Gurdon, Csanad; Svab, Zora; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu; Maliga, Pal
We report cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria through a graft junction of two tobacco species, Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana sylvestris. The flowers of the N. tabacum line we used are male sterile due to a sterility-causing mitochondrial genome, whereas the N. sylvestris flowers are fertile. Grafting created an opportunity for organelle movement during the healing process when cell-to-cell connections at the graft junction were restored. We recognized N. sylvestris mitochondrial DNA trans...
Gurdon, Csanad; Svab, Zora; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu; Maliga, Pal
We report cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria through a graft junction. Mitochondrial movement was discovered in an experiment designed to select for chloroplast transfer fromNicotiana sylvestrisintoNicotiana tabacumcells. The alloplasmicN. tabacumline we used carriesNicotiana undulatacytoplasmic genomes, and its flowers are male sterile due to the foreign mitochondrial genome. Thus, rare mitochondrial DNA transfer fromN. sylvestristoN. tabacumcould be recognized by restoration of fertile flower anatomy. Analyses of the mitochondrial genomes revealed extensive recombination, tentatively linking male sterility toorf293, a mitochondrial gene causing homeotic conversion of anthers into petals. Demonstrating cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria reconstructs the evolutionary process of horizontal mitochondrial DNA transfer and enables modification of the mitochondrial genome by DNA transmitted from a sexually incompatible species. Conversion of anthers into petals is a visual marker that can be useful for mitochondrial transformation. PMID:26951647
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, a cucumovirus) and Brome mosaic virus (BMV, a bromovirus) require the coat protein (CP) in addition to the 3a movement protein (MP) for cell-to-cell movement, while Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV, a bromovirus) does not. Using bombardment-mediated transcomplementation assays, we investigated whether the movement functions encoded by these viruses potentiate cell-to-cell movement of movement-defective Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, a tobamovirus) and Potato virus X (PVX, a potexvirus) mutants in Nicotiana benthamiana. Coexpression of CMV 3a and CP, but neither protein alone, complemented the defective movement of ToMV and PVX. A C-terminal deletion in CMV 3a (3aΔC33) abolished the requirement of CP in transporting the ToMV genome. The action of 3aΔC33 was inhibited by coexpression of wild-type 3a. These findings were confirmed in tobacco with ToMV-CMV chimeric viruses. Either BMV 3a or CCMV 3a alone efficiently complemented the movement-defective phenotype of the ToMV mutant. Therefore, every 3a protein examined intrinsically possesses the activity required to act as MP. In transcomplementation of the PVX mutant, the activities of BMV 3a, CCMV 3a, and CMV 3aΔC33 were very low. The activities of the bromovirus 3a proteins were enhanced by coexpression of the cognate CP but the activity of CMV 3aΔC33 was not. Based on these results, possible roles of cucumo- and bromovirus CPs in cell-to-cell movement are discussed
Tamai, Atsushi; Kubota, Kenji; Nagano, Hideaki; Yoshii, Motoyasu; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Mise, Kazuyuki; Meshi, Tetsuo
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, a cucumovirus) and Brome mosaic virus (BMV, a bromovirus) require the coat protein (CP) in addition to the 3a movement protein (MP) for cell-to-cell movement, while Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV, a bromovirus) does not. Using bombardment-mediated transcomplementation assays, we investigated whether the movement functions encoded by these viruses potentiate cell-to-cell movement of movement-defective Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, a tobamovirus) and Potato virus X (PVX, a potexvirus) mutants in Nicotiana benthamiana. Coexpression of CMV 3a and CP, but neither protein alone, complemented the defective movement of ToMV and PVX. A C-terminal deletion in CMV 3a (3a Delta C33) abolished the requirement of CP in transporting the ToMV genome. The action of 3a Delta C33 was inhibited by coexpression of wild-type 3a. These findings were confirmed in tobacco with ToMV-CMV chimeric viruses. Either BMV 3a or CCMV 3a alone efficiently complemented the movement-defective phenotype of the ToMV mutant. Therefore, every 3a protein examined intrinsically possesses the activity required to act as MP. In transcomplementation of the PVX mutant, the activities of BMV 3a, CCMV 3a, and CMV 3a Delta C33 were very low. The activities of the bromovirus 3a proteins were enhanced by coexpression of the cognate CP but the activity of CMV 3a Delta C33 was not. Based on these results, possible roles of cucumo- and bromovirus CPs in cell-to-cell movement are discussed. PMID:14592759
Liu, Chengke; Richard S Nelson
Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement, and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes,...
YU Dan; ZHANG Peijun; ZHAN Xi
Cell migration is essential to direct embryonic cells to specific sites at which their developmental fates are ultimately determined. However, the mechanism by which cell motility is regulated in embryonic development is largely unknown. Cortactin, a filamentous actin binding protein, is an activator of Arp2/3 complex in the nucleation of actin cytoskeleton at the cell leading edge and acts directly on the machinery of cell motility. To determine whether cortactin and Arp2/3 mediated actin assembly plays a role in the morphogenic cell movements during the early development of zebrafish, we initiated a study of cortactin expression in zebrafish embryos at gastrulating stages when massive cell migrations occur. Western blot analysis using a cortactin specific monoclonal antibody demonstrated that cortactin protein is abundantly present in embryos at the most early developmental stages. Immunostaining of whole-mounted embryo showed that cortactin immunoreactivity was associated with the embryonic shield, predominantly at the dorsal side of the embryos during gastrulation. In addition, cortactin was detected in the convergent cells of the epiblast and hypoblast, and later in the central nervous system. Immunofluorescent staining with cortactin and Arp3 antibodies also revealed that cortactin and Arp2/3 complex colocalized at the periphery and many patches associated with the cell-to-cell junction in motile embryonic cells. Therefore, our data suggest that cortactin and Arp2/3 mediated actin polymerization is implicated in the cell movement during gastrulation and perhaps the development of the central neural system as well.
Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.
Dinari A Harris
Full Text Available For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. We performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and exosome proteomic profiling on exosomes released from three breast cancer cell lines that model progressive stages of metastasis. Results from these experiments suggest: (1 exosomes promote cell migration and (2 the signal is stronger from exosomes isolated from cells with higher metastatic potentials; (3 exosomes are endocytosed at the same rate regardless of the cell type; (4 exosomes released from cells show differential enrichment of proteins with unique protein signatures of both identity and abundance. We conclude that breast cancer cells of increasing metastatic potential secrete exosomes with distinct protein signatures that proportionally increase cell movement and suggest that released exosomes could play an active role in metastasis.
Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.
Khang, Chang Hyun; Berruyer, Romain; Giraldo, Martha C; Kankanala, Prasanna; Park, Sook-Young; Czymmek, Kirk; Kang, Seogchan; Valent, Barbara
Knowledge remains limited about how fungal pathogens that colonize living plant cells translocate effector proteins inside host cells to regulate cellular processes and neutralize defense responses. To cause the globally important rice blast disease, specialized invasive hyphae (IH) invade successive living rice (Oryza sativa) cells while enclosed in host-derived extrainvasive hyphal membrane. Using live-cell imaging, we identified a highly localized structure, the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC), which accumulates fluorescently labeled effectors secreted by IH. In each newly entered rice cell, effectors were first secreted into BICs at the tips of the initially filamentous hyphae in the cell. These tip BICs were left behind beside the first-differentiated bulbous IH cells as the fungus continued to colonize the host cell. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments showed that the effector protein PWL2 (for prevents pathogenicity toward weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula]) continued to accumulate in BICs after IH were growing elsewhere. PWL2 and BAS1 (for biotrophy-associated secreted protein 1), BIC-localized secreted proteins, were translocated into the rice cytoplasm. By contrast, BAS4, which uniformly outlines the IH, was not translocated into the host cytoplasm. Fluorescent PWL2 and BAS1 proteins that reached the rice cytoplasm moved into uninvaded neighbors, presumably preparing host cells before invasion. We report robust assays for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underpin effector secretion into BICs, translocation to the rice cytoplasm, and cell-to-cell movement in rice. PMID:20435900
M Prasad; Wang, X; He, L.; Cai, D.; Montell, DJ
© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Border cell migration in the Drosophila ovary has emerged as a genetically tractable model for studying collective cell movement. Over many years border cell migration was exclusively studied in fixed samples due to the inability to culture stage 9 egg chambers in vitro. Although culturing late-stage egg chambers was long feasible, stage 9 egg chambers survived only briefl y outside the female body. We identifi ed culture conditions that suppo...
Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide
Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity. PMID:27262873
The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed
Yu, Jianxin A.; Foley, Fiona C.; Amack, Jeffrey D.; Christopher E Turner
Signaling through cell adhesion complexes plays a critical role in coordinating cytoskeletal remodeling necessary for efficient cell migration. During embryonic development, normal morphogenesis depends on a series of concerted cell movements; but the roles of cell adhesion signaling during these movements are poorly understood. The transparent zebrafish embryo provides an excellent system to study cell migration during development. Here, we have identified zebrafish git2a and git2b, two new ...
Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Heppler, Marty; Mitra, Ruchira; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie
Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp3 is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Cell-to-cell movement of TGBp3 was studied using biolistic bombardment of plasmids expressing GFP:TGBp3. TGBp3 moves between cells in Nicotiana benthamiana, but requires TGBp1 to move in N. tabacum leaves. In tobacco leaves GFP:TGBp3 accumulated in a pattern resembling the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To determine if the ER network is important for GFP:TGBp3 and for PVX cell-to-cell movement, a single mutation inhibiting membrane binding of TGBp3 was introduced into GFP:TGBp3 and into PVX. This mutation disrupted movement of GFP:TGBp3 and PVX. Brefeldin A, which disrupts the ER network, also inhibited GFP:TGBp3 movement in both Nicotiana species. Two deletion mutations, that do not affect membrane binding, hindered GFP:TGBp3 and PVX cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP:TGBp2 and GFP:TGBp3 were bombarded to several other PVX hosts and neither protein moved between adjacent cells. In most hosts, TGBp2 or TGBp3 cannot move cell-to-cell.
Kaido, Masanori; Inoue, Yosuke; Takeda, Yoshika; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Atsushi; Mori, Masashi; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Okuno, Tetsuro; Mise, Kazuyuki
The 3a movement protein (MP) plays a central role in the movement of the RNA plant virus, Brome mosaic virus (BMV). To identify host factor genes involved in viral movement, a cDNA library of Nicotiana benthamiana, a systemic host for BMV, was screened with far-Western blotting using a recombinant BMV MP as probe. One positive clone encoded a protein with sequence similarity to the alpha chain of nascent-polypeptide-associated complex from various organisms, which is proposed to contribute to the fidelity of translocation of newly synthesized proteins. The orthologous gene from N. benthamiana was designated NbNACa1. The binding of NbNACa1 to BMV MP was confirmed in vivo with an agroinfiltration-immunoprecipitation assay. To investigate the involvement of NbNACa1 in BMV multiplication, NbNACa1-silenced (GSNAC) transgenic N. benthamiana plants were produced. Downregulation of NbNACa1 expression reduced virus accumulation in inoculated leaves but not in protoplasts. A microprojectile bombardment assay to monitor BMV-MP-assisted viral movement demonstrated reduced virus spread in GSNAC plants. The localization to the cell wall of BMV MP fused to green fluorescent protein was delayed in GSNAC plants. From these results, we propose that NbNACa1 is involved in BMV cell-to-cell movement through the regulation of BMV MP localization to the plasmodesmata. PMID:17555275
Pauli, Andrea; Norris, Megan L.; Valen, Eivind; Chew, Guo-Liang; Gagnon, James A.; Zimmerman, Steven; Mitchell, Andrew; Ma, Jiao; Dubrulle, Julien; Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Joung, J. Keith; Saghatelian, Alan; Schier, Alexander F.
It has been assumed that most, if not all, signals regulating early development have been identified. Contrary to this expectation, we identified 28 candidate signaling proteins expressed during zebrafish embryogenesis, including Toddler, a short, conserved, and secreted peptide. Both absence and overproduction of Toddler reduce the movement of mesendodermal cells during zebrafish gastrulation. Local and ubiquitous production of Toddler promote cell movement, suggesting that Toddler is neithe...
Dinari A Harris; Patel, Sajni H.; Gucek, Marjan; Hendrix, An; Westbroek, Wendy; Taraska, Justin W.
For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. We performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and e...
Dodson, Paul D; Dreyer, Jakob K; Jennings, Katie A; Syed, Emilie C J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J
Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits. PMID:27001837
Umehara, Senkei; Hattori, Akihiro; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yasuda, Kenji
We have developed an on-chip single-cell microcultivation assay as a means of simultaneously observing the growth and movement of single bacterial cells during long-term cultivation. This assay enables the direct observation of single cells captured in microchambers fabricated on thin glass slides and having semipermeable membrane lids, in which the cells can swim within the space without escape for the long periods. Using this system, the relationship between the cell cycle and the tendency of movement was observed and it was found that the mean free path length did not change during the cell cycle, and that the growth and the swimming were not synchronized. The result indicates that the ability of movement of the cells was independent of the cell cycle.
Wu M; Kalyanasundaram A; Zhu J
Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as...
Soteropoulos, Demetris S; Williams, Elizabeth R; Baker, Stuart N
Recent work has shown that the primate reticulospinal tract can influence spinal interneurons and motoneurons involved in control of the hand. However, demonstrating connectivity does not reveal whether reticular outputs are modulated during the control of different types of hand movement. Here, we investigated how single unit discharge in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) modulated during performance of a slow finger movement task in macaque monkeys. Two animals performed an index finger flexion–extension task to track a target presented on a computer screen; single units were recorded both from ipsilateral PMRF (115 cells) and contralateral primary motor cortex (M1, 210 cells). Cells in both areas modulated their activity with the task (M1: 87%, PMRF: 86%). Some cells (18/115 in PMRF; 96/210 in M1) received sensory input from the hand, showing a short-latency modulation in their discharge following a rapid passive extension movement of the index finger. Effects in ipsilateral electromyogram to trains of stimuli were recorded at 45 sites in the PMRF. These responses involved muscles controlling the digits in 13/45 sites (including intrinsic hand muscles, 5/45 sites). We conclude that PMRF may contribute to the control of fine finger movements, in addition to its established role in control of more proximal limb and trunk movements. This finding may be especially important in understanding functional recovery after brain lesions such as stroke. PMID:22641776
White, Ethan E.; Pai, Alex; Weng, Yiming; Suresh, Anil K.; van Haute, Desiree; Pailevanian, Torkom; Alizadeh, Darya; Hajimiri, Ali; Badie, Behnam; Berlin, Jacob M.
Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were generated by loading the cells with iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with CpG oligonucleotides, serving as a proof of principle that nanoparticles can be used to both deliver an immunostimulatory cargo to cells and to control the movement of the cells. The nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates are efficiently internalized, non-toxic, and immunostimulatory. We demonstrate that the in vitro migration of the adherent, loaded microglia can be controlled by an external magnetic field and that magnetically-induced migration is non-cytotoxic. In order to capture video of this magnetically-induced migration of loaded cells, a novel 3D-printed ``cell box'' was designed to facilitate our imaging application. Analysis of cell movement velocities clearly demonstrate increased cell velocities toward the magnet. These studies represent the initial step towards our final goal of using nanoparticles to both activate immune cells and to control their trafficking within the diseased brain.Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were
Long-Sun Huang; Yu-Hung Wang; Yu-Wei Chung; Fei-Lung Lai; Shiaw-Min Hwang
This study demonstrates a novel cell manipulation microdevice for cell docking, culturing, cell-cell contact and interaction by microfluidic manipulation of heterogeneous cell suspensions. Heterogeneous cell suspensions include disparate blood cells of natural killer cells and leukemia cancer cells for immune cell transplantation therapy. However, NK cell alloreactivity from different healthy donors present various recovery response levels. Little is still known about the interactions and cyt...
Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a multicellular phenomenon driven by morphogenetic cell movements. We recently reported morphogenetic vascular endothelial cell (EC behaviors to be dynamic and complex. However, the principal mechanisms orchestrating individual EC movements in angiogenic morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we present an experiment-driven mathematical model that enables us to systematically dissect cellular mechanisms in branch elongation. We found that cell-autonomous and coordinated actions governed these multicellular behaviors, and a cell-autonomous process sufficiently illustrated essential features of the morphogenetic EC dynamics at both the single-cell and cell-population levels. Through refining our model and experimental verification, we further identified a coordinated mode of tip EC behaviors regulated via a spatial relationship between tip and follower ECs, which facilitates the forward motility of tip ECs. These findings provide insights that enhance our mechanistic understanding of not only angiogenic morphogenesis, but also other types of multicellular phenomenon.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of multicellular organisms proceeds from a single fertilized egg as the combined effect of countless numbers of cellular interactions among highly dynamic cells. Since at least a reminiscent pattern of morphogenesis can be recapitulated in a reproducible manner in reaggregation cultures of dissociated embryonic cells, which is known as cell sorting, the cells themselves must possess some autonomous cell behaviors that assure specific and reproducible self-organization. Understanding of this self-organized dynamics of heterogeneous cell population seems to require some novel approaches so that the approaches bridge a gap between molecular events and morphogenesis in developmental and cell biology. A conceptual cell model in a computer may answer that purpose. We constructed a dynamical cell model based on autonomous cell behaviors, including cell shape, growth, division, adhesion, transformation, and motility as well as cell-cell signaling. The model gives some insights about what cellular behaviors make an appropriate global pattern of the cell population. Results We applied the model to "inside and outside" pattern of cell-sorting, in which two different embryonic cell types within a randomly mixed aggregate are sorted so that one cell type tends to gather in the central region of the aggregate and the other cell type surrounds the first cell type. Our model can modify the above cell behaviors by varying parameters related to them. We explored various parameter sets with which the "inside and outside" pattern could be achieved. The simulation results suggested that direction of cell movement responding to its neighborhood and the cell's mobility are important for this specific rearrangement. Conclusion We constructed an in silico cell model that mimics autonomous cell behaviors and applied it to cell sorting, which is a simple and appropriate phenomenon exhibiting self-organization of cell population. The model
Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Ogata, Takuya; Deguchi, Masakazu; Nagai, Shoko; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi
Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) encodes a movement protein (MP) that is necessary for virus cell-to-cell movement. We have demonstrated previously that KELP, a putative transcriptional coactivator of Arabidopsis thaliana, and its orthologue from Brassica campestris can bind to ToMV MP in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of the transient over-expression of KELP on ToMV infection and the intracellular localization of MP in Nicotiana benthamiana, an experimental host of the virus. In co-bombardment experiments, the over-expression of KELP inhibited virus cell-to-cell movement. The N-terminal half of KELP (KELPdC), which had been shown to bind to MP, was sufficient for inhibition. Furthermore, the over-expression of KELP and KELPdC, both of which were co-localized with ToMV MP, led to a reduction in the plasmodesmal association of MP. In the absence of MP expression, KELP was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm by the localization signal in its N-terminal half. It was also shown that ToMV amplified normally in protoplasts prepared from leaf tissue that expressed KELP transiently. These results indicate that over-expressed KELP interacts with MP in vivo and exerts an inhibitory effect on MP function for virus cell-to-cell movement, but not on virus amplification in individual cells. PMID:19236566
Binny, Rachelle N; Haridas, Parvathi; James, Alex; Law, Richard; Simpson, Matthew J; Plank, Michael J
Mathematical models of collective cell movement often neglect the effects of spatial structure, such as clustering, on the population dynamics. Typically, they assume that individuals interact with one another in proportion to their average density (the mean-field assumption) which means that cell-cell interactions occurring over short spatial ranges are not accounted for. However, in vitro cell culture studies have shown that spatial correlations can play an important role in determining collective behaviour. Here, we take a combined experimental and modelling approach to explore how individual-level interactions give rise to spatial structure in a moving cell population. Using imaging data from in vitro experiments, we quantify the extent of spatial structure in a population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To understand how this spatial structure arises, we develop a lattice-free individual-based model (IBM) and simulate cell movement in two spatial dimensions. Our model allows an individual's direction of movement to be affected by interactions with other cells in its neighbourhood, providing insights into how directional bias generates spatial structure. We consider how this behaviour scales up to the population level by using the IBM to derive a continuum description in terms of the dynamics of spatial moments. In particular, we account for spatial correlations between cells by considering dynamics of the second spatial moment (the average density of pairs of cells). Our numerical results suggest that the moment dynamics description can provide a good approximation to averaged simulation results from the underlying IBM. Using our in vitro data, we estimate parameters for the model and show that it can generate similar spatial structure to that observed in a 3T3 fibroblast cell population. PMID:26893970
Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM, combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret
Reynolds, A. M.
Spontaneous cell movement is a random motion that takes place in the absence of external guiding stimuli. The spontaneous movements of HaCaT and NHDF cells (cells of the epidermis) are well represented as continuous Markovian processes driven by multiplicative noise [D. Selmeczi, S. Mosler, P.H. Hagedorn, N.B. Larsen, H. Flyvbjerg, Biophysical Journal 89 (2005) 912]. Model components are, however, ad hoc as they are inspired by fits to experimental data. As a consequence, model agreement with experimental data does not add much to our understanding of spontaneous movements of these cells beyond demonstrating that they can be modelled phenomenologically. Here it is noted that a slight re-parameterization and re-interpretation of the driving noise leads to the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) [I. Lubashevsky, R. Friedrich, A. Heuer, Physical Review E 79 (2009) 011110] that realises Lévy walks as Markovian stochastic processes. This brings forth new biological insight as Lévy walks are advantageous when searching in the absence of external stimuli and without knowledge of the target distribution, as may be the case with cells of the epidermis that form new tissue by locating and then attaching on to one another. The Hänggi-Klimontovich interpretation of the driving noise in the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) and Cauchy distributions of predicted velocities do, however, appear problematic, even unphysical. Here it is shown that these are perceived rather than actual difficulties. Intermittent stop-start motions of the kind displayed by some cells and protozoan are found to underlie the formulation of the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) and the velocities of starved Dictyostelium discoideum (a unicellular organism) are found to be Cauchy distributed to a good approximation. It is therefore suggested that the model of Lubashevsky et al. (2009) can describe the spontaneous movements of some cells, and that some cells have spontaneous movement patterns that can
Full Text Available Cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses occurs via plasmodesmata (PD, organelles that evolved to facilitate intercellular communications. Viral movement proteins (MP modify PD to allow passage of the virus particles or nucleoproteins. This passage occurs via several distinct mechanisms one of which is MP-dependent formation of the tubules that traverse PD and provide a conduit for virion translocation. The MP of tubule-forming viruses including Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV recruit the plant PD receptors called Plasmodesmata Located Proteins (PDLP to mediate tubule assembly and virus movement. Here we show that PDLP1 is transported to PD through a specific route within the secretory pathway in a myosin-dependent manner. This transport relies primarily on the class XI myosins XI-K and XI-2. Inactivation of these myosins using dominant negative inhibition results in mislocalization of PDLP and MP and suppression of GFLV movement. We also found that the proper targeting of specific markers of the Golgi apparatus, the plasma membrane, PD, lipid raft subdomains within the plasma membrane, and the tonoplast was not affected by myosin XI-K inhibition. However, the normal tonoplast dynamics required myosin XI-K activity. These results reveal a new pathway of the myosin-dependent protein trafficking to PD that is hijacked by GFLV to promote tubule-guided transport of this virus between plant cells.
Mitra, Ruchira; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie
Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and coat protein are required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP fused to TGBp2 were bombarded to leaf epidermal cells and GFP:TGBp2 moved cell to cell in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves but not in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. GFP:TGBp2 movement was observed in TGBp1-transgenic N. tabacum, indicating that TGBp2 requires TGBp1 to promote its movement in N. tabacum. In this study, GFP:TGBp2 was detected in a polygonal pattern that resembles the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed TGBp2 has two putative transmembrane domains. Two mutations separately introduced into the coding sequences encompassing the putative transmembrane domains within the GFP:TGBp2 plasmids and PVX genome, disrupted membrane binding of GFP:TGBp2, inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in N. benthamiana and TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum, and inhibited PVX movement. A third mutation, lying outside the transmembrane domains, had no effect on GFP:TGBp2 ER association or movement in N. benthamiana but inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum and PVX movement in either Nicotiana species. Thus, ER association of TGBp2 may be required but not be sufficient for virus movement. TGBp2 likely provides an activity for PVX movement beyond ER association.
The continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 causes stomatal pores in leaves to close and thus globally affects CO2 influx into plants, water use efficiency and leaf heat stress. However, the CO2-binding proteins that control this response remain unknown. Moreover, which cell type responds to CO2, mesophyll or guard cells, and whether photosynthesis mediates this response are matters of debate. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant plants in the beta-carbonic anhydrases betaCA1 and betaCA4 show impaired CO2-regulation of stomatal movements and increased stomatal density, but retain functional abscisic-acid and blue-light responses. betaCA-mediated CO2-triggered stomatal movements are not, in first-order, linked to whole leaf photosynthesis and can function in guard cells. Furthermore, guard cell betaca-overexpressing plants exhibit instantaneous enhanced water use efficiency. Guard cell expression of mammalian alphaCAII complements the reduced sensitivity of ca1 ca4 plants, showing that carbonic anhydrase-mediated catalysis is an important mechanism for betaCA-mediated CO2-induced stomatal closure and patch clamp analyses indicate that CO2/HCO3- transfers the signal to anion channel regulation. These findings, together with ht1-2 (ref. 9) epistasis analysis demonstrate that carbonic anhydrases function early in the CO2 signalling pathway, which controls gas-exchange between plants and the atmosphere.
Shi, Kai; Li, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Guanqun; Liu, Yaru; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jingquan
Climate change as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 influences plant photosynthesis and transpiration. Although the involvement of stomata in plant responses to elevated CO2 has been well established, the underlying mechanism of elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement remains largely unknown. We used diverse techniques, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, biochemical methodologies and gene silencing to investigate the signaling pathway for elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Elevated CO2 -induced stomatal closure was dependent on the production of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (RBOH1)-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and NITRATE REDUCTASE (NR)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells in an abscisic acid (ABA)-independent manner. Silencing of OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) compromised the elevated CO2 -induced accumulation of H2 O2 and NO, upregulation of SLOW ANION CHANNEL ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1) gene expression and reduction of stomatal aperture, whereas silencing of RBOH1 or NR had no effects on the expression of OST1. Our results demonstrate that as critical signaling molecules, RBOH1-dependent H2 O2 and NR-dependent NO act downstream of OST1 that regulate SLAC1 expression and elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement. This information is crucial to deepen the understanding of CO2 signaling pathway in guard cells. PMID:26308648
Yang, Hao; Tong, Chunfang; Fu, Changliang; Xu, Yanhong; Liu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Lü, Shouqin; Li, Ning; Long, Mian
Adhesion between two nucleated cells undergoes specific significances in immune responses and tumor metastasis since cellular adhesive molecules usually express on two apposed cell membranes. However, quantification of the interactions between two nucleated cells is still challenging in microvasculature. Here distinct cell systems were used, including three types of human cells (Jurkat cell or PMN vs. MDA-MB-231 cell) and two kinds of murine native cells (PMN vs. liver sinusoidal endothelial cell). Cell movement, compression to, and relaxation from the counterpart cell were quantified using an in-house developed gas-driven micropipette aspiration technique (GDMAT). This assay is robust to quantify this process since cell movement and contact inside a pipette are independent of the repeated test cycles. Measured approaching or retraction velocity follows well a normal distribution, which is independent on the cycle period. Contact area or duration also fits a Gaussian distribution and moreover contact duration is linearly correlated with the cycle period. Cell movement is positively related to gas flux but negatively associated to medium viscosity. Cell adhesion tends to reach an equilibrium state with increase of cycle period or contact duration. These results further the understanding in the dynamics of cell movement and contact in microvasculature. PMID:26631492
The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to for...
Narayanareddy, Babu Reddy Janakaloti; Vartiainen, Suvi; Hariri, Neema; O'Dowd, Diane K; Gross, Steven P
There is an increasing interest in factors that can impede cargo transport by molecular motors inside the cell. Although potentially relevant (Yi JY, Ori-McKenney KM, McKenney RJ, Vershinin M, Gross SP, Vallee RB. High-resolution imaging reveals indirect coordination of opposite motors and a role for LIS1 in high-load axonal transport. J Cell Biol 2011;195:193-201), the importance of cargo size and subcellular location has received relatively little attention. Here we address these questions taking advantage of the fact that mitochondria - a common cargo - in Drosophila neurons exhibit a wide distribution of sizes. In addition, the mitochondria can be genetically marked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) making it possible to visualize and compare their movement in the cell bodies and in the processes of living cells. Using total internal reflection microscopy coupled with particle tracking and analysis, we quantified the transport properties of GFP-positive mitochondria as a function of their size and location. In neuronal cell bodies, we find little evidence for significant opposition to motion, consistent with a previous study on lipid droplets (Shubeita GT, Tran SL, Xu J, Vershinin M, Cermelli S, Cotton SL, Welte MA, Gross SP. Consequences of motor copy number on the intracellular transport of kinesin-1-driven lipid droplets. Cell 2008;135:1098-1107). However, in the processes, we observe an inverse relationship between the mitochondrial size and velocity and the run distances. This can be ameliorated via hypotonic treatment to increase process size, suggesting that motor-mediated movement is impeded in this more-confined environment. Interestingly, we also observe local mitochondrial accumulations in processes but not in cell bodies. Such accumulations do not completely block the transport but do increase the probability of mitochondria-mitochondria interactions. They are thus particularly interesting in relation to mitochondrial exchange of elements
Peskoff, A; Langer, G. A.
This paper extends the model for Ca movement in the cardiac ventricular cell from the diadic cleft space to the entire sarcomere. The model predicts the following: 1) Shortly after SR release there is a [Ca] gradient >3 orders of magnitude from cleft center to M-line which, 50 ms after release, is still >30. Outside the cleft, 40 ms after cessation of release, the axial gradient from Z to M-line is >3. 2) At the end of SR release, >50% of the total Ca released is bound to low-affinity inner s...
Shi, Yan; Ryabov, Eugene V.; van Wezel, Rene; Li, Chunyang; Jin, Mingfei; Wang, Wenjing; Fan, Zaifeng; Hong, Yiguo
The biological relationship between suppression of RNA silencing and virus movement poses an intriguing question in virus-plant interactions. Here, we have used a local RNA silencing assay, based on a movement-deficient Turnip crinkle virus TCV/GFPΔCP, to investigate the influence of silencing suppression by three different viral suppressors: the TCV 38K coat protein (CP), the 126K protein of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and P19 of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) on cell-to-cell movement and l...
James P Shaffery
Full Text Available Cells in the locus coeruleus (LC constitute the sole source of norepinephrine (NE in the brain, and change their discharge rates according to vigilance state. In addition to its well established role in vigilance, NE affects synaptic plasticity in the postnatal critical period (CP of development. One form of CP synaptic plasticity affected by NE results from monocular occlusion, which leads to physiological and cytoarchitectural alterations in central visual areas. Selective suppression of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS in the CP kitten enhances the central effects of monocular occlusion. The mechanisms responsible for heightened cortical plasticity following REMS deprivation (REMSD remain undetermined. One possible mediator of an increase in plasticity is continuous NE outflow, which presumably persists during extended periods of REMSD. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of NE and serves as a marker for NE-producing cells. We selectively suppressed REMS in kittens for one week during the CP. The number and size of LC cells expressing immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir was assessed in age-matched REMS-deprived (RD-, treatment-control (TXC-, and home cage-reared (HCC animals. Sleep amounts and slow wave activity (SWA were also examined relative to baseline. Time spent in REMS during the study was lower in RD compared to TXC animals, and RD kittens increased SWA delta power in the latter half of the REMSD period. The estimated total number of TH-ir cells in LC was significantly lower in the RD- than in the TXC kittens and numerically lower than in HCC animals. The size of LC cells expressing TH-ir was greatest in the HCC group. They were significantly larger than the cells in the RD kittens. These data are consistent with a possible reduction in NE in forebrain areas, including visual cortex, caused by one week of REMSD.
Yasumiishi, M.; Renschler, C. S.; Bittner, T. E.
As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning) and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake), factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.
Ku (Ku70 and Ku80) Proteins are known as components of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and play an important role for DNA repair. We previously reported that more than 70% of Ku proteins were located in cytoplasm of rat cells, the Ku proteins moved into nuclei of normal rat cells after X-irradiation, Ku proteins also moved into nuclei after X-irradiation but were not retained in nucleus of radiosensitive LEC rat cells. While reports have been shown about mechanisms on nuclear localization of Ku proteins, how Ku proteins export from nucleus is poorly understood. Here we show that C-terminal region of Ku70 protein is important for its cytoplasmic localization. When transfected into LEC rat cells, exogenous intact Ku70 (1-609) tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-Ku70) localized mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas C-terminal-deletion mutant of Ku70 (1-593) tagged with EGFP (EGFP-Ku70D) was mainly localized in the nucleus. After X-irradiation, the endogenous intact EGFP-Ku70 once moved into nucleus, but returned into the cytoplasm. On the other hand, EGFP-Ku70D was retained in nucleus for two hours after X-irradiation. These results suggest that C-terminal region of Ku70 is included in the postirradiation nuclear export. Next, we investigated the intracellular localization of Ku70 proteins and the movement after X-irradiation of fibroblastic cells prepared from some mammalian species. Ku70 proteins were localized in nucleus and the postirradiation-extranuclear transport was not observed in human and African green monkey cells. On the other hand, Ku70 proteins were mainly localized in cytoplasm and moved into nucleus in mouse, Chinese hamster, Golden hamster, cotton rat, squirrel, cat and dog cells. These results may show that alternatively Ku70 protein is localized in the cytoplasm or nucleus depends on species and translocation of cytoplasmic Ku70 into nucleus is a response against low dose irradiation in fibroblasts of rodents, cats and dogs
Endoh, Daiji; Hayashi, Masanobu [Rakuno Gakuen Univ., School of Veterinary Midicine, Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan); Okui, Toyo; Kawase, Shiro [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kon, Yasushiro [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)
Ku (Ku70 and Ku80) Proteins are known as components of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and play an important role for DNA repair. We previously reported that more than 70% of Ku proteins were located in cytoplasm of rat cells, the Ku proteins moved into nuclei of normal rat cells after X-irradiation, Ku proteins also moved into nuclei after X-irradiation but were not retained in nucleus of radiosensitive LEC rat cells. While reports have been shown about mechanisms on nuclear localization of Ku proteins, how Ku proteins export from nucleus is poorly understood. Here we show that C-terminal region of Ku70 protein is important for its cytoplasmic localization. When transfected into LEC rat cells, exogenous intact Ku70 (1-609) tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-Ku70) localized mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas C-terminal-deletion mutant of Ku70 (1-593) tagged with EGFP (EGFP-Ku70D) was mainly localized in the nucleus. After X-irradiation, the endogenous intact EGFP-Ku70 once moved into nucleus, but returned into the cytoplasm. On the other hand, EGFP-Ku70D was retained in nucleus for two hours after X-irradiation. These results suggest that C-terminal region of Ku70 is included in the postirradiation nuclear export. Next, we investigated the intracellular localization of Ku70 proteins and the movement after X-irradiation of fibroblastic cells prepared from some mammalian species. Ku70 proteins were localized in nucleus and the postirradiation-extranuclear transport was not observed in human and African green monkey cells. On the other hand, Ku70 proteins were mainly localized in cytoplasm and moved into nucleus in mouse, Chinese hamster, Golden hamster, cotton rat, squirrel, cat and dog cells. These results may show that alternatively Ku70 protein is localized in the cytoplasm or nucleus depends on species and translocation of cytoplasmic Ku70 into nucleus is a response against low dose irradiation in fibroblasts of rodents, cats and dogs
Full Text Available Progesterone plays a role in breast cancer development and progression but the effects on breast cancer cell movement or invasion have not been fully explored. In this study, we investigate the actions of natural progesterone and of the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on actin cytoskeleton remodeling and on breast cancer cell movement and invasion. In particular, we characterize the nongenomic signaling cascades implicated in these actions. T47-D breast cancer cells display enhanced horizontal migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices in the presence of both progestins. Exposure to the hormones triggers a rapid remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of membrane ruffles required for cell movement, which are dependent on the rapid phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory protein moesin. The extra-cellular small GTPase RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK-2 cascade plays central role in progesterone- and MPA-induced moesin activation, cell migration and invasion. In the presence of progesterone, progesterone receptor A (PRA interacts with the G protein G alpha(13, while MPA drives PR to interact with tyrosine kinase c-Src and to activate phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, leading to the activation of RhoA/ROCK-2. In conclusion, our findings manifest that progesterone and MPA promote breast cancer cell movement via rapid actin cytoskeleton remodeling, which are mediated by moesin activation. These events are triggered by RhoA/ROCK-2 cascade through partially differing pathways by the two compounds. These results provide original mechanistic explanations for the effects of progestins on breast cancer progression and highlight potential targets to treat endocrine-sensitive breast cancers.
Tamai, A; Meshi, T
Cell-to-cell movement of a plant virus requires expression of the movement protein (MP). It has not been fully elucidated, however, how the MP functions in primary infected cells. With the use of a microprojectile bombardment-mediated DNA infection system for Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), we found that the cotransfected ToMV MP gene exerts its effects in the initially infected cells and in their surrounding cells to achieve multicellular spread of movement-defective ToMV. Five other tobamoviral MPs examined also transcomplemented the movement-defective phenotype of ToMV, but the Cucumber mosaic virus 3a MP did not. Together with the cell-to-cell movement of the mutant virus, a fusion between the MP and an enhanced green fluorescent protein variant (EGFP) expressed in trans was distributed multicellularly and localized primarily in plasmodesmata between infected cells. In contrast, in noninfected sites the MP-EGFP fusion accumulated predominantly inside the bombarded cells as irregularly shaped aggregates, and only a minute amount of the fusion was found in plasmodesmata. Thus, the behavior of ToMV MP is greatly modulated in the presence of a replicating virus and it is highly likely that the MP spreads in the infection sites, coordinating with the cell-to-cell movement of the viral genome. PMID:11204775
Soteropoulos, Demetris S.; Williams, Elizabeth R.; Baker, Stuart N.
Recent work has shown that the primate reticulospinal tract can influence spinal interneurons and motoneurons involved in control of the hand. However, demonstrating connectivity does not reveal whether reticular outputs are modulated during the control of different types of hand movement. Here, we investigated how single unit discharge in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) modulated during performance of a slow finger movement task in macaque monkeys. Two animals performed an inde...
Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Carmen Herranz, María; Pallás, Vicente
RNA 3 of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) encodes the movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP). Chimeric RNA 3 with the AMV MP gene replaced by the corresponding MP gene of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Brome mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus or Cowpea mosaic virus efficiently moved from cell-to-cell only when the expressed MP was extended at its C-terminus with the C-terminal 44 amino acids of AMV MP. MP of Tobacco mosaic virus supported the movement of the chimeric RNA 3 whether or not the MP was extended with the C-terminal AMV MP sequence. The replacement of the CP gene in RNA 3 by a mutant gene encoding a CP defective in virion formation did not affect cell-to-cell transport of the chimera's with a functional MP. A GST pull-down technique was used to demonstrate for the first time that the C-terminal 44 amino acids of the MP of a virus belonging to the family Bromoviridae interact specifically with AMV virus particles. Together, these results demonstrate that AMV RNA 3 can be transported from cell-to-cell by both tubule-forming and non-tubule-forming MPs if a specific MP-CP interaction occurs. PMID:16316673
Ning XU; Zhang-yi LIANG; Ming XU; Ying-hua GUAN; Qi-hua HE; Qi-de HAN; Xin-sheng ZHAO; You-yi ZHANG
Aim: To investigate the movement of α1A-adrenergic receptors(α1A-AR) stimu-lated by agonist, phenylephrine (PE), and the dynamics of receptor movement in real time in single living cells with millisecond resolution.Methods: We labeled α1A-AR using the monoclonal, anti-FLAG (a kind of tag) antibody and Cy3-conju-gated goat anti-mouse IgG and recorded the trajectory of their transport process in living HEK293A cells stimulated by agonist, PE, and then analyzed their dy-namic properties.Results: The specific detection of α1A-AR on the surface of living HEK293A-α1A cells was achieved. α1A-AR internalize under the stimulation of PE. After the cells were stimulated with PE for 20 rain, apparent colocalization was found between α1A-AR and F-actins. After 40 min stimulation of PE, trajecto-ries of approximate linear motion in HEK293A-α1A cells were recorded, and their velocity was calculated. Condusion: The specific labeling method on the living cell surface provides a convenient means of real-time detection of the behavior of surface receptors. By this method we were able to specifically detectα1A-AR and record the behavior of individual particles of receptors with 50 ms exposure time in real time in single living cells.
Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB proteins were coexpressed in cells with the actin marker DsRed: Talin. TGB ectopic expression experiments revealed that TGB3 is a major elicitor of filament thickening, that TGB2 resulted in formation of intermediate DsRed:Talin filaments, and that TGB1 alone had no obvious effects on actin filament structure. Latrunculin B (LatB treatments retarded BSMV cell-to-cell movement, disrupted actin filament organization, and dramatically decreased the proportion of paired TGB3 foci appearing at the cell wall (CW. BSMV infection of transgenic plants tagged with GFP-KDEL exhibited membrane proliferation and vesicle formation that were especially evident around the nucleus. Similar membrane proliferation occurred in plants expressing TGB2 and/or TGB3, and DsRed: Talin fluorescence in these plants colocalized with the ER vesicles. TGB3 also associated with the Golgi apparatus and overlapped with cortical vesicles appearing at the cell periphery. Brefeldin A treatments disrupted Golgi and also altered vesicles at the CW, but failed to interfere with TGB CW localization. Our results indicate that actin cytoskeleton interactions are important in BSMV cell-to-cell movement and for CW localization of TGB3.
Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.
Menchón Silvia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-particle tracking is a powerful tool for tracking individual particles with high precision. It provides useful information that allows the study of diffusion properties as well as the dynamics of movement. Changes in particle movement behavior, such as transitions between Brownian motion and temporary confinement, can reveal interesting biophysical interactions. Although useful applications exist to determine the paths of individual particles, only a few software implementations are available to analyze these data, and these implementations are generally not user-friendly and do not have a graphical interface,. Results Here, we present APM_GUI (Analyzing Particle Movement, which is a MatLab-implemented application with a Graphical User Interface. This user-friendly application detects confined movement considering non-random confinement when a particle remains in a region longer than a Brownian diffusant would remain. In addition, APM_GUI exports the results, which allows users to analyze this information using software that they are familiar with. Conclusions APM_GUI provides an open-source tool that quantifies diffusion coefficients and determines whether trajectories have non-random confinements. It also offers a simple and user-friendly tool that can be used by individuals without programming skills.
Langer, G. A.; Peskoff, A
We model the space between the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR) membrane and the inner leaflet of the transverse tubular ("T") sarcolemmal (SL) membrane, the diadic cleft, with respect to calcium (Ca) concentration and movement. The model predicts the following: 1) Ca influx via the "L" channel increases [Ca] to 1 microM within a distance of 50 nm from the channel mouth in < 500 microseconds. This is sufficient to trigger Ca release from a domain of 9 "feet." 2) By contrast, "reverse" ...
Alice M C van Gemert
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In skeletal muscle each muscle cell, commonly called myofiber, is actually a large syncytium containing numerous nuclei. Experiments in fixed myofibers show that mRNAs remain localized around the nuclei in which they are produced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we generated transgenic flies that allowed us to investigate the movement of mRNAs in body wall myofibers of living Drosophila embryos. We determined the dynamic properties of GFP-tagged mRNAs using in vivo confocal imaging and photobleaching techniques and found that the GFP-tagged mRNAs are not free to move throughout myofibers. The restricted movement indicated that body wall myofibers consist of three domains. The exchange of mRNAs between the domains is relatively slow, but the GFP-tagged mRNAs move rapidly within these domains. One domain is located at the centre of the cell and is surrounded by nuclei while the other two domains are located at either end of the fiber. To move between these domains mRNAs have to travel past centrally located nuclei. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the domains made visible in our experiments result from prolonged interactions with as yet undefined structures close to the nuclei that prevent GFP-tagged mRNAs from rapidly moving between the domains. This could be of significant importance for the treatment of myopathies using regenerative cell-based therapies.
The fusion of cells by influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is the best characterized example of protein-mediated membrane fusion. In simultaneous measurements of pairs of assays for fusion, we determined the order of detectable events during fusion. Fusion pore formation in HA-triggered cell-cell fusion was first detected by changes in cell membrane capacitance, next by a flux of fluorescent lipid, and finally by flux of aqueous fluorescent dye. Fusion pore conductance increased by small steps. A re...
Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Andersen, E C; Hansen, C F;
Changes in cell volume and ion gradients across the plasma membrane play a pivotal role in the initiation of apoptosis. Here we explore the kinetics of apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) and ion content dynamics in wild-type (WT) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC). In WT...... was further reduced. AVD(1) and AVD(2) were coupled to net loss of Cl(-), K(+), Na(+), and amino acids (ninhydrin-positive substances), whereas during AVD(T), Na(+) and Cl(-) were accumulated. MDR EATC was resistant to cisplatin, showing increased viability and less caspase 3 activation. Compared with...... AVD, primarily via modulation of NaCl movements, contribute to protection against apoptosis in MDR EATC....
Full Text Available The p25 triple gene block protein of Potato virus X (PVX is multifunctional, participating in viral movement and acting as a suppressor of RNA silencing. The cell-to-cell movement of PVX is known to depend on the suppression function of p25. GFP-fused p25 accumulates in rod-like (RL structures with intense fluorescence in cells. By monitoring the location of fluorescence at different times, we have now shown that the RL structure is composed of filaments. P25 mutants without the conditional ability to recover movement function could not form RL structures while the mutants that had the ability did form the structure, suggesting that the ability of p25 to form RL structures is necessary for its function in cell-to-cell movement, but not for its suppressor function. Moreover, chemical inhibition of microfilaments in cells destroyed the formation of the complete RL structure. Additionally, TGBp2 and TGBp3 were recruited into the RL structure, suggesting a relationship between the TGBps in virus movement.
This review is aimed at providing, at the cellular level, a concise and complete overview of the important knowledge on the mechanism of orthodontic tooth movement to orthodontists and postgraduates who are involved or interested in basic research. The construction of this article was oriented to the following key questions: Where an osteoclast starts to its first resorption site? When the cascade of a resorption cycle starts? What are the factors involved in bone remodeling and how they orchestrate? What happens before and after the formation of a resorption pit? Major findings in these aspects were summarized and discussed. In addition, related biological phenomenon such as orthodontically induced root resorption was intensively reviewed. By means of an updated and systematic review, the author intended to introduce more biological evidence to orthodontic intervention and to encourage evidence-based treatment in daily orthodontic practice.
Berman, Paul A.; Williams, David R.
A fortuitous arrangement of a west-facing solar cell and a bracket on the Apollo 12 ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) has allowed us to precisely determine the relative position of the Sun near sunset relative to the Apollo 12 central station over a period of nearly 8 years. The small bracket, mounted on the central station due west of the cell, casts a shadow on the cell near sunset, decreasing the output of the cell proportional to the area of shadow covering the cell. The pattern of shadowing by the bracket gives good agreement with the known change of solar azimuth on a yearly timescale, but the pattern gradually but constantly changed from year-to-year, in a manner inconsistent with the known and changing position of the Sun.
Jacob, K J; Longstaff, H; Scott, C T; Illes, J
The migration of researchers across geographic borders, or "brain drain" as it is commonly called, remains an important issue for governments around the world as loss or gain of highly qualified personnel in research can have substantial social, economic and political consequences. In the present study we seek to examine the forces that drive international professional migration of stem cell (SC) researchers, for which variation of SC policy in different jurisdictions has previously been implicated as a driving force. Structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of SC researchers in the professoriate who had made international moves after postdoctoral work between the years 2001-2014, or were actively anticipating a future move. Participants were asked to rank motivators of international movement on a 5-point Likert scale and prompted to elaborate on their answers. The results suggest that career considerations, availability of research funding, and personal considerations are of high importance to the participants when considering an international move, while the permissiveness or restrictiveness SC research policy is of comparably lower importance. Participants also expressed that international movements are beneficial to scientific careers overall. The findings have important implications for policy and strategies to attract and retain members of the SC research community. PMID:26022505
Zaki, Mehreen; Andrew, Natalie; Insall, Robert H.
Entamoeba histolytica cells, the cause of amoebic dysentery, are highly motile, and this motility is an essential feature of the pathogenesis and morbidity of amoebiasis. However, the control of E. histolytica motility within the gut and during invasion is poorly understood. We have used an improved chemotaxis assay to identify the key extracellular signals mediating Entamoeba chemotaxis. The dominant responses we observe are caused by factors generated by E. histolytica cells themselves. Med...
Stephanie L. Madison; Andreas Nebenführ
In plant cells,the Golgi apparatus consists of numerous stacks that,in turn,are composed of several flattened cisternae with a clear cis-to-trans polarity.During normal functioning within living cells,this unusual organelle displays a wide range of dynamic behaviors such as whole stack motility,constant membrane flux through the cisternae,and Golgi enzyme recycling through the ER.In order to further investigate various aspects of Golgi stack dynamics and integrity,we co-expressed pairs of established Golgi markers in tobacco BY-2 cells to distinguish sub-compartments of the Golgi during monensin treatments,movement,and brefeldin A (BFA)-induced disassembly.A combination of cis and trans markers revealed that Golgi stacks remain intact as they move through the cytoplasm.The Golgi stack orientation during these movements showed a slight preference for the cis side moving ahead,but trans cisternae were also found at the leading edge.During BFA treatments,the different sub-compartments of about half of the observed stacks fused with the ER sequentially; however,no consistent order could be detected.In contrast,the ionophore monensin resulted in swelling of trans cisternae while medial and particularly cis cisternae were mostly unaffected.Our results thus demonstrate a remarkable equivalence of the different cisternae with respect to movement and BFA-induced fusion with the ER.In addition,we propose that a combination of dual-label fluorescence microscopy and drug treatments can provide a simple alternative approach to the determination of protein localization to specific Golgi sub-compartments.
Leonardy, Simone; Freymark, Gerald; Hebener, Sabrina;
Myxococcus xanthus cells harbor two motility machineries, type IV pili (Tfp) and the A-engine. During reversals, the two machineries switch polarity synchronously. We present a mechanism that synchronizes this polarity switching. We identify the required for motility response regulator (RomR) as ...
Itoh, H.; Wakita, J.; Watanabe, K.; Matsuyama, T.; Matsushita, M.
We have experimentally investigated periodic pattern formation produced by bacterial species Proteus mirabilis, which forms concentric-ring-like colonies by repeating migration and rest alternately on the surface of a solid agar medium. We distinguish three phases (initial lag phase, the following migration and consolidation phases that appear alternately) for the colony growth. Here we mainly used physical approaches in order to try to understand the formation of concentric-ring-like colonies, such as cutting the part of a colony during its growth. Global chemical signals governing the colony formation from the center were not found. We also checked phase entrainment quantitatively by letting two colonies collide with each other and confirmed that it does not take place in macroscopic scales. When we cut a colony just behind the migrating front shortly after the migration started, the migration ended earlier and the following consolidation lasted longer. However, the following cycles were not influenced by the cut, i.e., the following migration and consolidation phases were both found to return normal. The cut results in the stop of supply of cell population to the migrating front by internal waves. In fact the cell population on the new terrace during the first migration after the cut was less than that without cut. Furthermore, the cell population density was found to be recovered to the ordinary value by the end of the consolidation. All these experimental results suggest that the most important factor for the repetition of migration and consolidation phases is the cell population density.
Jian XU; Tong-Le DENG; Long LI; Zhen-Qiang YOU; Wang-Jun WAN; Lian YU
To evaluate the characteristics of chicken interleukin-18 (ChIL-18) in different forms in vitro,the ChIL-18 full-length gene (ChIL-18-F) and the ChIL-18 presumed mature protein gene (ChIL-18-M) were cloned and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pCI, to construct recombinant pCI-ChIL-18-F and pCI-ChIL-18-M. The recombinant plasmids were then transferred into chicken splenic lymphocytes (CSLs). Western blot showed that ChIL-18-F, with a molecular weight of 23.0 kDa, was produced in CSLs transfected by pCI-ChIL-18-F; ChIL-18-M, with a molecular weight of 19.5 kDa, was produced in CSLs transfected by pCI-ChIL-18-M. The nitric oxide (NO) level in the transfected CSLs and the culture medium at different time points was further examined under confocal microscopy using 4,5-diaminofluorescein staining. The results showed that both pCI-ChIL-18-F and pCI-ChIL-18-M groups showed significant increase in intracellular and extracellular NO production compared with pCI transfected control cells. These results suggest that both ChIL-18-F and ChIL-18-M could stimulate NO secretion in CSLs. To characterize the intracellular distribution of ChIL-18, ChIL-18-F and ChIL-18-M were each fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, and expressed in Vero cells. The results showed that the ChIL-18-F tended to the membranous region in Vero cells, while ChIL-18-M did not. This indicates that the N-terminal 27 amino acid peptide helped ChIL-18 target to Vero cell membranes.
Schaeper, M.; Schmidt, R.; Kostbade, R.; Damaschke, N.; Gimsa, J.
Circular spatial filtering velocimetry (CSFV) was tested during the microscopic registration of the individual rotations of baker’s yeast cells. Their frequency-dependent rotation (electrorotation; ER) was induced in rotating electric fields, which were generated in a glass chip chamber with four electrodes (600 μm tip-to-tip distance). The electrodes were driven with sinusoidal quadrature signals of 5 or 8 V PP with frequencies up to 3 MHz. The observed cell rotation was of the order of 1–100 s per revolution. At each measuring frequency, the independent rotations of up to 20 cells were simultaneously recorded with a high-speed camera. CSFV was software-implemented using circular spatial filters with harmonic gratings. ER was proportional to the phase shift between the values of the spatial filtering signal of consecutive frames. ER spectra obtained by CSFV from the rotation velocities at different ER-field frequencies agreed well with manual measurements and theoretical spectra. Oscillations in the rotation velocity of a single cell in the elliptically polarized field near an electrode, which were resolved by CSFV, could not be visually discerned. ER step responses after field-on were recorded at 2500 frames per second. Analysis proved the high temporal resolution of CSFV and revealed a largely linear torque-friction relation during the acceleration phase of ER. Future applications of CSFV will allow for the simple and cheap automated high-resolution analysis of rotational movements where mechanical detection has too low a resolution or is not possible, e.g. in polluted environments or for gas and fluid vortices, microscopic objects, etc.
Lee, Hai-Hsiang; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Jue-Long; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Chen, Fu-An; Jan, Chung-Ren
This study explored the effect of deltamethrin, a pesticide, on intracellular free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i) in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Deltamethrin at concentrations between 5 μM and 20 μM evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca²⁺ signal was inhibited by 22% by removal of extracellular Ca²⁺. Nifedipine, econazole, and SKF96365 also inhibited the Ca²⁺ signal. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in Ca²⁺-free medium nearly abolished deltamethrin-induced [Ca²⁺]i rises. Treatment with deltamethrin also inhibited most of BHQ-induced [Ca²⁺]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 failed to alter deltamethrin-evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises. Deltamethrin killed cells at concentrations of 20-100 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid/acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent deltamethrin's cytotoxicity. Together, in PC3 human prostate cancer cells, deltamethrin induced [Ca²⁺]i rises that involved Ca²⁺ entry through store-operated Ca²⁺ channels and PLC-independent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deltamethrin induced cytotoxicity in a Ca²⁺-independent manner. PMID:27188467
Ura, Seiji; Pollitt, Alice Y.; Veltman, Douwe M.; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Machesky, Laura M.; Insall, Robert H.
Background SCAR/WAVE is a principal regulator of pseudopod growth in crawling cells. It exists in a stable pentameric complex, which is regulated at multiple levels that are only beginning to be understood. SCAR/WAVE is phosphorylated at multiple sites, but how this affects its biological activity is unclear. Here we show that dephosphorylation of Dictyostelium SCAR controls normal pseudopod dynamics. Results We demonstrate that the C-terminal acidic domain of most Dictyostelium SCAR is basally phosphorylated at four serine residues. A small amount of singly phosphorylated SCAR is also found. SCAR phosphorylation site mutants cannot replace SCAR’s role in the pseudopod cycle, though they rescue cell size and growth. Unphosphorylatable SCAR is hyperactive – excessive recruitment to the front gives large pseudopods that fail to bifurcate because they continually grow forwards. Conversely, phosphomimetic SCAR is weakly active, causing frequent small, disorganised pseudopods. Even in its regulatory complex, SCAR is normally held inactive by an interaction between the phosphorylated acidic and basic domains. Loss of basic residues complementary to the acidic phosphosites yields a hyperactive protein similar to unphosphorylatable SCAR. Conclusions Regulated dephosphorylation of a fraction of the cellular SCAR pool is a key step in SCAR activation during pseudopod growth. Phosphorylation increases autoinhibition of the intact complex. Dephosphorylation weakens this interaction and facilitates SCAR activation, but also destabilizes the protein. We show that SCAR is specifically dephosphorylated in pseudopods, increasing activation by Rac and lipids and supporting positive feedback of pseudopod growth. PMID:22386315
Bullara, D.; De Decker, Y.
The zebrafish is a model organism for pattern formation in vertebrates. Understanding what drives the formation of its coloured skin motifs could reveal pivotal to comprehend the mechanisms behind morphogenesis. The motifs look and behave like reaction–diffusion Turing patterns, but the nature of the underlying physico-chemical processes is very different, and the origin of the patterns is still unclear. Here we propose a minimal model for such pattern formation based on a regulatory mechanism deduced from experimental observations. This model is able to produce patterns with intrinsic wavelength, closely resembling the experimental ones. We mathematically prove that their origin is a Turing bifurcation occurring despite the absence of cell motion, through an effect that we call differential growth. This mechanism is qualitatively different from the reaction–diffusion originally proposed by Turing, although they both generate the short-range activation and the long-range inhibition required to form Turing patterns. PMID:25959141
Ana Lucia Nicastri
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the endocytosis of two Bence-Jones proteins by renal cells in order to elucidate the interference of their physical and chemical characteristics on nephrotoxicity. Bence-Jones proteins (AK and GL were purified and isolated from the urine of two patients with multiple myeloma. The isotype of both proteins was characterised as being human monoclonal lambda light chain. The AK protein presented mainly an Ip>7.0, a high content of galactose and a low amount of sialic acid molecules. On the other hand, the GL protein presented a single band with an Ip of 4.3, a higher level of sialic acid and a reduced amount of galactose, in comparison with the AK protein. Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cells were maintained in culture in bottles at 37ºC, using DMEM culture media supplemented with 10% of calf serum with a pH of 7.4. Once the monolayer was observed to be confluent, the BHK cells were incubated with the two proteins, dissolved in a serum-free medium for 1, 5, 15, 30, 60 minutes and 24 hours. Control cells were established omitting the incubation with Bence-Jones proteins, but maintaining all of the other conditions. After, this the cells were washed, trypsinised, centrifuged and fixed in a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.5% glutaraldehyde on a 0.1 M, pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. Cells were processed for immunocytochemical reactions by using protein A coupled with colloidal gold and further silver enhancement. Semi-thin sections of the pellets were obtained and submitted to the cytochemical reactions. Detection of labelling was made by using light microscopy. It was observed that GL protein tended to be directed towards a perinuclear position, whereas the AK protein tended to suffer lysosomal deviation, suggesting that there is a direct contribution of physical and chemical characteristics on intracellular direction taken by Bence-Jones proteins.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a endocitose de duas prote
Huckaba, Thomas M.; Gay, Anna Card; Pantalena, Luiz Fernando; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Liza A Pon
Using FM4-64 to label endosomes and Abp1p-GFP or Sac6p-GFP to label actin patches, we find that (1) endosomes colocalize with actin patches as they assemble at the bud cortex; (2) endosomes colocalize with actin patches as they undergo linear, retrograde movement from buds toward mother cells; and (3) actin patches interact with and disassemble at FM4-64–labeled internal compartments. We also show that retrograde flow of actin cables mediates retrograde actin patch movement. An Arp2/3 complex...
The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.)
Tamai, A; Meshi, T
Potato virus X (PVX) requires three proteins, p25, p12, and p8, encoded by the triple gene block plus the coat protein (CP) for cell-to-cell movement. When each of these proteins was co-expressed with a cytosolic green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana by the microprojectile bombardment-mediated gene delivery method, only p12 enhanced diffusion of co-expressed GFP, indicating an ability to alter plasmodesmal permeability. p25, p12, and CP, expressed transiently in the initially infected cells, transcomplemented the corresponding movement-defective mutants to spread through two or more cell boundaries. Thus, these proteins probably move from cell to cell with the genomic RNA. In contrast, p8 only functioned intracellularly and was not absolutely required for cell-to-cell movement. Since overexpression of p12 overcame the p8 deficiency, p8 appears to facilitate the functioning of p12, presumably by mediating its intracellular trafficking. Considering the likelihood that p12 and p8 are membrane proteins, it is suggested that intercellular as well as intracellular movement of PVX involves a membrane-mediated process. PMID:11605955
Stewart, Robert A.; Shaw, J. M.
The development and baseline operation of an acoustic view cell for observing fluids, and fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces in porous media over the frequency range of 10-5000 Hz is described. This range includes the industrially relevant frequency range 500-5000 Hz that is not covered by existing devices. Pressure waveforms of arbitrary shape are generated in a 17.46 mm ID by 200 mm and 690.5 mm long glass tubes at flow rates up to 200 ml/min using a syringe pump. Peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 80 kPa are readily realized at frequencies from 10 to 5000 Hz in bubble free fluids when actuated with 20 Vpp as exemplified using castor oil. At resonant frequencies, peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes exceeding 500 kPa were obtained (castor oil at 2100 Hz when actuated with 20 Vpp). Impacts of vibration on macroscopic liquid-liquid and liquid-vapour interfaces and interface movement are illustrated. Pressure wave transmission and attenuation in a fluid saturated porous medium, randomly packed 250-330 μm spherical silica beads, is also demonstrated. Attenuation differences and frequency shifts in resonant peaks are used to detect the presence and generation of dispersed micro-bubbles (micro-bubbles comprise subjects of special interest.
Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J;
.05) in blood flow without a significant enhancement in oxygen uptake. Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled with microdialysis technique and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and for the effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Biopsies obtained from the musculus vastus...... lateralis were analyzed for mRNA content of VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The passive leg movement caused an increase (P < 0.05) in interstitial VEGF protein concentration above rest (73 +/- 21 vs. 344 +/- 83 pg/ml). Addition of muscle dialysate to......The present study used passive limb movement as an experimental model to study the effect of increased blood flow and passive stretch, without enhanced metabolic demand, in young healthy male subjects. The model used was 90 min of passive movement of the leg leading to a 2.8-fold increase (P < 0...
levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...
note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact......Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...
Stewart, Robert A; Shaw, J M
The development and baseline operation of an acoustic view cell for observing fluids, and fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces in porous media over the frequency range of 10-5000 Hz is described. This range includes the industrially relevant frequency range 500-5000 Hz that is not covered by existing devices. Pressure waveforms of arbitrary shape are generated in a 17.46 mm ID by 200 mm and 690.5 mm long glass tubes at flow rates up to 200 ml/min using a syringe pump. Peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 80 kPa are readily realized at frequencies from 10 to 5000 Hz in bubble free fluids when actuated with 20 Vpp as exemplified using castor oil. At resonant frequencies, peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes exceeding 500 kPa were obtained (castor oil at 2100 Hz when actuated with 20 Vpp). Impacts of vibration on macroscopic liquid-liquid and liquid-vapour interfaces and interface movement are illustrated. Pressure wave transmission and attenuation in a fluid saturated porous medium, randomly packed 250-330 μm spherical silica beads, is also demonstrated. Attenuation differences and frequency shifts in resonant peaks are used to detect the presence and generation of dispersed micro-bubbles (<180 μm diameter), and bubbles within porous media that are not readily visualized. Envisioned applications include assessment of the impacts of vibration on reaction, mass transfer, and flow/flow pattern outcomes. This knowledge will inform laboratory and pilot scale process studies, where nuisance vibrations may affect the interpretation of process outcomes, and large scale or in situ processes in aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs where imposed vibration may be deployed to improve aspects of process performance. Future work will include miscible interface observation and quantitative measurements in the bulk and in porous media where the roles of micro-bubbles comprise subjects of special interest. PMID:26429474
This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs
Pedersen, Inge Nygaard
This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...
Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.
Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Elisa; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Chillà, Anastasia; Chiarugi, Paola; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario
The receptor for the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is up-regulated in malignant tumors. Historically the function of uPAR in cancer cell invasion is strictly related to its property to promote uPA-dependent proteolysis of extracellular matrix and to open a path to malignant cells. These features are typical of mesenchymal motility. Here we show that the full-length form of uPAR is required when prostate and melanoma cancer cells convert their migration style from the "path generating" mesenchymal to the "path finding" amoeboid one, thus conferring a plasticity to tumor cell invasiveness across three-dimensional matrices. Indeed, in response to a protease inhibitors-rich milieu, prostate and melanoma cells activated an amoeboid invasion program connoted by retraction of cell protrusions, RhoA-mediated rounding of the cell body, formation of a cortical ring of actin and a reduction of Rac-1 activation. While the mesenchymal movement was reduced upon silencing of uPAR expression, the amoeboid one was almost completely abolished, in parallel with a deregulation of small Rho-GTPases activity. In melanoma and prostate cancer cells we have shown uPAR colocalization with β1/β3 integrins and actin cytoskeleton, as well integrins-actin co-localization under both mesenchymal and amoeboid conditions. Such co-localizations were lost upon treatment of cells with a peptide that inhibits uPAR-integrin interactions. Similarly to uPAR silencing, the peptide reduced mesenchymal invasion and almost abolished the amoeboid one. These results indicate that full-length uPAR bridges the mesenchymal and amoeboid style of movement by an inward-oriented activity based on its property to promote integrin-actin interactions and the following cytoskeleton assembly. PMID:24681666
Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....
This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi
Kahlon, Maninder; Lisberger, Stephen G.
We followed simple- and complex-spike firing of Purkinje cells (PCs) in the floccular complex of the cerebellum through learned modifications of the pursuit eye movements of two monkeys. Learning was induced by double steps of target speed in which initially stationary targets move at a “learning” speed for 100 ms and then change to either a higher or lower speed in the same direction. In randomly interleaved control trials, targets moved at the learning speed in the opposite direction. When ...
Mitchell, Lauren Coleen
As the body moves through space ephemeral lines of movement are created. These lines of movement are influenced by body tendencies. We learn from the body by watching the path and patterning of movement. From the study of the movement of the body, theories of spacial movement were developed. The goal of my project is to draw from spacial movement theory to create an architectural expression that motivates movement of the body on my site and through my building. The focus of my thesis is ...
Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J
Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452
This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977
Zelinka, Samuel L.; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Rodriguez Lopez, Gabriela M.; Jakes, Joseph E.
Diffusion of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall plays an important role in wood damage mechanisms. In the present work, free diffusion of ions through wood secondary walls and middle lamellae has been investigated as a function of moisture content (MC) and anatomical direction. Various ions (K, Cl, Zn, Cu) were injected into selected regions of 2 mu m thick wood sections with a microinjector and then the ion distribution was mapped by means of X-ray fluorescence microscopy with submicron spatial resolution. The MC of the wood was controlled in situ by means of climatic chamber with controlled relative humidity (RH). For all ions investigated, there was a threshold RH below which the concentration profiles did not change. The threshold RH depended upon ionic species, cell wall layer, and wood anatomical orientation. Above the threshold RH, differences in mobility among ions were observed and the mobility depended upon anatomical direction and cell wall layer. These observations support a recently proposed percolation model of electrical conduction in wood. The results contribute to understanding the mechanisms of fungal decay and fastener corrosion that occur below the fiber saturation point.
Aoife T Heaslip
Full Text Available For pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin in response to elevated blood glucose, insulin granules retained within the subplasmalemmal space must be transported to sites of secretion on the plasma membrane. Using a combination of super-resolution STORM imaging and live cell TIRF microscopy we investigate how the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in INS-1 β-cells contribute to this process. GFP-labeled insulin granules display 3 different modes of motion (stationary, diffusive-like, and directed. Diffusive-like motion dominates in basal, low glucose conditions. Upon glucose stimulation no gross rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is observed but there are increases in the 1 rate of microtubule polymerization; 2 rate of diffusive-like motion; and 3 proportion of granules undergoing microtubule-based directed motion. By pharmacologically perturbing the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, we determine that microtubule-dependent granule transport occurs within the subplasmalemmal space and that the actin cytoskeleton limits this transport in basal conditions, when insulin secretion needs to be inhibited.
Sugita, Makoto; Hirono, Chikara; Shiba, Yoshiki
Elevations of cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) evoked by cholinergic agonists stimulate isotonic fluid secretion in salivary acinar cells. This process is driven by the apical exit of Cl− through Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, while Cl− enters the cytoplasm against its electrochemical gradient via a loop diuretic-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC) and/or parallel operations of Cl−-HCO3 − and Na+-H+ exchangers, located in the basolateral membrane. To characterize the con...
Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas
In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...
Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)
... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...
The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...
Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi
Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126
Full Text Available Involuntary movements of different types are associated with many diseases in children. Movement disorders in adult have been published in different journals, but in children these disorders have been ignored, even in most of the paediatric neurology books. Here is a brief attempt to describe different types of movement disorders and their various names in different diseases. Possible investigations and treatment of the disorders have been described in short.
Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank
Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler
Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).
Ge, Nan; Chevalier, Stéphane; Hinebaugh, James; Yip, Ronnie; Lee, Jongmin; Antonacci, Patrick; Kotaka, Toshikazu; Tabuchi, Yuichiro; Bazylak, Aimy
Synchrotron X-ray radiography, due to its high temporal and spatial resolutions, provides a valuable means for understanding the in operando water transport behaviour in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The purpose of this study is to address the specific artefact of imaging sample movement, which poses a significant challenge to synchrotron-based imaging for fuel cell diagnostics. Specifically, the impact of the micrometer-scale movement of the sample was determined, and a correction methodology was developed. At a photon energy level of 20 keV, a maximum movement of 7.5 µm resulted in a false water thickness of 0.93 cm (9% higher than the maximum amount of water that the experimental apparatus could physically contain). This artefact was corrected by image translations based on the relationship between the false water thickness value and the distance moved by the sample. The implementation of this correction method led to a significant reduction in false water thickness (to ∼0.04 cm). Furthermore, to account for inaccuracies in pixel intensities due to the scattering effect and higher harmonics, a calibration technique was introduced for the liquid water X-ray attenuation coefficient, which was found to be 0.657 ± 0.023 cm(-1) at 20 keV. The work presented in this paper provides valuable tools for artefact compensation and accuracy improvements for dynamic synchrotron X-ray imaging of fuel cells. PMID:26917148
Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg
It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...
Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.
This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…
Koopman, Bart H.F.J.M.
The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…
Glykeria Mermigka; Frederic Verret; Kriton Kalantidis
Multicellular organisms, like higher plants, need to coordinate their growth and development and to cope with environmental cues. To achieve this, various signal molecules are transported between neighboring cells and distant organs to control the fate of the recipient cells and organs. RNA silencing produces cell non-autonomous signal molecules that can move over short or long distances leading to the sequence specific silencing of a target gene in a well defined area of cells or throughout the entire plant, respectively. The nature of these signal molecules, the route of silencing spread, and the genes involved in their production, movement and reception are discussed in this review. Additionally, a short section on features of silencing spread in animal models is presented at the end of this review.
Montanaro, Silvana Quattrocchi
Discusses stages of movement in the first 3 years of life with a philosophical dimension regarding evolutionary aspects of movement as first manifestation of "will." Describes how the early childhood environment is prepared to allow for movement and the connection between movement and brain development. Discusses the contribution of movement to…
Stomata on leaf epidermis formed by pairs of guard cells control CO2 intake and water transpiration,and respond to different environmental conditions.Stress induced stomatal closure is mediated via an intricate hormone network in guard cells.Here we report absicic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) responsive proteins and redox sensitive proteins.Both ABA and MeJA cause stomatal movement and H2O2 production.Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach,we have identified many ABA and/or MeJA responsive proteins in B.napus guard cells.Most of the genes encoding these proteins contain hormone responsive elements in the promoters,indicating that they are potentially regulated at the transcriptional level.The protein level changes were validated using Western blot analysis.We have also identified redox responsive proteins in the above signaling processes.The identification of the hormone responsive proteins and redox state changes has revealed interesting molecular mechanisms underlying guard cell functions in stomatal movement.The knowledge has great potential to be applied to crop engineering for enhanced yield and stress tolerance.
Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...
Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...
SURAJ KUMAR SUMAN
Several of the new religious movements (NRMs) of modern times have become global movements. Among these are the Soka Gakkai of Japan; the Brahma Kumaris, Sathya Sai Baba, and Hare Krishna of India; the Tzu Chi Buddhist Compassion and Relief Society of Taiwan; and Scientology, which began in the United States in the early 1950s. In order to become global movements, NRMs must often depend heavily on one particular ethnic group as they expand beyond their home base. On arrival in new cultural co...
The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation
... with normal activity or have the potential to cause bodily harm. ... Stereotypic movement disorder is more common among boys than ... occur with other conditions, is unknown. Stimulant drugs such ...
... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Movement and Coordination Page Content Article Body At this age, your child will seem to be continually on the go— ...
The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....
Diani, Mario; Bison, Ivano
This article uses empirical evidence on networks of voluntary organizations mobilizing on ethnic minority, environmental, and social exclusion issues in two British cities, to differentiate between social movement processes and other, cognate collective action dynamics. Social movement processes are identified as the building and reproducing of dense informal networks between a multiplicity of actors, sharing a collective identity, and engaged in social and/or political conflict. They are con...
Eini, Omid; Behjatnia, S A Akbar
Betasatellites are single-stranded circular DNAs associated with a number of monopartite begomoviruses. Betasatellites rely on the helper begomoviruses for replication and movement in plant tissues and plant-to-plant transmission by vectors. Their genomes are approximately half the size of the helper viruses and consist of three main regions including the βC1 gene, an adenine-rich (A-rich) region, and the satellite conserved region (SCR). In this study, we investigated the minimal sequences required for Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) replication and movement. Mutational analysis of CLCuMB DNA genome indicated that βC1 gene and A-rich region were not required for trans-replication and movement of CLCuMB in host plants by a helper virus. Deletion of βC1 gene and a fragment (135 nt in length) upstream of this gene impaired CLCuMB replication. However, CLCuMB mutant with deletion of βC1 gene and a further 163 nucleotides replicated at a lower level as compared to the wild-type betasatellite. This suggests that there are essential elements in the fragment upstream of βC1 gene, which are required for the replication of CLCuMB rather than the size limitation of CLCuMB DNA. PMID:27193570
SURAJ KUMAR SUMAN
Full Text Available Several of the new religious movements (NRMs of modern times have become global movements. Among these are the Soka Gakkai of Japan; the Brahma Kumaris, Sathya Sai Baba, and Hare Krishna of India; the Tzu Chi Buddhist Compassion and Relief Society of Taiwan; and Scientology, which began in the United States in the early 1950s. In order to become global movements, NRMs must often depend heavily on one particular ethnic group as they expand beyond their home base. On arrival in new cultural contexts, movements are most likely to appeal to first- or second-generation economic migrants from the same ethnic background as the missionaries who brought the movement to the region in the first place. While being themselves part of the process of ever-increasing globalization, NRMs also throw light on the dynamics and mechanics of this process, on how it plays itself out. This article discusses the globalization and “glocalization” of NRMs, as well as NRMs as vehicles of a new spirituality.
Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián
Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination. PMID:20027697
Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E
Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.). PMID:19060196
Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...
Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini
Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…
Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.
Carmichael, Karla D.
This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…
Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease, the most common adult neurodegenerative movement disorder, demonstrates a brain-wide pathology that begins pre-clinically with alpha-synuclein aggregates ("Lewy neurites" in processes of gut enteric and vagal motor neurons. Rostral progression into substantia nigra with death of dopamine neurons produces the motor impairment phenotype that yields a clinical diagnosis. The vast majority of Parkinson's disease occurs sporadically, and current models of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD can utilize directly infused or systemic neurotoxins. Results We developed a differentiation protocol for human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma that yielded non-dividing dopaminergic neural cells with long processes that we then exposed to 50 nM rotenone, a complex I inhibitor used in Parkinson's disease models. After 21 days of rotenone, ~60% of cells died. Their processes retracted and accumulated ASYN-(+ and UB-(+ aggregates that blocked organelle transport. Mitochondrial movement velocities were reduced by 8 days of rotenone and continued to decline over time. No cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Lewy bodies were observed. Gene microarray analyses showed that the majority of genes were under-expressed. qPCR analyses of 11 mtDNA-encoded and 10 nDNA-encoded mitochondrial electron transport chain RNAs' relative expressions revealed small increases in mtDNA-encoded genes and lesser regulation of nDNA-encoded ETC genes. Conclusion Subacute rotenone treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells causes process retraction and partial death over several weeks, slowed mitochondrial movement in processes and appears to reproduce the Lewy neuritic changes of early Parkinson's disease pathology but does not cause Lewy body inclusions. The overall pattern of transcriptional regulation is gene under-expression with minimal regulation of ETC genes in spite of rotenone's being a complex I toxin. This rotenone-SH-SY5Y model in a
Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.
Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discip...
Smith, Lisa M.; Baulcombe, David C.
In our recent paper in Plant Cell, we examined the phenomenon of non-cell autonomous RNA silencing through a genetic screen of the requirements for cell-to-cell signal movement.1 We found a requirement for components of the nuclear and trans-acting RNA silencing pathways in blocking or enhancing the spread of silencing and identified a new SNF2 domain-containing protein, CLSY1, in the nuclear RNA silencing pathway. Here we discuss our data from a broader perspective of other recently publishe...
Wel, van der N.N.
For a full infection of a host, plant viruses should be able to multiply in the initially infected cell and to spread to neighbouring cells as to eventually invade the entire plant. The viral transport pathway can in principle be divided into two steps, i.e. cell-to-cell movement within tissues, and
Bizzi, E; Cheung, V.C.K.; d’Avella, A.; Saltiel, P.; Tresch, M.
We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing ...
Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)
Antonella Del Rosso
On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors. The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN. The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...
Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;
Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....
There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the embodiment of certain movements can stimulate creative idea formation. Embodied Creativity suggests that embodying particular movements, often fluid, free movements can improve creative thinking over the embodiment of nonfluid movements. In the first of two experiments participants were required to navigate a character through a bespoke virtual environment while (a) following a fluid, free flowing pathway, (b) a nonfluid pathway, or ...
Emily eHiggins; Mallorie eLeinenger; Keith eRayner
In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...
Roy, William G.
While much social science literature has analyzed the cultural bases of social movement, activity, and the content of cultural production by social movements, relatively little has been written about the concrete social relations within which social movements do culture. This paper addresses the issue of what social movements are doing when they produce culture. Four dimensions of social relations within which culture is enacted are identified: the division of labor, the relations of power, t...
Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes. Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp. Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabular
Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.
Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.
In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...... the bodily aspect to the educational system in a highly effective and useful way. Abstract: Children and adolescents are raised to passivity. Lack of motion in kindergartens and schools promote obesity and life style-related diseases, but another and just as dire consequence is the impact on learning...
Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf
The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established. This...... article analyses how the idea is practised in the areas of health, social welfare and education and shows that evidence-producing organizations work differently. Some subscribe to the hierarchy of evidence, others to a typology of evidence. The consequences of these variations are discussed....
Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flowsâ€™ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.
Aaltonen, V. (Vesa)
Abstract This study examined the role of tumor suppressor neurofibromin and Protein kinase C (PKC) in urinary bladder cancer, and the effect of PKC inhibitors on cancer cell behaviour. Tumor suppressor protein neurofibromin is a product of the NF1 gene, a mutation of which causes the most common hereditary tumor syndrome, type 1 neurofibromatosis. NF1 gene mutations and changes in expression have been demonstrated in malignancies, unrelated to type 1 neurofibromatosis. The best known ...
Sorokin, D.V.; Stixová, Lenka; Sehnalová, Petra; Legartová, Soňa; Suchánková, Jana; Šimara, P.; Kozubek, Stanislav; Matula, Pavel; Skalníková, M.; Raška, I.; Bártová, Eva
Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 301-313. ISSN 1949-1034 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP302/12/G157; GA ČR GA13-07822S; GA MŠk 7F14369; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : DNA damage * live cells * nucleolus Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.033, year: 2014
A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880x104, Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9x104, ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 μg/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6x104. ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870x104, Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4x104. Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author)
Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén
This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways....... The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich...... demonstrates how the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....
Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in...... general terms when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation...
Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, Grant; Blackwell, Paul; Goodall, Victoria; King, Ruth; Niu, Mu; Patterson, Toby; Pedersen, Martin; Skarin, Anna; Schick, Robert Schilling
1). Group dynamics are a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognized, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However, to date, practical statistical methods, which can include group dynamics in animal movement models, have been lacking. 2). We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level ...
DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L
Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432
Full Text Available In this paper I focus on one very influential argument for open borders, the freedom of movement argument, which says that if we value freedom of movement we must demand open borders. I begin the paper the paper by discussing Joseph Carens’ well known version of the argument. I then consider, and reject, David Miller's response to that argument. Finally, I develop my own reply to Carens. Both Carens and Miller, I argue, are mistaken about the proper grounds for freedom of movement. Once we see this, it is clear how we can value freedom of movement without being committed to open borders.
Inflation rates across countries tend to exhibit a degree of co-movement. In this paper we use a panel vector autoregression (panel VAR) model to investigate possible explanations of this co-movement for the G7 economies. Shocks to commodity prices are found to be more important than common movements in real activity as a driver of 'global inflation' dynamics. However, commodity prices and common real activity cannot explain all of the co-movement in inflation. Even when controlling for these...
Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....
Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation
Zhou, Li; Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Xia, Xue; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jia; Luan, Tianzhu
Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and used as semiconductor materials of photoanode to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable temperature spectroelectrochemistry study are used to characterize the influence of copper dopant with different concentrations on the band gap energies of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Cu-doped TiO2 semiconductor has avoided the formation of CuO during hydrothermal process and lowered the conduction band position of TiO2, which contribute to increase the short circuit current density of DSSCs. At the optimum Cu concentration of 1.0 at.%, the short circuit current density increased from 12.54 to 14.98 mA cm-2, full sun solar power conversion efficiencies increased from 5.58% up to 6.71% as compared to the blank DSSC. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs leads to improvements of up to 20% in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.
Scorza, Livia Camilla Trevisan; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier
One may think that plants seem relatively immobile. Nevertheless, plants not only produce movement but these movements can be quite rapid such as the closing traps of carnivorous plants, the folding up of leaflets in some Leguminosae species and the movement of floral organs in order to increase cross pollination. We focus this review on thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements, both in vegetative and reproductive parts of higher plants. Ultrastructural studies revealed that most thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements are caused by differentially changing cell turgor within a given tissue. Auxin has emerged as a key molecule that modulates proton extrusion and thus causing changes in cell turgor by enhancing the activity of H(+)ATPase in cell membranes. Finding conserved molecules and/or operational molecular modules among diverse types of movements would help us to find universal mechanisms controlling movements in plants and thus improve our understanding about the evolution of such phenomena. PMID:22231201
general terms when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation...
Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin
Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...
Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;
, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...... in an encamped state. Though the attraction to the group centroid is relatively weak, our model successfully captures group-influenced movement dynamics. Specifically, as compared to a regular mixture of correlated random walks, the group dynamic model more accurately predicts the non-diffusive behaviour...
KuliÄ, Igor M; Kim, Hwajin; Kural, Comert; Blehm, Benjamin; Selvin, Paul R; Nelson, Philip C; Gelfand, Vladimir I
We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.
Parra Mario Alfredo
Full Text Available Introduction: Quantitative analysis of eye movements in Digital Domain, has permitted to increase the amount of physiological information extracted form oculographic signals. In the Neuroscience field, it allows to deepen on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying oculomotor dysfunctions. Objectives: The main goal of this work is to obtain quantitative methods able to reduce subjective components introduced by researchers during visual description or qualifications of neural signals, also reducing the experience required to successfully identify normal or abnormal electrophysiological patterns. Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were evaluated in 27 normal subjects by applying quantitative analysis methods in both time and frequency domains. A set of variables was determined which acted as quantitative descriptors of oculomotor response during task performance. Results: The results clearly shown that quantitative variables could be of great value in order to increase the sensitivity of eye movements analysis, also increasing the power of eye movements exploration to assess the neurophysiological basis underlying eye movements execution in either motor and cognitive contexts. The amount of information extracted from eye movements signals through this method exceeds the 80% of the total information available. Conclusions: Further studies must be conducted to evaluate how these variables behave in such disorders of central nervous system where eye movements dysfunctions appear.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...
Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.
Accessory cells with a veiled morphology and movement pattern generated from monocytes after avoidance of plastic adherence and of NADPH oxidase activation. A comparison with GM-CSF/IL-4-induced monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
Ruwhof, Cindy; Canning, Martha O; Grotenhuis, Kristel; de Wit, Harm J; Florencia, Zenovia Z; de Haan-Meulman, Meeny; Drexhage, Hemmo A
Veiled cells (VC) present in afferent lymph transport antigen from the periphery to the draining lymph nodes. Although VC in lymph form a heterogeneous population, some of the cells clearly belong on morphological grounds to the Langerhans cell (LC)/ dendritic cell (DC) series. Here we show that culturing monocytes for 24 hrs while avoiding plastic adherence (polypropylene tubes) and avoiding the activation of NADPH oxidase (blocking agents) results in the generation of a population of veiled accessory cells. The generated VC were actively moving cells like lymph-borne VC in vivo. The monocyte (mo)-derived VC population existed of CD14(dim/-) and CD14(brighT) cells. Of these the CD14(dim/-) VC were as good in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation as immature DC (iDC) obtained after one week of adherent culture of monocytes in granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. This underscores the accessory cell function of the mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC. Although the CD14(dim/-)VC had a modest expression of the DC-specific marker CD83 and were positive for S100, expression of the DC-specific markers CD1a, Langerin, DC-SIGN, and DC-LAMP were absent. This indicates that the here generated CD14(dim/-) VC can not be considered as classical LC/DC. It was also impossible to turn the CD14(dim/-) mo-derived VC population into typical DC by culture for one week in GM-CSF/IL-4 or LPS. In fact the cells died tinder such circumstances, gaining some macrophage characteristics before dying. The IL-12 production from mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC was lower, whereas the production of IL-10 was higher as compared to iDC. Consequently the T cells that were stimulated by these mo-derived VC produced less IFN-gamma as compared with T cells stimulated by iDC. Our data indicate that it is possible to rapidly generate a population of CD14(dim/-) veiled accessory cells from monocytes. The marker pattern and cytokine production of these VC indicate that this
has also been shaped and energised by institutional arrangements. In particular, it argues that there are significant numbers of independent or ‘detached’ conservatives and that the institutional architecture draws them towards political engagement but at the same time imposes constraints. The...... political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...... structures that define the American political process, give rise to other movements and protests....
Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response toward a mechanical force. The movement is induced by prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing remodeling of tooth sockets. Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biologic tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs usually prescribed. NSAIDs block prostaglandin synthesis and result in slower tooth movement. Prostaglandins have been found to play a direct role in bone resorption. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, vadecoxib, and celecoxib are the commonly prescribed drugs. Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for orthodontic pain without affecting orthodontic tooth movement.
Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice
Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith
In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500
Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.
Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon
Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970
Matsievsky German Olegovitch
Purpose: to consider the main ideas of the Cossack movement which have defined a place and a role of the modern Cossacks in the Russian society. Methodology: methodological basis of research are the standard principles of a historicism and the objectivity, assuming the concrete historical approach to the analysis of events in their dialectic development. Results: some substantial directions of development of ideology of modern Cossack movement are revealed: use of traditions of Cossack democr...
Rassia, Stamatina T.; Hay, Simon; Beresford, Alastair; Baker, Nick V.
This research explores the relationship between the indoor environment and physical activity and sets out to highlight how motion inside buildings can be described as a dynamic system that may be prescribed by design. Our work builds on an exploratory study carried out in a cellular workplace at the Computer Laboratory of the University of Cambridge in order to identify the energy cost of movement in different office spaces. Movement has been recorded using an accurate indoor location system ...
textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection of visual surround would slip across the retina and retinal slip of more than only a few degrees per second would cause blurring of the projected image and reduce visual acuity (Westheimer and McKe...
The capacity of Latin American social groups to mobilize has excited the imagination of students of the region since the birth of Latin American studies itself. Alongside the cultural turn, many social movement organizations continue to engage directly with politics. Aspirational goals notwithstanding, in order to improve conditions they devote much of their energy to influencing policy. Although scholars have begun to address the policy impact of Latin American social movements, we have limi...
Iranzo, Amador; Farné, Alessandra
In this century, the year 2011 will be remembered as a historical landmark for mass demonstrations for social change. Starting with the so-called Arab Spring in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, followed by the 15M Indignant movement in Spain and Occupy movements in the USA and other countries, these rallies quickly and heterogeneously spread around the world. Despite their distinctive features, they share some common characteristics. On the one hand, there is a general feeling of indignation toward ...
Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.
Hashimoto, Hisayuki [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yuasa, Shinsuke, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tabata, Hidenori [Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tohyama, Shugo; Seki, Tomohisa; Egashira, Toru; Hayashiji, Nozomi; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Kusumoto, Dai; Kunitomi, Akira; Takei, Makoto; Kashimura, Shin; Yozu, Gakuto; Shimojima, Masaya; Motoda, Chikaaki; Muraoka, Naoto [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Kazunori [Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi [Life Function and Dynamics, ERATO, JST, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Function and Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukuda, Keiichi [Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)
The precise assemblage of several types of cardiac precursors controls heart organogenesis. The cardiac precursors show dynamic movement during early development and then form the complicated heart structure. However, cardiomyocyte movements inside the newly organized mammalian heart remain unclear. We previously established the method of ex vivo time-lapse imaging of the murine heart to study cardiomyocyte behavior by using the Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) system, which can effectively label individual G1, S/G2/M, and G1/S-transition phase nuclei in living cardiomyocytes as red, green, and yellow, respectively. Global analysis of gene expression in Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes confirmed that cell cycle regulatory genes expressed in G1/S, S, G2/M, and M phase transitions were upregulated. Interestingly, pathway analysis revealed that many genes related to the cell cycle were significantly upregulated in the Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes, while only a small number of genes related to cell motility were upregulated. Time-lapse imaging showed that murine proliferating cardiomyocytes did not exhibit dynamic movement inside the heart, but stayed on site after entering the cell cycle. - Highlights: • We directly visualized cardiomyocyte movement inside the developing murine heart. • Cell cycle related genes were upregulated in the proliferating cardiomyocytes. • Time-lapse imaging revealed that proliferating murine cardiomyocytes stayed in place. • Murine ventricular cardiomyocytes proliferate on site during development.
The precise assemblage of several types of cardiac precursors controls heart organogenesis. The cardiac precursors show dynamic movement during early development and then form the complicated heart structure. However, cardiomyocyte movements inside the newly organized mammalian heart remain unclear. We previously established the method of ex vivo time-lapse imaging of the murine heart to study cardiomyocyte behavior by using the Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) system, which can effectively label individual G1, S/G2/M, and G1/S-transition phase nuclei in living cardiomyocytes as red, green, and yellow, respectively. Global analysis of gene expression in Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes confirmed that cell cycle regulatory genes expressed in G1/S, S, G2/M, and M phase transitions were upregulated. Interestingly, pathway analysis revealed that many genes related to the cell cycle were significantly upregulated in the Fucci green positive ventricular cardiomyocytes, while only a small number of genes related to cell motility were upregulated. Time-lapse imaging showed that murine proliferating cardiomyocytes did not exhibit dynamic movement inside the heart, but stayed on site after entering the cell cycle. - Highlights: • We directly visualized cardiomyocyte movement inside the developing murine heart. • Cell cycle related genes were upregulated in the proliferating cardiomyocytes. • Time-lapse imaging revealed that proliferating murine cardiomyocytes stayed in place. • Murine ventricular cardiomyocytes proliferate on site during development
Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H
Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID
Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other
Thomsen, Bente Dahl
This paper presents the good practice based experiences found when movement is used to strengthen form creation and to create flow in the process of artistic education. Faced with the design engineering students’ problems with creating forms with aesthetic statements, the experiences with movement...... lens to assess the students’ development of mind-body skills, known as ‘The Three Soma’. The Somatechne model also helps to identify the activity that gives the students the opportunity to develop their sensibility and thus aesthetic attention....... inspired the thesis that the design engineers’ training in aesthetic form creation can be improved by integrating the movement potential into their education. The paper documents the on-going work on developing a model for embodied creation of form called ‘Somatechne model’. The study also identifies a...
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a focus on reducing energy consumption in commercial buildings as a means of increasing their sustainability. As part of this trend, various health clubs and fitness centers have been designed to lower consumption of resources such as electricity and water. However, energy consumption is just one part of sustainability, with human health and economic health also paramount. When all components of sustainability are analyzed, other forms of physical activity may possess higher levels of sustainability than traditional gym exercise. Natural movement activity consists of outdoor activity that replicates movements performed by ancient humans during the Paleolithic era. A full analysis of sustainability shows that natural movement activity consumes fewer resources and provides unique psychological and physical benefits compared with traditional indoor exercise.
Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker
A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...
Siva Prasad Darla
Full Text Available In the modern manufacturing environment, Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS have gained greater importance in job shop or batch-type production to gain economic advantage similar to those of mass production. Successful implementation of CMS highly depends on the determination of part families; machine cells and minimizing inter cellular movement. This study considers machine component grouping problems namely inter-cellular movement and cell load variation by developing a mathematical model and optimizing the solution using Genetic Algorithm to arrive at a cell formation to minimize the inter-cellular movement and cell load variation. The results are presented with a numerical example.
Skorpik, James R.
Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods are described. In one aspect, a wireless communication device includes a housing, wireless communication circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to communicate wireless signals, movement circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to provide movement data regarding movement sensed by the movement circuitry, and event processing circuitry coupled with the housing and the movement circuitry, wherein the event processing circuitry is configured to process the movement data, and wherein at least a portion of the event processing circuitry is configured to operate in a first operational state having a different power consumption rate compared with a second operational state.
Full Text Available The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades, saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades, and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks. On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention.
Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…
The ability of plants to move is central to many physiological processes from development to tropisms, from nutrition to reproduction. The movement of plants or plant parts occurs over a wide range of sizes and time scales. This review summarizes the main physical mechanisms plants use to achieve motility, highlighting recent work at the frontier of biology and physics on rapid movements. Emphasis is given to presenting in a single framework pioneering biological studies of water transport and growth with more recent physics research on poroelasticity and mechanical instabilities. First, the basic osmotic and hydration/dehydration motors are described that contribute to movement by growth and reversible swelling/shrinking of cells and tissues. The speeds of these water-driven movements are shown to be ultimately limited by the transport of water through the plant body. Some plant structures overcome this hydraulic limit to achieve much faster movement by using a mechanical instability. The principle is to impose an 'energy barrier' to the system, which can originate from geometrical constraint or matter cohesion, allowing elastic potential energy to be stored until the barrier is overcome, then rapidly transformed into kinetic energy. Three of these rapid motion mechanisms have been elucidated recently and are described here: the snapping traps of two carnivorous plants, the Venus flytrap and Utricularia, and the catapult of fern sporangia. Finally, movement mechanisms are reconsidered in the context of the timescale of important physiological processes at the cellular and molecular level. PMID:23913956
Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…
Leppo, Marjorie; Davis, Diane
This article presents a framework for movement activities upon which physical educators and early childhood teachers can build appropriate learning activities that reinforce the connection between the mind and body for children between the ages of two and seven. The authors discuss Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The authors hope that…
L.J. van Rijn
textabstractIf one has to give a description of eye movements, what first comes to mind is the possibility of the eyes to rotate in horizontal and vertical directions. It is generally less obvious that the eyes are capable of moving in a third. namely the torsional. direction. This capability is by
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015 - (Della Porta, D.; Diani, M.), s. 50-67 ISBN 978-0-19-967840-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29032S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : political science * social movements * democracy Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences
Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M
The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616
Large-scale policy research on topics of concern to teachers may assist in changing educational theory, policy and practice, as may educational action research. This article discusses different traditions of action research in relation to their views about the connection of research and social movement, touching on the so-called "macro-micro" problem which bedevils conceptualizations of this relationship.
Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.
VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN
AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective k...
Dow, Connie Bergstein
Children move the instant they are born and the moment they wake up every morning. Moving is one of the first and most important ways infants and toddlers explore and learn about the world, and this process continues as they grow and develop. Research shows that movement and exercise can spark the growth of new brain cells and facilitate learning…
Risager, Bjarke Skærlund
is dialectical and mutually constitutive: the physical and symbolic characteristics of place influence the formation of the movement and its actions while the latter re-creates the place. This is a corrective to a dominant approach in social movement studies to see movements as a ‘dependent variable......Inspired by the Occupy movement, the Egyptian revolutionaries and other of the 2011 social movements, this paper investigates the relationship between social movement and place. Drawing on first-hand accounts from these movements, I argue that the relationship between movement and place......’ that is to be explained (della Porta 2008) instead of a political subject with the ability to affect itself and society; and a corrective to the growing body of literature on the geographies of social movements that often has a too static and state-centred approach. Using John Agnew’s (1987) conceptualisation of place...
Ajjikuttira, Prabha; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Wong, Sek-Man
Complementation of movement and coat proteins of the orchid-infecting potexvirus Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and tobamovirus Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) was investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana, which is susceptible to both CymMV and ORSV, was used as a model system. Four transgenic lines, each harbouring one of the movement protein (MP) or coat protein (CP) genes of CymMV or ORSV, were constructed. The MP of CymMV consists of three overlapping open reading frames, together called the triple-gene block (TGB). CymMV and ORSV mutants, each carrying an inactivated MP or CP, were generated from the respective biologically active full-length cDNA clones. Complementation was studied by infecting transgenic plants with in vitro transcripts generated from these mutants. The cell-to-cell movement of a movement-deficient CymMV was restored in transgenic plants carrying the ORSV MP transgene. Similarly, CymMV TGB1 transgenic plants were able to rescue the cell-to-cell movement of a movement-deficient ORSV mutant. ORSV CP transgenic plants supported systemic movement of a CymMV CP-deficient mutant. However, in these plants, neither encapsidation of CymMV RNA with ORSV CP nor CymMV CP expression was detected. Long-distance movement of an ORSV CP-deficient mutant was not supported by CymMV CP. The complementation of MPs and CPs of CymMV and ORSV facilitates movement of these viruses in plants, except for long-distance movement of ORSV RNA by CymMV CP. PMID:15831968
Richard A. Horsley
Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.
Hong, Simon; Optican, Lance M.; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Zee, David S.; Shaikh, Aasef G.
Measurement of eye movements often helps to diagnose ocular motor disorders in the clinic, and is also used as a research tool in ocular motor, vision and vestibular research. Eye movements, however, are usually recorded without simultaneous video recordings, making offline interpretation difficult. We developed a tool that converts the measured eye movement data into a three-dimensional (3D) movie of eye movements. Having useful functions such as slow-play, pause and exaggeration of the movements, this new software provides a research and teaching tool to aid interpretation of the recorded eye movements. PMID:21689683
This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.
Pfoser, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard
-the-shelf database management systems typically do not offer higher-dimensional indexing, this reduction in dimensionality allows us to use existing DBMSes to store and index trajectories. Moreover, we argue that, given the right circumstances, indexing these dimensionality-reduced trajectories can be more efficient......With the proliferation of mobile computing, the ability to index efficiently the movements of mobile objects becomes important. Objects are typically seen as moving in two-dimensional (x,y) space, which means that their movements across time may be embedded in the three-dimensional (x,y,t) space...... than using a three-dimensional index. A decisive factor here is the fractal dimension of the network.the lower, the more efficient is the proposed approach. This hypothesis is verified by an experimental study that incorporates trajectories stemming from real and synthetic road networks....
Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.
Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal poi...
In this paper, we analyze the determinants of international movements of physical capital in a model with uncertainty and international trade in goods and securities.In our model, the world allocation of capital is governed, to some extent, by the asset preferences of risk averse consumer-investors. In a one-good variant in the spirit of the MacDougall model, we find that relative factor abundance, relative labor force size and relative production riskiness have separate but interrelated infl...
Frighetto, Leonardo; Bizzi, Jorge; Annes, Rafael D’Agostini; Silva, Rodrigo dos Santos; Oppitz, Paulo
Initially designed for the treatment of functional brain targets, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has achieved an important role in the management of a wide range of neurosurgical pathologies. The interest in the application of the technique for the treatment of pain, and psychiatric and movement disorders has returned in the beginning of the 1990s, stimulated by the advances in neuroimaging, computerized dosimetry, treatment planning software systems, and the outstanding results of radiosurg...
The aim of this article is to clarify, review and reflect on the importance of the Olympic movement main principles on nowadays sporting society. For this purpose, the paper goes through the contents of the Olympic Charter, the threats to humanist thinking, the Olympic Games history and the most recent contributions to the Olympic philosophy. Similarly, this article goes deep on the figure of Pierre de Coubertin as the precursor of modern Olympic Games leading to the development of a relation...
textabstractThe cerebellum plays an important role in the recalibration and adaptive adjustment of movements, as well as learning new motor skills and motor related associations. In this thesis, we investigated the mechanisms underlying cerebellar motor learning. To obtain a better understanding, in how the cerebellum processes and stores information, we used specific perturbations that affected the information processing of the cerebellum. Signal transduction pathways were affected that were...
Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel
Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264
Nakamura, Hisako; 中村, 久子
At around the period when Japanese women began to seek the liberation from sexual segregation， the sex diffreence in the movements of the Awa Dance gradually widened, due to obtaining more attractive performance as tourism resources. Women danced a female dance and men danced a male dance. Despite clear differences in movements，some women came to challenge the male dance.This article attempts to make clear，through interviews， who began to dance the male dance and when and...
Organizational behaviour is often dependent on the strategic movement of internal knowledge for success. Organizational knowledge management methodologies require the involvement of stakeholders. In large organizations, involved stakeholders shall be selected by the entire membership. Key involvement roles and considerations should be offered to/involve the ‘least likely to participate’. Suck stakeholders often possess the most influential power to move the stakeholders; if not, they demonstr...
Full Text Available The capacity of Latin American social groups to mobilize has excited the imagination of students of the region since the birth of Latin American studies itself. Alongside the cultural turn, many social movement organizations continue to engage directly with politics. Aspirational goals notwithstanding, in order to improve conditions they devote much of their energy to influencing policy. Although scholars have begun to address the policy impact of Latin American social movements, we have limited systematized understanding of the conditions and mechanisms by which social movement protest affects policy outcomes. This essay argues that a policy process approach offers a useful first cut into more systematic analysis of social movements, protest, and their policy consequences in Latin America. Resumen: Movimientos Sociales, Protesta y Políticas de Gobierno La capacidad de movilización social que evidencia América Latina ha captado el imaginario de investigadores desde los albores de los estudios latinoamericanos. A pesar del giro cultural sobre el tema, muchos movimientos sociales siguen entablando la política de forma directa. Amén de sus metas aspiracionales, en pos de mejorar sus condiciones dedican una cantidad apreciable de sus esfuerzos a influenciar políticas de gobierno. Si bien es cierto que una cantidad no menospreciable de investigadores consideran esos impactos aún hace falta conocimiento sistematizado sobre las condiciones y los mecanismos a través de los cuales la protesta social afecta las políticas del estado. Este ensayo argumenta que enfoques centrados en los procesos de la política pública ofrecen una buena entrada al análisis más sistemático sobre los movimientos sociales, protesta, y sus consecuencias para políticas de gobierno.
Bulmer, M. H.; Glaze, L.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Murphy, W.; Neumann, G.
Slope failure and the resulting movement of material downslope on Mars has never been witnessed, making careful data analyses combined with physical modeling the only way to understand their emplacement process. Evidence exists for varying types of landsliding on Mars. They are a significant geomorphic agent in the modification of the surface of Mars and their emplacement style remains contentious. Furthermore, little is known about the slope forming materials and the processes that govern the triggering, failure, and deposition of landslides. We are examining the emplacement of a range of mass movement types in varying geologic settings on Mars by building on detailed landslide field and modeling studies we have conducted on Earth. We have identified a spectrum of different landslide types on Mars ranging from small gully failures such as those in Nirgal Vallis, lobate debris aprons, to large rock avalanches such as those in Ganges Chasma. The deposits associated with gullies and small debris aprons have characteristics analogous to alluvial fans, rock chutes, talus slopes, and debris flows on Earth. The large landslides on Mars have similar attributes to terrestrial rock avalanches and rockslides. Detailed studies on Earth have shown unique topographic and morphological differences between these mass movement types, which have been well documented and that we have examined. We are using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data to conduct new geomorphic, topographic and theoretical modeling studies on the emplacement of landslides on Mars at resolutions comparable to those on Earth.
This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)
A literature review is presented of information on salt movement in disturbed soils, particularly in soils that have been disturbed by pipeline construction. The review has two main objectives: to assess climatic and soil conditions under which salts will move out of the root zone in a disturbed soil and to determine the rate at which salts will move in disturbed soils. A literature base was established using computer database and library searches, and a number of studies were reviewed. Many studies, dealing specifically with salt movement over time in disturbed soils under climatic and salt conditions similar to those found in Alberta, are summarized in tabular form. Data found in the literature tend to be sparse and incomplete, making firm conclusions about rates of salt movement difficult. In the brown soil zone, 5 years may be sufficient time for sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity levels, elevated during construction, to return to pre-construction conditions in coarse to moderately coarse textured soils. In medium to moderately fine textured soils, 10-26 years may be required. In the dark brown soil zone, 5 years is marginal for return to pre-construction conditions. Data in the black soil zone are limited and results inconsistent. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs
Will, Leslie A
The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. PMID:26599117
Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)
Wasundhara A Bhad-Patil
Full Text Available One of the major component of patient to reject orthodontic treatment is the long duration of treatment..If Low intensity laser therapy can promote wound healing by increased cell proliferation and improved micro circulation can bring about faster bone remodelling at fracture sites; then why not to use it with orthodontic forces for better results? Soft tissue laser has now become a part of essential equipment of modern dental clinics. To accelerate the physiologic tooth movement during orthodontic treatment a thorough knowledge of laser unit, mode of action and key factors to gain therapeutic effect is a must which this article illustrates .Study carried out by us did show a 30% reduction in the treatment time.
Tasaka, M.; Saito, T.; Morita, M. T.
Gravitropism of higher plant is a growth response regulating the orientation of organs elongation, which includes four sequential steps, the perception of gravistimulus, transduction of the physical stimulus to chemical signal, transmission of the signal, and differential cell elongation depending on the signal. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these steps, we have isolated a number of Arabidopsis mutants with abnormal shoot gravitropic response. zig (zigzag)/sgr4(shoot gravitropism 4) shows little gravitropism in their shoots. Besides, their inflorescence stems elongate in a zigzag-fashion to bend at each node. ZIG encodes a SNARE, AtVTI11. sgr3 with reduced gravitropic response in inflorescence stems had a missense mutation in other SNARE, AtVAM3. These two SNAREs make a complex in the shoot endoderm cells that are gravity-sensing cells, suggesting that the vesicle transport from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to prevacuolar compartment (PVC) and/or vacuole is involved in gravitropism. Abnormal vesicular/vacuolar structures were observed in several tissues of both mutants. Moreover, SGR2 encodes phospholipase A1-like protein that resides in the vacuolar membrane. Endodermis-specific expression of these genes could complement gravitropism in each mutant. In addition, amyloplasts thought to be statoliths localized abnormally in their endoderm cells. These results strongly suggest that formation and function of vacuole in the endoderm cells are important for amyloplasts sedimentation, which is involved in the early process of shoot gravitropism. To reveal this, we constructed vertical stage microscope system to visualize the behavior of amyloplasts and vacuolar membrane in living endodermal cells. We hope to discuss the mechanism of gravity perception after showing their movements.
Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Burdet, Etienne
Quantitative measures of smoothness play an important role in the assessment of sensorimotor impairment and motor learning. Traditionally, movement smoothness has been computed mainly for discrete movements, in particular arm, reaching and circle drawing, using kinematic data. There are currently very few studies investigating smoothness of rhythmic movements, and there is no systematic way of analysing the smoothness of such movements. There is also very little work on the smoothness of othe...
McGehee, Nancy Gard
This study develops and tests a theoretical model drawing on social psychological and resource-mobilization perspectives of social movement theory to explain changes in social movement participation and support for activism among Earthwatch Expedition volunteers. The social psychological perspective of social movements recognizes the role of self-efficacy and consciousness-raising for the participation in and success of social movement organizations. The resou...
Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue
The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161
Mark Hallett, M.D
@@The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is the international not-for-profit organization representing and serving clinicians, other health professionals, researchers and policy makers interested in the area of movement disorders. The Society is represented in 68 countries by approximately 1,500 members. The Society has developed regional sections and welcomes affiliation of regional Movement Disorder groups.
This study offers a new theory of verb movement parametrization. The author proposes to look upon verb movement as an operation that the verb undertakes in order to protect one or more of its features. It is no longer a movement to a prefabricated position but a structure-creating operation. Output
A survey of 26 Rorschach experts and 19 students of Rorschach use was conducted to help students using the Exner Comprehensive System determine whether to code movement for nouns with definitions that include movement. Experts and students did not reach agreement, but a literature review suggests such nouns should often be coded as movement. (SLD)
Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…
Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…
Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....
Thomas C Harrison
Full Text Available The firing rates of neurons in primate motor cortex have been related to multiple parameters of voluntary movement. This finding has been corroborated by stimulation-based studies that have mapped complex movements in rodent and primate motor cortex. However, it has been difficult to link the movement tuning of a neuron with its role within the cortical microcircuit. In sensory cortex, neuronal tuning is largely established by afferents delivering information from tuned receptors in the periphery. Motor cortex, which lacks the granular input layer, may be better understood by analyzing its efferent projections. As a primary source of cortical output, layer 5 neurons represent an ideal starting point for this line of experimentation. It is in these deep output layers that movements can most effectively be evoked by intracortical microstimulation and recordings can obtain the most useful signals for the control of motor prostheses. Studies focused on layer 5 output neurons have revealed that projection identity is a fundamental property related to the laminar position, receptive field and ion channel complement of these cells. Given the variety of brain areas targeted by layer 5 output neurons, knowledge of a neuron’s downstream connectivity may provide insight into its movement tuning. Future experiments that relate motor behavior to the activity of neurons with a known projection identity will yield a more detailed understanding of the function of cortical microcircuits.
Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. PMID:26513354
Johnson, Walter W. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor)
The papers given at an intensive, three-week workshop on visually guided control of movement are presented. The participants were researchers from academia, industry, and government, with backgrounds in visual perception, control theory, and rotorcraft operations. The papers included invited lectures and preliminary reports of research initiated during the workshop. Three major topics are addressed: extraction of environmental structure from motion; perception and control of self motion; and spatial orientation. Each topic is considered from both theoretical and applied perspectives. Implications for control and display are suggested.
How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia
Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)
Yousif, Nada; Greenwood, Richard; Rothwell, John C.; Diedrichsen, Jörn
How does the motor system choose the speed for any given movement? Many current models assume a process that finds the optimal balance between the costs of moving fast and the rewards of achieving the goal. Here, we show that such models also need to take into account a prior representation of preferred movement speed, which can be changed by prolonged practice. In a time-constrained reaching task, human participants made 25-cm reaching movements within 300, 500, 700, or 900 ms. They were then trained for 3 days to execute the movement at either the slowest (900-ms) or fastest (300-ms) speed. When retested on the 4th day, movements executed under all four time constraints were biased toward the speed of the trained movement. In addition, trial-to-trial variation in speed of the trained movement was significantly reduced. These findings are indicative of a use-dependent mechanism that biases the selection of speed. Reduced speed variability was also associated with reduced errors in movement amplitude for the fast training group, which generalized nearly fully to a new movement direction. In contrast, changes in perpendicular error were specific to the trained direction. In sum, our results suggest the existence of a relatively stable but modifiable prior of preferred movement speed that influences the choice of movement speed under a range of task constraints. PMID:24133220
Siva Prasad Darla; C.D. Naiju; Polu Vidya Sagar; B. Venkat Likhit
In the modern manufacturing environment, Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS) have gained greater importance in job shop or batch-type production to gain economic advantage similar to those of mass production. Successful implementation of CMS highly depends on the determination of part families; machine cells and minimizing inter cellular movement. This study considers machine component grouping problems namely inter-cellular movement and cell load variation by developing a mathematical model...
Shafir, Tal; Tsachor, Rachelle P.; Welch, Kathleen B.
We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation, and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s) should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, ...
Ji, Xu; Qian, Dan; Wei, Chunhong; Ye, Gongyin; ZHANG Zhongkai; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui; Li, Yi
Cell-to-cell movement is essential for plant viruses to systemically infect host plants. Plant viruses encode movement proteins (MP) to facilitate such movement. Unlike the well-characterized MPs of DNA viruses and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, knowledge of the functional mechanisms of MPs encoded by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses is very limited. In particular, many studied MPs of DNA and ssRNA viruses bind non-specifically ssRNAs, leading to models in which ribonucleoprotein com...
LI Xianjun; ZHANG Biguang; LI Wenjun; LI Yanjun
In order to analyze the effect of temperature gradient on moisture movement during highly intensive drying,such as microwave-vacuum drying,the profile of the temperature and moisture content in sealed wood whose opposite faces were subjected to temperature gradient for a short time was measured.The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.The results indicate that moisture moved in wood from the warm surface to the cold one even if opposite faces of the sealed wood assembly were exposed continuously to different but constant temperatures for a short period.The moisture content on the cold surface was higher than that on the warm surface.The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established,and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/℃.The temperature in the sample and the distance from the hot surface of the sample was strongly linearly correlated.With an increase in temperature,initial moisture content and experimental time,the dM/dT was significantly increased.
Tatem, Andrew J
For most of human history, populations have been relatively isolated from each other, and only recently has there been extensive contact between peoples, flora and fauna from both old and new worlds. The reach, volume and speed of modern travel are unprecedented, with human mobility increasing in high income countries by over 1000-fold since 1800. This growth is putting people at risk from the emergence of new strains of familiar diseases, and from completely new diseases, while ever more cases of the movement of both disease vectors and the diseases they carry are being seen. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Equally however, we now have access to the most detailed and comprehensive datasets on human mobility and pathogen distributions ever assembled, in order to combat these threats. This short review paper provides an overview of these datasets, with a particular focus on low income regions, and covers briefly approaches used to combine them to help us understand and control some of the negative effects of population and pathogen movements. PMID:24480992
Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu
A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880 x 10U, Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9 x 10U, ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 g/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6 x 10U. ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870 x 10U, Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4 x 10U. Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author).
De Graaf, J B; Jarrassé, N; Nicol, C; Touillet, A; Coyle, T; Maynard, L; Martinet, N; Paysant, J
After limb amputation, patients often wake up with a vivid perception of the presence of the missing limb, called "phantom limb". Phantom limbs have mostly been studied with respect to pain sensation. But patients can experience many other phantom sensations, including voluntary movements. The goal of the present study was to quantify phantom movement kinematics and relate these to intact limb kinematics and to the time elapsed since amputation. Six upper arm and two forearm amputees with various delays since amputation (6months to 32years) performed phantom finger, hand and wrist movements at self-chosen comfortable velocities. The kinematics of the phantom movements was indirectly obtained via the intact limb that synchronously mimicked the phantom limb movements, using a Cyberglove® for measuring finger movements and an inertial measurement unit for wrist movements. Results show that the execution of phantom movements is perceived as "natural" but effortful. The types of phantom movements that can be performed are variable between the patients but they could all perform thumb flexion/extension and global hand opening/closure. Finger extension movements appeared to be 24% faster than finger flexion movements. Neither the number of types of phantom movements that can be executed nor the kinematic characteristics were related to the elapsed time since amputation, highlighting the persistence of post-amputation neural adaptation. We hypothesize that the perceived slowness of phantom movements is related to altered proprioceptive feedback that cannot be recalibrated by lack of visual feedback during phantom movement execution. PMID:26556065
Abhilash, Rakkunedeth H; Chauhan, Sunita; Che, Ma Voon; Ooi, Chin-Chin; Bakar, Rafidah Abu; Lo, Richard H G
Respiration-induced movement of abdominal organs hampers the targeting accuracy of non-invasive surgical techniques such as focused ultrasound surgery and radiosurgery. Unaccounted organ movement can result in either under dosage or damage to intervening healthy tissues. The respiration-induced movement is known to be significantly large in kidneys; however, the impact of abnormalities such as tumors and cysts on kidney movement is poorly understood. In this study, we quantified the movement patterns of kidneys in 48 normal and 62 affected kidneys (43 calcified cysts, 11 angiomyolipomas, 4 renal cell carcinomas and 4 polycystic kidneys) using ultrasound and simultaneously tracked the respiratory movement patterns using a stereo camera system. The kidneys were localized from 2-D ultrasound sequences using a template matching technique. The average movements of the right and left kidneys were, respectively, 24.54 ± 6.4 and 17.06 ± 3.66 mm in the superior-inferior and 13.62 ± 3.71 and 9.80 ± 3.32 mm in the transverse directions. Average movement in the superior-inferior direction of normal kidneys was greater than that of affected kidneys for both right (26.9 ± 5.1 vs. 22.6 ± 3.3, p 20 mm in 14 patients). Compared with normal patients, the extent of movement was significantly reduced in abnormal categories B (p correlated with the respiratory movement pattern (Pearson correlation = 0.89 [right] and 0.87 [left]). We expect that the movement pattern analyses and quantification carried out in this study would aid in developing movement adaptive surgical protocols for non-invasive treatment of kidney tumors/cancers. PMID:27126242
Bielecki, Jan; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Garm, Anders Lydik
All known photoreceptor cells adapt to constant light stimuli, fading the retinal image when exposed to an immobile visual scene. Counter strategies are therefore necessary to prevent blindness, and in mammals this is accomplished by fixational eye movements. Cubomedusae occupy a key position for understanding the evolution of complex visual systems and their eyes are assumedly subject to the same adaptive problems as the vertebrate eye, but lack motor control of their visual system. The morp...
Peña, Norberto; Corrêa, Lorena Peixoto Nogueira Rodriguez Martinez Salles; França, Lucas Gabriel Souza; Cunha, Marcelo do Vale; de Sousa, Marcos Cavalcanti; Vieira, João Paulo Bomfim Cruz; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas
This paper presents the validation of a computational tool that serves to obtain continuous measurements of moving objects. The software uses techniques of computer vision, pattern recognition and optical flow, to enable tracking of objects in videos, generating data trajectory, velocity, acceleration and angular movement. The program was applied to track a ball around a simple pendulum. The methodology used to validate it, taking as a basis to compare the values measured by the program, as well as the theoretical values expected according to the model of a simple pendulum. The experiment is appropriate to the method because it was built within the limits of the linear harmonic oscillator and energy losses due to friction had been minimized, making it the most ideal possible. The results indicate that the tool is sensitive and accurate. Deviations of less than a millimeter to the extent of the trajectory, ensures the applicability of the software on physics, whether in research or in teaching topics.
Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel
Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. PMID:26972261
Walton, Mark M G; Gandhi, Neeraj J
The countermanding saccade task has been used in many studies to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie the decision to execute or restrain rapid eye movements. In this task, the presentation of a saccade target is sometimes followed by the appearance of a stop cue that indicates that the subject should cancel the planned movement. Performance has been modeled as a race between motor preparation and cancellation processes. The signal that reaches its activation threshold first determines whether a saccade is generated or cancelled. In these studies, an important parameter is the time required to process the stop cue, referred to as the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). The SSRT is estimated using statistical approaches, the validity of which has not been unequivocally established. A more direct measure of this parameter might be obtainable if a method was available to "unmask" the developing motor command. This can be accomplished by air-puff-evoked blinks, which inhibit pontine omnipause neurons that serve as an inhibitory gate for the saccadic system. In the present study, brief puffs of air were used to elicit blinks at various times while rhesus monkeys performed a countermanding saccade task. If the developing motor command has not yet been cancelled, this should trigger a saccade. When blinks occurred between approximately 50 and 200 ms after target onset, saccades were often evoked. Saccades were rarely evoked more than approximately 70 ms after stop cue onset; this value represents a behavioral evaluation of SSRT and was comparable to the estimates obtained using standard statistical approaches. When saccades occurred near the SSRT on blink trials, they were often hypometric. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model the effects of blink time on the race model. Overall, the study supports the validity of the statistical methods currently in use. PMID:16760340
Full Text Available 20 years old female patient, who had operated from congenital syndactyly on her left hand at five age, admitted to neurology policlinic with involuntary movement on her hands. We saw mirror movement (MM when she writing, catching with her left hand. This movement is had low amplitude in the right hand than left. Cervical MRG revealed no abnormality. Brain MRG revealed right middle, inferior cerebellary peduncle, olive and pyramid hypoplasia. Mirror movement shows homolog muscle activity which simulating contralateral movement, during a spesific task. This movement is seen usually upper extremity especially in the hand. Corticospinal tract dysfunction is often considered in the pathogenesis. MM may present as part of cervico medullary junction abnormality, cerebral palsy, cerebrovasculary disease, Parkinson disease. We wanted to discuss the patogenesis of MM in our patient with syndactyly and MRG abnormality.
Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Bonnet, Audrey; Bourtoire, Pauline; Sandretto, Jean
This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale) decreased to a near zero value. Smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded by an Eyelin...
Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas
In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....
Full Text Available In this research paper author tried to highlight the great extremists in Indian National Movement. The first organized militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took to the political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress (INC, with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil.
In this research paper author tried to highlight the great extremists in Indian National Movement. The first organized militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took to the political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress (INC), with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil.
Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos
The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration
Wichmann, Thomas; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O
Our understanding of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, and associated changes in basal ganglia activities has significantly changed in the course of the last few decades. This process began with the development of detailed anatomical models of the basal ganglia, followed by studies of basal ganglia activity patterns in animal models of common movement disorders and electrophysiological recordings in movement disorder patients undergoing functional neurosurgical procedures. These inve...