviews the major issues that confront such centers, describes results of a survey of 18 of the fastest growing research universities, and makes recommendations concerning appropriate management and the role of the centers within the research university. (Author/MSE)

Stahler, Gerald J.; Tash, William R.

1994-01-01

130

Stanford University: Center for the Study of Language and Information  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) "is devoted to research in the emerging science of information, computing, and cognition." This "new science" is an interdisciplinary project that developed through a shared interest among computer scientists, linguists, logicians, philosophers, psychologists, and artificial intelligence researchers "in how agents, whether biological or artificial, acquire, process, and convey information." The Center, initiated by researchers from Stanford, SRI International, and Xerox PARC, now also collaborates with researchers from other universities, laboratories, and companies around the world. The website provides information on projects from the Interface Laboratory and the Research in the Cognitive Sciences program. Projects from the Interface Laboratory "constitute a concerted effort at CSLI to address human/computer interface problems emerging in the world of telecommunications, information processing, and consumer electronics." Research in the Cognitive Sciences program addresses interdisciplinary projects that cover a range of topics in computer science, linguistics, logic and semantics, philosophy, psychology, and education. The Publications section includes proceedings from annual conferences, a few older technical reports, and a one-page summary of all publications, including several books available for purchase.

131

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Annual Report covers the research activities and the technical developments of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, for the period from April 1989 to March 1990. Laborious but promising work of refreshing 12UD has continued throughout the year, in the intervals of the regular machine-time service. The terminal voltage of 12UD has gone beyond 12MV. At the time of writing this manuscript, 12UD is running up stably around 12.4MV, the loss current being essentially zero. She has recovered and further begins to flesh up without a surgical operation of grafting 'compressed tubes'. In the course of conditioning, the voltage has reached to 12.78MV. In spite of the considerable time consumed by the refreshing, the total machine-time has exceeded 2,000 hours. In addition to the improvement of 12UD, activities at the Center covered a wide area of research field, viz. 1) nuclear spectroscopy of transitional nuclei, 2) heavy ion fusion and fission processes, 3) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, 4) charge exchange process in atomic collisions, 5) application of energetic heavy ions investigating solid-state physics, and 6) effect of ion-irradiation on the fatigue properties of metal. Theoretical work pertinent to the nuclear structure is also included in this report. (author)

132

PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road  

Science.gov (United States)

The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to Project Manager Henrik Dalgaard for his excellent editorial services and to stud.mag. Nanna Katrine Lüders Kaalund for her practical assistance with the proceedings. The European Commission under the Regional Development Fund has funded the conference and the publication of the proceedings.

Margrethe Basse, Ellen

2009-03-01

133

implementing kyoto - UK Energy Research Centre  

Mar 31, 2006 ... A key supporting function of UKERC is the Meeting Place, based in Oxford, ... on \\the issues surrounding implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and ... 40 \\participants from Government, business, academia, think-tanks and non-.

134

Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

135

Kyoto and the carbon content of trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A unilateral tax on CO2 emissions may drive up indirect carbon imports from non-committed countries, leading to carbon leakage. Using a gravity model of carbon trade, we analyze the effect of the Kyoto Protocol on the carbon content of bilateral trade. We construct a novel data set of CO2 emissions embodied in bilateral trade flows. Its panel structure allows dealing with endogenous selection of countries into the Protocol. We find strong statistical evidence for Kyoto commitments to af...

Aichele, Rahel; Felbermayr, Gabriel

2010-01-01

136

Study on Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Local University Technology Transfer Center Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reveals the main problems in Chinese local university technology transfer center construction: low quality of patent, Lack of high-quality professionals, unreasonable distribution of income of scientific and technological achievements and fuzzy function of university technology transfer center. In-depth analysis, to establish a new framework of Chinese local university technology transfer and technology brokerage closed-loop control principle diagram, constructs perfect patent technology transformation cycle work mode. The study on problems and countermeasures of Chinese local university technology transfer center construction has great significance to improving the ability in Chinese local universities to serve the society.

Na Deng

2014-08-01

137

Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

1994-08-01

138

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual report includes the research activities and the technical developments carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center in University of Tsukuba for the period from April 1991 to March 1992. Research activities covered the following subjects. Experimental investigations were made on 1) nuclear spectroscopy of high-spin rotational states and high-spin isomers in odd-odd nuclei, anomalous Fermi-coupling constant in the ? decay of 35Ar and the search for new isotopes around the mass number 90; 2) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions; 3) the application of energetic heavy ions to solid state physics; 4) the properties of defects in metal produced by proton irradiation; 5) the magnetic properties of LiVO2 by NMR; 6) off line Moessbauer studies; and 7) the mechanism of micro-cluster formation at the surface of material by heavy-ion bombardment. Theoretical work pertinent to the nuclear collective motion and the relativistic mean-field theory is also included in this report. (J.P.N.)

139

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual report covers the work carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, during fiscal year 1984. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was operated very stably. In addition, the heavy ion post accelerator with interdigital-H structure has worked well, providing additional energy of 2 MeV per charge for heavy ions. The constructions of a new Lamb-shift polarized ion source, a multi-computer control system for the ion sources of the UTTA, an electrostatic inflection system of incident ions for the UTTA, a new beam bunching system, and a new SF6 gas handling system were under way. The development and performance test of various radiation detector systems were carried out. Two thirds of the research works were performed by using the beam from the Lamb-shift polarized ion source (PIS). A newly constructed fast spin state interchange control system for the PIS made polarization experiment more effective and accurate. The research activities in the fields of nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, and biology and medical science are reported. (Kako, I.)

140

Taming the Anxious Mind: An 8-Week Mindfulness Meditation Group at a University Counseling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an eight-week mindfulness meditation-based group that took place at a university counseling center. The group is patterned after the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn at the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. Group members are taught…

Murphy, Michael C.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project benefited the public by assisting manufacturing plants in the United States to save costly energy resources and become more profitable. Energy equivalent to over 75,000 barrels of oil was conserved. The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) visited 96 manufacturing plants and spent 101 days in those plants during the contract period from August 9, 2002, through November 30, 2006. Recommended annual energy savings for manufacturers were 37,400,000 kWh (127,600 MMBtu—site basis) of electricity and 309,000 MCF (309,000 MMBtu) of natural gas. Each manufacturer subsequently was surveyed, and based on these surveys reportedly implemented 79% of the electricity savings and 36% of the natural gas savings for an overall energy savings of 48% of recommended. Almost 800 (798) projects were recommended to manufacturers, and they accomplished two-thirds of the projects. Cost savings recommended were $12.3 million and implemented savings were $5.7 million or 47%. During the contract period our average time between site visit and report submittal averaged 46 days; and decreased from 48 days in 2003 to 44 days in 2006. Serving clients well and promptly has been a priority. We visited five ESA overflow clients during FY 06. The Texas A&M University IAC pioneered the presentation of air pollution information in reports, and includes NOx and CO2 reductions due to energy savings in all reports. We also experimented with formal PowerPoint BestPractices presentations called Lunchtime/Showtime in each plant and with delivering electronic versions of the report. During the period of the contract, the director served on the Texas Industries of the Future (IOF) Refining and Chemicals Committee, which oversaw the showcases in 2003 and 2006. The assistant director was the Executive Director of the International Energy Technology Conference held annually. The director and assistant director became qualified specialists in the Process Heating Assessment Scoping Tool and the Steam System Scoping Tool, respectively. Research was performed relating to energy conservation and IAC needs, resulting in a paper presented at the ACEEE meeting in 2005, and an internet software tool through the Texas IOF office.

Heffington, Warren M.; Eggebrecht, James A.

2007-02-24

142

Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University  

Science.gov (United States)

Space monitoring data center of Moscow State University provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ gives access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in the magnetosphere and heliosphere in the real time mode. Operational data coming from space missions (ACE, GOES, ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M1) at L1, LEO and GEO and from the Earth’s surface are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. On-line database of measurements is also maintained to allow quick comparison between current conditions and conditions experienced in the past. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from observations on the whole magnetosphere. Interactive applications and operational forecasting services are created on the base of these models. They automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons using data from LEO orbits. Special forecasting services give short-term forecast of SEP penetration to the Earth magnetosphere at low altitudes, as well as relativistic electron fluxes at GEO. Velocities of recurrent high speed solar wind streams on the Earth orbit are predicted with advance time of 3-4 days on the basis of automatic estimation of the coronal hole areas detected on the images of the Sun received from the SDO satellite. By means of neural network approach, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting 0.5-1.5 hours ahead, depending on solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, measured by ACE satellite, is carried out. Visualization system allows representing experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

Kalegaev, Vladimir; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Shugay, Yulia; Barinov, Oleg; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir

143

Positioning a University Outreach Center: Strategies for Support and Continuation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that a strong case can be made for supporting outreach as a value-added function in a university. Specific strategies for positioning outreach within the university by developing a power base are outlined. The case of the University of Michigan-Flint is offered as an example of this approach. Seven lessons learned in the process are noted.…

Skivington, Kristen D.

1998-01-01

144

Klimadiplomatiets afveje i Kyoto-processen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Operationaliseringen af de i 1992 i Rio indgåede forpligtelser i forhold til UNFCCC (FNs Rammekonventionom klimaforandringerne) blev siden COP3 i Kyoto under dominerende indflydelse af USAs forhandlere. Kritik af resultaterne kom allerede i 1998 fra den tyske regerings rådgivere i WGBU, men blev tilsidesat. Efter USAs vægring mod at ratificere Kyoto-aftalen burde cirkusset have standset for at undgå de huller, der viser sig f.eks. hvad angår international handel med skovbaserede brændsler, hvor regnskabet ikke går op. En Plan B ligesom den tidligere forhandler fra EU-side i Kyoto, Jørgen Henningsen, allerede foreslog i 2009 er stadigvæk nødvendig, hvor man fokuserer på enkelte sektorer og enes om reduktionsmåder af drivhusgasser.

Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

2014-01-01

145

The Kyoto mechanisms and technological innovation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark managed to stabilize primary energy supply, and CO2 emissions decreased by 10%, during a period of 20 years. However, after the introduction of the Kyoto Mechanisms, Denmark has changed its strategy. Instead of continuing the domestic CO2 emission controls, Denmark plans to buy CO2 reductions in other countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation. (author)

146

The Kyoto Protocol and the WTO  

... Paper, 7 pages, copyright: IISD This note is based on presentations and discussion at a seminar on The Kyoto Protocol and the WTO, jointly organized by the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) and the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) during the third WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle. The meeting aimed to explore the potential conflicts between climate change mitigation under the Kyoto Protocol and the system of trade rules under the WTO, and how best to avoid them. This note summarizes the main strands of the presentations and ...

147

Greenhouse Effect International Cooperation: Rethink Kyoto Protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The greenhouse gas emission has the closed relation with the economic growth in the every country, therefore reducing the greenhouse gas emission level or decreasing its increasing speed affect the national economic growth. If developed countries take the unconcern of the developing countries as the reason, they didn’t adopt any measurements. If developing countries think the developed countries must be responsible for the climate change, they reject any action, also including Kyoto protocol. Every country governments lack national support so that the promise can’t be realized in the international negotiates. Whether Kyoto Protocol finally can formally become effective depends on the economy and sustainable development.

Longlong Guo

2009-06-01

148

The Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland: the first complementary and alternative medicine center in a US medical school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Maryland was founded in 1991 and was the first center dedicated to evaluating complementary and alternative medicine at a US medical school. The center has been a National Institutes of Health center of excellence since 1995 focused on evaluating the efficacy, safety and mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, and mind-body modalities including Qigong and mindfulness meditation. The Center functions as an interdisciplinary center in the university and is composed of four main areas—research, patient care, informatics, and education—that mutually enhance each other and create a cohesive unit. The Center has recently increased its international collaboration on acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine research, particularly with universities in China such as Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and other TCM universities.

Lixing LAO

2008-11-01

149

13 CFR 306.7 - Performance evaluations of University Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01...Centers. 306.7 Section 306.7 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...for the following Investment Assistance cycle. (c) For peer review, EDA...

2010-01-01

150

The Kyoto protocol in a global perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global climate has changed notably since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHG have increased dramatically followed by an increase in global average temperature. In order to avoid negative potential outcomes of global warming, countries have adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that has so far been ratified by 192 countries. In 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, a binding GHG reduction plan, was adopted and entered into force in 2005. But several countries, including the USA, have had doubts about the potential negative consequences of the planned 5% global joint reduction of GHG. However, studies generally show that on a macroeconomic level: (1 welfare loss in terms of GDP and lost growth in EU is low; (2 it differs among economies; and (3 permit trading and permit price (in either global or regional markets is highly correlated with the welfare loss. The main objective of the paper is to describe the attitudes and responses to the Kyoto Protocol from a global perspective. The paper has three objectives. First, to provide an overview of global greenhouse gas emissions and the big drivers behind these emissions. Second, to present where different countries, both developed and less developed countries, such as India, China and the countries of South-east Europe currently stand as regards their efforts to achieve the Kyoto Protocol requirements. Third, to analyse the responses and attitudes to the Kyoto Protocol from a country development perspective.

Tjaša Redek

2009-11-01

151

Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

152

An alternative strategy for Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Europe will unlikely meet its Kyoto target of reducing greenhouse gas emission by 8 percent below 1990 levels. The economic impact of reductions might be dramatic, especially given Europe's slow economic growth. An alternative strategy should then be considered, in order to gain a global participation to the process and find a long-term solution

153

Croatia energy planning and Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Croatia as an Annex I country of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and a country that has pledged in the Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its GHG emissions by 5% will have to envisage a new energy strategy. Compared to the energy consumption collapse in some transitional countries, Croatia has passed through a relatively short-term reduction of GHG emissions since 1990 because of higher energy efficiency of its pretransition economy. It is expected that in case of baseline scenario, it will breach the Kyoto target in 2003. Several scenarios of power generation are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions. The cost-effective scenario expects a mixture of coal and gas fired power plants to be built to satisfy the new demand and to replace the old power plants that are being decommissioned. More Kyoto friendly scenario envisages forcing the compliance with the Protocol with measures only in power generation sector by the construction of mainly zero emission generating capacity in the future, while decommissioning the old plants as planned, and is compared to the others from the GHG emissions point of view. The conclusion is that by measures tackling only power generation, it will not be possible to keep GHG emission under the Kyoto target level. The case of including the emissions from Croatian owned power plants in former Yugoslavia is also discussed

154

EU CLIMATE POLICY FROM KYOTO TO DURBAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The risks posed by climate change are real and its impacts are already taking place. The biggest challenge about climate change is that there is no one single answer, no one single solution. This characteristic, together with the long history of political frictions and disputes worsened by environmental stresses suggests that global climatic changes have the potential to exacerbate existing international tensions. On December 31, 2012, the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period will expire. Unless states agree to a second commitment period, requiring a further round of emissions cuts, the Protocol will no longer impose any quantitative limits on states' greenhouse gas emissions. Although, as a legal matter, the Protocol will continue in force, it will be a largely empty shell, doing little if anything to curb global warming. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol negotiations, which focused exclusively on developed country emissions, the ongoing negotiations on a post-2012 climate change regime have also addressed developing country mitigation actions, without which a solution to the climate change problem is impossible. This has made the current negotiations as much between developed and developing countries as between the U.S. and the European Union. Key issues include: Legal Form; Regulatory approach; and Differentiation. By the Durban conference in December 2011 the EU needs to decide whether - and how - it will sign-up to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. This article focuses on the European Union needs to decide whether – and – how it will sign- up a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. Because asking, whether others will act is the wrong question. The real question is whether signing- up to some form of second Kyoto commitment period will support Europe’s fundamental interests.

ELENA ANDREEVSKA

2012-05-01

155

Center on Religion and Democracy at the University of Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the Center on Religion and Democracy is "to provide timely and empirically ground scholarship that stimulates public learning, strengthens public policy considerations, and helps religious communities themselves re-envision a constructive role in the public square of democracy." Given this ambitious mission, it is not surprising that their site offers a wide range of materials detailing their own scholarly and public activities, coupled with influential primary texts that deal with the ordering of public life and its intersection with religion. Information in the first two sections of the site give visitors a brief overview of the academic and professional staff working at the center and the Center's partnerships with organizations such as the Etext and Pew Centers. The third section of the site deals with the public outreach programs of the Center, including conferences, lectures, and information for potential fellows. Perhaps most compelling is the Library section of the site that offers a searchable archive of crucial texts dealing with social theory, religion, and legal questions. Finally, these documents (which include the Confessions of St. Augustine, John Locke's Two Treatises on Government, and many others) are available in several different formats, including for use with PDAs.

156

University Hospitals Case Medical Center researchers develop new radiation therapy for gynecologic cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers from University Hospitals Case Medical Center have developed a more effective way to treat gynecologic cancers, shortening radiation treatment time from five weeks to three days. The method was published in the Journal of Visualized Experiments on April 17. The new method, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been used on other types of cancer, but University Hospitals Case Medical Center is the first treatment facility to apply it to gynecologic cancers.

157

Enhancing User Satisfaction with University Computing Center Services. IR Applications, Volume 13, July 31, 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide quality education, a university needs to make available a well-equipped computing center. However, such centers are expensive, and their provision is a problem for administrators when budgets are tight. Hence, it is important that money be invested in services that will enhance user satisfaction the most. This study explores the…

Liu, Chung-Tzer; Du, Timon C.; Kuo, Fonchu

2007-01-01

158

The Center for Talent Development at Northwestern University: An Example of Replication and Reformation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes implementation of the talent search model developed by Julian Stanley at the Center for Talent Development of Northwestern University. While remaining true to the basic components of the talent search, the talent center at Northwestern has emphasized using talent search as a means to influence programming in local schools…

Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

2005-01-01

159

A Program Showcase: University of Hawai'i at Manoa Children's Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Children's Center, located in Honolulu, offers a full-day child care and preschool program for up to 125 children, ages two through five in one of seven classrooms. As part of the University community, the Children's Center is a site for students, faculty, and the community members to observe good practice in early childhood education and…

Kalinowski, Michael

2008-01-01

160

Predicting Early Center Care Utilization in a Context of Universal Access  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports predictors for center care utilization prior to 18 months of age in Norway, a country with a welfare system providing up to one-year paid parental leave and universal access to subsidized and publicly regulated center care. A community sample of 1103 families was interviewed about demographics, family, and child characteristics…

Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Janson, Harald; Naerde, Ane

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

A Place of Her Own: The Case for University-Based Centers for Women Entrepreneurs  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes the benefits of university-based women entrepreneur centers as an educational and outreach strategy and argues for their establishment and support by universities interested in educating women entrepreneurs and advancing women-owned businesses. Based on extensive research on women business owners and firsthand experience with…

Riebe, Mary

2012-01-01

162

Technology Entrepreneurship Promoted by Universities' Incubation Centers in Taiwan: Its Successes and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1996, the Small and Medium Enterprise Administration (SMEA) in Taiwan has supported various institutions to establish incubation centers (ICs) for facilitating start-ups and innovation. At present, there are 79 ICs in total and 65 (or 83%) of them are established in universities/colleges. Most ICs in the universities/colleges offering…

Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

2005-01-01

163

Columbia University to Open Network of International Collaborative-Research Centers  

Science.gov (United States)

In what university officials say represents a new approach to the internationalization of higher education, Columbia University is building a network of six to eight research institutes in capitals around the world. The Columbia Global Centers, as they are called, are designed for faculty members and students from various disciplines to…

Labi, Aisha

2009-01-01

164

University of Colorado Cancer Center genetically sequences most common bladder cancer:  

Science.gov (United States)

In an article published online this week in Nature Genetics, a University of Colorado Cancer Center team in partnership with universities in China and Denmark, reports the first genetic sequencing of urothelial (transitional) carcinoma, the most prevalent type of bladder cancer.

165

Entanglement in Dual Relationships in a University Counseling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The likelihood of dual relationships is greater in a university setting due to the institution's mission, size and the students' residency on campus. Dual relationships require a clinician to safely navigate the therapeutic relationship through potential dangers. Five guiding principles, rooted in good clinical judgment and common sense, are…

Bleiberg, James R.; Baron, Judith

2004-01-01

166

Midsemester Academic Interventions in a Student-Centered Research University  

Science.gov (United States)

In this descriptive study, the use of a midsemester Success Workshop is evaluated within the context of the persistence and motivation of students placed on academic probation in a state university between 2005 and 2010. Elements of the Success Workshop are described. The self-assessments, workshop evaluation results, and other institutional data…

Boretz, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

167

Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

Atreya, Arvind

2007-04-17

168

Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

169

Kyoto mechanisms: market incentives for hydro?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article considers whether the Joint Implementation (JI) of climate protection projects and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), introduced by the Kyoto Protocol, could offer incentives to make hydro power more attractive since only 2 of the 130 pilot projects approved by participating countries to test the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms involve hydroelectric power. The calculation of the emission reduction due to JI and CDM projects, and the International Emission Trading (IET) mechanism are discussed. Experiences with the hydroelectric power projects in Costa Rica and Bhutan are outlined, and the promotion of hydroelectric power for climate friendly power generation, and the problem of assessing additional climate impact from new installations financed by the JI/CDM investments are examined. (UK)

170

From Kyoto to Copenhagen and back again  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a framework for measuring cooperation in terms of whether parties reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by more than what they would have done unilaterally, i.e. in the absence of international targets. The framework is applied to the Kyoto Protocol. The findings suggest that the negotiations can be conceptualized as a prisoner's dilemma; that only a few parties behave cooperatively; and that the scope for international cooperation is limited.

Jepsen, Henrik

171

Nuclear energy and the Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the application of its 'flexible mechanisms' are at the forefront of energy policy debates in most OECD countries. The potential role of nuclear energy in this context is viewed very differently and assessed against various criteria by the range of stakeholders in governments and civil society according to their interests and priorities. This book provides key facts concerning nuclear energy and the Kyoto Protocol. It highlights the challenges and opportunities for the future development of nuclear energy in the context of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and more broadly in alleviating the risks of global climate change. The report will be of interest to energy policy makers and senior experts in the field as well as to members of civil society eager to better understand the issues raised within the debate on the role of nuclear energy in sustainable development. It will assists in making the necessary trade-off involved in addressing global climate change concerns. (authors)

172

A 2004 view of the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It may not be a household word, but by now the Kyoto Protocol has become a well-known political slogan. It is either ''fundamentally flawed'' (George W. Bush) or it is essential for saving the climate and humanity (Al Gore). There seems to be no in between. The Kyoto Protocol is a treaty to limit (i.e., ration) the use of energy to satisfy the concerns of environmental groups and other believers in global warming catastrophes. This group includes not only certified kooks but also such notables as former Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill and Sir David King, chief scientific adviser to Her Majesty's government who equates the threat of warming with that of international terrorism. But Kyoto is quite ineffective, that is, it cannot really affect climate or even change the composition of the atmosphere. It is costly. And it is probably also defunct. Where did this treaty come from? Why is it being adopted by some countries but not by others? And what is its likely future?

173

Status report of Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HSRC is a synchrotron radiation facility of Hiroshima University established in 1996. The HiSOR is a compact racetrack-type storage ring having 21.95 m circumference, therefore its natural emittance of 400 ?nmrad is not so small compared with the other medium-large storage rings. The most outstanding advantage of the facility lies in good combination with beamlines for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy in energy range in VUV ? soft X-ray. We report the operation status of HiSOR and the present status of beamlines and experimental stations. The user time last year was achieved 1576 hours which was at the same level with those in the past several years because there was no serious trouble. The helical undulator for BL-9A and B is going to be replaced to Quasi-periodic APPLE-II undulator in this summer. (author)

174

Determination of the service quality among sport and fitness centers of the selected universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to determine the service quality among sport and fitness centers of universities. Participants of the study were constituted of 484 (194 female and 290 male persons who are students, academics and administrative staffs attending to sport and fitness centers of seven universities in Ankara. The mean age of the participants was 22.45 ± 5.14. The SQAS-T (The Turkish Version of the Service Quality Assessment Scale was used as instrument. In the statistical analysis, descriptive statistics was used to investigate distribution of mean of the participants’ difference scores (service quality satisfaction scores. Results indicated that service quality among the sport and fitness centers of the universities did not fulfill their users’ expectations. However, according to mean of total difference scores it was seen this dissatisfaction level was not so huge.

Murat Aslan

2011-10-01

175

Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

Brown, G.Z.

1990-01-01

176

Annual report of Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, for fiscal 1976  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research center of the University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Center (TAC) has a 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator as its principal apparatus; of which acceptance test was finished in July 1976. Activities of the TAC for the period of April 1976 to March 1977 are reported: accelerator and beam transport system, general equipments, equipment development, nuclear physics, chemistry, and biological and medical Science. (Mori, K.)

177

Annual report of Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, for fiscal 1975  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tandem Accelerator Center (TAC) is a research center of the University of Tsukuba established mainly for interdisciplinary research. Its principal apparatus is a 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of which assembling was completed in fiscal 1975. Activities of the TAC for the period of April 1975 to March 1976 are reported: accelerator and beam transport system, general equipments, equipment development, and heavy-ion reactions. (Mori, K.)

178

Offsets Under Kyoto: A Dirty Deal for the South - Climate &  

...     Share: Facebook Reddit Twitter Email More Digg Press This Google Pocket StumbleUpon Pinterest LinkedIn Tumblr Related articleshellip; (auto-generated) Report Exposes Flaws and Fraud in Kyoto's 'Clean Development Mechanism' (posted on December 3, 2007) Suckered Again: The Bali Deal is Worse Than Kyoto (posted on December 17, 2007) A dirty deal coming down in Durban ( posted on December 6, 2011) Friends of the Earth: Cancun deal merely prevents collapse; Leaves Kyoto on life support (posted on December 11, 2010) The Truth About Kyoto: Huge ...

179

The UNCG Center for New North Carolinians: University Research and Service for Immigrant Empowerment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides an overview of how a university can serve as a resource for newcomer empowerment in light of changing demographics. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro’s Center for New North Carolinians (CNNC) was established during a time of dramatic demographic change in the state due to immigrant in-migration. CNNC began with a commitment to culturally appropriate outreach services that empower immigrant communities. This article is adapted from and expands upon a prese...

Richard Bailey

2011-01-01

180

The Kyoto Protocol. An economic appraisal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the overall economics of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, in three main parts. The first part explores the structure of the Protocol and how this matches against classical economic criteria of an 'optimal' climate change agreement. This discussion also considers the nature of and reasons for shortcomings, and the prospects for its evolution. Given the various flexibilities in the agreement, the Kyoto Protocol is far more economically efficient in its structure than any previous global environmental agreement. The central conclusion is that, from an economic perspective, the Protocol's structure for industrialised country commitments is as good as could reasonably be expected. The second part of the paper explores more closely the economics of the commitments themselves and how they combine with the various flexibilities, briefly reviewing the available literature and using a simple spreadsheet model of how the commitments might combine with trading mechanisms under a range of assumptions. Flexibility is intrinsic and necessary, but it is argued that the allocations to Russia and Ukraine in particular mean that unlimited flexibility could render the Protocol's commitments weaker in their impacts than is economically desirable to address climate change. It is argued that, should this prove to be the case, access to the large surplus in the transition economies could be used as a control valve to limit the costs of the Protocol to within acceptable limits. Finally, the paper considers the issues of developing country involvement in the Kyoto Protocol, and the Protocol's longer-term impact and evolution, including its impact on technological evolution and dissemination and the evolution of future commitments. It is argued that taking account of such issues critically affects views of the Protocol

 
 
 
 
181

Meteor wind observation at Kyoto Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meteor wind observation at Kyoto Station has now collected a fairly large amount of data enough to enable to know the basic dynamic state at meteor heights over the station. Tidal and prevailing winds have been detected and their behavior seems now well understood on daily and seasonal basis. A comparison with observations at other stations suggests classical tidal theory to be relevant to explain the average state. Deviations from the mean present problems on the existence of various causes including hydromagnetic effects. Gravity waves would be an interesting subject in future study. (author)

182

Kyoto protocol: at last the agreement has been reached; Protocole de Kyoto: un accord enfin conclu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After more than 3 years of negotiations, 180 countries agreed at Bonn on the application of the Kyoto protocol to fight the climatic warming. The main aspects of this agreement are discussed: the carbon wells, the tools of the pollution control for the developed countries and the financial help to the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2001-07-01

183

The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on questionnaires was determine too the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus type II. Analysis of the results revealed the strong correlations between lifestyle and cardio-metabolic risk in these students.

Mihaela ORAVI?AN

2013-12-01

184

Evolving a University Center to a Branch Campus: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher education is now expected to respond to community demands that include fueling economic development and addressing the needs of a wider range of students. Colleges and universities have responded to these demands using a variety of delivery models. A study was conducted by the Ardmore Higher Education Center to identify the advantages and…

Mills, Steven C.; Plumb, Robin

2012-01-01

185

The Tulane University Medical Center/Columbia partnership: opportunities and challenges for pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

A joint venture between the largest health-care corporation in the country (Columbia/HCA) and Tulane University Hospital/Clinic was established about 1 year ago. Early indications are that the partnership is successful and mutually beneficial. For Tulane University Medical Center, the joint venture provides financial stability and support for academic centers of excellence. Tulane University Hospital/Clinic will become the referral center for complicated cases from the regional Columbia hospitals. The Tulane University Hospital laboratories are positioned to become the regional referral laboratory for esoteric testing. For the pathologists of the regional Columbia hospitals, the opportunity beckons to form a group of equal partners that will contract with Columbia to provide laboratory services at Columbia hospitals and to consolidate the laboratories in the New Orleans division. Columbia has brought corporate expertise, capital, and opportunities for cost-saving economies of scale to the partnership. Quality and cost-effectiveness of patients care will be emphasized as will research on clinical outcomes. This model of corporate/academic partnership represents a new option for academic medical centers around the country as they respond to the rapid changes in the health-care environment. PMID:10162016

Krause, J R; Salmon, B C; Gerber, M A

1996-01-01

186

The Environmental Scanning Project at the University of Georgia Center for Continuing Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental scanning project at the University of Georgia Center for Continuing Education is described. The project attempts to identify signals of change in all sectors of the external environment. Information resources have been selected from the social, technological, economic, and political aspects of the environment at the…

Morrison, James L.; And Others

187

Working with Clients Who Have Religious/Spiritual Issues: A Survey of University Counseling Center Therapists  

Science.gov (United States)

University counseling center therapists (N = 220) completed an Internet survey about religion/spirituality in therapy, with 200 of these therapists describing therapy with a recent client whose issues involved religion/spirituality. Common client religion/spirituality issues were questioning one's childhood religion, exploring…

Kellems, Ian S.; Hill, Clara E.; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Freitas, Gary

2010-01-01

188

Implementing the Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity in University Counseling Center Internships  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the potential contribution of the "Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity" (henceforth the "Values Statement") to predoctoral internship training programs housed in university counseling centers. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for how to best implement the Values…

Illfelder-Kaye, Joyce; Lese-Fowler, Karen; Bursley, Kevin; Reyes, Elizabeth; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

2009-01-01

189

Performance Evaluation of Extension Education Centers in Universities Based on the Balanced Scorecard  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance…

Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

2011-01-01

190

Childhood Abuse and Current Psychological Functioning in a University Counseling Center Population.  

Science.gov (United States)

University counseling center clients self-reporting childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse (n=30) or no childhood abuse (n=54) completed measures of psychological functioning. Abused clients were more depressed, had more symptomatology, and scored higher on Borderline Personality scale of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. (Author/NB)

Braver, Melora; And Others

1992-01-01

191

Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

2011-01-01

192

Comparison of the Standard MMPI and the Mini-Mult in a University Counseling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the usefulness of a short version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Mini-Mult) in a university counseling center as well as determines whether earlier results of investigations of the Mini-Mult could be replicated with a sample of college males and females demonstrating no gross abnormalities. (RC)

Simono, R. B.

1975-01-01

193

Fibrin sealant: clinical use and the development of the University of Virginia Tissue Adhesive Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of fibrin sealants to augment hemostasis, seal tissues, and facilitate targeted delivery of drugs is increasing. In 1985, a hospital-based program was established to provide autologous and allogeneic cryoprecipitate that serves as a fibrin sealant when combined with bovine thrombin. To date, more than 4,000 patients have been treated with this product at our institution, with an efficacy rate greater than 90%. Collaboration among surgical services and the blood bank fostered multispecialty expertise with this product that led, in 1997, to the establishment of the University of Virginia Tissue Adhesive Center. The Tissue Adhesive Center is a multidisciplinary center whose physician director and nursing and administrative support staff facilitate basic research, laboratory investigation, and preclinical and clinical trials with collaborators throughout the university. The Tissue Adhesive Center also provides educational programs and clinical consultation, and tracks and participates in peer review of sealant use. The licensure of a commercially produced, virally inactivated, pooled-plasma fibrin sealant in May 1998 provided an alternative source of adhesive. Utilization of the commercial product surpassed use of the blood bank product in April 1999. At present, use of the commercial product is approximately 3 times that of the blood bank-produced sealant. This report reviews the clinical uses of fibrin sealant, its regulatory history, the production of fibrin sealants, the evolution of a blood bank fibrin sealant program, the development of the Tissue Adhesive Center, and the utilization of commercial and blood bank-produced sealant at our university hospital. PMID:11314860

Mintz, P D; Mayers, L; Avery, N; Flanagan, H L; Burks, S G; Spotnitz, W D

2001-01-01

194

Global post-Kyoto scenario analyses at PSI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scenario analyses are described here using the Global MARKAL-Macro Trade (GMMT) model to study the economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Convention on Climate change. Some conclusions are derived in terms of efficient implementations of the post-Kyoto extensions of the Protocol. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1999-08-01

195

Environment. Planet warming: the expected effects of the Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors wonder on the effects of the Kyoto protocol objectives, on the global warming: what are the consequences of the Kyoto Protocol ratification? Which changes? Why and how reducing the emissions? What will happen in 2012? What about the problem of emissions resulting from the transports? (A.L.B.)

196

University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education: Annual report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a second annual report since the University Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education was established at Georgia Tech. The major focus of the center is crystalline silicon, and the mission of the Center is to improve the fundamental understanding of the science and technology of advanced photovoltaic devices and materials, to fabricate high-efficiency cells, and develop low-cost processes, to provide training and enrich the equational experience of students in this field, and to increase US competitiveness by providing guidelines to industry and DOE to achieve cost-effective and high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. This report outlines the work of the Center from July 1993--June 1994.

Rohatgi, A.; Crotty, G.; Cai, L.; Sana, P.; Doolittle, A.; Ropp, M.; Krygowski, T.; Narasimha, S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1995-09-01

197

Obstacles and Solutions of Commercialization of University Research: Case Study of Small Businesses Development Center of University of Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the entrepreneurship mission incorporated into the education and research missions of universities, their role in the economic and social development in societies has increased. Thus, subjects revolving around academic entrepreneurship and knowledge commercialization have drawn the attention of many researchers and politicians in different countries in the world. In Iran, too, the knowledge commercialization phenomenon is in its prime and is in its early stages of taking shape and development. Therefore, this paper aims to identify obstacles and solutions in the commercialization of university research in Iran. The qualitative research method has been used in the form of a case study. The research data collection tools consist of semi-structured interviews. As a compliment of data collection tools, some evidence and documents were also studies. The research statistical population includes all the individuals engaged in knowledge commercialization in the University of Tehran. Twenty six interviews were conducted before data saturation reached. The results of the qualitative research indicate that the organizational, environmental/institutional and internal university research commercialization impeding factors are critical obstacles in the Small Business Development Center (SBDC of the University of Tehran and policy makers should devise proper strategies in light of these factors.

Jahangir Yadolahi FARSI

2011-12-01

198

The Preparation of Master's-Level Professional Counselors for Positions in College and University Counseling Centers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated college and university counseling center directors' perceptions of the adequacy of the preparation of master's-level counselors for work in college and university counseling centers. Results indicated that counselors were rated on average as prepared; however, many directors had concerns about counselors'…

Shaw, Brian M.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Ward, Christine

2014-01-01

199

The key stakeholders’ opinions regarding university counseling centers: An experience from Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Student counseling centers are responsible for physical, mental and social health of university students. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the key stakeholders’ opinions on different aspects of the activities performed in these centers. METHODS: This qualitative study used focus group discussion. Key stakeholders including university students and key informants from nine randomly selected medical universities participated in the study. After data saturation, thematic analysis was conducted. Themes were drawn out through constant comparative method. RESULTS: Based on 243 extracted codes and through comparative analysis, four categories were determined, namely students’ need for students counseling centers, successes and limitations of student counseling centers, student counseling services priorities, and suggestions for service promotion. CONCLUSIONS: According to stakeholders’ opinions, youth participation in needs assessment and priority setting processes in real-based situations leads to better performance of counseling services. Empowering the counselors is another point required for better outcomes. In addition, strategic planning and monitoring, along with evaluation of programs, could promote the provided services. PMID:22973390

Peykari, Niloofar; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Afzali, Hossein Malek; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Djalalinia, Shirin

2011-01-01

200

Challenges for Study Centers in an Electronic Age: A case study of the Center for Distance Education at Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on developments in study centers in Germany and in particular the experience of the Center for Distance Education at Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg. Emphasis in this paper has been placed on the challenges faced by German universities in the electronic age, which in its early stages began in 1995. The purpose of this paper is to ground the establishment of open and distance study centres vis-à-vis the unique cultural and institutional circumstances characterist...

Ulrich Bernath; Axel Kleinschmidt; Christine Walti; Olaf Zawacki; Carl von Ossietzky

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Bowling Green State University: Resources from the Center for Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for Teaching and Learning at Bowling Green State University was created in 1996 as part of a community building exercise at this prominent institution in Ohio. Visitors to this site will learn that the Center provides a range of services for students and faculty, and that many of these resources can be used by people in institutions across the United States. The Center Resources area contains four sections, including Teaching & Learning Guides, Library Holdings, and Center Archives. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the Teaching & Learning Guides area. Here they can download and review over twenty guides that deal with topics like concept maps, the ethics of teaching, and formative assessment. Also, this area includes a very helpful section titled Communication in the Classroom. Moving on, the Library Holdings area includes links to books physically held within the Center's collection. The lists here remain useful to educators who might not be physically located at Bowling Green, as they are vetted by staff at the Center. The site is rounded out by the Center Archives which includes past and current newsletters, along with a collection of "web picks".

2012-05-11

202

The Kyoto Agreement is only the beginning; Kyoto er bare begynnelsen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol will be realized, but on its own it will have an insignificant effect on the climate problem. The requirement posed on the emissions of the industrialized countries apply to the period 2008 to 2012. While the countries prepare themselves to implement the agreement, negotiations about new commitments for the time after 2012. The Protocol establishes that the negotiations about the next period of commitments shall begin no later than 2005. That period might be 2013 to 2017. The article states that there are gases in addition to those dealt with in the Kyoto Protocol that should be considered for regulation. The deposition of carbon dioxide in rock, under the sea floor, or in the deep seas is a topic that may receive attention.

Tjernshaugen, Andreas

2002-07-01

203

Kyoto, coal and sharing the cost burden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ct disproportionately on this economy (notably on account of reduced demand for Australian coal). The accompanying charts depict ABAREs 'less stringent' emissions scenario - addressing a goal of stabilising industrial countries' emissions of C02 rather than reducing them. ABARE's simulation for Australia by sector shows big negative impacts on output of non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, and coal. The metals industries, directly or indirectly are the coal industry's most important domestic customers. It is argued that because of the impact of Kyoto agreement on the international markets for coal, both in volume and price,coal is disproportionately disadvantaged. what the coal industry should be aiming to achieve, on equity grounds, is not simply a target allocation sufficient to cover its own emissions, but one greatly surplus to its own needs that can be sold

204

Kyoto commitments: CHP will help the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet the United Kingdom's targets for carbon dioxide emissions reduction, agreed at the Kyoto Summit, the UK Government is promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Such schemes need to offer over 70% efficiency, have on-site or nearby heat uses, and allow flexibility for the export of electricity where this is appropriate. Electricity trading arrangements will need to be re-organised in line with similar commodities, in order to facilitate and promote the growth of CHP and renewable energy schemes. Financial incentives and regulation of electricity prices will also contribute to the promotion of CHP schemes, ultimately leading to reduced CO2 pollution as a result of the growth in the UK's CHP capacity. (UK)

205

Will OPEC lose from the Kyoto Protocol?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A range of energy-economy models forecast losses to members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) should the Kyoto Protocol come into force. These forecasts are a powerful influence in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations. They are used by OPEC to advance the agenda on the impacts of response measures, covertly arguing for compensation for lost oil revenues arising from implementation of the Protocol. This paper discusses this issue, and explores the key assumptions of these models and their uncertainties. Assumptions about carbon leakage, future availability of oil reserves, substitution, innovation, and capital turnover are considered. The paper suggests that losses will not affect OPEC countries equally, and that these losses are not likely to be as substantial as the models forecast. A range of policy measures are proposed to lessen any impact the Protocol may have on OPEC

206

May the Kyoto protocol produce results?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A not well managed drastic reduction of greenhouse emissions might result in significant decrease of living standards, but without such reduction efforts, climate change might have five to twenty times higher costs. Thus, while indicating estimated consequences or evolutions of greenhouse emissions and temperature, the author stresses the need of emission reduction. She discusses the role of economic instruments which can be used in policies aimed at the struggle against climate change. She recalls the emission reduction commitments specified in the Kyoto protocol, discusses the present status, operation and results of the international emission trading scheme, the lessons learned after the first years of operation, comments the involvement of emerging countries in relationship with another mechanism defined in the protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism

207

Kyoto discord: who bears the cost?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1990, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions are up 20 per cent, meaning that Canada must reduce its emissions by 30 per cent between 2005 and 2010 to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Ottawa has indicated that no one sector of the economy should bear the burden of this adjustment. The energy production sector accounts for almost 40 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions. Our per capita emissions have risen 50 per cent faster than emissions in the United States. The authors compared our situation to that of Europe, where only a 5 per cent reduction is required, which can be explained by high taxes on energy users, and the closure of obsolete East German capacity which led to reductions of 100 million tonne in carbon dioxide emissions. Transportation is the second largest generator of greenhouse gas emissions with approximately 16 per cent. A quick overview of the energy sector was provided, touching on topics such as electric power generation, including coal-fired electrical production, and tar sands with its increasing importance to Canada's economy. Ottawa has released a plan in October 2002, where it indicates that industrial emitters will be required to cut 80 million tonnes through investments in more efficient technology. Tighter vehicle fuel and home insulation standards would account for 35 to 40 million tonnes of reduction, and 40 million tonnes would come from agriculture and forest management. It means there is a 60 million shortfall, and the tar sands industry will more than likely have to adjust, raising investor uncertainty over further development in that area. Climate change is unlikely to be modified by meeting the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors questioned whether the government shouldn't instead devote its resources to addressing the actual impact of climate change. 9 figs

208

University of California-Davis Postharvest Technology Research and Information Center:  

Science.gov (United States)

The Postharvest Technology Research and Information Center is housed in the Pomology Department at the University of California-Davis. Postharvest Center research focuses on improving the quality of horticultural crops, reducing post-harvest losses, improving marketing efficiency, and solving produce handling problems. This Publications website contains a wealth of downloadable articles organized by a wide range of crops and related issues. The numerous publication categories include: Apples, Nectarines, Lettuce, Postharvest IPM, Health Benefits, Storage, and many more. Visitors can locate articles by browsing the site index or by using a keyword search engine.

209

A University-based Forensics Training Center as a Regional Outreach, Education, and Research activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a university-based Forensics Training Center (FTC established by a Department of Justice grant for the purpose of improving the ability of state and local law enforcement in the Southeastern part of the United States to address the rising incidence of computer based crime. The FTC effort is described along with supporting evidence of its need. The program is not only a service activity, but also contributes to the Mississippi State University (MSU security program pedagogy, and research effort.

David A. Dampier

2009-04-01

210

How to make a hospital-based wound center financially viable: the Georgetown University Hospital model.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the medical need and expenditure for chronic wound care have increased markedly over the past decade, wound centers have grown exponentially throughout the country. They can be community-based or hospital-based, and in either case, can be run by the facility or by a national chain. The wound center's viability is dependent on generated revenue, and its clinical effectiveness is based on a multidisciplinary approach to wound care. By incorporating the wound center into an existing hospital system, one can take advantage of the hospital's resources to effectively treat the more complex patients. Additionally, by focusing on limb salvage, the hospital attracts the critical limb ischemia and other complex patients that often require inpatient admission. We examined the Georgetown University Hospital Center for Wound Healing performance over the first 6 years of operation. Since opening the wound center in 1999, the number of outpatient visits has doubled, the wound care inpatient census has doubled, and the operative cases have increased 3-fold. Because the outpatient segment of the wound center can at best cover its direct cost, it cannot financially justify its existence. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) can increase the revenue to the point where the indirect costs are covered as well and the wound center can be revenue neutral. Due to the medical complexity of limb salvage patients, the inpatient collections are much higher than those of the outpatient wound center and therefore can serve as justification for the latter's financial viability. More importantly, with the wound center in place, the hospital can provide the local/regional community with a comprehensive service that can effectively treat the most challenging wounds. The success is built on a multidisciplinary team approach, use of evidence-based treatment protocols, efficient clinical structure, and a supportive hospital system. The beneficiaries include the patient with a healed wound, the physician with a gratifying practice, the health care system with lower costs, and the hospital with a steady influx of complex patients. PMID:18799210

Attinger, Christopher E; Hoang, Han; Steinberg, John; Couch, Kara; Hubley, Katherine; Winger, Linda; Kugler, Margaret

2008-11-01

211

The new library building at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The new University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Library opened in June 1983, replacing the 1968 library building. Planning a new library building provides an opportunity for the staff to rethink their philosophy of service. Of paramount concern and importance is the need to convey this philosophy to the architects. This paper describes the planning process and the building's external features, interior layouts, and accommodations for technology. Details of the move to the bui...

Kronick, D. A.; Bowden, V. M.; Olivier, E. R.

1985-01-01

212

Experience with multimodality telepathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several modes of telepathology exist including static (store-and-forward), dynamic (live video streaming or robotic microscopy), and hybrid technology involving whole slide imaging (WSI). Telepathology has been employed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) for over a decade at local, national, and international sites. All modes of telepathology have been successfully utilized to exploit our institutions subspecialty expertise and to compete for pathology services. This articl...

Pantanowitz, Liron; Wiley, Clayton A.; Demetris, Anthony; Lesniak, Andrew; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Cable, William; Contis, Lydia; Parwani, Anil V.

2012-01-01

213

What will be the fate of the Kyoto protocol?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

n this paper authors deal with the Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 as well as with Kyoto protocol. For the Slovak Republic the Convention on Climate Change took effect in November 1994. For Slovakia arised from Kyoto Protocol to the Convention, that in the period of 2008-2012 the level of emissions cannot exceed the amount from 1990, reduced by 8 per cent (as well as whole Europe). In the next part authors describe mechanisms of flexibility in the frame of Kyoto protocol, principles for realisation of trade with greenhouse carbon dioxide and supported projects. (author)

214

Jackson State University's Center for Spatial Data Research and Applications: New facilities and new paradigms  

Science.gov (United States)

Jackson State University recently established the Center for Spatial Data Research and Applications, a Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing laboratory. Taking advantage of new technologies and new directions in the spatial (geographic) sciences, JSU is building a Center of Excellence in Spatial Data Management. New opportunities for research, applications, and employment are emerging. GIS requires fundamental shifts and new demands in traditional computer science and geographic training. The Center is not merely another computer lab but is one setting the pace in a new applied frontier. GIS and its associated technologies are discussed. The Center's facilities are described. An ARC/INFO GIS runs on a Vax mainframe, with numerous workstations. Image processing packages include ELAS, LIPS, VICAR, and ERDAS. A host of hardware and software peripheral are used in support. Numerous projects are underway, such as the construction of a Gulf of Mexico environmental data base, development of AI in image processing, a land use dynamics study of metropolitan Jackson, and others. A new academic interdisciplinary program in Spatial Data Management is under development, combining courses in Geography and Computer Science. The broad range of JSU's GIS and remote sensing activities is addressed. The impacts on changing paradigms in the university and in the professional world conclude the discussion.

Davis, Bruce E.; Elliot, Gregory

1989-01-01

215

Publications of the University of Karlsruhe (T.H.) and the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the 14th volume of the joint list of publications of the University of Karlsruhe (T.H.), the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe and some institutions which are closely linked to the University. It contains the publications of the year 1981 as well as some addenda from 1980. Included were books and journals, journal articles and contributions from compilations, research reports, dissertations and habilitation theses which were written or published by these institutions, their bodies and institutes as well as their teachers and scientific staff, and also patents. Not included were, as a rule, diploma theses, newspaper articles, reviews, internal reports and bulletins. The list of publications from University is mainly based on entries made by the institutes and chairs; its completeness can not be granted here. (orig./RW)

216

The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides academic support and small-group supplemental instruction to students studying introductory algebra-based and calculus-based physics. These classes are gateway courses for majors in the biological and physical sciences, pre-health fields, engineering, and secondary science education. The Physics Learning Center offers supplemental instruction groups twice weekly where students can discuss concepts and practice with problem-solving techniques. The Center also provides students with access on-line resources that stress conceptual understanding, and to exam review sessions. Participants in our program include returning adults, people from historically underrepresented racial/ethnic groups, students from families in lower-income circumstances, students in the first generation of their family to attend college, transfer students, veterans, and people with disabilities, all of whom might feel isolated in their large introductory course and thus have a more difficult time finding study partners. We also work with students potentially at-risk for having academic difficulty (due to factors academic probation, weak math background, low first exam score, or no high school physics). A second mission of the Physics Learning Center is to provide teacher training and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors. These Peer Tutors lead the majority of the weekly group sessions in close supervision by PLC staff members. We will describe our work to support students in the Physics Learning Center, including our teacher-training program for our undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors

Nossal, S. M.; Watson, L. E.; Hooper, E.; Huesmann, A.; Schenker, B.; Timbie, P.; Rzchowski, M.

2013-03-01

217

Meteor radar study of ionospheric wind at Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of meteor radar observations which have been carried out at Kyoto University since December, 1977. The radar, a coherent pulse doppler radar with a transmitting frequency of 31.57 MHz and a nominal peak power of 10 kW, is able to detect wind fields at meteor regions of 80 - 110 km. The solar semidiurnal tide generally dominates the wind oscillations at these heights, while a diurnal tide of comparable magnitude reveals itself in a less regular manner. Some anomalies in the amplitude and phase characteristics of the tides are shown, which might be related to a possible interaction with winds and waves, or to some disturbed conditions in the earth's atmosphere. Also planetary scale waves such as quasi-2-day oscillations and resonantly magnified gravity-mode waves have also been found there. Hence, the meteor radar, together with its cooperation with other observations, will helps us understand the dynamical process of atmospheric waves on a global scale. (author)

218

UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together ...

J. A. Edmonds, C. N. MacCracken, R. D. Sands, S. H. Kim

2000-01-01

219

Climate economics: post-Kyoto tracks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commitments obtained by the Kyoto protocol will end in 2012. An impressive series of conferences - Bali (2007), Copenhagen (2009), Cancun (2010) to mention the main ones - were organised to prepare the post-2012 regime. Everything was supposed to be decided at the Copenhagen meeting but the state representatives came up against the obstacle. The pre-Copenhagen hope has given place to disillusion and has led to a turn-off towards a weekly coordinated regime which requires a strategic revision of approaches. This book presents the lessons learnt from the relative failure of these negotiations and proposes new paths for the future. It puts forward some strategic stakes that have to be taken into account for the future: the equity between very heterogeneous countries and populations, the industrial competitiveness, the carbon leaks and the violation of the most ambitious climate policies due to the heterogeneity of commitment levels, and the geopolitical reality. The world will have to live for a long time with heterogeneous carbon prices, themselves reflecting heterogeneous commitment levels. New modalities have to be defined which would manage to combine justice and efficiency. Two complementary paths are developed in this book: the establishing of adjustment mechanisms at borders and of international sectoral agreements. (J.S.)

220

Lessons from the Kyoto Protocol Lições do Protocolo de Quioto  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to undertake a critical evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol. The evolution of the discussions that produced the final document is sketched through the analysis of official documents of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), relevant papers and material from the press. We also discuss the factors that cast doubts on the continuation and feasibility of the Protocol and the prospects for the post-Kyoto period and a new compromise.O objet...

Eliezer Martins Diniz

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

How Effective is the Kyoto Protocol in Impelling Emission Reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Kyoto Protocol is one of the most important international climate change treaties aimed at fighting global warming. On January 1st 2005, the protocol was enforced with its first commitment period 2008-2012. However, the effectiveness of reducing CO2 emission has long been debated. The purpose of this thesis is to empirically as-sess the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide reduction across countries, whether the protocol led significant difference after entering force in 2005. T...

Yang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Qian

2011-01-01

222

The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

1991-08-01

223

Columbia University Medical Center researchers find that a new computational approach finds gene that drives aggressive brain cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Columbia University Medical Center researchers have combined existing computational tools with a new algorithm called DIGGIT, which 'walks' backward from the master regulators to find the genetic events that drive brain cancer.

224

The University of Nebraska at Omaha Center for Space Data Use in Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the context of innovative coursework and other educational activities, we are proposing the establishment of a University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Center for the Use of Space Data in Teaching and Learning. This Center will provide an exciting and motivating process for educators at all levels to become involved in professional development and training which engages real life applications of mathematics, science, and technology. The Center will facilitate innovative courses (including online and distance education formats), systematic degree programs, classroom research initiatives, new instructional methods and tools, engaging curriculum materials, and various symposiums. It will involve the active participation of several Departments and Colleges on the UNO campus and be well integrated into the campus environment. It will have a direct impact on pre-service and in-service educators, the K12 (kindergarten through 12th grade) students that they teach, and other college students of various science, mathematics, and technology related disciplines, in which they share coursework. It is our belief that there are many exciting opportunities represented by space data and imagery, as a context for engaging mathematics, science, and technology education. The UNO Center for Space Data Use in Teaching and Learning being proposed in this document will encompass a comprehensive training and dissemination strategy that targets the improvement of K-12 education, through changes in the undergraduate and graduate preparation of teachers in science, mathematics and technology education.

Grandgenett, Neal

2000-01-01

225

Present status of the accelerator in Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research Center for Electron Photon Science (RCEPS) was established in December 2009 in the Mikamine Campus of the Tohoku University as an Electron Photon Science User Facility. The center carried on all electron accelerators from Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS). Such impressive advances have been supported by advanced developments of beam-delivery and accelerator technologies and by maintenance works for high-reliability operation. Furthermore, it was authorized as a base research facility of the national collaboration use from 1 April 2011 by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. However, the accelerators ware serious damaged by the 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We had no effect of tsunami and no one was injured. It is predicted, unfortunately, that a considerably long period would be required until the accelerators could resume operations. The report describes the status of the accelerators and recovery of the damaged accelerators for RCEPS. (author)

226

Infrastructure for teaching and learning in the community: Johns Hopkins University Student Outreach Resource Center (SOURCE).  

Science.gov (United States)

As health professional schools strive to offer students meaningful, structured community engagement activities, various support structures are needed. In 2005, Johns Hopkins University's Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health launched the interdisciplinary community service and service-learning center, Student Outreach Resource Center (SOURCE), which operates through reciprocal partnerships between the Hopkins schools and local community-based organizations. SOURCE is recognized on campus and in the Baltimore community for its ability to recruit and prepare students to collaborate with local partners on a wide range of practice initiatives, through both curricular and cocurricular offerings. This article describes SOURCE's history and formation, process for creating authentic partnerships, services and programs, governance, and lessons learned. In a short period of time and with a modest financial investment, the expertise and infrastructure provided by SOURCE have greatly benefited both the participating community-based organizations and the Johns Hopkins health professional schools. PMID:21617408

Levin, Mindi B; Rutkow, Lainie

2011-01-01

227

Introductory Astronomy Student-Centered Active Learning at The George Washington University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Department at the George Washington University has been successfully using student-centered active learning (SCALE-UP) in physics classes since 2008. In Fall 2011, we began implementing introductory (non-majors) astronomy classes taught in the student-centered active learning mode. Class time is devoted to engaging in hands-on activities and laboratories, and tackling thought-provoking questions and problems. Students work together in small groups to gain a deeper understanding of the material. Multiple instructors circulate to answer questions and engage students in additional contemplation of the material. Research has shown that students who are engaged in this manner have an increased conceptual understanding and are better able to solve problems. This talk will describe our methods, our successes and the associated challenges of integrating active learning into courses entitled “Stars, Planets and Life” and “Introduction to the Cosmos.”

Cobb, Bethany

2014-01-01

228

Introductory Astronomy Student-Centered Active Learning at the George Washington University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Department at the George Washington University has been successfully using student-centered active learning (SCALE-UP) in physics classes since 2008. Recently (since fall 2011), we have been developing and implementing introductory (non-majors) astronomy classes taught in the student-centered active learning mode. Class time is devoted to engaging in hands-on activities and laboratories and tackling questions and problems in a workbook. Students work in small groups, and multiple instructors circulate to answer questions and engage students in the material. Research has shown that students who are engaged in this manner have an increased conceptual understanding of the material. In developing our “Stars, Planets and Life” course into an interactive class, we encountered many challenges, but there have also been positive outcomes. Improvements to this class are ongoing, and in fall of 2013 we will begin full implementation of SCALE-UP in our “Introduction to the Cosmos” course.

Cobb, B. E.

2014-07-01

229

Integrating Student-Centered Learning in Finance Courses: The Case of a Malaysian Research University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The student-centered learning (SCL approach is an approach to education that focuses on learners and their needs, rather than relying upon the input of the teacher's. The present paper examines how the SCL approach is integrated as a learner-centered paradigm into finance courses offered at a business school in a research university in Malaysia. Specifically, this paper identifies how a learner-centered environment is integrated into teaching methods, learning activities and evaluation tools. Since the adoption of the SCL approach is partly to cater for the needs of the research university, the analysis of the courses is supported with responses from the respective lecturers. This study finds that the lecturers of the five courses examined have used active/interactive learning and group project approaches as standard teaching methods under the SCL approach which includes projects, class discussion and presentation. Alongside these standard methods, some of the courses use additional methods under the SCL approach, including real life experiential learning and case studies. For example, students of the Investment and Portfolio Analysis course are exposed to the real world investment decision making by investing funds in selected stocks listed on Bursa Malaysia. In terms of course evaluations, the courses place greater weight on continuous assessment based on group projects and presentations, while reduce the emphasis on examinations. Overall, implementing the SCL approach requires a careful design of the learning process, which includes the classroom setting; flexibility of the curriculum; teaching methods; evaluation policies; and course content. In general, the study demonstrates that SCL has great potential to function as an effective learning tool in an environment where the labor market demands generically skilled job candidates and in which universities are demanding further resources to be devoted to efforts relating to research and publications.

Hawati Janor

2013-05-01

230

Challenges for Study Centers in an Electronic Age: A case study of the Center for Distance Education at Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on developments in study centers in Germany and in particular the experience of the Center for Distance Education at Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg. Emphasis in this paper has been placed on the challenges faced by German universities in the electronic age, which in its early stages began in 1995. The purpose of this paper is to ground the establishment of open and distance study centres vis-à-vis the unique cultural and institutional circumstances characteristic of Germany and its institutions of higher education.

Ulrich Bernath

2003-04-01

231

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Chemistry Learning Center's online demonstrations  

Science.gov (United States)

Observing chemical experiments is always helpful when learning difficult chemical concepts. The Chemistry Learning Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign makes it easier to view experiments without having to actually use chemicals. Utilizing Windows Media Player and QuickTime, the online lecture demonstrations cover a variety of chemistry topics including the combustion of methanol, the electrolysis of water, and the reaction of aluminum with bromine. To better understand the videos, students and educators can find short explanations of what they will observe.

232

University of California -- Davis: Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fruit and Nut Research and Information Center (FNRIC) aids in the "coordination and dissemination of University of California (UC) research-based information, accomplishments, and statewide research and extension activities related to fruit and nut crops." The site contains a wide variety of information for many fruits and nuts including avocados, macadamia nuts, strawberries, and walnuts -- just to name a few. Most of the individual crop pages link to a handful of general publications as well as information about production management, production economics, meetings, related organizations, and more. The site also links to sections for UCCE Pomology Farm Advisor Newsletters and Publications, Pomology Weather Services, California Backyard Orchard services, and related links.

233

Evidence-Informed Leadership in the Japanese Context: Middle Managers at a University Self-Access Center  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the steering of a self-access learning center in a Japanese university by its "middle management" committee over the first years of its operation. Middle management practice was informed by an ethnographic archive of various facets of center use, particularly concerning language policy and curriculum integration, issues about…

Adamson, John; Brown, Howard

2012-01-01

234

Reconstruction of pneumatic irradiation facility in Kyoto University Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are three pneumatic sub-facilities in KUR allowing simultaneous irradiation of three samples. The Pn facility is sub-divided as follows, hot cave room (Pn-1), junior cave room (Pn-2), chemical laboratory (Pn-3). The capsule to be tested is sent into the KUR core, via the Pn facility by CO2 gas pressure and irradiated by neutrons and gamma rays in the KUR core. After irradiation, the capsule returns to the desired Pn station by similar means. The dispatch-return mechanism for the capsules was altered during this reconstruction. One major alteration in the system was the replacement of the one machine used for dispatch and return, by two machines for despatch and return. In consequence of this new design, the dispatch machine has a capsule setting box, and the return machine has a return ball valve. The electric circuitry for this system was improved at this time. A new emergency return circuit was added, and the photodetector system that indicated the insertion of the capsule into the core was refined. In addition, the CO2 gas tank, use for the capsule propulsion, was transfered from the reactor basement to the rear area of the hot laboratory. This was done to facilitate easy access to the gas tank for future repressurization of low CO2 gas tank pressures. (author)

235

Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced

236

The University of Maine's Advanced Manufacturing Center: Lessons Learned During the First Two Years of Operation  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Maine's College of Engineering has created an Advanced Manufacturing Center with a student-oriented mission. This center provides a distinctive engineering approach to solving manufacturing problems and gives Engineering Technology students hands-on experience working on engineering and manufacturing projects. With much of the centers work coming from off-campus businesses; the students gain practical experience with client communication, teamwork, business and project management and presentations in addition to technical skills. The program provides a paid internship opportunity for undergraduate students to gain skills in machining, manufacturing processes and fabrication by being involved in these projects. Students usually start by fabricating parts under supervision, move on to training and supervising other students and by the time they're seniors, they will likely be running projects on their own. The objective is to graduate students who have an entrepreneurial vision, combined with experience on industrial machining and fabricating equipment acquired through involvement in this unique experience of an on-campus internship in a real workplace environment. The paper will discuss the experiences and lessons learned in the first two years of operation with dozens of students participating and hundreds of projects being completed.

Christensen, Thomas E.; Dunning, Scott C.

2009-08-04

237

University Satellite Consortium and Space Education in Japan Centered on Micro-Nano Satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

in Japan especially centered on micro or nano class satellites. Hands-on training using micro-nano satellites provide unique opportunity of space education to university level students, by giving them a chance to experience the whole space project cycle from mission creation, satellite design, fabrication, test, launch, operation through analysis of the results. Project management and team working are other important skills that can be trained in these projects. include 1) low cost, which allows one laboratory in university to carry out a project, 2) short development period such as one or two year, which enables students to obtain the results of their projects before they graduate, and 3) small size and weight, which enables fabrication and test within usually very narrow university laboratory areas. In Japan, several projects such as CanSat, CubeSat or Whale Observation Satellite have been carried out, proving that micro-nano satellites provide very unique and valuable educational opportunity. with the objective to make a university student and staff community of these micro-nano satellite related activities in Japan. This consortium aims for many activities including facilitating information and skills exchange and collaborations between member universities, helping students to use ground test facilities of national laboratories, consulting them on political or law related matters, coordinating joint development of equipments or projects, and bridging between these university activities and the needs or interests of the people in general. This kind of outreach activity is essential because how to create missions of micro-nano satellites should be pursued in order for this field to grow larger than a merely educational enterprise. The final objectives of the consortium is to make a huge community of the users, mission creators, investors and manufactures(i.e., university students) of micro-nano satellites, and provide a unique contribution to the activation of the space development. activities, including how to acquire frequency permission, how to obtain launch opportunity and financial support, how to operate the launched satellites using cheap ground stations, etc. Especially, the frequency problem should be solved as soon as possible because so many universities in the world are planning similar projects and the frequency in the amateur band are already very congested. One idea is that universities should make a world wide "university satellite community" and collaboratively ask for a kind of "Educational frequency" to ITU, and share the obtained frequency within the community under the community's own management. This kind of community will also be useful for collaborative satellite operation, because the universities which have a ground station spread over the world. I hope the IAC meeting will provide a good opportunity for discussing these problems and facilitating the construction of world wide university community to tackle with these problems.

Nakasuka, S.; Kawashima, R.

2002-01-01

238

Asian School of Urology, Young Leaders' Workshop, Kyoto 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

PREFACE: As part of the 20th Anniversary Celebration of the Urological Association of Asia (UAA), the Asian School of Urology, Young Leaders' Workshop was held in Kyoto, 23-25 April 2010. The workshop focused on future national Asian leaders in the field of Urology and was arranged by the Asian School of Urology (ASU), an educational branch of the UAA, and Dr Osamu Ogawa, the workshop Organizer. Urologists from several Japanese universities contributed to the workshop as advisors, taskforce members, and group members. The workshop was also actively supported by Dr Allen Chiu (Taiwan) and Dr Stephen Lim (Singapore). A younger generation of urologists was invited to attend the workshop and, in all, 29 delegates from 17 countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam), chosen on the basis of recommendations from local councils, attended. The purpose of the workshop was to open channels of communication between future Asian leaders in Urology. The workshop topic was "Asian Clinical Guidelines". Workshop participants were divided into five groups addressing distinct issues associated with the notion of clinical guidelines: Group A, General Problems; Group B, Prostate Cancer; Group C, Stone Disease; Group D, Infectious Diseases; and Group E, Bladder Cancer. The workshop consisted of an introductory session, followed by three main sessions, each of which consisted of a group discussion of specific problems associated with the establishment of Asian Guidelines for Urological Diseases and how best to deal with them, followed by a plenary presentation of the outcomes. PMID:21198942

Ogawa, Osamu

2011-01-01

239

The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), in partnership with Sanders Morris Harris Inc., a Texas-based investment banking firm, and The Styles Company, a developer and manager of hospitals and healthcare facilities, is building a proton therapy facility near the MDACC main complex at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas USA. The MDACC Proton Therapy Center will be a freestanding, investor-owned radiation oncology center offering state-of-the-art proton beam therapy. The facility will have four treatment rooms: three rooms will have rotating, isocentric gantries and the fourth treatment room will have capabilities for both large and small field (e.g. ocular melanoma) treatments using horizontal beam lines. There will be an additional horizontal beam room dedicated to physics research and development, radiation biology research, and outside users who wish to conduct experiments using proton beams. The first two gantries will each be initially equipped with a passive scattering nozzle while the third gantry will have a magnetically swept pencil beam scanning nozzle. The latter will include enhancements to the treatment control system that will allow for the delivery of proton intensity modulation treatments. The proton accelerator will be a 250 MeV zero-gradient synchrotron with a slow extraction system. The facility is expected to open for patient treatments in the autumn of 2005. It is anticipated that 675 patients will be treated during the f 675 patients will be treated during the first full year of operation, while full capacity, reached in the fifth year of operation, will be approximately 3,400 patients per year. Treatments will be given up to 2-shifts per day and 6 days per week

240

Climate Change and Kyoto. What next? Key Issues and Challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over seven years after the negotiations in Kyoto and three years after the main detailed rules of the Kyoto Protocol were agreed in Marrakech, the Protocol finally entered into force on 16 February, 2005. It is timely therefore to explore a range of what next issues. While touching on the period from now to the end of the Protocol's first commitment period (2012), the major focus is on the future, out 'Beyond Kyoto'. In particular, the article seeks to draw out the major challenges for the public sector, both in domestic policy and the next round of international negotiations. While the science of climate change has been getting considerable media attention lately, the policy implications are less discussed

 
 
 
 
241

Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged in the development of measures to reduce the intensity of emissions of the province's economy

242

Just transition : a labour perspective on the Kyoto jobs debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) represents workers in the oil, gas, petrochemicals, electricity, uranium and related industries. In a recent national convention in 2002, the CEP voted to support ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The decision was made after an 18 month process that included research, debate, and a look at their responsibilities to defend members in addressing environmental issues. This paper presents a labour perspective of the impact of the Kyoto Accord and the Canada Climate Change Action Plan. It was emphasized that a broad social analysis is needed to understand the implications of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol on labour and society. The CEP seriously considered the claims made by the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters Association which predicted major job losses resulting from ratification of Kyoto. It also examined the link between energy supplies and the opposition by some energy industries to the Kyoto Protocol. The CEP decided that responsibility to the environment must come before concerns over economic impacts on members, but by the same token did not accept claims of major job losses. The Analysis and Modeling Group of the National Climate Change Process has projected that 1.26 million new jobs will be created in Canada over the period 2002 to 2010, which is 60,000 less jobs than would have been created in the Business as Usual Scenario. It was emphasized that the impacts of Kyoto compliance on Canada will be modest in comparison with the normal activities of a trillion dollar economy. 5 refs., 1 tab

243

Report: demonstrable progresses of the France according the Kyoto protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document constitutes the report of the France on the demonstrable progresses according the application of the 3 article of the Kyoto protocol. The first chapter is a description of the french climatic policy, as the second presents the tendencies and the projections concerning the greenhouse effect gases emissions. The chapter 3 details the policies effects and the measures ( energy, transport, industry and wastes). The last chapter is devoted to the respect of the other engagements articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

244

Kyoto protocol and its implementation in pakistan: hurdles and expectations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997 Kyoto protocol was adopted at the third session of Conference of the parties of UNFCC in Kyoto, Japan. This protocol restricts the industrialized countries and those in transition to a market economy agreed to limit or reduce their emissions. In Pakistan the government is also taking steps to reduce the pollution. This paper discusses the possible low carbon emitting electricity generation options by keeping in view the current energy scenario of Pakistan and the new energy policy announced by the Government of Pakistan for renewable energy promotion. (author)

245

EU Kyoto doubts go public | EurActiv  

...' External Links International Organisations UNFCCC:Kyoto ProtocolPress articles EurActiv Hungary:Kétségek az EU-ban a Kiotói Egyezmény jövojérol EurActiv Slovakia:EÚ má pochybnosti o Kjótskom protokole Blogs Rhein (Blogactiv):2010 Produced a New Heat Record Français Background: The 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force in 2005, commits its 183 signatories to reducing their collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% by 2012 from 1990 levels. To this end, it established a carbon market -the Clean Development Mechanism -under which emissions credits could be allocated and ...

246

The University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives: Fletcher Family  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives has continued to add to their online offerings in recent years. This latest collection is quite a pip, and it contains family correspondence from the Fletcher Family of Vermont. The family correspondence begins in 1826, and it is primarily focused around several family members who moved west to New York, Ohio, and other parts of the heartland. Throughout these letters, the various correspondents detail the process of creating and managing their new farms and the documents leave no fact (or price) unexplored as they discuss the land, grains, stock, and groceries. All told, there are 139 letters in the collection, and visitors can click on the "Browse the Collection" section to view the letters listed by author. Additionally, visitors can search the collection by keyword, title, or subject.

247

UCSD-San Diego Supercomputer Center/University of Massachusetts: Protein Explorer  

Science.gov (United States)

While certainly a fantastic educational resource, the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) website is definitely geared towards those with a background in or who are currently studying proteins. The site, authored by Eric Martz of the University of Massachusetts, offers several flash-enabled movies that allow viewers to study protein molecules from a three dimensional point of view. As the site notes, "for visualizing the three-dimensional structures of protein, DNA, and RNA macromolecules, and their interactions and binding of ligands, inhibitors, and drugs. It is arguably the easiest-to-use software of its kind. It is suitable for high school and college students (ages 16 years and older), yet it is also widely used by graduate students and researchers." Thus, beginners to the site will want to check out the Beginners Start Here section so not to get too overwhelmed with the many other areas of the site.

248

Annual report 1992 of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual report includes the research activities and the technical developments carried out at the Tandem Accelerator Center in University of Tsukuba for the period from April 1992 to March 1993. New experimental investigations were made on (1) nuclear spectroscopy was initiated by a new ? ray spectrometer; (2) polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions; (3) the application of energetic heavy ions to solid state physics; (4) the behavior of self interstitial atoms and its migration mechanism in Mo metal (5) the studies on electronic conduction of metal oxides and bronzes by NMR; (6) Moessbauer studies on Fe-Cr alloy and the RBS analysis of YBCO superconductor films; and (7) a new field was challenged on the micro cluster physics. Nuclear collective motion and the relativistic mean-field theory is also included in this report. (J.P.N.)

249

Startup of on-line chemistry at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, an irradiation system was newly installed at the K course of the AVF cyclotron facility of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The irradiation chamber is connected with a gas-jet transport system for rapid experiments. We also fabricated a rapid solvent extraction apparatus using a multi-track microchip connected with the gas-jet transport system for the purpose of studying extraction behavior of heavy actinide elements. Test experiments using lanthanide radioisotopes were carried out. At first, the transport efficiency of the lanthanide isotopes were studied in various conditions. The transport efficiency of the gas-jet system was optimized at the temperature of KCl aerosol clusters of 640degC and at the He flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The transport efficiency was varied between 10% and 60%. We currently started studying the solvent extraction behavior of Cf and Fm with this system. (author)

250

Nutritional management of enterocutaneous fistula: a retrospective study at a Malaysian university medical center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manal MH Badrasawi,1 Suzana Shahar,1 Ismail Sagap2 1Dietetics Program, School of Health Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, UKM Medical Center, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Enterocutaneous fistula is a challenging clinical condition with serious complications and considerable morbidity and mortality. Early nutritional support has been found to decrease these complications and to improve the clinical outcome. Location of the fistula and physiological status affect the nutrition management plan in terms of feeding route, calories, and protein requirements. This study investigated the nutritional management procedures at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, and attempted to determine factors that affect the clinical outcome. Nutritional management was evaluated retrospectively in 22 patients with enterocutaneous fistula seen over a 5-year period. Medical records were reviewed to obtain data on nutritional status, biochemical indices, and route and tolerance of feeding. Calories and protein requirements are reported and categorized. The results show that surgery was the predominant etiology and low output fistula was the major physiological category; anatomically, the majority were ileocutaneous. The spontaneous healing rate was 14%, the total healing rate was 45%, and the mortality rate was 22%, with 14% due to fistula-associated complications. There was a significant relationship between body mass index/serum albumin levels and fistula healing; these parameters also had a significant relationship with mortality. Glutamine was used in 50% of cases; however, there was no significant relationship with fistula healing or mortality rate. The nutritional status of the patient has an important impact on the clinical outcome. Conservative management that includes nutrition support is very important in order to improve nutritional status before surgical repair of the fistula. Keywords: enterocutaneous fistula, nutritional management, retrospective study 

Badrasawi MMH

2014-08-01

251

Thirty years of derivation of geomagnetic indices at the WDC for geomagnetism, Kyoto and lessons learnt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The derivation of AE, Dst and ASY/SYM indices started at the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, in 1978, 1985 and 1990, respectively. Before we started derivation of the AE indices, they were derived at the University of Alaska and then at NOAA. On the Dst index, it was derived and distributed by Prof. Masahisa Sugiura for long time at NASA/GSFC and when he moved to Kyoto University, we succeeded the service. The method of derivation of the AE and the Dst indices had been established when we succeeded derivation and they were rather simple. Most of the problems we had so far relate to obtaining the data used for the derivation. It is essential to get continuous data with high quality, however, it is not so easy for each observatory to keep the quality high under severe conditions in economic, political or technical aspects. International supports such as IAGA resolutions helped very much to improve the situation and continue derivation. Another problem we experienced was the change (or variety) of needs. Progress in space weather research or many new satellite programs requested more quick (or real-time) derivation of the indices, and our efforts were devoted to near real-time data transfer and derivation since middle of 1990's. The efforts still continue under the collaboration with various groups, institutions and observatories. In this talk, we report our current status.

252

Spin S = 1 centers: a universal type of paramagnetic defects in nanodiamonds of dynamic synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrinsic paramagnetic defects in ?5 nm sized nanodiamonds, produced by various dynamic synthesis (DySND) techniques (detonation, shock-wave, pulsed laser ablation of solid carbon containing targets), have been studied by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). X-band (9-10 GHz) EPR spectra of DySND, in addition to the main intensive singlet Lorentzian-like EPR signal, reveal a low intensity doublet pattern within the half-field (HF) region (g ? 4). On transferring spectra to the Q-band (34 GHz) the shape of the HF pattern changes and splitting between doublet components is reduced from 10.4 to 2.6 mT. The HF patterns observed are attributed to the 'forbidden' ?M(S) = 2 transitions between the Zeeman levels of some spin-triplet (S = 1) centers. The model of two triplet centers with g ? 2.003 and zero-field splitting parameters D(1) = 0.095 cm(-1) (TR1) and D(2) = 0.030 cm(-1) (TR2) satisfactorily describes experimental results at both microwave frequencies. The spin-triplet-type defects are observed in a wide variety of DySND samples irrespective of industrial supplier, cooling and carbon soot refinement methods, initial purity, disintegration, or subsequent targeted chemical modification. This indicates that the intrinsic defects with S = 1 in DySND systems are of universal origin. PMID:22551526

Shames, A I; Yu Osipov, V; von Bardeleben, H J; Vul', A Ya

2012-06-01

253

Spin S = 1 centers: a universal type of paramagnetic defects in nanodiamonds of dynamic synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intrinsic paramagnetic defects in ?5 nm sized nanodiamonds, produced by various dynamic synthesis (DySND) techniques (detonation, shock-wave, pulsed laser ablation of solid carbon containing targets), have been studied by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). X-band (9-10 GHz) EPR spectra of DySND, in addition to the main intensive singlet Lorentzian-like EPR signal, reveal a low intensity doublet pattern within the half-field (HF) region (g ? 4). On transferring spectra to the Q-band (34 GHz) the shape of the HF pattern changes and splitting between doublet components is reduced from 10.4 to 2.6 mT. The HF patterns observed are attributed to the ‘forbidden’ ?MS = 2 transitions between the Zeeman levels of some spin-triplet (S = 1) centers. The model of two triplet centers with g ? 2.003 and zero-field splitting parameters D1 = 0.095 cm-1 (TR1) and D2 = 0.030 cm-1 (TR2) satisfactorily describes experimental results at both microwave frequencies. The spin-triplet-type defects are observed in a wide variety of DySND samples irrespective of industrial supplier, cooling and carbon soot refinement methods, initial purity, disintegration, or subsequent targeted chemical modification. This indicates that the intrinsic defects with S = 1 in DySND systems are of universal origin. (paper)

254

Quality improvement in patient distribution at a major university student health center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthcare in a major university setting poses unusual challenges and great opportunities. Two traditionally challenging areas in patient distribution are the initial intake of allergy/immunization patients and the triage of outpatients in the general medical clinic. The authors describe the use of the FOCUS-PDCA quality improvement (QI) problem-solving process for each situation. After identifying major problems, the health center established cross-functional teams of experts representing the allergy/immunization and general medical clinics. The teams analyzed the problems with a flow chart and undertook studies to further elucidate causes and potential solutions. They listed potential solutions in order of priority and submitted them to the student health center director for review and initiation. Each team then used the PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle to put approved solutions into effect. Permanent improvements made in each area resulted in a more effective and efficient patient distribution system, favorable staff comment, and greater patient satisfaction. PMID:12701656

Hoskins, Edward J; Sayger, Sarah A; Westman, James S

2002-05-01

255

Phased implementation of AT and T PACS at Duke University Medical Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

''Help me communicate more quickly and more effectively with referring clinicians''. This request was the driving behind the installation of the AT and T CommView System at Duke. The CommView System is a type of Digital Image Management System and Picture Archival Communication System whose chief purpose is to deliver interpolated diagnostic images to referring clinicians and attending physicians. The system acquires electronic images from modalities in a diagnostic imaging facility, stores these images in computer managed patient files and distributes these on demand over fiber optic cable to Display Consoles. The CommView System was designed at AT and T Bell Labs; it uses fiber optic ribbon cable between buildings fused to multistrand lightguide building cables to distribute images, typically around a medical center or campus at data transfer rates of 40 Mbps. This paper gives the rationale used in designing a start-up network and placing the initial equipment for a field of the AT and T CommView System in the Radiology Department of Duke University Medical Center

256

A longitudinal person-centered examination of nonsuicidal self-injury among university students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the development and maintenance of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) over time; however, identifying individuals at risk for NSSI onset or its recurrent engagement is of critical importance for developing effective prevention and intervention strategies. To address this important gap in the literature, we used a person-centered approach to study patterns of change among self-injurers (i.e., new beginners, recovered injurers, relapsers, desisters, and persistent injurers). Undergraduate students (N = 666, 71.1 % female, M age = 19.15) from a mid-sized Canadian university participated in the two-wave study (assessments were 1 year apart). Participants completed the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (ISAS, Klonsky and Glenn in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 31:215-219, 2009) at Time 1, and a measure of past year NSSI frequency 1 year later. Participants also completed several measures of psychosocial risk (e.g., problem behaviors, problems with parents) at both time points. Consistent with Nock's (Ann Rev Clin Psychol 6:339-363, 2010) model on the development of NSSI over time, individuals who continued to engage in NSSI across the university years (i.e., persistent injurers) reported greater levels of psychosocial risk as compared to those in the other groups. Moreover, a discriminant function analysis revealed that new beginners, relapsed injurers, and persistent injurers were differentiated from recovered injurers and desisters by increases over time in problem behaviors, problems with parents, internalizing behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Our findings provide new insight into the course of NSSI engagement across the university years, and offer clinicians ways to discriminate among individuals with varying longitudinal patterns of NSSI (i.e., on measures of psychosocial risk, and motivations to stop self-injuring). PMID:23933867

Hamza, Chloe A; Willoughby, Teena

2014-04-01

257

New Cosmic Center Universe Model Matches Eight of Big Bang's Major Predictions Without The F-L Paradigm  

CERN Document Server

Accompanying disproof of the F-L expansion paradigm eliminates the basis for expansion redshifts, which in turn eliminates the basis for the Cosmological Principle. The universe is not the same everywhere. Instead the spherical symmetry of the cosmos demanded by the Hubble redshift relation proves the universe is isotropic about a nearby universal Center. This is the foundation of the relatively new Cosmic Center Universe (CCU) model, which accounts for, explains, or predicts: (i) The Hubble redshift relation, (ii) a CBR redshift relation that fits all current CBR measurements, (iii) the recently discovered velocity dipole distribution of radiogalaxies, (iv) the well-known time dilation of SNeIa light curves, (v) the Sunyaev-Zeldovich thermal effect, (vi) Olber's paradox, (vii) SN dimming for z 1 an enhanced brightness that fits SN 1997ff measurements, (ix) the existence of extreme redshift (z > 10) objects which, when observed, will further distinguish it from the big bang. The CCU model also plausibly expl...

Gentry, R V

2003-01-01

258

Uncertainty in subsidies as a threat for the Kyoto target  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success of the so-called Environmental Quality of Power Generation (MEP) regulation in the Netherlands resulted in a considerable rise of the prices for electricity. Therefore, the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs decided to put a maximum on the incentive ('ceiling') for systems powered by renewable electricity. However, it might jeopardize the targets for the Netherlands as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol

259

The costs and benefits of early action before Kyoto compliance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transaction costs have negative effects on emissions trading. Recent debates on the Kyoto Protocol have emphasized the potential threat of transaction costs to the implementation of emissions trading for the Protocol and consequently to the successful implementation of the Protocol. One way to suppress transaction costs is to use experience. In line with the EU Green Paper, we propose that an experimental early action before the Kyoto period could be helpful to reduce the transaction costs in emissions trading for the Kyoto compliance. However, because early action will incur additional costs, the final gain due to early action will be the cost-saving net of the costs of early action. This paper explores the relationship between the transaction costs in emissions trading and the early action effort to reduce transaction costs in the case of Kyoto Protocol. We find that in general early action can effectively offset transaction costs and thus are economically efficient. Only in the case of high transaction costs and constantly slow learning process, early action may become inefficient

260

Making it work: Kyoto, trade and politics : Executive summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this document, the author examines the constraints that would be placed on policy makers in the event of the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, and how it would affect trade agreements and federalism in Canada. A description of the Protocol and the concessions (carbon sinks and international emissions trading) gained by Canada are presented at the beginning of the document. The author offers several conclusions that could disturb both proponents and opponents of the Kyoto Protocol. It is said that the implementation of Kyoto can take a route other than that of drastic domestic emissions reductions, and this position is explored in the second section. The author indicates that corporate competitiveness could be boosted by strict environmental regulations. A range of policies that could be adopted by Canada, as proposed by numerous organizations, are highlighted in the third section of the document. The point of the World Trade Organization and the constraints imposed are not necessarily preventing all types of actions. However, the author is of the opinion that the North America Free Trade Agreement represents a real threat to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, it is indicated that Canada requires a national electricity policy, where big hydro utilities and public investment have major roles to play

 
 
 
 
261

Endogenous induced technical change and the costs of Kyoto  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ication, the three versions of the model are simulated allowing for trade of pollution permits as specified in the Kyoto Protocol and assessing the implications in terms of cost efficiency, economic growth and R and D efforts of the three different specifications of technical change

262

Past and Future of the Kyoto Protocol. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

tion, we present possible future scenarios. We explore how different combinations of domestic and international commitment provide possible realities that national government may face when crafting climate policy. The third section provides an in-depth analysis of the possible event that the Kyoto Protocol fails. We discuss its definition and policy implications. The final section is reserved for overall conclusions and policy recommendations

263

The Kyoto Protocol and the coal industry in Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article is studied the possible incidence of the commitments reached in the Kyoto Protocol on the coal market, making emphasis in the Colombian case. Projections, made in a study of Hill y Associates, points out that in a scenario of greenhouse gases emissions reduction, the market of the thermal coal will be seriously affected by the incidence on their demand

264

Climate economics: post-Kyoto tracks; Economie du climat: pistes pour l'apres-Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commitments obtained by the Kyoto protocol will end in 2012. An impressive series of conferences - Bali (2007), Copenhagen (2009), Cancun (2010) to mention the main ones - were organised to prepare the post-2012 regime. Everything was supposed to be decided at the Copenhagen meeting but the state representatives came up against the obstacle. The pre-Copenhagen hope has given place to disillusion and has led to a turn-off towards a weekly coordinated regime which requires a strategic revision of approaches. This book presents the lessons learnt from the relative failure of these negotiations and proposes new paths for the future. It puts forward some strategic stakes that have to be taken into account for the future: the equity between very heterogeneous countries and populations, the industrial competitiveness, the carbon leaks and the violation of the most ambitious climate policies due to the heterogeneity of commitment levels, and the geopolitical reality. The world will have to live for a long time with heterogeneous carbon prices, themselves reflecting heterogeneous commitment levels. New modalities have to be defined which would manage to combine justice and efficiency. Two complementary paths are developed in this book: the establishing of adjustment mechanisms at borders and of international sectoral agreements. (J.S.)

Godard, Olivier; Ponssard, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire d' Econometrie, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2011-03-19

265

Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ocean iron fertilization is currently discussed as a potential measure to mitigate climate change by enhancing oceanic CO2 uptake. Its mitigation potential is not yet well explored, and carbon offsets generated through iron fertilization activities could currently not be traded on regulated carbon markets. Still, commercial interests in ocean iron fertilization already exist, which underlines the need to investigate a possible regulatory framework for it. To this end, I first discuss important basic aspects of ocean iron fertilization, namely its scientific background, quantitative potential, side effects, and costs. In a second step, I review regulatory aspects connected to ocean iron fertilization, like its legal status and open access issues. Moreover, I analyze how the regulations for afforestation and reforestation activities within the framework of the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be applied to ocean iron fertilization. Main findings are that the quantitative potential of ocean iron fertilization is limited, that costs are higher than initially hoped, and that potential adverse side effects are severe. Moreover, the legal status of ocean iron fertilization is currently not well defined, open access might cause inefficiencies, and the CDM regulations could not be easily applied to ocean iron fertilization.

266

Standardized ultrasound evaluation of carotid stenosis for clinical trials: University of Washington Ultrasound Reading Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serial monitoring of patients participating in clinical trials of carotid artery therapy requires noninvasive precision methods that are inexpensive, safe and widely available. Noninvasive ultrasonic duplex Doppler velocimetry provides a precision method that can be used for recruitment qualification, pre-treatment classification and post treatment surveillance for remodeling and restenosis. The University of Washington Ultrasound Reading Center (UWURC provides a uniform examination protocol and interpretation of duplex Doppler velocity measurements. Methods Doppler waveforms from 6 locations along the common carotid and internal carotid artery path to the brain plus the external carotid and vertebral arteries on each side using a Doppler examination angle of 60 degrees are evaluated. The UWURC verifies all measurements against the images and waveforms for the database, which includes pre-procedure, post-procedure and annual follow-up examinations. Doppler angle alignment errors greater than 3 degrees and Doppler velocity measurement errors greater than 0.05 m/s are corrected. Results Angle adjusted Doppler velocity measurements produce higher values when higher Doppler examination angles are used. The definition of peak systolic velocity varies between examiners when spectral broadening due to turbulence is present. Examples of measurements are shown. Discussion Although ultrasonic duplex Doppler methods are widely used in carotid artery diagnosis, there is disagreement about how the examinations should be performed and how the results should be validated. In clinical trails, a centralized reading center can unify the methods. Because the goals of research examinations are different from those of clinical examinations, screening and diagnostic clinical examinations may require fewer velocity measurements.

Beach Kirk W

2010-09-01

267

State University of New York, Health Science Center at Stony Brook: Clinical Practice Management Plan. Report 94-S-34.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation was done of the use of funds generated by clinical practices at the Clinical Practice Management Plan of the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center (HSC) at Stony Brook. The audit looked at compliance with Board of Trustee policies regarding: (1) whether 5 percent of the gross receipts from clinical practices were…

New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

268

Creating a Classroom of Inquiry at the University of California at Berkeley: The Harold E. Jones Child Study Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: Three former teaching colleagues at the University of California's Harold E. Jones Child Study Center discuss an interpretative approach to child observation and assessment and how this approach was developed (1970s-2005) within this lab school's early childhood education setting. With teaching practice shaped and driven by a…

Scales, Barbara; Perry, Jane; Tracy, Rebecca

2012-01-01

269

A historical perspective on the University of Nebraska Medical Center's College of Dentistry Class of 1961.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a retrospective analysis of the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) College of Dentistry (COD) Class of 1961 to glean information that might be useful in the design of dental education programs in Nebraska and elsewhere. We scanned annual class newsletters, demographic statistics for students entering the UNMC dental program for each decade from 1961 to 2001, and UNMC COD alumni data for patterns and themes among thirty-two dental professionals. Eighty-four percent of those contacted provided responses to a survey. We found that, like current dental cohorts nationwide, the UNMC COD Class of 1961 is mostly of European ancestry (non-Hispanic) and male. But in contrast to current dental college graduates, the UNMC Class of '61 were able to rely upon self-employment and spousal and/or military support (GI Bill) to cover the costs of their dental education. They also were more likely to enter dental school before completion of an undergraduate degree and have a substantial work history before entering the UNMC dental program. Although the most common reason for attending dental school related to independence and financial security, "time with family" and "family vacations" were the next most important reasons cited for becoming dental professionals. Among '61 graduates, the average number of years spent in the dental profession is thirty-seven years. Despite the notable changes in dental technology and the continual need for updating knowledge and skill, eight members of the UNMC COD Class of 1961 continue to practice dentistry. Most maintain contact with other class members, providing support to former classmates and maintaining an identity with their alma mater, the University of Nebraska. PMID:16741135

Willis, Mary S; Badakhsh, Roshan A

2006-06-01

270

Medication therapy management clinic: perception of healthcare professionals in a University medical center setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application. Results: Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32% completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as ‘excellent’, 44% as ‘good’, 5% as ‘fair’, and 0% stated ‘poor’. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise.Conclusion: In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.

Shah M

2013-09-01

271

78 FR 25469 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Completion: University of South Alabama...Archaeological Studies, Mobile, AL...SUMMARY: The University of South Alabama...Archaeological Studies has completed...Archaeological Studies Officials of the University of South...

2013-05-01

272

Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2014-04-27

273

Climate Change and Politics: The US Abandons Kyoto  

Science.gov (United States)

Last week, the Bush administration announced that it would not sign the Kyoto Protocol, provoking harsh criticism around the world and in the US. Immediately following the Bush announcement, the Senate voted against Bush's wish to cut funding for climate change programs. The Kyoto Protocol, a 1997 addition to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, is an international agreement that seeks to curb global warming through several means, primarily by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases on a country-specific basis. Although a signed treaty would need to be ratified in order to take effect -- a big step which all parties agree contains uncertainty -- the important first step is to sign the treaty. Quite simply, without the Kyoto Protocol, there seems to be little domestic action to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, and no coordinated global approach. The countries that have signed the Protocol have made a public commitment to the future global environment by agreeing to impose unpopular restrictions on polluters at home. The Bush administration, however, has refused to sign, seeking a different "proactive solution" which currently exempts the US from regulation (the details of that proactive solution have yet to be revealed). Meanwhile, the Bush administration is justifying self-exemption in several ways: first, by highlighting the debate over whether global warming exists (a debate that many in the scientific community have abandoned, agreeing that global warming is indeed real, though its causes have yet to be established). Second, by claiming that existing US forests should exempt the US from regulatory actions because trees "soak up" unwanted greenhouse gases. One problem that the 84 nations/ signatories have with the US proposal is that it seems like a non-proposal; scientific experiments suggest that trees alone cannot curb global warming and that reductions in current emission levels are absolutely necessary (but can only be accomplished through strong political will). Perhaps more significantly, the refusal of the most powerful nation on earth to commit to the Kyoto Protocol, in contrast to the commitments of others, has sparked strong resentment abroad and from some US groups. The recognition that global warming could wreak havoc on earth's ecosystems (through sea level rise, spread of disease, unfavorable climate for agriculture, etc.) has led current signatories of the Protocol to seek new measures and greater flexibility, in order to encourage the US to sign. But the future of the Kyoto Protocol, and indeed, the willingness of nations to cooperate in a global effort to reduce pollution, is uncertain. This week's In The News takes a look at the recent events and provides background information on the Kyoto Protocol and the science behind global warming.

Payne, Laura X.

2001-01-01

274

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the fifth annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, as well as the third of the Nuclear and Solid State Research Project at the University of Tsukuba. It contains the short descriptions of the activities during the period from April, 1979, to March, 1980. The 12 UD Pelletron has worked well and was utilized over 2900 hours as the time of beam on targets. The performance of the polarized ion source has been quite good, and it produced the beams of polarized protons and deuterons as well as of alpha particles. The sputter ion source (TUNIS) replaced the direct extraction duoplasmatron in most cases, and it produced the beams of isotopes of O, F, Si, Cl, Ni, Cu, etc., without gas injection. The construction of the second measuring room has been completed, and four beam courses are equipped with a general purpose scattering chamber, the devices for perturbed angular correlation, inner and outer shell ionization, and biological studies. The beam pulsing system was installed on the accelerator, and will be in operation soon. Further efforts have been made to develop detection and data processing systems. The examples of the recent researches mainly under the program of the NSSRP in various fields are enumerated. The exchange and collaboration with other institutions were active. (Kako, I.)

275

Iowa State University's undergraduate minor, online graduate certificate and resource center in NDE  

Science.gov (United States)

Nondestructive evaluation is a `niche' subject that is not yet offered as an undergraduate or graduate major in the United States. The undergraduate minor in NDE offered within the College of Engineering at Iowa State University (ISU) provides a unique opportunity for undergraduate aspiring engineers to obtain a qualification in the multi-disciplinary subject of NDE. The minor requires 16 credits of course work within which a core course and laboratory in NDE are compulsory. The industrial sponsors of Iowa State's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, and others, strongly support the NDE minor and actively recruit students from this pool. Since 2007 the program has graduated 10 students per year and enrollment is rising. In 2011, ISU's College of Engineering established an online graduate certificate in NDE, accessible not only to campus-based students but also to practicing engineers via the web. The certificate teaches the fundamentals of three major NDE techniques; eddy-current, ultrasonic and X-ray methods. This paper describes the structure of these programs and plans for development of an online, coursework-only, Master of Engineering in NDE and thesis-based Master of Science degrees in NDE.

Bowler, Nicola; Larson, Brian F.; Gray, Joseph N.

2014-02-01

276

Twenty years' experience at the Heart Transplant Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objectives. The Heart Transplantation Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, now has 20 years' experience with heart transplantation (HTX). This study aims to evaluate long-term outcome after HTX including incidences of cancer and severe renal dysfunction. Design. Outcomes were reviewed using the transplant database of our department, the Scandiatransplant database, hospital medical records, and national database of biopsies. Results. From December 31, 1992 to February 27, 2013, a total of 258 patients underwent index HTX. Survival for the whole patient cohort at 1 month and 1 year was 95% and 88%. Long-term survival estimates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 80%, 70%, 55%, and 40%, respectively. Median survival time was 15.6 years. Significant improvement in survival was observed from the 1992-1998 vs. 1999-2005 era and the 1992-1998 vs. the 2006-2012 era. Three patients (1%) underwent renal transplantation, and 29 patients (11%) developed severe renal dysfunction requiring dialysis. Sixty-four (25%) patients developed cancer, with skin cancer being most common. Conclusion. HTX is an excellent treatment for selected patients with end-stage heart failure. The prognosis has improved in the latest transplantation eras. With balanced immunosuppressive treatment, severe renal dysfunction and cancer can be limited to an acceptable level.

Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Munk, Kim

2013-01-01

277

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, 1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This annual report covers the research activities and technical developments of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, in the period from April, 1987 to March, 1988. In the field of nuclear physics, the elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons from even-even medium weight nuclei was investigated systematically by light ion beam experiment. A QDQ type magnetic spectrograph for double scattering experiment was almost complete. The studies on heavy ion-induced fission reaction advanced by measuring anisotropy in fission angular distribution, and a view on the mechanism of the reaction was acquired. A new, ingenious technique enabled to identify prompt characteristics X-ray accompanying the fusion reaction induced by heavy ions. In the field of atomic and solid state physics, a strange dependence of equilibrium charge state on the atomic number of projectile heavy ions has been elucidated. The research on ion beam shadowing effect on the emission of ion-induced secondary electrons was continued. The Rutherford backscattering of O4+ ions was applied to determine the composition of Y-Ba-Cu oxide film, and it shed light on the condition governing the nature of superconductive materials. The 12 UD Pelletron was operated quite satisfactorily. (Kako, I.)

278

Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center: New Facility Set-up  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated tumors compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. C-ion RT for the first patient at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center (GHMC was initiated in March of 2010. The major specifications of the facility were determined based on the experience of clinical treatments at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, with the size and cost being reduced to one-third of those at NIRS. The currently indicated sites of cancer treatment at GHMC are lung, prostate, head and neck, liver, rectum, bone and soft tissue. Between March 2010 and July 2011, a total of 177 patients were treated at GHMC although a total of 100 patients was the design specification during the period in considering the optimal machine performance. In the present article, we introduce the facility set-up of GHMC, including the facility design, treatment planning systems, and clinical preparations.

Tatsuya Ohno

2011-10-01

279

Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0?years; interquartile range, 26.8-34.5?years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer. PMID:24764635

Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário Dos Santos, Patrícia

2014-04-01

280

A microtomography beamline at the Louisiana State University Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices synchrotron  

Science.gov (United States)

A microtomography beamline has been recently assembled and is currently operating at the Louisiana State University's Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices synchrotron (CAMD). It has been installed on a bending magnet white-light beamline at port 7A. With the storage ring operating at 1.5 GeV, this beamline has a maximum usable x-ray energy of ˜15 keV. The instrumentation consists of computer-controlled positioning stages for alignment and rotation, a CsI(Tl) phosphor screen, a reflecting mirror, a microscope objective (1:1, 1:4), and Linux/LabVIEW-controlled charge coupled device. With the 1:4 objective, the maximum spatial resolution is 2.25 ?m. The positioning and image acquisition computers communicate via transfer control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP). A small G4/Linux cluster has been installed for the purpose of on-site reconstruction. Instrument, alignment and reconstruction programs are written in MATLAB, IDL, and C. The applications to date are many and we present several examples. Several biological samples have been studied as part of an effort on biological visualization and computation. Future improvements to this microtomography station include the addition of a double-multilayer monochromator, allowing one to evaluate the three-dimensional elemental composition of materials. Plans also include eventual installation at the CAMD 7 T wiggler beamline, providing x rays in excess of 50 keV to provide better penetration of higher mass-density materials.

Ham, Kyungmin; Jin, Hua; Butler, Leslie G.; Kurtz, Richard L.

2002-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dr vicente vérez bencomo, director, center for the study of synthetic antigens, university of havana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr Vicente Vérez Bencomo is a world-renowned scientist who led the team that discovered and developed the Cuban Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine using a synthetic antigen - the first of its kind in the world. Educated in Cuba, Russia, and France, Dr Vérez has received numerous awards for his groundbreaking work, including the World Intellectual Property Organization's Gold Medal (2005), and the Cuban National Chemistry Award (2006). The Cuban Hib vaccine is undergoing evaluation by the World Health Organization for vaccination packages for use in the developing world. Dr Vérez has published widely in international scientific journals of impact and is the Cuban representative to the International Carbohydrates Organization and Senior Member of the Cuban Academy of Sciences. He is currently Director of the Center for the Study of Synthetic Antigens, under the aegis of the University of Havana's Chemistry Department. He sat down with MEDICC Review to talk about the global burden of Haemophilus influenzae type b, what motivates him as a scientist, how synthetic antigens might be applied to other vaccines, and what he is currently working on. PMID:21483376

Gorry, Conner

2008-10-01

282

Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Center (JCPRG), Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Steering Committee progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Nuclear Reaction Data Center (JCPRG) was approved as an organisation of Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University and established on April 1, 2007. In addition to nuclear data activities carried out by JCPRG (Japan-Charged Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group), the centre is concerned with the evaluation of nuclear reaction data in nucleosynthesis in the universe. In order efficiently to compile reaction data obtained by using radioactive ion beam, the centre signed a research contract with RIKEN Nishina Center. We are scanning 16 journals for Japanese charged-particle and photo-nuclear nuclear reaction data compilation. From April 2006 to March 2007, CPND and PhND in 45 references (453 records, 1.83 MB) have been newly compiled for NRDF. Usually new data are released at the JCPRG web site several months prior to EXFOR. Since the 2006 NRDC meeting, we have made 104 new entries and have revised or deleted 142 old entries. Intensive numerical data compilations have been done. These data were shown in tabular form in dissertations which are (partially) published in Journals. About 30 new entries were compiled from these data. We have prepared CINDA batches for CPND published in Japan every half year. Each batch covers 6 issues of each of 4 Japanese journals JPJ, PTP, NST and JNRS. Bibliographies for neutron induced reaction data have been compiled by JAEA Nuclear Data Center as before. A new web-based NRDF search and plot system on MySQL was released in July, 2007. New compilation, which has been finalized for NRDF, but not for EXFOR, can be obtained from this site. DARPE (another NRDF search and plot system written in Perl) is also available at http://www.jcprg.org/darpe/. EXFOR/ENDF (http://www.jcprg.org/exfor/) search and plot system is available. We have also developed following utilities: PENDL (http://www.jcprg.org/endf/) and RENORM (http://www.jcprg.org/renorm). We are developing a new search system of CINDA. This is an extension of EXFOR/ENDF search system mentioned above. A preliminary version of the system is available at http://www.jcprg.org/cinda/. A Java-based digitizing system GSYS has been updated and released as GSYS Ver.2.2. We are interested in describing nuclear reaction data in XML (Extensible Markup Language), which might be a common (meta-) format of nuclear reaction data for various libraries (NRDF, EXFOR, ENDF etc.) and enable us to have common bases of software. We provide Japanese researchers in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear engineering with nuclear reaction data. For more information, we published the Annual Report of Nuclear Reaction Data File Vol.20 in March 2007 (Japanese + English abstract, http://www.jcprg.org/annual/annual-e.html). We have also issued a list of newly added data into EXFOR every month (http://www.jcprg.org/exfor/info/recentdata.html) in a CINDA like format. We have received many comments on EXFOR compilation from Japanese users (mainly JENDL evaluators). These comments have been listed to a table (http://www.jcprg.org/exfor/info/feedbacks.html), and forwarded to other centres

283

God and Gays at Georgetown: Observations on Gay Rights Coalition of Georgetown University Law Center v. Georgetown University.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case in which a Georgetown University gay student group sued the institution for its refusal to allow use of university facilities is discussed, focusing on the conflicts between freedom of religious exercise and statutory civil rights and between libertarian and egalitarian values. (MSE)

Dutile, Ferdinand N.

1988-01-01

284

Can Equity Enhance Efficiency? Lessons from the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the relationship between different equity rules and the incentives to sign and ratify a climate agreement. A widespread conjecture suggests that a more equitable ex-ante distribution of the burden of reducing emissions would provide the right incentives for more countries - particularly big emitters - to accept an emission reduction scheme defined within an international climate agreement. This paper shows that this conjecture is only partly supported by the empirical evidence that can be derived from the Kyoto Protocol. Even though more equitable burden sharing rules provide better incentives to sign and ratify a climate agreement than the burden-sharing rule implicit in the Kyoto Protocol, a stable global agreement cannot be achieved. A possible strategy to achieve a global agreement without free-riding incentives is a policy mix in which global emission trading is coupled with a transfer mechanism designed to offset ex-post incentives to free ride

285

Outlook of possibility for meeting the Kyoto target of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol requires Annex I countries to reduce their GHG emissions between 2008 and 2012. The emission reduction target of Japan in the Kyoto Protocol is 6% relative to 1990. While it had been highly expected to achieve the target due to large efforts of emission reductions and economic crisis after the Lehman Shock, it is now very uncertain about the possibility to meet the target after the severe accident of the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power. This paper analyzes the possibility to meet the target in Japan by different possible scenarios on substituted fossil fuel power plants from nuclear power, energy savings, and operation resumption of nuclear power. According to the analyses, it is still uncertain for the achievement of the target. Several measures including use of power plants having low CO2 intensity, energy saving, and operation resumption of nuclear power will be needed in order to achieve the target with high possibility. (author)

286

Kyoto Protocol Objectives in Croatia Energy Planning: Nuclear Scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Croatia as an Annex I country of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and a country that has pledged in the Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 5% from the pre-transition level by the budget period 2008-12, will have to envisage a new energy strategy. Compared to the energy consumption collapse in some transitional countries like Russia and Ukraine, Croatia has passed through a relatively limited long term reduction of GHG emissions since 1990 because of higher efficiency of its pre-transition economy. It is expected that in case of business as usual scenario it will breach the Kyoto target in 2003 since the demand for energy will be high, especially as the income continues to rise, particularly in domestic use for heating, for transport and for electricity generation. Several scenarios of developing energy system are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions. The energy sector that will most probably be the most influenced by the UNFCCC objectives is electricity generation. Several scenarios are compared. The cost-effective scenario expects a mixture of coal and gas fired power plants to be built to satisfy the new demand and to replace the old power plants that are being decommissioned. More Kyoto friendly scenario envisages the construction of mostly nuclear power plants in the future, while decommissioning the old ones as planned, and is compared to the others from the GHG emissions point of view. The conclusion is that by measures tackling only electricity generation it will not be possible to keep GHG emission under the Kyoto target level, but that choosing the nuclear option might reduce significantly the cost of compliance. (author)

287

Mapping Land Use Changes for the Kyoto Reporting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kyoto-rapportering til De Forenede Nationers rammekonvention om klimaændringer (UNFCCC) omfatter en sammenligning af arealanvendelsen i 1990, 2005 og 2008-2012, som er nødvendig for at identificere de ændringer i arealanvendelsen og til at beregne de mulige ændringer i kulstoflagrene. For at udføre rapporteringen til UNFCCC er pålidelige og nøjagtige oplysninger om areal og areal ændringer derfor afgørende vigtigt for udviklingen af kulstoflagrene. Dette paper beskriver de bestræbelser på at udvikle en metode til at opfylde disse krav i Danmark.

Pedersen, Birger Faurholt

288

Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more accessible to outside users (5) provide support to graduate students for conducting research on lightweight automotive materials and structures (6) provide industry/university interaction through a graduate certificate program on automotive materials and technology idea exchange through focused seminars and symposia on automotive materials.

Mallick, P. K.

2012-08-30

289

An economic assessment of the Kyoto Protocol application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scope of this paper is to investigate scenarios concerning the economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol (The Kyoto Protocol to the Convention on Climate change, http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf) in its current version including the clean development mechanisms (CDMs), the Marrakesh Accords (Seventh session of the Conference of Parties, 29 October-9 November, Marrakesh, Morocco, http://unfccc.int/cop7/index.html) and the Conference of Parties 9 in Milan (Nineth session of the Conference of Parties, 1-12 December, Milan, http://unfccc.int/cop9/index.html). The general equilibrium model, GTAP-E was used for the investigation of the experiments which are focused on the cases of the USA participation and on the role of Russia as a major emission credits seller. A significant issue in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations is the introduction of sinks in the Marrakech Accords. This seems to weaken the initial targets by replacing CO2 emissions reduction with forestation activities and reduces the cost of the Protocol compliance. It is also shown that the absence of the USA may reduce the costs for the other developed countries and may influence the total costs more than the CDMs. A new scenario is studied by introducing a guaranteed minimum of 60% in the emission credits sold by Russia. Results show that the profits of Russia are not significantly affected by the guaranteed minimum

290

As if Kyoto mattered: The clean development mechanism and transportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most rapidly growing anthropogenic source. In the future, the developing world will account for the largest share of transport GHG increases. Four basic components drive transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions: activities (A), mode share (S), fuel intensity (I) and fuel choice (F) (ASIF). Currently, the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) serves as the main international market-based tool designed to reduce GHG emissions from the developing world. Theoretically, the CDM has the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve 'sustainable development' goals and industrialized countries meet their Kyoto emissions reduction commitments. This paper reviews overall CDM activities and transportation CDM activities to date and then presents findings from three case studies of transportation CDM possibilities examined with the ASIF framework in Santiago de Chile. The analysis suggests that bus technology switch (I) provides a fairly good project fit for the CDM, while options aimed at inducing mode share (S) to bicycle, or modifying travel demand via land use changes (ASI) face considerable challenges. The implications of the findings for the CDM and the 'post-Kyoto' world are discussed

291

Is Kyoto Fatally Flawed? An Analysis with MacGEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present some numerical simulations with the MacGEM model to evaluate the consequences of the recent Marrakesh agreements and the defection of the USA for the Kyoto Protocol. MacGEM is a global marginal abatement cost model for carbon emissions from fossil fuel use based on the GEM-E3-World general equilibrium. Nonparticipation of the USA causes the equilibrium carbon price in Annex B countries to fall by approximately 50% since an important share of permit demand falls out. Carbon sinks enhancement activities enable Parties to fulfil their reduction commitment at lower compliance costs and cause the equilibrium permit price to decrease by 40%. Finally, it is shown that the former Soviet Union and central European countries have substantial monopoly power in the Kyoto carbon permit market. We conclude that the recent accords have eroded completely the Kyoto Protocol's emission targets but that they have the merit to have saved the international climate change negotiation framework

292

Environment. Planet warming: the expected effects of the Kyoto protocol; Environnement. Rechauffement de la planete: les effets attendus du protocole de Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors wonder on the effects of the Kyoto protocol objectives, on the global warming: what are the consequences of the Kyoto Protocol ratification? Which changes? Why and how reducing the emissions? What will happen in 2012? What about the problem of emissions resulting from the transports? (A.L.B.)

Chauveau, J.; Meyer, K. de

2005-02-01

293

Mushroom poisonings reported to the Dokuz Eylul University drug and poison information center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Poisonings concerning mushrooms that were reported to Dokuz Eylul University Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC between 1993 and 2006 were analyzed.Methods: Age, sex, mushroom type, route and reason for the poisoning, clinical effects and outcome of the poisoned patients were recorded on standard data forms, then entered into a computerized database program. Results: Mushroom ingestions accounted 1.2 % (799 cases of 65,176 of all poisonings were reported to DPIC. More than half of the calls to DPIC involved adults (64.8%, 518 and females dominated in adults this is the opposite in children (57.9%, 292 and 47.6%, 100 for adults and children, respectively. Mean age of adults and children were 39.1±0.7 and 9.5±0.4 years, respectively. Most of the poisonings occurred in autumn (49.7%. Median time elapsed from mushroom poisoning to telephone call was 6 h (68.2%, mean 13.5±21.5 h. Type of the mushrooms were classified as suspicious toxic mushrooms (Amanita phalloides etc, 2.9%, other mushrooms (66.7% and unknown (30.4%. Mild symptoms were found to be higher in patients who presented to a health facility within in first 6 hours after ingestion than that of patients presented more than six hours after ingestion (p<0.0001. Clinical effects were graded as asymptomatic (7.4%, moderate (6.3% or severe (2.0% poisoning. Nausea with vomiting was the most common sign (32.6% followed by vomiting alone (22.0%, diarrhea (12.5% and abdominal colic (9.3%. One patients died (0.1% from unknown wild mushroom ingestion. Conclusions: Although poisonings concerning mushroom ingestion reported to our DPIC were common, most of them were mild poisonings. Mushroom poisoning cases with late presentation should be evaluated carefully by emergency physicians for deadly poisonous mushroom ingestions.

Yesim TUNCOK

2010-01-01

294

Sixteenth progress report of the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Science Center is operated by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station as a service to Texas A and M University and the State of Texas. The facility is available to the University, other educational institutions, governmental agencies, and private organizations and individuals. Reactor utilization continued to grow during 1979 with an increase in the total number of irradiations, sample irradiation hours, number of samples irradiated, and total experiment hours. Reactor operation of 85.71 Mw-days for 1979 was essentially the same as the previous year. The reactor was not pulsed during the reporting period due to a restriction on pulsing until the fuel damage study is completed

295

The Project Based Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Credible Instruments or Challenges to the Integrity of the Kyoto Protocol?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are innovative instruments which allow projects to earn credits for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The credits can in turn be used by countries to reach their emissions targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Project based mechanisms are known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI). If the project based mechanisms are to be effective policy instruments they must ensure the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol, and their ability to promote and prove real emission reductions is critical. The environmental credibility of the project based mechanisms will also ensure their ability to promote cost effectiveness. Key concepts in this context are environmental and project additionality, and their role and value for the project based mechanisms are analyzed. Environmental additionality is established by comparing a project's emissions to a baseline. The baseline's credibility is thus vital. The concept of project additionality is somewhat controversial, but is nonetheless of equal importance. The case studies of CDM approved methodologies (AMs) and proposed projects suggest that there are credibility issues that need to be addressed if the project based mechanisms are to promote real emissions reductions.

Takeuchi Waldegren, Linn

2006-03-15

296

The Dispersal of High Risk Sexual Behaviors in Different Occupations of People Referred to Council Center of Shiraz Medical University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: High risk sexual behaviors endanger young people and adolescents to HIV infection and other sexual diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the dispersal of high risk sexual behaviors in different in our referred patients to council center of Shiraz medical university.Materials and Method: This descriptive, cross sectional study was done between 2004-2009 years on referred people to council center of Shiraz medical university by census method.Results: Maximum prevalence of high risk sexual behaviors observed in women’s barber (36%, unemployed individuals (9.51% and painters (8.53%; and the maximum referred pepole observed in drivers (28.81%, unemployed individuals (22.93% and school students (14.15%.Conclusions: Totally, according to our results, we can conclude that media and health ministry must be looking for different socio-economic groups and occupations providing special training structure

Pezhman Bagheri

2012-04-01

297

University of Colorado Cancer Center study finds misidentified and contaminated cell lines lead to faulty cancer science  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern cancer therapies start in cells – researchers compare cancer samples to healthy cells to discover how cancer is genetically different, and use cell lines to test promising new drugs. However, a University of Colorado Cancer Center study published this week in the journal Gynecologic Oncology shows that due to a high rate of contamination, misidentification and redundancy in widely available cell lines, researchers may be drawing faulty conclusions.

298

Research and Educational Activities at the CREST Center for Physics and Chemistry of Materials at Fisk University  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for Physics and Chemistry of Materials (CPCoM) at Fisk University will establish a program that integrates high-quality science education with state-of-the-art research and develop it over the course of CREST support into an internationally recognized research center. Education of undergraduates and graduates will be a vital component of the Center. The four components of the research program at CPCoM are: (1) controlled defect formation during processing of wide-gap semiconductors for optical and electro-optical applications (crystal growth and materials science), (2) fabrication of metal and semiconductor nanocrystals by pulsed laser deposition: linear and nonlinear optical properties (chemical physics and optics), (3) mesoscale materials for photonic applications (applied optics and spectroscopy), (4) modification, and characterization of new thin film optical materials (surface sciences).

Collins, W. Eugene

2007-11-01

299

Application of the Kyoto Mechanisms in Finland's climate policy. Report of the Finnish Committee on the Kyoto mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol are meant project-specific Joint Implementation, JI, intended for emissions reduction in the industrialised countries and the Clean Development Mechanism, CDM, designed for emissions reduction in the developing countries. Joint Implementation Projects can be found particularly in the economies-in-transition The flexible mechanisms under the Protocol also include Emissions Trading, ET, which States - and according to the view of several parties, enterprises, too - can conduct subject to rules to be later agreed upon in connection with emissions rights The international climate negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol and on drafting more detailed rules on the use of the mechanisms are still pending. In fact, the Working Group thinks that the uncertainties so far connected with the flexible mechanisms will lead to a situation in which the national climate policy must, at this stage, be primarily based on domestic reduction measures. Even if Finland were prepared to meet her climate policy obligations through domestic measures, there is, in the Working Group's opinion, skill reason to continue the preparations for the possibilities of using the Kyoto flexible mechanisms, too. The prime goal of the flexible mechanisms is an internationally cost-efficient climate policy, which creates the preconditions for the gradual tightening of emission limitations in a manner that will hinder economic and other societal activity as little as possible. Thus the flexible mechanisms can become more important during later commitment periods. According to model calculations, using the mechanisms would probably be inexpensive compared to the domestic emission reduction measures. It seems that the international markets for assigned amount units obtained through the use of the mechanisms would be big enough in view of the relatively limited immediate needs of the Finnish Climate Policy. The larger the group of countries and operators trading in the mechanisms is, the bigger cost benefits for the entire area would be achieved with the mechanisms. However, many uncertainties are connected with the picture given by the model calculations on the inexpensiveness of the project-specific mechanisms. In the opinion of the Working Group, preparations should be made for the use of the flexible mechanisms. The aim should be that the use of the Kyoto mechanisms would be based in the longer term on well functioning international markets on which enterprises can buy and sell assigned amount units within the limits laid down by the parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Working Group suggests that a task force be set up at the beginning of 2001 to prepare for the bureaucracy related to the use of the mechanisms and to make a draft for legislation concerning the organisation of these bureaucratic functions. The Working Group proposes that a broadly-based body be set up to prepare for the operating models for the use of the mechanisms and to draft the necessary legislation no later than at the stage when the main principles and rules on the use of the Kyoto mechanisms have been agreed upon in international negotiations. The Working Group states that it is important to analyse the various options for emissions trading and project-specific mechanisms in terms of their implementation. The preparedness of taking a position to possible emissions trading on the EU level and to the issues related to the Kyoto mechanisms coming up in international negotiations must be improved. The Working Group proposes that, while drafting the Finnish positions, such broadly-based analysis work on the mechanisms could be utilised more than before in which the expertise and views of the different authorities and operators would be made avail of Interaction between the authorities and operators should be increased. (orig.)

300

Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba, annual report 1998. April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operation of the 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerators was very stable until December 12, 1998. A total beam time for experiments is 2383 hours. This report describes the activities at Tandem Accelerator Center of the University of Tsukuba in fiscal year 1998. The 32 reports are presented in the 4 categories; that are (1) Accelerator and Experimental Facilities (7 reports), (2) Nuclear Physics (12 reports), (3) Atomic and Solid State Physics, and Cluster Science (10 reports), (4) Ion Beam Application (3 reports). New development of experimental instruments were made on a proton polarimeter at very low energies, a detector of atomic cluster at low velocity, a long focal-plane position sensitive detector, and a liquid-helium-free superconducting solenoid for an Ecr ion source. In the field of nuclear physics, progresses were made in proton total-reaction cross sections, the continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) theory, (d, ?X) reactions, 7Li breakup reactions, hole states via (p, d) reaction, and nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam ? ray spectroscopy. New approaches were initiated on the precise measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering to search for magnetic monopole, and on perturbed angular correlations to measure nuclear g-factors in the pico second region. The investigation of ion-induced secondary electron is made in the binary-encounter electron emission from crystalline and non crystalline targets. An applicability of ion-induced Auger electrons to structure analysis was also demonstrated. An experiments of Br and I ions opened a new approach to the study of structural defects in amorphous silica. The study of deuteron implantation into silicon single crystal resulted in an interpretation of macroscopic migration. Microscopic migration was investigated on some metals. In atomic cluster physics, angular distributions of several noble-gas ions were measured to derive a new interaction potential. Mass spectra of semiconductor and 3d-transition metal clusters were also studied. A careful test experiment of PIXE was performed on the trace element analysis of single fluid inclusions in minerals. (Y. Tanaka)

 
 
 
 
301

The Status of Nutrition Education in ACHA College and University Health Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study investigated the status of student health center nutrition services. Surveys completed by directors of 168 centers indicated that 79 percent provided some nutrition education and 96 percent had one-to-one counseling. Larger institutions were more likely to have nutrition programs. Registered dietitians were the typical service providers. (SM)

Kessler, Lisa; And Others

1992-01-01

302

Canada in Bonn: a Trojan horse for anti-Kyoto countries - Climate &  

...Canada in Bonn: a Trojan horse for anti-Kyoto countries - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist ...MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2007 / May / 20 / Canada in Bonn: a Trojan horse for anti-Kyoto countries Posted on May 20, 2007 Canada ...in Bonn: a Trojan horse for anti-Kyoto countries From Climate Action Network Canada, May 18, 2007 United Nations Negotiations on Climate Change:...Canada a Trojan horse for anti-Kyoto countries Bonn, Germany - The United Nations conference on climate change which concluded today witnessed Canada acting ...

303

Discussions from the Leaders' Roundtable on the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaders from a variety of sectors came together to discuss 4 options put forward in the 'Discussion Paper on Canada's Contribution to Addressing Climate Change', released on May 15, 2002. Their objective was to provide the federal and Alberta environment ministers with feedback prior to the federal and provincial conference on the Kyoto Protocol which sets targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Canada's target is to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012, which translates to a 240 megatonne reduction per year. In 2001, the United States withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol, and many Canadians are divided on the issue of whether Canada should ratify the Protocol and how the target can be achieved. The federal government has proposed the following 4 options to meet the target: (1) all fossil fuel producers and importers enter a cap-and-trade emissions trading system, (2) targeted measures including regulation, fiscal measures, and investments in technology and best practices to promote emission reductions by consumers and industries, (3) mixed approach of domestic trading for large final emitters, targeted measures and purchase of international pollution permits by government and business, and (4) modified mixed approach of emissions permits, targeted measures and credits to Canada for clean energy exports. The majority of leaders at the roundtable felt that Canada should design a fifth option that would commit the government to reducing GHGs without ratifying the Kyoto Protocol. They also suggested that there is a need for better analysis of the economic impacts and that the financial sector must participate in the analysis

304

Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade public goods have been shown to require a measure of equity to ensure efficiency (Chichilnisky 1996, Chichilnisky and Heal 2002). This conclusion has been validated theoretically and is also in line with what was agreed by 160 nations in the Kyoto Protocol. Somewhat surprisingly, the same conclusion applies also to trading knowledge goods. Knowledge is a global public good. This paper proposes a new property rights regimes for knowledge goods and for environmental assets that seem crucial for economic progress in the era of the Knowledge Revolution{sup TM}. (author)

Chichilnisky, G. [Columbia Univ., New York (United States)

2006-07-01

305

Options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses available options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The study includes the following sections: An introduction, an overview of proposals and establishing a network, analysis of interests of countries, selected country case studies, an overview of the issues to be considered, options for adaptation to climate change, a new approach ''Common but Differentiated Convergence'', an update of the Triptych approach, a comprehensive compromise proposal, the comparison of emission allowances under various approaches and a negotiation strategy for the EU and Germany. (orig.)

Hoehne, Niklas; Phylipsen, Dian; Ullrich, Simone; Blok, Kornelis

2005-02-15

306

Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade public goods have been shown to require a measure of equity to ensure efficiency (Chichilnisky 1996, Chichilnisky and Heal 2002). This conclusion has been validated theoretically and is also in line with what was agreed by 160 nations in the Kyoto Protocol. Somewhat surprisingly, the same conclusion applies also to trading knowledge goods. Knowledge is a global public good. This paper proposes a new property rights regimes for knowledge goods and for environmental assets that seem crucial for economic progress in the era of the Knowledge RevolutionTM. (author)

307

An evaluation of business implications of the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been commissioned by Norsk Hydro ASA and written in November-December 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly the seventh Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention in Marrakech, Morocco, in October/November 2001, and to provide an evaluation of what the finalized Kyoto Protocol means for business. The report is organized as a collection of slides with supporting text explaining the background and contents of each slide. (author)

308

On the quality of compliance mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we evaluate the compliance mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol as agreed at the seventh Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Marrakech. We differ from the literature since we concentrate on the complete set of compliance rules agreed in Marrakech and, as a new element, we systematically discuss these compliance incentives in conjunction with the implicit compliance incentives: reputation protection, emission trading and banking. We conclude that effectiveness and efficiency go hand in hand for all explicit and implicit compliance incentives except one--emission trading. Trading improves efficiency but this can also occur at the cost of increasing non-compliance

309

Green certificates - additional instruments at Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents four mechanisms, designed to realize certain objectives - to stimulate the use of electricity produced from renewable energy sources and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The operation mode of these mechanisms is analyzed and their common characteristics are determined, as well as the possibility to interact each other. The systems analysed are Tradable Green Certificates and Flexible Mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol. The Green Certificates System is explained more thoroughly because the Romanian Government chose them to promote electricity from renewable energy sources on the internal electricity market. The main characteristic of these systems, which combine elements of centralization with the use of market mechanisms are outlined

310

Taking advantage of the Kyoto mechanisms in the natural gas industry; Benefices des mecanismes de Kyoto pour l'industrie du gaz naturel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol has laid the basis of global markets for greenhouse gas emission reductions. By means of the Kyoto Mechanisms Joint Implementation, the Clean Development Mechanism and International Emissions Trading it will be possible to produce abroad and trade internationally the greenhouse gas emission reductions needed to satisfy cost-efficiently the respective demand of industrialized countries. The paper analyses options available in the natural gas sector for realizing Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism projects. Furthermore, it examines strategies that might be economically viable for companies operating in the natural gas sector for taking advantage of the Kyoto Mechanisms. (author)

Janssen, J. [Institute for Economy and the environment at the University of St. Gallen, IWOe-HSG (Switzerland)

2000-07-01

311

At University of Chicago, Dispute over Friedman Center Continues to Simmer  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the dispute about the creation of an institute named for the late economist and free-market advocate Milton Friedman at the University of Chicago. Five months after the University of Chicago announced plans to invest $200-million in an economics institute named for the late Milton Friedman, the project is still generating…

Glenn, David

2008-01-01

312

The University of Wisconsin Center for Women's Health and Women's Health Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Along with 12 other centers designated by the US Public Health Service Office on Women's Health, the Center for Women's Health and Women's Health Research is designed to provide a "one-stop shopping" model for the delivery of clinical health care services to women and a multi-disciplinary research agenda on women's health issues. Located on the site are several resources that will be of interest to visitors, including a Web site hosted by the center that is specifically designed for adolescent girls and women who have been diagnosed with scoliosis, as well as the online Wisconsin Women's Health Information Resource Directory. Visitors will also want to examine the Center's newsletter, their online calendar of events, and a news archive of reports dealing with women's health issues from a number of media sources, such as CNN, the BBC, and the New York Times.

2002-01-01

313

The role of university hospitals as centers of excellence for shared health-care-delivery of in- and outpatients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problem. Health care delivery in Germany has to face severe challenges that will lead to a closer integration of services for in- and out-patients. University hospitals play an important role due to their activities in research, education and health care delivery. They are requested to promote and evaluate new means and ways for health care delivery. Methods. The Institute of Clinical Radiology at the University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University started teleradiological services for hospitals and general practices in January 1999 in the framework of the ''Imaging services - teleradiological center of excellence''. Legal, technical and organizational prerequisites were analyzed. Results. Networks between university hospitals and general practices are not likely to solve all future problems. They will, however, increase the availability of the knowledge of experts even in rural areas and contribute to a quality ensured health care at the patients home. Future developments may lead to international co-operations and such services may be available to patients abroad. Conclusion. Legal, technical and organizational obstacles have to be overcome to create a framework for high quality telemedical applications. University hospitals will play an important role in promoting and evaluating teleradiological services. (orig.)

314

Lessons from the Kyoto Protocol / Lições do Protocolo de Quioto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma avaliação crítica do Protocolo de Quioto. Descreve-se inicialmente a evolução das discussões que produziram o documento final, utilizando como fontes documentos oficiais da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas para Mudança do Clima (CQNUMC), artigos importantes e [...] material jornalístico. Enfatizam-se a seguir os fatores que colocam em dúvida a continuidade e a factibilidade do Protocolo. Discutem-se em último lugar as expectativas para o período pós-Quioto e para um novo acordo. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to undertake a critical evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol. The evolution of the discussions that produced the final document is sketched through the analysis of official documents of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), relevant papers and m [...] aterial from the press. We also discuss the factors that cast doubts on the continuation and feasibility of the Protocol and the prospects for the post-Kyoto period and a new compromise.

Eliezer Martins, Diniz.

315

Lessons from the Kyoto Protocol / Lições do Protocolo de Quioto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma avaliação crítica do Protocolo de Quioto. Descreve-se inicialmente a evolução das discussões que produziram o documento final, utilizando como fontes documentos oficiais da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas para Mudança do Clima (CQNUMC), artigos importantes e [...] material jornalístico. Enfatizam-se a seguir os fatores que colocam em dúvida a continuidade e a factibilidade do Protocolo. Discutem-se em último lugar as expectativas para o período pós-Quioto e para um novo acordo. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to undertake a critical evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol. The evolution of the discussions that produced the final document is sketched through the analysis of official documents of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), relevant papers and m [...] aterial from the press. We also discuss the factors that cast doubts on the continuation and feasibility of the Protocol and the prospects for the post-Kyoto period and a new compromise.

Eliezer Martins, Diniz.

316

Lessons from the Kyoto Protocol / Lições do Protocolo de Quioto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma avaliação crítica do Protocolo de Quioto. Descreve-se inicialmente a evolução das discussões que produziram o documento final, utilizando como fontes documentos oficiais da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas para Mudança do Clima (CQNUMC), artigos importantes e [...] material jornalístico. Enfatizam-se a seguir os fatores que colocam em dúvida a continuidade e a factibilidade do Protocolo. Discutem-se em último lugar as expectativas para o período pós-Quioto e para um novo acordo. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to undertake a critical evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol. The evolution of the discussions that produced the final document is sketched through the analysis of official documents of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), relevant papers and m [...] aterial from the press. We also discuss the factors that cast doubts on the continuation and feasibility of the Protocol and the prospects for the post-Kyoto period and a new compromise.

Eliezer Martins, Diniz.

2007-06-01

317

GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% . PMID:12974318

Chen, Wen-ying

2003-07-01

318

Implementing the Kyoto Protocol. The role of environmental agreements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines under what circumstances voluntary agreements to curb greenhouse gas emissions could be an attractive policy option from the government`s perspective. The report begins by defining the term Environmental Agreement (EA) and then explores EAs in three steps: (1) Advantages and disadvantages of EAs compared to other policy tools (direct regulation, taxes and tradable permits), based on theoretical studies and experience from practical use, (2) The potential of EAs as an international policy tool, either in a bilateral or regional setting, (3) The attractiveness of EAs to implement the Kyoto Protocol, and the relation to joint implementation and international emissions trading. The main conclusions are: (1) Experience from OECD countries suggests that EAs are most attractive as a supplement to traditional command and control, or to market-based policy tools. (2) Skillful design of EAs can improve their efficiency. (3) Bilateral EAs is an interesting policy option to regulate pollution from other countries. (4) Regional EAs are rare but could have important advantages. (5) EAs can play a role in a soft transition stage from traditional command and control to domestic emission trading, and further on to a Kyoto Protocol regime of emission trading and joint implementation. 52 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Torvanger, Asbjoern; Skodvin, Tora

1999-09-01

319

The Potential of the Market for the Kyoto Mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement to set legally binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading and two project-based flexibility mechanisms, namely joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) to help Annex I countries to meet their Kyoto targets at a lower overall cost. The extent to which their compliance cost can be lowered depends on the size of the market for all three flexibility mechanisms under the Protocol. This article estimates the size of such a market and demonstrates that restrictions on the use of flexibility mechanisms not only reduce potential of the Annex I countries' efficiency gains, but are furthermore not beneficial to developing countries since they restrict the total financial flows to developing countries under the CDM. Thus, from the perspective of husbanding the world's limited resources, the fewer the restrictions on the use of flexibility mechanisms, the greater are the gains from their use

320

Lessons from the Kyoto Protocol Lições do Protocolo de Quioto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to undertake a critical evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol. The evolution of the discussions that produced the final document is sketched through the analysis of official documents of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, relevant papers and material from the press. We also discuss the factors that cast doubts on the continuation and feasibility of the Protocol and the prospects for the post-Kyoto period and a new compromise.O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma avaliação crítica do Protocolo de Quioto. Descreve-se inicialmente a evolução das discussões que produziram o documento final, utilizando como fontes documentos oficiais da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas para Mudança do Clima (CQNUMC, artigos importantes e material jornalístico. Enfatizam-se a seguir os fatores que colocam em dúvida a continuidade e a factibilidade do Protocolo. Discutem-se em último lugar as expectativas para o período pós-Quioto e para um novo acordo.

Eliezer Martins Diniz

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

The compatibility of flexible instruments under the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compatibility of the Kyoto Protocol flexible instruments and the lessons that can be learned form the AIJ-phase (AIJ stands for Activities Implemented Jointly) are discussed. The key point to be made is that there may be various applications of flexible instruments which can create situations where the various instruments would crowd out each other. On the other hand, applying flexible instruments may create a leverage for Parties in terms of achieving domestic environmental objectives. In addition, several issues related to the implementation of Joint Implementation (JI) , Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and international emissions trading are discussed. The issues concern mainly those that have been included in the working programme on flexible instruments for CoP4 and CoP5 (CoP stands for Convention of Parties). As such the report discusses the consequences of possible negotiations outcomes at CoP for the effectiveness of flexible instruments, Parties' capabilities to achieve their Kyoto Protocol commitments cost-effectively, and the role of the private sector on the national and international credits markets(s). 106 refs

322

A Three Year Undergraduate Program (B.SC) in Medical Radiation Physics in the Ariel University Center of Samaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A three year undergraduate program (B.Sc.) in Medical Radiation Physics was established in the Ariel University Center of Samaria. The program was submitted to the Council of Higher Education (MALAG) in 2003 and was finally approved by the Council on October 2005. Registration for the first class was announced in January 2006. Studies started on October 2006. Of 24 candidates who applied, 16 were admitted. 12 of the 16 students completed their study duties in the first year. All of them started their second year studies in October 2007

323

Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A `lessons learned` section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

Marra, J.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Overcamp, T.J.

1995-10-05

324

A measurement of beam size of AURORA by the use of SR-interferometer at SR center of Ritsumeikan University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vertical beam size of the AURORA at SR center of Ritsumeikan University was measured by the use of SR-interferometer. A spatial coherence of the visible SR beam was measured at the region of spatial frequency from 15 to 41 mm-1. The result of the beam size is 16.5 ?m and it is good agreement to the estimated beam size of 10 ?m by means of tousheck life time measurement. The beam size is also measured for large beam mode which is used for normal operation of the facility. (author)

325

Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A 'lessons learned' section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

326

Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

Khosrow Behbehani

2013-02-26

327

The Federal Collection Center and its contribution in building the library collection of the National and University Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The transfer of library collections from the disbanded Austrian monasteries to lyceum and university libraries at the end of 18th century stimulated the development of these libraries and also the development of the Ljubljana Lyceum Library similar phenomena happened shortly after World War II, when some 400.000 books, mostly from con fiscated private libraries, ended up in state libraries - a number of them in The National and University Library. The preserved documents prove that The Book Office of the Federal Collection Center, which was executing the transfer and distribution of library material, tried to put some sense of order into the elemental forces of the post war period and its endeavours contributed to the preservation of this library material.

Eva Kodri?-Da?i?

2000-01-01

328

The Impact of Centers and Institutes on Faculty Life: Findings from a Study of Life Sciences Faculty at Research-Intensive Universities' Medical Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the impact of organized research centers on professional effort, productivity, and perceptions of work satisfaction for life sciences faculty members at research intensive universities' medical schools in the U.S. Results indicate that senior center-affiliated faculty members taught less but worked more total hours than…

Bunton, Sarah A.; Mallon, William T.

2007-01-01

329

SUNY Stony Brook and the SUNY University Centers: Analysis of Monographic Acquisitions, 1984-1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1989, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) introduced a microcomputer-based evaluation tool called the Collection Analysis CD. In 1993, the SUNY Stony Brook Libraries used this tool to measure its collections against those of 27 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) peer libraries and of a "mythical" peer group. In 1996, the libraries of…

Dole, Wanda; And Others

330

A School-Based Health Center-University Nursing Partnership: How We Filled in the GAPS  

Science.gov (United States)

Young adolescents, age 10-15 years, have increasing psychosocial and biomedical health care needs, yet are some of the lowest users of conventional health services. In eastern North Carolina, school-based health centers (SBHCs) provide primary health care to thousands of school-age children in the most rural, medically underserved areas. SBHCs…

Larson, Kim; Clark, Amy; Colborn, Brittanie; Perez, Ashley; Engelke, Martha K.; Hill, Phyllis

2011-01-01

331

Remote connection to the Kyushu University Medical Center LAN using digital and analog telephone lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) has recently become popular, as it makes working at home possible. Computers or Local Area Networks(LAN) connected to the office network from home are necessary for the implementation of this concept. Kyushu University has begun a service connecting home computers to the campus LAN for researchers, staff and students of the Faculty of Medicine. We have two different telephone connection methods. One connects the campus LAN and the home computer LAN using routers through the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). The other connects computers at home to the workstation in the university, using modems and the PPP (Point to Point Protocol) through a public telephone analog line. This paper outlines our university SOHO connection system and discusses the merits and demerits of using telephone line connections. PMID:9442435

Antoku, Y; Hanada, E; Akazawa, K; Kenjo, Y; Nose, Y

1997-08-01

332

Kyoto Protocol, constraint or opportunity for coal based electricity producers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coming into force of Kyoto Protocol (KP) in February 2005, as a result of its signing by Russian Federation, created the lawfulness of its provisions and mechanisms in order to reduce the average emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) at a global level down to 5.2 %. Passing this environment problem from a constrained area (regulations, directives) to an opportunity area (business) created the possibility that the achievement of KP objectives to be not an exclusive financial task of 'polluting actors', but opened the opportunity of bringing on stage all the necessary elements of a modern business environment: banks, investments from founds companies, consultants, buyers, sellers, stocks exchange. Until now, the investments and emissions transactions based by KP mechanisms at the worldwide level was focused on renewable energy area. Because for the most of countries, including Romania, the production of electricity based on fossil fuels (special coal) is one of the main option, bringing the KP mechanisms in operation in this area is difficult for at least two reasons: - the investments are huge; - the emissions reduction is not spectacular. In these circumstances, this paper gives an overview of the present GHG emission market, transaction mechanisms on this market and of the ways through which coal based electricity producers from Romania can access this market. We consider that the filtration of the information in this area from electricity producer point of view makes the content of this paper a good start for a new approach of environment management and its conversion from constraint (financial resources consumer) to opportunity ( financial resources producer). The paper contains are as follows: 1. Kyoto Protocol at a glance; 2. Emission trading mechanisms; 2.1. Transaction mechanisms under KP; 2.1.1. Joint Implementation (JI); 2.1.2 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); 2.1.3. Emissions Trading (ET); 2.2. Other transactions mechanisms; 2.2.1. European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); 2.2.2. Green Investment Scheme (GIS); 3. GHG emissions reduction present market; 3.1. The projects based market; 3.2. Permissions market; 4. Romanian coal based energy producers, which way to follow up?; 5. Conclusions. In conclusion, in the present paper authors make an analysis of environmental constraints to opportunities transformation, suggesting the directions and possibilities to finance the environmental projects using the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms in the particular case of coal based energy producers from Oltenia area. The authors, consider that for these large producers the most suitable mechanism is at the moment the Green Investments Scheme and after adhesion of Romania to EU, the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

333

UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of carbon if a global system of emissions mitigation could be quickly and effectively implemented. But it could also exceed $250 per tonne of carbon if the US must meet its emissions limitations entirely through domestic actions, and if mitigation obligations are not adequately anticipated by decision-makers.

JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

2000-07-06

334

An example of a DOE [Department of Energy]/university partnership: South Carolina Pilot Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consortium of educational institutions in South Carolina proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in July 1989 a working partnership for mutual improvement of technical capability in the environmental restoration and waste management fields. The institutions forming the consortium are Clemson University, the University of South Carolina, the Medical University of South Carolina, and South Carolina State College. A major component of the partnership is applied research closely coupled with the problems and issues of the Savannah River site regarding demonstration of waste management processes and concepts of disposal and disposal site closure. A primary benefit to DOE from this partnership is expected to be improved public perception of the actions being taken by DOE to protect the public, particularly in areas of environmental restoration and waste management. It is evident at the Savannah River site that this is a key factor in successfully achieving the site's mission. The strength of the interest of the South Carolina institutions in developing initiatives in waste management forecasts a healthy long-term prospect for the partnership. The State of South Carolina has established a hazardous waste research fund of approximately $650 thousand annually for research by the partnership universities to seek better ways to maintain a healthy environment and to reduce, dispose of, or store waste products safely

335

Yoga for Stress Management Program as a Complementary Alternative Counseling Resource in a University Counseling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

A Yoga for Stress Management Program (YSMP) that served as a complementary alternative therapy resource was successfully implemented at a midsize, predominantly undergraduate university. It was offered in addition to traditional treatments for student mental health. Counselors, Residence Life staff, and faculty found that the program was useful…

Milligan, Colleen K.

2006-01-01

336

IDEAL: Integrating Computerized Educational Methods at the University of Washington Health Sciences Center  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the University of Washington, the IAIMS initiative has helped the six Health Sciences schools integrate the use of computers into their curricula. This presentation will describe these efforts, focusing on a multi-tiered approach to computer based instructional development and on the Innovations in Health Sciences Teaching awards.

Solomon, Clifford E.; Barrett, Jim E.

1998-01-01

337

Walk-through Survey Report of University of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to Q-fever was assessed at the University of Colorado Medical School (SIC-8221) in Denver, Colorado, from September 22 to 24, 1980. Sheep, the suspected carrier of the causative agent Coxiella-burneti, (C.-burneti), were used for res...

L. Elliott, A. Little

1981-01-01

338

Quality assessment of family planning counseling in health and treatment centers, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study is a descriptive one made for the purpose of quality assessment of family planning counseling in health and treatment centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in year 2000. 410 client of the Family Planning Social Services who had attended 25 health and treatment centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were participated in this research study. A checklist was completed through the observation of family planning counseling sessions. The finding and results of this study showed that personnel's behaviour and the quality of family planning counseling for the majority of samples in the first section have been suitable. In the section of the history taking from clients helping them to select suitable method and to determine next appointment, data for the majority of samples in this study have been in an average level. In the section of need understanding of clients introductory methods providing information the audiovisual training equipments used during family planning counseling, explanation of way of utilizing the selected method, and finally the environment for family planning counseling have not been suitable for majority of the samples. The findings of this study can be beneficial for public health planning in order to improve the quality of the family planning services.

Pakgohar

2002-11-01

339

Enforcing the Kyoto Protocol: sanctions and strategic behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the sanction mechanisms under the Marrakesh Accords affect the economy of complying countries, strategic considerations may play a role in decisions taken by members of the Enforcement Branch of the Kyoto Protocol. We show that members of the Enforcement Branch might face various incentives to not punish a non-compliant country, and that these incentives will differ between members from different countries. We further demonstrate that these differing incentives mean that a certain composition of the Enforcement Branch could decide that one country is not in compliance and impose sanctions, while another composition might decide that the same country is in compliance. Likewise, two different countries that display equivalent forms of non-compliance may receive different verdicts depending on the Enforcement Branch's composition

340

The Kyoto Protocol : Canada's risky rush to judgement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he mix of permits trading and command-and-control measures, and distributes the permits freely instead of selling them. Only the large emitters are involved in the trading system, covering 40 per cent of domestic emission sources. The cost of emissions reductions would be lower than under option 1. The fourth and final option combines tradable permits systems in which only large emitters are involved, but where permits are distributed according to sectoral emission reduction costs, expected future emission growth rates as well as economic, social and environmental goals. It is concluded that all 4 options include targeted measures that are not likely to be cost-effective in any way, in fact, they require a lot of domestic emissions reductions that are needlessly costly. The authors emphasized that more information is needed to understand the economic consequences and risks of accepting the Kyoto target as legally binding. refs., tabs., figs

 
 
 
 
341

Spheroid degeneration, keratopathy, pinguecula, and pterygium in Japan (Kyoto).  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalences of various possibly sunlight-induced degenerations of the exposed section of the eye have been studied in a series of 189 Japanese (Mongols) in Kyoto (subtropical climate, 35 degrees N. lat.). The results were compared with those of the author's examinations, using the same method and apparatus, in Jordan near the Red Sea (Arabs, N = 127) in Greenland (Eskimos, N = 659), and in Denmark (Caucasians, N = 810). In the Japanese series conjunctival spheroid degeneration was noticed in 31% and pinguecula in 60%, i.e. less frequently than in the sunny Jordan, but more frequently than in Greenland and Denmark. Climatokeratopathy was more rarely observed than in Greenland. This goes to show that the risk of corneal complications is lower in Japan despite the high prevalence of solar conjunctival degenerations. Pterygium was seen in a surprisingly small number of cases (1%), indicating that pterygium bears no relation to the conjunctival degenerations. PMID:6720277

Norn, M

1984-02-01

342

On the Universality of Jordan Centers for Estimating Infection Sources in Tree Networks  

CERN Document Server

Finding the infection sources in a network when we only know the network topology and infected nodes, but not the rates of infection, is a challenging combinatorial problem, and it is even more difficult in practice where the underlying infection spreading model is usually unknown a priori. In this paper, we are interested in finding a source estimator that is applicable to various spreading models, including the Susceptible-Infected (SI), Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR), Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Infected (SIRI), and Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) models. We show that under the SI, SIR and SIRI spreading models and with mild technical assumptions, the Jordan center is the infection source associated with the most likely infection path in a tree network with a single infection source. This conclusion applies for a wide range of spreading parameters, while it holds for regular trees under the SIS model with homogeneous infection and recovery rates. Since the Jordan center does not depend on t...

Luo, Wuqiong; Leng, Mei

2014-01-01

343

Universal behavior of an isolated phase-slip center: extension to high pair-breaking parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first phase-slip center in superconducting whiskers of zinc and zinc-silver alloys the normalized normal-like length and zero-voltage intercept are plotted as a function of the pair-breaking parameter, which ranges between 4 x 103 and 2 x 104. A comparison is made with results from aluminum microbridges and the prediction of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory

344

Twenty Years of Proton Radiation Therapy at Loma Linda University Medical Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton treatment center at Loma Linda is the first hospital-based proton facility in the world. Dr. James M. Slater spearheaded its development in response to the need to reduce normal tissue injury and unacceptable side effects. Loma Linda physicians treat a wide range of cancers and other conditions with protons; studies are ongoing to expand applications and realize the still-evolving potential of the modality.

Slater, Jerry D.

345

Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw bones at the University of Kentucky Medical Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is disagreement over the management of teeth in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Some oral surgeons support preirradiation extraction; others favor maintaining teeth. Before 1974, The University of Kentucky Department of Radiation Medicine found osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaw in 10.9% of 220 irradiated cancer patients. After a program of oral care was instituted, the incidence declined to 2.7%. Of 109 patients who received radiotherapy between 1976 and 1985, only three (2.7%) developed ORN of the mandible. There was also a reduction in patients treated with interstitial therapy during this time. A review of the most recent experiences shows that, with present management methods at the University of Kentucky, ORN is not a significant problem. Of 30 patients treated in 1986, only one had ORN, and this was of the maxilla. Post-irradiation extractions were not identified as a significant risk for necrosis. Hyperbaric oxygen is used as a treatment for persistent ORN

346

Focus on transport emissions needed if Kyoto`s CO{sub 2} targets are to be met  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of CO{sub 2} from transport are growing rapidly across Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Although the transport sector already accounts for a third of all emissions from fossil fuel combustion, less attention has so far been given to reducing emissions here than in other sectors. So far very little quantification of the measures taken by governments to address transport emissions has been undertaken. Unless more clearly targeted measures are adopted to provide incentives for reducing transport CO{sub 2} emissions, backed up by quantitative analysis of the reductions expected to be achieved, the targets agreed in Kyoto will not be met. The paper discusses emissions from transport, emission trends, policy measures, impact assessments, and the next steps needed.

Perkins, S. [European Conference of Ministers of Transport, Paris (France)

1998-01-19

347

Kyoto and the economics of global warming; Kyoto et l'economie de l'effet de serre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report sheds light on the economic issues surrounding climate change. The objective is to fuel a longer term reflexions. The greenhouse effect raises many questions dealing with economic policy. In particular what is the right agenda for action taking into account the low reversibility of the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases? What about the Kyoto protocol architecture? How to deal with countries that will not participate in the effort for controlling emissions, while enjoying the benefits of the preservation of the climate, a collective good? How to protect the competitiveness of countries that impose environmental constraints on their producers? This report is then discussed by P. Champsaur and A. Lipietz. (A.L.B.)

Guesnerie, R.

2003-07-01

348

Corrosion Research Center of the University of Minnesota. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the projects which began with the inception of the Corrosion Research Center in early 1980 have progressed from the stage of acquisition and assembly of apparatus to that of generation of research results. In the area of research on surface reactions, notable progress has been made on the microscopic theory of corrosion, most importantly the recognition that the quantum mechanical depletion layer at the metal layer makes an appreciable contribution to the potential drop across the metal-electrolyte interface and to the capacitance of the interface

349

Corrosion Research Center of the University of Minnesota. Progress report, July 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, the research ranges from the quantum mechanics of the corrosion unit reactions, organic and inorganic coatings, surface reactions on polymers, metals and semiconductors to high-temperature chemistry of interest to solar-energy conversion. A second objective of the Center is to increase the utilization of corrosion data by the technical community through education and through the dissemination of appropriately formatted information. At present, two projects are in the planning stage for the near future. One is a pedagogical symposium on corrosion in microelectronic components and systems; the other is a series of lectures and videotapes, as well as a workshop on cathodic protection

350

Corrosion Research Center of the University of Minnesota. Progress report, July 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present, the research ranges from the quantum mechanics of the corrosion unit reactions, organic and inorganic coatings, surface reactions on polymers, metals and semiconductors to high-temperature chemistry of interest to solar-energy conversion. A second objective of the Center is to increase the utilization of corrosion data by the technical community through education and through the dissemination of appropriately formatted information. At present, two projects are in the planning stage for the near future. One is a pedagogical symposium on corrosion in microelectronic components and systems; the other is a series of lectures and videotapes, as well as a workshop on cathodic protection.

Oriani, R.A.

1981-01-30

351

The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

1991-08-01

352

Regimes de atmosfera controlada para o armazenamento de caqui ‘Kyoto’ Controlled atmosphere conditions for ‘Kyoto’ persimmon storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de regimes de atmosfera controlada associados ou não com o uso de baixa umidade relativa e com a aplicação pós-colheita de fungicida sobre a conservação da qualidade de caqui ‘Kyoto’. Após o período de dois meses de armazenamento refrigerado a -0,5°C mais cinco dias a 20ºC, a firmeza de polpa manteve-se mais elevada nos frutos submetidos a 0,5kPa de O2 e 5kPa de CO2. A maior incidência de podridões ocorreu nos frutos armazenados a 2kPa de O2 + 10kPa de CO2. Baixa umidade relativa (90% ou pressões parciais elevadas de CO2 (10 a 15kPa aumentaram o escurecimento da epiderme.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different partial pressures of O2 and CO2, combined or not with the use of low relative humidity (RH and the postharvest fungicide application, on the quality of ‘Kyoto’ persimmons during controlled atmosphere (CA storage. After two months of storage at -0.5°C plus five days at 20ºC, the highest flesh firmness was obtained in fruits stored in CA conditions of 0.5kPa of O2 and 5kPa of CO2. The highest rot incidence was observed in fruits stored at 2kPa O2 + 10kPa CO2. Low RH (90% or high CO2 levels (10 to 15kPa led to increased skin blackening.

Auri Brackmann

2004-10-01

353

Regimes de atmosfera controlada para o armazenamento de caqui ‘Kyoto’ / Controlled atmosphere conditions for ‘Kyoto’ persimmon storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de regimes de atmosfera controlada associados ou não com o uso de baixa umidade relativa e com a aplicação pós-colheita de fungicida sobre a conservação da qualidade de caqui ‘Kyoto’. Após o período de dois meses de armazenamento refrigerado a -0,5°C ma [...] is cinco dias a 20ºC, a firmeza de polpa manteve-se mais elevada nos frutos submetidos a 0,5kPa de O2 e 5kPa de CO2. A maior incidência de podridões ocorreu nos frutos armazenados a 2kPa de O2 + 10kPa de CO2. Baixa umidade relativa (90%) ou pressões parciais elevadas de CO2 (10 a 15kPa) aumentaram o escurecimento da epiderme. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different partial pressures of O2 and CO2, combined or not with the use of low relative humidity (RH) and the postharvest fungicide application, on the quality of ‘Kyoto’ persimmons during controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. After two months of storage at -0 [...] .5°C plus five days at 20ºC, the highest flesh firmness was obtained in fruits stored in CA conditions of 0.5kPa of O2 and 5kPa of CO2. The highest rot incidence was observed in fruits stored at 2kPa O2 + 10kPa CO2. Low RH (90%) or high CO2 levels (10 to 15kPa) led to increased skin blackening.

Auri, Brackmann; Sérgio Tonetto de, Freitas; Ricardo Fabiano Hettwer, Giehl; Anderson Machado de, Mello; Marlova, Benedetti; Viviani Ruffo de, Oliveira; Affonso José Wietzke, Guarienti.

1607-16-01

354

Annual Report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1977, 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated by the University's researchers and engineers. Except for the tank opening for regular inspection we met twice the troubles which forced to change the accelerating tube. The experiences teach us that it needs about 20 days to finish the conditioning after changing the accelerating tube. A sputter ion source of new version is now being installed on the top floor. Two devices for the detection of X-rays were tested. An apparatus for bombardment of samples in air for biological and medical sciences has been successfully used. The subjects of researches on nuclear physics cover the light-ion reactions, heavy-ion reactions and nuclear spectroscopy. A special emphasis has been put on the measurements on vector- and tensor-analyzing powers in the light-ion reactions, because of a higher efficiency of the polarized ion source. Elaborate works on the heavy-ion reactions including the angular correlation patterns and excitation functions have been made in parallel. Papers of these works are now being prepared, a few having been published already. Moreover, in the University of Tsukuba, a new research system, called Special Research Project on Nuclear and Solid State Sciences Using Accelerated Beams (Nuclear and Solid State Research Project) started in 1978 and will continue for five years. In this research project, researchers from various Institutes in the University of Tsukuba, as well as visiting researchers from other institutions in Japan and from abroad, participate. Using a variety of accelerated beams, i.e. of heavy, light and polarized beams, this research project aims mainly at the high excitation, short life, transient and inhomogeneous states both in nuclear and extra-nuclear world. It covers both fundamental research in nuclear, atomic and solid state sciences as well as their application in various fields. (J.P.N.)

355

University 4.4 – A Development Strategy for Education and Research Centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to increased demand for qualified human resources, for 'new & rare skills', for software solutions, reliable products and services in the field of applied informatics, there are large available financial funds that can be accessed by Informatics and Cybernetics schools. Edu-cational and research departments must capitalize funds provided by the Europe-an/international institutions and private companies, by supporting the creation of spin-off en-tities that will conduct technology transfer projects. These funds must be used to increase the quality of teaching and to improve research results by assuring the financial needs and tech-nical resources of teachers (project based payments, students (scholarships projects and the community (public available projects. The presented strategy, University 4.4 describes four development directions for a four years period. It has been developed by Catalin Boja, Razvan Bologa, Marius Popa and Cristian Toma and since November 2011 it represents the assumed development strategy of The Department of Economic Informatics and Cybernetics (DICE from The Bucharest University of Economic Studies.

Catalin BOJA

2011-01-01

356

EFFECTIVENESS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN DIRECTLY RAW MILK SELLING AT “E. AVANZI” CENTER OF PISA UNIVERSITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors show the results about the effectiveness verification of prevention measures adopted in raw milk directly selling at “E. Avanzi” Centre of Pisa University. The good hygienic practices applied during production, storage and selling phases demonstrated to guarantee, in raw milk, conditions complying to hygienic criteria provided for the current regulation in Tuscany. The effectiveness verification about risk communication, carried out interviewing a sample of buyers, shows as, beside a predominant attitude towards attention to potential hygienic risks, overstay areas of reduced awareness about food risk and the ways to manage prevention. Authors hope for, in this context, such as in other similar productions, the approach yet launched towards continuous improvement of good hygienic practices adopted by businesses, could be extended to risk communication, with the aim to promote conscious and responsable choices of consumer.

S. Rindi

2010-03-01

357

Future trends in pulsed power technology at the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past decade, the feasibility of using rotating electrical machines as pulsed power supplies has been demonstrated. Tokomaks, laser-flash lamps, and electromagnetic (EM) accelerators are examples of devices successfully powered by pulsed generators. Although they are not well suited for driving all loads, i.e., very high voltages (MVs) or microsecond pulse widths, for applications that require a large amount of energy (multi-MJs) and/or field portability, pulsed generators are an attractive alternative. Future trends at the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) are reported. They include improving energy density, power density, and shaping current and voltage waveforms as required for specific applications

358

Introduction of a learning management system for medical education at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Connected with the introduction of a learning management system at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf three different learning management systems were evaluated. Based on the purposes and demands of modern medical education the systems WebCT CE 4.0, ILIAS 3.6 and Moodle 1.5.3 were testet and evaluated.This comparison led to an installation of the learning management system Moodle, which is now used by pilot projects and is getting prepared for normal student access in autumn 2006. First experiences under practical conditions are denoted. Finally prospective subjects like the concept of support and further options of use, even in the research domain, are discussed.

Handels, Heinz

2006-11-01

359

Development of low emittance electron-gun system for linac in Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new electron gun with low emittance using a LaB6 thermionic cathode and low voltage but high field gradient has been developed for use injection into old 300 MeV linac in Research Center for Electron Photon Science Tohoku University. A maximum energy of 50 kV, a current of up to 300 mA , pulse width of 1-5 ?s and repetition rate of up to 300 pps were obtained respectively. The normalized emittance were measured to be less than 2?mm mrad. Moreover, an S-bund prebuncher was fabricated for the new electron gun. An integrated long run operating was examined which has satisfied the most strict requirements. (author)

360

Observation of immuno-labeled cells at high resolution using soft X-ray microscope at Ritsumeikan University SR Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 cells were labeled with the heavy metal (silver and gold) and observed intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope. Microtubules, Golgi apparatus and early endosomes of NIH3T3 cells were stained with immuno-gold nanoparticles, and immuno-staining was intensified by silver or gold enhancement procedure. Using a transmission soft X-ray microscope beamline (BL12) at Ritsumeikan University SR center, we observed immuno-stained NIH3T3 cells with several wavelengths just below and above oxygen edge (? = 2.32 nm). Using this method, cytoskeleton (microtubules) and organelles (Golgi apparatus and early endosomes) were successfully imaged with high resolution. Thus, immuno-gold silver and gold enhancement technique is useful for specific labeling of intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope.

 
 
 
 
361

Observation of immuno-labeled cells at high resolution using soft X-ray microscope at Ritsumeikan University SR Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 cells were labeled with the heavy metal (silver and gold) and observed intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope. Microtubules, Golgi apparatus and early endosomes of NIH3T3 cells were stained with immuno-gold nanoparticles, and immuno-staining was intensified by silver or gold enhancement procedure. Using a transmission soft X-ray microscope beamline (BL12) at Ritsumeikan University SR center, we observed immuno-stained NIH3T3 cells with several wavelengths just below and above oxygen edge (? = 2.32 nm). Using this method, cytoskeleton (microtubules) and organelles (Golgi apparatus and early endosomes) were successfully imaged with high resolution. Thus, immuno-gold silver and gold enhancement technique is useful for specific labeling of intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope.

Yamamoto, A.; Takemoto, K.; Fukui, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Okuno, K.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

2009-09-01

362

Smell and taste disorders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, yet little is known about their nature or cause. This article describes a study of 750 patients with complaints of abnormal smell or taste perception from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center, Philadelphia. Major findings suggest that: chemosensory dysfunction influences quality of life; complaints of taste loss usually reflect loss of smell function; upper respiratory infection, head trauma, and chronic nasal and paranasal sinus disease are the most common causes of the diminution of the sense of smell, with head trauma having the greatest loss; depression frequently accompanies chemosensory distortion; low body weight accompanies burning mouth syndrome; estrogens protect against loss of the sense of smell in postmenopausal women; zinc therapy may provide no benefit to patients with chemosensory dysfunction; and thyroid hormone function is associated with oral sensory distortion. The findings are discussed in relation to management of patients with chemosensory disturbances. PMID:2021470

Deems, D A; Doty, R L; Settle, R G; Moore-Gillon, V; Shaman, P; Mester, A F; Kimmelman, C P; Brightman, V J; Snow, J B

1991-05-01

363

Issue-centered Earth Science undergraduate instruction in U.S. colleges and universities  

Science.gov (United States)

Semester-long introductory courses in Earth Science at U.S. colleges and universities often contain astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, and geology taught as single entities. My experience teaching Earth Science that way and using a trade Earth Science textbook results in cursory knowledge and poor retention of each topic area. This seems to be especially true for liberal arts students who take Earth Science to satisfy a distribution requirement in the sciences. Instead, my method of teaching Earth Science at the State University of New York is to use two books that together explore consequences of global warming caused by the combustion of fossil fuels by humans. In this way, students who do not intend to major in science are given in-depth information about how and why this challenge to the well-being of life on Earth in the present century and beyond must be addressed in a thoughtful way. The books, Tyler Volk's CO2 Rising - The World's Greatest Environmental Challenge and James Edinger's Watching for the Wind, are inexpensive paperbacks that the students read in their entirety. Besides supplemental information I provide in the lectures, students have weekly examinations that are narrative in form, and there are written assignments for exhibits at science and other museums in NYC that complement some of the topics. The benefit of teaching Earth Science in this non-traditional way is that students seem more interested in the subject because it is relevant to everyday experience and news accounts about a serious global science problem for which an informed public must take a positive role to solve.

Liddicoat, J. C.

2011-12-01

364

Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center. Twenty-first progress report, January 1-December 31, 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Science Center is operated by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station as a service to the Texas A and M University System and the State of Texas. The facility is available to the University, other educational institutions, governmental agencies, and private organizations and individuals. Reactor utilization decreased from 1983 as indicated by a slightly smaller number of samples irradiated and of total irradiations. Core VIII, established in December 1982, was used throughout 1984. Several major facility projects modifications, and improvements were completed during the past year. Experimentally the Beam Port No. 4 reflector and shutter was improved, the pulsing instrumentation is being expanded, and the pneumatic system controller developed for Lab No. 4 is now in use in the Center for Trace Characterization (CTC) and Shell Development labs. Several operational problems occurred in 1984 but did not result in a significant loss of reactor operating time. During this reporting period there were no changes made to the site area; however, there has been made a proposal to extend the runway at nearby Easterwood Airport such tha larger aircraft can be accommodated. This extension should occur in 1985 and should have no affect on the air traffic patterns relative to the NSC. Administratively during 1984 efforts have been made to stabilize the reactor operations staff following the mid year resignations of both a Reactor Supervisor and Manager of Reactor Operations. A long term replacement has been hired to fill the vacated Reactor Supervisor position; however, the manager position has not yet been filled and those duties have been assumed by the Assistant Director

365

Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms at the University of Miami Center for Oceans and Human Health  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the NSF-NIEHS Center for Oceans and Human Health at the University of Miami, research is being conducted into the remote sensing of ocean color signatures associated with the occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are down-linked at the University of Miami's Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing (CSTARS) and processed in near-real time to produce mapped fields of water leaving radiance in the ocean color bands, derived quantities including inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, chlorophyll concentration, and sea-surface temperature. Images of these fields are available in near-real time on a web-server. The server also provides access to the data files themselves. One of the applications currently being researched using these data is the identification of HABs over the Central West Florida Shelf where blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis have a nearly annual occurance. Since chlorophyll concentration alone cannot be used as a unique variable to determine algal taxonomy, other spectral features or optical properties must be brought into play to discriminate among different phytoplankton types. A published technique developed for SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) to detect K. brevis (based on high concentration of chlorophyll and low particulate backscatter) was transitioned to measurements of Terra MODIS and replicated the results. These were confirmed by comparisons with in situ measurements. This technique is currently being applied to a multi-year time series of remote measurements from the Aqua MODIS and tested against ship-based data.

Minnett, P. J.; Carvalho, G.; Baringer, W.; Banzon, V.

2007-05-01

366

Hurricane Public Health Research Center at Louisiana State University a Case of Academia Being Prepared  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent floods along the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards and elsewhere in the world before Katrina had demonstrated the complexity of public health impacts including trauma; fires; chemical, sewerage, and corpse contamination of air and water; and diseases. We realized that Louisiana's vulnerability was exacerbated because forty percent of the state is coastal zone in which 70% of the population resides. Ninety percent of this zone is near or below sea level and protected by man-made hurricane-protection levees. New Orleans ranked among the highest in the nation with respect to potential societal, mortality, and economic impacts. Recognizing that emergency responders had in the past been unprepared for the extent of the public health impacts of these complex flooding disasters, we created a multi-disciplinary, multi-campus research center to address these issues for New Orleans. The Louisiana Board of Regents, through its millennium Health Excellence Fund, awarded a 5-year contract to the Center in 2001. The research team combined the resources of natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, and the mental health and medical communities. We met annually with a Board of Advisors, made up of federal, state, local government, and non-governmental agency officials, first responders and emergency managers. Their advice was invaluable in acquiring various datasets and directing aspects of the various research efforts. Our center developed detailed models for assessment and amelioration of public health impacts due to hurricanes and major floods. Initial research had showed that a Category 3 storm would cause levee overtopping, and that most levee systems were unprotected from the impacts of storm-induced wave erosion. Sections of levees with distinct sags suggested the beginnings of foundation and subsidence problems. We recognized that a slow moving Cat 3 could flood up to the eaves of houses and would have residence times of weeks. The resultant mix of sewage, corpses and chemicals in these standing flood waters would set the stage for massive disease outbreaks and prolonged chemical exposure. Before Katrina, population evacuation behavior had been determined, computer models could be used to predict storm surge flooding, government databases and GIS technology allowed documentation of at-risk areas, probable chemical and sewerage release sites had been mapped, tropical disease experts and social scientists had determined possible public health impacts; that injured and displaced animal pets and wild animals would be a major problem had been identified; and, an interactive GIS database was available for utilization in all aspects of the assessment and remediation post landfall. The value of this project has been many-fold. First, before Katrina it had a positive impact on emergency preparedness in the state of Louisiana. Second, during the hurricane Katrina catastrophe the project offered a major service to the state as the various data sets and research outputs were extensively used throughout the flooding thus reducing deaths, disease, pain, and suffering. Third, the model of academia aiding in disaster science and management is being exported nationally and internationally. Finally, our research results are applicable to other complex disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, chemical spills or terrorism.

van Heerden, I. L.

2006-12-01

367

Strong leadership and teamwork drive culture and performance change: Ohio State University Medical Center 2000-2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several characteristics of academic health centers have the potential to create high levels of internal conflict and misalignment that can pose significant leadership challenges. In September 2000, the positions of Ohio State University (OSU) senior vice president for health sciences, dean of the medical school, and the newly created position of chief executive officer of the OSU Medical Center (OSUMC) were combined under a single leader to oversee the OSUMC. This mandate from the president and trustees was modeled after top institutions with similar structures. The leader who assumed the role was tasked with improving OSUMC's academic, clinical, and financial performance. To achieve this goal, the senior vice president and his team employed the service value chain model of improving performance, based on the premise that leadership behavior/culture drives employee engagement/satisfaction, leading to customer satisfaction and improved organizational performance. Implementing this approach was a seven-step process: (1) selecting the right leadership team, (2) assessing the challenges and opportunities, (3) setting expectations for performance and leadership behavior, (4) aligning structures and functions, (5) engaging constituents, (6) developing leadership skills, and (7) defining strategies and tracking goals. The OSUMC setting during this period provides an observational case study to examine how these stepwise changes, instituted by strong leadership and teamwork, were able to make and implement sound decisions that drove substantial and measurable improvements in the engagement and satisfaction of faculty and staff; the satisfaction of students and patients; and academic, clinical, and financial performance. PMID:18728440

Sanfilippo, Fred; Bendapudi, Neeli; Rucci, Anthony; Schlesinger, Leonard

2008-09-01

368

Patient dose from radiographic rejects/repeats in radiology centers of Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical diagnostic X-rays are the largest manmade source of ionizing radiation received by the members of the general public. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic reject/repeat rate and also to determine dose to the patients from radiographic rejects/repeats in radiology centers of Urmia University of Medical Sciences. During a 4 month period the most frequently examinations were chosen in three radiology centers. A form was designed as a reject/repeat analysis form for radiographers to complete each time a film was rejected by radiologists or repeated. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. The results of this study showed that highest and lowest repetition rates were for pelvis, 14.01% and upper limb, 4.17%, respectively. The main reasons of repetition of radiographs were due to exposure (54% and positioning (18% errors. The average repeat rate in all three hospitals was 7.20%. It was found that human error has important role to repetition of radiographs. It is demonstrated that those patients having repeated radiographs received an average of 3.23 Gy·cm2. Based on the findings of this study it must be remembered that the highest repetition rate was for pelvis. Considering the radiosensitive organs related to pelvis especially in pediatric patients some special considerations must be applied for pelvis examinations.

Leili Rahmatnezhad

2012-02-01

369

Archeointensity results on 13 - 17th century stonewares excavated from Kyoto  

Science.gov (United States)

In last decade, High temporal resolution archeointensity data have been accumulated particularly in Europe. To further decipher geomagetic field behaviors, archeomagnetic data from geographically remote areas from Europe are indispensable. In eastern Asia a variety of archeological artifacts are readily available, but archeointensity data later than 13th century are still limited. Here we present new archeointensity data from stonewares excavated in our university's campus, which is located just north of the ancient place in Kyoto. The ages were estimated based on archeological constraints and range from 13th to 17th centuries. Low-Ti titanomagnetite and high-Ti titanohematite were observed in many stonewares using a Curie balance. In successful Thellier archointensity experiment, specimens showed linear segments on Arai diagrams in wide temperature ranges and these samples did not show clear presence of high-Ti titanohematite. To confirm the reliability of the archeointensity data, we checked TRM anisotropy and its cooling rate dependance. Our Archeointensity data in Japan indicates a rapid decrease in 16th century. Schnepp et al., [2009] showed a similar decrease between the 17th and 18th century in Europe. These new results suggest that the contribution of non-dipole component of geomagnetic field cannot be ignored and high temporal resolution archeointensity data from outside Europe are quite important.

Ooga, M.; Fukuma, K.; Wakabayashi, K.

2011-12-01

370

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report briefly described the investigations performed during the period from April 1997 to March 1998 in Tandem Accelerator Center. The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was reconstructed and the first beam test was carried out in Nov. 1997. In nuclear physics, the measurement of total reaction cross sections, the non-resonant breakup of 7Li and 9Be, the investigation of hole states via (p,d) reaction, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam ? ray spectroscopy and the study of the three dimensional cranking model have been performed. In interdisciplinary fields, the development of AMS system has been continued. The trace element analysis of mineral samples has been carried out by means of PIXE with the proton beam which was focused on the sample as narrow as 50 ?m2. The hydrogen analysis using H(19F,??) reaction has been started aiming at the extension of the measurement of depth profile down to a few tens of ?m deep region. (M.N.)

371

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated successfully from April, 1996 to January, 1997. Although the operation of the accelerator became unstable in the middle of January, it was a short period. The research in the Tandem Accelerator Center covers wide fields, that is, polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the nonresonant breakup of Li-7, the further refinement of the CDCC theory, fusion and fission in heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam ? ray spectroscopy, solid state physics using fast ion bemas, Moessbauer effect, NMR, the application of accelerated ion beams to PIXE, and accelerator mass spectrometry. In addition, two major installations were carried out in this academic year. One is a small tandem accelerator which was moved from Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, and the other is a system for the production and analysis of atomic clusters. The research activities at the accelerator and experimental facilities and on experimental nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, cluster science, and ion beam application are reported in this book. Also the list of the publications by these groups is given. Ph. D. and M. Sc. theses are listed, and the speakers and the titles of seminars are reported. (K.I.)

372

Beam Optics for a Scanned Proton Beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beam scanning in proton therapy is a medical technique to lower the dose to healthy tissue while irradiating a tumor volume. Scanned proton beams for proton radiation therapy require small beam sizes at the tumor location. In beam scanning, a small beam usually less than 1 cm diameter is swept across the tumor volume with two magnets located several meters upstream of the patient. In general, all proton beams in a therapy facility must be transported from the accelerator to the treatment rooms where the scanning systems are located. This paper addresses the problem of transporting the beam without losses to the patient and achieving a small beam at the tumor location in the patient. The strengths of the beam line quadrupoles were allowed to vary to produce the desired beam sizes along the beam lines. Quadrupole strengths were obtained using the beam simulation program TRANSPORT originally from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in Palo Alto, CA. An enhanced version of the original program by Accel Soft Inc. in San Diego, CA has been used for these studies. Beam size measurements were used for comparison with TRANSPORT to verify the predictions of TRANSPORT calculations

373

Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated successfully from April, 1996 to January, 1997. Although the operation of the accelerator became unstable in the middle of January, it was a short period. The research in the Tandem Accelerator Center covers wide fields, that is, polarization phenomena in nuclear reactions, the nonresonant breakup of Li-7, the further refinement of the CDCC theory, fusion and fission in heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure physics by means of in-beam {gamma} ray spectroscopy, solid state physics using fast ion bemas, Moessbauer effect, NMR, the application of accelerated ion beams to PIXE, and accelerator mass spectrometry. In addition, two major installations were carried out in this academic year. One is a small tandem accelerator which was moved from Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, and the other is a system for the production and analysis of atomic clusters. The research activities at the accelerator and experimental facilities and on experimental nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, cluster science, and ion beam application are reported in this book. Also the list of the publications by these groups is given. Ph. D. and M. Sc. theses are listed, and the speakers and the titles of seminars are reported. (K.I.)

NONE

1997-06-01

374

Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the strongest greenhouse gases per molecule in the atmosphere. SF6 emissions are also one of the six greenhouse gases targeted for reduction under the Kyoto Protocol. Here we present a long-term data set of globally distributed high-precision atmospheric SF6 observations which show an increase in mixing ratios from near zero in the 1970s to a global mean value of 6.3 ppt by the end of 2007. Because of its long atmospheric lifetime of around 3000 years, the accumulation of SF6 in the atmosphere is a direct measure of its global emissions: Analysis of our long-term data records implies a decrease of global SF6 sources after 1995, most likely due to emission reductions in industrialised countries. However, after 1998 the global SF6 source increases again, which is probably due to enhanced emissions from transition economies such as in China and India. Moreover, observed north-south concentration differences in SF6 suggest that emissions calculated from statistical (bottom-up) information and reported by Annex II parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) may be too low by up to 50%. This clearly shows the importance and need for atmospheric (top-down) validation of Kyoto reporting which is only feasible with a dense world-wide observational network for greenhouse and other trace gases. Other members of the Global SF6 Trends Team: R. Heinz (1), D. Osusko (1), E. Cuevas (2), A. Engel (3), J. Ilmberger (1), R.L. Langenfelds (4), B. Neininger (5), C.v. Rohden (1), L.P. Steele (4), A. Varlagin (6), R. Weller (7), D.E. Worthy (8), S.A. Zimov (9) (1) Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, (2) Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM), 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, (3) Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany, (4) Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research / CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR), Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia, (5) MetAir AG, 6313 Menzingen, Switzerland, (6) Svertsov Institute for Evolutionary and Ecological Problems (IPEE), 117071 Moscow, Russia, (7) Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany, (8) Environment Canada, Climate Research Division / CCMR, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada, (9) Cherskii, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia

Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

2009-04-01

375

Implementation of the Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol as Precondition of Recovery from the Economic Recession ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article substantiates the hypothesis that the compliance with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol must play the decisive role in acceleration of recovery from the economic recession.? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ???? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????.

Zima Aleksandr G.

2010-02-01

376

The Pacific Pact: A political fig leaf or an alternative to the Kyoto Protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the consequences of the Kyoto Protocol and the necessity for an expanded approach as seen in the beginning Oceania work represented by the Asia-Pacific-Partnership. Some possibilities for pollution limiting aspects are also discussed

377

Informing Science (IS and Science and Technology Studies (STS: The University as Decision Center (DC for Teaching Interdisciplinary Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students of history and philosophy of science courses at my University are either naïve robust realists or naïve relativists in relation to science and technology. The first group absorbs from culture stereotypical conceptions, such as the value-free character of the scientific method, that science and technology are impervious to history or ideology, and that science and religion are always at odds. The second believes science and technology were selected arbitrarily by ideologues to have privileged world views of reality to the detriment of other interpretations. These deterministic outlooks must be challenged to make students aware of the social importance of their future roles, be they as scientists and engineers or as science and technology policy decision makers. The University as Decision Center (DC not only reproduces the social by teaching standard solutions to well-defined problems but also provides information regarding conflict resolution and the epistemological, individual, historical, social, and political mechanisms that help create new science and technology. Interdisciplinary research prepares students for roles that require science and technology literacy, but raises methodological issues in the context of the classroom as it increases uncertainty with respect to apparently self-evident beliefs about scientific and technological practices.

Teresa Castelao-Lawless

2001-01-01

378

Report: demonstrable progresses of the France according the Kyoto protocol; Rapport: progres demontrables de la France selon le protocole de Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document constitutes the report of the France on the demonstrable progresses according the application of the 3 article of the Kyoto protocol. The first chapter is a description of the french climatic policy, as the second presents the tendencies and the projections concerning the greenhouse effect gases emissions. The chapter 3 details the policies effects and the measures ( energy, transport, industry and wastes). The last chapter is devoted to the respect of the other engagements articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2006-06-15

379

Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article analyses the abatement costs of three post-Kyoto regimes for differentiating commitments compatible with stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations at 550 ppmv CO2 equivalent in 2100. The three regimes explored are: (1) the Multi-Stage approach assumes a gradual increase in the number of Parties involved who are adopting either emission intensity or reductions targets; (2) the Brazilian Proposal approach, i.e. the allocation or reductions based on countries' contribution to temperature increase; (3) Contraction and Convergence, with full participation in convergence of per capita emission allowances. In 2050, the global costs increase up to about 1% of the world GDP, ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, depending on baseline scenario and marginal abatement costs. Four groups of regions can be identified on the basis of similar costs (expressed as the percentage of GDP). These are: (1) OECD regions with average costs; (2) FSU, the Middle East and Latin America with high costs; (3) South-East Asia and East Asia (incl. China) with low costs; and (4) South Asia (incl. India) and Africa with net gains from emissions trading for most regimes. The Brazilian Proposal approach gives the highest costs for groups 1 and 2. The distribution of costs for the Contraction and Convergence approach highly depends on the convergence year. The Multi-Stage approach and Contraction and Convergence (convergence year 2050) seem to result in relatively the most evenseem to result in relatively the most even distribution of costs amongst all Parties

380

Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Summary: Why did the climate negotiations in The Hague fail? Our contribution is to argue that the conflict between the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) stems mainly from disagreement on the cost issue. We argue that three main concerns promoted by the EU in The Hague. First, a 50% national emission ceiling (the supplementarity principle), second the use of carbon sinks, and third an international market control system. These issues can be solved by removing all restrictions on free greenhouse gas (GHG) trade and by establishing the World Trade Organization as an international authority. The US will face considerably higher costs than foreseen at the negotiations in Kyoto and will have strong incentives to free ride. Our main hypothesis is that the EU proposal on supplementarity made the US turn to free riding. Thus, to make the US stay in an international GHG emission-trading scheme, the EU must reconsider and acknowledge US claims for cheaper reduction options and the right to trade 'hot air.'This point is important. If the US does not participate, the increase in emissions will be much higher than the emission reduction following the EU supplementarity proposal.

Steiner, Urs; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

World post-Kyoto scenarios: benefits from accelerated technology progress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issue of the potential benefits from technological change in post Kyoto CO{sub 2} emission reduction scenarios. In order to assess these benefits, it is necessary in Section 2 to define CO{sub 2} emission entitlements by world region, in a way that allows both for a significant global reduction from the reference in 2030 and for an acceptable burden sharing among world regions. The economic consequences of this entitlement scenario are explored in detail in Section 3, under the hypotheses of on-going trends for technology dynamics and of full world trading for emission permits. Section 4 then introduces the 'Technology Stories', corresponding to hypotheses of breakthroughs in the performances and costs of six distinct power generation technology clusters. The Technology Stories and their impacts on CO{sub 2} marginal and total abatement costs are then studied in detail, both at world level and in a regional perspective. One key result of this paper is a quantitative assessment of the significant reductions in the compliance costs that may be expected from improvements in low-carbon generation technologies. (orig.)

Kouvaritakis, N. [Commission of the European Communities, Sevilla (Spain). Inst. for Prospective Technological Studies; Criqui, P. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie, 38 - Grenoble (France); Thonet, C. [European Commission - Unit DG 12 - Research, Brussels (Belgium)

2000-07-01

382

The potential contribution of sinks to meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Kyoto Protocol to the climate convention makes provision for sink enhancement activities to contribute to meeting the greenhouse gas emissions limitation commitments of industrialised countries. This paper analyses the potential contribution of sink enhancement activities to meeting commitments of industrialised countries. Six scenarios covering different categories of eligible sinks are analysed. A range of the potential magnitude of the carbon sequestered by each category of sinks is tested. Since cost curves for the different types of sink enhancement activities are not available for most countries, a range of average costs is used with the lowest cost allowing maximum use of sinks. The effects considered are the impacts on compliance costs for OECD countries, economies in transition, and developing countries and the mix of actions used by industrialised countries to achieve compliance. In every scenario, at least some of the sinks have costs lower than the market price, so the larger the eligible sinks, the lower the compliance costs for industrialised countries. Greater use of sinks also reduces the net income received by the economies in transition and developing countries. Increased use of sinks lowers emission reductions implemented in industrialised countries and reduces non-sink activity under the Clean Development Mechanism.

Missfeldt, F.

2001-01-01

383

A post-Kyoto analysis with the ERIS model prototype  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity generation technologies are examined in a global context with a multi-regional version of the ERIS model prototype with endogenous technological learning curves, developed within the EU/TEEM project. Impacts of Kyoto-like CO{sub 2} constraints are analysed considering the effects of allowing or not trade of emission permits. Complementary stochastic analyses addressing the uncertainty of emission constraints, demand and learning rates and a preliminary assessment of the effects of the geographical scale of learning are also presented. When technology dynamics are endogenous, mitigation policies stimulate technological learning of emerging marginal low carbon technologies driving the model to their early deployment. Trade of emission permits allows some of the constrained regions to take more moderate actions, but provides opportunities for penetration of learning technologies in different regions, contributing to their long term cost competitiveness. Early action appears to be effective in terms of long term costs and emission profiles. Uncertainties in emission targets and demands may stimulate technological learning as a preparation for future contingencies. (orig.)

Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Energy Modelling Group

2000-07-01

384

A post-Kyoto analysis of the Greek electric sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The obligations resulting from the Kyoto Protocol (KP) are implemented by many participants, e.g. Greece, by a combination of two methods: (a) application of regional measures which restrict CO2 emissions and (b) procurement of green certificates e.g. in a Climate Exchange Market (CEX). Therefore, the cost for compliance with the KP depends on the extent each method is used and also on the traded values in the CEX. The energy policy and planning to be considered are long-term items and now extension of the KP to a post-KP is discussed which reaches year 2020. In Greece, the electricity sector is with a weighted CO2 contribution of 73%, the dominantly emission sector. The paper analyzes the cost and other merits of different scenarios for the expansion of electrical power system in Greece. For different scenarios, the total cost of the electrical power system expansion is calculated as a function of the price of emission certificates. It has been shown that there is a price of 27.5 Euro /tCO2, above which specific mitigation measures may lead to cost optimum solutions. A sensitivity analysis is also presented concerning the variation of key parameters like the participation in the system expansion of new supercritical coal units, the price evolution of natural gas, the RES usage rate and the discount rates of the expansion investments. Results may be of interest for a decision on the cost optimum electrical power system expansionm electrical power system expansion

385

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. MET [...] HODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG

Vitor E., Valenti; Luiz Carlos de, Abreu; Caio, Imaizumi; Márcio, Petenusso; Celso, Ferreira.

386

The Kyoto Protocol in the forest sector: state of the art and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first anniversary of the Kyoto Protocol's entry into force is the occasion to overview the implementation status of this global treaty in the Italian forest sector. We illustrate the national actions aimed at promoting the carbon uptake by the LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry activities, the status of the negotiation concerning the elegibility of the activities under 3.4 article as well as some future perspectives of this sector in the post-Kyoto scenario.

2006-01-01

387

the central europe and the Kyoto protocol on the climatic changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents little known aspects of the Kyoto protocol concerning the Central Europe or Visegrad Group and analyzes the environmental problem in a context of political transitions. The impacts of the Kyoto protocol and more especially the pollution permits market, on these countries are presented. It precises the shadow zones, the hope and the great willingness which qualify this great project and which are poorly discussed by the economists. (A.L.B.)

388

Increasing Internal Stakeholder Consensus about a University Science Center's Outreach Policies and Procedures  

Science.gov (United States)

For decades the United States has tried to increase the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and careers. Educators and policy makers continue to seek strategies to increase the number of students in the STEM education pipeline. Public institutions of higher education are involved in this effort through education and public outreach (EPO) initiatives. Arizona State University opened its largest research facility, the new Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building IV (ISTB4) in September, 2012. As the new home of the School of Earth & Space Exploration (SESE), ISTB4 was designed to serve the school's dedication to K-12 education and public outreach. This dissertation presents a menu of ideas for revamping the EPO program for SESE. Utilizing the Delphi method, I was able to clarify which ideas would be most supported, and those that would not, by a variety of important SESE stakeholders. The study revealed that consensus exists in areas related to staffing and expansion of free programming, whereas less consensus exist in the areas of fee-based programs. The following most promising ideas for improving the SESE's EPO effort were identified and will be presented to SESE's incoming director in July, 2013: (a) hire a full-time director, theater manager, and program coordinator; (b) establish a service-learning requirement obligating undergraduate SESE majors to serve as docent support for outreach programs; (c) obligate all EPO operations to advise, assist, and contribute to the development of curricula, activities, and exhibits; (d) perform a market and cost analysis of other informational education venues offering similar programming; (3) establish a schedule of fee-based planetarium and film offerings; and (f) create an ISTB4 centric, fee-based package of programs specifically correlated to K12 education standards that can be delivered as a fieldtrip experience.

Fisher, Richard D.

389

The Kyoto mechanisms and the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines whether the Kyoto mechanisms have stimulated the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS, i.e. Brazil, Russian, India China and South Africa. We examine the patterns of diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS, the factors associated with their diffusion, and the incentives provided by the Kyoto mechanisms. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Kyoto mechanisms may be supporting the spread of existing technologies, regardless if such technologies are still closely tied to environmental un-sustainability, rather than the development and diffusion of more sustainable variants of renewable energy technologies. This raises questions about the incentives provided by the Kyoto mechanisms for the diffusion of cleaner variants of renewable energy technologies in the absence of indigenous technological efforts and capabilities in sustainable variants, and national policy initiatives to attract and build on Kyoto mechanism projects. We provide an empirical analysis using aggregated national data from the World Development Indicators, the International Energy Agency, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and secondary sources. - Highlights: ? The Kyoto mechanisms may be supporting the diffusion of existing technologies. ? They may not be supporting the diffusion of sustainable renewable energy technologies. ? In the absence of appropriate capabilities and policies further diffusion is limited.

390

The Study of Quality of Life in Aphasic Stroke Patients in University- Medical Centers of Hamedan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesAs clinical improvement of patients surviving stroke is frequently incomplete and is followed by residual neurologic deficit, evaluation of the consequent function of these patients in three respects i.e; physical, social and emotional, which are considered as quality of life is useful in decision making for health care providers. Since few studies have been carried out in this regard, the aim of the present study was to obtain the average life quality score in four levels in aphasic stroke patients and comparing it with the quality of life score of the healthy population which is 5.Methods This study was a descriptive-cross sectional research carried out on 105 aphasic stroke patients referring to medical centers in Hamadan, Iran. Their diagnoses were confirmed by clinical and radiological findings. These patients were eligible for the study and had survived the stroke for at least six months. Sampling was non randomized and goal-oriented. Dependent variables included psychological, communicational, energy and physical status of the patients measured quantitatively. Data were gathered using the SAQOL-39 questionnaire.Results In this study the female population (58.1% was greater than the male. The greater number of the aphasic patients (42% was between 71 to 85 years old and the smallest number (6.7% was between 39 to 50 years old. The greatest average score of life quality in the studied patients was related to the psychological state (2.17, while the smallest was related to the energy state (1.49. Average score of the life quality in the total population of the studied patients was calculated to be (1.88.ConclusionThe findings of the present study can lead to special supportive measures with the aim of improving life quality in aphasic stroke patients. We suggest that life quality of the patient after stroke should be compared to his/her own quality of life before stroke. Because there is no special service for care providers of stroke patients, an international program should be planned so that by reducing stress, they could have a better relation with the patients.Keywords: Life Quality; Stroke; Aphasia.

M. Mazdeh

2009-06-01

391

Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) University of Utah SAPP 2007. Final Status Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the third and final period of this grant, our goal was to refine the algorithmic approaches used to detect and visualize magnetic islands and their corresponding null points within both the NIMROD and M3D data sets. We refined our geometric approach, which gave a greater confidence in the accuracy of the Poincareplots created. The final results are best demonstrated through Figures 2-6 attached to the report. Technical details this work was reported in both the Physics and Visualization communities. The algorithms used to analyze the magnetic field lines and detect magnetic islands have been packaged into a library and were used within the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment which is being used by members of the CEMM for visualization. In addition, the library interface was developed so that it could be used by both the NIMROD and M3D codes directly. Thus allowing the fusion scientist to perform this analysis while their simulations were actively running. The use of the library for analysis and visualization was not limited to just within the CEMM SciDAC. Other groups such as the SciDAC for the Simulation of Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics using Silo code have used the tools for the analysis of their simulations, Figure 1. Though the funding of this project had concluded there is still much work to be performed on this analysis. The techniques developed are fast and robust when not in the presence of chaos. Magnetic field lines that are near the separatrices where chaos is most often present can be difficult to analyze yet these are the field lines that are greatest interest. We believe that investigating and developing techniques based on time frequency analysis may hold some promise. Two other issues that need to be address is the ability to automatically search for the magnetic islands and the ability to track the development of the magnetic islands over time. Our initial effort into automatically searching for the islands did not prove as robust as hoped and required more effort than could be allocated. These areas as well as other issues related to 'orbit analysis' are of interest to many members within of each of the Fusion SciDAC Centers and should be the subject of continuing SAPs such as this one.

392

Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) University of Utah SAPP 2007 Final Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the third and final period of this grant, our goal was to refine the algorithmic approaches used to detect and visualize magnetic islands and their corresponding null points within both the NIMROD and M3D data sets. We refined our geometric approach, which gave a greater confidence in the accuracy of the Poincareplots created. The final results are best demonstrated through Figures 2-6 attached to the report. Technical details this work was reported in both the Physics and Visualization communities. The algorithms used to analyze the magnetic field lines and detect magnetic islands have been packaged into a library and were used within the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment which is being used by members of the CEMM for visualization. In addition, the library interface was developed so that it could be used by both the NIMROD and M3D codes directly. Thus allowing the fusion scientist to perform this analysis while their simulations were actively running. The use of the library for analysis and visualization was not limited to just within the CEMM SciDAC. Other groups such as the SciDAC for the Simulation of Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics using Silo code have used the tools for the analysis of their simulations, Figure 1. Though the funding of this project had concluded there is still much work to be performed on this analysis. The techniques developed are fast and robust when not in the presence of chaos. Magnetic field lines that are near the separatrices where chaos is most often present can be difficult to analyze yet these are the field lines that are greatest interest. We believe that investigating and developing techniques based on time frequency analysis may hold some promise. Two other issues that need to be address is the ability to automatically search for the magnetic islands and the ability to track the development of the magnetic islands over time. Our initial effort into automatically searching for the islands did not prove as robust as hoped and required more effort than could be allocated. These areas as well as other issues related to 'orbit analysis' are of interest to many members within of each of the Fusion SciDAC Centers and should be the subject of continuing SAPs such as this one.

Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

2007-12-04

393

Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on regional and local scale for middle- and long term adaptation and mitigation strategies, providing information on optimum technologies and energy balances. Cooperation with already existing Climate Service Centres and national and international collaboration in monitoring and research are important elements of the activity of the Centre. In the future, the Centre is planned to form part of a national information system on climate change adaptation and mitigation, supported by the Ministry of Development. Keywords: climate change impacts, forestry, rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry

Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

2012-04-01

394

[Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in liver transplant recipients--Merkur University Hospital single center experience].  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an increasingly recognized condition as the number of solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients increases. It can be a life threatening fulminant disorder and affects approximately 8% of solid organ transplant recipients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely involved in the pathogenesis of PTLD and the majority of PTLD cases arise in response to primary infection with EBV or to re-activation of previously acquired EBV. The principal risk factors underlying the development of PTLD are the degree of overall immunosuppression and EBV serostatus of the recipient. The most commonly used pathologic classification of PTLD is the World Health Organization classification, which divides PTLD into three categories: early lesions, polymorphic PTLD, and monomorphic PTLD. Early lesions are characterized by reactive plasmacytic hyperplasia. Polymorphic PTLD may be either polyclonal or monoclonal and is characterized by destruction of the underlying lymphoid architecture, necrosis, and nuclear atypia. In monomorphic PTLD, the majority of cases (>80%) arise from B cells, similar to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in immunocompetent hosts. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but Burkitt's/Burkitt's-like lymphoma and plasma cell myeloma are also seen. Rarely T-cell variants occur, which include peripheral T-cell lymphomas and, rarely, other uncommon types, including gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma and T-natural killer (NK) cell varieties. Hodgkin's disease-like lymphoma is very unusual. An accurate diagnosis of PTLD requires a high index of suspicion, since the disorder may present subtly and/or extranodally. Radiologic evidence of a mass or the presence of elevated serum markers (such as increased LDH levels) are suggestive of PTLD, with positive finding on ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or positron emission tomography scanning (possibly indicating metabolically active areas) also favoring the diagnosis. The management of PTLD poses a major therapeutic challenge and although there is reasonable agreement about the overall principles of treatment, there is still considerable controversy about the optimal treatment of individual patients. EBV-related PTLDs are a significant cause of mortality in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation with the observed mortality rate of up to 50%. This paper presents the experience acquired at Merkur University Hospital in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with liver transplantation and PTLD. PMID:23126028

Filipec-Kanizaj, Tajana; Budimir, Jelena; Coli?-Cvrlje, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Susterci?, Dunja; Naumovski-Mihali?, Slavica; Mrzljak, Anna; Koloni?, Slobodanka Ostoji?; Sobocan, Nikola; Bradi?, Tihomir; Doli?, Zrinka Miseti?; Kocman, Branislav; Katici?, Miroslava; Zidovec-Lepej, Snjezana; Vince, Adriana

2011-09-01

395

PENERAPAN KONSEP FUZZY DALAM VARIABLE-CENTERED INTELLIGENT RULE SYSTEM (Studi Kasus: Pemilihan Jurusan di Chinese University of Hongkong  

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Full Text Available Variable-Centered Intelligent Rule System (VCIRS is a system which is inspired by Rule-based System (RBS and Ripple Down Rules (RDR. The system architecture is adapted from RBS, while from RDR this system obtained its advantages. The system organized Rule Base (RB in a special structure so that easy knowledge building, powerful knowledge inferencing and evolutionally system performance refining can be obtained in the same time. In this paper, the architecture of VCIRS is used to build an expert system for helping students to choose a department at a university. The application of this expert system is able to handle fuzzy concepts (e.g., such as good, high or rather high which is a prominent part of sentences in natural language. This system is able to cope with exact values, fuzzy (or inexact values and combined reasoning, allowing fuzzy and normal terms to be freely mixed in the rules and facts. An application example in this paper is a RBS which is employed fuzzy logic and fuzzy number for inexact reasoning. It uses two inexact basic concepts, i.e., fuzziness and uncertainty. A case study presented here is the department admission at Chinese University of Hongkong, formed in a RB containing with fuzzy and normal terms. From experiments performed, there's the proper result obtained comparing with the result from Z-II system (i.e., a comprehensive expert system builder tool developed by Chinese University of Hongkong which is this paper refers to. So that the conclusion is a fuzzy VCIRS proposed here, is working properly and producing the right and true results. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Variable-Centered Intelligent Rule System (VCIRS adalah sistem yang terinspirasi dari Rule-based System (RBS dan Ripple Down Rules (RDR. Arsitektur sistem diadaptasi dari RBS dan ia mengambil kelebihan-kelebihan dari RDR. Sistem ini mengorganisasikan basis aturan dalam sebuah struktur yang spesial sehingga kemudahan pembangunan pengetahuan, penelusuran pengetahuan yang kuat, dan perbaikan unjuk kerja sistem yang selalu berkembang dapat diperoleh pada waktu yang sama. Dalam paper ini, arsitektur VCIRS dimanfaatkan untuk membangun sebuah sistem pakar yang dapat membantu calon mahasiswa memilih jurusan pada suatu Perguruan Tinggi. Aplikasi sistem pakar ini dapat menangani konsep fuzzy seperti good, high, atau rather high, yang merupakan bagian kalimat yang sangat berarti dalam bahasa sehari-hari. Sistem ini dapat menangani nilai yang tepat/teliti, nilai fuzzy (atau tidak tepat/tidak teliti, dan jenis pertimbangan gabungan, serta mengijinkan istilah fuzzy dan istilah normal untuk digabungkan secara bebas dalam aturan dan fakta. Contoh aplikasi dalam paper ini adalah sebuah sistem berbasis aturan yang menggunakan logika fuzzy dan bilangan fuzzy untuk jenis pertimbangan yang tidak tepat/tidak teliti. Sistem ini menggunakan dua konsep dasar ketidaktepatan/ketidaktelitian, yaitu fuzziness dan uncertainty. Kasus dalam penelian ini adalah pemilihan jurusan di Chinese University of Hongkong dalam bentuk basis aturan yang didalamnya mengandung istilah fuzzy dan istilah normal. Dari uji coba yang dilakukan, didapat hasil yang sesuai dengan hasil dari sistem Z-II, yaitu alat bantu pembangun sistem pakar komprehensif yang dikembangkan di Chinese University of Hongkong, yang menjadi acuan dari paper ini. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa fuzzy VCIRS dapat bekerja dengan baik, serta memberikan hasil yang benar dan dapat dipercaya. Kata kunci: rule-based systems, VCIRS, knowledge building, knowledge inferencing, knowledge refining, logika fuzzy, bilangan fuzzy.

Irfan Subakti

2006-01-01

396

Comparison of free and anonymous testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections between the University Hospital and Health Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

We gathered data regarding age, sex, and positivity rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, gonococcus, and chlamydia from individuals who underwent free and anonymous sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing conducted at the Jikei University School of Medicine Hospital (our hospital). These data were compared to results of subjects who underwent similar testing at the Minato Health Center and several private facilities of urologists and gynecologists belonging to the Minato Ward Medical Association. The positivity rate of chlamydia was found to be high in female subjects, particularly at the Minato Health Center, with 15 of 194 subjects (7.73 %) testing positive. In our hospital, we only detected 3 of 133 subjects (2.26 %) who were gonococcus positive. On the other hand, at the doctor's facilities, 10 of 188 male subjects (5.32 %) were syphilis positive, and 8 of 185 male subjects (4.32 %) were chlamydia positive, thus showing high positivity rates for both infections. At our hospital, 1 of 231 subjects was positive for gonococcus and 4 of 230 subjects (1.74 %) were positive for chlamydia, thus showing lower positivity rates for both infections. HIV-positive subjects were, however, only confirmed at our hospital, with 2 of 243 subjects (0.82 %) being positive. We were able to diagnose infected patients using free and anonymous STI testing at hospitals, and the same as at doctors' facilities. This result suggests that the hospitals that have many opportunities to diagnose HIV patients may become potential candidates for the development of new consultation facilities, establishment of testing facilities, and enhancement of consultation processes that include STI prevention. PMID:22437886

Yoshida, Masaki; Chiba, Akio; Kawano, Shinji; Kato, Tetsuro; Sato, Fumiya; Horino, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Koji; Onodera, Shoichi; Hori, Seiji

2012-10-01

397

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

Vitor E. Valenti

2010-01-01

398

Annual report of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March, 31, 1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a compilation of the research activities and operations of the Research Center For Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, during the period of the academic year 1994, April 1994 to March 1995. RCNP is the national laboratory for nuclear physics in Japan. The AVF cyclotron with K = 0.14GeV and the ring cyclotron with K = 0.4GeV and EP = 0.4GeV are the major user facilities at RCNP. They have been extensively used for studying nuclear nucleon-meson systems. All facilities are open for users from universities and research institutes in Japan as well as those in foreign countries. The research activities at the RCNP cyclotron laboratory include studies of nuclear interactions and nuclear potentials, spin isospin excitations and decays nuclear reaction dynamics and others. Studies of solid state and atomic physics and medical applications were carried out also at the cyclotron laboratory. New external ion sources have been instaled for the injector cyclotron. New extensions of the RCNP research activities are under progress. One is the possible use of the 8 GeV electron storage ring built at the synchrotron radiation laboratory SPring-8. It is located 100 Km west of Osaka. It is expected to start its operation in 1997. The Compton back-scattering of laser photons from the 8 GeV electron beam provides 1-3.5 GeV ?-rays, which are very promising for studying nuclear quark and meson systems. Other is the non-accelerator physics for ultra-rare nuclear processes at the new under ground laboratory 'Ohto Cosmo Observatory'. It is located 100 km south of Osaka. Neutrino studies by investigating double beta decays, dark matter studies by investigating nuclear responses to them, and studies of other weak processes are planned to be studied there. (J.P.N.)

399

[Sexual violence: a descriptive study of rape victims and care in a university referral center in São Paulo State, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rape is a global public health problem, and steps have been taken to encourage studies on the issue and propose interventions for its prevention and appropriate care. This study aimed to characterize the population of female rape victims and describe the characteristics of the sexual assault and the care provided at a university referral center. This was a quantitative retrospective study of care provided to female rape victims from June 2006 to December 2010. The majority of the women (n = 687) were white, single, had no children, with a mean age of 23.7 years and primary to secondary schooling, employed, and practiced a religion. One-fourth of the victims reported no sexual intercourse prior to the sexual assault. Rape occurred mainly at night, on the street, perpetrated by a single stranger, with vaginal penetration, and with threatened or actual force. Most of the victims had reported the rape to someone and felt supported. Early care occurred for almost 90% of women, allowing preventive measures. From 2006 to 2010 there was an increase in the proportion of women that sought help. Better knowledge of the characteristics of this group and the event itself can help improve the structure and functioning of models to assist rape victims. PMID:23702995

Facuri, Cláudia de Oliveira; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Oliveira, Karina Diniz; Andrade, Tiago Dos Santos; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de

2013-05-01

400

Lessons learned from vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six vitrification campaigns on surrogate low-level radioactive mixed wastes have been completed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. Two glass melters were utilized in these trials: the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stiffed melter. The quality of glass made in the melters was excellent. In all cases, glass durabilities (measured by the Product Consistency Test - PCT) were much better than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass and leachabilities (measured by Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure - TCLP) were lower than Land Disposal Requirements (LDR). A few processing difficulties were encountered during the melter campaigns. These difficulties were due in part to a desire to obtain high waste loadings and aggressive operation of the melters. Devitrification of the melts was especially evident with high calcium compositions. In the EnVitco melter, corrosion of molybdenum electrodes occurred by alloying with reduced metals in the melt and significant corrosion of flux block refractory occurred when operating at high temperatures. In the stirred melter, rapid degradation of the impeller was observed in two instances likely due to localized melting of Inconel trademark 690 caused by a malfunctioning power supply. The focus of this paper is to describe the performance of the melters and convey open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes from these campaigns for application to current and futuraigns for application to current and future vitrification efforts

 
 
 
 
401

Materials science and engineering research and education at the Center for Irradiation of Materials of Alabama A and M University  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Center for Irradiation of Materials at AAMU (http://cim.aamu.edu) established in 1990 to serve the University in its research, education and services the need of the local community and Industry. CIM irradiation capabilities oriented around two tandem type ion accelerators with seven beam lines providing high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), MeV focus ion beam, high energy ion implantation and irradiation damage studies, particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle induced gamma emission (PIGE), and ion induced nuclear reaction analysis in addition to fully automated ion channeling. One of the two tandem ion accelerators designed to produce high flux ion beam for high fluence MeV ion implantation and high fluence ion irradiation damage study. The facility is well equipped with variety of surface analysis systems, such as SEM, ESCA, as well as scanning micro-Raman analysis, UV-VIS Spectrometry, luminescence spectroscopy, Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, IV/CV systems, Mechanical test systems, AFM, FTIR, Voltmetry analysis as well as low energy implaters, Ion Beam Assisted Deposition and MBE systems. In this presentation we will demonstrate how the facility provides services to schools, industries and how CIM has contributed to the recent invention of fabrication of highly efficient thermoelectric materials. Sponsors: Supported in part by AAMU Research Institute, NASA, DOE, NSF and industries. (author)

402

Understanding implementation: the case of a computerized physician order entry system in a large Dutch university medical center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most studies of the impact of information systems in organizations tend to see the implementation process as a "rollout" of technology, as a technical matter removed from organizational dynamics. There is substantial agreement that the success of implementing information systems is determined by organizational factors. However, it is less clear what these factors are. The authors propose to characterize the introduction of an information system as a process of mutual shaping. As a result, both the technology and the practice supported by the technology are transformed, and specific technical and social outcomes gradually emerge. The authors suggest that insights from social studies of science and technology can help to understand an implementation process. Focusing on three theoretical aspects, the authors argue first that the implementation process should be understood as a thoroughly social process in which both technology and practice are transformed. Second, following Orlikowski's concept of "emergent change," they suggest that implementing a system is, by its very nature, unpredictable. Third, they argue that success and failure are not dichotomous and static categories, but socially negotiated judgments. Using these insights, the authors have analyzed the implementation of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system in a large Dutch university medical center. During the course of this study, the full implementation of CPOE was halted, but the aborted implementation exposed issues on which the authors did not initially focus. PMID:14764612

Aarts, Jos; Doorewaard, Hans; Berg, Marc

2004-01-01

403

Evaluation of the mental problems of menopausal women referred to the health care centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause, the permanent cessation of menstruation, is an important event in the long process of climactrium, signaling a change from the years of fertility to infertility. Postmenopausal women have many physical and mental problems. Materials and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the mental problems of menopausal women referred to the health care centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2003. The research tools in this analytical-descriptive study were a questionnaire, record sheet and standard tests composed of Beck and Cattle scales. The data were collected by interview. The samples consisted of 150 menopausal women who had been selected by random sampling method. The data analysis was done by SPSS software. Results: The results showed that short-term memory disorder (39.3%, mild depression (32% and mild anxiety (27.7% were the most common mental problems. There was a significant relationship between depression and marital status (p=0.029 and having knowledge about menopause (p = 0.04. Anxiety had no relationship with any variables (p>0.05 but there was an association between depression and anxiety (p = 0.002. Conclusion: The findings show that the menopausal women suffer from mental problems, which influence their quality of life and community health. Thus, planning educational and health care programs to help them overcome these obstacles is essential.

Rasooli

2004-08-01

404

Wafer and bulk high-purity silicon trace element analysis at the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A trace element analysis program for wafer and bulk high-purity silicon (Si) samples has been operating at the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (TAMU NSC) since 1996. Samples are irradiated in the NSC's 1-MW TRIGA research reactor at a thermal neutron fluence rate of 1013 n/cm2/s for 14 hours. After an appropriate decay length, bulk samples are chemically etched to remove surface contamination while wafer surfaces are first rinsed with acid to determine surface contamination and then etched to obtain epitaxial layer contamination information. All samples, along with the appropriate etching solutions are analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy to quantitatively determine the various radioisotopes created during irradiation. Elements typically determined are antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), bromine (Br), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), gallium (Ga), gold (Au), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), potassium (K), silver (Ag), sodium (Na) tungsten (W) and zinc (Zn). The potential exists to also determine cesium (Cs), iridium (Ir), lanthanum (La), mercury (Hg), rubidium (Rb), scandium (Sc), and zirconium (Zr). Detection limits range from 1014 down to 107 atoms/cm2 in surface analysis and 1013 down to 108 atoms/cm3 in bulk Si

405

Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

2012-10-15

406

A study on abdomen ultrasonography classified by particular disease practiced in health promotion center of a university hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is to get preliminary data for an effectiveness evaluation of abdominal examination and improvement of it. Abnormal cases of abdominal ultrasonography are classified by sex, frequency, diagnosis and age, 4.924 examinees were included at a university hospital of health promotion center from January to December in 1999. The results are as follow. According to the distribution of sex, there are more male patients(55.0%) than females patients (48.0%). for men, 40's showed the highest percentage among examinees. For women, 50's were the highest. The reason that 'they visited the health promotion center was that they wanted to check their health status'. This answers were reported the highest (59.3%). Patients that had abnormal cases of abdominal ultrasonography were 48.3%. Liver, kidney, gallbladder showed the highest percentage of abnormal cases in order of organs. Additionally, abnormal cases were discovered in liver cases. According to the frequency of abnormal cases among examinees, the slight fatty liver were the highest regardless of sex. Men had the slight fatty liver, kidney simple cyst, liver calcification and liver simple cyst in order of abnormal cases. Women showed the slight fatty liver kidney simple cyst, kidney calcification, liver simple cyst, and blood vessel tumor in order of abnormal cases. For the abnormal cases of live by sex and age, the 50's reported the highest number of abnormal cases in men (299 patients). In addition, 60's had the high patients). In addition, 60's had the highest of disease rata 47.8%. For women, 50's reported the highest number of abnormal cases (361 patients).. Over 70's patients had the highest of disease rata 52.6%. For kidney, men and women showed the highest number of abnormal cases -62 vs 44 respectively. Over 70's patients had the highest percentage of disease rata -23.2% vs 14.0% respectively. For gallbladder, the number of abnormal cases were the most in men's 60's (31 patients) and in women's in the same age group (32 patients). According to malignant tumor, 17 patients were liver cancer, 2 patients stomach ca and 1pt kidney cancer. The relationship between the malignant tumor and the examination motive was that 'they wanted to check their health status (41.0%)' and 'regular checkup (24.0%)'

407

A study on abdomen ultrasonography classified by particular disease practiced in health promotion center of a university hospital  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is to get preliminary data for an effectiveness evaluation of abdominal examination and improvement of it. Abnormal cases of abdominal ultrasonography are classified by sex, frequency, diagnosis and age, 4.924 examinees were included at a university hospital of health promotion center from January to December in 1999. The results are as follow. According to the distribution of sex, there are more male patients(55.0%) than females patients (48.0%). for men, 40's showed the highest percentage among examinees. For women, 50's were the highest. The reason that 'they visited the health promotion center was that they wanted to check their health status'. This answers were reported the highest (59.3%). Patients that had abnormal cases of abdominal ultrasonography were 48.3%. Liver, kidney, gallbladder showed the highest percentage of abnormal cases in order of organs. Additionally, abnormal cases were discovered in liver cases. According to the frequency of abnormal cases among examinees, the slight fatty liver were the highest regardless of sex. Men had the slight fatty liver, kidney simple cyst, liver calcification and liver simple cyst in order of abnormal cases. Women showed the slight fatty liver kidney simple cyst, kidney calcification, liver simple cyst, and blood vessel tumor in order of abnormal cases. For the abnormal cases of live by sex and age, the 50's reported the highest number of abnormal cases in men (299 patients). In addition, 60's had the highest of disease rata 47.8%. For women, 50's reported the highest number of abnormal cases (361 patients).. Over 70's patients had the highest of disease rata 52.6%. For kidney, men and women showed the highest number of abnormal cases -62 vs 44 respectively. Over 70's patients had the highest percentage of disease rata -23.2% vs 14.0% respectively. For gallbladder, the number of abnormal cases were the most in men's 60's (31 patients) and in women's in the same age group (32 patients). According to malignant tumor, 17 patients were liver cancer, 2 patients stomach ca and 1pt kidney cancer. The relationship between the malignant tumor and the examination motive was that 'they wanted to check their health status (41.0%)' and 'regular checkup (24.0%)'.

Kim, Nam Hee; Choi, Jong Hak [College of Health Sciences, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-06-01

408

LOS DERECHOS DE EMISIÓN COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA ALCANZAR KYOTO: EL CASO DEL SECTOR ELÉCTRICO  

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Full Text Available The signature of the Kyoto’s Protocol has the aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, through several instruments as the market of emission rights. Each European Estate must publish the amount of rights that are assigned to each sector. In the case of Spain, this is published in the “Plan Nacional de Asignación (PNA de Derechos de Emisión”.The aim of this work is to review the "Emission trading system" as an instrument in order to fulfil the Kyoto Protocol and its influence on the offer of electricity. In addition, we will analyse the government response to the electric industry related to the concession of new “emission rights” in the new 2008-2012 Plan.

Yolanda Fernández Fernández

2008-06-01

409

Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO2-emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO2-emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO2-emission prices over EUR15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies). (author)

410

Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO2-emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO2-emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO2-emission prices over Euro 15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies)

411

An analysis of the Greek energy system in view of the Kyoto commitments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current state of the Greek energy system is analysed together with alternative energy policies. A by sector analysis provides an overview of the inputs that have been used for this investigation. A combination of a demand forecast performed together with an analysis based on the R-MARKAL and WASP IV models give an evaluation of the alternative policies to be applied and a determination of additional measures required in order to achieve the Kyoto targets. Three scenarios are developed, depicting the evolution of the Greek energy system under alternative policies, taking into consideration medium and high oil prices. Incremental investments and differential costs are then calculated between Kyoto and non-Kyoto scenarios and they are compared to emission permits costs

412

Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

413