Sample records for cell powered vehicles

  1. Power Conversion System Strategies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Kaushik Rajashekara


    Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly fuel cell vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, power conversion strategies for propulsion and auxiliary power unit applications are described. The power electronics strategies for the successful development of the fuel cell vehicles are presented. The fuel cell systems for propulsion and for auxiliary power unit applications are also discussed.

  2. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Fontela, Pablo [Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A., Av del mediterraneo 22, Parque Tecnologico de Leganes, Leganes (Spain); Soria, Antonio [Area of Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, Jose Francisco; de Blas, Juan [R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Gauchia, Lucia [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University, Universidad Carlos III, Av. Universidad 30, Leganes (Spain); Martinez, Juan M. [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University (Spain)


    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness,..), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions. (author)

  3. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.


    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  4. Process modeling of fuel cell vehicle power system

    CHEN LiMing; LIN ZhaoJia; MA ZiFeng


    Constructed here is a mathematic model of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Power System which is composed of fuel supply model, fuel cell stack model and water-heat management model. The model was developed by Matiab/Simulink to evaluate how the major operating variables affect the output performances. Itshows that the constructed model can represent characteristics of the power system closely by comparing modeling results with experimental data, and it can be used in the study and design of fuel cell vehicle power system.

  5. Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles Using Supercapacitors: Device Characteristics, Control Strategies, and Simulation Results

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy


    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost, and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridization in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaini...

  6. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Ren Yuan; Zhong Zhi Dan; Zhang Zhi Wen; Luo Tian Yu


    Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power s...

  7. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy


    Electric-drive vehicles can become and important resource for the California electric utility system, with consequent air pollution, system reliability, and economic benefits. We refer to electric power resources from vehicles as “Vehicle to Grid” power (V2G). The economic value of some forms of V2G appear high, more than enough to offset the initially higher costs of electric-drive vehicles, thus having the potential to accelerate their introduction. To realize this potential, some coordi...

  8. A real time fuzzy logic power management strategy for a fuel cell vehicle

    Highlights: • We present a real time fuzzy logic power management strategy. • This strategy is applied to hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model. • Three configurations evaluated during a drive cycle. • The hydrogen consumption is analysed for the three configurations. - Abstract: This paper presents real time fuzzy logic controller (FLC) approach used to design a power management strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle and to protect the battery from overcharging during the repetitive braking energy accumulation. The fuel cell (FC) and battery (B)/supercapacitor (SC) are the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. This paper analyzes and evaluates the performance of the three configurations, FC/B, FC/SC and FC/B/SC during real time driving conditions and unknown driving cycle. The MATLAB/Simulink and SimPowerSystems software packages are used to model the electrical and mechanical elements of hybrid vehicles and implement a fuzzy logic strategy

  9. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Alejandro Mendez


    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  10. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand


    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery and...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....... ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...

  11. Near-term markets for PEM fuel cell power modules: industrial vehicles and hydrogen recovery

    'Full text:' Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc. is a global leader in the development and advancement of multifuel processing and fuel cell technology. With offices located in Italy and the USA, Nuvera is committed to advancing the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell power modules for industrial vehicles and equipment and stationary applications by 2006, natural gas fuel cell power systems for cogeneration applications by 2007, and on-board gasoline fuel processors and fuel cell stacks for automotive applications by 2010. Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe is ISO 9001:2000 certified for 'Research, Development, Design, Production and Servicing of Fuel Cell Stacks and Fuel Cell Systems.' In the chemical industry, one of the largest operating expenses today is the cost of electricity. For example, caustic soda and chlorine are produced today using industrial membrane electrolysis which is an energy intensive process. Production of 1 metric ton of caustic soda consumes 2.5 MWh of energy. However, about 20% of the electricity consumed can be recovered by converting the hydrogen byproduct of the caustic soda production process into electricity via PEM fuel cells. The accessible market is a function of the economic value of the hydrogen whether flared, used as fuel, or as chemical. Responding to this market need, we are currently developing large hydrogen fuel cell power modules 'Forza' that use excess hydrogen to produce electricity, representing a practical economic alternative to reducing the net electricity cost. Due for commercial launch in 2006, Forza is a low-pressure, steady state, base-load power generation solution that will operate at high efficiency and 100% capacity over a 24-hour period. We believe this premise is also true for chemical and electrochemical plants and companies that convert hydrogen to electricity using renewable sources like windmills or hydropower. The second near-term market that Nuvera is developing utilizes a 5.5 kW hydrogen fueled power module 'H2e' for

  12. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja


    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  13. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  14. H2-O2 fuel cell and advanced battery power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles: performance envelope comparisons

    Autonomous underwater vehicles have traditionally been powered by low energy density lead-acid batteries. Recently, advanced battery technologies and H2-O2 fuel cells have become available, offering significant improvements in performance. This paper compares the solid polymer fuel cell to the lithium-thionyl chloride primary battery, sodium-sulfur battery, and lead acid battery for a variety of missions. The power system performance is simulated using computer modelling techniques. Performance envelopes are constructed, indicating domains of preference for competing power system technologies. For most mission scenarios, the solid polymer fuel cell using liquid reactant storage is the preferred system. Nevertheless, the advanced battery systems are competitive with the fuel cell systems using gaseous hydrogen storage, and they illustrate preferred performance for missions requiring high power density. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  15. Solar powered model vehicle races

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali


    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  16. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart;


    This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power is de...... down-sized version of the battery pack used in the Mitsubishi iMiEV, which is subjected to power cycles derived from simulations of the vehicle undergoing multiple New European Drive Cycles (NEDC)....

  17. Conceptual design and selection of a biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Specchia, S.; Tillemans, F. W. A.; van den Oosterkamp, P. F.; Saracco, G.

    Within the European project BIOFEAT (biodiesel fuel processor for a fuel cell auxiliary power unit for a vehicle), a complete modular 10 kW e biodiesel fuel processor capable of feeding a PEMFC will be developed, built and tested to generate electricity for a vehicle auxiliary power unit (APU). Tail pipe emissions reduction, increased use of renewable fuels, increase of hydrogen-fuel economy and efficient supply of present and future APU for road vehicles are the main project goals. Biodiesel is the chosen feedstock because it is a completely natural and thus renewable fuel. Three fuel processing options were taken into account at a conceptual design level and compared for hydrogen production: (i) autothermal reformer (ATR) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors; (ii) autothermal reformer (ATR) with a single medium temperature shift (MTS) reactor; (iii) thermal cracker (TC) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors. Based on a number of simulations (with the AspenPlus® software), the best operating conditions were determined (steam-to-carbon and O 2/C ratios, operating temperatures and pressures) for each process alternative. The selection of the preferential fuel processing option was consequently carried out, based on a number of criteria (efficiency, complexity, compactness, safety, controllability, emissions, etc.); the ATR with both HTS and LTS reactors shows the most promising results, with a net electrical efficiency of 29% (LHV).

  18. Compact methanol reformer test for fuel-cell powered light-duty vehicles

    Emonts, B.; Bøgild Hansen, J.; Lœgsgaard Jørgensen, S.; Höhlein, B.; Peters, R.

    On-board production of hydrogen from methanol based on a steam reformer in connection with the use of low-temperature fuel-cells (PEMFC) is an attractive option as energy conversion unit for light-duty vehicles. A steam reforming process at higher pressures with an external burner offers advantages in comparison to a steam reformer with integrated partial oxidation in terms of total efficiency for electricity production. The main aim of a common project carried out by the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), Haldor Topsøe A/S (HTAS) and Siemens AG is to design, to construct and to test a steam reformer reactor concept (HTAS) with external catalytic burner (FZJ) as heat source as well as catalysts for heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen production (HTAS), concepts for gas treatment (HTAS, FZJ) and a low-temperature fuel cell (Siemens). Based on the experimental results obtained so far concerning methanol reformers, catalytic burners and gas conditioning units, our report describes the total system, a test unit and preliminary test results related to a hydrogen production capacity of 50 kW (LHV) and dynamic operating conditions. This hydrogen production system is aimed at reducing the specific weight (<2 kg/kWth or 4 kg/kWel) combined with high efficiency for net electricity generation from methanol (about 50%) and low specific emissions. The application of Pd-membranes as gas cleaning unit fulfill the requirements with high hydrogen permeability and low cost of the noble metal.

  19. Intelligent Navigation for a Solar Powered Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Francisco García-Córdova; Antonio Guerrero-González


    In this paper, an intelligent navigation system for an unmanned underwater vehicle powered by renewable energy and designed for shadow water inspection in missions of a long duration is proposed. The system is composed of an underwater vehicle, which tows a surface vehicle. The surface vehicle is a small boat with photovoltaic panels, a methanol fuel cell and communication equipment, which provides energy and communication to the underwater vehicle. The underwater v...

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    Daniel T. Hennessy


    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  1. Life cycle analysis of vehicles powered by a fuel cell and by internal combustion engine for Canada

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The transportation sector is responsible for a great percentage of the greenhouse gas emissions as well as the energy consumption in the world. Canada is the second major emitter of carbon dioxide in the world. The need for alternative fuels, other than petroleum, and the need to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions are the main reasons behind this study. In this study, a full life cycle analysis of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has been carried out. The impact of the material and fuel used in the vehicle on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is analyzed for Canada. The data collected from the literature shows that the energy consumption for the production of 1 kg of aluminum is five times higher than that of 1 kg of steel, although higher aluminum content makes vehicles lightweight and more energy efficient during the vehicle use stage. Greenhouse gas regulated emissions and energy use in transportation (GREET) software has been used to analyze the fuel life cycle. The life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting, and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extraction of hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that the use of coal to obtain hydrogen generates the highest emissions and consumes the highest energy. Comparing the overall life cycle of an ICEV and a FCV, the total emissions of an FCV are 49% lower than an ICEV and the energy consumption of FCV is 87% lower than that of ICEV. Further, CO 2 emissions during the hydrogen fuel production in a central plant can be easily captured and sequestrated. The comparison carried out in this study between FCV and ICEV is extended to

  2. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.


    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  3. Use of super-capacitors in the motorization of fuel cell electric powered vehicles; Utilisation de supercondensateurs dans la motorisation de vehicules electriques a pile a combustible

    Djerdir, A.; Gualous, H.; Berthon, A. [L2ES, IGE, 90 - Belfort (France); Bouquain, D. [CREEBEL, 90 - Belfort (France); Ayad, M.Y.; Rasoanarivo, I.; Rael, S.; Davat, B. [GREEN, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)


    The aim of this work is to integrate super-capacitors in a fuel cell vehicle as an auxiliary energy source able to provide and to recover an energy power. The super-capacitors elements are got together in series/parallel and inserted on-board of the vehicle. A tension level and an energy converter/packager have been chosen. (O.M.)

  4. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Bauman, Jennifer

    to any system utilizing the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system and is not limited in application to only fuel cell vehicles. With regards to DC/DC converters, it is important to design efficient and light-weight converters for use in fuel cell and other electric vehicles to improve overall vehicle fuel economy. Thus, this research presents a novel soft-switching method, the capacitor-switched regenerative snubber, for the high-power DC/DC boost converters commonly used in fuel cell vehicles. This circuit is shown to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall mass of the DC/DC boost converter.

  5. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T


    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  6. A High-Gain Three-Port Power Converter with Fuel Cell, Battery Sources and Stacked Output for Hybrid Electric Vehicles and DC-Microgrids

    Ching-Ming Lai; Ming-Ji Yang


    This paper proposes a novel high-gain three-port power converter with fuel cell (FC), battery sources and stacked output for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) connected to a dc-microgrid. In the proposed power converter, the load power can be flexibly distributed between the input sources. Moreover, the charging or discharging of the battery storage device can be controlled effectively using the FC source. The proposed converter has several outputs in series to achieve a high-voltage output, wh...

  7. Innovative Vehicle Concept for the Integration of Alternative Power Trains

    Steinle, Philipp; Kriescher, Michael; Friedrich, Horst E.


    Abstract: The Institute of Vehicle Concepts is developing a safe, modularisable vehicle concept in rib and space frame design for tomorrow’s vehicles with alternative power trains. The vehicle can be powered either by a fuel cell system, a free-piston linear generator developed at the DLR, or a traction battery. Taking into account the given boundary conditions, the challenge is to design a body structure that is light and performs well in the event of an accident. The rib and space fra...

  8. Practicality study on air-powered vehicle

    Lin LIU; Xiaoli YU


    To investigate the feasibility and outlook of air-powered vehicles including compressed air-powered vehicle and liquid nitrogen-powered vehicle, thermodyn-amic analysis and experiment data were used to analyze the energy density, performance, safety, running effi-ciency, fuel circulation economy and consumer accep-tance, etc. The results show that compressed air and liquid nitrogen have similar energy density as Ni-H battery; the characteristics of an air-powered engine is suitable for driving a vehicle; the circulation efficiency of liquid nitrogen is 3.6%-14% and that of compressed air is 25%-32.3% in practice, and existing technology can assure its safety. It is concluded that though the performance of an air-powered engine is inferior to that of the traditional inert combustion engine, an air-powered vehicle is fit for future green cars to realize the sustainable development of society and environment.

  9. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  10. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  11. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  12. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  13. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    Soares, F. J.; Almeida, P.M. Rocha Almeida; Lopes, J.A. Pecas;


    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  14. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles

    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Liana M. Cipcigan; Jenkins, Nick


    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  15. Electric-powered passenger vehicle program

    Rowlett, B.H.


    The program plan is presented for developing an electric vehicle incorporating a flywheel regenerative power system with design considerations and goals for safety and for vehicle body construction using lightweight fiber-reinforced composite material. Schedules are included for each of the major steps in the program. (LCL)

  16. Hybrid Wind/Electric Powered Vehicle

    Ahmad Atieh; Samir Al Shariff


    Hybrid wind/electric powered vehicle is built and demonstrated. The vehicle uses bank of batteries to drive it. The batteries drive 3-phase brushless DC motor which moves the vehicle. The motor can rotate up to 2900 revolution per minute (RPM) at 3HP. A wind turbine, which is mounted at 1.5m on the vehicle, uses wind energy to generate electricity and charges the battery bank. A smart charging subsystem is proposed to enable efficient charging of the batteries. The minimum required wind speed...

  17. Electric vehicle integration into modern power networks

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo


    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources.New business mo

  18. Feasibility of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphtha

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Bert


    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane separator unit. The flow sheet is simulated using HYSYS (a steady state simulator) and the material and energy flows for each stream are obtained. For the peak load of 50 kW, it is found that 14 l/h n...

  19. Intelligent Navigation for a Solar Powered Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    Francisco García-Córdova


    Full Text Available In this paper, an intelligent navigation system for an unmanned underwater vehicle powered by renewable energy and designed for shadow water inspection in missions of a long duration is proposed. The system is composed of an underwater vehicle, which tows a surface vehicle. The surface vehicle is a small boat with photovoltaic panels, a methanol fuel cell and communication equipment, which provides energy and communication to the underwater vehicle. The underwater vehicle has sensors to monitor the underwater environment such as sidescan sonar and a video camera in a flexible configuration and sensors to measure the physical and chemical parameters of water quality on predefined paths for long distances. The underwater vehicle implements a biologically inspired neural architecture for autonomous intelligent navigation. Navigation is carried out by integrating a kinematic adaptive neuro‐controller for trajectory tracking and an obstacle avoidance adaptive neuro‐controller. The autonomous underwater vehicle is capable of operating during long periods of observation and monitoring. This autonomous vehicle is a good tool for observing large areas of sea, since it operates for long periods of time due to the contribution of renewable energy. It correlates all sensor data for time and geodetic position. This vehicle has been used for monitoring the Mar Menor lagoon.

  20. A review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (HT-PEMFC)-based auxiliary power units for diesel-powered road vehicles

    Liu, Yongfeng; Lehnert, Werner; Janßen, Holger; Samsun, Remzi Can; Stolten, Detlef


    This paper presents an extensive review of research on the development of auxiliary power units with enhanced reformate tolerance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). Developments in diesel reforming for fuel cells as auxiliary power units (APUs), single fuel cells and stacks and systems are outlined in detail and key findings are presented. Summaries of HT-PEMFC APU applications and start-up times for HT-PEMFC systems are then given. A summary of cooling HT-PEMFC stacks using a classic schematic diagram of a 24-cell HT-PEMFC stack, with a cooling plate for every third cell, is also presented as part of a stack analysis. Finally, a summary of CO tolerances for fuel cells is given, along with the effects of different CO volume fractions on polarization curves, the fraction of CO coverage, hydrogen coverage, anode overpotential and cell potential.

  1. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Lindström, Bård


    Vehicles powered by fuel cells are from an environmentalaspect superior to the traditional automobile using internalcombustion of gasoline. Power systems which are based upon fuelcell technology require hydrogen for operation. The ideal fuelcell vehicle would operate on pure hydrogen stored on-board.However, storing hydrogen on-board the vehicle is currently notfeasible for technical reasons. The hydrogen can be generatedon-board using a liquid hydrogen carrier such as methanol andgasoline. T...

  2. DC Power System of Electric Vehicle

    Zhang Liwei


    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental and energy problem has become one of the world's hot spot problems. Today, the road cars not only consume a lot of oil resource, but also cause serious pollution to human survival environment. Therefore, to save energy and protect environment, a green environmental friendly electric car instead of fuel car will be needed for sustainable development of the society. Electric vehicle has no pollution, low noise, high efficiency, diversification, simple structure and convenient maintaining; the development of green cleaning electric vehicle is the trend, and the inevitable choice. The power supply system of electric vehicle can be divided into three parts, the battery charging system, motor drive system and dc load power supply system. This paper mainly studies the dc load power supply system. Main function is to convert the high-voltage of the battery in the electric vehicle into low voltage output, provide the power supply for the low voltage dc load, including the car safety system, windshield wiper system, audio system. On the basis of the analysis of the parameters, this article designs the converter, sets up the principle prototype, analyzes the experimental results and finally makes conclusion. The vehicle power supply is green, environment friendly, high-efficiency, digital and intelligent.    

  3. A High-Gain Three-Port Power Converter with Fuel Cell, Battery Sources and Stacked Output for Hybrid Electric Vehicles and DC-Microgrids

    Ching-Ming Lai


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel high-gain three-port power converter with fuel cell (FC, battery sources and stacked output for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV connected to a dc-microgrid. In the proposed power converter, the load power can be flexibly distributed between the input sources. Moreover, the charging or discharging of the battery storage device can be controlled effectively using the FC source. The proposed converter has several outputs in series to achieve a high-voltage output, which makes it suitable for interfacing with the HEV and dc-microgrid. On the basis of the charging and discharging states of the battery storage device, two power operation modes are defined. The proposed power converter comprises only one boost inductor integrated with a flyback transformer; the boost and flyback circuit output terminals are stacked to increase the output voltage gain and reduce the voltage stress on the power devices. This paper presents the circuit configuration, operating principle, and steady-state analysis of the proposed converter, and experiments conducted on a laboratory prototype are presented to verify its effectiveness.

  4. Vehicle bomb protection for nuclear power plants

    The six-step methodology presented in this paper can be applied to nuclear power reactors to provide protection measures and considerations against vehicle bomb threats. The methodology provides a structured framework for examining the potential vulnerability of a plant to a postulated vehicle bomb and for developing contingency planning strategies for dealing with such a possibility. The six steps are as follows: (1) identify system options available to establish and maintain a safe reactor shutdown; (2) identify buildings or other structures containing critical components and equipment associated with each system option; (3) determine survival envelopes for the system options; (4) review site features to determine vehicle access approach paths and distances as they relate to the survival envelopes; (5) identify measures to limit or thwart vehicle access, and protect and preserve preferred system options; (6) prepare contingency plans and make advance arrangements for implementation of contingency measures for a vehicle bomb attack. Portions of this methodology related to blast effects from vehicle bombs on power reactor components are implemented using BombCAD, a proprietary computer-aided design (CAD)-based blast effects analysis technique

  5. Power Systems Evaluated for Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Gefert, Leon P.


    photovoltaic array design concepts were considered for the SEP vehicle power system for the human mission to Mars. These include a space station derivative, a SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Arrays with Refractive Linear Element Technology) derivative, and a hybrid inflatable-deployable thin polymer membrane array with thin-film solar cells (as shown in the concept illustration). This concept is based on a design developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope Sun shield. The array is divided into 16 independent electrical sections with 500-V, negative-grounded solar cell strings. The power system employs a channelized, 500-Vdc power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture with lithium ion batteries for energy storage for vehicle and payload secondary loads (the high-power Hall thrusters do not operate in eclipse periods). The 500-V PMAD voltage permits "direct-drive" thruster operation, greatly reducing the power processing unit size, complexity, and power loss. Similar power system architecture, designs, and technology are assumed for the Europa Mapper Mission SEP vehicle. The primary exceptions are that the photovoltaic array is assumed to consist of two rectangular wings and that the power system rating is 15 kW in Earth orbit and 200 W at Europa. To size the SEP vehicle power system, a dedicated Fortran code was developed to predict detailed power system performance, mass, and thermal control requirements. This code also modeled all the relevant Earth orbit environments; that is, the particulate radiation, plasma, meteoroids and debris, ultraviolet radiation, contamination, and thermal conditions. Analysis results for the Human Mars Mission SEP vehicle show a power system mass of 9-MT and photovoltaic array area of 5800-square meters for the thin-membrane design concept with CuInS2 thin-film cells. Power processing unit input power for a thin-membrane array design with three-junction, amorphous SiGe solar cells is shown in the graph. Power falls off rapidly inhe

  6. Structure and Control Strategies of Fuel Cell Vehicle

    宋建国; 张承宁; 孙逢春; 钟秋海


    The structure and kinds of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) and the mathematical model of the fuel cell processor are discussed in detail. FCV includes many parts: the fuel cell thermal and water management, fuel supply, air supply and distribution, AC motor drive, main and auxiliary power management, and overall vehicle control system. So it requires different kinds of control strategies, such as the PID method, zero-pole method, optimal control method, fuzzy control and neural network control. Along with the progress of control method, the fuel cell vehicle's stability and reliability is up-and-up. Experiment results show FCV has high energy efficiency.

  7. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  8. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.


    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  9. An intelligent power management system for unmanned earial vehicle propulsion applications

    Karunarathne, L


    Electric powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as a promi- nent aviation concept due to the advantageous such as stealth operation and zero emission. In addition, fuel cell powered electric UAVs are more attrac- tive as a result of the long endurance capability of the propulsion system. This dissertation investigates novel power management architecture for fuel cell and battery powered unmanned aerial vehicle propulsion application. The research work focused o...

  10. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.


    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  11. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Bissontz, Jay E.


    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  12. Reactor Power for Large Displacement Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    McClure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a PentaChart on reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles. Currently AUVs use batteries or combinations of batteries and fuel cells for power. Battery/fuel cell technology is limited by duration. Batteries and cell fuels are a good match for some missions, but other missions could benefit greatly by a longer duration. The goal is the following: to design nuclear systems to powr an AUV and meet design constraints including non-proliferation issues, power level, size constraints, and power conversion limitations. The action plan is to continue development of a range of systems for terrestrial systems and focus on a system for TItan Moon as alternative to Pu-238 for NASA.

  13. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin


    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  14. The ZEBRA electric vehicle battery: power and energy improvements

    Galloway, Roy C.; Haslam, Steven

    Vehicle trials with the first sodium/nickel chloride ZEBRA batteries indicated that the pulse power capability of the battery needed to be improved towards the end of the discharge. A research programme led to several design changes to improve the cell which, in combination, have improved the power of the battery to greater than 150 W kg -1 at 80% depth of discharge. Bench and vehicle tests have established the stability of the high power battery over several years of cycling. The gravimetric energy density of the first generation of cells was less than 100 Wh kg -1. Optimisation of the design has led to a cell with a specific energy of 120 Wh kg -1 or 86 Wh kg -1 for a 30 kWh battery. Recently, the cell chemistry has been altered to improve the useful capacity. The cell is assembled in the over-discharged state and during the first charge the following reactions occur: at 1.6 V: Al+4NaCl=NaAlCl 4+3Na; at 2.35 V: Fe+2NaCl=FeCl 2+2Na; at 2.58 V: Ni+2NaCl=NiCl 2+2 Na. The first reaction serves to prime the negative sodium electrode but occurs at too low a voltage to be of use in providing useful capacity. By minimising the aluminium content more NaCl is released for the main reactions to improve the capacity of the cell. This, and further composition optimisation, have resulted in cells with specific energies in excess of 140 Wh kg -1, which equates to battery energies>100 Wh kg -1. The present production battery, as installed in a Mercedes Benz A class electric vehicle, gives a driving range of 205 km (128 miles) in city and hill climbing. The cells with improved capacity will extend the practical driving range to beyond 240 km (150 miles).

  15. Techno-economic assessment of fuel cell vehicles for India

    This paper compares four alternative vehicle technologies for a typical small family car in India (Maruti 800) - two conventional i) Petrol driven internal combustion (IC) engine, ii) Compressed natural gas (CNG) driven IC engine and two based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with different storage iii) Compressed hydrogen storage and iv) Metal hydride (FeTi) storage. Each technology option is simulated in MATLAB using a backward facing algorithm to calculate the force and power requirement for the Indian urban drive cycle. The storage for the CNG and the fuel cell vehicles is designed to have driving range of 50% of the existing petrol vehicle. The simulation considers the part load efficiency vs. load characteristics for the computed ratings of the IC engine and the fuel cell. The analysis includes the transmission efficiency, motor efficiency and storage efficiencies. The comparison criteria used are the primary energy consumption (MJ/km), the cost (Rs./km) obtained by computing the annualized life cycle cost and dividing this by the annual vehicle travel and carbon dioxide emissions (g/km). For the primary energy analysis the energy required for extraction, processing of the fuel is also included. For the fuel cell vehicles, it is assumed that hydrogen is produced from natural gas through steam methane reforming. It is found that the fuel cell vehicles have the lowest primary energy consumption (1.3 MJ/km) as compared to the petrol and CNG vehicles (2.3 and 2.5 MJ/km respectively). The cost analysis is done based on existing prices in India and reveals that the CNG vehicle has the lowest cost (2.3 Rs./km) as compared to petrol (4.5 Rs./km). The fuel cell vehicles have a higher cost of 26 Rs./km mainly due to the higher fuel cell system cost (93% of the total cost). The CO2 emissions are lowest for the fuel cell vehicle with compressed hydrogen storage (98 g/km) as compared to the petrol vehicle (162 g/km). If the incremental annual cost of the fuel

  16. LPV control for power source coordination - application to electric vehicles energy management systems

    Nwesaty, Waleed; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Sename, Olivier


    International audience This paper presents an LPV/Hinf control strategy applied to power source coordination on board of average power electric vehicles. The proposed approach concerns separation in frequency responses between three power sources in order to satisfy power demand of the vehicle's electrical motor, taking into account that sources are devoted to work within distinct frequency ranges. The three sources - fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor - are connected in parallel to a c...

  17. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy


    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  18. A Soft-Switching Four-Port DC-DC Converter for Segmented PEM Fuel Cell Power Management in Vehicle Application

    FRAPPE,E; DE-BERNARDINIS,A; Coquery, G.; Bethoux, O.; Marchand, C


    In transport application, long high power PEM fuel cell stacks could suffer from voltage discrepancy between cells due to severe constraints or appearance of localized faults in case of bad water management, moreover the output power of the stack is limited by the weakest group of cells. This article proposes a three-part segmented fuel cell associated with an isolated four-source DC/DC converter which makes possible a power sharing between the fuel cell segments according to their state-of-h...

  19. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris


    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  20. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Swan, D.H.; Dickinson, B.E.; Arikara, M.P.


    This paper presents experimental data and an analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system for electric vehicle applications. The dependence of the fuel cell system's performance on air stoichiometry, operating temperature, and reactant gas pressure was assessed in terms of the fuel cell's polarity and power density-efficiency graphs. All the experiments were performed by loading the fuel cell with resistive heater coils which could be controlled to provide a constant current or con...

  1. Impact of electric vehicles on power distribution networks

    Putrus, Ghanim; Suwanapingkarl, Pasist; Johnston, David; Bentley, Edward; Narayana, Mahinsasa


    The market for battery powered and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is currently limited, but this is expected to grow rapidly with the increased concern about the environment and advances in technology. Due to their high energy capacity, mass deployment of electrical vehicles will have significant impact on power networks. This impact will dictate the design of the electric vehicle interface devices and the way future power networks will be designed and controlled. This paper presents the re...

  2. Intelligent Control Strategy of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Abolfazl Hajizadeh


    Full Text Available This paper deals a control strategy developed for optimizing the power flow in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV structure. This method implements an on-line power management based on the neuro-fuzzy controller between dual power sources that consist of a battery bank and a fuel cell (FC. This structure included battery and fuel cell and its power train system include an Electric Motor (EM and vehicle dynamics. The proposed control method involves an intelligent controller which captures all of possible operation modes and predicts the driver intention. Moreover, there are local controllers to regulate the set points of each subsystems to reach the best performance and acceptable operation indexes. Simulation results of hybrid system illustrate improvement in the operation efficiency of the FCHV and the battery state of charge and fuel cell utilization factor have been maintained at a reasonable level.

  3. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)


    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  4. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  5. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao;


    for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity...... of the recently establish EDISON program are described. EDISON is a research consortium which will design a new model for the Danish Energy system with high penetration of wind power and EVs with V2G-functionality. EDISON will have access to a real-life test bed on the Danish island of Bornholm (population 40,000)....

  6. Comparison of different vehicle power trains

    Mizsey, Peter; Newson, Esmond

    Four different alternatives of mobile power train developments (hybrid diesel, fuel cell operating with hydrogen produced on a petrochemical basis, methanol reformer-fuel cell system, gasoline reformer-fuel cell system), are compared with the gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE), for well-to-wheel efficiencies, CO 2 emissions, and investment costs. Although the ICE requires the lowest investment cost, it is not competitive in well-to-wheel efficiencies and less favourable than the above alternatives for CO 2 emissions. The hybrid diesel power train has the highest well-to-wheel efficiency (30%), but its well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission is similar to that of the fuel cell power train operated with compressed hydrogen produced on a centralised petrochemical basis. This latter case, however, has the advantage over the hybrid diesel power train that the carbon dioxide emission is concentrated and easier to control than the several point-like sources of emissions. Among the five cases studied only the on-board reforming of methanol offers the possibility of using a renewable energy source (biomass).

  7. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.


    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  8. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    Vehicle Projects LLC


    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost

  9. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina;


    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...... (EVs) are assumed; comprising 2.5%, 15%, 34%, and 53% of the private passenger vehicle fleet in 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, respectively. Results show that when charged/discharged intelligently, EVs can facilitate significantly increased wind power investments already at low vehicle fleet shares....... Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...

  10. Driving force characteristic and power consumption of 4.75 kw permanent magnet motor for a solar vehicle

    Zahari Taha; Rossi Passarella; Nasrudin Abd. Rahim; Jamali Md Sah


    Electric, hybrid-electric and fuel-cell vehicles have received positive response from the market due to their environmental-friendly factors. However, an electric vehicle powered by a solar energy has not yet being produced commercially because of power reliability and also high production cost. At the moment, solar vehicles are being developed for individual use, demonstration and also for research activities. For example a solar vehicle is being developed for the World Solar Challenge (WSC)...

  11. A Multiobjective Optimal Design of a Hybrid Power Source System for a Railway Vehicle

    Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Wakao, Shinji; Kondo, Keiichiro

    In this paper, we study an optimal design for a hybrid power source railway vehicle as an alternative to diesel railway vehicles. The hybrid power source railway vehicle is assumed to be composed of the fuel cell and the electric double layer capacitor. We apply the multiobjective optimization based on the genetic algorithm for the vehicle design, aiming at reduction of both initial cost and energy consumption. The pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the multiobjective optimization. First we develop a simulation model of the hybrid power source railway vehicle and its electric power control methods. Next we derive the pareto optimal solutions as a result of the multiobjective optimization. Finally, we categorize the pareto optimal solutions to some groups, which enables us to elucidate characteristics of the pareto optimal solutions. Consequently, using the multiobjective optimization approach we effectively comprehend the problem characteristics and can obtain the plural valuable solutions.

  12. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de


    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  13. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  14. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...... operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles is...... applied in this analysis. A typical Danish primary power distribution system is used as a test case for the studies. From the simulation results, not more than 10% of electric vehicles could be integrated in the test system for the dump charging mode. About 40% of electric vehicle loads could be...

  15. The Promise of Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    Deluchi, Mark; Swan, David


    In 1990 General Motors unveiled a new battery-powered electric vehicle, called the Impact - the flashiest, best-engineered electric vehicle ever. Thanks to an advanced electric drivetrain and a light-weight aerodynamic, energy-conserving body, the Impact accelerates faster than comparable gasoline-powered cars. However, even under the best conditions, despite its advanced technology and its state-of-the-art lead-acid battery, it will go no more than 120 miles and, as with all battery-powered ...

  16. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.


    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  17. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang;


    propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  18. NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator with a volume-exchange fuel tank for small unmanned aerial vehicles powered by a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system integrated with a NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator was developed for small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The hydrogen generator was composed of a catalytic reactor, liquid pump and volume-exchange fuel tank, where the fuel and spent fuel exchange the volume within a single fuel tank. Co–B catalyst supported on a porous ceramic material was used to generate hydrogen from the NaBH4 solution. Considering the power consumption according to the mission profile of a UAV, the power output of the fuel cell and auxiliary battery was distributed passively as an electrical load. A blended wing-body was selected considering the fuel efficiency and carrying capability of fuel cell components. First, the fuel cell stack and hydrogen generator were evaluated under the operating conditions, and integrated into the airframe. The ground test of the complete fuel cell UAV was performed under a range of load conditions. Finally, the fuel cell powered flight test was made for 1 h. The volume-exchange fuel tank minimized the fuel sloshing and the change in center of gravity due to fuel consumption during the flight, so that much stable operation of the fuel cell system was validated at different flight modes. - Highlights: • PEMFC system with a NaBH4 hydrogen source was developed for small UAVs. • Volume-exchange fuel tank was used to reduce the size of the fuel cell system. • Passive power management was used for a stable power output during the flight. • BWB UAV was selected by taking the fuel cell integration into consideration. • Stable operation of the fuel cell system was verified from the flight test

  19. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  20. On direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles : modelling and demonstration

    Haraldsson, Kristina


    In this thesis, direct hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems in vehicles are investigated through modelling, field tests and public acceptance surveys. A computer model of a 50 kW PEM fuel cell system was developed. The fuel cell system efficiency is approximately 50% between 10 and 45% of the rated power. The fuel cell auxiliary system, e.g. compressor and pumps, was shown to clearly affect the overall fuel cell system electrical efficiency. Two hydrogen on-board storage ...

  1. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)


    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  2. 76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...


    ... vehicle, and the next generation of hybrid and battery electric powered vehicles (75 FR 33515, NHTSA...) headlamps, engine ignition systems, fuel injectors, etc). \\4\\ 72 FR 57266; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... capacitor modules, interconnects, venting systems, battery or capacitor restraint devices, and...

  3. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton


    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  4. Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the...

  5. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;


    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  6. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market


    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  7. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio


    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  8. High performance nickel-cadmium cells for electric vehicles

    Cornu, Jean-Pierre

    A new concept of a cadmium electrode associated with a lighter nickel structure, a multi-cell module technology, allows the proposal of a very promisig alternative power source for electric vehicle (EV) batteries, the usable specific energy being 31% of the theoretical value. Every characteristic of this Ni-Cd module (i.e., specific energy and power, energy and power density, energy efficiency, life and reliability) gives the best performing EV battery, to date. Thus, with the efficient support of two major French car manufacturers and the French government, SAFT will launch, during Spring '95, the first pilot line of EV Ni-Cd module manufacturing.

  9. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.


    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  10. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    João Maurício Rosário


    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  11. Design of Propulsion System for a Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Schaltz, Erik; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peter Omand


    This paper presents a design method of propulsion systems for fuel cell vehicles complying with the 42V PowerNet standard. The method is based on field measurements during several weeks. Several cases of combining energy storage devices to a common bus voltage are investigated, and the total mass......, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system are compared. It is concluded that the number of energy storage devices and their connecting to the common bus have a significant affect of the mass, volume, cost and efficiency of the propulsion system.......This paper presents a design method of propulsion systems for fuel cell vehicles complying with the 42V PowerNet standard. The method is based on field measurements during several weeks. Several cases of combining energy storage devices to a common bus voltage are investigated, and the total mass...

  12. Power analysis and simulation of a vehicle under combined loads

    Reducing fuel consumption in vehicles offers many obvious economic benefits, and also helps reduce air pollution emission levels. Mechanical engineers and automotive researches have continuously searched for ways to optimize fuel consumption in vehicles. This paper presented an analytical model of fuel consumption (AMFC) in an effort to coordinate the driving power and manage the overall fuel consumption for an internal combustion engine vehicle. The model calculated the different loads applied on the vehicle, such as road-slope, road-friction, wind-drag, accessories, and mechanical losses. It also solved the combustion equation of the engine under different working conditions including various fuel compositions, excess airs and air inlet temperatures. The model then determined the contribution of each load to signify the energy distribution and power flows of the vehicle. In order to assess the model's sensitivity to different loads, the following four simulations were conducted: flat-windless, flat-windy, sloppy-windless, sloppy-windy. The average fuel consumption for the four simulations was presented. The paper outlined the specification of the vehicle and environment as well as the simulation methodology. The model, algorithm, slope simulation, and drive strategy were presented. It was concluded that the power consumption significantly increased where the slope friction came into play and that the model has the potential to assist in vehicle energy management. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs

  13. Energy management of fuel cell electric vehicle with hydrid tanks

    Ravey, Alexandre; FAIVRE, Sébastien; HIGEL, Charles; HAREL, Fabien; Djerdir, Abdesslem


    This paper proposes a novel control strategy for fuel cell electric vehicle including hydrid tanks using fuzzy logic controller. The aim of the study is to manage both thermal and electric energy with the same controller in order to use the fuel cell system as a range extender by preventing the batteries state of charge to drop too quickly. The presented controller use both batteries state of charge and thermal status of hydrid tank to control the fuel cell power. This work is a part of the M...

  14. Activity based models for countrywide electric vehicle power demand calculation

    Knapen, Luk; Kochan, Bruno; BELLEMANS, Tom; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert


    Smart grid design depends on the availability of realistic data. In the near future, energy demand by electric vehicles will be a substantial component of the overall demand and peaks of required power could become critical in some regions. Transportation research has been using micro-simulation based activity-based models for traffic forecasting. The resulting trip length distribution allows to estimate to what extent internal combustion engine vehicles can be substituted...

  15. Measuring Power Flow in Electric Vehicles

    Griffin, Daniel C., Jr; Wiker, G. A.


    Instrument accommodates fast rise and fall times of waveforms characteristic of modern, efficient power controllers. Power meter multiplies analog signals proportional to voltage and current, and converts resulting signal to frequency. Two mechanical counters provided: one for charging, one for discharging.

  16. Heavy Vehicle Essential Power Systems Workshop

    Essential power is a crosscutting technology area that addresses the efficient and practical management of electrical and thermal requirements on trucks. Essential Power Systems: any function on the truck, that is not currently involved in moving the truck, and requires electrical or mechanical energy; Truck Lights; Hotel Loads (HVAC, computers, appliances, lighting, entertainment systems); Pumps, starter, compressor, fans, trailer refrigeration; Engine and fuel heating; and Operation of power lifts and pumps for bulk fluid transfer. Transition from ''belt and gear driven'' to auxiliary power generation of electricity - ''Truck Electrification'' 42 volts, DC and/ or AC; All electrically driven auxiliaries; Power on demand - manage electrical loads; Benefits include: increased fuel efficiency, reduced emission both when truck is idling and moving down the road

  17. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  18. Simulating the Adoption of Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Malte Schwoon


    Supply security and environmental concerns associated with oil call for an introduction of hydrogen as a transport fuel. To date, scenario studies of infrastructure build up and sales of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are driven by cost estimates and technological feasibility assumptions, indicating that there is a "chicken and egg problem": Car producers do not offer FCVs as long as there are no hydrogen filling stations, and infrastructure will not be set up unless there is a significant number ...

  19. Specifications and schedule of a fuel cell test railway vehicle

    Yoneyama, T.; Ogawa, K.; Furuya, T.; Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper described a fuel cell test railway vehicle designed at a research institute in Japan. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was used as the on-board power source of the railway vehicle traction system. Use of the fuel cell was expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions as well as overall energy consumption when combined with the use of a regenerative brake. During the experiment, 100 kW class fuel cells were constructed, and pure hydrogen was supplied from a hydrogen cylinder. A composite cylinder made from an aluminum liner wrapped in carbon fiber was selected as a hydrogen storage tank. An existing rapid service train body was modified to test the new system. The train was comprised of a motive bogie with 2 motors, and a trailing bogie without motors. The fuel cells and the traction inverter were installed inside the car, while hydrogen cylinders were installed under the floor to avoid leaks. The motor was operated at the limit of the fuel cell's power of 120 kW. Train performance curves of the test track were measured. A high-speed test drive of the system will be conducted in the near future. Details of the test schedule were provided. 1 ref., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Influence of wind power, plug-in electric vehicles, and heat storages on power system investments

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Meibom, Peter


    Due to rising fuel costs, the substantial price for CO2 emissions and decreasing wind power costs, wind power might become the least expensive source of power for an increasing number of power systems. This poses the questions of how wind power might change optimal investments in other forms of...... power production and what kind of means could be used to increase power system flexibility in order to incorporate the variable power production from wind power in a cost-effective manner. We have analysed possible effects using an investment model that combines heat and power production and simulates...... electric vehicles. The model runs in an hourly time scale in order to accommodate the impact of variable power production from wind power. Electric vehicles store electricity for later use and can thus serve to increase the flexibility of the power system. Flexibility can also be upgraded by using heat...

  1. Optimal energy management strategy for battery powered electric vehicles

    Highlights: • The power usage for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors is maximized. • The battery and motor dynamics are examined emphasized on the power conversion and utilization. • The optimal control strategy is derived and verified by simulations. • An analytic expression of the optimal operating point is obtained. - Abstract: Due to limited energy density of batteries, energy management has always played a critical role in improving the overall energy efficiency of electric vehicles. In this paper, a key issue within the energy management problem will be carefully tackled, i.e., maximizing the power usage of batteries for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors. To this end, the battery and motor dynamics will be thoroughly examined with particular emphasis on the power conversion and power utilization. The optimal control strategy will then be derived based on the analysis. One significant contribution of this work is that an analytic expression for the optimal operating point in terms of the component and environment parameters can be obtained. Owing to this finding, the derived control strategy is also rendered a simple structure for real-time implementation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy works both adaptively and robustly under different driving scenarios

  2. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  3. A new controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Belsterling, C. A.; Stone, J.


    This paper describes the development, under a NASA/DOE contract, of a new concept for efficient and reliable control of battery-powered vehicles. It avoids the detrimental effects of pulsed-power controllers like the SCR 'chopper' by using rotating machines to meter continuous currents to the traction motor. The concept is validated in a proof-of-principle demonstration system and a complete vehicle is simulated on an analog computer. Test results show exceptional promise for a full-scale system. Optimum control strategies to minimize controller weight are developed by means of the simulated vehicle. The design for an Engineering Model is then prepared in the form of a practical, compact two-bearing package with forced air cooling. Predicted performance is outstanding, with controller efficiency of over 90% at high speed.

  4. Photovoltaic Power System with MPPT Functionality for a Small-Size Electric Vehicle

    Jianming Xu


    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are recognized as the best replacement of petrol vehicles in the future. However, there are several problems hampering their development, such as the short life span of batteries, poor performance of start-up, and a short driving range. In order to resolve these problems, a hybrid power system based on photovoltaic (PV cells, supercapacitors, and batteries is proposed. This paper focuses on PV cells using a maximum power point track (MPPT system based on a BUCK chopper circuit. Moreover, a novel MPPT algorithm named sectional variable step climbing (SVSC algorithm was proposed. To validate the proposed system, two main experiments have been done. The first experiment showed that the MPP of PV cells was tracked perfectly by use of this photovoltaic power system. The second one showed that the efficiency of SVSC was higher than two existing MPPT methods, the climbing algorithm and the open-circuit voltage (OCV algorithm.

  5. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob


    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive...... vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible economical incentives for the vehicle owners will be shown. By control of EDV charging through a price...

  6. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration.

    Hu, Junjie; Østergaard, Jacob; Lind, Morten


    Demand side resources, like electric vehicles (EVs), can become integral parts of a smart grids because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. EVs can be used to balance the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind and solar. EVs can absorb energy during periods of high electricity production and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insucient electricity generation. However, e...

  7. Impacts and Utilization of Electric Vehicles Integration Into Power Systems

    HUZechun; SONG Yonghua; XU Zhiwei; LUO Zhuowei; ZHAN Kaiqiao; JIA Long


    With the increasing of electric vehicles (EVs) penetration in power grids, the charging of EVs will have significant impacts on power system planning and operation. It is necessary to note that the majority of EVs are not in use in most of the time in a day. Therefore, the onboard batteries can be utilized as energy storage devices. This article reviews and discusses the current related research in the following areas.

  8. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO2-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  9. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    A. TAHRI; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.; Giri, F.; Chaoui, F. Z.


    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor. The proposed strategy involves a multi-loop nonlinear controller designed to meet the three main control objectives: (i) a tight speed regulation in spite of torque load variations. (ii) a good regula...

  10. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL


    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  11. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  12. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.


    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  13. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Leong Yap Wee


    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  14. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    Summers, Christopher J.


    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  15. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe;


    The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations in...... the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost...... electrical energy demand is chosen as the studied case. The results show that an optimal operation of PEV in both spot market and regulation market can not only decrease the energy costs for PEV owners, but also significantly decrease the power deviations between West Denmark and Union for the Coordination...

  16. Space Vehicle Power System Comprised of Battery/Capacitor Combinations

    Camarotte, C.; Lancaster, G. S.; Eichenberg, D.; Butler, S. M.; Miller, J. R.


    Recent improvements in energy densities of batteries open the possibility of using electric rather that hydraulic actuators in space vehicle systems. However, the systems usually require short-duration, high-power pulses. This power profile requires the battery system to be sized to meet the power requirements rather than stored energy requirements, often resulting in a large and inefficient energy storage system. Similar transient power applications have used a combination of two or more disparate energy storage technologies. For instance, placing a capacitor and a battery side-by-side combines the high energy density of a battery with the high power performance of a capacitor and thus can create a lighter and more compact system. A parametric study was performed to identify favorable scenarios for using capacitors. System designs were then carried out using equivalent circuit models developed for five commercial electrochemical capacitor products. Capacitors were sized to satisfy peak power levels and consequently "leveled" the power requirement of the battery, which can then be sized to meet system energy requirements. Simulation results clearly differentiate the performance offered by available capacitor products for the space vehicle applications.

  17. Thermal Management Concepts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Based on Thermochemical Heat Storages

    Nasri, Mounir; Schier, Michael; Linder, Marc; Friedrich, Horst E.


    Due to the heating and cooling requirement of the passenger compartment and powertrain components such as the fuel cell, battery, electric motor and power electronics, the fuel cell electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity compared to the conventional cars with internal combustion engines. The use of different systems for the cooling and heating of the different components results in increased weight and higher costs. Additionally, the required energy for the the...

  18. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    Yen-Lin Chen


    Full Text Available This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides, this study also proposed monitoring machinery that can detect the brightness around the car to effectively determine whether this in-vehicle system is driven by the solar cells or by the vehicle battery. On sunny days, the in-vehicle system can be powered by solar cell in places without the vehicle battery. While in the evenings or on rainy days, the ambient solar brightness is insufficient, and the system is powered by the vehicle battery. The proposed system was tested under the conditions that the solar irradiance is 10 to 113 W/m2 and solar energy and brightness at 10 to 170. From the testing results, when the outside solar radiation is high, the brightness of the inside of the car is increased, and the eye detection accuracy can also increase as well. Therefore, this solar powered driver monitoring system can be efficiently applied to electric cars to save energy consumption and promote the driving safety.

  19. Research progress of power system for hydrogen-electric hybrid fuel cell vehicles%氢电混合燃料电池汽车动力系统研究进展

    倪红军; 吕帅帅; 陈青青; 裴一


    Fuel cellhybrid vehicle (FCV) with zero emission and high efficiency is the ideal solution for sustainable mobility in the future. A new type of hydrogen fuel cells-lithium-ion battery hybrid power system was introduced; the energy efficiency factors as wel as improvement methods of fuel cellhybrid system were discussed. The research progress of hydrogen fuel cellvehicles power system at home and abroad was summarized.%零排放和高效率的燃料电池混合动力汽车是人类“可持续移动”的最理想解决方案。介绍了一种氢燃料电池-锂离子电池混合动力系统;讨论了车用燃料电池动力系统能源效率的影响因素及提高动力系统效率的途径,总结了氢燃料电池汽车动力系统的国内外研究进展。

  20. Research progress of power system for hydrogen-electric hybrid fuel cell vehicles%氢电混合燃料电池汽车动力系统研究进展

    倪红军; 吕帅帅; 陈青青; 裴一


    零排放和高效率的燃料电池混合动力汽车是人类“可持续移动”的最理想解决方案。介绍了一种氢燃料电池-锂离子电池混合动力系统;讨论了车用燃料电池动力系统能源效率的影响因素及提高动力系统效率的途径,总结了氢燃料电池汽车动力系统的国内外研究进展。%Fuel cellhybrid vehicle (FCV) with zero emission and high efficiency is the ideal solution for sustainable mobility in the future. A new type of hydrogen fuel cells-lithium-ion battery hybrid power system was introduced; the energy efficiency factors as wel as improvement methods of fuel cellhybrid system were discussed. The research progress of hydrogen fuel cellvehicles power system at home and abroad was summarized.

  1. Fuel options for the fuel cell vehicle: hydrogen, methanol or gasoline?

    Fuel cell vehicles can be powered directly by hydrogen or, with an onboard chemical processor, other liquid fuels such as gasoline or methanol. Most analysts agree that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in terms of reducing vehicle complexity, but one common perception is that the cost of a hydrogen infrastructure would be excessive. According to this conventional wisdom, the automobile industry must therefore develop complex onboard fuel processors to convert methanol, ethanol or gasoline to hydrogen. We show here, however, that the total fuel infrastructure cost to society including onboard fuel processors may be less for hydrogen than for either gasoline or methanol, the primary initial candidates currently under consideration for fuel cell vehicles. We also present the local air pollution and greenhouse gas advantages of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to those powered by gasoline or methanol. (Author)

  2. Capacity and power fade cycle-life model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion battery cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Guezennec, Yann; Rizzoni, Giorgio


    This paper proposes and validates a semi-empirical cycle-life model for lithium-ion pouch cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes. For the model development and validation experimental data obtained during an aging campaign is used. During the campaign the influence of charge sustaining/depleting operation, minimum state of charge (SOC), charging rate and temperature on the aging process is studied. The aging profiles, which are prescribed in power mode, are selected to be representative of realistic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) operation. The proposed model describes capacity fade and resistance increase as function of the influencing stress factors and battery charge throughput. Due to its simplicity but still good accuracy, the applications of the proposed aging model include the design of algorithms for battery state-of-health (SOH) monitoring and prognosis, PHEV optimal energy management including battery aging, and the study of aging propagation among battery cells in advanced energy storage systems.

  3. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    A. Aljanad


    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  4. A dynamic simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Moore, R. M.; Hauer, K. H.; Friedman, D.; Cunningham, J.; Badrinarayanan, P.; Ramaswamy, S.; Eggert, A.

    This paper describes a dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation (FCVSim) tool for the load-following direct-hydrogen (DH) fuel cell vehicle. The emphasis is on simulation of the direct-hydrogen fuel cell system (FC System) within the vehicle simulation tool. This paper is focused on the subsystems that are specific to the load-following direct-hydrogen model. The four major subsystems discussed are the fuel cell stack, the air supply, the water and thermal management (WTM), and the hydrogen supply. The discussion provides the details of these subsystem simulations. The basic vehicle configuration has been previously outlined by Hauer [An Analysis Tool For Fuel Cell Vehicle Hardware and Software (Controls) with an Application to Fuel Economy Comparisons of Alternative System Designs, Dissertation, UC California, Davis, USA, 2001] and Hauer and Moore [Fuel Cells for Automotive Applications, Professional Engineering Publishing, 2003, pp. 157-177, ISBN 1860584233] and is only briefly reviewed in this paper.

  5. Modelling and design optimization of low speed fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles. Paper no. IGEC-1-125

    A push for electric vehicles has occurred in the past several decades due to various concerns about air pollution and the contribution of emissions to global climate change. Although electric cars and buses have been the focus of much of electric vehicle development, smaller vehicles are used extensively for transportation and utility purposes in many countries. In order to explore the viability of fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles, empirical fuel cell system data has been incorporated into the NREL's vehicle design and simulation tool, ADVISOR (ADvanced Vehicle SimulatOR), to predict the performance of a low-speed, fuel cell - battery electric vehicle through MATLAB Simulink. The modelling and simulation provide valuable feedback to the design optimization of the fuel cell power system. A sampling based optimization algorithm was used to explore the viability and options of a low cost design for urban use. (author)

  6. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Lindstroem, Baard


    Vehicles powered by fuel cells are from an environmental aspect superior to the traditional automobile using internal combustion of gasoline. Power systems which are based upon fuel cell technology require hydrogen for operation. The ideal fuel cell vehicle would operate on pure hydrogen stored on-board. However, storing hydrogen on-board the vehicle is currently not feasible for technical reasons. The hydrogen can be generated on-board using a liquid hydrogen carrier such as methanol and gasoline. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop a catalytic hydrogen generator for automotive applications using methanol as the hydrogen carrier. The first part of this work gives an introduction to the field of methanol reforming and the properties of a fuel cell based power system. Paper I reviews the catalytic materials and processes available for producing hydrogen from methanol. The second part of this thesis consists of an experimental investigation of the influence of the catalyst composition, materials and process parameters on the activity and selectivity for the production of hydrogen from methanol. In Papers II-IV the influence of the support, carrier and operational parameters is studied. In Paper V an investigation of the catalytic properties is performed in an attempt to correlate material properties with performance of different catalysts. In the third part of the thesis an investigation is performed to elucidate whether it is possible to utilize oxidation of liquid methanol as a heat source for an automotive reformer. In the study which is presented in Paper VI a large series of catalytic materials are tested and we were able to minimize the noble metal content making the system more cost efficient. In the final part of this thesis the reformer prototype developed in the project is evaluated. The reformer which was constructed for serving a 5 k W{sub e} fuel cell had a high performance with near 100 % methanol conversion and CO

  7. Development of a hybrid pneumatic-power vehicle

    Many complex technologies have been developed and applied to improve the energy efficiency and exhaust emission of an engine under different driving conditions. The overall thermal efficiency of an internal-combustion engine, however, can be maintained at only about 20-30%, with aggravated problems in the design and development, such as overall difficulty, excessive time consumption or excessively high cost. For electric cars, there is still no major technological breakthrough for the rapid recharging of a large capacity battery and detection of remaining power in it. Although all currently available hybrid-power engines are able to lower the amount of exhaust emissions and the fuel consumption of the engine, they are still unable to achieve a stable and optimal running condition immediately after ignition; hence the engine's thermal-efficiency remains low. To solve the aforementioned problems, an innovative concept - a hybrid pneumatic power-system (HPPS), which stores 'flow work' instead of storing electrochemical energy of the battery - is introduced. This innovative power system not only ensures that the internal-combustion ensures optimally but also recycles the exhaust flow to propel the vehicle. The optimization of the internal-combustion and recycling of the exhaust energy can increase the vehicle's efficiency from an original 15% to 33%, an overall increase of 18%

  8. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    A. Aljanad; Azah Mohamed


    This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated) and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of thei...

  9. Technology watch of fuel cells for vehicles in 2012; Teknikbevakning av braensleceller foer fordon 2012

    Pohl, Hans


    The report presents results from an international survey covering the status and development of tractionary fuel cells. Interviews, study visits, reports, journals, media coverage and participation in IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Annex 26 have served as main sources of information. The development in Korea has been devoted particular attention this period. The report covers the development during the second part of 2011 and the whole 2012. The transport sector must change to provide mobility for people and goods in a long-term sustainable way. Fuel cell technology offers an important opportunity for the vehicle manufacturer and the vehicle user to maintain the same level of performance, comfort and versatility without compromising the sustainability requirements. Fuel cell vehicles typically use polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and pressurized hydrogen. They also use tractionary batteries for about the same reasons as other hybrid electric vehicles. For commercial vehicles fuel cells are developed for the production of auxiliary power, to be used when the vehicles are parked, for example. Until 2015, Hyundai aims at making up to 1,000 fuel cell vehicles. After 2015 the plan is for several thousand every year. Until 2025, Hyundai aims at a total delivery of more than 100,000 fuel cell vehicles and the technology is then expected to be fully competitive. A roadmap shows that Korea until 2015 has established 43 and until 2030, a total of 500 hydrogen refuelling stations are indicated. The Skaane Region has carried out the first Swedish procurement of fuel cell vehicles. Two Hyundai iX35 FCEV were purchased for delivery 2013. In addition, the city of Copenhagen has purchased 15 such vehicles. During the next few years three hydrogen refuelling stations will be established in the Copenhagen area. January 2012, the California Air Resources Board decided the new set of regulations Advanced Clean Cars. It comprises three parts; tailpipe emissions and greenhouse gases, Zero

  10. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Su, Gui Jia


    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  11. Fuel choices for fuel-cell vehicles : well-to-wheel energy and emission impacts

    Because of their high energy efficiencies and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) are undergoing extensive research and development. While hydrogen will likely be the ultimate fuel to power fuel-cell vehicles, because of current infrastructure constraints, hydrogen-carrying fuels are being investigated as transitional fuel-cell fuels. A complete well-to-wheels (WTW) evaluation of fuel-cell vehicle energy and emission effects that examines (1) energy feedstock recovery and transportation; (2) fuel production, transportation, and distribution; and (3) vehicle operation must be conducted to assist decision makers in selecting the fuel-cell fuels that achieve the greatest energy and emission benefits. A fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model--was used to evaluate well-to-wheels energy and emission impacts of various fuel-cell fuels. The results show that different fuel-cell fuels can have significantly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects. Therefore, if fuel-cell vehicles are to achieve the envisioned energy and emission reduction benefits, pathways for producing the fuels that power them must be carefully examined.

  12. Vehicle routing for the last mile of power system restoration

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coffrin, Carleton [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hentenryck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV.


    This paper studied a novel problem in power system restoration: the Power Restoration Vehicle Routing Problem (PRVRP). The goal of PRVRPs is to decide how coordinate repair crews effectively in order to recover from blackouts as fast as possible after a disaster has occurred. PRVRPs are complex problems that combine vehicle routing and power restoration scheduling problems. The paper proposed a multi-stage optimization algorithm based on the idea of constraint injection that meets the aggressive runtime constraints necessary for disaster recovery. The algorithms were validated on benchmarks produced by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, using the infrastructure of the United States. The disaster scenarios were generated by state-of-the-art hurricane simulation tools similar to those used by the National Hurricane Center. Experimental results show that the constraint-injection algorithms can reduce the blackouts by 50% or more over field practices. Moreover, the results show that the constraint-injection algorithm using large neighborhood search over a blackbox simulator provide competitive quality and scales better than using a MIP solver on the subproblems.

  13. Electric vehicles to support large wind power penetration in future danish power systems

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Thøgersen, Paul

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) could play major role in the future intelligent grids to support a large penetration of renewable energy in Denmark, especially electricity production from wind turbines. The future power systems aims to phase-out big conventional fossil-fueled generators with large number...... of variable wind turbines which results in the need for additional balancing power. One of the alternate and local solutions for negotiating the power fluctuations of variable generation could be utilised from the smart charging and discharging of battery storages of EVs operating as flexible demand...... and generation. This paper analyses power balancing support services from EVs and the feasible levels of electric vehicle integration possible to provide grid ancillary services in Danish power systems. This evaluation is conducted on typical wind dominated distribution and transmission networks in...

  14. Life cycle assessment for coordination development of nuclear power and electric vehicle

    Energy, environment and climate change have become focus political topics. In this paper, the life cycle assessment for cooperation development of nuclear power and electric vehicle were analyzed from the view of energy efficiency and pollutant emissions. The assessment results show that the pathway of nuclear power coupled with electric vehicle is better than coal electric power coupled with electric vehicle and normal gasoline coupled with internal combustion engine powered vehicle in terms of the environmental and energy characteristics. To charge the electric vehicle, instead of water power station, can safeguard the stable operation of nuclear power station. The results could provide consulted for coordination development of nuclear power, electric vehicle and brain power electric net. (authors)

  15. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity

  16. An Intelligent Power Management approach for Battery Operating Robotic Vehicle

    Tom Mathews*1


    Full Text Available This paper is about a robotic vehicle aims on the design of efficient charging system of batteries by means of tracked solar panels. The main attraction of this paper is the design concept of the charging and discharging cycles of the batteries based on the PIC micro-controller. The efficient charging system concept is designed on a PIC micro-controller. The energy system consists of two batteries and are, one for charging independently from the solar panel and the other battery gives the energy for the Robotic vehicle. By implementing this method the efficient power management becomes possible. The switching time between the batteries can also be reduced by control algorithm programmed in the PIC micro-controller. Since only one battery is charging at a time, the size of solar panel also can be minimized. The sensors attached to the battery system will monitor the battery’s external parameters and thus the life time of battery can be increased based on the sensors readings. The readings from the vehicle will get in the remote PC.

  17. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.


    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  18. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  19. The new generation of vehicles: market opportunities for fuel cells

    Chalk, Steven G.; Patil, Pandit G.; Venkateswaran, S. R.

    The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a historic US Government-auto industry partnership initiated in 1993, is pursuing three specific, interrelated goals, including the development of the next generation of vehicles capable of achieving up to three times the fuel efficiency of today's comparable vehicles. Fuel cells have been identified as one of three primary propulsion system candidates to meet this triple fuel efficiency goal, since they can dramatically increase automotive propulsion efficiency combined with very low to zero emissions. The US Government is working closely with industry and research institutions in pursuing a strategy of aggressive research and development (R&D) to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. The US Department of Energy has a major role in this fuel cell technology development effort. R&D activities are focused on overcoming the major technical, economic, and infrastructure-related hurdles. The high efficiency, very low emissions, and other favorable characteristics of fuel cells (such as fuel flexibility, low noise, and vibration) create significant market opportunities for fuel cells over the entire spectrum of transportation applications. While the focus of near-term markets for fuel cell vehicles will be urban areas having severe air-quality problems, long-term market prospects are encouraging since fuel cell vehicles can compete on an even ground with conventional vehicles in all key aspects, including vehicle range and refueling. This paper will discuss near- and long-term market opportunities for fuel cells in transportation and provide an update on driving regulatory developments in the USA at the federal and state level. The paper also provides an introduction to the PNGV (focusing on the role and prospects for fuel cells) and discusses the status of fuel cell vehicle development projects.

  20. Update on the Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program

    'Full text:' The Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program (VFCVP) is a $5.8 million initiative designed to test four Ford Focus Fuel Cell Vehicles for three years in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The project is the first of its kind in Canada and is led by Fuel Cells Canada (FCC), the Ford Motor Company (Ford), and the Governments of Canada and British Columbia. This presentation will provide program details and an update on activities leading up to currently planned delivery to Vancouver in November 2004. The VFCVP will test the performance, durability and reliability of the Ford fuel cell vehicle cars in real-world conditions and will examine fuelling issues and solutions, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and public acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The program will generate data to help evolve the technology and develop international codes and standards E cents Epnd the implementation and adoption of fuel cell technology. (author)

  1. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  2. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher


    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  3. Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Silva, Marco;


    The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners’ be...

  4. Influences on dispatch of power generation when introducing electric drive vehicles in an Irish power system year 2020

    Juul, Nina; Mullane, Alan; Meibom, Peter

    Increased focus on global warming and CO2 emissions imply increased focus on the energy system, consisting of the heat, power, and transport systems. Solutions for the heat and power system are increasing penetrations of renewable heat and power generation plants such as wind power and biomass heat...... different charging regimes’ influence of the power dispatch in the Irish power system. Analyses show an overall cost decrease and CO2 emission increase in the heat and power system with the introduction of electric drive vehicles. Furthermore, increased intelligence in the electric drive vehicle charging...... plants. For the future transport system, electric drive vehicles are expected to be one of the solutions. Introducing different electric drive vehicle penetrations in a power system with a large amount of wind power, changes the usage of the predefined power system. This work presents investigations of...

  5. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  6. Testing of Lightweight Fuel Cell Vehicles System at Low Speeds with Energy Efficiency Analysis

    A fuel cell vehicle power train mini test bench was developed which consists of a 1 kW open cathode hydrogen fuel cell, electric motor, wheel, gearing system, DC/DC converter and vehicle control system (VCS). Energy efficiency identification and energy flow evaluation is a useful tool in identifying a detail performance of each component and sub-systems in a fuel cell vehicle system configuration. Three artificial traction loads was simulated at 30 kg, 40 kg and 50 kg force on a single wheel drive configuration. The wheel speed range reported here covers from idle to 16 km/h (low speed range) as a preliminary input in the research work frame. The test result shows that the system efficiency is 84.5 percent when the energy flow is considered from the fuel cell to the wheel and 279 watts of electrical power was produced by the fuel cell during that time. Dynamic system responses was also identified as the load increases beyond the motor traction capabilities where the losses at the converter and motor controller increased significantly as it tries to meet the motor traction power demands. This work is currently being further expanded within the work frame of developing a road-worthy fuel cell vehicle

  7. Cold-start effects on performance and efficiency for vehicle fuel cell systems

    Gurski, Stephen Daniel


    In recent years government, academia and industry have been pursuing fuel cell technology as an alternative to current power generating technologies. The automotive industry has targeted fuel cell technology as a potential alternative to internal combustion engines. The goal of this research is to understand and quantify the impact and effects of low temperature operation has on the performance and efficiency of vehicle fuel cell systems through modeling. More specifically, this work addre...

  8. Power management of Supercapacitors using Multi boost and Full Bridge Converters Used in Electric / Hybrid Electric Vehicle



    Full Text Available The Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV has become one of the most promising vehicles in the automobile industry due to its energy saving ability and low emission of harmful pollutants. Battery management system, which has acceptable life cycle, remains the major roadblock to large-scale production of Electric vehicles and Hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of high power density batteries. This paper emphasis more on the management of the energy provided by super capacitor Packs. Each super capacitors module is made of 108cells with a maximum voltage of 270V. The multi boost and multi full bridge converter topologies are tested to define the best topology for the embarked power management.. The experimental and simulated results validate the proposed two converter topologies presented in this paper.

  9. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    Boyd, Steven J


    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  10. Control and Communication Network in Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    朱元; 吴昊; 田光宇; 阳宪惠; 赵立安; 周伟波


    This paper describes the control and communication network in fuel cell vehicles, including both the protocol and the hardware.Based on the current protocol (ISO-11898 and SAE J1939), a new practical protocol is proposed and implemented for the control and communication network in fuel cell vehicles.To improve the reliability of data communication and to unify the network management, a new network system based on dual-port RAM is also implemented.

  11. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both oil and electricity. Introduction of PHEV reduces oil consumptions, however it also increases electricity demands. Therefore we must evaluate PHEV's CO2 reduction potential, not only in transport section but also in power grid section. To take into account of the distribution of the daily travel distance is also very important. All energy charged in the PHEV's battery cannot always be used. That influences the evaluation. We formulate the total model that combines passenger car model and power utility grid model, and we also consider the distribution of the daily travel distance. With this model, we show the battery cost per kWh at which PHEV begins to be introduced and oil dependence in passenger car section is to be reduced to 80%. We also show PHEV's CO2 reduction potentials and effects on the power supply system.

  12. Analysis for Large Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Grids

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoru


    , especially the low and middle voltage level networks. In the paper, the basic structure and characteristics of the electric vehicles are introduced. The possible impacts of large scale integration of electric vehicles on the power systems especially the advantage to the integration of the renewable energies...... are discussed. Finally, the research projects related to the large scale integration of electric vehicles into the power systems are introduced, it will provide reference for large scale integration of Electric Vehicles into power grids.......Electric Vehicles (EVs) provide a significant opportunity for reducing the consumption of fossil energies and the emission of carbon dioxide. With more and more electric vehicles integrated in the power systems, it becomes important to study the effects of EV integration on the power systems...

  13. Strategic alliances for the development of fuel cell vehicles

    Maruo, Kanehira [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section of Science and Technology Studies


    The aim of this paper is to explore and describe the current stage of fuel cell vehicle development in the world. One can write three possible future scenarios - an optimistic, a realistic, and a pessimistic scenario: - The optimistic scenario -- The Daimler/Ballard/Ford alliance continues to develop fuel cell stacks and fuel cell vehicle systems as eagerly as they have been doing in recent years. Daimler(/Chrysler)-Benz continues to present its Necar 4, Necar 5, and so on, as planned, and thus keeps Toyota and Honda under severe pressure. Toyota`s and Honda`s real motivation seems to be not to allow Daimler-Benz to be the first to market. Their investment in fuel cell technology will be very large. At the same time, governments and other stake-holders will quickly and in a timely fashion build up infrastructures. We will then see many fuel cell vehicles by 2004. A paradigm shift in automotive technology will have taken place. - The realistic scenario -- Fuel cell vehicles will reach the same level of development by 2004/2005 as pure electric vehicles were at in 1997/1998. This means that fuel cell vehicles will be produced at the rate of several hundred vehicles per year per manufacturer and cost about $40,000 or more, which is still considerably more expensive than ordinary gasoline cars. These fuel cell vehicles will have a performance similar to today`s advanced electric vehicles, e.g., Toyota`s RAV4/EV and Honda`s EV Plus. To go further from this stage to the mass-production stage strong government incentives will be needed. - The pessimistic scenario -- It turns out that fuel cells are not as pure or efficient as in theory and in laboratory experiments. Prices of gasoline and diesel gas continue to be very low. The Californian 10% ZEV Requirement that has been meant to be valid at least ten years from 2003 through 2012 will be suspended or greatly modified. Daimler-Benz, Toyota, and Honda slow down their fuel cell vehicle development activities. No one is

  14. Fuel cells for vehicle applications in cars - bringing the future closer

    Panik, Ferdinand

    Among all alternative drive systems, the fuel cell electric propulsion system has the highest potential to compete with the internal combustion engine. For this reason, Daimler-Benz AG has entered into a co-operative alliance with Ballard Power Systems, with the objectives of bringing fuel cell vehicles to the market. Apart from the fuel cell itself, fuel cell vehicles require comprehensive system technology to provide fuel and air supply, cooling, energy management, electric and electronic functions. The system technology determines to a large extent the cost, weight, efficiency, performance and overall customer benefit of fuel cell vehicles. Hence, Daimler-Benz and Ballard are pooling their expertise in fuel cell system technology in a joint company, with the aim of bringing their fuel cell vehicular systems to the stage of maturity required for market entry as early as possible. Hydrogen-fuelled zero-emission fuel cell transit `buses' will be the first market segment addressed, with an emphasis on the North American and European markets. The first buses are already scheduled for delivery to customers in late 1997. Since a liquid fuel like methanol is easier to handle in passenger cars, fuel reforming technologies are developed and will shortly be demonstrated in a prototype, as well. The presentation will cover concepts of fuel cell vehicles with an emphasis on system technology, the related testing procedures and results as well as an outline of market entry strategies.


    Oleschuk V.


    Full Text Available Schemes of synchronous space-vector modulation have been adapted for control of split-phase drive for electric vehicle with open-end windings of induction motor, supplied by several voltage source inverters. MATLAB-based simulation of processes in this system has been executed. It has been shown, that the use of algorithms of synchronous modulation provides symmetry of phase voltage waveforms for any ratio between the switching frequency and fundamental frequency, and for any voltage magnitudes of dc-sources. Spectra of the phase voltage of system do not contain even harmonics and subharmonics (of the fundamental frequency, which is especially important for drives for the medium-power and high-power electric vehicles.

  16. Electric vehicles


    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  17. Package PowerTrain: A Modelica library for modeling and simulation of vehicle power trains

    Otter, Martin; Dempsey, Mike; Schlegel, Clemens


    In this article a new Modelica library to model vehicle power trains is discussed. An overview of the elements within the library is given, such as planetary gearsets, laminar clutches, torque losses, driver, warm up model. The library is demonstrated through the discussion of two illustrative examples, for drive cycle fuel consumption prediction and for investigating gearshift transition dynamics of an automatic gearbox. Together with the Modelica simulation environment Dymola, this library ...

  18. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K., null


    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberal...

  19. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Narumanchi, S.


    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  20. The Fair Distribution of Power to Electric Vehicles: An Alternative to Pricing

    Zhou, Yingjie; Maxemchuk, Nicholas; Qian, Xiangying; Wang, Chen


    As the popularity of electric vehicles increases, the demand for more power can increase more rapidly than our ability to install additional generating capacity. In the long term we expect that the supply and demand will become balanced. However, in the interim the rate at which electric vehicles can be deployed will depend on our ability to charge these vehicles without inconveniencing their owners. In this paper, we investigate using fairness mechanisms to distribute power to electric vehic...

  1. Performance tests of communal electric-powered vehicles

    The use of electric vehicles within the service industry (such as the town's sanitation, its trash collection and horticultural authority) can lead to a visible environmental relief, particularly in the inner city. The RWE in Essen has been supporting the development and use of electric vehicles for over 20 years and introduced a program in 1990 for the communities(ProKom) which provides 5 million DM for over 5 years for the support of electric vehicles. In this article the communities' requirements for electric vehicles are discussed, the types of vehicles which are mediated by ProKom are introduced and the first practical experiences made are also reported. (BWI)

  2. Magnetic Field Emissions for Ferrite and Non-Ferrite Geometries for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik


    Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced. For...... profile of magnetic field emissions (with and without ferrite) for wireless power transfer to vehicles....

  3. Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development

    In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration and control strategy to reduce fuel consumption. The study focuses on a car powered by a fuel cell and equipped with two secondary energy storage devices: batteries and super-capacitors. To model the powertrain behavior an on purpose simulation program called ECoS has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. The fuel cell model is based on the Amphlett theory. The battery and the super-capacitor models account for charge/discharge efficiency. The analyzed powertrain is also equipped with an energy regeneration system to recover braking energy. The numerical optimization of vehicle configuration and control strategy of the hybrid electric vehicle has been carried out with a multi objective genetic algorithm. The goal of the optimization is the reduction of hydrogen consumption while sustaining the battery state of charge. By applying the algorithm to different driving cycles, several optimized configurations have been identified and discussed


    Mr. Sujay R. Kale*; Mr. Santosh Rayarao


    This paper provides the wireless power transfer (WPT) or contactless power transfer (CPT) for charging electric vehicles (EV). This technology is recent method in electrification for transportation, useful for the environment. This type of system mainly consists of two parts such as transmission unit and receiving unit, transmission unit send power or electricity and receiving unit received this power and charge the battery of electric vehicle (EV). WPT is applicable for mobile devices, house...

  5. Portable ammonia-borane-based H2 power-pack for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Seo, Jung-Eun; Kim, Yujong; Kim, Yongmin; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Dae Hyung; Kim, Yeongcheon; Shin, Seock Jae; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Sung-Yug; Kim, Taegyu; Yoon, Chang Won; Nam, Suk Woo


    An advanced ammonia borane (AB)-based H2 power-pack is designed to continually drive an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for 57 min using a 200-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In a flight test with the UAV platform integrated with the developed power-pack, pure hydrogen with an average flow rate of 3.8 L(H2) min-1 is generated by autothermal H2-release from AB with tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (T4EGDE) as a promoter. During take-off, a hybridized power management system (PMS) consisting of the fuel cell and an auxiliary lithium-ion battery supplies 500 We at full power simultaneously, while the fuel cell alone provides 150-200 We and further recharges the auxiliary battery upon cruising. Gaseous byproducts identified by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy during AB dehydrogenation are sequestrated using a mixed absorbent in an H2 purification system. In addition, a real-time monitoring system is employed to determine the remaining filter capacity of the purifier at a ground control system for rapidly responding unpredictable circumstances during flight. Separate experiments are conducted to screen potential materials and methods for enhancing filter capacity in the current H2 refining system. A prospective reactor concept for long-term fuel cell applications is proposed based on the results.

  6. Electric vehicles in Danish power system with large penetration of wind power

    Yang, Lihui; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob;


    Electric vehicles (EVs) provide a unique opportunity for reducing the CO2 emissions from the transport sector. At the same time, EVs have the potential to play an important role in the economical and reliable operation of an electricity system with high penetration of renewable energy. An analysis......). The managing structure of V2G adopting virtual power plant (VPP) technology is proposed. © 2011 State Grid Electric Power Research Institute Press....... is made of the potential for using EVs in Denmark, and the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging and discharging of EVs are enumerated. Based on the analysis, important technological gaps are identified, and the corresponding research and...

  7. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve


    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  8. Heat pump technology in electric powered vehicles; Waermepumpentechnik in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Hoerth, Leonhard; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik


    Modern passenger cars use waste heat of the engine and electric systems to heat the passenger compartment. In future electric-powered vehicles, the problem of range will make it necessary to develop new technologies. For example, the refrigerating circuit of the vehicle can used to ensure thermal comfort via a heat exchanger. Further, the battery must be conditioned via the cooling circuit for two reasons: First, the performance of the energy store decreases in cold conditions; secondly, service life will be shorter at very high temperatures. The waste heat of the electric motor can also be used for heating purposes. The architecture of the refrigerating circuit was modified accordingly. The result is a refrigerating circuit with different operating modes and with different heat sources and heat sinks that may have different temperature levels. The functions of the R134a/R1234yf refrigerator were simulated in 1D. The results show the different potentials for different heat sources and for different modes of operation in summer and winter. Selected operating modes are presented for two different heat sources and are evaluated for different power demands. [German] Derzeitige Personenkraftfahrzeuge bedienen sich der Motorabwaerme und elektrischen Zuheizern, um die Fahrzeugkabine zu beheizen. In zukuenftigen Elektrofahrzeugen hingegen muss aufgrund der Reichweitenproblematik auf andere Techniken zugegriffen werden. Die Nutzung des Kaeltekreises im Fahrzeug als Waermepumpe ist hierzu eine Loesung, effizienter den thermischen Komfort zu gestalten. Zusaetzlich wird es notwendig sein, die Batterie mittels Kaeltekreis zu konditionieren, da zum einen bei kalten Bedingungen die Leistungsfaehigkeit des Energiespeichers eingeschraenkt ist und zum anderen die Lebensdauer bei sehr hohen Temperaturen stark sinkt. Ueberdies ist es sinnvoll, die Abwaerme der E-Maschine zur Beheizung des Innenraums zu nutzen. Um den oben genannten Anforderungen zu genuegen, ist die Architektur des

  9. Integration of Vehicle-to-Grid in Western Danish Power System

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    power plants followed by a number of decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) units and connections from abroad. The future energy plans in Denmark aims for 50% wind power capacity integration which will replace many conventional large power plant units. The limited control and regulation power...... capabilities of large power plants in the future, demands for new balancing solutions like Vehicle-to-Grid systems. In this article, aggregated electric vehicle based battery storage representing a Vehicle-to-Grid system is modelled for the use in long term dynamic power system simulations. Further, it is...... Transmission) control areas are significantly minimized by the faster up and down regulation characteristics of the electric vehicle battery storage....

  10. Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The addition of a fast auxiliary power source like a supercapacitor bank in fuel cell-based vehicles has a great potential because permits a significant reduction of the hydrogen consumption and an improvement of the vehicle efficiency. The Energy Management Strategies, commanding the power split between the power sources in the hybrid arrangement to fulfil the power requirement, perform a fundamental role to achieve this objective. In this work, three strategies based on the knowledge of the fuel cell efficiency map are proposed. These strategies are attractive due to the relative simplicity of the real time implementation and the good performance. The strategies are tested both in a simulation environment and in an experimental setup using a 1.2-kW PEM fuel cell. The results, in terms of hydrogen consumption, are compared with an optimal case, which is assessed trough an advantageous technique also introduced in this work and with a pure fuel cell vehicle as well. This comparative reveals high efficiency and good performance, allowing to save up to 26% of hydrogen in urban scenarios. (author)

  11. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    Gajduk, A.; Todorovski, M.; Kurths, J.; L. Kocarev


    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle (G2V) devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving,% and current harmonic filtering, can provide ancillary services as frequency contr...

  12. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  13. Investigations on an energy efficient air conditioning of hybrid vehicles and electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchungen zur energieeffizienten Klimatisierung von Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Danzer, Christoph; Unwerth, Thomas von [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Alternative Fahrzeugantriebe


    The energy-efficient air conditioning of passenger cells is an ever-increasing challenge in the development of electric vehicles because the electric heating in particular reduces the cruising range significantly. For this reason, a simulation model has been developed at Chemnitz University of Technology, which simulates the whole air conditioning system including the passenger cell and the complete powertrain in electric cars. Using this model, different optimization approaches have been analyzed and evaluated concerning the cruising range. This paper first illustrates how much the cruising range of an exemplary electric vehicle is reduced by using the electric heating under different wintery weather conditions. Afterwards, the exploitation of the waste heat produced by the powertrain components (electric motor and power electronics) will be explained. Finally, it shall be described to what extent this exploitation increases the cruising range. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy


    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  15. Performance on steering power ratio of tracked vehicles influenced by soil parameters

    Chi Yuan; Zhang Rongrong; Wang Hongtao; Shi Dandan


    In order to study tracked vehicle adopting different steering mechanism, we use steering power ratio to evaluate its performance. The influencing factors of steering power ratio have been theoretically studied. And we designed the experimental prototype to test. We find that steering power ratio is related to vehicle parameters, resistance coefficient, turning radius, skid ratio, slip ratio and steering coefficient not only, but also it is related to soil parameters (including soil cohesion, ...

  16. Inductive Power Transfer with Resonance for Wireless Charging of Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Roaldset, Johanna Ruud


    This report investigates inductive power transfer with resonance for wireless charging of electric vehicle (EV) batteries. The inspiration for the topic came from the paper Basic experimental study on helical antennas of wireless power transfer for Electric Vehicles by using magnetic resonant couplings by T. Imura, H. Okabe and Y. Hory [7]. The paper presents laboratory results of more than 97% power transfer efficiency at a distance between the coils of up to 20 cm. The coils used are air ...

  17. Applying fuel cell experience to sustainable power products

    King, Joseph M.; O'Day, Michael J.

    Fuel cell power plants have demonstrated high efficiency, environmental friendliness, excellent transient response, and superior reliability and durability in spacecraft and stationary applications. Broader application of fuel cell technology promises significant contribution to sustainable global economic growth, but requires improvement to size, cost, fuel flexibility and operating flexibility. International Fuel Cells (IFC) is applying lessons learned from delivery of more than 425 fuel cell power plants and 3 million h of operation to the development of product technology which captures that promise. Key findings at the fuel cell power plant level include: (1) ancillary components account for more than 40% of the weight and nearly all unscheduled outages of hydrocarbon-fuelled power plants; a higher level of integration and simplification is required to achieve reasonable characteristics, (2) hydrocarbon fuel cell power plant components are highly interactive; the fuel processing approach and power plant operating pressure are major determinants of overall efficiency, and (3) achieving the durability required for heavy duty vehicles and stationary applications requires simultaneous satisfaction of electrochemical, materials and mechanical considerations in the design of the cell stack and other power plant components. Practical designs must minimize application specific equipment. Related lessons for stationary fuel cell power plants include: (1) within fuel specification limits, natural gas varies widely in heating value, minor constituents such as oxygen and nitrogen content and trace compounds such as the odorant; (2) city water quality varies widely; recovery of product water for process use avoids costly, complicated and site-specific water treatment systems, but water treatment is required to eliminate impurities and (3) the embedded protection functions for reliable operation of fuel cell power conditioners meet or exceed those required for connection to

  18. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)


    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  19. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    Yen-Lin Chen; Chao-Wei Yu; Zi-Jie Chien; Chin-Hsuan Liu; Hsin-Han Chiang


    This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides...

  20. A Control Strategy Scheme for Fuel Cell-Vehicle Based on Frequency Separation

    Alloui, Hamza; Marouani, Khoudir; Becherif, Mohamed; Sid, Mohamed Nacer; Benbouzid, Mohamed


    This paper presents a control strategy scheme based on frequency-separation for Fuel cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), using a Fuel cell (FC) as a main energy source, and a battery as an auxiliary power source. First, an analysis of hybrid architecture using an FC and batteries for automotive applications is presented. Next, the model and the control strategy are described. In this strategy a frequency splitter is used for routing the low frequency content of power demand into the F...

  1. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Hong-Wen He; Rui Xiong; Yu-Hua Chang


    Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UD...

  2. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.;


    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...... requirements: i) tight dc bus voltage regulation; ii) perfect tracking of SC current to its reference; iii) and asymptotic stability of the closed loop system. A nonlinear controller is developed, on the basis of the system nonlinear model, making use of Lyapunov stability design techniques. The latter...

  3. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu


    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative in the tags, power required for transmission of position information to the reader is harvested by the tags from the power wirelessly transferred from the reader. Basic mechanism in wireless power transfer is magnetic induction and power transfer efficiency according to the relative location of the reader to a tag is discussed with simulation results. Since power transfer efficiency is significantly affected by the ferromagnetic material (steel) at the bottom of the railroad vehicle and the track, magnetic beam shaping b...

  4. Optimal recharge and driving strategies for a battery-powered electric vehicle

    Lee, W R; Wang, S.; Teo, K L


    A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an opti...

  5. Transport vehicle for manned Mars missions powered by inertial confinement fusion

    Orth, Charles D.; Klein, Gail; Sercel, Joel; Hoffman, Nathan; Murray, Kathy; Chang-Diaz, Franklin


    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an ideal engine power source for manned spacecraft to Mars because of its inherently high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. In this paper a concept is produced for a vehicle powered by ICF and utilizing a magnetic thrust chamber to avoid plasma thermalization with wall structures and the resultant degradation of specific impulse, that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. This vehicle is capable of 100-day manned Mars missions with a 100-metric-ton payload and a total vehicle launch mass near 6000 metric tons, based on advanced technology assumed to be available by A.D. 2020.

  6. Barriers to the development of fuel-cell electric vehicles

    The study is structured as follows: Fuel cells (with focus on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)); Fuel cell electric vehicles; Barriers to commercial use of fuel cell vehicles in the following areas: price; hydrogen production; hydrogen infrastructure; hydrogen storage; other barriers (safety; lifetime; use in extreme conditions; control system errors). The major barriers include too high price and problems with a stable and sustainable hydrogen source. Also, the following must be ensured for a wider use of FCEVs: reduction in the weight and volume of the drive unit; improved lifetime of the PEMFC system; usability within wide weather conditions; existence of an adequate infrastructure (a dense hydrogen service station network and their hydrogen supply); and implementation of related legislation including safety standards. (P.A.)

  7. Power quality issues into a Danish low-voltage grid with electric vehicles

    Marra, Francesco; Jensen, Morten M.; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo;


    An increased interest on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is dealing with their introduction into low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Lately, analysis on power quality issues has received attention when considering EVs as additional load. The charging of EVs is...

  8. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines.


    ... internal combustion engines. 176.905 Section 176.905 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... engines. (a) A motor vehicle or any mechanized equipment powered by an internal combustion engine is... met: (1) The motor vehicle or mechanical equipment has an internal combustion engine using liquid...

  9. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand


    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated...

  10. Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system

    Wu, Di

    This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

  11. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun


    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  12. Support to the electric power, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles

    This document brings together the different financial incentives proposed to the acquisition and utilization of electric power, natural gas or LPG vehicles. The financial assistance of the ADEME, the fiscal incentives and other proposals are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...... storage....

  14. Trajectory Simulation for Underwater Vehicle with Power-Lunched

    Chaoqian Chen; Wei Cao; Cong Wang∗and Yingjie Wei


    The motion of combustion gas bubble produced by underwater ignition was developed based on Rayleigh⁃Plesset equation. Combining the bubble motion equation with the underwater launched vehicle motion equation in the longitudinal plane, a trajectory simulation model with power⁃launched was established. The hydrodynamic characteristics of underwater ignition at different depths and the trajectory analysis of the underwater vehicle with power⁃launched were given by simulation. The simulation results have a good agreement with experimental results, and show that the thrust peak caused by underwater ignition and the stable thrust both decrease slightly with the increase of the water depth, and the thrust peak will decline obviously by enlarging the initial radius of gas bubble; the thrust peak generated at the instant of ignition and the low⁃frequency oscillation of the stable thrust have no significant influence on the trajectory of underwater vehicle.

  15. Vehicle to wireless power transfer coupling coil alignment sensor

    Miller, John M.; Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; White, Clifford P.


    A non-contacting position sensing apparatus includes at least one vehicle-mounted receiver coil that is configured to detect a net flux null when the vehicle is optimally aligned relative to the primary coil in the charging device. Each of the at least one vehicle-mounted receiver coil includes a clockwise winding loop and a counterclockwise winding loop that are substantially symmetrically configured and serially connected to each other. When the non-contacting position sensing apparatus is located directly above the primary coil of the charging device, the electromotive forces from the clockwise winding loop and the counterclockwise region cancel out to provide a zero electromotive force, i.e., a zero voltage reading across the coil that includes the clockwise winding loop and the counterclockwise winding loop.

  16. Modelling and simulation of an electric vehicle with battery-powered induction motor drive system

    Fan Hanrong.


    A computerized simulation model of an electric vehicle with a battery powered inverter-controlled induction machine drive system was developed. A modified Volkswagen Rabbit was selected as the simulation vehicle. The drive system is based on a squirrel-cage 3-phase ac induction motor, the inverter simulated is a power transistorized, pulse width modulated resonant dc link inverter, and the batteries are of the lead-acid type commonly used in golf carts. The following mathematical models were developed in the simulation: a vehicle dynamics model to calculate the instantaneous power requirement; a tire, differential, and gear model; a motor model; an inverter model; and a battery model. A listing of the computer simulation program QEVS, written in Fortran 77, is included. QEVS can be used to determine the power and energy requirements of vehicles over standard driving cycles for different route profiles. The effects on both vehicle performance and range due to changes in drive train component design and/or mode of operation are evaluated. The battery performance, major factors affecting range and energy use (including regenerative braking and gear shifting) and electric vehicle performance characteristics are presented. A maximum efficiency control strategy for the induction machine is proposed to optimize electric vehicle performance. 79 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li


    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  18. Extraction of Urban Power Lines from Vehicle-Borne LiDAR Data

    Liang Cheng; Lihua Tong; Yu Wang; Manchun Li


    Airborne LiDAR has been traditionally used for power line cruising. Nevertheless, data acquisition with airborne LiDAR is constrained by the complex environments in urban areas as well as the multiple parallel line structures on the same power line tower, which means it is not directly applicable to the extraction of urban power lines. Vehicle-borne LiDAR system has its advantages upon airborne LiDAR and this paper tries to utilize vehicle-borne LiDAR data for the extraction of urban power li...

  19. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet


    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  20. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Provenzano, J.J.


    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  1. Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles in Competitive Electricity Markets and Its Impact on Distribution Power Systems

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the electricity price could be transferred to the consumers and they may make some optimal charge and discharge schedules for their electric vehicles in order to minimize their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal...... operation strategy for a Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) in relation to the hourly electricity price in order to achieve minimum energy costs of the PEV. The western Danish power system, which is currently the grid area in the world that has the largest share of wind power in its generation profiles and may...... represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. The impact of the optimal operation strategy for electric vehicles together with the optimal load response to spot market price on the distribution power system with high wind power penetrations...

  2. Vehicle-to-Grid for islanded power system operation in Bornholm

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    a model of an aggregated electric vehicle based battery storage to support an isolated power system operating with a large wind power penetration in the Danish island of Bornholm. From the simulation results, the EV battery storages represented by the V2G systems are able to integrate more fluctuating...... wind power. The islanded Bornholm power system operates satisfactory for the case of replacing most of the conventional generator reserves with V2G systems, which may represent a future operation scenario.......Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) systems are an emerging concept of utilizing the battery storage of electric vehicles (EVs) for providing power system regulation services. This technology could be used to balance the variable electricity generated from various renewable energy sources. This article considers...

  3. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O' Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.


    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  4. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Large Scale Wind Power Integration in Denmark

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    operation of the power system. This research work shows that the overall operation and control efficiency of power systems can be improved by introducing the Vehicle-to-Grid systems as a future grid regulation ancillary service provider substituting the conventional generation reserves....... is collectively termed as the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept. Thus, the EV storage could operate as a controllable load or distributed generator to minimize the power fluctuations resulting from increased variable wind power. The 2025 Danish Energy Policy plans for fifty per cent wind power production replacing...... most of the conventional generators. This is not desirable for a reliable and safe power system operation and control. The strategies like wind power regulation or increased cross-border transmission capacity may not be sufficient enough to realize the power system balancing. The former strategy spills...


    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL


    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  6. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Gorkem Sen


    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  7. Modular lithium-ion-battery-system for utility vehicles with high efficient integrated power electronics; Modulares Lithium-Ionen-Batteriesystem fuer Nutzfahrzeuge mit hocheffizienter integrierter Leistungselektronik

    Teigelkoetter, Johannes; Kowalski, Thomas; Stock, Alexander; Staudt, Stefan [Hochschule Aschaffenburg (Germany); Parr, Markus [Batterie-Montage-Zentrum GmbH, Karlstein am Main (Germany)


    Due to the continual electrification of road vehicles and the associated increased research and development work higher and higher power and energy densities are being reached for the accumulators. This report relates to a battery system which enables the construction of custom designed energy storages. The requirement of modularity to the overall system applies to both the necessarily infrastructure and the charging electronics. Therefore a topology in which every single cell of the battery stack is assigned to a power electronic component has been chosen. This power electronics is responsible for all functions which are necessary for a safe use of the battery such as surveillance of the cell voltage and temperature. The same power electronics provides a charging power of 1 kW per battery cell during the normal ''Plugin'' charging operation. When using the ''Dynamic-Balancing-Mode'' the power electronics is occurred by the total battery voltage. Because of this architecture the cells with the lowest individual energy can be supported while the operation of the vehicle but the total package whereby the energy of the series-connected cell can be used optimally. Especially the high availability of the system of utility vehicles is a great challenge to the battery system. Thanks to the integration of the power electronics into the battery cell the availability can be improved significantly. (orig.)

  8. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Wipke, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  9. Development of a Power System and Analysis of Inertial System Calibration for a Small Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Seely, William Forrester


    Compared to large vehicles acting individually, platoons of small, inexpensive autonomous underwater vehicles have the potential to perform some missions that are commonly conducted by larger vehicles faster, more efficiently, and at a reduced operational cost. This thesis describes the power system of a small, inexpensive autonomous underwater vehicle developed by the Autonomous Systems Controls Laboratory at Virginia Tech. Reduction in vehicle size and cost reduces the accuracy of navi...

  10. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    Hu, Junjie

    vehicle eet operators to eliminate the grid congestion problem. Note that the electric vehicle eet operator can manage the EVs based on the three aforementioned control strategies. To test and evaluate the proposed control strategies, multi-agent concepts is used to model the price coordinated...... hierarchical scheduling system. To implement and demonstrate the multi-agent systems, a novel simulation platform has been developed based on the integration of JACK (a Java based agent-oriented development environment) and Matlab/Simulink software....... control, market based control, and price control. The thesis investigates new approaches for distribution networks congestion management. It suggests and develops a market based control for distribution grid congestion management. The general equilibrium market mechanism is utilized in the operation...

  11. Thermal Management of Fuel Cell-driven Vehicles using HT-PEM and Hydrogen Storage

    Nasri, Mounir; Dickinson, Dave


    A battery electric vehicle equipped with a range extender is a suitable solution for both urban and long-distance traffic. Compared with the internal combustion engine-powered range extender the fuel cell range extender is a zero emission solution and has been investigated for many years. In this work a system for hydrogen storage for the heating and cooling of a high temperature polymer membrane fuel cell range extender itself using a metal-hydride storage tank [1] is investigated. In ord...

  12. An Intelligent Power Management approach for Battery Operating Robotic Vehicle

    Tom Mathews*1; V. Gopi2


    This paper is about a robotic vehicle aims on the design of efficient charging system of batteries by means of tracked solar panels. The main attraction of this paper is the design concept of the charging and discharging cycles of the batteries based on the PIC micro-controller. The efficient charging system concept is designed on a PIC micro-controller. The energy system consists of two batteries and are, one for charging independently from the solar panel and the other batte...

  13. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    Schaltz, Erik


    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original supply system of the truck which was powered by a lead-acid battery package. The FCSPP includes fuel storage, a fuel cell system, an energy storage device, power electronics, an electric machine, and...

  14. Design and experiment for realization of laser wireless power transmission for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Dechen; Zhu, Dandi; Shi, Qianyun; Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong


    Currently various types of aircraft booming and maturing, however, their long-time navigational capability should be improved urgently. This paper aims at studying laser power beaming, which includes the technology of high-efficient photoelectric conversion and APT(acquiring, pointing and tracking) technology, to provide power for flying UAV(unmanned aerial vehicles) and improve their flight endurance. The experiment of testing different types of solar cells under various conditions has been done to choose the solar cell which has the highest photoelectric conversion rate and find its most sensitive wavelength. In addition, the charge management module has been chose on the base of the characteristics of lithium batteries. Besides, a laser APT system was designed and set up, at the same time FSM (Fast Scan Mirror) control program and digital image processing program were used to control the system. The success of the indoor experiment of scan-tracking and charging for the moving UAV model via laser proves that this system is workable. And in this experiment, the photoelectric conversion rate of the whole system is up to 17.55%.

  15. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    Williams, Brett D.


    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity” is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. T...

  16. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.


    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  17. Analysis of dynamic requirements for fuel cell systems for vehicle applications

    Pischinger, Stefan; Schönfelder, Carsten; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines, as well as battery powered electric vehicles, achieve one of the most important customer requirements; achieving extremely short response times to load changes. Also, fast acceleration times from a cold start to full power in the range of seconds are practicable. New fuel cell-based propulsion systems, as well as auxiliary power units, have to fulfill the same demands to become competitive. This includes heating-up the system to operating temperature as well as the control strategy for start-up. An additional device to supply starting air is necessary, if the compressor motor can only be operated with fuel cell voltage. Since the system components (for example, the air supply or the fuel supply) are not mechanically coupled, as is the case with conventional internal combustion engines, these components have to be controlled by different sensors and actuators. This can be an advantage in optimizing the system, but it also can represent an additional challenge. This paper describes the fuel cell system requirements regarding transient operation and their dependence on system structure. In particular, the requirements for peripheral components such as air supply, fuel supply and the balance of heat in a fuel cell system are examined. Furthermore, the paper outlines the necessity of an electric storage device and its resultant capacity, which will enable faster load changes. Acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle are accomplished through the use of the electric storage device, while the fuel cell system only has to deliver the mean power consumption without higher load peaks. On the basis of system simulation, different concepts are evaluated for use as a propulsion system or APU and, then, critical components are identified. The effects of advanced control strategies regarding the dynamic behavior of the system are demonstrated. Technically, a fuel cell system could be a viable propulsion system alternative

  18. Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in the Power Demand Curve in a Smart Grid Environment

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita;


    Smart grids with an intensive penetration of distributed energy resources will play an important role in future power system scenarios. The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources brings new challenges, requiring an efficient management of those sources. Additional storage resources can be...... beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve for a...... distribution network with large penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) units. An efficient management methodology for EVs charging and discharging is proposed, considering a multi-objective optimization problem. The main goals of the proposed methodology are: to minimize the system operation costs and to...

  19. The Electric Vehicle Power Design and The Matching Characteristics Analysis of The Transmission System

    Lei Zhang


    Full Text Available According to the requirements of the performance parameters of chongqing lifan E520 cars, electric vehicles with pure mechanical electronically controlled continuously variable transmission (CVT were designed and developed. The power function of traction motor was designed firstly. According to the vehicle performance and motor parameters, matching parameters of CVT were calculated and confirmed. The parameters of maximum speed, acceleration time and gradeability of CVT were analyzed and compared. The parameters of the battery pack were designed according to the acceleration capability of electric vehicles, continued driving mileage. Currently, the electric vehicles equipped with pure mechanical electronically controlled CVT have passed the bench test and loading operation. These have proved that the dynamic design and driveline matching design in this paper were correct and achieved a predetermined operating performance and power performance indicator.

  20. Fuel Cell, Battery and Supercapacitor Hybrid System for Electric Vehicle: Modeling and Control via Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    Gauchia, Lucia; Bouscayrol, Alain; Sanz, Javier; Trigui, Rochdi; Barrade, Philippe


    Nowadays, no electrochemical energy system presents a competitive operation if compared with internal combustion engine, which is the reason for combining electrochemical energy systems to obtain a hybrid energy storage system. This paper presents a fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor system for vehicle application. The objective of this paper is to present the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) of the multi-source power system.

  1. Dynamic scheduling of electric vehicle charging under limited power and phase balance constraints

    Hernández Arauzo, Alejandro; Puente Peinador, Jorge; González, Miguel A.; Varela Arias, José Ramiro; Sedano Franco, Javier


    We confront the problem of scheduling the charge of electric vehicles, under limited electric power contract, with the objective of maximizing the users’ satisfaction. The problem is motivated by a real life situation where a set of users demand electric charge while their vehicles are parked. Each space has a charging point which is connected to one of the lines of a three-phase electric feeder. We first define the problem as a Dynamic Constraint Satisfaction Problem (DCSP) with Optimization...

  2. Using activity-based modeling to predict spatial and temporal electrical vehicle power demand in Flanders

    Knapen, Luk; Kochan, Bruno; BELLEMANS, Tom; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert


    Electric power demand for household generated traffic is estimated as a function of time and space for the region of Flanders. An activity-based model is used to predict traffic demand. Electric vehicle (EV) type and charger characteristics are determined on the basis of car ownership and by assuming that EV categories market shares will be similar to the current ones for internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) published in government statistics. Charging opportunities at home and work locat...

  3. Impact of electric vehicles on power quality in a smart grid context

    Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Gonçalves, Henrique; Afonso, João L.


    The large dependency of the imported fossil fuels and the soaring oil prices, makes essential the look for alternatives to the traditional people transportation system. The natural bet is the electric mobility, namely Electric Vehicles (EV), and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). This way, in this paper is analyzed the potential impacts of the battery charging systems on the grid power quality, in a Smart Grid context. It is considered the current consumed, accordin...

  4. Research on the Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Electric Variable Transmissions

    Qiwei Xu; Shumei Cui; Liwei Song; Qianfan Zhang


    Electric variable transmission is a new electromechanical energy conversion device structure, which is especially suitable as the driving force distribution device for hybrid electric vehicles. This paper focuses on the power management strategy of hybrid electric vehicles based on an electric variable transmission, and a kind of hierarchical control ideology is proposed. The control strategy is composed of four control levels, namely analysis of force requirement, operation mode switching, f...

  5. Roadway Powered Electric Vehicle Project Track Construction And Testing Program Phase 3D

    Systems Control Technology, Inc.


    This report covers the construction and testing of a Roadway Powered Electric Vehicle (RPEV) proof-of-concept system. The test facility was built at the University of California Richmond Field Station. The facility has a 700-foot test track and an operational 35-passenger RPEV. The report contains an introduction to the concept of RPEV and discusses the following aspects of the project: systems engineering and design, vehicle, facilities, testing, related RPEV research, and control circuits.

  6. Design, control and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for small electric vehicles

    Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer; Khaligh, Alireza;


    This paper introduces design, control, and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system, utilized for small electric vehicles (EV). The batteries are designed and controlled to work as the main energy storage source of the vehicle, supplying average power to the load; and the ultra......-capacitors are used to meet the peak power demands during transients. Power management system determines the directions of power flow, according to load demand. Presented analyses validate the efficient power management methodology....

  7. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...... supply system of the truck which was powered by a lead-acid battery package. The FCSPP includes fuel storage, a fuel cell system, an energy storage device, power electronics, an electric machine, and the necessary control. The FCSPP therefore converts the energy of the fuel to a shaft torque and speed of...... increase the efficiency. In this work a lead-acid battery, an ultracapacitor, or a combination of both are considered as energy storage devices. A FCSPP is designed for 10 different configurations of connecting the energy storage device(s) and fuel cell to a common bus, which comply with the 42V Power...

  8. Vehicle purchase and use data matrices: J. D. Power/DOE New Vehicle Owner Surveys

    Crawford, R.; Dulla, R.


    Vehicle purchase and use data collected in two recent surveys from buyers of new 1978 and 1979 cars and light-duty trucks are presented. The survey information is broad in scope, extending from the public awareness of fuel economy information to decision-making in the purchase process, to in-use fuel economy. The survey data consequently have many applications in transportation studies. The objective of this report is to make a general summary of the data base contents available to interested individuals and organizations.

  9. Improving power grid transient stability by plug-in electric vehicles

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve in discharge mode as distributed energy and power resources operating as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) devices and in charge mode as loads or grid-to-vehicle devices. It has been documented that PEVs serving as V2G systems can offer possible backup for renewable power sources, can provide reactive power support, active power regulation, load balancing, peak load shaving, can reduce utility operating costs and can generate revenue. Here we show that PEVs can even improve power grid transient stability, that is, stability when the power grid is subjected to large disturbances, including bus faults, generator and branch tripping, and sudden large load changes. A control strategy that regulates the power output of a fleet of PEVs based on the speed of generator turbines is proposed and tested on the New England 10-unit 39-bus power system. By regulating the power output of the PEVs we show that (1) speed and voltage fluctuations resulting from large disturbances can be significantly reduced up to five times, and (2) the critical clearing time can be extended by 20–40%. Overall, the PEVs control strategy makes the power grid more robust. (paper)

  10. Well-to-wheels analysis of fuel-cell vehicle/fuel systems

    Major automobile companies worldwide are undertaking vigorous research and development efforts aimed at developing fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs). Proton membrane exchange (PEM)-based FCVs require hydrogen (H(sub 2)) as the fuel-cell (FC) fuel. Because production and distribution infrastructure for H(sub 2) off board FCVs as a transportation fuel does not exist yet, researchers are developing FCVs that can use hydrocarbon fuels, such as methanol (MeOH) and gasoline, for onboard production of H(sub 2) via fuel processors. Direct H(sub 2) FCVs have no vehicular emissions, while FCVs powered by hydrocarbon fuels have near-zero emissions of criteria pollutants and some carbon dioxide (CO(sub 2)) emissions. However, production of H(sub 2) can generate a large amount of emissions and suffer significant energy losses. A complete evaluation of the energy and emission impacts of FCVs requires an analysis of energy use and emissions during all stages, from energy feedstock wells to vehicle wheels-a so-called ''well-to-wheels'' (WTW) analysis. This paper focuses on FCVs powered by several transportation fuels. Gasoline vehicles (GVs) equipped with internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the baseline technology to which FCVs are compared. Table 1 lists the 13 fuel pathways included in this study. Petroleum-to-gasoline (with 30-ppm sulfur[S] content) is the baseline fuel pathway for GVs

  11. Library Power as a Vehicle for the Evolution of Change.

    Tastad, Shirley; Tallman, Julie

    The DeWitt Wallace-Readers Digest Library Power Initiative has been instrumental in precipitating reform efforts in school libraries. National Library Power programs have strengthened the role of the school library media specialist and the school library program. The initiative emphasizes that library media specialists integrate information…

  12. Modeling, analysis and coordination of electric vehicles integrating into the electric power grid

    Wu, Diyun; 伍迪芸


    In recent years, since the concept of smart grid rises and the existing power grids are continuously modernized, more and more electric vehicles (EVs) are integrated into the power grid. In the power grid, EVs are expected to provide various energy services, such as spinning reserves, regulation services, optimization services, stability improvement, reactive compensation and grid security. This thesis is to model, analyze and implement these energy services of EVs.   Firstly, a multilayer...

  13. Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.


    Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

  14. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    Jenn-Jiang Hwang; Jia-Sheng Hu; Chih-Hong Lin


    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the ba...

  15. Systems Integration, Modeling, and Validation of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Ogburn, Michael James


    The goals of the research documented in this thesis were the design, construction, modeling, and validation of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle based a conversion of a five-passenger production sedan. Over 60 engineering students working together as the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT), integrated a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system into a series hybrid electric vehicle. This design produced an efficient and truly zero-emission vehicle. This 1997 Chevrolet Lum...

  16. Optimal recharge and driving strategies for a battery-powered electric vehicle

    Lee W. R.


    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  17. On integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into existing power system structures

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent one option for the electrification of private mobility. In order to efficiently integrate PHEVs into power systems, existing organizational structures need to be considered. Based on procedures of power systems planning and operation, actors are identified whose operational activities will be affected by PHEV integration. Potential changes and challenges in the actors' long- and short term planning activities are discussed. Further, a PHEV operation state description is developed which defines vehicle operation states from the power system point of view integrating uncontrolled, controlled recharging and vehicle to grid (V2G) utilization in one single framework. Future PHEV managing entities, such as aggregators, can use this framework for planning and operation activities including load management and V2G. This operational state description could provide a solution for future short term planning challenges of PHEVs and an aegis for various routes of current research, which to date have been weakly linked to each other.

  18. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben;


    This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable....../conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential...

  19. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)


    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  20. Electric-powered passenger vehicle design study program. Task 1. Tradeoff studies

    Rowlett, B.H.


    Using the baseline vehicle and power system design established previously to meet the performance goals of the program, three power system computer simulation programs were prepared for the basic vehicle tradeoff studies. These programs simulate the performance of the power system and vehicle over different types of driving conditions such as maximum power acceleration, deceleration, city driving cycles, and hill climbing, and permit accurate determination of the benefits of the unique hybrid power system, the total energy required for the suburban city driving cycle, and the extremes of the operating envelopes of the components so that component design options can be defined and studied. Component design tradeoff studies were conducted, including sensitivity studies to show the criticality of the various losses and unknowns in the analytical models. Also, preliminary vehicle layout studies were performed to determine the best locations of the power system and the batteries. Three basic design options are identified for further study. Economic studies were initiated using analytical models to establish the complete vehicle weight and cost breakdowns. Preliminary reliability and safety studies were completed, and maintainability and safety certification criteria established. The detailed analysis of the power system has verified the feasibility of the system and of the performance expectations. Also, the feasibility of energy recovery from regenerative braking has been confirmed. The sensitivity analysis of the power system shows that sufficient margin for unknown design variables is provided. The preliminary economic analysis indicates that the most difficult objective of the study will be the selection of the cost and weight relationships which are required to achieve the overall cost objectives.

  1. Cell-targeting aptamers act as intracellular delivery vehicles.

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Chen, Yeng; Arshad, M K Md; Kerishnan, Jesinda P; Ruslinda, A R; Al-Douri, Yarub; Voon, C H; Hashim, Uda


    Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acids or peptides identified from a randomized combinatorial library through specific interaction with the target of interest. Targets can be of any size, from small molecules to whole cells, attesting to the versatility of aptamers for binding a wide range of targets. Aptamers show drug properties that are analogous to antibodies, with high specificity and affinity to their target molecules. Aptamers can penetrate disease-causing microbial and mammalian cells. Generated aptamers that target surface biomarkers act as cell-targeting agents and intracellular delivery vehicles. Within this context, the "cell-internalizing aptamers" are widely investigated via the process of cell uptake with selective binding during in vivo systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) or by cell-internalization SELEX, which targets cell surface antigens to be receptors. These internalizing aptamers are highly preferable for the localization and functional analyses of multiple targets. In this overview, we discuss the ways by which internalizing aptamers are generated and their successful applications. Furthermore, theranostic approaches featuring cell-internalized aptamers are discussed with the purpose of analyzing and diagnosing disease-causing pathogens. PMID:27350620

  2. Wireless Power Transfer to a Microaerial Vehicle with a Microwave Active Phased Array

    Shotaro Nako; Kenta Okuda; Kengo Miyashiro; Kimiya Komurasaki; Hiroyuki Koizumi


    A wireless power transfer system using a microwave active phased array was developed. In the system, power is transferred to a circling microaerial vehicle (MAV) by a microwave beam of 5.8 GHz, which is formed and directed to the MAV using an active phased array antenna. The MAV is expected to support observation of areas that humans cannot reach. The power beam is formed by the phased array with eight antenna elements. Input power is about 5.6 W. The peak power density at 1,500 mm altitude w...

  3. Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation

    Bo Long; Shin Teak Lim; Zhi Feng Bai; Ji Hyoung Ryu; Kil To Chong


    Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1) Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2) how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs) and prolong the service life of batteries; (3) how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs), have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are...

  4. The alkaline aluminium/hydrogen peroxide power source in the Hugin II unmanned underwater vehicle

    Hasvold, Øistein; Johansen, Kjell Håvard; Mollestad, Ole; Forseth, Sissel; Størkersen, Nils

    In 1993, The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) demonstrated AUV-Demo, an unmanned (untethered) underwater vehicle (UUV), powered by a magnesium/dissolved oxygen seawater battery (SWB). This technology showed that an underwater range of at least 1000 nautical miles at a speed of 4 knots was possible, but also that the maximum hotel load this battery system could support was very limited. Most applications for UUV technology need more power over a shorter period of time. Seabed mapping using a multibeam echo sounder mounted on an UUV was identified as a viable application and the Hugin project was started in 1995 in cooperation with Norwegian industry. For this application, an endurance of 36 h at 4 knots was required. Development of the UUV hull and electronics system resulted in the UUV Hugin I. It carries a Ni/Cd battery of 3 kW h, allowing up to 6 h under-water endurance. In parallel, we developed a battery based on a combination of alkaline Al/air and SWB technology, using a circulating alkaline electrolyte, aluminium anodes and maintaining the oxidant concentration in the electrolyte by continuously adding hydrogen peroxide (HP) to the electrolyte. This concept resulted in a safe battery, working at ambient pressure (balanced) and with sufficient power and energy density to allow the UUV Hugin II to make a number of successive dives, each of up to 36 h duration and with only 1 h deck time between dives for HP refill and electrolyte exchange. After 100 h, an exchange of anodes takes place. The power source consists of a four-cell Al/HP battery, a DC/DC converter delivering 600 W at 30 V, circulation and dosing pumps and a battery control unit. Hugin II is now in routine use by the Norwegian Underwater Intervention AS (NUI) which operates the UUV for high-precision seabed mapping down to a water depth of 600 m.

  5. The Assessment of Hydrogen Energy Systems for Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Principal Componenet Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun


    Hydrogen energy which has been recognized as an alternative instead of fossil fuel has been developed rapidly in fuel cell vehicles. Different hydrogen energy systems have different performances on environmental, economic, and energy aspects. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation and...... verify the correctness and accuracy of the principal components (PCs) determined by PCA in this paper. A case including 11 different hydrogen energy systems for fuel cell vehicles has been studied in this paper, and the system using steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production, pipeline for...... transportation of hydrogen, hydrogen gas tank for the storage of hydrogen at refueling stations, and gaseous hydrogen as power energy for fuel cell vehicles has been recognized as the best scenario. Also, the clustering results calculated by CA are consistent with those determined by PCA, denoting that the...

  6. Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Quadratic Performance Index

    Chaoying Xia


    Full Text Available An energy management strategy (EMS considering both optimality and real-time performance has become a challenge for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs in recent years. Previous EMSes based on the optimal control theory minimize the fuel consumption, but cannot be directly implemented in real-time because of the requirement for a prior knowledge of the entire driving cycle. This paper presents an innovative design concept and method to obtain a power management strategy for HEVs, which is independent of future driving conditions. A quadratic performance index is designed to ensure the vehicle drivability, maintain the battery energy sustainability and average and smooth the engine power and motor power to indirectly reduce fuel consumption. To further improve the fuel economy, two rules are adopted to avoid the inefficient engine operation by switching control modes between the electric and hybrid modes according to the required driving power. The derived power of the engine and motor are related to current vehicle velocity and battery residual energy, as well as their desired values. The simulation results over different driving cycles in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the fuel economy, which is very close to the optimal strategy based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle.

  7. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers. Case studies of Sweden and Germany

    This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30-80 EUR per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented. (author)

  8. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers: Case studies of Sweden and Germany

    This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30-80 Euro per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented.

  9. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  10. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.


    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.