Huong Q Nguyen
Full Text Available Huong Q Nguyen1, Dawn P Gill1, Seth Wolpin1, Bonnie G Steele2, Joshua O Benditt11University of Washington, seattle, WA, USA; 2VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USAObjective: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD following pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE-Coached (n = 9 or MOBILE-Self-Monitored (n = 8. All participants met with a nurse to develop an individualized exercise plan, were issued a pedometer and exercise booklet, and instructed to continue to log their daily exercise and symptoms. MOBILE-Coached also received weekly reinforcement text messages on their cell phones; reports of worsening symptoms were automatically flagged for follow-up. Usability and satisfaction were assessed. Participants completed incremental cycle and six minute walk (6MW tests, wore an activity monitor for 14 days, and reported their health-related quality of life (HRQL at baseline, three, and six months.Results: The sample had a mean age of 68 ± 11 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 40 ± 18% predicted. Participants reported that logging their exercise and symptoms was easy and that keeping track of their exercise helped them remain active. There were no differences between groups over time in maximal workload, 6MW distance, or HRQL (p > 0.05; however, MOBILE-Self-Monitored increased total steps/day whereas MOBILE-Coached logged fewer steps over six months (p = 0.04.Conclusions: We showed that it is feasible to deliver a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention to patients with COPD post-rehabilitation and that the addition of coaching appeared to be no better than self-monitoring. The latter finding needs to be interpreted with caution since this was a purely exploratory study.Trial registration: Clinical
Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used
Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj
Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…
Comulada, WS; Lightfoot, M; Swendeman, D; Grella, C; Wu, N.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China)
© 2015 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Outpatient treatment practices for adolescent substance users utilize retrospective self-report to monitor drug use. Cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) overcomes retrospective self-report biases and can enhance outpatient treatment, particularly among Latino adolescents, who have been understudied with regard to CEMA. This study explores compliance to text message-based CEMA with youth (n = 28; 93% Latino) in outpatient trea...
Brandt, Sebastian; Maennig, Wolfgang
We examine the impact of cell phone base stations on prices of condominiums in Hamburg, Germany. This is the first hedonic study on this subject for housing prices in Europe and the first ever to examine the price impact of base stations within a whole metropolis. We distinguish between individual masts and groups of masts. On the basis of a dataset of over 1000 base stations set up in Hamburg, we find that only immediate proximity to groups of antenna masts is perceived as harmful by residen...
Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung disease which makes people hard to breathe. The number of people who have COPD is on the rise. COPD patients require lung function examinations and perform breathing exercises on a regular basis in order to be more aware of their lung functions, get diagnosed early, and control the shortness of their breaths. In order to help people with COPD, we developed mCOPD which is a smartphone based Android application made especially for C...
Saxena, Manish; Gorthi, Sai Siva
Cell-phone based imaging flow cytometry can be realized by flowing cells through the microfluidic devices, and capturing their images with an optically enhanced camera of the cell-phone. Throughput in flow cytometers is usually enhanced by increasing the flow rate of cells. However, maximum frame rate of camera system limits the achievable flow rate. Beyond this, the images become highly blurred due to motion-smear. We propose to address this issue with coded illumination, which enables recovery of high-fidelity images of cells far beyond their motion-blur limit. This paper presents simulation results of deblurring the synthetically generated cell/bead images under such coded illumination.
Campbell, Jeffrey I; Haberer, Jessica E
Numerous cell phone-based and adherence monitoring technologies have been developed to address barriers to effective HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Because most people living with HIV and AIDS reside in resource-limited settings (RLS), it is important to understand the development and use of these technologies in RLS. Recent research on cell phone-based technologies has focused on HIV education, linkage to and retention in care, disease tracking, and antiretroviral therapy adherence reminders. Advances in adherence devices have focused on real-time adherence monitors, which have been used for both antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Real-time monitoring has recently been combined with cell phone-based technologies to create real-time adherence interventions using short message service (SMS). New developments in adherence technologies are exploring ingestion monitoring and metabolite detection to confirm adherence. This article provides an overview of recent advances in these two families of technologies and includes research on their acceptability and cost-effectiveness when available. It additionally outlines key challenges and needed research as use of these technologies continues to expand and evolve. PMID:26439917
Hensel Devon J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA, can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. Methods As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243 completed thrice–daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Results Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236 of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7% each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Conclusion Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...
Zachary J Smith
Full Text Available In this paper we report the development of two attachments to a commercial cell phone that transform the phone's integrated lens and image sensor into a 350x microscope and visible-light spectrometer. The microscope is capable of transmission and polarized microscopy modes and is shown to have 1.5 micron resolution and a usable field-of-view of 150 x 50 with no image processing, and approximately 350 x 350 when post-processing is applied. The spectrometer has a 300 nm bandwidth with a limiting spectral resolution of close to 5 nm. We show applications of the devices to medically relevant problems. In the case of the microscope, we image both stained and unstained blood-smears showing the ability to acquire images of similar quality to commercial microscope platforms, thus allowing diagnosis of clinical pathologies. With the spectrometer we demonstrate acquisition of a white-light transmission spectrum through diffuse tissue as well as the acquisition of a fluorescence spectrum. We also envision the devices to have immediate relevance in the educational field.
RF radiation exposure from antennas mounted on rooftop mobile phone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly developing technologies in wireless telecommunication. The heightening numbers of base station and their closeness to the general public has led to possible health concerns as a result of exposure to RF radiations. The primary objective of this study was to assess the level of RF radiation emitted from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by International Commission on Non-ionization Radiation. The maximum and minimum average power density measured from the rooftop sites inside buildings were 2.46xI0-2 and 1.68x10-3 W/m2 respectively whereas that for outside buildings at the same rooftop site was also 7.44x 10-5 and 3.35x 10-3 W/m2 respectively. Public exposure quotient also ranged between 3.74x10-10 to 1.31x10-07 inside buildings whilst that for outside varied between 7.44x 10-10 to 1.65x 10-06. Occupational exposure quotient inside buildings varied between 1.66x 10-11 to 2.11 x 10-09 whereas that for outside ranged from 3.31x10-09 to 3.30x10-07 all at the rooftop site. The results obtained for a typical tower base station also indicated that the maximum and minimum average power density was 4.57x10-1 W/m2 and 7.13x10-3 W/m2 respectively. The public exposure quotient varied between 1.58x10-09 to 1.01x10-07 whilst that for occupational exposure quotient ranged between 3.17x10-10 to 2.03x10-08. The values of power densities levels inside buildings at rooftop sites are low compared to that of tower sites. This could be due to high attenuation caused by thick concrete walls and ceilings. The results obtained were found to be in compliance with ICNIRP and FCC guidance levels of 4.5 W/m2 and 6 W/m2 respectively. (au)
杨文君; 杨波; 王保强
目的 研制了一款基于智能手机的运动管理软件,对佩戴者进行运动量的行为干预.方法 采用android系统的手机,通过调用智能手机自带的加速度传感器来识别运动状态,进行佩戴者的活动量检测,同时将运动信息上传健康管理中心.结果 实现了系统功能,通过健康管理中心的信息反馈提示对佩戴者开展行为学干预,指导佩戴者科学安全地进行身体锻炼,达到最有效最合适的锻炼效果.结论 基于手机智能平台的行为干预可作为行为治疗的一种新手段.%Purpose Developing an exercise management software based on a smart phone to intervene wearer's exercise amount. Method Using the Android system of mobile phone which contains acceleration sensor to detect the wearer's exercise amount, at the same time, the sensor send the information to the health management center. Consequence: It can carry out behavior intervention by the health management center's information feedback indication, thus guide the wearer to take exercise scientifically and safely to reach the most effective and appropriate exercising result, which realizes the system function. Conclusion The behavior intervention based on Smart phones can applyas a new clinical measure to treat patients.
Full Text Available Regarding the increased speed of creating new knowledge and the development of communication technologies, like cell phone, which makes it possible the access to various unlimited resources and data in an unlimited time and place, and regarding many positive aspects of applying it in schools and the necessity of adjusting with changes and the correct use of this new technology, the present research was conducted to examine the effect of teaching via cell phone on students learning in Khooshehaye Zarin agricultural school in Rawansar, Kermanshah province, and comparing it with traditional lecture method. In a semi-experimental research method, 30 male students were selected through random sampling method as the research sample, divided into two paired groups, 15 for experimental group and 15 for control group, based on age, educational status, previous grade point average and family economical status. Data collection tool was a 10 item test based on behavioral objectives. The experimental group was taught in two sessions of two hours through cell phone, and the control group was taught the same topic through traditional lecture method in exactly the same amount of time. Post–test was performed on two groups through the above-mentioned 10 item test and the results were analyzed through t test method. The results showed that teaching via cell phone has more effects on students learning compared with traditional lecture method.
We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 105 cfu mL−1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)
Ozdemir, Engin; Karacor, Mevlut
SCADA is the acronym for "Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition." SCADA systems are widely used in industry for supervisory control and data acquisition of industrial processes. Conventional SCADA systems use PC, notebook, thin client, and PDA as a client. In this paper, a Java-enabled mobile phone has been used as a client in a sample SCADA application in order to display and supervise the position of a sample prototype crane. The paper presents an actual implementation of the on-line controlling of the prototype crane via mobile phone. The wireless communication between the mobile phone and the SCADA server is performed by means of a base station via general packet radio service (GPRS) and wireless application protocol (WAP). Test results have indicated that the mobile phone based SCADA integration using the GPRS or WAP transfer scheme could enhance the performance of the crane in a day without causing an increase in the response times of SCADA functions. The operator can visualize and modify the plant parameters using his mobile phone, without reaching the site. In this way maintenance costs are reduced and productivity is increased. PMID:16480111
Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti
Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...
Idorn, Manja; Hojman, Pernille
Natural killer (NK) cells are the most responsive immune cells to exercise, displaying an acute mobilization to the circulation during physical exertion. Recently, exercise-dependent mobilization of NK cells was found to play a central role in exercise-mediated protection against cancer. Here, we review the link between exercise and NK cell function, focusing on circulating exercise factors and additional effects, including vascularization, hypoxia, and body temperature in mediating the effects on NK cell functionality. Exercise-dependent mobilization and activation of NK cells provides a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of exercise on cancer, and we propose that exercise represents a potential strategy as adjuvant therapy in cancer, by improving NK cell recruitment and infiltration in solid tumors. PMID:27262760
Breckenkamp, J; Neitzke, H P; Bornkessel, C;
Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed in an...
Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Cousin, Marie-Eve
The implicit association test (IAT) measures automatic associations. In the present research, the IAT was adapted to measure implicit attitudes toward technological hazards. In Study 1, implicit and explicit attitudes toward nuclear power were examined. Implicit measures (i.e., the IAT) revealed negative attitudes toward nuclear power that were not detected by explicit measures (i.e., a questionnaire). In Study 2, implicit attitudes toward EMF (electro-magnetic field) hazards were examined. Results showed that cell phone base stations and power lines are judged to be similarly risky and, further, that base stations are more closely related to risk concepts than home appliances are. No differences between experts and lay people were observed. Results of the present studies are in line with the affect heuristic proposed by Slovic and colleagues. Affect seems to be an important factor in risk perception. PMID:16948694
M Carmen Valero; Huntsman, Heather D.; Jianming Liu; Kai Zou; Boppart, Marni D.
Eccentric, or lengthening, contractions result in injury and subsequently stimulate the activation and proliferation of satellite stem cells which are important for skeletal muscle regeneration. The discovery of alternative myogenic progenitors in skeletal muscle raises the question as to whether stem cells other than satellite cells accumulate in muscle in response to exercise and contribute to post-exercise repair and/or growth. In this study, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) positive, non-hemat...
Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum and after completed exercise (exercise serum. The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia.
... Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important step ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...
Emmons, Russell; Niemiro, Grace M.; De Lisio, Michael
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) using mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (HSPCs) is the only curative strategy for many patients suffering from hematological malignancies. HSPC collection protocols rely on pharmacological agents to mobilize HSPCs to peripheral blood. Limitations including variable donor responses and long dosing protocols merit further investigations into adjuvant therapies to enhance the efficiency of HSPCs collection. Exercise, a safe and feasible intervention in patients undergoing HSCT, has been previously shown to robustly stimulate HSPC mobilization from the bone marrow. Exercise-induced HSPC mobilization is transient limiting its current clinical potential. Thus, a deeper investigation of the mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced HSPC mobilization and the factors responsible for removal of HSPCs from circulation following exercise is warranted. The present review will describe current research on exercise and HSPC mobilization, outline the potential mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced HSPC mobilization, and highlight potential sites for HSPC homing following exercise. We also outline current barriers to the implementation of exercise as an adjuvant therapy for HSPC mobilization and suggest potential strategies to overcome these barriers. PMID:27123008
Measurements of power density have been made at 17 sites where people were concerned about their exposure to radio waves from mobile phone base stations and where technical data, including the frequencies and radiated powers, have been obtained from the operators. Based on the technical data, the radiated power from antennas used with macrocellular base stations in the UK appears to range from a few watts to a few tens of watts, with typical maximum powers around 80 W. Calculations based on this power indicate that compliance distances would be expected to be no more than 3.1 m for the NRPB guidelines and no more than 8.4 m for the ICNIRP public guidelines. Microcellular base stations appear to use powers no more than a few watts and would not be expected to require compliance distances in excess of a few tens of centimetres. Power density from the base stations of interest was measured at 118 locations at the 17 sites and these data were compared with calculations assuming an inverse square law dependence of power density upon distance from the antennas. It was found that the calculations overestimated the measured power density by up to four orders of magnitude at locations that were either not exposed to the main beam from antennas, or shielded by building fabric. For all locations and for distances up to 250 m from the base stations, power density at the measurement positions did not show any trend to decrease with increasing distance. The signals from other sources were frequently found to be of similar strength to the signals from the base stations of interest. Spectral measurements were obtained over the 30 MHz to 2.9 GHz range at 73 of the locations so that total exposure to radio signals could be assessed. The geometric mean total exposure arising from all radio signals at the locations considered was 2 millionths of the NRPB investigation level, or 18 millionths of the lower ICNIRP public reference level; however, the data varied over several decades. The
Seto, Emily; Leonard, Kevin J.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.; Barnsley, Jan; Masino, Caterina; Ross, Heather J
Background Previous trials of telemonitoring for heart failure management have reported inconsistent results, largely due to diverse intervention and study designs. Mobile phones are becoming ubiquitous and economical, but the feasibility and efficacy of a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system have not been determined. Objective The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of a mobile phone-based telemonitoring system on heart failure management and outcomes. Methods One hund...
Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim
Basic personality traits are typically assessed through questionnaires. Here we consider phone-based metrics as a way to asses personality traits. We use data from smartphones with custom data-collection software distributed to 730 individuals. The data includes information about location, physical motion, face-to-face contacts, online social network friends, text messages and calls. The data is further complemented by questionnaire-based data on basic personality traits. From the phone-based...
M Carmen Valero
Full Text Available Eccentric, or lengthening, contractions result in injury and subsequently stimulate the activation and proliferation of satellite stem cells which are important for skeletal muscle regeneration. The discovery of alternative myogenic progenitors in skeletal muscle raises the question as to whether stem cells other than satellite cells accumulate in muscle in response to exercise and contribute to post-exercise repair and/or growth. In this study, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1 positive, non-hematopoetic (CD45⁻ cells were evaluated in wild type (WT and α7 integrin transgenic (α7Tg mouse muscle, which is resistant to injury yet liable to strain, 24 hr following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ stem cells were increased 2-fold in WT muscle post-exercise. The α7 integrin regulated the presence of Sca-1⁺ cells, with expansion occurring in α7Tg muscle and minimal cells present in muscle lacking the α7 integrin. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ cells isolated from α7Tg muscle following exercise were characterized as mesenchymal-like stem cells (mMSCs, predominantly pericytes. In vitro multiaxial strain upregulated mMSC stem cells markers in the presence of laminin, but not gelatin, identifying a potential mechanistic basis for the accumulation of these cells in muscle following exercise. Transplantation of DiI-labeled mMSCs into WT muscle increased Pax7⁺ cells and facilitated formation of eMHC⁺DiI⁻ fibers. This study provides the first demonstration that mMSCs rapidly appear in skeletal muscle in an α7 integrin dependent manner post-exercise, revealing an early event that may be necessary for effective repair and/or growth following exercise. The results from this study also support a role for the α7 integrin and/or mMSCs in molecular- and cellular-based therapeutic strategies that can effectively combat disuse muscle atrophy.
Valero, M Carmen; Huntsman, Heather D; Liu, Jianming; Zou, Kai; Boppart, Marni D
Eccentric, or lengthening, contractions result in injury and subsequently stimulate the activation and proliferation of satellite stem cells which are important for skeletal muscle regeneration. The discovery of alternative myogenic progenitors in skeletal muscle raises the question as to whether stem cells other than satellite cells accumulate in muscle in response to exercise and contribute to post-exercise repair and/or growth. In this study, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) positive, non-hematopoetic (CD45⁻) cells were evaluated in wild type (WT) and α7 integrin transgenic (α7Tg) mouse muscle, which is resistant to injury yet liable to strain, 24 hr following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ stem cells were increased 2-fold in WT muscle post-exercise. The α7 integrin regulated the presence of Sca-1⁺ cells, with expansion occurring in α7Tg muscle and minimal cells present in muscle lacking the α7 integrin. Sca-1⁺CD45⁻ cells isolated from α7Tg muscle following exercise were characterized as mesenchymal-like stem cells (mMSCs), predominantly pericytes. In vitro multiaxial strain upregulated mMSC stem cells markers in the presence of laminin, but not gelatin, identifying a potential mechanistic basis for the accumulation of these cells in muscle following exercise. Transplantation of DiI-labeled mMSCs into WT muscle increased Pax7⁺ cells and facilitated formation of eMHC⁺DiI⁻ fibers. This study provides the first demonstration that mMSCs rapidly appear in skeletal muscle in an α7 integrin dependent manner post-exercise, revealing an early event that may be necessary for effective repair and/or growth following exercise. The results from this study also support a role for the α7 integrin and/or mMSCs in molecular- and cellular-based therapeutic strategies that can effectively combat disuse muscle atrophy. PMID:22253772
To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)
Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel
The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what
Phungphong, Sukanya; Kijtawornrat, Anusak; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas
It is well accepted that regular exercise is a significant factor in the prevention of cardiac dysfunction; however, the cardioprotective mechanism is as yet not well defined. We have examined whether regular exercise can modulate the activity of cardiac mast cells (CMC) after deprivation of female sex hormones, as well as the density and percentage degranulation of mast cells, in ventricular tissue of ovariectomized (OVX) rats after an 11-week running program. A significant increase in CMC density with a greater percentage degranulation was induced after ovarian sex hormone deprivation. Increased CMC density was prevented by estrogen supplements, but not by regular training. To the contrary, increased CMC degranulation in the OVX rat heart was attenuated by exercise training, but not by estrogen supplement. These findings indicate a significant correlation between the degree of CMC degranulation and myocyte cross-section area. However, no change in the expression of inflammatory mediators, including chymase, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, was detected. Taken together, these results clearly indicate one of the cardioprotective mechanisms of regular aerobic exercise is the modulation of CMC activation. PMID:26467449
Ledbetter, Mary Lee S.; Lippert, Malcolm J.
Membrane transport is a fundamental concept that undergraduate students of cell biology understand better with laboratory experience. Formal teaching exercises commonly used to illustrate this concept are unbiological, qualitative, or intricate and time consuming to prepare. We have developed an exercise that uses uptake of radiolabeled nutrient…
... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...
The principles and practice of cellular radio systems for mobile communications are presented using GSM 1800 as a reference system. In particular, the concepts of small cells and frequency re-use and the components of radio base station technology are described. Public and cellular broadcasting have been widely available for many years and a brief history is given to indicate length of exposure from these sources. National and international guidelines for safe exposure to non-ionising radiation are used by cellular operators to define exclusion zones around transmitting antennas. A methodology for calculating an exclusion zone is described, together with an example for a typical antenna configuration. Estimated levels of exposure near practical base stations are given and comparisons made with other sources of RF radiation. Finally, the digital nature of today's cellular radio systems, such as GSM, are explained and the implications described. (author)
Lowder, Thomas; Dugger, Kari; Deshane, Jessy; Estell, Kim; Schwiebert, Lisa M
We have reported previously that moderate intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. Recent studies implicate regulatory T (Treg) cells in decreasing asthma-related airway inflammation; as such, the current study examined the effect of exercise on Treg cell function in a murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) prior to the start of exercise training at a moderate intensity 3× / week for 4 wks; exercise was performed as t...
Gautham, Meenakshi; Iyengar, M Sriram; Johnson, Craig W
There are few tried and tested mobile technology applications to enhance and standardize the quality of health care by frontline rural health providers in low-resource settings. We developed a media-rich, mobile phone-based clinical guidance system for management of fevers, diarrhoeas and respiratory problems by rural health providers. Using a randomized control design, we field tested this application with 16 rural health providers and 128 patients at two rural/tribal sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Protocol compliance for both groups, phone usability, acceptability and patient feedback for the experimental group were evaluated. Linear mixed-model analyses showed statistically significant improvements in protocol compliance in the experimental group. Usability and acceptability among patients and rural health providers were very high. Our results indicate that mobile phone-based, media-rich procedural guidance applications have significant potential for achieving consistently standardized quality of care by diverse frontline rural health providers, with patient acceptance. PMID:24621929
Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Yu, Shiting; Xiao, Wei; Tang, Yong
Microplate readers are important diagnostic instruments, used intensively for various readout test kits (biochemical analysis kits and ELISA kits). However, due to their expensive and non-portability, commercial microplate readers are unavailable for home testing, community and rural hospitals, especially in developing countries. In this study, to provide a field-portable, cost-effective and versatile diagnostic tool, we reported a novel smart phone based microplate reader. The basic principle of this devise relies on a smart phone's optical sensor that measures transmitted light intensities of liquid samples. To prove the validity of these devises, developed smart phone based microplate readers were applied to readout results of various analytical targets. These targets included analanine aminotransferase (ALT; limit of detection (LOD) was 17.54 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (AKP; LOD was 15.56 U/L), creatinine (LOD was 1.35μM), bovine serum albumin (BSA; LOD was 0.0041mg/mL), prostate specific antigen (PSA; LOD was 0.76pg/mL), and ractopamine (Rac; LOD was 0.31ng/mL). The developed smart phone based microplate readers are versatile, portable, and inexpensive; they are unique because of their ability to perform under circumstances where resources and expertize are limited. PMID:27019031
SUMMARY Human skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of adapting to a change in demands. The preservation of this adaptability relies partly on a pool of resident myogenic stem cells (satellite cells, SCs). Extrinsic factors such as mechanical load (e.g. resistance exercise) and dietary...... supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle cell growth. The aim of paper III was to investigate the fiber type specific SC and myonuclei content, as well as myofiber CSA in response to the 12 weeks Ecc or Conc resistance exercise training combined with Whey or Placebo...... protein constitute key factors in regulation of human skeletal muscle mass; however, the influence of divergent resistance exercise contraction modes and protein supplementation on SC content, is not well described. The overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate whether eccentric versus...
Full Text Available Endurance, marathon-type exertion is known to induce adverse changes in the immune system. Increased airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation are well documented in endurance athletes and endurance exercise is considered a major risk factor for asthma in elite athletes. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still to be deduced. We studied the effect of strenuous endurance exercise (marathon and half-ironman triathlon on CD4+ lymphocyte sub-populations and on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of trained athletes, Endurance exercise induced a significant increase in Th17 cells and a sustained decrease in peripheral blood regulatory T cells (Tregs. While interleukin (IL-2 levels remained undetectable, post-race serum IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF β levels were significantly elevated. Treg levels in sedentary controls' decreased in vitro after incubation with athletes' post-exercise serum, an effect that was attenuated by supplements of IL-2 or anti IL-6 neutralizing antibodies. Our data suggest that exercise-induced changes in serum cytokine levels promote alterations in Tregs and Th17 cell populations, which may divert the subtle balance in the immune system towards inflammation. This may explain allergic and autoimmune phenomena previously reported in endurance athletes and contribute to our understanding of exercise-related asthma.
Das, Anshuman; Swedish, Tristan; Wahi, Akshat; Moufarrej, Mira; Noland, Marie; Gurry, Thomas; Aranda-Michel, Edgar; Aksel, Deniz; Wagh, Sneha; Sadashivaiah, Vijay; Zhang, Xu; Raskar, Ramesh
We demonstrate a highly sensitive mobile phone based spectrometer that has potential to detect cancerous skin lesions in a rapid, non-invasive manner. Earlier reports of low cost spectrometers utilize the camera of the mobile phone to image the field after moving through a diffraction grating. These approaches are inherently limited by the closed nature of mobile phone image sensors and built in optical elements. The system presented uses a novel integrated grating and sensor that is compact, accurate and calibrated. Resolutions of about 10 nm can be achieved. Additionally, UV and visible LED excitation sources are built into the device. Data collection and analysis is simplified using the wireless interfaces and logical control on the smart phone. Furthermore, by utilizing an external sensor, the mobile phone camera can be used in conjunction with spectral measurements. We are exploring ways to use this device to measure endogenous fluorescence of skin in order to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous lesions with a mobile phone based dermatoscope.
Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza
Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134
Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Jun, Tae-Won; Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the duration-dependence of the one bout treadmill exercise on cell proliferation, stress, and central fatigue in rats. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: the non-exercise group, 1-h exercise group, 2-h exercise group, 4-h exercise group, and 6-h exercise group. The exercise load consisted of running at speed of 13 meters/min with the 0° inclination. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased in ...
Mikkelsen, U R; Langberg, H; Helmark, I C;
exercise in vivo in human skeletal muscle. Eight young healthy males performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. An NSAID was infused via a microdialysis catheter into the vastus lateralis muscle of one leg (NSAID leg) before, during, and for 4.5 h after exercise, with the other leg working...... as a control (unblocked leg). Muscle biopsies were collected before and 8 days after exercise. Changes in satellite cells and inflammatory cell numbers were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Satellite cells were identified using antibodies against neural cell adhesion molecule and Pax7. The number of Pax7...
Daniel Zeve; Millay, Douglas P.; Jin Seo; Graff, Jonathan M.
Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicat...
Wang, Xiaonan H.; Du, Jie; Klein, Janet D.; Bailey, James L; Mitch, William E.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs muscle protein metabolism leading to muscle atrophy, and exercise can counteract this muscle wasting. Here we evaluated how resistance exercise (muscle overload) and endurance training (treadmill running) affect CKD-induced abnormalities in muscle protein metabolism and progenitor cell function using mouse plantaris muscle. Both exercise models blunted the increase in disease-induced muscle proteolysis and improved phosphorylation of Akt and the forkhead t...
BACKGROUND: Exhaustive exercise can lead to apoptosis of skeletal muscle cells and myocardial cells as a result of pathological changes in the corresponding cellular ultrastructure. It is hypothesized that such changes could also occur in neurons. OBJECTIVE: To observe brain cell apoptosis and ultrastmctural changes in hippocampal neurons in rats following endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, morphological analysis was performed at the Medical Laboratory Center of Zhengzhou University between July and November 2007. MATERIALS: Forty male, 8-week-old, Sprague Dawley rats were included in this study. METHODS: Endurance training consisted of treadmill running once a day, 6 days a week, for 4 weeks. For acute exhaustive exercise, graded treadmill running was conducted. Rats were exposed to exercise at an increasing speed (10 m/min, increasing to 20 and 36 m/min for moderate- and high-intensity exhaustive exercise, respectively, and then was continued until exhaustion). A total of 40 rats were evenly distributed into the following 4 groups: Group A-rats were not exercised; Group B- rats were not trained but sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise; Group C rats were subjected to endurance training and sacrificed immediately after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise; Group D-rats were subjected to endurance training and sacrificed 24 hours after acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Apoptotic cell death was detected by the TUNEL method and hippocampal neuronal ultrastructural change was observed through using transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: All 40 rats were included in the final analysis. Subsequent to exhaustive exercise, rat cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons appeared contracted and degenerated. In addition, high amount of lipofuscin was visible in the hippocampal region. Necrotic neurons encased by glial cells appeared in
Shanni Li; Jin Liu; Hengmei Yan
The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared with the control. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise. Additionally, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 increased in both exercise groups. In particular, the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise group had significantly higher Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression and a higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings indicate that acute exhaustive exercise of different intensities can induce neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampus, and that medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise results in greater damage when compared with high-intensity exercise.
Li, Shanni; Liu, Jin; Yan, Hengmei
The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared with the control. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise. Additionally, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 increased in both exercise groups. In particular, the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise group had significantly higher Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression and a higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings indicate that acute exhaustive exercise of different intensities can induce neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampus, and that medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise results in greater damage when compared with high-intensity exercise. PMID:25206482
Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria;
about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Risk perception of MPBS was strongly...... 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. CONCLUSION: Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time.......OBJECTIVE: Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns...
Applicability of a model to estimate radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) strength in households from mobile phone base stations was evaluated with technical data of mobile phone base stations available from the German Net Agency, and dosimetric measurements, performed in an epidemiological study. Estimated exposure and exposure measured with dosemeters in 1322 participating households were compared. For that purpose, the upper 10. percentiles of both outcomes were defined as the 'higher exposed' groups. To assess the agreement of the defined 'higher' exposed groups, kappa coefficient, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The present results show only a weak agreement of calculations and measurements (kappa values between -0.03 and 0.28, sensitivity between 7.1 and 34.6). Only in some of the sub-analyses, a higher agreement was found, e.g. when measured instead of interpolated geo-coordinates were used to calculate the distance between households and base stations, which is one important parameter in modelling exposure. During the development of the exposure model, more precise input data were available for its internal validation, which yielded kappa values between 0.41 and 0.68 and sensitivity between 55 and 76 for different types of housing areas. Contrary to this, the calculation of exposure - on the basis of the available imprecise data from the epidemiological study - is associated with a relatively high degree of uncertainty. Thus, the model can only be applied in epidemiological studies, when the uncertainty of the input data is considerably reduced. Otherwise, the use of dosemeters to determine the exposure from RF-EMF in epidemiological studies is recommended. (authors)
Koehl, M.; Meerlo, P.; Gonzales, D.; Rontal, A.; Turek, F. W.; Abrous, D. N.
variety of stimuli, including exercise, but the mechanisms by which running affects neurogenesis are not yet fully understood. Because beta-endorphin, which is released in response to exercise, increases cell proliferation in vitro, we hypothesized that it could exert a similar effect in vivo and me
Kadi, Fawzi; Olsen, Steen Schytte
understanding of satellite cell behaviour in exercised human muscles. It is hypothesised currently that exercise in humans can induce (1) the activation of satellite cells without proliferation, (2) proliferation and withdrawal from differentiation, (3) proliferation and differentiation to provide myonuclei and......Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards the...... (4) proliferation and differentiation to generate new muscle fibres or to repair segmental fibre injuries. In humans, the satellite cell pool can increase as early as 4 days following a single bout of exercise and is maintained at higher level following several weeks of training. Cessation of...
Full Text Available Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls. The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF and nucleus pulposus (NP. Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.
Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Kelfkens, G.; Schipper, M.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.
BACKGROUND: Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS) and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on
Hayes, S.; Davies, P.; Parker, T; Bashford, J; Green, A.; D. Jenkins
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation on functional capacity, and to determine the role of a mixed type, moderate intensity exercise programme in the recovery of patients after intensive cancer treatment.
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.
Li, Shanni; Jin LIU; Yan, Hengmei
The present study assessed the influence of medium-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 19.3 m/min until exhaustion) and high-intensity (treadmill at a speed of 26.8 m/min until exhaustion) acute exhaustive exercise on rat hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. TUNEL staining showed significantly increased neural cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats after medium- and high-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, particularly the medium-intensity acute exhaustive exercise, when compared ...
Chevion, Shlomit; Moran, Danny S.; Heled, Yuval; Shani, Yoav; Regev, Gilad; Abbou, Benny; Berenshtein, Eduard; Stadtman, Earl R.; Epstein, Yoram
Strenuous exercise leads to an increase in metabolic rate, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and compromised antioxidant defense systems. To study the effects of oxidative stress during strenuous exercise, a homogeneous group of 31 male subjects participated in a 6-month, 5 days/week training schedule involving two extreme marches of 50 km and 80 km at sea level, separated by 2 weeks of regular training. Each participant carried 35 kg of extra weight. Blood samples were drawn i...
Koehl, M; Meerlo, P; Gonzales, D; Rontal, A; Turek, F W; Abrous, D N
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is influenced by a variety of stimuli, including exercise, but the mechanisms by which running affects neurogenesis are not yet fully understood. Because beta-endorphin, which is released in response to exercise, increases cell proliferation in vitro, we hypothesized that it could exert a similar effect in vivo and mediate the stimulatory effects of running on neurogenesis. We thus analyzed the effects of voluntary wheel-running on adult neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation, survival/death) in wild-type and beta-endorphin-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, exercise promoted cell proliferation evaluated by sacrificing animals 24 h after the last 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse and by using endogenous cell cycle markers (Ki67 and pH(3)). This was accompanied by an increased survival of 4-wk-old BrdU-labeled cells, leading to a net increase of neurogenesis. Beta-endorphin deficiency had no effect in sedentary mice, but it completely blocked the running-induced increase in cell proliferation; this blockade was accompanied by an increased survival of 4-wk-old cells and a decreased cell death. Altogether, adult neurogenesis was increased in response to exercise in knockout mice. We conclude that beta-endorphin released during running is a key factor for exercise-induced cell proliferation and that a homeostatic balance may regulate the final number of new neurons. PMID:18263701
Masawat, Prinya; Harfield, Antony; Namwong, Anan
An iPhone-based digital image colorimeter (DIC) was fabricated as a portable tool for monitoring tetracycline (TC) in bovine milk. An application named ColorConc was developed for the iPhone that utilizes an image matching algorithm to determine the TC concentration in a solution. The color values; red (R), green (G), blue (B), hue (H), saturation (S), brightness (V), and gray (Gr) were measured from each pictures of the TC standard solutions. TC solution extracted from milk samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) was captured and the concentration was predicted by comparing color values with those collected in a database. The amount of TC could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg mL(-1). The proposed DIC-iPhone is able to provide a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 μg mL(-1) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.5 μg mL(-1). The enrichment factor was 70 and color of the extracted milk sample was a strong yellow solution after SPE. Therefore, the SPE-DIC-iPhone could be used for the assay of TC residues in milk at the concentration lower than LOD and LOQ of the proposed technique. PMID:25872422
Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro
Full Text Available Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed system integrates three modules for data collection, storage and information dissemination. The modules works together to enable real-time traffic control. Disseminated information from the system, enables road users to adjust their travelling habit, also it allows the traffic lights to control the traffic in relation to the real-time situation occurring on the road. In this paper the system implementation and testing was performed. The results indicated that there is a possibility to track traffic data using Global Positioning System enabled mobile phones, and after processing the collected data, real-time traffic status was displayed on web interface. This enabled road users to know in advance the situation occurring on the roads and hence make proper travelling decision. Further research should consider adjusting the traffic lights control system to understand the disseminated real-time traffic information.
Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel
The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what input data are needed to accurately model RF-EMF, as detailed data are not always available for epidemiological studies. We used NISMap, a 3D radio wave propagation model, to test models with various levels of detail in building and antenna input data. The model outcomes were compared with outdoor measurements taken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results showed good agreement between modelled and measured RF-EMF when 3D building data and basic antenna information (location, height, frequency and direction) were used: Spearman correlations were >0.6. Model performance was not sensitive to changes in building damping parameters. Antenna-specific information about down-tilt, type and output power did not significantly improve model performance compared with using average down-tilt and power values, or assuming one standard antenna type. We conclude that 3D radio wave propagation modelling is a feasible approach to predict outdoor RF-EMF levels for ranking exposure levels in epidemiological studies, when 3D building data and information on the antenna height, frequency, location and direction are available. PMID:24472756
The variations of radiofrequency (RF) radiation power density with distance around some mobile phone base stations (BTSs), in ten randomly selected locations in Ibadan, western Nigeria, were studied. Measurements were made with a calibrated hand-held spectrum analyser. The maximum Global System of Mobile (GSM) communication 1800 signal power density was 323.91 μW m-2 at 250 m radius of a BTS and that of GSM 900 was 1119.00 μW m-2 at 200 m radius of another BTS. The estimated total maximum power density was 2972.00 μW m-2 at 50 m radius of a different BTS. This study shows that the maximum carrier signal power density and the total maximum power density from a BTS may be observed averagely at 200 and 50 m of its radius, respectively. The result of this study demonstrates that exposure of people to RF radiation from phone BTSs in Ibadan city is far less than the recommended limits by International scientific bodies. (authors)
A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 μW m-2 to as high as 10 μW m-2 for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 μW m-2. The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an intensive therapy used to improve survivorship and cure various oncologic diseases. However, this therapy is associated with high mortality rates and numerous negative side-effects. The recovery of the immune system is a special concern and plays a key role in the success of this treatment. In healthy populations it is known that exercise plays an important role in immune system regulation, but little is known about the role of exercise in the hematological and immunological recovery of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The primary objective of this randomized-controlled trial (RCT is to study the effect of an exercise program (in- and outpatient on immune cell recovery in patients undergoing an autologous stem cell transplantation. The secondary objective is to determine if an exercise intervention diminishes the usual deterioration in quality of life, physical fitness, and the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle. Methods This RCT has received approval from The Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board (CHREB of the University of Calgary (Ethics ID # E-24476. Twenty-four participants treated for a malignancy with autologous stem cell transplant (5 to 18 years in the Alberta Children’s Hospital will be randomly assigned to an exercise or control group. The exercise group will participate in a two-phase exercise intervention (in- and outpatient from hospitalization until 10 weeks after discharge. The exercise program includes strength, flexibility and aerobic exercise. During the inpatient phase this program will be performed 5 times/week and will be supervised. The outpatient phase will combine a supervised session with two home-based exercise sessions with the use of the Wii device. The control group will follow the standard protocol without any specific exercise program. A range of outcomes, including quantitative and functional recovery of immune system
Hojman, Pernille; Dethlefsen, Christine; Brandt, Claus; Hansen, Jakob; Pedersen, Line; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund
Regular physical activity protects against the development of breast and colon cancer, since it reduces the risk of developing these by 25-30%. During exercise, humoral factors are released from the working muscles for endocrinal signaling to other organs. We hypothesized that these myokines mediate some of the inhibitory effects of exercise on mammary cancer cell proliferation. Serum and muscles were collected from mice after an exercise bout. Incubation with exercise-conditioned serum inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by 52% and increased caspase activity by 54%. A similar increase in caspase activity was found after incubation of MCF-7 cells with conditioned media from electrically stimulated myotubes. PCR array analysis (CAPM-0838E; SABiosciences) revealed that seven genes were upregulated in the muscles after exercise, and of these oncostatin M (OSM) proved to inhibit MCF-7 proliferation by 42%, increase caspase activity by 46%, and induce apoptosis. Blocking OSM signaling with anti-OSM antibodies reduced the induction of caspase activity by 51%. To verify that OSM was a myokine, we showed that it was significantly upregulated in serum and in three muscles, tibialis cranialis, gastronemius, and soleus, after an exercise bout. In contrast, OSM expression remained unchanged in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, liver, and spleen (mononuclear cells). We conclude that postexercise serum inhibits mammary cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of these cells. We suggest that one or more myokines secreted from working muscles may be mediating this effect and that OSM is a possible candidate. These findings emphasize that role of physical activity in cancer treatment, showing a direct link between exercise-induced humoral factors and decreased tumor cell growth. PMID:21653222
Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Knudsen, Inge Skovgaard;
well investigated. In a comparative human study, we investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein supplementation following eccentric exercise on fiber type-specific SC accumulation. Twenty-four young healthy subjects received either hydrolyzed whey protein + carbohydrate (whey, n = 12) or iso...... supplementation. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation may accelerate SC proliferation as part of the regeneration or remodeling process after high-intensity eccentric exercise.......Human skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are essential for muscle regeneration and remodeling processes in healthy and clinical conditions involving muscle breakdown. However, the potential influence of protein supplementation on post-exercise SC regulation in human skeletal muscle has not been...
Breitbach, Sarah; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles
The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations is of importance for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise physiology. Increases of cfDNA due to exercise are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome and might be related to, or trigger adaptations of, immune function induced by strenuous exercise. At the same time, exercise provides a practicable model for studying the phenomenon of cfDNA that is described to be of pathophysiological relevance for different topics in clinical medicine like autoimmune diseases and cancer. In this review, we are summarizing the current knowledge of exercise-based acute and chronic alterations in cfDNA levels and their physiological significance. The effects of acute exercise on cfDNA concentrations have been investigated in resistance exercises and in continuous, stepwise and interval endurance exercises of different durations. cfDNA concentrations peaked immediately after acute exercise and showed a rapid return to baseline levels. Typical markers of skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase, uric acid, C-reactive protein) show delayed kinetics compared with the cfDNA peak response. Exercise parameters such as intensity, duration or average energy expenditure do not explain the extent of increasing cfDNA concentrations after strenuous exercise. This could be due to complex processes inside the human organism during and after physical activity. Therefore, we hypothesize composite effects of different physiological stress parameters that come along with exercise to be responsible for increasing cfDNA concentrations. We suggest that due to acute stress, cfDNA levels increase rapidly by a spontaneous active or passive release mechanism that is not yet known. As a result of the rapid and parallel increase of cfDNA and lactate in an incremental treadmill test leading to exhaustion within 15-20 minutes, it is unlikely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by typical necrosis
Knochel, J P; Blachley, J D; Johnson, J H; Carter, N. W.
Contracting muscle cells release K ions into their surrounding interstitial fluid, and some of these ions, in turn, enter venous plasma. Thereby, intense or exhaustive exercise may result in hyperkalemia and potentially dangerous cardiotoxicity. Training not only reduces hyperkalemia produced by exercise but in addition, highly conditioned, long-distance runners may show resting hypokalemia that is not caused by K deficiency. To examine the factors underlying these changes, dogs were studied ...
Witkowski, Sarah; Guhanarayan, Gayatri; Burgess, Rachel
Abstract Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) influence vascular repair through the secretion of proangiogenic factors and cytokines. While CAC are deficient in patients with diabetes and exercise has a beneficial effect on CACs, the impact of these factors on paracrine secretion from CAC is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the in vitro secretion of selected cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from CAC is influenced by hyperglycemia and acute exercise. Colony‐forming unit CAC (CFU‐CAC) were c...
Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R
Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26755735
Rhee H; Allen J.; Mammen J; Swift M
Hyekyun Rhee,1 James Allen,2 Jennifer Mammen,1 Mary Swift21School of Nursing, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: Adolescents report high asthma-related morbidity that can be prevented by adequate self-management of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for a developmentally appropriate strategy to promote effective asthma self-management. Mobile phone-based technology is portable, commonly accessible, and well received by adolescents. The pu...
A comparison of dobutamine stress echocardiography with exercise reinjection thallium myocardial perfusion scan on known coronary artery disease patients for detection of myocardial cell viability is given
Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;
Physical exercise decreases the number of fetal cells in maternal blood J. M. Schlütter1, I. Kirkegaard1, B. Christensen2, S. Kølvraa3, N. Uldbjerg1 1. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus N, Denmark. 2. FCMB ApS, Vejle, Denmark. 3. Department...... and 10-15 % have no cells in 30 mL, which is a challenge for the implementation of the method for prenatal diagnostic purposes. Considering the assumed fragility of circulating fetal cells we wondered if physical exercise prior to blood sampling might influence the number of fcmb. The objective...... in maternal blood. The explanation might be increased clearance of fcmb from the circulation during exercise. If analysis of fcmb is introduced as a clinical parameter pregnant women should avoid extensive physical activity 24 hours prior to blood sampling....
Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross......-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations...... participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living...
Navarro, Francisco; Bacurau, Aline V N; Almeida, Sandro S; Barros, Carlos C; Moraes, Milton R; Pesquero, Jorge L; Ribeiro, Sandra M L; Araújo, Ronaldo C; Costa Rosa, Luis F B P; Bacurau, Reury F P
Active lymphocytes (LY) and macrophages (MPhi) are involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Due to its anti-inflammatory effect, physical exercise may be beneficial in RA by acting on the immune system (IS). Thus, female Wistar rats with type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were submitted to swimming training (6 weeks, 5 days/week, 60 min/day) and some biochemical and immune parameters, such as the metabolism of glucose and glutamine and function of LY and MPhi, were evaluated. In addition, plasma levels of some hormones and of interleukin-2 (IL-2) were also determined. Results demonstrate that CIA increased lymphocyte proliferation (1.9- and 1.7-fold, respectively, in response to concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)), as well as macrophage H(2)O(2) production (1.6-fold), in comparison to control. Exercise training prevented the activation of immune cells, induced by CIA, and established a pattern of substrate utilization similar to that described as normal for these cells. Exercise also promoted an elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone (22.2%), progesterone (1.7-fold) and IL-2 (2.6-fold). Our data suggest that chronic exercise is able to counterbalance the effects of CIA on cells of the IS, reinforcing the proposal that the benefits of exercise may not be restricted to aerobic capacity and/or strength improvement. PMID:20517889
Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P
Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. PMID:25438993
Hu, Min; Lin, Wentao
Exercise training can increase total Hb and red cell mass, which enhances oxygen-carrying capacity. The possible underlying mechanisms are proposed to come mainly from bone marrow, including stimulated erythropoiesis with hyperplasia of the hematopoietic bone marrow, improvement of the hematopoietic microenvironment induced by exercise training, and hormone- and cytokine-accelerated erythropoiesis. Anemia is one of the most common medical conditions in chronic disease. The effects of exercise training on counteracting anemia have been explored and evaluated. The results of the research available to date are controversial, and it seems that significant methodological limitations exist. However, exercise training might be a promising, additional, safe and economical method to help improve anemia. There is a need for further investigation into the effects of and guidelines for exercise interventions (especially strength training) in this population of patients, particularly among cancer patients who are undergoing or have undergone chemotherapy or radiation treatments. As the available data are limited, additional research to uncover the underlying mechanisms associated with the effects of exercise training on anemia is clearly warranted. PMID:22301865
Natalia G. Rocha
Full Text Available Increased levels of adhesion molecules or metalloproteinases (MMPs may indicate endothelial dysfunction. Exercise mobilizes circulating angiogenic cells (CACs from bone marrow in healthy subjects, improving vascular function. However, it is unclear whether this mechanism is preserved in the early stages of metabolic syndrome (early MetS. We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of exercise on adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, MMPs, and CACs in early MetS. Fifteen subjects with early MetS and nine healthy controls underwent an exercise session and a nonexercise session, randomly. Adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, CACs, and MMPs were evaluated before and after exercise or nonexercise sessions. At baseline, levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 were higher in early MetS than in controls (P≤0.03. After exercise, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 levels were still higher in early MetS (P0.05. In conclusion, subjects with early MetS already presented impaired endothelial function at rest along with a decrease in CACs and an increase in MMP-9 activity in response to exercise.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity
This article describes how to establish a primary tissue culture, where cells are taken directly from an organ of a living animal. Cardiac cells are taken from chick embryos and transferred to culture dishes. These cells are not transformed and therefore have a limited life span. However, the unique characteristics of cardiac cells are maintained…
Full Text Available Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicate that muscle, in a non-autonomous manner, regulates adipose progenitor homeostasis, highlighting a role for muscle-derived secreted factors. These findings support a humoral link between skeletal muscle and adipose progenitors and indicate that manipulation of adipose stem cell function may help address obesity and diabetes.
Witkowski, Sarah; Guhanarayan, Gayatri; Burgess, Rachel
Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) influence vascular repair through the secretion of proangiogenic factors and cytokines. While CAC are deficient in patients with diabetes and exercise has a beneficial effect on CACs, the impact of these factors on paracrine secretion from CAC is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the in vitro secretion of selected cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from CAC is influenced by hyperglycemia and acute exercise. Colony-forming unit CAC (CFU-CAC) were cultured from young active men (n = 9, 24 ± 2 years) at rest and after exercise under normal (5 mmol/L) and elevated (15 mmol/L) glucose. Preliminary relative multiplex cytokine analysis revealed that CAC conditioned culture media contained three of six measured cytokines: transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Single quantitative cytokine analysis was used to determine the concentration of each cytokine from the four conditions. NO was measured via Griess assay. There was a significant effect of CAC exposure to in vivo exercise on in vitro TGFβ1 secretion (P = 0.024) that was independent of glucose concentration. There was no effect of glucose or acute exercise on TNFα or MCP-1 concentration (both P > 0.05). The concentration of NO from CFU-CAC cultured in elevated glucose was lower following acute exercise (P = 0.002) suggesting that exercise did not maintain NO secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. Our results identify paracrine signaling factors that may be responsible for the proangiogenic function of CFU-CAC and an influence of acute exercise and elevated glucose on CFU-CAC soluble factor secretion. PMID:26847726
Steensberg, A; Toft, A D; Bruunsgaard, H;
% of maximal oxygen consumption. The intracellular expression of cytokines was detected following stimulation with ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in blood obtained before, during, and after exercise. The percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation was suppressed at the end of...
Hojman, Pernille; Dethlefsen, Christine; Brandt, Claus;
caspase activity was found after incubation of MCF-7 cells with conditioned media from electrically stimulated myotubes. PCR array analysis (CAPM-0838E; SABiosciences) revealed that seven genes were upregulated in the muscles after exercise, and of these oncostatin M (OSM) proved to inhibit MCF-7...
Full Text Available ... regular exercise. Exercise also helps people with high blood pressure, balance problems, or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...
Choi, Jeong Kyu; Moon, Ki Myung; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Ji Yong; Choi, Sung Hyun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Chu, Chong Woo; Kwon, Sang Mo
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to play an important role in the repair of damaged blood vessels. We used an endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming assay (EPC-CFA) to determine whether EPC numbers could be increased in healthy individuals through regular exercise training. The number of functional EPCs obtained from human peripheral blood-derived AC133 stem cells was measured after a 28-day regular exercise training program. The number of total endothelial progenitor cell co...
Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna;
BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy......-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate....... However, the excellent cancer-specific survival comes at considerable costs, as individuals with a history of germ cell cancer experience serious long-term complications, including markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidities and premature cardiovascular death. The factors responsible, as well as...
Balayssac-Siransy, Edwige; Connes, Philippe; Tuo, Nalourgo; Danho, Clotaire; Diaw, Mor; Sanogo, Ibrahima; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Samb, Abdoulaye; Ballas, Samir K.; Bogui, Pascal
Abstract The levels and duration of physical activity that can be considered as completely safe in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) is unknown. The present study compared the hemorheological and hematological profile, cell density distribution and basic biochemistry between a group of 17 patients with SCA and 21 healthy subjects before and after a 20 min duration submaximal cycling exercise at the same absolute workload. Blood was sampled at rest and 3 min after the end of ex...
Romberg, Kerstin; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen
Elite swimmers have an increased risk of developing asthma, and exposure to chloramine is believed to be an important trigger factor. The aim of the present study was to explore pathophysiological mechanisms behind induced bronchoconstriction in swimmers exposed to chloramine, before and after swim exercise provocation as well as mannitol provocation. Urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) was used as a possible marker for epithelial stress. 101 elite aspiring swim athletes were investigated and urinary samples were collected before and 1 h after completed exercise and mannitol challenge. CC16, 11β-prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) were measured. Urinary levels of CC16 were clearly increased after exercise challenge, while no reaction was seen after mannitol challenge. Similar to CC16, the level of 11β-PGF(2α) was increased after exercise challenge, but not after mannitol challenge, while LTE(4) was reduced after exercise. There was no significant difference in urinary response between those with a negative compared to positive challenge, but a tendency of increased baseline levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) in individuals with a positive mannitol challenge. The uniform increase of CC16 after swim exercise indicates that CC16 is of importance in epithelial stress, and may as such be an important pathogenic factor behind asthma development in swimmers. The changes seen in urinary levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. PMID:20696561
Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex; Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Van Loon, Luc,
Endurance-type exercise training represents a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the effects of prolonged continuous, endurance-type exercise on muscle fiber characteristics remain equivocal. Fifteen obese male type 2 diabetes patients (61 ± 6 years) participated in a 6-month continuous, endurance-type exercise program. Muscle biopsies were collected before, and after 2 and 6 months of intervention. Muscle fiber type–specific composition, size, and satellite cell (SC) and myon...
Stambuk, Boris U.
Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)
Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert
Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.
Scattering of mobile-phone base-stations within populated areas is a source of some misscomfortableness to many people. As there is no one agreed on safety level for the MPE for RF/MW all over the world, measurements of radiation emitted from base-stations is a necessity. In this work we screened out some mobile-phone base-stations inside and outside Khartoum city in Sudan. Measurements were done indoor and outdoor to maximum horizontal distance of about 300 m from the base of the base-stations. Results obtained were then compared to the maximum and minimum MPE values admitted in different countries in the world. The maximum MPE value (i.e- 0.57 mW/cm2) consider only the thermal effects of the RF/MW, while other values tend to reduce the exposure limits to as minimum as possible for safety considerations (considering non-thermal effects). Some of the values obtained were consistent with some reported biological effects. We recommended the removal of some base-stations from sensitive areas like schools, kindergardens, hostels, hospitals, etc. (author)
Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Ferreira, Inês; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Rizo-Roca, David; García Godoy, Maria Dolors; Rico, Laura G; Rubi-Sans, Gerard; Torrella, Joan Ramon; Pagès, Teresa; Petriz, Jordi; Viscor, Ginés
Our goal was to address if intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) exposure can help to increase the number of peripheral blood circulating progenitor cells and side population (SP) stem cells, in order to establish the usefulness of this intervention for skeletal muscle repair, because these cells play a role in tissue regeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in two basal states: untrained and trained and compared with 1, 3, 7 and 14 days stages of damage recovery of trained rats that had suffered skeletal muscle injury. Three experimental groups were studied: rats with passive recovery (CTRL); rats exposed to IHH after muscle damage (HYP); and, trained rats that, in addition to IHH, performed light aerobic exercise sessions (EHYP). We observed an increase in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (mean = 0.153% of cells) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (mean = 0.0020% of cells) in EHYP on day 7. Also these cells showed characteristics of more primitive progenitors in comparison to the other experimental groups (mean = 0.107% of cells), as deduced by retention of the promising fluorescent probe Vybrant Dye Cycle Violet. We concluded that intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in combination with light aerobic exercise increased the number of HSCs and EPCs on the 7th day in EHYP group, although the exercise-induced stimulus showed a reverse effect on SP kinetics. PMID:25266982
Stefan M. Pasiakos
Full Text Available A series of complex intracellular networks influence the regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover. In recent years, studies have examined how cellular regulators of muscle protein turnover modulate metabolic mechanisms contributing to the loss, gain, or conservation of skeletal muscle mass. Exercise and amino acids both stimulate anabolic signaling potentially through several intracellular pathways including the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and the mitogen activated protein kinase cell signaling cascades. As novel molecular regulators of muscle integrity continue to be explored, a contemporary analysis of the literature is required to understand the metabolic mechanisms by which contractile forces and amino acids affect cellular process that contribute to long-term adaptations and preservation of muscle mass. This article reviews the literature related to how exercise and amino acid availability affect cellular regulators of skeletal muscle mass, especially highlighting recent investigations that have identified mechanisms by which contractile forces and amino acids modulate muscle health. Furthermore, this review will explore integrated exercise and nutrition strategies that promote the maintenance of muscle health by optimizing exercise, and amino acid-induced cell signaling in aging adults susceptible to muscle loss.
Julia M Kröpfl
Full Text Available A recent study showed that ergometry increased circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (CPC numbers, but reduced hematopoietic colony forming capacity/functionality under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia. Herein we investigated whether an exercise-induced elevated plasma free/bound norepinephrine (NE concentration could be responsible for directly influencing CPC functionality. Venous blood was taken from ten healthy male subjects (25.3+/-4.4 yrs before and 4 times after ergometry under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (FiO2<0.15. The circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell numbers were correlated with free/bound NE, free/bound epinephrine (EPI, cortisol (Co and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Additionally, the influence of exercise-induced NE and blood lactate (La on CPC functionality was analyzed in a randomly selected group of subjects (n = 6 in vitro under normoxia by secondary colony-forming unit granulocyte macrophage assays. Concentrations of free NE, EPI, Co and IL-6 were significantly increased post-exercise under normoxia/hypoxia. Ergometry-induced free NE concentrations found in vivo showed a significant impairment of CPC functionality in vitro under normoxia. Thus, ergometry-induced free NE was thought to trigger CPC mobilization 10 minutes post-exercise, but as previously shown impairs CPC proliferative capacity/functionality at the same time. The obtained results suggest that an ergometry-induced free NE concentration has a direct negative effect on CPC functionality. Cortisol may further influence CPC dynamics and functionality.
Malin, Steven K; Solomon, Thomas; Blaszczak, Alecia;
composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography) were also measured before and after the intervention. Exercise dose was computed using VO2-heart rate derived linear-regression equations. Subjects expended 474.5±8.8 kcal/session (2372.5±44.1 kcal/week) during the intervention, and lost......While some studies suggest that a linear dose-response relationship exists between exercise and insulin sensitivity, the exercise dose required to enhance pancreatic beta-cell function is unknown. Thirty-five older, obese adults with prediabetes underwent a progressive 12-week supervised exercise...
Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;
activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2...
Van der Borg, N.J.C.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
A round robin exercise was performed on IV measurements and spectral response measurements of solar cells. Seven partners participated in the exercise. The aim of the round robin was to enable the verification of their measurement facilities and procedures for IV-measurements on 'classic' Si-solar cells by comparing their measurement data with the other participants. In this way possible flaws in the equipment or procedures can be found and corrected for or the measurement uncertainties can be reassessed. The differences between the measurement results of the various partners were more or less within the expected measurement uncertainty although one or more partners may decide to use the results to reexamine their facilities or procedures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer effective means to prevent recurrence of a cardiac event, but poor uptake of current programs have been reported globally. Home based models are considered as a feasible alternative to avoid various barriers related to care centre based programs. This paper sets out the study design for a clinical trial seeking to test the hypothesis that these programs can be better and more efficiently supported with novel Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Methods/Design We have integrated mobile phones and web services into a comprehensive home- based care model for outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Mobile phones with a built-in accelerometer sensor are used to measure physical exercise and WellnessDiary software is used to collect information on patients' physiological risk factors and other health information. Video and teleconferencing are used for mentoring sessions aiming at behavioural modifications through goal setting. The mentors use web-portal to facilitate personal goal setting and to assess the progress of each patient in the program. Educational multimedia content are stored or transferred via messaging systems to the patients phone to be viewed on demand. We have designed a randomised controlled trial to compare the health outcomes and cost efficiency of the proposed model with a traditional community based rehabilitation program. The main outcome measure is adherence to physical exercise guidelines. Discussion The study will provide evidence on using mobile phones and web services for mentoring and self management in a home-based care model targeting sustainable behavioural modifications in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Trial registration The trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR with number ACTRN12609000251224.
Full Text Available Inger Hallberg,1,11 Charles Taft,1,11 Agneta Ranerup,2,11 Ulrika Bengtsson,1,11 Mikael Hoffmann,3,10 Stefan Höfer,4 Dick Kasperowski,5 Åsa Mäkitalo,6 Mona Lundin,6 Lena Ring,7,8 Ulf Rosenqvist,9 Karin Kjellgren1,10,11 1Institute of Health and Care Sciences, 2Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3The NEPI Foundation, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Medical Psychology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria; 5Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, 6Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 7Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, 8Department of Use of Medical Products, Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, 9Department of Medical Specialist and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Motala, 10Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 11Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Hypertension is a significant risk factor for heart disease and stroke worldwide. Effective treatment regimens exist; however, treatment adherence rates are poor (30%–50%. Improving self-management may be a way to increase adherence to treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the phases in the development and preliminary evaluation of an interactive mobile phone-based system aimed at supporting patients in self-managing their hypertension. A person-centered and participatory framework emphasizing patient involvement was used. An interdisciplinary group of researchers, patients with hypertension, and health care professionals who were specialized in hypertension care designed and developed a set of questions and motivational messages for use in an interactive mobile phone-based system. Guided by the US Food and Drug Administration framework for the development of patient-reported outcome
Chamorro-Viña Carolina; Guilcher Gregory MT; Khan Faisal M; Mazil Karen; Schulte Fiona; Wurz Amanda; Williamson Tanya; Reimer Raylene A; Culos-Reed S Nicole
Abstract Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an intensive therapy used to improve survivorship and cure various oncologic diseases. However, this therapy is associated with high mortality rates and numerous negative side-effects. The recovery of the immune system is a special concern and plays a key role in the success of this treatment. In healthy populations it is known that exercise plays an important role in immune system regulation, but little is known about the role of...
Kröpfl, Julia M; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Mangge, Harald; Pekovits, Karin; Fuchs, Robert; Allard, Nathalie; Schinagl, Lukas; Hofmann, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Müller, Wolfram
A recent study showed that ergometry increased circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (CPC) numbers, but reduced hematopoietic colony forming capacity/functionality under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia. Herein we investigated whether an exercise-induced elevated plasma free/bound norepinephrine (NE) concentration could be responsible for directly influencing CPC functionality. Venous blood was taken from ten healthy male subjects (25.3+/-4.4 yrs) before and 4 times after ergometry under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (FiO2exercise-induced NE and blood lactate (La) on CPC functionality was analyzed in a randomly selected group of subjects (n = 6) in vitro under normoxia by secondary colony-forming unit granulocyte macrophage assays. Concentrations of free NE, EPI, Co and IL-6 were significantly increased post-exercise under normoxia/hypoxia. Ergometry-induced free NE concentrations found in vivo showed a significant impairment of CPC functionality in vitro under normoxia. Thus, ergometry-induced free NE was thought to trigger CPC mobilization 10 minutes post-exercise, but as previously shown impairs CPC proliferative capacity/functionality at the same time. The obtained results suggest that an ergometry-induced free NE concentration has a direct negative effect on CPC functionality. Cortisol may further influence CPC dynamics and functionality. PMID:25180783
Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation exposures from the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile telephone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly evolving technologies in wireless telecommunication systems. In Malaysia, thousands of mobile telephone base stations have been erected all over the country, most of which are mounted on the rooftops. In view of public concerns, measurements of the RF/MW levels emitted by the base stations were carried out in this study. The values were compared with the exposure limits set by several organisations and countries. Measurements were performed at 200 sites around 47 mobile phone base stations. It was found that the RF/MW radiation from these base stations were well below the maximum exposure limits set by various agencies. (authors)
Full Text Available Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM. Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balance. Its clinical evaluation is commonly based on the assessment of the joint position sense (JPS. Both ROM and JPS measurements require estimating angles through goniometer, scoliometer, laser-pointer, and bubble or digital inclinometer. With the arrival of Smartphones, these costly clinical tools tend to be replaced. Beyond evaluation, maintaining and/or improving joint functional and proprioceptive abilities by training with physical therapy is important for long-term management. This review aims to report Smartphone applications used for measuring and improving functional and proprioceptive abilities. It identifies that Smartphone applications are reliable for clinical measurements and are mainly used to assess ROM and JPS. However, there is lack of studies on Smartphone applications which can be used in an autonomous way to provide physical therapy exercises at home.
Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Juan Miguel; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni
Acute exercise induces changes in peripheral mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) capabilities to produce cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on cytokine production, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs after exercise, and the in vitro influence of temperature. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA (1.16 g DHA/day) for 8 weeks, whereas the placebo group consumed a similar non-enriched beverage. Blood samples were taken before and after the nutritional intervention in basal conditions and 2 h after acute exercise. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocytes only in experimental group (from 34 ± 3.6 to 43 ± 3.6 nmols DHA/10(9) erythrocytes). Exercise significantly increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in PBMCs but only in the placebo group (203 %). Exercise also significantly increased IL6, IL8, VEGF, INFγ, TNFα, IL1α, IL1β, MCP1, and EGG production rates by LPS-stimulated PBMCs, and this response was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Temperature but not DHA also affected the pattern of cytokine production increasing IL6, IL8, IL1β, and MCP1 synthesis. The higher change was evidenced in IL1β increasing the production rate at 39.5 °C from 3.19 ± 0.77 to 22.4 ± 6.1 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in placebo and from 2.36 ± 0.11 to 10.6 ± 0.38 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in the supplemented group. The profile of affected cytokines differs between temperature and exercise, suggesting a different PBMC activation pathway. DHA diet supplementation only attenuated cytokine production after exercise and not that induced by temperature. PMID:27139422
Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Xu, Fangxiang; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Xu, Meng; Sheng, Liangrong; Yu, Shiting; Tang, Yong
Plasmonic nanosensors may be used as tools for diagnostic testing in the field of medicine. However, quantification of plasmonic nanosensors often requires complex and bulky readout instruments. Here, we report the development of a portable smart phone-based plasmonic nanosensor readout platform (PNRP) for accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors. This device operates by transmitting excitation light from a LED through a nanosubstrate and measuring the intensity of the transmitted light using the ambient light sensor of a smart phone. The device is a cylinder with a diameter of 14 mm, a length of 38 mm, and a gross weight of 3.5 g. We demonstrated the utility of this smart phone-based PNRP by measuring two well-established plasmonic nanosensors with this system. In the first experiment, the device measured the morphology changes of triangular silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs) in an immunoassay for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the second experiment, the device measured the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in an aptamer-based assay for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The results from the smart phone-based PNRP were consistent with those from commercial spectrophotometers, demonstrating that the smart phone-based PNRP enables accurate quantification of plasmonic nanosensors. PMID:27137512
Full Text Available ... Learn More Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging ... of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health ...
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Full Text Available ... exercise can improve or maintain some aspects of cognitive function, such as your ability to shift quickly ... Click to watch this video For more on cognitive function and exercise, see "Do Exercise and Physical ...
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Full Text Available ... disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment for many chronic conditions. For example, studies show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ...
Full Text Available Hyekyun Rhee,1 James Allen,2 Jennifer Mammen,1 Mary Swift21School of Nursing, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: Adolescents report high asthma-related morbidity that can be prevented by adequate self-management of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for a developmentally appropriate strategy to promote effective asthma self-management. Mobile phone-based technology is portable, commonly accessible, and well received by adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a comprehensive mobile phone-based asthma self-management aid for adolescents (mASMAA that was designed to facilitate symptom monitoring, treatment adherence, and adolescent–parent partnership. The system used state-of-the-art natural language-understanding technology that allowed teens to use unconstrained English in their texts, and to self-initiate interactions with the system.Materials and methods: mASMAA was developed based on an existing natural dialogue system that supports broad coverage of everyday natural conversation in English. Fifteen adolescent–parent dyads participated in a 2-week trial that involved adolescents' daily scheduled and unscheduled interactions with mASMAA and parents responding to daily reports on adolescents' asthma condition automatically generated by mASMAA. Subsequently, four focus groups were conducted to systematically obtain user feedback on the system. Frequency data on the daily usage of mASMAA over the 2-week period were tabulated, and content analysis was conducted for focus group interview data.Results: Response rates for daily text messages were 81%–97% in adolescents. The average number of self-initiated messages to mASMAA was 19 per adolescent. Symptoms were the most common topic of teen-initiated messages. Participants concurred that use of mASMAA improved awareness of symptoms and triggers, promoted treatment adherence and
Palmier-Claus Jasper E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade policy makers have emphasised the importance of healthcare technology in the management of long-term conditions. Mobile-phone based assessment may be one method of facilitating clinically- and cost-effective intervention, and increasing the autonomy and independence of service users. Recently, text-message and smartphone interfaces have been developed for the real-time assessment of symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. Little is currently understood about patients’ perceptions of these systems, and how they might be implemented into their everyday routine and clinical care. Method 24 community based individuals with non-affective psychosis completed a randomised repeated-measure cross-over design study, where they filled in self-report questions about their symptoms via text-messages on their own phone, or via a purpose designed software application for Android smartphones, for six days. Qualitative interviews were conducted in order to explore participants’ perceptions and experiences of the devices, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Three themes emerged from the data: i the appeal of usability and familiarity, ii acceptability, validity and integration into domestic routines, and iii perceived impact on clinical care. Although participants generally found the technology non-stigmatising and well integrated into their everyday activities, the repetitiveness of the questions was identified as a likely barrier to long-term adoption. Potential benefits to the quality of care received were seen in terms of assisting clinicians, faster and more efficient data exchange, and aiding patient-clinician communication. However, patients often failed to see the relevance of the systems to their personal situations, and emphasised the threat to the person centred element of their care. Conclusions The feedback presented in this paper suggests that patients are conscious of the
Ruwaard, Jeroen; Ejdys, Michal; Schrader, Niels; Sijbrandij, Marit; Riper, Heleen
Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a useful method to tap the dynamics of psychological and behavioral phenomena in real-world contexts. However, the response burden of (self-report) EMA limits its clinical utility. Objective The aim was to explore mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA, in which mobile phone usage logs are considered as proxy measures of clinically relevant user states and contexts. Methods This was an uncontrolled explorative pilot study. Our study consisted of 6 weeks of EMA/unobtrusive EMA data collection in a Dutch student population (N=33), followed by a regression modeling analysis. Participants self-monitored their mood on their mobile phone (EMA) with a one-dimensional mood measure (1 to 10) and a two-dimensional circumplex measure (arousal/valence, –2 to 2). Meanwhile, with participants’ consent, a mobile phone app unobtrusively collected (meta) data from six smartphone sensor logs (unobtrusive EMA: calls/short message service (SMS) text messages, screen time, application usage, accelerometer, and phone camera events). Through forward stepwise regression (FSR), we built personalized regression models from the unobtrusive EMA variables to predict day-to-day variation in EMA mood ratings. The predictive performance of these models (ie, cross-validated mean squared error and percentage of correct predictions) was compared to naive benchmark regression models (the mean model and a lag-2 history model). Results A total of 27 participants (81%) provided a mean 35.5 days (SD 3.8) of valid EMA/unobtrusive EMA data. The FSR models accurately predicted 55% to 76% of EMA mood scores. However, the predictive performance of these models was significantly inferior to that of naive benchmark models. Conclusions Mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA is a technically feasible and potentially powerful EMA variant. The method is young and positive findings may not replicate. At present, we do not recommend the application of FSR-based mood
Rakobowchuk, M; E. Harris; Taylor, A.; Baliga, V; Cubbon, RM; Rossiter, HB; Birch, KM
Moderate-intensity endurance exercise training improves vascular endothelial vasomotor function; however, the impact of high-intensity exercise training has been equivocal. Thus, the effect of the physiological stress of the exercise remains poorly understood. Furthermore, enhanced vascular repair mediated by circulating progenitor cells may also be improved. To address whether the physiological stress of exercise training is an important factor contributing to these adaptations, 20 healthy p...
Lee, Hae-June; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Nam; Choi, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil
We examined the histological changes by radiofrequency (RF) fields on rat testis, specifically with respect to sensitive processes such as spermatogenesis. Male rats were exposed to 848.5 MHz RF for 12 weeks. The RF exposure schedule consisted of two 45-min RF exposure periods, separated by a 15-min interval. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of RF was 2.0 W/kg. We then investigated correlates of testicular function such as sperm counts in the cauda epididymis, malondialdehyde concentrations in the testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, germ cell counts, and appearance of apoptotic cells in the testes. We also performed p53, bcl-2, caspase 3, p21, and PARP immunoblotting of the testes in sham- and RF-exposed animals. Based on these results, we concluded that subchronic exposure to 848.5 MHz with 2.0 W/kg SAR RF did not have any observable adverse effects on rat spermatogenesis. PMID:20607737
Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen
Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment in...
Hirose, H; Sakuma, N; Kaji, N; Nakayama, K; Inoue, K; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J
An in vitro study focusing on the effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields act to induce phosphorylation and overexpression of heat shock protein hsp27. First, we evaluated the responses of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole-body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced activation or gene expression of hsp27 and other heat shock proteins (hsps). Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2-48 h, and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to W-CDMA at 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2 or 28 h, and CW at 80 mW/kg for 28 h. Under the RF field exposure conditions described above, no significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated hsp27 at serine 82 (hsp27[pS82]) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW signal and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by bead-based multiplex assays. Moreover, no noticeable differences in the gene expression of hsps were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by DNA Chip analysis. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF field up to 800 mW/kg does not induce phosphorylation of hsp27 or expression of hsp gene family. PMID:17004241
The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints. (author)
the hazards of exposure to EMFs are observed on different tissues, the mechanistic by which EMFs can produce such effect still need to be delineated. the present study aims to monitor the possibility of modulation in the different physiological and biophysical properties of the organs after exposure to microwave produced from mobile phone base station at frequency of 900 MHz. one hundred and ten pregnant rats were exposed for periods of 5 and 12 week's at distances of 8,15 and 25 meter from the station antenna (0.01,0.05 and 0.036 MW/cm2) the groups exposed for 5 weeks classified into two halves, one half was used for direct effect studies and the other was used for delayed effects studies (45 days post irradiation). haematological investigations demonstrated non significant changes in (RBC's), (Hb),(PCV) and (MCV)of exposed and delayed rats for 5,12 weeks. the young's of exposed rats show non considerable increase in RBC's, Hb and PCV. significant increases were observed in serum total protein , albumin and globulin levels in 5 and 12 weeks exposed rats and more significant increase in delayed rats
Hallberg, I; Ranerup, A; Kjellgren, K
Globally, hypertension is poorly controlled and its treatment consists mainly of preventive behavior, adherence to treatment and risk-factor management. The aim of this study was to explore patients' experiences of an interactive mobile phone-based system designed to support the self-management of hypertension. Forty-nine patients were interviewed about their experiences of using the self-management system for 8 weeks regarding: (i) daily answers on self-report questions concerning lifestyle, well-being, symptoms, medication intake and side effects; (ii) results of home blood-pressure measurements; (iii) reminders and motivational messages; and (iv) access to a web-based platform for visualization of the self-reports. The audio-recorded interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. The patients considered the self-management system relevant for the follow-up of hypertension and found it easy to use, but some provided insight into issues for improvement. They felt that using the system offered benefits, for example, increasing their participation during follow-up consultations; they further perceived that it helped them gain understanding of the interplay between blood pressure and daily life, which resulted in increased motivation to follow treatment. Increased awareness of the importance of adhering to prescribed treatment may be a way to minimize the cardiovascular risks of hypertension. PMID:25903164
Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. AD was induced by a bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25-35. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25-35 injection. In the present results, ICV injection of Aβ25-35 deteriorated motor coordination and balance. The number of calbindin-positive cells in the cerebellar vermis was decreased and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the cerebellar vermis was increased in the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor coordination and balance. Treadmill exercise increased the number of Purkinje neurons and suppressed GFAP expression in the cerebellar vermis. The present study demonstrated that treadmill exercises alleviated dysfunction of motor coordination and balance by reduction of Purkinje cell loss through suppressing reactive astrocytes in the cerebellum of AD rats. The present study provides the possibility that treadmill exercise might be an important therapeutic strategy for the symptom improvement of AD patients. PMID:25426461
Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...
Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...
Zhang, Jing; Song, Yuan-Lin; Bai, Chun-Xue
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that leads to huge economic and social burden. Efficient and effective management of stable COPD is essential to improve quality of life and reduce medical expenditure. The Internet of Things (IoT), a recent breakthrough in communication technology, seems promising in improving health care delivery, but its potential strengths in COPD management remain poorly understood. We have developed a mobile phone-based IoT (mIoT) platform and initiated a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial entitled the 'MIOTIC study' to investigate the influence of mIoT among stable COPD patients. In the MIOTIC study, at least 600 patients with stable GOLD group C or D COPD and with a history of at least two moderate-to-severe exacerbations within the previous year will be randomly allocated to the control group, which receives routine follow-up, or the intervention group, which receives mIoT management. Endpoints of the study include (1) frequency and severity of acute exacerbation; (2) symptomatic evaluation; (3) pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) measurement; (4) exercise capacity; and (5) direct medical cost per year. Results from this study should provide direct evidence for the suitability of mIoT in stable COPD patient management. PMID:24082784
Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela
During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. PMID:26739770
Sara M. Reyna; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas
Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for ...
Suk-Yu Yau; Jada Chia-Di Lee; Benson Wui-Man Lau; Tatia M.C. Lee; Yick-Pang Ching; Siu-Wa Tang; Kwok-Fai So
Intermediate level of stress is beneficial for brain functions, whereas extreme low level or high level of stress is deleterious. We have previously shown that chronic exposure to high doses of corticosterone (CORT) suppressed hippocampal plasticity and physical exercise in terms of running counteracted the detrimental effects of CORT treatment. We aimed to study whether a mild stress, that mimicked by a treatment with low CORT dose, improved hippocampal plasticity in terms of hippocampal cell proliferation and dendritic remodeling, and to examine whether running with CORT treatment showed an additive effect on improving hippocampal plasticity. The rats were treated with 20 mg/kg CORT for 14 days with or without running, followed by Morris water maze test or forced swim test. The hippocampal proliferating cells was labeled by intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. The dendritic morphology was analyzed using Golgi staining method. Treatment with 20 mg/kg CORT alone yielded a higher number of hippocampal cell proliferation and significantly increased dendritic branching compared to vehicle-treated non-runners, but had no behavioral effects. In contrast, CORT treatment with running showed an additive increase in hippocampal cell proliferation and dendritic remodeling that was associated with improved spatial learning and decreased depression-like behavior; however, there was no additive improvement in behavior compared to vehicle-treated runners. These findings suggest that mild stress does not always cause detrimental effect on the brain, and combining mild stress with running could promote hippocampal plasticity via inducing cell proliferation and dendritic remodeling.
Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS as an electromagnetic field (EMF source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. Material and Methods: The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. Results: The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Conclusions: Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method are also presented. Med Pr 2015;66(5:701–712
Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; Bolte, John; Kelfkens, Gert; van Dijk, Christel; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Hooiveld, Mariette; Lebret, Erik; Yzermans, Joris
The number of mobile phone base station(s) (MPBS) has been increasing to meet the rapid technological changes and growing needs for mobile communication. The primary objective of the present study was to test possible changes in prevalence and number of NSS in relation to MPBS exposure before and after increase of installed MPBS antennas. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing two time periods with high contrast in terms of number of installed MPBS. Symptom data were based on electronic health records from 1069 adult participants, registered in 9 general practices in different regions in the Netherlands. All participants were living within 500m from the nearest bases station. Among them, 55 participants reported to be sensitive to MPBS at T1. A propagation model combined with a questionnaire was used to assess indoor exposure to RF-EMF from MPBS at T1. Estimation of exposure at T0 was based on number of antennas at T0 relative to T1. At T1, there was a >30% increase in the total number of MPBS antennas. A higher prevalence for most NSS was observed in the MPBS-sensitive group at T1 compared to baseline. Exposure estimates were not associated with GP-registered NSS in the total sample. Some significant interactions were observed between MPBS-sensitivity and exposure estimates on risk of symptoms. Using clinically defined outcomes and a time difference of >6years it was demonstrated that RF-EMF exposure to MPBS was not associated with the development of NSS. Nonetheless, there was some indication for a higher risk of NSS for the MPBS-sensitive group, mainly in relation to exposure to UMTS, but this should be interpreted with caution. Results have to be verified by future longitudinal studies with a particular focus on potentially susceptible population subgroups of large sample size and integrated exposure assessment. PMID:27219506
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS
Delisle, Christine; Sandin, Sven; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Ortega Porcel, Francisco B.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Timpka, Toomas; L??f, Marie
Background: Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Overweight and obesity may be established as early as 2-5 years of age, highlighting the need for evidence-based effective prevention and treatment programs early in life. In adults, mobile phone based interventions for weight management (mHealth) have demonstrated positive effects on body mass, however, their use in child populations has yet to be examined. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodol...
Antypas Konstantinos; Wangberg Silje C
Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation is very important for the recovery and the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and one of its main strategies is to increase the level of physical activity. Internet and mobile phone based interventions have been successfully used to help people to achieve this. One of the components that are related to the efficacy of these interventions is tailoring of content to the individual. This trial is studying the effect of a longitudinally tail...
Augner Christoph; Hacker Gerhard
Background and Aims: Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiol...
Befort, Christie A; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa
Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than indivi...
Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.
Schuler, M K; Hornemann, B; Pawandenat, C; Kramer, M; Hentschel, L; Beck, H; Kasten, P; Singer, S; Schaich, M; Ehninger, G; Platzbecker, U; Schetelig, J; Bornhäuser, M
It has been demonstrated that physical exercise benefits younger patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We designed a prospective pilot study investigating whether elderly patients (>60 years) would also be able to participate in such a programme. It consisted of physiotherapist-supervised alternating endurance and resistance workouts on 6 of 7 days a week. Sixteen consecutive patients undergoing allo-HSCT were enrolled into the study. The median age was 64.5 years. Twelve patients participated in the programme until the time of discharge (75%) from the transplant unit. Therefore, the predefined criteria regarding feasibility were met. The reason for drop out was transplantation associated mortality in all patients (n = 4). Adherence was very good with a median of 85% attended training sessions. No adverse events were recorded. The endurance capacity dropped by 7% and lower extremity strength improved by 2% over time. Quality of life decreased during the study period, with global health being significantly worse at the time of discharge. In conclusion, a combined and intensified strength and endurance exercise programme is feasible and safe in a population of elderly patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Further research should focus on exploring effect sizes of such an intervention by conducting randomised controlled trials. PMID:26526286
Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico
Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217 ± 32 min/week) who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC), reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR); RBC distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV). No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25197280
Missel, Malene; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Hendriksen, Carsten;
PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore operable lung cancer patient experiences with an exercise intervention from a longitudinal perspective according to patient motivation and patient perceived benefits and barriers of exercise. METHODS: Nineteen patients enrolled in an exercise intervention 2 weeks...... post-surgery participated in qualitative interviews at three time points. A criteria sampling strategy was applied. Ricoeur's phenomenological hermeneutical philosophy inspired the analysis. RESULTS: Patients initiated exercising median 15 days postoperative. Eight patients included in the interview...
Ho Seong Lee; Makii Muthalib; Takayuki Akimoto; Kazunori Nosaka
Background:It has been reported that strenuous exercise increases the number of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells such as CD34+cells in the blood, but no previous studies have investigated the changes in circulating CD34+cells following resistance exercise. This study tested the hypothesis that the number of CD34+cells in the blood would increase after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors, but decrease in recovery, and the magnitude of the changes would be dependent on the magnitude of muscle damage. Methods:Nine men (28.0 ± 6.6 years) performed exercises consisting of 10 sets of six maximal voluntary eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with their non-dominant arm. Six of them performed the same exercise with the same arm 4 weeks later. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were measured before, within 10 min after, and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after eccentric exercise. Differential leukocyte counts (total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes) and CD34+cells in the blood were measured before, immediately after, and at 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following the exercises. Results:After eccentric exercise, significant ( p<0.05) decreases in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque and increases in delayed onset muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were observed. However, no significant changes in leukocytes and CD34+cells were evident. The changes in muscle damage markers were significantly ( p<0.05) smaller following the second exercise session as compared with the first exercise session, but the changes in leukocytes and CD34+cells were not significantly different between sessions. Conclusion:These results did not support the hypothesis, and showed that eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage to the elbow flexors did not influence the number of circulating CD34+cells.
Chen, Juliana; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret
Background Despite social marketing campaigns and behavior change interventions, young adults remain among the lowest consumers of vegetables. The digital era offers potential new avenues for both social marketing and individually tailored programs, through texting, web, and mobile applications. The effectiveness and generalizability of such programs have not been well documented. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and external validity of social marketing, electronic, and mobile phone-based (mHealth) interventions aimed at increasing vegetable intake in young adults. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol will be used to conduct this systematic review. The search strategy will be executed across eleven electronic databases using combinations of the following search terms: “online intervention”, “computer-assisted therapy”, “internet”, “website”, “cell phones”, “cyber”, “telemedicine”, “email”, “social marketing”, “social media”, “mass media”, “young adult”, and “fruit and vegetables”. The reference lists of included studies will also be searched for additional citations. Titles and abstracts will be screened against inclusion criteria and full texts of potentially eligible papers will be assessed by two independent reviewers. Data from eligible papers will be extracted. Quality and risk of bias will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias assessment tool respectively. The external validity of the studies will be determined based on components such as reach, adoption, and representativeness of participants; intervention implementation and adaption; and program maintenance and institutionalization. Results will be reported quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Our research is in progress. A draft
Full Text Available ... Like most people, you've probably heard that physical activity and exercise are good for you. In fact, ... by staying physically active. Even moderate exercise and physical activity can improve the health of people who are ...
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Full Text Available ... Helps Me Control My Blood Pressure Video length: 1 min 18 sec Click to watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...
Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of circulating CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells is one of the important factors for maintaining vascular homeostasis. Exercise will effectively increase the number of circulating CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells. This study aims to determine the effect of moderate-intensity acute aerobic exercise duration on the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells in untrained healthy young adult subjects.Methods: This study was an experimental study. Untrained healthy volunteers (n=20 performed ergocycle at moderate-intensity (64–74% maximum heart rate for 10 minutes or 30 minutes. Immediately before and 10 minutes after exercise, venous blood samples were drawn. The percentage of CD31+ cells in peripheral blood was analyzed using flow cytometry. Data was statistically analyzed using student t-test.Results: There were no significant differences in the mean percentage of circulating CD31+ cells before and after exercise for 10 minutes and 30 minutes (p>0.05. However, there was a different trend in the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells after exercise for 10 minutes and 30 minutes. In the 10 minutes duration, 50% of subjects showed increase. Whereas in the 30 minutes duration, 80% of subjects showed increase.Conclusion: The percentage of circulating CD31+ cells before and after exercise for 10 minutes was not different compared to 30 minutes. However, data analysis shows that majority of subjects (80% had increased in the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells after 30 minutes exercise.
Kühl, Rea Maria
The evidence of exercise as adjuvant therapy option in cancer patients is increasing. Exercise constitutes a promising intervention to reduce treatment-related side-effects and to improve the rehabilitation process. Thus, there is growing interest in determining optimally targeted exercise prescriptions to maximize effects. However, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in haematological cancer patients during and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Consequ...
Camila Ferreira Leite
Full Text Available Physical activity evokes well-known adaptations in the cardiovascular system. Although exercise training induces cardiac remodeling, whether multipotent stem cells play a functional role in the hypertrophic process remains unknown. To evaluate this possibility, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to swimming training aimed at achieving cardiac hypertrophy, which was morphologically and electrocardiographically characterized. Subsequently, c-Kit+Lin− and Sca-1+Lin− cardiac stem cells (CSCs were quantified using flow cytometry while cardiac muscle-derived stromal cells (CMSCs, also known as cardiac-derived mesenchymal stem cells were assessed using in vitro colony-forming unit fibroblast assay (CFU-F. Only the number of c-Kit+Lin− cells increased in the hypertrophied heart. To investigate a possible extracardiac origin of these cells, a parabiotic eGFP transgenic/wild-type mouse model was used. The parabiotic pairs were subjected to swimming, and the wild-type heart in particular was tested for eGFP+ stem cells. The results revealed a negligible number of extracardiac stem cells in the heart, allowing us to infer a cardiac origin for the increased amount of detected c-Kit+ cells. In conclusion, the number of resident Sca-1+Lin− cells and CMSCs was not changed, whereas the number of c-Kit+Lin− cells was increased during physiological cardiac hypertrophy. These c-Kit+Lin− CSCs may contribute to the physiological cardiac remodeling that result from exercise training.
Wiskemann, Joachim; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Kuehl, Rea; Dreger, Peter; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Bohus, Martin
Observational studies have suggested that physical activity may be associated with improved survival after cancer treatment. However, data from controlled clinical trials are required. We analyzed survival data of 103 patients from a previously published randomized controlled trial in allogeneic stem cell transplant patients who were randomized to either an exercise intervention (EX) or to a social contact control group. EX patients trained prior to hospital admission, during inpatient treatment, and for 6-8 weeks after discharge. Survival analyses were used to compare both total mortality (TM) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after discharge and transplantation during an observation period of 2 years after transplantation. Analyses were corroborated with Cox and Fine & Gray regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After discharge, EX patients had a significantly lower TM rate than controls (12.0 vs. 28.3%, p = 0.030) and a numerically lower NRM rate (4.0 vs. 13.5%, p = 0.086). When the inpatient period was included, absolute risk reductions were similar but not significantly different (TM: 34.0 vs. 50.9%, p = 0.112; NRM: 26.0 vs. 36.5%, p = 0.293). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death with EX was about 6. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that baseline fitness was protective against mortality. The data suggest that exercise might improve survival in patients undergoing allo-HCT. However, the results should be interpreted with caution as the study was not designed to detect differences in survival rates, and as no stratification on relevant prognostic factors was carried out. PMID:26061092
Mariani Santosa; Ermita I.I. Ilyas; Radiana D. Antarianto
Background: The increasing number of circulating CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells is one of the important factors for maintaining vascular homeostasis. Exercise will effectively increase the number of circulating CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells. This study aims to determine the effect of moderate-intensity acute aerobic exercise duration on the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells in untrained healthy young adult subjects.Methods: This study was an experimental study. Untrained healthy ...
Karhula, Tuula; Rääpysjärvi, Katja; Pakanen, Mira; Itkonen, Pentti; Tepponen, Merja; Junno, Ulla-Maija; Jokinen, Tapio; van Gils, Mark; Lähteenmäki, Jaakko; Kohtamäki, Kari; Saranummi, Niilo
Background There is a strong will and need to find alternative models of health care delivery driven by the ever-increasing burden of chronic diseases. Objective The purpose of this 1-year trial was to study whether a structured mobile phone-based health coaching program, which was supported by a remote monitoring system, could be used to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and/or the clinical measures of type 2 diabetes and heart disease patients. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted among type 2 diabetes patients and heart disease patients of the South Karelia Social and Health Care District. Patients were recruited by sending invitations to randomly selected patients using the electronic health records system. Health coaches called patients every 4 to 6 weeks and patients were encouraged to self-monitor their weight, blood pressure, blood glucose (diabetics), and steps (heart disease patients) once per week. The primary outcome was HRQL measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among diabetic patients. The clinical measures assessed were blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, and lipid levels. Results A total of 267 heart patients and 250 diabetes patients started in the trial, of which 246 and 225 patients concluded the end-point assessments, respectively. Withdrawal from the study was associated with the patients’ unfamiliarity with mobile phones—of the 41 dropouts, 85% (11/13) of the heart disease patients and 88% (14/16) of the diabetes patients were familiar with mobile phones, whereas the corresponding percentages were 97.1% (231/238) and 98.6% (208/211), respectively, among the rest of the patients (P=.02 and P=.004). Withdrawal was also associated with heart disease patients’ comorbidities—40% (8/20) of the dropouts had at least one comorbidity, whereas the corresponding percentage was 18.9% (47/249) among the rest of the patients (P=.02). The intervention showed
Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Blettner, M; Kowall, B;
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to continuous low-level radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from mobile phone base stations was related to various health disturbances. METHODS: For the investigation people living mainly...... stations affected their health and they gave information on sleep disturbances, headaches, health complaints and mental and physical health using standardised health questionnaires. Information on stress was also collected. Multiple linear regression models were used with health outcomes as dependent...
Physical Exercise Training versus Relaxation in Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (PETRA Study) – Rationale and design of a randomized trial to evaluate a yearlong exercise intervention on overall survival and side-effects after allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Wiskemann, Joachim; Kühl, Rea; Dreger, Peter; Huber, Gerhard; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Bohus, Martin
Background: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is associated with high treatment-related mortality and innumerable physical and psychosocial complications and side-effects, such as high fatigue levels, loss of physical performance, infections, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and distress. This leads to a reduced quality of life, not only during and after transplantation, but also in the long term. Exercise interventions have been shown to be beneficial in allo-HCT patients. Howe...
Full Text Available Jing Zhang, Yuan-lin Song, Chun-xue Bai Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common disease that leads to huge economic and social burden. Efficient and effective management of stable COPD is essential to improve quality of life and reduce medical expenditure. The Internet of Things (IoT, a recent breakthrough in communication technology, seems promising in improving health care delivery, but its potential strengths in COPD management remain poorly understood. We have developed a mobile phone-based IoT (mIoT platform and initiated a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial entitled the ‘MIOTIC study’ to investigate the influence of mIoT among stable COPD patients. In the MIOTIC study, at least 600 patients with stable GOLD group C or D COPD and with a history of at least two moderate-to-severe exacerbations within the previous year will be randomly allocated to the control group, which receives routine follow-up, or the intervention group, which receives mIoT management. Endpoints of the study include (1 frequency and severity of acute exacerbation; (2 symptomatic evaluation; (3 pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC measurement; (4 exercise capacity; and (5 direct medical cost per year. Results from this study should provide direct evidence for the suitability of mIoT in stable COPD patient management. Keywords: Internet of Things, mobile phone, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, efficacy
Bogg, Tina Fung Ting; Broderick, Carolyn; Shaw, Peter; Cohn, Richard; Naumann, Fiona Leigh
With improving survival rates following HSCT in children, QOL and management of short- and long-term effects need to be considered. Exercise may help mitigate fatigue and declines in fitness and strength. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of an inpatient exercise intervention for children undergoing HSCT and observe the changes in physical and psychological health. Fourteen patients were recruited, mean age 10 yr. A 6MWT, isometric upper and lower body strength, balance, fatigue, and QOL were assessed prior to Tx and six wk post-Tx. A supervised exercise program was offered five days per week during the inpatient period and feasibility assessed through uptake rate. The study had 100% program completion and 60% uptake rate of exercise sessions. The mean (± s.d.) weekly activity was 117.5 (± 79.3) minutes. Younger children performed significantly more minutes of exercise than adolescents. At reassessment, strength and fatigue were stabilized while aerobic fitness and balance decreased. QOL revealed a non-statistical trend towards improvement. No exercise-related adverse events were reported. A supervised inpatient exercise program is safe and feasible, with potential physiological and psychosocial benefits. PMID:26518227
Evers-van Gogh, I.; Alex, S.; Stienstra, R.; Brenkman, A.B.; Kersten, S.; Kalkhoven, E.
Regular exercise has emerged as one of the best therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat type-2-diabetes. Exercise-induced changes in the muscle secretome, consisting of myokines and metabolites, may underlie the inter-organ communication between muscle and other organs. To investigate this cross
We used phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR) to probe the cellular events in contracting muscle that initiate the reflex stimulation of sympathetic outflow during exercise. In conscious humans, we performed 31P-NMR on exercising forearm muscle and simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) with microelectrodes in the peroneal nerve to determine if the activation of MSNA is coupled to muscle pH, an index of glycolysis, or to the concentrations (II)...
Full Text Available Telemedicine systems have been proposed as a means of supporting people with diabetes in the self-management of their condition. Requirements for monitoring parameters of care, including glycaemic control, extent of analysis and interpretation of data, patient_clinician contacts, and involvement of a multidisciplinary care team with effective communication, can be addressed by telemedicine systems. We describe the development and implementation of an innovative real-time telemedicine system based around transmission and feedback of data to and from a mobile phone. Proprietary Java-based programs were used to link a blood glucose meter to a mobile phone. In addition to immediate transmission of blood glucose data, information about insulin dose, eating patterns and physical exercise were collected. Immediate feedback to the phone included a colour histogram to draw attention to levels of control over glycaemia over the previous two weeks. Clinicians supporting patients had access to summary screens identifying users not testing, and those with levels of blood glucose outside pre-defined limits. More detailed graphical displays of data were used to provide data about control of insulin dose and the degree to which it was modified in response to diet and exercise. The system has been evaluated in a clinical trial conducted in secondary care and is now being adapted for use in a trial in primary care, which is designed to assess its effectiveness in providing integrated management for the patient, general practitioner and pharmacist.
Objective was to examine pulmonary function, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The patients were recruited from the hematology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from January to December 2005. The study involved 39 patients with stable SCD 20 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 22.7+/- 7.1 years, hemoglobin level of 95.5+/-14.6g/L and hemoglobin F level of 13.7+/08.6. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests PFT forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide [DLco] data are presented as a percentage of the normal prediction, a 6- minute walk test 6MWT and echocardiography. Dyspnea was assessed using the Borg score. The 6MWT data were compared to body mass index matched healthy controls. Forty-one percent of SCD patients had mild dyspnea at rest and this increased to 61% at the end of the 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 51%, 36% of patients had a restrictive pattern, 10% had isolated decrease in DLco and 5% had a mixed restrictive-obstrutive pattern. The 6MWD was shorter in SCD patients compared to the controls 368+/-67 versus 407+/-47m, p=0.005. No hematological variables correlated with outcome variables. Chronic pulmonary complications in adult Saudi SCD patients are relatively mild but common. Pulmonary function in these patients differs from that published for African-origin SCD patients. The difference may reflect a different natural history of SCD in the 2 populations. (author)
Sara M. Reyna
Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.
Wallace, Ian J; Pagnotti, Gabriel M; Rubin-Sigler, Jasper; Naeher, Matthew; Copes, Lynn E; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clinton T; Demes, Brigitte
Force magnitudes have been suggested to drive the structural response of bone to exercise. As importantly, the degree to which any given bone can adapt to functional challenges may be enabled, or constrained, by regional variation in the capacity of marrow progenitors to differentiate into bone-forming cells. Here, we investigate the relationship between bone adaptation and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) responsivity in growing mice subject to exercise. First, using a force plate, we show that peak external forces generated by forelimbs during quadrupedal locomotion are significantly higher than hindlimb forces. Second, by subjecting mice to treadmill running and then measuring bone structure with μCT, we show that skeletal effects of exercise are site-specific but not defined by load magnitudes. Specifically, in the forelimb, where external forces generated by running were highest, exercise failed to augment diaphyseal structure in either the humerus or radius, nor did it affect humeral trabecular structure. In contrast, in the ulna, femur and tibia, exercise led to significant enhancements of diaphyseal bone areas and moments of area. Trabecular structure was also enhanced by running in the femur and tibia. Finally, using flow cytometry, we show that marrow-derived MSCs in the femur are more responsive to exercise-induced loads than humeral cells, such that running significantly lowered MSC populations only in the femur. Together, these data suggest that the ability of the progenitor population to differentiate toward osteoblastogenesis may correlate better with bone structural adaptation than peak external forces caused by exercise. PMID:26232415
Full Text Available Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI. We have previously shown that melatonin (MT plus exercise (Ex had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups.These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI.
Full Text Available ... In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life Frequently Asked Questions Learn More Exercise: Benefits of ... and physical activity a regular part of your life can improve your health and help you maintain ...
Full Text Available ... National Institute on Aging. Some people may wonder what the difference is between physical activity and exercise. Physical activities are activities that get your body moving such as gardening, walking the dog ...
Full Text Available ... the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits ... join a gym or have special equipment. Yet, studies show that "taking it easy" is risky. For ...
Full Text Available ... some older people who already have diseases and disabilities. That's why health experts say that older adults ... can help prevent or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment ...
Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or maintain ...
Full Text Available ... and help you maintain your independence as you age. Why It's Important for Older Adults to Exercise ... feel better and enjoy life more as you age. Running Keeps Me Feeling Great Video length: 1 ...
Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or ...
Full Text Available ... 56 sec Click to watch this video Be as Active as Possible Regular physical activity and exercise are important ... say that older adults should aim to be as active as possible. Being Inactive Can Be Risky ...
Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... specifically planned, structured, and repetitive such as weight training, tai chi, or an aerobics class. Including both ...
Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... balance problems, or difficulty walking. Swimming Helps Me Control My Blood Pressure Video length: 1 min 18 ...
Full Text Available ... a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or ... or an aerobics class. Including both in your life will provide you with health benefits that can ...
Michael J Rebold
Full Text Available This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone functions (texting, talking, listening to music on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1, heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1 and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014 greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1 each. Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1 but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1. Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm was greater (p = 0.05 than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.
Full Text Available Serum from men undergoing a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise intervention has previously been shown to decrease growth and increase apoptosis in serum-stimulated, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells associated with a reduction in serum IGF-I. Here we sought to determine the underlying mechanisms for these anticancer effects. Again, the intervention slowed growth and increased apoptosis in LNCaP cells; responses that were eliminated when IGF-I was added back to the post-intervention samples. The p53 protein content was increased and NFκB activation reduced in the post serum-stimulated LNCaP cells. Similar results were observed when the IGF-I receptor was blocked in the pre-intervention serum. In androgen-independent PC-3 cells, growth was reduced while none of the other factors were changed by the intervention. We conclude that diet and exercise intervention might help prevent clinical PCa as well as aid in the treatment of PCa during the early stages of development.
Podhorska-Okołów, M; Dziegiel, P; Gomułkiewicz, A; Dolińska-Krajewska, B; Murawska-Ciałowicz, E; Jethon, Z; Zabel, M
Intensive physical exercise disturbs the entire homeostasis in the body and leads to changes in haemodynamic and metabolic alterations not only in skeletal muscles but also in many distant organs. In response to acute physical exercise, a decrease of the glomerular filtration may occur, followed by stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Recent studies have shown that both AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors may play a role in mediating the apoptotic process in the kidney. Our previous studies have demonstrated an occurrence of apoptosis in rat renal tubular cells after an excessive exercise. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mechanism of exercise-induced apoptosis in rat kidney. The analysis was performed on kidneys of rats, subjected to treadmill running until exhaustion. Apoptosis was detected in paraffin sections by the TUNEL technique. The expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in renal tubular cells was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Our results confirmed that apoptosis after physical exercise is present in renal distal tubular cells. Moreover, there was an increased expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in distal tubular cells. These studies suggest that physical exercise may induce apoptosis by a mechanism, involving the activation of angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors. PMID:15638358
Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.
Liu, Yi; Zhang, Heming; Zhao, Yanping; Liu, Zhiming
A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to cells. After primary culture of the two kinds of skeletal muscle cells from tissue, a fluorescent dye-Fluo-3 AM was used to label the cytosolic free Ca2+. The fluorescent of Ca2+ was recorded by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that, the Ca2+ fluorescence intensity of cells from the rat of exercise-induced fatigue group was significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells has a close relation with exercise-induced fatigue, and the increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration may be one of the important factors of exercise-induced fatigue.
Background: Despite the fact that adverse health effects are not confirmed for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) levels below the limit values, as defined in the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, many persons are worried about possible adverse health effects caused by the RF-EMF emitted from mobile phone base stations, or they attribute their unspecific health complaints like headache or sleep disturbances to these fields. Method: In the framework of a cross-sectional study a questionnaire was sent to 4150 persons living in predominantly urban areas. Participants were asked whether base stations affected their health. Health complaints were measured with standardized health questionnaires for sleep disturbances, headache, health complaints and mental and physical health. 3,526 persons responded (85%) to the questionnaire and 1,808 (51%) agreed to dosimetric measurements in their flats. Exposure was measured in 1,500 flats. Results: The measurements accomplished in the bedrooms in most cases showed very low exposure values, most often below sensitivity limit of the dosimeter. An association of exposure with the occurrence of health complaints was not found, but an association between the attribution of adverse health effects to base stations and the occurrence of health complaints. Conclusions: However, concerns about health and the attribution of adverse health effects to these mobile phone base stations should be taken serious and require a risk communication with concerned persons. Future research should focus on the processes of perception and appraisal of RF-EMF risks, and ascertain the determinants of concerns and attributions in the context of RF-EMF. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF. Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS, daily use of mobile phone (MPU, EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Design, Materials and Methods: Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA, and substance P. Results: Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS ≤ 100 meters had significantly higher concentrations of alpha-amylase in their saliva, higher rates in symptom checklist subscales (SCL somatization, obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and global strain index PST (Positive Symptom Total. There were no differences in EMF-related health concern scales. Conclusions: We conclude that self-declared base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.
Befort, Christie A; Klemp, Jennifer R; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G; Sullivan, Debra K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Diaz, Francisco J; Shireman, Theresa
Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n=210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10 years who are ≥ 3 months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27-45 kg/m(2), and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information on how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care. PMID:24486636
Corral Ansa, Luisa; Conde, L; Guillamó Casanoves, Elisabet; Blasi Cabús, Joan; Juncadella i Puig, Montserrat; Javierre Garcés, Casimiro F.; Viscor Carrasco, Ginés; Ventura i Farré, Josep Lluís
BACKGROUND: Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) treatments may have great potential for the recovery of neurons and brain function. OBJECTIVE: To increase and maintain CPC with a program of exercise, muscle electro-stimulation (ME) and/or intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia (IHH), and also to study the possible improvement in physical or psychological functioning of participants with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). METHODS: Twenty-one participants. Four groups: exercise and ME group (EEG), cycling gr...
Yun, Hyo-Soon; Park, Mi-Sook; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of cognition. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on Purkinje cell and astrocytic reaction in the cerebellum of the ADHD rat. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYR) weighing 210± 10 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n= 15): control group, ADHD group, ADHD and methylphenidate (MPH)-treated group, ADHD and treadmill exercise group. The...
Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes of 15-18 years old. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 20 male students with average weight of 64.85 ± 51 and height of 172.05 ± 6.4 were randomly assigned to 2 groups of Aloe vera supplement (n = 10 and placebo (n = 10. Then aerobic training was conducted for 4 weeks. The supplemented group took 3 capsules, each capsule contains 2 g of dried Aloe vera and placebo group took 3 capsules/day containing dextran after every meal. To determine the index of cell injury markers creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and reactive protein C (CRP were determined and blood samples were collected 24 hours before and after each test. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and independent t test. Significance level was considered as P ≤ .05. Results: The use of Aloe vera during aerobic exercise significantly reduced LDH (P = .006 in the supplement group (15% reduction compared to placebo group and CRP with 11% reduction in the supplement group compared to placebo (P = .008. There was no significant reduction in CK. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Aloe vera reduces cell damage and inflammation indicators. This result may reflect the role of Aloe vera as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.
Klein, C; Rasińska, J; Empl, L; Sparenberg, M; Poshtiban, A; Hain, E G; Iggena, D; Rivalan, M; Winter, Y; Steiner, B
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a continuous loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which not only leads to characteristic motor symptoms but also to cognitive impairments. Physical exercise has been shown to improve hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions in PD patients. Animal studies have demonstrated the involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in exercise-induced improvements of visuo-spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the direct impact of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) using the1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We also analyzed striatal and hippocampal dopamine transmission and mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors. We show that MPTP-induced spatial learning deficits were alleviated by short-term physical exercise but not MPTP-induced spatial memory impairments in either exercise intervention group. Neural precursor proliferation was transiently altered in MPTP-treated mice, while the cell survival was increased by exercise. Dopamine was progressively depleted by MPTP and its turnover altered by exercise. In addition, gene expression of dopamine receptor D1/D5 was transiently upregulated following MPTP treatment but not affected by physical exercise. Our findings suggest that physical exercise benefits spatial learning but not memory performance in the MWM after MPTP-induced dopamine depletion by restoring precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influencing dopamine transmission. This adds to the understanding of cognitive decline and mechanisms for potential improvements by physical exercise in PD patients. PMID:27012392
Goussetis, Evgenios; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Tsironi, Maria; Skenderi, Katerina; Margeli, Alexandra; Graphakos, Stelios; Baltopoulos, Panayiotis; Papassotiriou, Ioannis
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the recently described circulating fibrocytes (CFs) are strongly associated with tissue repair. We investigated the kinetics of both "repair" progenitor cells in healthy athletes who participated in the "Spartahlon" ultradistance foot race (246 km continuous running exercise), which provides a unique model of inducing dramatic systemic inflammatory changes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 10 volunteer athletes, who completed successfully the race, before, at the end, and at 48 h post-race. EPCs and CFs were detected as endothelial colony-forming units (CFU-ECs) and as the number of adherent with a spindle-shaped morphology Collagen I(+) cells detected after 6-day culture of PBMCs, respectively. The marked increase of plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, SAA, MCP-1, IL-8, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, thrombomodulin (sTM) and NT-pro-BNP at the end of race established acute inflammation and tissue injury. EPCs increased by nearly eleven-fold in peripheral blood at the end of the race from 44.5+/-2.5/ml to 494.6+/-27.9/ml and remained increased 428.5+/-31.5/ml at 48 h post-race (p<0.0001). The number of the fibrocytes cultured from PBMCs obtained before, at the end, and 48 h post-race did not reveal any significant difference. These findings indicate that bone marrow responses to acute inflammatory damage, induced by exhausting exercise, with a rapid release of EPCs but not CFs into circulation. Given the ability of EPCs to promote angiogenesis and vascular regeneration, we may suggest that this kind of cell mobilization may serve as a physiologic repair mechanism in acute inflammatory tissue injury. PMID:19233694
Zuhl, Micah; Dokladny, Karol; Mermier, Christine; Schneider, Suzanne; Salgado, Roy; Moseley, Pope
Chronic glutamine supplementation reduces exercise-induced intestinal permeability and inhibits the NF-κB pro-inflammatory pathway in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These effects were correlated with activation of HSP70. The purpose of this paper is to test if an acute dose of oral glutamine prior to exercise reduces intestinal permeability along with activation of the heat shock response leading to inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers. Physically active subjects (N = 7) completed baseline and exercise intestinal permeability tests, determined by the percent ratio of urinary lactulose (5 g) to rhamnose (2 g). Exercise included two 60-min treadmill runs at 70 % of VO2max at 30 °C after ingestion of glutamine (Gln) or placebo (Pla). Plasma levels of endotoxin and TNF-α, along with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) protein expression of HSP70 and IκBα, were measured pre- and post-exercise and 2 and 4 h post-exercise. Permeability increased in the Pla trial compared to that at rest (0.06 ± 0.01 vs. 0.02 ± 0.018) and did not increase in the Gln trial. Plasma endotoxin was lower at the 4-h time point in the Gln vs. 4 h in the Pla (6.715 ± 0.046 pg/ml vs. 7.952 ± 1.11 pg/ml). TNF-α was lower 4 h post-exercise in the Gln vs. Pla (1.64 ± 0.09 pg/ml vs. 1.87 ± 0.12 pg/ml). PBMC expression of IkBα was higher 4 h post-exercise in the Gln vs. 4 h in the Pla (1.29 ± 0.43 vs. 0.8892 ± 0.040). HSP70 was higher pre-exercise and 2 h post-exercise in the Gln vs. Pla (1.35 ± 0.21 vs. 1.000 ± 0.000 and 1.65 ± 0.21 vs. 1.27 ± 0.40). Acute oral glutamine supplementation prevents an exercise-induced rise in intestinal permeability and suppresses NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25062931
Purpose: Stress during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of anxiety-related disorders in offspring later in life. The effects of treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal cell proliferation were investigated using rats exposed to prenatal stress. Methods: Exposure of pregnant rats to a hunting dog in an enclosed room was used to induce stress. Anxiety-like behaviors of offspring were evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of 5-bromo-2ʹ- deoxyuridine and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors (5-HT1A) in the dorsal raphe was conducted. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) levels in the hippocampus were evaluated by western blot analysis. Results: Offspring of maternal rats exposed to stress during pregnancy showed anxiety-like behaviors. Offspring also showed reduced expression of BDNF, TrkB, and DCX in the dentate gyrus, decreased cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and reduced 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe. Postnatal treadmill exercise by offspring, but not maternal exercise during pregnancy, enhanced cell proliferation and expression of these proteins. Conclusions: Postnatal treadmill exercise ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors in offspring of stressed pregnant rats, and the alleviating effect of exercise on these behaviors is hypothesized to result from enhancement of cell proliferation through 5-HT1A activation in offspring rats. PMID:27230461
Vehicle active safety systems have been proved effective for saving lives and reducing traffic accident. However, these systems were more expensive and less widespread than smart-phones,the multi-sensor functions and information processing ability inside the cell phone were greatly improved for further application. Firstly, the parameters and functions for these sensors are introduced in this study. Then, the framework of smart-phone based active safety system is proposed. The function for safety warning system is designed using forward collision warning, lane departure warning system as examples, and is well explained. The field experiment using two typically smart-phone system and professional system was conduct for function and accuracy analysis finally. The results indicate that the accuracy of smartphone based system was acceptable; the high-equipped smart-phones can realize even more active safety warning function.%介绍了智能手机中传感器类型,提出了基于智能手机的预警系统体系框架,设计了安全预警功能.采用道路实验横向测评了两款智能手机安全预警软件和一款专业设备在功能、可靠性等方面的指标,前碰撞和车道偏离预警结果表明:智能手机可以实现专业系统的主动安全预警功能并进一步拓展,预警信息发布精度也在可接受范围内.
Morgan H James
Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS is a known antecedent for the development of mood disorders such as depression. Orexin neurons drive arousal and motivated behaviors in response to stress. We tested the hypothesis that ELS alters orexin system function and leads to an altered stress-induced behavioral phenotype in adulthood. We also investigated if voluntary exercise during adolescent development could reverse the ELS-induced changes. Male and female Wistar rats were subjected to maternal separation stress on postnatal days (PND 2-14. A subset of animals was given access to running wheels in late adolescence (1hr/day, PND40-70. In adulthood, rats were exposed to restraint stress and then tested on the open field (OF and elevated plus maze (EPM. Brains were processed for Fos-protein and orexin or tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. Restraint stress stimulated Fos-protein expression in perifornical area orexin cells, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, but this neuronal response was dampened in male and female rats exposed to ELS. ELS also reduced exploration in the OF, without affecting EPM behavior. These neural and behavioral changes are consistent with a depressive-like phenotype. Adolescent exercise reversed the orexin deficits in ELS males. Exercise was not protective in females, although this may be due to sex differences in running behaviour. Our findings highlight the inherent plasticity of the orexin system—a trait that may lead to a state of pathological rewiring but could also be treated using non-pharmacological approaches. We also highlight a need to better understand the sex-specific changes in orexin circuits and stress-related pathology.
Narendran, Parth; Solomon, Thomas; Kennedy, Amy;
evidence for physical exercise as a therapy for the preservation of beta cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We highlight possible mechanisms by which exercise could preserve beta cell function and then present evidence from other models of diabetes that demonstrate that......Type 1 diabetes is characterised by immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Significant beta cell function is usually present at the time of diagnosis with type 1 diabetes, and preservation of this function has important clinical benefits. The last 30 years have seen a number...... of largely unsuccessful trials for beta cell preservation, some of which have been of therapies that have potential for significant harm. There is a need to explore new, more tolerable approaches to preserving beta cell function that can be implemented on a large clinical scale. Here we review the...
Full Text Available We hypothesized that doxorubicin (DR induced chronic kidney disease (CKD could trigger the intrinsic and the extrinsic renal cell apoptotic pathways, while treadmill exercise could help prevent adverse effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to treadmill running exercise at a speed of 30 m/min, 30 or 60 min/day, 3 times per week, for a total period of 11 weeks. The physiological and biochemical parameters were seen substantially improved (DR-CKD control, 30 min, 60 min exercise: the ratio of kidney weight/body weight (0.89, 0.74, and 0.72; the WBC (1.35, 1.08, and 1.42 × 104 cells/μL; RBC (5.30, 6.38, and 6.26 × 106 cells/μL; the platelet count (15.1, 12.8, and 11.3 × 105/μL; serum cholesterol (659, 360, and 75 mg/dL; serum triglyceride (542, 263, and 211 mg/dL; BUN (37, 25, and 22 mg/dL. Bcl-2 and intramitochondrial cytochrome c were upregulated, while the levels of Bax, SOD, MDA, cleaved caspases 9, 3, 8, 12, and calpain were all downregulated in DRCKD groups with exercise. CHOP (GADD153 and GRP78 were totally unaffected. FAS (CD95 was only slightly suppressed in the 60 min exercise DRCKD group. Conclusively, exercise can ameliorate CKD through the regulation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. The 60 min exercise yields more beneficial effect than the 30 min counterpart.
Leite, Marlon R; Cechella, José L; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson
Aging is a process characterized by deterioration of the homeostasis of various physiological systems; although being a process under influence of multiple factors, the mechanisms involved in aging are not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1ppm, 4weeks) and swimming exercise (1% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on proteins related to glial cells activation, apoptosis and neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old male Wistar rats (27month-old). Old rats had activation of astrocytes and microglia which was demonstrated by the increase in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) in hypothalamus. A decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 levels as well as an increase of the cleaved PARP/full length PARP ratio (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP) and the pJNK/JNK ratio (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK) were observed. The levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), the pAkt/Akt ratio (also known as protein kinase B) and NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron marker, were decreased in the hypothalamus of old rats. Old rats that received a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and performed swimming exercise had the hypothalamic levels of Iba-1 and GFAP decreased. The combined treatment also increased the levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 and decreased the ratios of cleaved PARP/full length PARP and pJNK/JNK in old rats. The levels of mBDNF and NeuN, but not the pAkt/Akt ratio, were increased by combined treatment. In conclusion, a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promoted neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old rats, reducing apoptosis and glial cell activation. PMID:27215802
Increasing development of mobile communication infrastructure while enhancing availability of the technology raises concerns among the public, who see more cell towers erected each day, about possible health effects of electromagnetic radiations. Thereon, a survey of radio-frequency radiation from 60 GSM base stations was carried out in Tehran, Iran at several places mostly located in major medical and educational centres. Measurements were performed at 15 locations near each base station site, i.e. 900 locations in total. Since there are other RF radiation sources such as broadcasting services whose carrier frequencies are <3 GHz, the whole band of 27 MHz to 3 GHz has been assessed for hazardous exposures as well. The results were compared with the relevant guideline of International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection and that of Iran, confirming radiation exposure levels being satisfactorily below defined limits and non-detrimental. (authors)
... journals about their exercise schedules and obsess about improving themselves. Unfortunately, these behaviors often compound each other, trapping the person in a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...
... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and in extreme cases, death. Because compulsive exercise is closely related to eating disorders, help can be found at community agencies specifically ...
Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective i...
Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective...
Kim, Dong Keun; Yoo, Sun K; Park, Jeong Jin; Kim, Sun Ho
Remote teleconsultation by specialists is important for timely, correct, and specialized emergency surgical and medical decision making. In this paper, we designed a new personal digital assistant (PDA)-phone-based emergency teleradiology system by combining cellular communication with Bluetooth-interfaced local wireless links. The mobility and portability resulting from the use of PDAs and wireless communication can provide a more effective means of emergency teleconsultation without requiring the user to be limited to a fixed location. Moreover, it enables synchronized radiological image sharing between the attending physician in the emergency room and the remote specialist on picture archiving and communication system terminals without distorted image acquisition. To enable rapid and fine-quality radiological image transmission over a cellular network in a secure manner, progressive compression and security mechanisms have been incorporated. The proposed system is tested over a code division Multiple Access 1x-Evolution Data-Only network to evaluate the performance and to demonstrate the feasibility of this system in a real-world setting. PMID:17505870
Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan
Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 μm pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 μm pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture
de Souza, Marcelle Gomes; Grossi, Andre Luiz; Pereira, Elisangela Lima Bastos; da Cruz, Carolina Oliveira; Mendes, Fernanda Machado; Cameron, Luiz Claudio; Paiva, Carmen Lucia Antao
This article presents our experience on teaching biochemical sciences through an innovative approach that integrates concepts of molecular cell biology and protein chemistry. This original laboratory exercise is based on the preparation of an affinity chromatography column containing F-actin molecules immobilized on chitin particles for purifying…
van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline Barbera; Arets, Hubertus Gerardus Maria; van der Ent, Cornelis Korstiaan; Beekman, Jeffrey Matthijn
Regular exercise is positively associated with health. It has also been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In healthy subjects, a single exercise session results in immune cell activation, which is characterized by production of immune modulatory peptides (e.g. IL-6, IL-8), a leukocytosis and enhanced immune cell functions. Upon cessation of exercise, immune activation is followed by a tolerizing phase, characterized by a reduced responsiveness of immune cells. Regular exercise of ...
Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;
Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of...... exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of...
Hatano, D; Ogasawara, J; Endoh, S; Sakurai, T; Nomura, S; Kizaki, T; Ohno, H; Komabayashi, T; Izawa, T
We examined the effects of a 9-week exercise training (TR) in Wistar male rats, beginning at 4 weeks of age, on the density of endothelial cells (ECs) in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the mRNA expression of angiogenic factors in adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells. The number of ECs and mRNA expressions were assessed by lectin staining and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with control (CR) rats, TR rats gained weight more slowly and had significantly lower final weight of WAT due to the reduction in the size and the number of adipocytes. TR significantly increased the number of ECs per square millimeter and per adipocyte (1.37- and 1.23-fold, respectively) in WAT. This is probably because the number of adipocytes is fewer while the number of ECs is constant in the WAT of TR rats, because the regression line of TR rats for adipocyte number-dependent EC number was shifted toward the left without significant differences in the slopes between groups. TR also induced the upregulation of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf)-A and Vegf-receptor-2 in SVF cells, thereby retaining a constant number of ECs in the WAT. PMID:20807385
Neil M Johannsen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in
Full Text Available Introduction: Atherosclerotic heart diseases are the most important causes of mortality in most countries. ABCG1 transporter is responsible for making and forming of HDL particles and therefore probably plays a crucial role in prevention of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of two types of a single-session exercise (aerobic and resistance on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN ABCG1 gene expression in female athletes. Methods: Twenty four female athletes from Khorasan were randomly selected and assigned into three groups: control (N=8, aerobic (AE (N=8, and resistance (RE (N=8. Blood samples of subjects were collected before and after exercise sessions. PBMN cells were separated and m-RNA purification was performed by semi-quantitative PCR. Data was analyzed by paired sample T test, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests by SPSS software (version 16. Results: Results showed that expression of PBMN ABCG1 m-RNA was significantly increased following a single-session exercise in RE and AE groups, but the increase in the RE group was higher than AE group (P ≤0.001 vs. P ≤0.014. Conclusion: It can be concluded that either resistance or aerobic exercise increases the expression of ABCG1 gene on PBMN cells in female athletes which leads to an improvement in reverse cholesterol transfer and cardiovascular benefits.
Suk Yu Yau; Ang Li; Aimin Xu; Kwok-fai So
Psychological depression is drawing accumulating attention nowadays, due to the skyrocketing incidence worldwide and the enormous burdens it incurs. Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, although knowledge of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. Suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis in adult brains has been regarded, at least partly, contributive to depression, whereas physical exercise that restores neurogenesis accordingly exerts...
R.H. Knols; E.D. de Bruin; D. Uebelhart; G. Aufdemkampe; U. Schanz; F. Stenner-Liewen; F. Hitz; C. Taverna; N.K. Aaronson
Patients who undergo hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) often experience physical and psychological problems, even long after treatment has been completed. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of a 12-week outpatient physical exercise (PE) program, incorporating aerobic and strength exercises, as
... or months before you notice some of the benefits of exercise, such as weight loss. Forget “no pain, no ... questions or think you have injured yourself seriously. Benefits of regular exercise Reduces your risk of heart disease, high blood ...
Javier Fernando Bonilla Briceño
Full Text Available Moderate to intensive physical exercisegenerates different types of response in an individual.These responses depend upon the typeof exercise and the duration of it, and they canbe acute or chronic. Exercise affects differentcorporal system, among those is the hematologicalsystem. Literature describes changes inthe blood volume, changes in the activity andpopulation of white blood cells, as well asmodifications in the humoral and cellularimmunity, and in the count and shape of bloodplatelets. Also and as a result of those changes, ithas been determined too, that exercise modifiesin a negative way the life time of red blood cells,generating an apparent anemia, that has beenwidely discuss and that might be, among manyfactors, associated to hemolysis. This hemolysismight be associated with osmotic mechanismsor oxidative stress. The true is that all thoseevents are strongly related and may cause a lowperformance in the practice of any physicalactivity, including that of sportsmen.
... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...
... my workout? Glossary What are some of the benefits of exercise for postpartum women? Exercise has the following benefits ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ...
... HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF EXERCISE? ... healthier while ageing with HIV. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? Regular, moderate exercise has many of ...
Camila Oliveira Goulart
Full Text Available Despite the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system, severe nerve lesions lead to loss of target-organ innervation, making complete functional recovery a challenge. Few studies have given attention to combining different approaches in order to accelerate the regenerative process.Test the effectiveness of combining Schwann-cells transplantation into a biodegradable conduit, with treadmill training as a therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of repair after mouse nerve injury.Sciatic nerve transection was performed in adult C57BL/6 mice; the proximal and distal stumps of the nerve were sutured into the conduit. Four groups were analyzed: acellular grafts (DMEM group, Schwann cell grafts (3×105/2 µL; SC group, treadmill training (TMT group, and treadmill training and Schwann cell grafts (TMT + SC group. Locomotor function was assessed weekly by Sciatic Function Index and Global Mobility Test. Animals were anesthetized after eight weeks and dissected for morphological analysis.Combined therapies improved nerve regeneration, and increased the number of myelinated fibers and myelin area compared to the DMEM group. Motor recovery was accelerated in the TMT + SC group, which showed significantly better values in sciatic function index and in global mobility test than in the other groups. The TMT + SC group showed increased levels of trophic-factor expression compared to DMEM, contributing to the better functional outcome observed in the former group. The number of neurons in L4 segments was significantly higher in the SC and TMT + SC groups when compared to DMEM group. Counts of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons revealed that TMT group had a significant increased number of neurons compared to DMEM group, while the SC and TMT + SC groups had a slight but not significant increase in the total number of motor neurons.These data provide evidence that this combination of therapeutic strategies can significantly improve functional
Suk Yu Yau; Ang Li; Aimin Xu; Kwok-fai So
Psychological depression is drawing accumulating attention nowadays, due to the skyrocketing incidence worldwide and the enormous burdens it incurs. Physical exercise has been long recog-nized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, although knowledge of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. Suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis in adult brains has been regarded, at least partly, contributive to depression, whereas physical exercise that restores neuro-genesis accordingly exerts the anti-depressive action. Several recent publications have suggested the potential role of adiponectin, a protein hormone secreted by peripheral mature adipocytes, in mediating physical exercise-triggered enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis and alleviation of depression. Here, we brielfy review these novel ifndings and discuss the possibility of counter-acting depression by modulating adiponectin signaling in the hippocampus with interventions including physical exercise and administration of pharmacological agents.
... Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents At ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...
... programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is the only state that requires exercise physiologists to be licensed, although many states have ...
Persons at any age can substantially improve their fitness for work and play through appropriate exercise training. Considerable evidence indicates that physical activity is valuable for weight control, modifying lipids and improving carbohydrate tolerance. Less rigorous scientific data are available for associated long-term blood pressure and psychological changes with habitual exercise. Strenuous physical activity most likely reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease and the detriment...
Dehais, Joachim; Anthimopoulos, Marios; Shevchik, Sergey; Botwey, Ransford Henry; Duke, David; Stettler, Christoph; Diem, Peter
Background Diabetes mellitus is spreading throughout the world and diabetic individuals have been shown to often assess their food intake inaccurately; therefore, it is a matter of urgency to develop automated diet assessment tools. The recent availability of mobile phones with enhanced capabilities, together with the advances in computer vision, have permitted the development of image analysis apps for the automated assessment of meals. GoCARB is a mobile phone-based system designed to support individuals with type 1 diabetes during daily carbohydrate estimation. In a typical scenario, the user places a reference card next to the dish and acquires two images using a mobile phone. A series of computer vision modules detect the plate and automatically segment and recognize the different food items, while their 3D shape is reconstructed. Finally, the carbohydrate content is calculated by combining the volume of each food item with the nutritional information provided by the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Objective The main objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of the GoCARB prototype when used by individuals with type 1 diabetes and to compare it to their own performance in carbohydrate counting. In addition, the user experience and usability of the system is evaluated by questionnaires. Methods The study was conducted at the Bern University Hospital, “Inselspital” (Bern, Switzerland) and involved 19 adult volunteers with type 1 diabetes, each participating once. Each study day, a total of six meals of broad diversity were taken from the hospital’s restaurant and presented to the participants. The food items were weighed on a standard balance and the true amount of carbohydrate was calculated from the USDA nutrient database. Participants were asked to count the carbohydrate content of each meal independently and then by using GoCARB. At the end of each session, a questionnaire was completed to assess the user’s experience with Go
Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J
Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159
Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria
Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive...... to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is...
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... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...
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Minari, André Luis Araujo; Oyama, Lila Missae; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli
Macrophages are one of the most heterogenic immune cells involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. After skeletal muscle damage, M1 phenotypes exhibit pro-inflammatory reaction. In a later stage, they are converted to M2 phenotypes with anti-inflammatory properties. To study when gene expressions of macrophage polarization are changed after damage induced by downhill exercise to exhaustion is the objective of this paper. Before (CTRL) and 0 h (G0), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48) and 72 h (G72) after 18 bouts of downhill exercise, the animals were euthanised, and the triceps were dissected. We measured gene expression of macrophages (CD68 and CD163), myogenic cells (MyoD and myogenin) and quantified cytokine secretion (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)). The CD68 expression was lower in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.005) while CD163 was higher in G48 compared with G24 (P = 0.04). The MyoD expression was higher in G72 compared with G0 (P = 0.04). The myogenin expression was lower in G24 compared with CTRL (P = 0.01) and restored in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.007). The TNF-α was significantly higher at all times after 24 h (all compared with CTRL, with P = 0.03). The CD68 and CD163 expressions behaved distinctly after exercise, which indicates macrophage polarization between 24 and 48 h. The distinct expression of myogenin, concomitantly with MyoD elevation in G72, indicates that myogenic cell differentiation and the significant change of TNF-α level show an important role of this cytokine in these processes. PMID:25249340
Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.
Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M
Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586
The motivation to conduct this benchmark exercise, a summary of the results, and a discussion of and conclusions from the intercomparison are given in Section 5.2. This section contains further details of the results of the calculations and intercomparisons, illustrated by tables and figures, but avoiding repetition of Section 5.2 as far as possible. (author)
Dorneles, Gilson Pires; Colato, Alana Schraiber; Galvão, Simone Lunelli; Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Ribeiro, Jerri Luiz; Romão, Pedro Roosevelt; Peres, Alessandra
The purpose of this study was to compare the peripheral expression of natural killers and CCR5 in a session of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion and in high-intensity training. Young males were randomized into session groups of a high-intensity strength training (HI) and a session group of low-intensity strength training with vascular occlusion (LI-BFR). The exercise session consisted in knee extension and bicep curl in 80% 1RM (HI) and 30% 1RM (LI-BFR) with equalized volumes. Blood collection was made before, immediately after and 24 h after each training session. Immunophenotyping was carried out through CD195+ (CCR5) e CD3-CD16+CD56+ (NK) in peripheral blood and analysed by flow cytometry and presented in frequency (%). Peripheral frequency of NK cells showed no significant difference in LI-BFR group in time effect, while a gradual reduction of NK cells was identified in HI group in before-24 h postexercise and after-24 h postexercise comparison. However, significant differences have been found in relative change of NK cells immediately after exercise between sessions. In addition, HI and LI-BFR groups showed a significant reduction in the cells expressed CCR5 during 24 h postsession compared to the postsession, but CCR5 also differed when comparing before-24 h after session in the HI group. No differences were observed amongst the groups. LIO induced CCR5 response similar to the HI session, while the NK cells remained in similar frequency during the studied moments in LI-BFR, but not in HI group, suggesting that local hypoxia created by the blood flow restriction was able to prevent a change in the frequency of peripheral cells and a possible immunosuppression. PMID:25643617
Lin, Hua; He, Ye-Heng; Xu, Rui; Zou, Wei
The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of exercise and nutrition intervention on rat immune function. Flor-Essence is a kind of health food produced by FLORA company in Canada and certified by Quality Assurance International (QAI). Its main components are burdock root, cress leaves of grass, kelp, Turkish rhubarb root, et al. Flor-Essence has been shown to activate the body detoxification path, improve the physical environment, and inhibit cancer cell growth and proliferation. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, NS + training, low-dose Flor-Essence + training, low-dose Flor-Essence, high-dose Flor-Essence + training, high-dose Flor-Essence groups. The rats in NS + training, low-dose Flor-Essence + training, high-dose Flor-Essence + training groups swam 35 min per day in the water tank for 6 days a week. One hour before exercise, the rats were given low- (2.5 mg/mL) or high-dose (5 mg/mL) Flor-Essence daily by intragastric administration, and the rats in NS + training group were given equivalent volume of NS. On the last day of four training weeks, all rats took part in a bout of exhaustive exercise, and then were sacrificed immediately. Arterial blood serum samples were taken for the assays of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α contents, spleens for natural killer (NK) cells activity. The results showed that serum IL-6 content in NS + training group was decreased compared with that in control group. Low- and high-dose Flor-Essence groups showed decreased IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α serum contents, as well as longer exhaustive time, compared with control group. The improving effects of high-dose Flor- Essence on IL-6, TNF-α and exhaustive time were greater than those of low dose. Compared with NS + training, low- and high-dose Flor-Essence + training reduced serum contents of IL-6 and TNF-α, and prolonged exhaustive time; only high-dose Flor-Essence + training decreased serum IL-12 content and enhanced NK cells
Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Muhammed Hasanato, Rana
Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26580639
Sultan Ayoub Meo
Full Text Available Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2 were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22 than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34 (p = 0.007. Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016 relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Gjevestad, Gyrd Omholt; Holven, Kirsten Bjørklund; Ulven, Stine Marie
Regular physical activity seems to be one of the most important contributors to prevent disease and promote health. Being physically active reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some types of cancers. The molecular mechanisms are however not fully elucidated. Depending on duration and intensity, exercise will cause disruption of muscle fibers triggering a temporary inflammatory response. This response may not only involve the muscle tiss...
Results of a cross-sectional study on the association of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone base stations and health complaints; Ergebnisse einer Querschnittsstudie zum Zusammenhang von elektromagnetischen Feldern von Mobilfunksendeanlagen und unspezifischen gesundheitlichen Beschwerden
Breckenkamp, Juergen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgebiet Epidemiologie und International Public Health; Blettner, Maria [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik; Kowall, Bernd [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Deutsches Diabetes Zentrum; Schuez, Joachim [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden (Denmark). Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology; Schlehofer, Brigitte [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany). Arbeitsgebiet Umweltepidemiologie; Schmiedel, Sven [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik; Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden (Denmark). Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology; Bornkessel, Christian [Institut fuer Mobil- und Satellitenfunktechnik (IMST GmbH), Pruefzentrum EMV, Kamp-Lintfort (Germany); Reis, Ursula; Potthoff, Peter [TNS Healthcare GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)
Background: Despite the fact that adverse health effects are not confirmed for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) levels below the limit values, as defined in the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, many persons are worried about possible adverse health effects caused by the RF-EMF emitted from mobile phone base stations, or they attribute their unspecific health complaints like headache or sleep disturbances to these fields. Method: In the framework of a cross-sectional study a questionnaire was sent to 4150 persons living in predominantly urban areas. Participants were asked whether base stations affected their health. Health complaints were measured with standardized health questionnaires for sleep disturbances, headache, health complaints and mental and physical health. 3,526 persons responded (85%) to the questionnaire and 1,808 (51%) agreed to dosimetric measurements in their flats. Exposure was measured in 1,500 flats. Results: The measurements accomplished in the bedrooms in most cases showed very low exposure values, most often below sensitivity limit of the dosimeter. An association of exposure with the occurrence of health complaints was not found, but an association between the attribution of adverse health effects to base stations and the occurrence of health complaints. Conclusions: However, concerns about health and the attribution of adverse health effects to these mobile phone base stations should be taken serious and require a risk communication with concerned persons. Future research should focus on the processes of perception and appraisal of RF-EMF risks, and ascertain the determinants of concerns and attributions in the context of RF-EMF. (orig.)
Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa
Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…
Irisin is now recognized as an exercise-induced hormone that is produced primarily by skeletal muscles and adipose tissue. However, its physiological characteristics in the response to acute or chronic exercise training still remains somewhat controversial. By using serum samples at different time points before and after an acute bout of exercise among trained and untrained healthy adults, this study showed that serum irisin transiently increases in response to acute exercise, which is indepe...
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