WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Therapeutic potential of targeting glucose metabolism in glioma stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are potentially an attractive therapeutic target and eradication of GSCs may impact tumor growth and sensitize tumors to conventional therapies. The brain is one of the most metabolically active organs with glucose representing the most important, but not the only, source of energy and carbon. Like all other cancers, glioblastoma requires a continuous source of energy and molecular resources for new cell production with a preferential use of aerobic glycolysis, recognized as the Warburg effect. As selected metabolic nodes are amenable to therapeutic targeting, we observed that the Warburg effect may causally contribute to glioma heterogeneity. This Editorial summarizes recent studies that examine the relationship between GSCs and metabolism and briefly provides our views for the future directions. The ultimate goal is to establish a new concept by incorporating both the cellular hierarchical theory and the cellular evolution theory to explain tumor heterogeneity. Such concept may better elucidate the mechanisms of how tumors gain cellular and molecular complexity and guide us develop novel and effective targeted therapies. PMID:25077882

Nakano, Ichiro

2014-11-01

2

Sensitization of metformin-cytotoxicity by dichloroacetate via reprogramming glucose metabolism in cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate sensitization of metformin-cytotoxicity, cancer cells were treated with dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Metformin-cytotoxicity was mainly dependent on glucose availability and reducing power generated by pentose phosphate pathway, whereas DCA cotreatment enhanced metformin-cytotoxicity via reprogramming glucose metabolism by inhibiting PDK and increasing mitochondrial respiration. DCA cotreatment elicited cell death rather than cell survival despite high glucose and high GSH condition. In conclusion, DCA sensitized metformin-cytotoxicity by reprogramming glucose metabolism in part from aerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidation, evidenced by measurements of glucose consumption, lactate release, and the ratio of oxygen consumption rate/extracellular acidification rate. PMID:24480191

Choi, Yong Won; Lim, In Kyoung

2014-05-01

3

Glucose starvation is required for insulin stimulation of glucose uptake and metabolism in cultured microvascular endothelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study we determined the uptake and disposition of glucose in serum-deprived rabbit coronary microvessel endothelial (RCME) cells. RCME cells exhibited stereospecific hexose uptake inhibited by cytochalasin B. Pretreatment of the RCME cells with potassium cyanide or 2,4-dinitrophenol inhibited 2-deoxyglucose uptake but not 3-O-methylglucose transport. A major proportion (30-60%) of the 2-deoxyglucose present in the RCME cells was not phosphorylated. These two observations suggested that the rate-limiting step in the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose was not transport but rather the phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose to 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate. When glucose-deprived cells were incubated 2 hr with [U-14C]glucose the disposition of the label was as follows: glycogen 60%, acid-soluble fraction 30%, and lipid less than 5%. In contrast glucose-fed cells exhibited lower overall glucose incorporation, and a slightly different disposition: glycogen 45%, acid-soluble fraction 50%, and lipid 5%. Glucose-deprived RCME cells also exhibited greater basal levels of 2-deoxyglucose uptake compared to glucose-fed cells. RCME cells incubated in the absence of glucose and serum for 16 hr exhibited dose-dependent insulin stimulation of hexose uptake and subsequent metabolism to macromolecules (i.e., glycogen and the acid-soluble fraction). Significant effects of insulin were observed with concentrations as low as 2 x 10(-10) M, well within the physiological range. In contrast, cellthe physiological range. In contrast, cells preincubated in serum-free culture medium containing 5.5 mM glucose did not exhibit insulin-enhanced hexose uptake or glucose metabolism (even at doses as high as 10(-7) M). These studies indicate that the effects of insulin on rabbit coronary microvascular endothelial cell glucose uptake and metabolism require both serum and glucose deprivation

4

Effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant cell model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in an insulin-resistant (IR) cell model which was established by the way of high concentration of insulin induction with HepG2 cell in vitro culture. The IR cells were treated by turtle oil, the glucose consumption and 3H-D-glucose incorporation rate in IR cells were detected by the way of glucose oxidase and 3H-D-glucose incorporation assay respectively. The state of cell proliferation was tested by MTT method. The results showed that the incorporation rate of 3H-D-glucose in IR cells was significantly lower than that in the control cells(P3H-D-glucose incorporation rate in either IR cells or control cells was increased with the increase of insulin concentration. Moreover, the 3H-D-glucose incorporation rate of IR cells increased slower than that of control cells. The MTT assay showed that turtle oil can promote the proliferation of IR cell and control cell. The glucose uptake and glucose consumption in IR cell which treated with turtle oil was significantly increase than that in the control cells (P<0.05). Turtle oil can improve the insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in the IR cell model. (authors)

5

Red blood cell glucose metabolism in human chronic fluoride toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluoride is a well known inhibitor of many enzyme systems in vitro. The most widely studied classic example of fluoride inhibition is its potent inhibition of glycolysis, specifically its action on the enzyme enolase. Despite the plethora of in vitro studies on the effects of fluoride on the enzyme activity, there is a paucity of information concerning the in vivo metabolic lesions caused by the chronic toxic doses of fluoride in humans. The present study has been undertaken with a view to assess the changes in glucose metabolism and related enzymes in erythrocytes of humans consuming toxic doses of fluoride for prolonged periods.

Saralakumari, D.; Rao, P.R. (Sri Krishnadevaraya Univ., Anantapur (India))

1991-12-01

6

Rat C6 glioma cell growth is related to glucose transport and metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish whether growth of glioma cells is associated with glucose transport and metabolism, we investigated expression of the glucose transporter and hexokinase, as well as glucose transport and glucose phosphorylation in rat C6 glioma cells growing at different rates. Rat C6 glioma cells were subcloned to produce four different cell lines (CL1, CL2, CL3 and CL4) differing in growth, differentiation and morphology: CL1 cells were slow-growing with an astrocytic appearance whereas CL4 cells grew rapidly and were small and spindle-shaped. Immunocytochemical analysis using glial fibrillary acidic protein and galactocerebroside antibodies revealed that CL1 and CL4 cells differentiate to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes respectively. Both of these cell lines expressed GLUT1 mRNA predominantly, whereas little GLUT3 mRNA was evident by Northern-blot analysis. The GLUT1 mRNA level was much higher in CL4 than in CL1 cells, and the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by CL4 cells was markedly higher than that by CL1 cells, indicating a correlation between the growth rate, glucose transporter (GLUT1) level and glucose-transport rate of C6 glioma cells. We then studied glucose metabolism by CL1 and CL4 cells by measuring their hexokinase activities and intracellular concentrations of glucose and ATP. The mitochondrial hexokinase activity of CL4 cells was about three times higher than that of CL1 cells, whereas the cytosolic hexokinase activity of CL4 cells was only about half that of CL1 cells. As the total amount of cellular hexokinase protein in CL4 cells was only slightly higher (about 20%) than that in CL1 cells, the hexokinase protein of CL4 cells was considered to have moved from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membranes. Consistent with the increased mitochondrial hexokinase activity of CL4 cells, the intracellular glucose concentration was undetectable, and the ATP concentration was higher than that of CL1 cells, suggesting that glucose transport is the rate-limiting factor for overall glucose metabolism is rapidly growing C6 cells. Therefore the present data demonstrate that glioma cell growth is related to glucose transport, which is closely associated with glucose metabolism. PMID:8912684

Nagamatsu, S; Nakamichi, Y; Inoue, N; Inoue, M; Nishino, H; Sawa, H

1996-10-15

7

Glycated albumin suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion by impairing glucose metabolism in rat pancreatic ?-cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycated albumin (GA is an Amadori product used as a marker of hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of GA on insulin secretion from pancreatic ? cells. Methods Islets were collected from male Wistar rats by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion in the presence of non-glycated human albumin (HA and GA was measured under three different glucose concentrations, 3 mM (G3, 7 mM (G7, and 15 mM (G15, with various stimulators. Insulin secretion was measured with antagonists of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS, and the expression of iNOS-mRNA was investigated by real-time PCR. Results Insulin secretion in the presence of HA and GA was 20.9 ± 3.9 and 21.6 ± 5.5 ?U/3 islets/h for G3 (P = 0.920, and 154 ± 9.3 and 126.1 ± 7.3 ?U/3 islets/h (P = 0.046, for G15, respectively. High extracellular potassium and 10 mM tolbutamide abrogated the inhibition of insulin secretion by GA. Glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, methylpyruvate, GLP-1, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, did not abrogate the inhibition. Real-time PCR showed that GA did not induce iNOS-mRNA expression. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase, aminoguanidine, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester did not abrogate the inhibition of insulin secretion. Conclusion GA suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion from rat pancreatic ?-cells through impairment of intracellular glucose metabolism.

Muto Takashi

2011-04-01

8

Transglutaminase 2 reprogramming of glucose metabolism in mammary epithelial cells via activation of inflammatory signaling pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aberrant glucose metabolism characterized by high levels of glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen, is an important hallmark of cancer. This metabolic reprogramming referred to as the Warburg effect is essential to the survival of tumor cells and provides them with substrates required for biomass generation. Molecular mechanisms responsible for this shift in glucose metabolism remain elusive. As described herein, we found that aberrant expression of the proinflammatory protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an important regulator of the Warburg effect in mammary epithelial cells. Mechanistically, TG2 regulated metabolic reprogramming by constitutively activating nuclear factor (NF)-?B, which binds to the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? promoter and induces its expression even under normoxic conditions. TG2/NF-?B-induced increase in HIF-1? expression was associated with increased glucose uptake, increased lactate production and decreased oxygen consumption by mitochondria. Experimental suppression of TG2 attenuated HIF-1? expression and reversed downstream events in mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, downregulation of p65/RelA or HIF-1? expression in these cells restored normal glucose uptake, lactate production, mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic protein expression. Our results suggest that aberrant expression of TG2 is a master regulator of metabolic reprogramming and facilitates metabolic alterations in epithelial cells even under normoxic conditions. A TG2-induced shift in glucose metabolism helps breast cancer cells to survive under stressful conditions and promotes their metastatic competence. PMID:24477458

Kumar, Santosh; Donti, Taraka R; Agnihotri, Navneet; Mehta, Kapil

2014-06-15

9

Glucose metabolism is altered after loss of L cells and ?-cells but not influenced by loss of K cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The enteroendocrine K and L cells are responsible for secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1), whereas pancreatic ?-cells are responsible for secretion of glucagon. In rodents and humans, dysregulation of the secretion of GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon is associated with impaired regulation of metabolism. This study evaluates the consequences of acute removal of Gip- or Gcg-expressing cells on glucose metabolism. Generation of the two diphtheria toxin receptor cellular knockout mice, TgN(GIP.DTR) and TgN(GCG.DTR), allowed us to study effects of acute ablation of K and L cells and ?-cells. Diphtheria toxin administration reduced the expression of Gip and content of GIP in the proximal jejunum in TgN(GIP.DTR) and expression of Gcg and content of proglucagon-derived peptides in both proximal jejunum and terminal ileum as well as content of glucagon in pancreas in TgN(GCG.DTR) compared with wild-type mice. GIP response to oral glucose was attenuated following K cell loss, but oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerances were unaffected. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance was impaired following combined L cell and ?-cell loss and normal following ?-cell loss. Oral glucose tolerance was improved following L cell and ?-cell loss and supernormal following ?-cell loss. We present two mouse models that allow studies of the effects of K cell or L cell and ?-cell loss as well as isolated ?-cell loss. Our findings show that intraperitoneal glucose tolerance is dependent on an intact L cell mass and underscore the diabetogenic effects of ?-cell signaling. Furthermore, the results suggest that K cells are less involved in acute regulation of mouse glucose metabolism than L cells and ?-cells.

Pedersen, J; Ugleholdt, Randi Kjærsgaard

2013-01-01

10

Honeybee retinal glial cells transform glucose and supply the neurons with metabolic substrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The retina of the honeybee drone is a nervous tissue in which glial cells and photoreceptor cells (sensory neurons) constitute two distinct metabolic compartments. Retinal slices incubated with 2-deoxy[3H]glucose convert this glucose analogue to 2-deoxy[3H]glucose 6-phosphate, but this conversion is made only in the glial cells. Hence, glycolysis occurs only in glial cells. In contrast, the neurons consume O2 and this consumption is sustained by the hydrolysis of glycogen, which is contained in large amounts in the glia. During photostimulation the increased oxidative metabolism of the neurons is sustained by a higher supply of carbohydrates from the glia. This clear case of metabolic interaction between neurons and glial cells supports Golgi's original hypothesis, proposed nearly 100 years ago, about the nutritive function of glial cells in the nervous system

11

Honeybee retinal glial cells transform glucose and supply the neurons with metabolic substrate.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The retina of the honeybee drone is a nervous tissue in which glial cells and photoreceptor cells (sensory neurons) constitute two distinct metabolic compartments. Retinal slices incubated with 2-deoxy[3H]glucose convert this glucose analogue to 2-deoxy[3H]glucose 6-phosphate, but this conversion is made only in the glial cells. Hence, glycolysis occurs only in glial cells. In contrast, the neurons consume O2 and this consumption is sustained by the hydrolysis of glycogen, which is contained ...

Tsacopoulos, M.; Eve?quoz-mercier, V.; Perrottet, P.; Buchner, E.

1988-01-01

12

Metabolic determinants of cancer cell sensitivity to glucose limitation and biguanides.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the concentrations of highly consumed nutrients, particularly glucose, are generally lower in tumours than in normal tissues, cancer cells must adapt their metabolism to the tumour microenvironment. A better understanding of these adaptations might reveal cancer cell liabilities that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Here we developed a continuous-flow culture apparatus (Nutrostat) for maintaining proliferating cells in low-nutrient media for long periods of time, and used it to undertake competitive proliferation assays on a pooled collection of barcoded cancer cell lines cultured in low-glucose conditions. Sensitivity to low glucose varies amongst cell lines, and an RNA interference (RNAi) screen pinpointed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the major pathway required for optimal proliferation in low glucose. We found that cell lines most sensitive to low glucose are defective in the OXPHOS upregulation that is normally caused by glucose limitation as a result of either mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in complex I genes or impaired glucose utilization. These defects predict sensitivity to biguanides, antidiabetic drugs that inhibit OXPHOS, when cancer cells are grown in low glucose or as tumour xenografts. Notably, the biguanide sensitivity of cancer cells with mtDNA mutations was reversed by ectopic expression of yeast NDI1, a ubiquinone oxidoreductase that allows bypass of complex I function. Thus, we conclude that mtDNA mutations and impaired glucose utilization are potential biomarkers for identifying tumours with increased sensitivity to OXPHOS inhibitors. PMID:24670634

Birsoy, K?vanç; Possemato, Richard; Lorbeer, Franziska K; Bayraktar, Erol C; Thiru, Prathapan; Yucel, Burcu; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter W; Clish, Clary B; Sabatini, David M

2014-04-01

13

Metabolic determinants of cancer cell sensitivity to glucose limitation and biguanides  

Science.gov (United States)

As the concentrations of highly consumed nutrients, particularly glucose, are generally lower in tumours than in normal tissues, cancer cells must adapt their metabolism to the tumour microenvironment. A better understanding of these adaptations might reveal cancer cell liabilities that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Here we developed a continuous-flow culture apparatus (Nutrostat) for maintaining proliferating cells in low-nutrient media for long periods of time, and used it to undertake competitive proliferation assays on a pooled collection of barcoded cancer cell lines cultured in low-glucose conditions. Sensitivity to low glucose varies amongst cell lines, and an RNA interference (RNAi) screen pinpointed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the major pathway required for optimal proliferation in low glucose. We found that cell lines most sensitive to low glucose are defective in the OXPHOS upregulation that is normally caused by glucose limitation as a result of either mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in complex I genes or impaired glucose utilization. These defects predict sensitivity to biguanides, antidiabetic drugs that inhibit OXPHOS, when cancer cells are grown in low glucose or as tumour xenografts. Notably, the biguanide sensitivity of cancer cells with mtDNA mutations was reversed by ectopic expression of yeast NDI1, a ubiquinone oxidoreductase that allows bypass of complex I function. Thus, we conclude that mtDNA mutations and impaired glucose utilization are potential biomarkers for identifying tumours with increased sensitivity to OXPHOS inhibitors.

Birsoy, K?vanç; Possemato, Richard; Lorbeer, Franziska K.; Bayraktar, Erol C.; Thiru, Prathapan; Yucel, Burcu; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter W.; Clish, Clary B.; Sabatini, David M.

2014-04-01

14

Nonlinear scaling analysis of glucose metabolism in normal and cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer progression is commonly accompanied by an altered glucose metabolism. In general, spatially resolved imaging of glucose metabolism and its subtle alterations might provide valuable diagnostic information in vivo. A classical example is positron emission tomography that exploits this feature in obtaining preferential accumulation of fluorescent analog of glucose in tumors, thereby achieving an imaging contrast. We report a novel scaling analysis of glucose metabolism in mammary epithelial (NMuMG) cells by detrended fluctuation analysis of Cerulean (cyan fluorescent protein variant) fluorescence. Fluorescence fluctuations of Cerulean are reasoned to be indicative of dynamic pH changes associated with glucose metabolism. Normal parental cells and the spontaneously transformed (cancerous) NMuMG cells displayed robust scaling exponent that reflects nonrandom fluctuations in Cerulean fluorescence. Acute dependence of cancer cells on glycolysis as compared with normal cells is exploited to yield a statistically significant difference in scaling exponent, thereby providing discrimination between normal and cancer cells in vitro. By careful design of experiments in vivo, the proposed scaling approach might even have diagnostic potential for early detection of cancer lesions in small animal models. PMID:18601543

Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Herman, Brian A

2008-01-01

15

DMH1 Increases Glucose Metabolism through Activating Akt in L6 Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

DMH1(4-[6-(4-Isopropoxyphenyl)pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl] quinoline) is a compound C analogue with the structural modifications at the 3- and 6-positions in pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine backbone. Compound C was reported to inhibit both AMPK and Akt. Our preliminary work found that DMH1 activated Akt. Since Akt was involved in glucose metabolism, we aimed to identify the effects of DMH1 on glucose metabolism in L6 rat muscle cells and the potential mechanism. Results showed that DMH1 increased lactic acid release and glucose consumption in L6 rat muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. DMH1 activated Akt in L6 cells. Akt inhibitor inhibited DMH1-induced Akt activation and DMH1-induced increases of glucose uptake and consumption. DMH1 had no cytotoxicity in L6 cells, but inhibited mitochondrial function and reduced ATP production. DMH1 showed no effect on AMPK, but in the presence of Akt inhibitor, DMH1 significantly activated AMPK. Compound C inhibited DMH1-induced Akt activation in L6 cells. Compound C inhibited DMH1-induced increase of glucose uptake, consumption and lactic acid release in L6 cells. DMH1 inhibited PP2A activity, and PP2A activator forskolin reversed DMH1-induced Akt activation. We concluded that DMH1 increased glucose metabolism through activating Akt and DMH1 activated Akt through inhibiting PP2A activity in L6 rat muscle cells. In view of the analogue structure of DMH1 and compound C and the contrasting effects of DMH1 and compound C on Akt, the present study provides a novel leading chemical structure targeting Akt with potential use for regulating glucose metabolism. PMID:25247550

Xie, Xin; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Chun-Yan; Dong, De-Li

2014-01-01

16

Metformin, cancer and glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metformin is the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Results from several clinical studies have indicated that type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin might have a lower cancer risk. One of the primary metabolic changes observed in malignant cell transformation is an increased catabolic glucose metabolism. In this context, once it has entered the cell through organic cation transporters, metformin decreases mitochondrial respiration chain activity and ATP production that, in turn, activates AMP-activated protein kinase, which regulates energy homeostasis. In addition, metformin reduces cellular energy availability and glucose entrapment by inhibiting hexokinase-II, which catalyses the glucose phosphorylation reaction. In this review, we discuss recent findings on molecular mechanisms that sustain the anticancer effect of metformin through regulation of glucose metabolism. In particular, we have focused on the emerging action of metformin on glycolysis in normal and cancer cells, with a drug discovery perspective. PMID:25273809

Salani, Barbara; Del Rio, Alberto; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Cordera, Renzo; Maggi, Davide

2014-12-01

17

Glucose and glutamine metabolism regulate human hematopoietic stem cell lineage specification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic state of quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is an important regulator of self-renewal, but it is unclear whether or how metabolic parameters contribute to HSC lineage specification and commitment. Here, we show that the commitment of human and murine HSCs to the erythroid lineage is dependent upon glutamine metabolism. HSCs require the ASCT2 glutamine transporter and active glutamine metabolism for erythroid specification. Blocking this pathway diverts EPO-stimulated HSCs to differentiate into myelomonocytic fates, altering in vivo HSC responses and erythroid commitment under stress conditions such as hemolytic anemia. Mechanistically, erythroid specification of HSCs requires glutamine-dependent de novo nucleotide biosynthesis. Exogenous nucleosides rescue erythroid commitment of human HSCs under conditions of limited glutamine catabolism, and glucose-stimulated nucleotide biosynthesis further enhances erythroid specification. Thus, the availability of glutamine and glucose to provide fuel for nucleotide biosynthesis regulates HSC lineage commitment under conditions of metabolic stress. PMID:24953180

Oburoglu, Leal; Tardito, Saverio; Fritz, Vanessa; de Barros, Stéphanie C; Merida, Peggy; Craveiro, Marco; Mamede, João; Cretenet, Gaspard; Mongellaz, Cédric; An, Xiuli; Klysz, Dorota; Touhami, Jawida; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Battini, Jean-Luc; Dardalhon, Valérie; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Mohandas, Narla; Gottlieb, Eyal; Sitbon, Marc; Kinet, Sandrina; Taylor, Naomi

2014-08-01

18

Glucose transporter 1-mediated glucose uptake is limiting for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia anabolic metabolism and resistance to apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic profiles of cancer cells have long been acknowledged to be altered and to provide new therapeutic opportunities. In particular, a wide range of both solid and liquid tumors use aerobic glycolysis to supply energy and support cell growth. This metabolic program leads to high rates of glucose consumption through glycolysis with secretion of lactate even in the presence of oxygen. Identifying the limiting events in aerobic glycolysis and the response of cancer cells to metabolic inhibition is now essential to exploit this potential metabolic dependency. Here, we examine the role of glucose uptake and the glucose transporter Glut1 in the metabolism and metabolic stress response of BCR-Abl+ B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (B-ALL). B-ALL cells were highly glycolytic and primary human B-ALL samples were dependent on glycolysis. We show B-ALL cells express multiple glucose transporters and conditional genetic deletion of Glut1 led to a partial loss of glucose uptake. This reduced glucose transport capacity, however, was sufficient to metabolically reprogram B-ALL cells to decrease anabolic and increase catabolic flux. Cell proliferation decreased and a limited degree of apoptosis was also observed. Importantly, Glut1-deficient B-ALL cells failed to accumulate in vivo and leukemic progression was suppressed by Glut1 deletion. Similarly, pharmacologic inhibition of aerobic glycolysis with moderate doses of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) slowed B-ALL cell proliferation, but extensive apoptosis only occurred at high doses. Nevertheless, 2-DG induced the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and sensitized B-ALL cells to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Dasatinib in vivo. Together, these data show that despite expression of multiple glucose transporters, B-ALL cells are reliant on Glut1 to maintain aerobic glycolysis and anabolic metabolism. Further, partial inhibition of glucose metabolism is sufficient to sensitize cancer cells to specifically targeted therapies, suggesting inhibition of aerobic glycolysis as a plausible adjuvant approach for B-ALL therapies. PMID:25321477

Liu, T; Kishton, R J; Macintyre, A N; Gerriets, V A; Xiang, H; Liu, X; Dale Abel, E; Rizzieri, D; Locasale, J W; Rathmell, J C

2014-01-01

19

Cell growth and cholesterol metabolism in human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient lymphomononuclear cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory-fibroproliferative response of the arterial wall involving a complex set of interconnected events where cell proliferation (lymphomonocytes, and endothelial and smooth-muscle cells) and substantial perturbations of intracellular cholesterol metabolism are considered to be among the main features. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the key enzyme of the hexose-monophosphate shunt pathway, is an essential enzyme involved in both cell growth and cholesterol metabolism, raising the question as to whether G6PD deficiency may have metabolic and growth implications in a deficient population. In the present study, we investigated cell growth and cholesterol metabolism in peripheral blood lymphomononuclear cells (PBMC) from G6PD-normal (n = 5) and -deficient (n = 5) subjects stimulated with lectins (phytohaemoagglutinin and Concanavalin A). G6PD activity, DNA ([3H]-thymidine incorporation) cholesterol synthesis and esterification ([14C]-acetate and [14C]-oleate incorporation), and G6PD, HMGCoA reductase and low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mRNA levels (RT-PCR) all increased following lectin stimulation in both normal and G6PD-deficient cells. However, these parameters were significantly lower in G6PD-deficient cells (P < 0.05). It is of interest that G6PD-deficient PBMC, which showed lower expression of G6PD and higher expression of the LDL receptor gene than normal PBMC under basal conditions, exhibited an opposite pattern after stimulation: G6PD and HMGCoA reductase being expressed at significantly higher levels in deficient than in normal cells (P < 0.05). We conclude that the reduced capability of G6PD-deficient cells to respond to mitogenic stimuli and to synthesize cholesterol esters may represent favourable conditions for reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:12027950

Batetta, B; Bonatesta, R R; Sanna, F; Putzolu, M; Mulas, M F; Collu, M; Dessì, S

2002-06-01

20

The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:22594799

Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

The influence of high glucose on the aerobic metabolism of endothelial EA.hy926 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endothelium is considered to be relatively independent of the mitochondrial energy supply. The goals of this study were to examine mitochondrial respiratory functions in endothelial cells and isolated mitochondria and to assess the influence of chronic high glucose exposure on the aerobic metabolism of these cells. A procedure to isolate of bioenergetically active endothelial mitochondria was elaborated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 line) were grown in medium containing either 5.5 or 25 mM glucose. The respiratory response to elevated glucose was observed in cells grown in 25 mM glucose for at least 6 days or longer. In EA.hy926 cells, growth in high glucose induced considerably lower mitochondrial respiration with glycolytic fuels, less pronounced with glutamine, and higher respiration with palmitate. The Crabtree effect was observed in both types of cells. High glucose conditions produced elevated levels of cellular Q10, increased ROS generation, increased hexokinase I, lactate dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and superoxide dismutase 2 expression, and decreased E3-binding protein of pyruvate dehydrogenase expression. In isolated mitochondria, hyperglycaemia induced an increase in the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine and glycerol-3-phosphate (lipid-derived fuels) and a decrease in the oxidation of pyruvate (a mitochondrial fuel); in addition, increased UCP2 activity was observed. Our results demonstrate that primarily glycolytic endothelial cells possess highly active mitochondria with a functioning energy-dissipating pathway (UCP2). High-glucose exposure induces a shift of the endothelial aerobic metabolism towards the oxidation of lipids and amino acids. PMID:23053476

Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Kicinska, Anna; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

2012-12-01

22

Proliferation-dependent changes in amino acid transport and glucose metabolism in glioma cell lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amino acid imaging is increasingly being used for assessment of brain tumor malignancy, extent of disease, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between proliferative activity, amino acid transport, and glucose metabolism in three glioma cell lines (U87, Hs683, C6) at different phases of growth in culture. Growth phase was characterized by direct cell counting, proliferation index determined by flow cytometry, and [3H]thymidine (TdR) accumulation, and was compared with the uptake of two non-metabolized amino acids ([14C]aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC) and [14C]aminoisobutyric acid (AIB)), and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Highly significant relationships between cell number (density), proliferation index, and TdR accumulation rate were observed in all cell lines (r>0.99). Influx (K1) of both ACPC and AIB was directly related to cell density, and inversely related to the proliferation index and TdR accumulation in all cell lines. The volume of distribution (Vd) for ACPC and AIB was lowest during rapid growth and highest during the near-plateau growth phase in all cell lines. FDG accumulation in Hs683 and C6 cells was unaffected by proliferation rate, growth phase, and cell density, whereas FDG accumulation was correlated with TdR accumulation, growth phase, and cell density in U87 cells. This study demonstrates that proliferation rate and glucose metabolism are not necessarily co-glucose metabolism are not necessarily co-related in all glioma cell lines. The values of K1 and Vd for ACPC and AIB under different growth conditions suggest that these tumor cell lines can up-regulate amino acid transporters in their cell membranes when their growth conditions become adverse and less than optimal. (orig.)

23

Resveratrol decreases breast cancer cell viability and glucose metabolism by inhibiting 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells are highly dependent on glycolysis to supply the energy and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. The enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) is critical for glycolysis, and its activity is directly correlated with cellular glucose consumption. Resveratrol is a potential anti-tumoral drug that decreases glucose metabolism and viability in cancer cells. However, the mechanism involved in resveratrol-mediated anti-tumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that resveratrol decreases viability, glucose consumption and ATP content in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. These effects are directly correlated with PFK inhibition by resveratrol in these cells. Moreover, resveratrol directly inhibits purified PFK, promoting the dissociation of the enzyme from fully active tetramers into less active dimers. This effect is exacerbated by known negative regulators of the enzyme, such as ATP and citrate. On the other hand, positive modulators that stabilize the tetrameric form of the enzyme, such as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and ADP, prevent the inhibition of PFK activity by resveratrol, an effect not observed with increased pH. In summary, our results provide evidence that resveratrol directly inhibits PFK activity, therefore disrupting glucose metabolism and reducing viability in cancer cells. PMID:23454376

Gomez, Lilian S; Zancan, Patricia; Marcondes, Mariah C; Ramos-Santos, Livia; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Da Silva, Daniel

2013-06-01

24

Intestinal glucose metabolism revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is long known that the gut can contribute to the control of glucose homeostasis via its high glucose utilization capacity. Recently, a novel function in intestinal glucose metabolism (gluconeogenesis) was described. The intestine notably contributes to about 20-25% of total endogenous glucose production during fasting. More importantly, intestinal gluconeogenesis is capable of regulating energy homeostasis through a communication with the brain. The periportal neural system senses glucose (produced by intestinal gluconeogenesis) in the portal vein walls, which sends a signal to the brain to modulate hunger sensations and whole body glucose homeostasis. Relating to the mechanism of glucose sensing, the role of the glucose receptor SGLT3 has been strongly suggested. Moreover, dietary proteins mobilize intestinal gluconeogenesis as a mandatory link between their detection in the portal vein and their effect of satiety. In the same manner, dietary soluble fibers exert their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects via the induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis. FFAR3 is a key neural receptor involved in the specific sensing of propionate to activate a gut-brain reflex arc triggering the induction of the gut gluconeogenic function. Lastly, intestinal gluconeogenesis might also be involved in the rapid metabolic improvements induced by gastric bypass surgeries of obesity. PMID:24969963

Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine

2014-09-01

25

Glucagon-insulin interaction on fat cell metabolism using c14 glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glucagon is known to stimulate the lipolysis in isolated fat cells from young rats, but not in fat cells from old heavy rate (Manganiello 1972). Insulin is known to counteract the lipolytic effect and to stimulate the synthesis of fatty acids from glucose. However, little is known about the interaction between the two hormones on the glucose metabolism. Experiments based on the use of various inhibitors of lipolysis have however, clearly shown that glucagon can also stimulate the entry and overall oxidation of glucose by mechanism which is distinct from its lipolysis stimulating mechanism (M. Blecher et al. 1969). Fat cells from old heavy rats are known to be less responsive to both the lipogenic action of insulin and the lipolytic action of glucagon than fat cells from young lean rats (E.G. Hansen, Nielsen and Gliemann, 1974). The aim of the present study was to see how glucagon affects glucose metabolism in fat cells, and whether this effect was dependent on the lipolytic action of glucagon

26

Methylglyoxal alters glucose metabolism and increases AGEs content in C6 glioma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylglyoxal is a dicarbonyl compound that is physiologically produced by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. It can lead to cytotoxicity, which is mainly related to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) formation. Methylglyoxal and AGEs are involved in the pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases (ND) and, in these situations, can cause the impairment of energetic metabolism. Astroglial cells play critical roles in brain metabolism and the appropriate functioning of astrocytes is essential for the survival and function of neurons. However, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of methylglyoxal on astroglial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylglyoxal exposure, over short (1 and 3 h) and long term (24 h) periods, on glucose, glycine and lactate metabolism in C6 glioma cells, as well as investigate the glyoxalase system and AGEs formation. Glucose uptake and glucose oxidation to CO(2) increased in 1 h and the conversion of glucose to lipids increased at 3 h. In addition, glycine oxidation to CO(2) and conversion of glycine to lipids increased at 1 h, whereas the incorporation of glycine in proteins decreased at 1 and 3 h. Methylglyoxal decreased glyoxalase I and II activities and increased AGEs content within 24 h. Lactate oxidation and lactate levels were not modified by methylglyoxal exposure. These data provide evidence that methylglyoxal may impair glucose metabolism and can affect glyoxalase activity. In periods of increased methylglyoxal exposure, such alterations could be exacerbated, leading to further increases in intracellular methylglyoxal and AGEs, and therefore triggering and/or worsening ND. PMID:22802013

Hansen, Fernanda; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Silveira, Simone da Luz; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Fontoura, Júlia Bijoldo; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Leite, Marina Concli; Perry, Marcos Luiz Santos; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

2012-12-01

27

PINK1 deficiency sustains cell proliferation by reprogramming glucose metabolism through HIF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1) is a Ser/Thr kinase implicated in familial early-onset Parkinson's disease, and was first reported as a growth suppressor. PINK1 loss-of-function compromises both mitochondrial autophagy and oxidative phosphorylation. Here we report that PINK1 deficiency triggers hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF1?) stabilization in cultured Pink1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary cortical neurons as well as in vivo. This effect, mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, led to the upregulation of the HIF1 target, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1, which inhibits PDH activity. Furthermore, we show that HIF1? stimulates glycolysis in the absence of Pink1, and that the promotion of intracellular glucose metabolism by HIF1? stabilization is required for cell proliferation in Pink1(-/-) mice. We propose that loss of Pink1 reprograms glucose metabolism through HIF1?, sustaining increased cell proliferation. PMID:25058378

Requejo-Aguilar, Raquel; Lopez-Fabuel, Irene; Fernandez, Emilio; Martins, Luis M; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P

2014-01-01

28

Proliferation-dependent changes in amino acid transport and glucose metabolism in glioma cell lines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amino acid imaging is increasingly being used for assessment of brain tumor malignancy, extent of disease, and prognosis. This study explores the relationship between proliferative activity, amino acid transport, and glucose metabolism in three glioma cell lines (U87, Hs683, C6) at different phases of growth in culture. Growth phase was characterized by direct cell counting, proliferation index determined by flow cytometry, and [{sup 3}H]thymidine (TdR) accumulation, and was compared with the uptake of two non-metabolized amino acids ([{sup 14}C]aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC) and [{sup 14}C]aminoisobutyric acid (AIB)), and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Highly significant relationships between cell number (density), proliferation index, and TdR accumulation rate were observed in all cell lines (r>0.99). Influx (K{sub 1}) of both ACPC and AIB was directly related to cell density, and inversely related to the proliferation index and TdR accumulation in all cell lines. The volume of distribution (V{sub d}) for ACPC and AIB was lowest during rapid growth and highest during the near-plateau growth phase in all cell lines. FDG accumulation in Hs683 and C6 cells was unaffected by proliferation rate, growth phase, and cell density, whereas FDG accumulation was correlated with TdR accumulation, growth phase, and cell density in U87 cells. This study demonstrates that proliferation rate and glucose metabolism are not necessarily co-related in all glioma cell lines. The values of K{sub 1} and V{sub d} for ACPC and AIB under different growth conditions suggest that these tumor cell lines can up-regulate amino acid transporters in their cell membranes when their growth conditions become adverse and less than optimal. (orig.)

Sasajima, Toshio [Department of Neurology, C799, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, NY 10021, New York (United States); Neurosurgical Service, Akita University Hospital, Akita (Japan); Miyagawa, Tadashi [Department of Neurology, C799, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, NY 10021, New York (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba (Japan); Oku, Takamitsu [Department of Neurology, C799, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, NY 10021, New York (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Miyazaki Medical College, Miyazaki (Japan); Gelovani, Juri G. [Department of Neurology, C799, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, NY 10021, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX 77030, Houston (United States); Finn, Ronald [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Blasberg, Ronald [Department of Neurology, C799, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, NY 10021, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

2004-09-01

29

Attachment of PC12 cells to adhesion substratum induces the accumulation of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and stimulates glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs), specifically GLUT3 and GLUT1, increased dramatically in PC12 cells that were cultured on suitable adhesion substrata (poly-1-lysine [PLL]) and induced to differentiate with nerve growth factor (NGF). Closer examination of this response revealed that: (1) cellular attachment to PLL was sufficient to stimulate the increase in GLUT immunoreactivity, and (2) NGF alone was not effective unless the cells were cultured on PLL-treated surfaces. The response to PLL was detected as early as 4 hr after plating the cells and peaked within 24-48 hr. Other adhesion substrata, such as collagen and poly-1-ornithine, evoked a similar response, although the latter polymer was far less effective. The increase in GLUTs appeared to result from an accumulation of existing transporters because this response was not blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis. Cellular adhesion to PLL was also accompanied by a rapid activation of glucose metabolism. Thus, specific recognition of the adhesion substratum not only provides a context for cell attachment, but also elicits important functional changes in GLUT activity. PMID:9704601

Dwyer, D S; Pinkofsky, H B; Liu, Y; Bradley, R J

1998-08-01

30

Metabolism of the intervertebral disc: effects of low levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH on rates of energy metabolism of bovine nucleus pulposus cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

STUDY DESIGN: In vitro measurements of metabolic rates of isolated bovine nucleus pulposus cells at varying levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH. OBJECTIVES: To obtain quantitative information on the interactions between oxygen and glucose concentrations and pH, and the rates of oxygen and glucose consumption and lactic acid production, for disc nucleus cells. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Disc cells depend on diffusion from blood vessels at the disc margins for supply of nutrients. Loss of supply...

Bibby, Sr; Jones, Da; Ripley, Rm; Urban, Jp

2005-01-01

31

Metabolic labeling with (14C)-glucose of bloodstream and cell culture trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes:  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi from infected mouse blood and from cell culture were metabolically labeled by incubation with D-(14C)-glucose. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of lysates from parasites of two strains (RA and CA1) showed a significantly different pattern. The difference was mainly quantitative when the blood and cell culture trypomastigotes of the RA strain were compared. Analysis of the culture medium by paper electrophoresis showed an anionic exometabolite only in the blood forms of both strains. (Author)

32

Comparison of lymphomononuclear cell energy metabolism between healthy, impaired glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease that affects many systems. The most important cells of the immune system are lymphomononuclear (LMN) cells. Here, we aimed to evaluate the energy metabolism of LMN cells in patients with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. We measured LMN cell energy metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and healthy subjects. Cells were freshly isolated from peripheral blood and the subgroups were determined by flow cytometric method. Lactate production and glycogen utilization were significantly increased in the LMN cells of patients with type 2 DM and IGT when compared with healthy volunteers. No statistical difference was observed between the patients with type 2 DM and IGT. There was a significant correlation between fasting plasma glucose and lactate production in LMN cells. LMN cells changed their energy pathway in a diabetic state and preferred anaerobic glycolysis. Prediabetic range also affected energy metabolism in LMN cells. This abnormal energy production might cause dysfunction in LMN cells and the immune system in diabetic and prediabetic patients. In conclusion, we concluded that impaired glucose metabolism could change energy metabolism. PMID:20963562

Ozsari, L; Karadurmus, N; Sahin, M; Uckaya, G; Ural, A U; Kutlu, M

2010-02-01

33

Transition of chemolithotroph Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans to obligate organotrophy and metabolic capabilities of glucose-grown cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transition of chemolithotrophic Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans to organotrophy occurred after 60 hr of incubation in an organic medium. Three distinct phases, based on metabolic activities of cells, were observed during the course of transition. Conversion of cellular nutrition to organotrophy resulted in a gradual loss of Fe(2+) oxidation and cessation of CO(2) fixation. These changes were concomitant with a rapid increase in uptake of glucose and phosphate during the latter part of transition period. The outcome of transition was governed by the pH of the medium, temperature of incubation, availability of oxygen, age of the chemolithotrophic cells, and the type of energy and carbon source available to the bacterium. Presence or absence of p-aminobenzoic acid and Fe(2+) ions did not influence transition of cells. A defined medium containing glucose, mineral salts, and p-aminobenzoic acid at pH 2.5 was found to be most suitable for transition and for culture of heterotrophic convertants. Maximum growth rate of the heterotrophic cells was attained with vigorous aeration at 35 C. The bacterium could be cultured on a variety of organic compounds, including complex organic media, provided they were used in low concentrations. Serological studies on autotrophic cells and the heterotrophic convertant have shown a definite antigenic relationship between the two cell types. PMID:4669216

Shafia, F; Brinson, K R; Heinzman, M W; Brady, J M

1972-07-01

34

Drosophila adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates glucose and lipid metabolism by controlling insulin secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are key regulators of metabolism in animals. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines, modulates pancreatic beta cell function to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, significant conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian metabolism has been discovered. Drosophila insulin like peptides (Dilps) regulate energy metabolism similarly to mammalian insulin. However, in Drosophila, the regulatory mechanism of insulin producing cells (IPCs) by adipokine signaling is largely unknown. Here, we describe the discovery of the Drosophila adiponectin receptor and its function in IPCs. Drosophila adiponectin receptor (dAdipoR) has high homology with the human adiponectin receptor 1. The dAdipoR antibody staining revealed that dAdipoR was expressed in IPCs of larval and adult brains. IPC- specific dAdipoR inhibition (Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri) showed the increased sugar level in the hemolymph and the elevated triglyceride level in whole body. Dilps mRNA levels in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies were similar with those of controls. However, in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies, Dilp2 protein was accumulated in IPCs, the level of circulating Dilp2 was decreased, and insulin signaling was reduced in the fat body. In ex vivo fly brain culture with the human adiponectin, Dilp2 was secreted from IPCs. These results indicate that adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates insulin secretion and controls glucose and lipid metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. This study demonstrates a new adipokine signaling in Drosophila and provides insights for the mammalian adiponectin receptor function in pancreatic beta cells, which could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:23874700

Kwak, Su-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Bajracharya, Rijan; Yang, Se-Yeol; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Yu, Kweon

2013-01-01

35

Glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, asparagine, glucose and ketone-body metabolism in chick intestinal brush-border cells  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Suspensions of isolated chick jejunal columnar absorptive (brush-border) cells respired on endogenous substrates at a rate 40% higher than that shown by rat brush-border cells. 2. Added d-glucose (5 or 10mm), l-glutamine (2.5mm) and l-glutamate (2.5mm) were the only individual substrates which stimulated respiration by chick cells; l-aspartate (2.5 or 6.7mm), glutamate (6.7mm), glutamine (6.7mm), l-alanine (1 or 10mm), pyruvate (1 or 2mm), l-lactate (5 or 10mm), butyrate (10mm) and oleate (1mm) did not stimulate chick cell respiration; l-asparagine (6.7mm) inhibited slightly; glucose (5mm) stimulated more than did 10mm-glucose. 3. Acetoacetate (10mm) and d-3-hydroxybutyrate (10mm) were rapidly consumed but, in contrast to rat brush-border cells, did not stimulate respiration. 4. Glucose (10mm) was consumed more slowly than 5mm-glucose; the dominant product of glucose metabolism during vigorous respiration was lactate; the proportion of glucose converted to lactate was greater with 10mm- than with 5mm-glucose. 5. Glutamate and aspartate consumption rates decreased, and alanine and glutamine consumption rates increased when their initial concentrations were raised from 2.5 to 6.7 or 10mm. 6. The metabolic fate of glucose was little affected by concomitant metabolism of any one of aspartate, glutamate or glutamine except for an increased production of alanine; the glucose-stimulated respiration rate was unaffected by concomitant metabolism of these individual amino acids. 7. Chick cells produced very little alanine from aspartate and, in contrast to rat cells, likewise produced very little alanine from glutamate or glutamine; in chick cells alanine appeared to be predominantly a product of transmination of pyruvate derived from glucose metabolism. 8. In chick cells, glutamate and glutamine were formed from aspartate (2.5 or 6.7mm); aspartate and glutamine were formed from glutamate (2.5mm) but only aspartate from 6.7mm-glutamate; glutamate was the dominant product formed from glutamine (6.7mm) but aspartate only was formed from 2.5mm-glutamine. 9. Chick brush-border cells can thus both catabolize and synthesize glutamine; glutamine synthesis is always diminished by concomitant metabolism of glucose, presumably by allosteric inhibition of glutamine synthetase by alanine. 10. Proline was formed from glutamine (2.5mm) but not from glutamine (2.5mm)+glucose (5mm) and not from 2.5mm-glutamate; ornithine was formed from glutamine (2.5mm)+glucose (5.0mm) but not from glutamine alone; serine was formed from glutamine (2.5mm)+glucose (5mm) and from these two substrates plus aspartate (2.5mm). 11. Total intracellular adenine nucleotides (22?mol/g dry wt.) remained unchanged during incubation of chick cells with glucose. 12. Intracellular glutathione (0.7–0.8mm) was depleted by 40% during incubation of respiring chick cells without added substrates for 75min at 37°C; partial restoration of the lost glutathione was achieved by incubating cells with l-glutamate+l-cysteine+glycine. PMID:7470024

Porteous, John W.

1980-01-01

36

Effects of lindane on the glucose metabolism in rat brain cortex cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of 0.5 mM ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH, lindane) on glucose transport has been investigated using the analog 3-O-methyl-D(U-14C) glucose. The glucose uptake was lineal for at least 10 sec. Preincubation of dissociated brain cortex cells with lindane decreased the transport of glucose with respect to the controls. The treatment of brain cortex cells with other organochlorine compounds indicated that the ?-, ?-HCH isomers and dieldrin reproduced the same inhibitory pattern, while ?-HCH and endrin were inactive. The total radioactivity incorporated into CO2 from (U-14C) glucose in the cerebral cortex is also inhibited by lindane in a time dependent manner

37

Frontiers: PED/PEA-15, a multifunctional protein controlling cell survival and glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

PED/PEA-15 is a 15-kDa ubiquitously expressed protein implicated in a number of fundamental cellular functions, including apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose metabolism. PED/PEA-15 lacks enzymatic function and serves mainly as a molecular adaptor. PED/PEA-15 is an endogenous substrate for protein kinase C (PKC), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAM kinase II), and Akt. In particular, PKC phosphorylates PED/PEA-15 at Ser(104) and CAM kinase II or Akt at Ser(116), modifying its stability. Evidence obtained over the past 10 years has indicated that PED/PEA-15 regulates cell survival by interfering with both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In addition, it may also control cell proliferation by interfering with ERK1/2-mediated pathways. Indeed, PED/PEA-15 has been identified as an ERK1/2 interactor, which modifies its subcellular localization and targeting to a specific subset of substrates. Increased PED/PEA-15 levels may affect tumorigenesis and cancer progression as well as sensitivity to anticancer agents. Moreover, PED/PEA-15 affects astrocyte motility and increases susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in vivo. PED/PEA-15 expression is regulated at the transcriptional and the posttranslational levels. Increased PED/PEA-15 expression has been identified in individuals with type 2 diabetes early during the natural history of the disease. Evidence generated over the past 10 years indicated that this defect contributes to altering glucose tolerance by impairing insulin action and insulin secretion and might play a role in the development of diabetes-associated neurological disorders. Strategies are being devised to target key signaling events in PED/PEA-15 action aimed at improving glucose tolerance and at facilitating cancer cell death. PMID:19531639

Fiory, Francesca; Formisano, Pietro; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Beguinot, Francesco

2009-09-01

38

Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study we characterized {sup 3}H-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 3}H -DG) uptake by the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF7 and the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines and investigated the effect of quercetin (QUE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) upon {sup 3}H-DG uptake, glucose metabolism and cell viability and proliferation. In both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells {sup 3}H-DG uptake was (a) time-dependent, (b) saturable with similar capacity (V{sub max}) and affinity (K{sub m}), (c) potently inhibited by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), (d) sodium-independent and (e) slightly insulin-stimulated. This suggests that {sup 3}H-DG uptake by both cell types is mediated by members of the GLUT family, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4 or GLUT12, while being independent of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1). QUE and EGCG markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited {sup 3}H-DG uptake by MCF7 and by MDA-MB-231 cells, and both compounds blocked lactate production by MCF7 cells. Additionally, a 4 h-treatment with QUE or EGCG decreased MCF7 cell viability and proliferation, an effect that was more potent when glucose was available in the extracellular medium. Our results implicate QUE and EGCG as metabolic antagonists in breast cancer cells, independently of estrogen signalling, and suggest that these flavonoids could serve as therapeutic agents/adjuvants even for ER-negative breast tumors. -- Highlights: • Glucose uptake by MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is mainly mediated by GLUT1. • QUE and EGCG inhibit cellular glucose uptake thus abolishing the Warburg effect. • This process induces cytotoxicity and proliferation arrest in MCF7 cells. • The flavonoids’ effects are independent of estrogen receptor signalling.

Moreira, Liliana, E-mail: lilianam87@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Araújo, Isabel, E-mail: isa.araujo013@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Costa, Tito, E-mail: tito.fmup16@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Correia-Branco, Ana, E-mail: ana.clmc.branco@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana, E-mail: anafaria@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences of University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Martel, Fátima, E-mail: fmartel@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Keating, Elisa, E-mail: keating@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal)

2013-07-15

39

Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we characterized 3H-2-deoxy-D-glucose (3H -DG) uptake by the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF7 and the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines and investigated the effect of quercetin (QUE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) upon 3H-DG uptake, glucose metabolism and cell viability and proliferation. In both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells 3H-DG uptake was (a) time-dependent, (b) saturable with similar capacity (Vmax) and affinity (Km), (c) potently inhibited by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), (d) sodium-independent and (e) slightly insulin-stimulated. This suggests that 3H-DG uptake by both cell types is mediated by members of the GLUT family, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4 or GLUT12, while being independent of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1). QUE and EGCG markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited 3H-DG uptake by MCF7 and by MDA-MB-231 cells, and both compounds blocked lactate production by MCF7 cells. Additionally, a 4 h-treatment with QUE or EGCG decreased MCF7 cell viability and proliferation, an effect that was more potent when glucose was available in the extracellular medium. Our results implicate QUE and EGCG as metabolic antagonists in breast cancer cells, independently of estrogen signalling, and suggest that these flavonoids could serve as therapeutic agents/adjuvants even for ER-negative breast tumors. -- Highlights: • Glucose uptake by MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is mainly mediated by GLUT1. • QUE and EGCG inhibit cellular glucose uptake thus abolishing the Warburg effect. • This process induces cytotoxicity and proliferation arrest in MCF7 cells. • The flavonoids’ effects are independent of estrogen receptor signalling

40

Upregulation of glucose metabolism by NF-?B2/p52 mediates enzalutamide resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells reprogram their metabolic pathways to facilitate fast proliferation. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of NF-?B2/p52 (p52) in prostate cancer cells promotes cell growth and leads to castration resistance through aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR). In addition, these cells become resistant to enzalutamide. In this study, we investigated the effects of p52 activation on glucose metabolism and on response to enzalutamide therapy. Data analysis of gene expression arrays showed that genes including GLUT1 (SLC2A1), PKM2, G6PD, and ME1 involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism were altered in LNCaP cells overexpressing p52 compared with the parental LNCaP cells. We demonstrated an increased amount of glucose flux in the glycolysis pathway, as well as the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) upon p52 activation. The p52-overexpressing cells increase glucose uptake and are capable of higher ATP and lactate production compared with the parental LNCaP cells. The growth of p52-overexpressing cells depends on glucose in the culture media and is sensitive to glucose deprivation compared with the parental LNCaP cells. Targeting glucose metabolism by the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose synergistically inhibits cell growth when combined with enzalutamide, and resensitizes p52-overexpressing cells to enzalutamide treatment. These results suggest that p52 modulates glucose metabolism, enhances glucose flux to glycolysis and PPPs, thus facilitating fast proliferation of the cells. Co-targeting glucose metabolism together with AR axis synergistically inhibits cell growth and restores enzalutamide-resistant cells to enzalutamide treatment. PMID:24659479

Cui, Yuanyuan; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Liu, Chengfei; Lou, Wei; Schwartz, Chad T; Gao, Allen C

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Formaldehyde Metabolism and Formaldehyde-induced Alterations in Glucose and Glutathione Metabolism of Cultured Brain Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Formaldehyde is an environmental pollutant that is also generated in the body during normal metabolic processes. Interestingly, several pathological conditions are associated with an increase in formaldehyde-generating enzymes in the body. The level of formaldehyde in the brain is elevated with increasing age and in neurodegenerative conditions which may contribute to lowered cognitive functions. Although the neurotoxic potential of formaldehyde is well established, the molecular mechanisms i...

Tulpule, Ketki

2013-01-01

42

GRP78 enhances the glutamine metabolism to support cell survival from glucose deficiency by modulating the ?-catenin signaling  

Science.gov (United States)

To support the high rates of proliferation, cancer cells undergo the metabolic reprogramming: aerobic glycolysis and glutamine addiction. Though glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a glucose-sensing protein and frequently highly expressed in tumor cells, its roles in glucose and glutamine metabolic regulation remain poorly unknown. We report here that glucose deficiency-induced GRP78 enhances ?-catenin signaling and consequently promotes its downstream c-Myc-mediated glutamine metabolism in colorectal cancer cells. Mechanistically, GRP78 elevates intracellular free ?-catenin level via disruption of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-?-catenin and E-cadherin-?-catenin protein complexes. Notably, overexpression of GRP78 causes APC protein downregulation in proteasome- and lysosome-independent manners. Further mechanistic studies reveal that GRP78 facilitates the extracellular release of APC, thereby rendering the liberation of ?-catenin from APC. Furthermore, GRP78 acts through both hindering E-cadherin expression and impairing the interaction of E-cadherin with ?-catenin to indirectly and directly influence E-cadherin-?-catenin complex stability. Our study reveals that GRP78 is a novel molecular link between metabolic alterations and signal transduction during tumor progression. PMID:24977433

Li, Zongwei; Wang, Yingying; Wu, Haili; Zhang, Lichao; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

2014-01-01

43

Extracellular glucose can fuel metabolism in red blood cells from high glycemic Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) but not low glycemic short-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius).  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy metabolism was assessed in red blood cells (RBCs) from Atlantic cod and short-horned sculpin, two species that have markedly different levels of blood glucose. The objective was to determine whether the level of extracellular glucose has an impact on rates of glucose metabolism. The blood glucose level was 2.5 mmol l(-1) in Atlantic cod and 0.2 mmol l(-1) in short-horned sculpin, respectively. Oxygen consumption, lactate production and glucose utilization were measured in whole blood and related to grams of RBCs. Glucose utilization was assessed by measuring both glucose disappearance and the production of (3)H2O from [2-(3)H]-glucose. RBCs from both species have an aerobic-based metabolism. In Atlantic cod, extracellular glucose is sufficient to provide the sum of glucosyl equivalents to support both oxidative metabolism and lactate production. In contrast, extracellular glucose can account for only 10% of the metabolic rate in short-horned sculpin RBCs. In both species, about 70% of glucose enters the RBCs via facilitated transport. The difference in rates of extracellular glucose utilization is related to the extremely low levels of blood glucose in short-horned sculpin. In this species energy metabolism by RBCs must be supported by alternative fuels. PMID:25214484

Driedzic, William R; Clow, Kathy A; Short, Connie E

2014-11-01

44

Therapeutic role of EF24 targeting glucose transporter 1-mediated metabolism and metastasis in ovarian cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells require glucose to support their rapid growth through a process known as aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect. As in ovarian cancer cells, increased metabolic activity and glucose concentration has been linked to aggressiveness of cancer. However, it is unclear as to whether targeting the glycolytic pathway may kill the malignant cells and likely have broad therapeutic implications against ovarian cancer metastasis. In the present research, we found that EF24, a HIF-1? inhibitor, could significantly block glucose uptake, the rate of glycolysis, and lactate production compared with vehicle treatment in SKOV-3, A2780 and OVCAR-3 cells. These results might possibly contribute to the further observation that EF24 could inhibit ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion from wound healing and Transwell assays. Furthermore, as an important mediator of glucose metabolism, glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) was found to contribute to the function of EF24 in both energy metabolism and metastasis. To examine the effect of EF24 and the mediated role of Glut1 in vivo in a xenograph subcutaneous tumor model, intraperitoneal metastasis and lung metastasis model were introduced. Our results indicated that EF24 treatment could inhibit tumor growth, intraperitoneal metastasis and lung metastasis of SKOV-3 cells, and Glut1 is a possible mediator for the role of EF24. In conclusion, our results highlight that an anti-cancer reagent with an inhibiting effect on energy metabolism could inhibit metastasis, and EF24 is a possible candidate for anti-metastasis therapeutic applications for ovarian cancer. PMID:24112101

Zhang, Dandan; Wang, Yan; Dong, Lina; Huang, Yangang; Yuan, Jing; Ben, Wei; Yang, Yang; Ning, Ning; Lu, Meisong; Guan, Yongmei

2013-12-01

45

Glucose metabolism in ischemic myocardium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined the myocardial metabolic rate for glucose (MMRGlc) in the ischemic or infarcted myocardium using 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18-FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET), and studied energy metabolism in the ischemic myocardium. In some cases, we compared glucose metabolism images by 18-FDG with myocardial blood flow images using 15-oxygen water. Two normal subjects, seven patients with myocardial infarction and four patients with angina pectoris were studied. Coronary angiography was performed within two weeks before or after the PET study to detect ischemic areas. PET studies were performed for patients who did not eat for 5 to 6 hours after breakfast. Cannulation was performed in the pedal artery to measure free fatty acid, blood sugar, and insulin. After recording the transmission scan for subsequent correction of photon attenuation, blood pool images were recorded for two min. after the inhalation of carbon monoxide (oxygen-15) which labeled the red blood cells in vivo. After 20 min., oxygen-15 water (15 to 20 mCi) was injected for dynamic scans, and flow images were obtained. Thirty min. after this procedure, 18-FDG (5 to 6 mCi) was injected, and 60 min later, a static scan was performed and glucose metabolism images were obtained. Arterial blood sampling for the time activity curve of the tracer was performed at the same time. According to the method of Phelps et al, MMRGlc was calculated in each of the region of interest (ROI) which was located igion of interest (ROI) which was located in the left ventricular wall. MMRGlc obtained from each ROI was 0 to 17 mg/100 ml/min. In normal subjects MMRGlc was 0.4 to 7.3 mg/100 ml/min. In patients with myocardial infarction, it ranged from 3 to 5 mg/100 ml/min in the infarcted lesion. In patients with angina pectoris and subendocardial infarction, MMRGlc was 7 to 17 mg/100 ml/min in the ischemic lesion. In this lesion, myocardial blood flow was relatively low by oxygen-15 imagings (so-called mismatch). (J.P.N.)

46

Study on the insulin resistance and ?-cell function in individuals with normal and those with abnormal glucose metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the insulin resistance and ?-cell function in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and those with glucose metabolism dysfunction. Methods: Insulin resistance and ?-cell function were studied with oral glucose tolerance test and the following parameters: 2h insulin/2h plasma glucose (2hIns/2hPG), insulin resistance index (IRI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and 30 min net increment of insulin/30min net increment of glucose (AI30/AG30) were examined in 44 individuals with NGT, 45 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 66 recently diagnosed diabetics and 175 well-established diabetics. Results: The insulin resistance index (IRI) increased progressively from that in NGT individuals to that in recently diabetics (20 ± 1. 5?3.1 ± 1.6?4.1 ± 1.8), while the 2hIns/2hPG, ?I30/?G30 and ISI decreased progressively with significant differences between those in successive groups (P30/?G30 and ISI kept decreasing (values in patients with disease history less than 3 yrs vs those in patients with disease over 3yrs: 2.9 ± 3.2 vs 2.4 + 2.3, 30.2 + 1.1 vs 23.4 ± 2.3, P30/?G30 were significantly correlated with ISI (F =96.3, 58.4 and 47.5 respectively). For principal component analysis display, the cumulative contriby, the cumulative contribution rate of four parameters (2hIns/2hPG, ISI, ?I30/?G30 and 2h C-peptide) exceeded 85% (86.5%). Conclusion: As the dysfunction of glucose metabolism proceeded from IGT to well established diabetes, the IR increased first with decrease of ?-cell secretion followed. The parameters 2hIns/2hPG, ISI, 2h C-peptide ?I30/?G30 were especially useful for the investigation . (authors)

47

Chronic effect of fatty acids on insulin release is not through the alteration of glucose metabolism in a pancreatic beta-cell line (beta HC9).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperinsulinaemia in the fasting state and a blunted insulin secretory response to acute glucose stimulation are commonly observed in obesity associated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Hyperlipidaemia is a hallmark of obesity and may play a role in the pathogenesis of this beta-cell dysfunction because glucose metabolism in pancreatic beta cells may be altered by the increased lipid load. We tested this hypothesis by assessing the chronic effect of oleic acid on glucose metabolism and its relationship with glucose-induced insulin release in beta HC9 cells in tissue culture. Our results show: (1) A 4-day treatment with oleic acid caused an enhancement of insulin release at 0-5 mmol/l glucose concentrations while a significant decrease in insulin release occurred when the glucose level was greater than 15 nmol/l; (2) Hexokinase activity was increased and a corresponding left shift of the dose-dependency curve of glucose usage was observed associated with inhibition of glucose oxidation in oleic acid treated beta HC9 cells, yet the presumed glucose-related ATP generation did not parallel the change in insulin release due to glucose; (3) The rate of cellular respiration was markedly increased in oleic acid treated beta HC9 cells both in the absence of glucose and at all glucose concentrations tested. This enhanced oxidative metabolism may explain the increased insulin release at a low glucose level but is clearly dissociated from the blunted insulin secretion at high glucose concentrations. We conclude that a reduction of oxidative metabolism in pancreatic beta cells is unlikely to be the cause of the dramatic effect that high levels of non-esterified fatty acids have on glucose-induced insulin release. PMID:9300238

Liang, Y; Buettger, C; Berner, D K; Matschinsky, F M

1997-09-01

48

Trifluoperazine inhibits insulin action on glucose metabolism in fat cells without affecting inhibition of lipolysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the specific inhibitors of calmodulin action, trifluoperazine, blocked the stimulating action of insulin on 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glucose metabolism. The inhibitory effect of insulin on lipolysis was not altered by the drug. The active (insulin-stimulated) state and the basal state of lipogenesis were inhibited half-maximally at 80 and 550 microM trifluoperazine, respectively. 2-Deoxyglucose uptake was inhibited half-maximally at a trifluoperazine concentration of 70 microM. Other ...

Shechter, Y.

1984-01-01

49

Paclitaxel Combined with Inhibitors of Glucose and Hydroperoxide Metabolism Enhances Breast Cancer Cell Killing Via H2O2-Mediated Oxidative Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cancer cells (relative to normal cells) demonstrate alterations in oxidative metabolism characterized by increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species [i.e. hydrogen peroxide, H2O2] that may be compensated for by increased glucose metabolism but the therapeutic significance of these observations is unknown. In the current study, inhibitors of glucose [i.e., 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2DG] and hydroperoxide [i.e., L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, BSO] metabolism were utilized in combination w...

Hadzic, Tanja; Aykin-burns, Nu?khet; Zhu, Yueming; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Leick, Katie; Jacobson, Geraldine M.; Spitz, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

50

Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evmatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

51

[Glucose metabolism in the basal ganglia].  

Science.gov (United States)

GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) -a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia- are involved in sensing severe hypoglycemic and hypoxic conditions in the brain via the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels that are abundantly expressed in these neurons. However, these neurons are also sensitive to mild changes in extracellular glucose concentrations through KATP channel-independent, yet unknown mechanisms. Lenard et al. reported that globus pallidus (GP) -another output nucleus of the basal ganglia- also senses glucose concentrations in the brain. It is unclear why these two major output nuclei sense glucose concentrations. It has been reported that some SNr and GP neurons respond to feeding-related, jaw or hand movement. Interestingly, Nishino demonstrated that SNr neurons responded oppositely, i.e., increased or decreased in their firings, to the same sweet food depending on blood glucose levels. Thus, glucose levels might influence feeding-related information processing in the basal ganglia through SNr and GP. Other issues reviewed are regarding associations between glucose metabolism and motor diseases in the basal ganglia. These include mutation in glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 causing paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoarthetosis, abnormal glycolysis in Huntington's disease, and a study showing increased glucose metabolism in SNr and GP in Parkinson's disease using high-resolution research positron emission tomography (HRRT). Although glucose is the sole energy source for the brain, its utilization at the single-cell level remains elusive. Modern methods for investigating intercellular metabolic communication might help understanding the selective vulnerability seen in the basal ganglia of patients suffering from such neurodegenerative disorders in near future. PMID:19378807

Yamada, Katsuya

2009-04-01

52

Arginine supplementation and exposure time affects polyamine and glucose metabolism in primary liver cells isolated from Atlantic salmon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginine has been demonstrated to enhance glucose and lipid oxidation in mammals through activation of polyamine turnover. We aimed to investigate how arginine affects energy utilization through polyamine metabolism and whether this effect is time dependent. Primary liver cells were isolated from Atlantic salmon (2.2 kg body weight) fed diets containing 25.5 (low arginine, LA) or 36.1 (high arginine, HA) g arginine/kg dry matter for 12 weeks, to investigate the effect of long-term arginine supplementation. The cells were cultured for 24 h in L-15 medium to which either alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) or N (1),N (11)-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) was added. Analysis of the medium by nuclear magnetic resonance revealed significant differences between the two dietary groups as well as between cells exposed to DFMO and DENSPM, with decreased glucose, fumarate and lactate concentrations in media of the HA cells. Liver cells from fish fed the HA diet had higher spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase protein abundance and lower adenosine triphosphate concentration as compared to the LA-fed fish, while gene expression was not affected by either diet or treatment. Primary liver cells isolated from salmon fed a commercial diet and cultured in L-15 media with or without arginine supplementation (1.82 or 3.63 mM) for 48 h, representing short-term effect of arginine supplementation, showed differential expression of genes for apoptosis and polyamine synthesis due to arginine supplementation or inhibition by DFMO. Overall, arginine concentration and exposure time affected energy metabolism and gene regulation more than inhibition or activation of key enzymes of polyamine metabolism, suggesting a polyamine-independent influence of arginine on cellular energy metabolism and survival. PMID:24500114

Andersen, Synne Marte; Taylor, Richard; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Espe, Marit

2014-05-01

53

Effect of endotoxin-induced monokines on glucose metabolism in the muscle cell line L6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of fully differentiated L6 myotubes to a crude monokine preparation from endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells resulted in a rapid and substantial (70%) increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration coincident with a depletion of cellular glycogen and an increased lactate production. During the time required for glycogen depletion (3 hr), stimulation of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake was initiated and observed to reach a maximum enhancement of 200% 12-15 hr later. The monokine had no effect on the K/sub m/ value for 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (1.1 mM), while V/sub max/ was increased from 912 to 2400 pmol/min per mg of protein. The increase was cytochalasin B inhibitable and was dependent on protein synthesis. Photoaffinity labeling and equilibrium binding studies with [3H]cytochalasin B support the hypothesis that this increase in hexose transport was due to an increase in hexose transporters present in the plasma membrane. Purified recombinant interleukin-1? had no effect on hexose transport, whereas purified recombinant cachectin/tumor necrosis factor did stimulate hexose uptake, with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 36 nM. Although cachectin accounts for most of the biological activity associated with the crude monokine preparation, it is not the only monokine capable of inducing glucose transport in L6 cells. Specific immunoabsorption of cachectin/tumor necrosis factor from the crude monokine preparation revealed a me crude monokine preparation revealed a monokine that had a similar bioactivity at extremely low concentrations on L6 cells

54

SH2B1 in ?-cells promotes insulin expression and glucose metabolism in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin deficiency drives the progression of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic ?-cell insulin expression and secretion are tightly regulated by nutrients and hormones; however, intracellular signaling proteins that mediate nutrient and hormonal regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion are not fully understood. SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein. It enhances the activation of the Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways in response to a verity of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Here we identify SH2B1 as a new regulator of insulin expression. In rat INS-1 832/13 ?-cells, SH2B1 knockdown decreased, whereas SH2B1 overexpression increased, both insulin expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. SH2B1-deficent islets also had reduced insulin expression, insulin content, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Heterozygous deletion of SH2B1 decreased pancreatic insulin content and plasma insulin levels in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, thus exacerbating hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. In addition, overexpression of JAK2 increased insulin promoter activity, and SH2B1 enhanced the ability of JAK2 to activate the insulin promoter. Overexpression of SH2B1 also increased the expression of Pdx1 and the recruitment of Pdx1 to the insulin promoter in INS-1 832/13 cells, whereas silencing of SH2B1 had the opposite effects. Consistently, Pdx1 expression was lower in SH2B1-deficient islets. These data suggest that the SH2B1 in ?-cells promotes insulin synthesis and secretion at least in part by enhancing activation of JAK2 and/or Pdx1 pathways in response to hormonal and nutritional signals. PMID:24645678

Chen, Zheng; Morris, David L; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Yong; Rui, Liangyou

2014-05-01

55

The Acute Effects of Low-Dose TNF- ? on Glucose Metabolism and ? -Cell Function in Humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by increased insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with low-grade inflammation and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- ? . TNF- ? has been shown to impair peripheral insulin signaling in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unclear whether TNF- ? may also affect endogenous glucose production (EGP) during fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in vivo. We hypothesized that low-dose TNF- ? would increase EGP and attenuate GSIS. Recombinant human TNF- ? or placebo was infused in healthy, nondiabetic young men (n = 10) during a 4-hour basal period followed by an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). TNF- ? lowered insulin levels by 12% during the basal period (P < 0.05). In response to the IVGTT, insulin levels increased markedly in both trials, but there was no difference between trials. Compared to placebo, TNF- ? did not affect EGP during the basal period. Our results indicate that TNF- ?acutely lowers basal plasma insulin levels but does not impair GSIS. The mechanisms behind this are unknown but we suggest that it may be due to TNF- ? increasing clearance of insulin from plasma without impairing beta-cell function or hepatic insulin sensitivity

Ibfeldt, T; Fischer, Christian Philip

2014-01-01

56

Glucose Dependency of the Metabolic Pathway of HEK 293 Cells Measured by a Flow-through Type pH/CO2 Sensor System Using ISFETs  

Science.gov (United States)

Our group previously reported the application of a flow-through type pH/CO2 sensor system designed to evaluate the metabolic activity of cultured cells. The sensor system consists of two ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), an ISFET to measure the total pH change and an ISFET enclosed within a gas-permeable silicone tube to measure the pH change attributable to CO2. In that study, we used the system to quantitatively analyze metabolic switching induced by glucose concentration changes in three cultured cell types (bovine arterial endothelium cell (BAEC), human umbilical vein endothelium cell (HUVEC), and rat cardiomuscle cell (RCMC)), and to measure the production rates of total carbonate and free lactic acid in the cultured cells. In every cell type examined, a decrease in the glucose concentration led to an increase in total carbonate, a product of cellular respiration, and a decrease of free lactic acid, a product of glycolysis. There were very significant differences among the cell types, however, in the glucose concentrations at the metabolic switching points. We postulated that the cell has a unique switching point on the metabolic pathway from glycolysis to respiration. In this paper we use our sensor system to evaluate the metabolic switching of human embryonic kidney 293 cells triggered by glucose concentration changes. The superior metabolic pathway switched from glycolysis to respiration when the glucose concentration decreased to about 2 mM. This result was very similar to that obtained in our earlier experiments on HUVECs, but far different from our results on the other two cells types, BAECs and RCMCs. This sensor system will be useful for analyzing cellular metabolism for many applications and will yield novel information on different cell types.

Yamada, Akira; Mohri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michihiro; Naruse, Keiji

57

Arginine deiminase resistance in melanoma cells is associated with metabolic reprogramming, glucose dependence, and glutamine addiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many malignant human tumors, including melanomas, are auxotrophic for arginine due to reduced expression of argininosuccinate synthetase-1 (ASS1), the rate-limiting enzyme for arginine biosynthesis. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20), which degrades extracellular arginine, resulting in arginine deprivation, has shown favorable results in clinical trials for treating arginine-auxotrophic tumors. Drug resistance is the major obstacle for effective ADI-PEG20 usage. To elucidate mechanisms of resistance, we established several ADI-PEG20-resistant (ADI(R)) variants from A2058 and SK-Mel-2 melanoma cells. Compared with the parental lines, these ADI(R) variants showed the following characteristics: (i) all ADI(R) cell lines showed elevated ASS1 expression, resulting from the constitutive binding of the transcription factor c-Myc on the ASS1 promoter, suggesting that elevated ASS1 is the major mechanism of resistance; (ii) the ADI(R) cell lines exhibited enhanced AKT signaling and were preferentially sensitive to PI3K/AKT inhibitors, but reduced mTOR signaling, and were preferentially resistant to mTOR inhibitor; (iii) these variants showed enhanced expression of glucose transporter-1 and lactate dehydrogenase-A, reduced expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and elevated sensitivity to the glycolytic inhibitors 2-deoxy-glucose and 3-bromopyruvate, consistent with the enhanced glycolytic pathway (the Warburg effect); (iv) the resistant cells showed higher glutamine dehydrogenase and glutaminase expression and were preferentially vulnerable to glutamine inhibitors. We showed that c-Myc, not elevated ASS1 expression, is involved in upregulation of many of these enzymes because knockdown of c-Myc reduced their expression, whereas overexpressed ASS1 by transfection reduced their expression. This study identified multiple targets for overcoming ADI-PEG resistance in cancer chemotherapy using recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes. PMID:23979920

Long, Yan; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Savaraj, Niramol; Feun, Lynn G; Kuo, Macus Tien

2013-11-01

58

SLC30A3 Responds to Glucose- and Zinc Variations in ss-Cells and Is Critical for Insulin Production and In Vivo Glucose-Metabolism During ss-Cell Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Ion transporters of the Slc30A- (ZnT-) family regulate zinc fluxes into sub-cellular compartments. ?-cells depend on zinc for both insulin crystallization and regulation of cell mass. Methodology/Principal Findings This study examined: the effect of glucose and zinc chelation on ZnT gene and protein levels and apoptosis in ?-cells and pancreatic islets, the effects of ZnT-3 knock-down on insulin secretion in a ?-cell line and ZnT-3 knock-out on glucose metabolism in mice during streptozotocin-induced ?-cell stress. In INS-1E cells 2 mM glucose down-regulated ZnT-3 and up-regulated ZnT-5 expression relative to 5 mM. 16 mM glucose increased ZnT-3 and decreased ZnT-8 expression. Zinc chelation by DEDTC lowered INS-1E insulin content and insulin expression. Furthermore, zinc depletion increased ZnT-3- and decreased ZnT-8 gene expression whereas the amount of ZnT-3 protein in the cells was decreased. Zinc depletion and high glucose induced apoptosis and necrosis in INS-1E cells. The most responsive zinc transporter, ZnT-3, was investigated further; by immunohistochemistry and western blotting ZnT-3 was demonstrated in INS-1E cells. 44% knock-down of ZnT-3 by siRNA transfection in INS-1E cells decreased insulin expression and secretion. Streptozotocin-treated mice had higher glucose levels after ZnT-3 knock-out, particularly in overt diabetic animals. Conclusion/Significance Zinc transporting proteins in ?-cells respond to variations in glucose and zinc levels. ZnT-3, which is pivotal in the development of cellular changes as also seen in type 2 diabetes (e.g. amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease) but not previously described in ?-cells, is present in this cell type, up-regulated by glucose in a concentration dependent manner and up-regulated by zinc depletion which by contrast decreased ZnT-3 protein levels. Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene lowers insulin secretion in vitro and affects in vivo glucose metabolism after streptozotocin treatment. PMID:19492079

Smidt, Kamille; Jessen, Niels; Petersen, Andreas Br?nden; Larsen, Agnete; Magnusson, Nils; Jeppesen, Johanne Bruun; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Culvenor, Janetta G.; Tsatsanis, Andrew; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole; Wogensen, Lise; Bush, Ashley I.; Rungby, J?rgen

2009-01-01

59

Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed-batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Amino acid and glucose consumption, cell growth, metabolism, antibody titer, and N-glycosylation patterns are always the major concerns during upstream process optimization, especially media optimization. Gaining knowledge on their interrelations could provide insight for obtaining higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and better controlling glycosylationrelated product quality. In this work, different fed-batch processes with two chemically defined proprietary media and feeds were studied using two IgG-producing cell lines. Our results indicate that the balance of glucose and amino acid concentration in the culture is important for cell growth, IgG titer and N-glycosylation. Accordingly, the ideal fate of glucose and amino acids in the culture could be mainly towards energy and recombinant product, respectively. Accumulation of by-products such as NH4+ and lactate as a consequence of unbalanced nutrient supply to cell activities inhibits cell growth. The levels of Leu and Arg in the culture, which relate to cell growth and IgG productivity, need to be well controlled. Amino acids with the highest consumption rates correlate with the most abundant amino acids present in the produced IgG, and thus require sufficient availability during culture. Case-by-case analysis is necessary for understanding the effect of media and process optimization on glycosylation. We found that in certain cases the presence of Man5 glycan can be linked to limitation of UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis as a result of insufficient extracellular Gln. However, under different culture conditions, high Man5 levels can also result from low a-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-ß-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTI) and UDPGlcNAc transporter activities, which may be attributed to high level of NH4+ in the cell culture. Furthermore, galactosylation of the mAb Fc glycans was found to be limited by UDP-Gal biosynthesis, whichwas observed to be both cell line and cultivation condition-dependent. Extracellular glucose and glutamine concentrations and uptake rates were positively correlated with intracellular UDP-Gal availability. All these findings are important for optimization of fed-batch culture for improving IgG production and directing glycosylation quality.

Fan, Yuzhou; Jimenez Del Val, Ioscani

2014-01-01

60

Defective glucose and lipid metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy involve liver, muscle tissue and pancreatic beta-cells.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: Lipodystrophy and insulin resistance are prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Aiming to provide a detailed description of the metabolic adverse effects of HIV-lipodystrophy, we investigated several aspects of glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients. METHODS: [3-3H]glucose was applied during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps in association with indirect calorimetry in 43 normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients (18 lipodystrophic patients on HAART (LIPO), 18 patients without lipodystrophy on HAART (NONLIPO) and seven patients who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (NAIVE) respectively). beta-cell function was evaluated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE separately, LIPO displayed markedly reduced ratio of limb to trunk fat (RLF; > 34%, P 40%, P 50%, P 50%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, LIPO displayed reduced incremental glucose oxidation (P < 0.01), increased clamp free fatty acids (P < 0.05) and attenuated insulin-mediated suppression of lipid oxidation (P < 0.05) compared with NONLIPO. In combined study groups, RLF correlated with hepatic insulin sensitivity (r = 0.69), incremental glucose disposal (r = 0.71) and incremental exogenous glucose storage (r = 0.40), all P < 0.01. Disposition index (i.e. first-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose multiplied by incremental glucose disposal) was reduced by 46% (P = 0.05) in LIPO compared with the combined groups of NONLIPO and NAIVE, indicating an impaired adaptation of beta-cell function to insulin resistance in LIPO. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients display impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in multiple pathways involving liver, muscle tissue and beta-cell function.

Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Sex steroids and glucose metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference) is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain. PMID:24457840

Allan, Carolyn A

2014-01-01

62

Elevated white blood cell count is associated with higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people.  

Science.gov (United States)

White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

2014-05-01

63

Glucagon like peptide-1-induced glucose metabolism in differentiated human muscle satellite cells is attenuated by hyperglycemia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas but also has extra-pancreatic effects. GLP-1 may stimulate glucose uptake in cultured muscle cells but the mechanism is not clearly defined. Furthermore, while the pancreatic effects of GLP-1 are glucose-dependent, the glucose-dependency of its extra-pancreatic effects has not been examined.

Green, Charlotte J; Henriksen, Tora I

2012-01-01

64

Reversal of hyperglycemic-induced defects in myo-inositol metabolism and Na+/K+ pump activity in cultured neuroblastoma cells by normalizing glucose levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

myo-Inositol accumulation and incorporation into phosphoinositides was decreased in neuroblastoma cells chronically exposed to medium containing 30 mmol/L glucose or 30 mmol/L galactose. In addition, the intracellular content of myo-inositol and phosphatidylinositol was decreased and the sorbitol or galactitol content increased in cells cultured for 2 weeks in medium containing 30 mmol/L glucose or 30 mmol/L galactose, respectively. Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) transport activity was also significantly decreased by long-term exposure of neuroblastoma cells to medium containing 30 mmol/L glucose or 30 mmol/L galactose. When glucose-conditioned cells were placed in medium containing a normal glucose concentration for 24 hours, myo-inositol metabolism and content, phosphatidylinositol levels, and Na+/K+ pump activity were restored or completely returned to normal values. These functions were also significantly improved, except for the phosphatidylinositol content, which was increased by 55%, when galactose-conditioned cells were incubated for 24 hours in unsupplemented medium. The polyol content of the glucose- or galactose-conditioned cells was also significantly reduced. Returning the cells to normal glucose levels for 1 to 3 hours did not completely restore myo-inositol metabolism. Improved myo-inositol metabolism and content, sorbitol levels, and Na+/K+ ATPase transport activity were also obtained within 24 hours when cells chronically exposed to medium supplemented with 30 mmol/L glucose were placed in medium containing 30 mmol/L glucose and 0.4 mmol/L sorbinil. The phosphatidylinositol content of these cells was improved by approximately 30%. Cells prelabeled for 24 hours with [U-14C]sorbitol metabolize more than 50% of the [U-14C]sorbitol during a 24-hour incubation in unsupplemented medium. These studies conducted at the cellular level suggest that restoration of normal myo-inositol metabolism, polyol content, and Na+/K+ pump activity altered by hyperglycemic conditions occurs rapidly following normalization of glucose concentration. PMID:8412773

Yorek, M A; Dunlap, J A; Stefani, M R; Davidson, E P

1993-09-01

65

Metabolism of 18F-FDG (2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) in tumor cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumor cell components obtained at 5 min, 1 hr and 3 hr after 18F-FDG injections were analyzed by radio-thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Major metabolites were 18F-FDG-phosphate and 18F-FDM-phosphate. 18F-FDM and three unidentified compounds were found as minor metabolites. Time course of the composition of metabolites are as follows; 18F-FDG-phosphate was 88% at 5 mm after injection, but decreased to 53% at 3 hr after. 18F-FDM-phosphate was increased to 38% at 3 hr after injection. In conclusion, 18F-FDG is promptly phosphorylated after transportation into cell, and then exists as FDG-phosphate or 18F-FDM-phosphate. These results support known FDG distribution and metabolism, and it is possible that we use the information accumulated until now employing FDG manufactured by commercial supply system. (author)

66

Repressing malic enzyme 1 redirects glucose metabolism, unbalances the redox state, and attenuates migratory and invasive abilities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is required for fatty acid synthesis and maintenance of the redox state in cancer cells. Malic enzyme 1(ME1-dependent NADPH production is one of the three pathways that contribute to the formation of the cytosolic NADPH pool. ME1 is generally considered to be overexpressed in cancer cells to meet the high demand for increased de novo fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we found that glucose induced higher ME1 activity and that repressing ME1 had a profound impact on glucose metabolism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC cells. High incorporation of glucose and an enhancement of the pentose phosphate pathway were observed in ME1-repressed cells. However, there were no obvious changes in the other two pathways for glucose metabolism: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Interestingly, NADPH was decreased under low-glucose condition in ME1-repressed cells relative to wild-type cells, whereas no significant difference was observed under high-glucose condition. ME1-repressed cells had significantly decreased tolerance to low-glucose condition. Moreover, NADPH produced by ME1 was not only important for fatty acid synthesis but also essential for maintenance of the intracellular redox state and the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore, diminished migration and invasion were observed in ME1-repressed cells due to a reduced level of Snail protein. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role for ME1 in the production of cytosolic NADPH and maintenance of migratory and invasive abilities of NPC cells.

Chao-Nan Qian

2012-11-01

67

Repressing malic enzyme 1 redirects glucose metabolism, unbalances the redox state, and attenuates migratory and invasive abilities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is required for fatty acid synthesis and maintenance of the redox state in cancer cells. Malic enzyme 1(ME1)-dependent NADPH production is one of the three pathways that contribute to the formation of the cytosolic NADPH pool. ME1 is generally considered to be overexpressed in cancer cells to meet the high demand for increased de novo fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we found that glucose induced higher ME1 activity and that repressing ME1 had a profound impact on glucose metabolism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) cells. High incorporation of glucose and an enhancement of the pentose phosphate pathway were observed in ME1-repressed cells. However, there were no obvious changes in the other two pathways for glucose metabolism: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Interestingly, NADPH was decreased under low-glucose condition in ME1-repressed cells relative to wild-type cells, whereas no significant difference was observed under high-glucose condition. ME1-repressed cells had significantly decreased tolerance to low-glucose condition. Moreover, NADPH produced by ME1 was not only important for fatty acid synthesis but also essential for maintenance of the intracellular redox state and the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore, diminished migration and invasion were observed in ME1-repressed cells due to a reduced level of Snail protein. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role for ME1 in the production of cytosolic NADPH and maintenance of migratory and invasive abilities of NPC cells. PMID:23114090

Zheng, Fang-Jing; Ye, Hao-Bin; Wu, Man-Si; Lian, Yi-Fan; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2012-11-01

68

Gis1 and Rph1 regulate glycerol and acetate metabolism in glucose depleted yeast cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging in organisms as diverse as yeast, nematodes, and mammals is delayed by caloric restriction, an effect mediated by the nutrient sensing TOR, RAS/cAMP, and AKT/Sch9 pathways. The transcription factor Gis1 functions downstream of these pathways in extending the lifespan of nutrient restricted yeast cells, but the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We have used gene expression microarrays to study the targets of Gis1 and the related protein Rph1 in different growth phases. Our results show that Gis1 and Rph1 act both as repressors and activators, on overlapping sets of genes as well as on distinct targets. Interestingly, both the activities and the target specificities of Gis1 and Rph1 depend on the growth phase. Thus, both proteins are associated with repression during exponential growth, targeting genes with STRE or PDS motifs in their promoters. After the diauxic shift, both become involved in activation, with Gis1 acting primarily on genes with PDS motifs, and Rph1 on genes with STRE motifs. Significantly, Gis1 and Rph1 control a number of genes involved in acetate and glycerol formation, metabolites that have been implicated in aging. Furthermore, several genes involved in acetyl-CoA metabolism are downregulated by Gis1. PMID:22363679

Orzechowski Westholm, Jakub; Tronnersjö, Susanna; Nordberg, Niklas; Olsson, Ida; Komorowski, Jan; Ronne, Hans

2012-01-01

69

Effects of fluctuating glucose concentrations on oxidative metabolism of glucose in cultured neurons and astroglia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on glucose metabolism of brain cells. Not only a sustained hyperglycemic state, but also a fluctuating plasma glucose concentration has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy. Acutely increasing plasma glucose levels have not been reported to alter glucose utilization of the brain as a whole. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic (3 weeks or short-term (24-hour exposure to a high glucose concentration on the oxidative metabolism of neurons and astroglia. Cells were prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in the presence of a high (22 mM or low (5 mM concentration of glucose. The high or low glucose media did not alter either the rates of [14C]deoxyglucose phosphorylation (an indicator of total glucose utilization or [14C]lactate and [14C]pyruvate oxidation (indicators of oxidative glucose metabolism in neurons. In contrast, chronic or short-term exposure to a high glucose concentration resulted in significant decreases in oxidation of [14C]acetate, an astrocyte-specific reporter molecule, or [14C]lactate and [14C]pyruvate oxidation in the astroglia. Thus, either chronic or short-term increases in the glucose concentration suppressed oxidative metabolism only in astroglia, indicating neuro-protective roles against hyperglycemic brain cell injury in diabetes mellitus. These different responses of neurons and astroglia may also shed new light on brain energy metabolism in diabetic patients with either chronic high or fluctuating plasma glucose concentrations.

Takato Abe

2012-02-01

70

Keratin 8/18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal versus cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulation of hexokinase status and insulin signaling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As differentiated cells, hepatocytes primarily metabolize glucose for ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation of glycolytic pyruvate, whereas proliferative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells undergo a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis despite oxygen availability. Keratins, the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, are expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatocyte and HCC (hepatoma) cell IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), thus providing models of choice to address K8/K18 IF functions in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate distinctive increases in glucose uptake, glucose-6-phosphate formation, lactate release, and glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatocytes and/or hepatoma cells versus their respective IF-containing counterparts. We also show that the K8/K18-dependent glucose uptake/G6P formation is linked to alterations in hexokinase I/II/IV content and localization at mitochondria, with little effect on GLUT1 status. In addition, we find that the insulin-stimulated glycogen formation in normal hepatocytes involves the main PI-3 kinase-dependent signaling pathway and that the K8/K18 IF loss makes them more efficient glycogen producers. In comparison, the higher insulin-dependent glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatoma cells is associated with a signaling occurring through a mTOR-dependent pathway, along with an augmentation in cell proliferative activity. Together, the results uncover a key K8/K18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal and cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulations of mitochondrial HK status and insulin-mediated signaling

71

Keratin 8/18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal versus cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulation of hexokinase status and insulin signaling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As differentiated cells, hepatocytes primarily metabolize glucose for ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation of glycolytic pyruvate, whereas proliferative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells undergo a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis despite oxygen availability. Keratins, the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, are expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatocyte and HCC (hepatoma) cell IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), thus providing models of choice to address K8/K18 IF functions in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate distinctive increases in glucose uptake, glucose-6-phosphate formation, lactate release, and glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatocytes and/or hepatoma cells versus their respective IF-containing counterparts. We also show that the K8/K18-dependent glucose uptake/G6P formation is linked to alterations in hexokinase I/II/IV content and localization at mitochondria, with little effect on GLUT1 status. In addition, we find that the insulin-stimulated glycogen formation in normal hepatocytes involves the main PI-3 kinase-dependent signaling pathway and that the K8/K18 IF loss makes them more efficient glycogen producers. In comparison, the higher insulin-dependent glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatoma cells is associated with a signaling occurring through a mTOR-dependent pathway, along with an augmentation in cell proliferative activity. Together, the results uncover a key K8/K18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal and cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulations of mitochondrial HK status and insulin-mediated signaling.

Mathew, Jasmin; Loranger, Anne; Gilbert, Stéphane [Centre de recherche en cancérologie de l' Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHUQ (L' Hôtel-Dieu de Québec), 9 McMahon, Québec, Qc, Canada G1R 2J6 (Canada); Faure, Robert [Département de Pédiatrie, Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHUQ (Centre Mère-Enfant), Québec, Qc, Canada G1V 4G2 (Canada); Marceau, Normand, E-mail: normand.marceau@crhdq.ulaval.ca [Centre de recherche en cancérologie de l' Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHUQ (L' Hôtel-Dieu de Québec), 9 McMahon, Québec, Qc, Canada G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2013-02-15

72

Sorbitol inhibition of glucose metabolism by Streptococcus sanguis 160.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical studies in Sweden have shown that the proportion of sorbitol-utilizing strains of Streptococcus sanguis increases in dental plaque from individuals using sorbitol-containing products for prolonged periods. We have undertaken to study the metabolism of glucose and sorbitol by S. sanguis 160, isolated from a subject consuming sorbitol-containing chewing-gum 4 times a day for 4 years. Growth on glucose was inhibited by the presence of sorbitol in the growth medium and sorbitol was utilized in the presence of glucose, albeit, at a slower rate than glucose. In addition, pulses of glucose added to cultures growing on sorbitol resulted in the expulsion of sorbitol from the cell. In order to examine further the relationship of sorbitol and glucose, uptake assays were carried out with S. sanguis 160 grown in continuous culture (pH 7.0, dilution rate = 0.1 h-1) with glucose, sorbitol or nitrogen (sorbitol excess) limitations. The uptake of [14C]-glucose by sorbitol-limited cells, but not by glucose-limited cells, was inhibited by sorbitol, as was glycolysis. Kinetic experiments with glucose-limited cells showed 2 transport systems for glucose with Ks values of 5.2 and 40 microM, and glucose phosphorylation activity by decryptified cells indicated transport by the P-enolpyruvate (PEP) phosphotransferase system (PTS) with lesser activity for an ATP-dependent transport process. Transition from glucose-limited growth to sorbitol-limited growth revealed repression of total [14C]-glucose uptake by intact cells and activity for Enzyme II for glucose (Ellglc) of the PTS measured in membrane preparations in the presence of an excess of the soluble PTS proteins in crude cell-free supernatant fractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1945498

Hamilton, I R; Svensater, G

1991-06-01

73

Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U-14 C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10-6 M) and/or insulin (I) (150 ?U/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and 14CO2 and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14CO2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose

74

Preferential transport and metabolism of glucose in Bergmann glia over Purkinje cells: a multiphoton study of cerebellar slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowing how different cell types handle glucose should help to decipher how energy supply is adjusted to energy demand in the brain. Previously, the uptake of glucose by cultured brain cells was studied in real-time using fluorescent tracers and confocal microscopy. Here, we have adapted this technique to acute slices prepared from the rat cerebellum by means of multiphoton microscopy. The transport of the fluorescent glucose analogs 2NBDG and 6NBDG was several-fold faster in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex than in Purkinje cell somata and granule cells. After washout of free tracer, it became apparent that most phosphorylated tracer was located in Bergmann glia, which was confirmed by counterstaining with the glial marker sulforhodamine 101. The effective recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching showed that 2NBDG-P can diffuse horizontally across the molecular layer, presumably through gap junctions between Bergmann glial cells. Our main conclusion is that in acute cerebellar slices, the glucose transport capacity and glycolytic rate of Bergmann glia are several-fold higher than those of Purkinje cells. Given that the cerebellum is largely fueled by glucose and Purkinje neurons are estimated to spend more energy than Bergmann glial cells, these results suggest substantial shuttling of an energy-rich metabolite like lactate between glial cells and neurons. PMID:19062182

Barros, L F; Courjaret, R; Jakoby, P; Loaiza, A; Lohr, C; Deitmer, J W

2009-07-01

75

Glucose Metabolism in Mentally Retarded Children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glucose metabolism has been studied in normal, mentally retarded and hypothyroid children who exhibited subnormal I.Q. in spite of an adequate thyroxine dose. Two parameters, the breath and the blood, were examined. Continuous breath analysis following intravenous glucose-U-14C was carried out to examine its end product 14CO2. Blood was analysed half-hourly for the specific activity of glucose in this pool. Data are presented in terms of stable carbon dioxide expiration rate, the maximum specific activity of carbon dioxide attained, the glucose pool of the body and its turnover rate. (author)

76

Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25oC which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ? 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U-14C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

77

Overexpression of PPAR? specifically in pancreatic ?-cells exacerbates obesity-induced glucose intolerance, reduces ?-cell mass, and alters islet lipid metabolism in male mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonism in pancreatic ?-cells to the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones has not been clearly elucidated. Genetic models of pancreatic ?-cell PPAR? ablation have revealed a potential role for PPAR? in ?-cell expansion in obesity but a limited role in normal ?-cell physiology. Here we overexpressed PPAR?1 or PPAR?2 specifically in pancreatic ?-cells of mice subjected to high-fat feeding using an associated adenovirus (?-PPAR?1-HFD and ?-PPAR?2-HFD mice). We show ?-cell-specific PPAR?1 or PPAR?2 overexpression in diet-induced obese mice exacerbated obesity-induced glucose intolerance with decreased ?-cell mass, increased islet cell apoptosis, and decreased plasma insulin compared with obese control mice (?-eGFP-HFD mice). Analysis of islet lipid composition in ?-PPAR?2-HFD mice revealed no significant changes in islet triglyceride content and an increase in only one of eight ceramide species measured. Interestingly ?-PPAR?2-HFD islets had significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines, lipid species shown to enhance insulin secretion in ?-cells. Gene expression profiling revealed increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 and genes involved in fatty acid transport and ?-oxidation. In summary, transgenic overexpression of PPAR? in ?-cells in diet-induced obesity negatively impacts whole-animal carbohydrate metabolism associated with altered islet lipid content, increased expression of ?-oxidative genes, and reduced ?-cell mass. PMID:25051434

Hogh, K-Lynn N; Craig, Michael N; Uy, Christopher E; Nygren, Heli; Asadi, Ali; Speck, Madeline; Fraser, Jordie D; Rudecki, Alexander P; Baker, Robert K; Oreši?, Matej; Gray, Sarah L

2014-10-01

78

Differential effects of specific amino acid restriction on glucose metabolism, reduction/oxidation status and mitochondrial damage in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Selective amino acid restriction targets mitochondria to induce apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Biochemical assays and flow cytometry were uitilized to analyze the glucose consumption, lactate production, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)/NADH and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)/NADPH ratios, mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GPx), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in DU145 and PC prostate cancer cells cultured under various amino acid deprived conditions. Restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine (Tyr/Phe), glutamine (Gln) or methionine (Met) differentially modulated glucose metabolism and PDH and antioxidant enzyme activity in the mitochondria of the two prostate cancer cell lines. In DU145 cells, Gln and Met restriction increased glucose consumption and decreased lactate production, but Tyr/Phe restriction did not. The examined restrictions increased mitochondrial PDH activity and accumulation of ROS. Gln and Met restriction increased GPx activity. Tyr/Phe and Met restriction increased SOD during the first 2 days of the restriction, and the activity returned to the basal level on day 4. All amino acid restrictions decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and induced mitochondrial DNA damage. In PC3 cells, all amino acid restrictions reduced glucose consumption and lactate production. Gln restriction increased ROS and elevated GPx activity. Tyr/Phe restriction increased SOD activity. The amino acid restriction decreased GSH, but did not cause mitochondrial DNA damage. Specific amino acid dependency differentially regulates glucose metabolism, oxidation-reduction reactions of mitochondria and mitochondrial damage in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. PMID:21415930

LIU, XIAOYI; FU, YA-MIN; MEADOWS, GARY G.

2011-01-01

79

Glucose metabolism in a rat mammary adenocarcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Tumor hypoxia, which decreases therapy response is common in tumors. Glucose metabolism is closely tied to tumor oxygenation and alteration of its metabolism could improve tumor oxygenation. The objective of the study was to compare tissue pharmacokinetics of 14C-2-deoxyglucose (14C2DG) and 14C-glucose in an adenocarcinoma (R3230Ac) and normal control tissue (subcutis:SQ) using a novel fiberoptic scintillation detector. Fischer 344 rats with R3230Ac tumors were anesthetized with Isoflurane and detectors were inserted. Baseline data was acquired for 45 minutes, then 14C2DG or 14C-glucose (i.v.) was injected and data was acquired for 3 hours. After 100mCi of 14C2DG both tissues reached peaks (R3230Ac, 0.4mCi/g; SQ, 0.75mCi/g) 20 minutes post-injection that remained stable for 3 hours. With 200mCi 14C2DG R3230Ac peaked and plateaued at 1.75mCi/g by 50 minutes. SQ peaked (2.25mCi/g) at 20 minutes and decreased to a stable plateau (0.75mCi/g) at 50 minutes. Kinetics of 14C-glucose were different from 14C2DG. R3230Ac and SQ increased over 20 minutes, reaching peaks of 2.4mCi/g and 1.5mCi/g, respectively. A slow decrease followed, but tumor signal (1.25mCi/g) remained higher than SQ (0.5mCi/g). Kinetics of 14C2DG and 14C-glucose were distinctly different. In SQ a wash-in/wash-out effect was observed at 200mCi of 14C2DG. In tumor 00mCi of 14C2DG. In tumor 14C2DG accumulated to a plateau (1.75mCi/g) that persisted out to 3 hours. 14C-glucose signal declined below 14C2DG signal in both tissues, suggesting they both metabolize 14C-glucose and excrete 14C-containing metabolites. PET can assess flouride-deoxyglucose uptake in tumors, which is analogous to our 14C2DG studies. However, PET cannot provide data on glucose metabolism and excretion because there is not a metabolizable fluorinated-glucose analogue that is imageable by PET. In summary, this novel detector has the unique capability to evaluate real-time accumulation, metabolism, and excretion of radiolabeled glucose in tissues before and after metabolic manipulation

80

Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress. PMID:16475003

Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sirtuin 1 stabilization by HuR represses TNF-?- and glucose-induced E-selectin release and endothelial cell adhesiveness in vitro: relevance to human metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic inflammation and hyperglycaemia, typical features of metabolic diseases, trigger endothelial damage and release of E-selectin, a marker of endothelial activation. In the present study, we investigated molecular pathways involved in the regulation of endothelial cell activation induced by tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and high glucose. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we studied the role of HuR, an ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila) family RNA-binding protein, and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) on E-selectin release and cell adhesion at different glucose concentrations. HuR expression and binding to SIRT1 were also analysed ex vivo in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome (MS), by immunoprecipitation (IP) of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. We found that SIRT1 overexpression prevented TNF-?- and high-glucose-dependent nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-p65 acetylation, E-selectin promoter activity, E-selectin release and adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. The same was mimicked by HuR overexpression, which binds and stabilizes SIRT1 mRNA. Importantly, in PBMCs of individuals with MS compared with those without, SIRT1 expression was lower, and the ability of HuR to bind SIRT1 mRNA was significantly reduced, while plasma E-selectin was increased. We conclude that post-transcriptional stabilization of SIRT1 by HuR represses inflammation- and hyperglycaemia-induced E-selectin release and endothelial cell activation. Therefore, increasing SIRT1 expression represents a strategy to counter the accelerated vascular disease in metabolic disorders. PMID:24702436

Ceolotto, Giulio; De Kreutzenberg, Saula Vigili; Cattelan, Arianna; Fabricio, Aline S C; Squarcina, Elisa; Gion, Massimo; Semplicini, Andrea; Fadini, Gian Paolo; Avogaro, Angelo

2014-10-01

82

Comparison of spheroids formed by rat glioma stem cells and neural stem cells reveals differences in glucose metabolism and promising therapeutic applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be partially responsible for cancer resistance to current therapies and tumor recurrence. Dichloroacetate (DCA), a compound capable of shifting metabolism from glycolysis to glucose oxidation, via an inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was used. We show that DCA is able to shift the pyruvate metabolism in rat glioma CSCs but has no effect in rat neural stem cells. DCA forces CSCs into oxidative phosphorylation but does not trigger the production of reactive oxygen species and consecutive anti-cancer apoptosis. However, DCA, associated with etoposide or irradiation, induced a Bax-dependent apoptosis in CSCs in vitro and decreased their proliferation in vivo. The former phenomenon is related to DCA-induced Foxo3 and p53 expression, resulting in the overexpression of BH3-only proteins (Bad, Noxa, and Puma), which in turn facilitates Bax-dependent apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that a small drug available for clinical studies potentiates the induction of apoptosis in glioma CSCs. PMID:22782899

Morfouace, Marie; Lalier, Lisenn; Bahut, Muriel; Bonnamain, Virginie; Naveilhan, Philippe; Guette, Catherine; Oliver, Lisa; Gueguen, Naig; Reynier, Pascal; Vallette, Francois M

2012-09-28

83

Overlapping and distinct roles of Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-glucose 4-epimerases in galactose metabolism and the synthesis of galactose-containing cell wall polysaccharides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus contains two galactose-containing polysaccharides, galactomannan and galactosaminogalactan, whose biosynthetic pathways are not well understood. The A. fumigatus genome contains three genes encoding putative UDP-glucose 4-epimerases, uge3, uge4, and uge5. We undertook this study to elucidate the function of these epimerases. We found that uge4 is minimally expressed and is not required for the synthesis of galactose-containing exopolysaccharides or galactose metabolism. Uge5 is the dominant UDP-glucose 4-epimerase in A. fumigatus and is essential for normal growth in galactose-based medium. Uge5 is required for synthesis of the galactofuranose (Galf) component of galactomannan and contributes galactose to the synthesis of galactosaminogalactan. Uge3 can mediate production of both UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and is required for the production of galactosaminogalactan but not galactomannan. In the absence of Uge5, Uge3 activity is sufficient for growth on galactose and the synthesis of galactosaminogalactan containing lower levels of galactose but not the synthesis of Galf. A double deletion of uge5 and uge3 blocked growth on galactose and synthesis of both Galf and galactosaminogalactan. This study is the first survey of glucose epimerases in A. fumigatus and contributes to our understanding of the role of these enzymes in metabolism and cell wall synthesis. PMID:24257745

Lee, Mark J; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Cerone, Robert P; Baptista, Stefanie D; Campoli, Paolo V; Choe, Se-In; Kravtsov, Ilia; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Creuzenet, Carole; Liu, Hong; Berghuis, Albert M; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Filler, Scott G; Fontaine, Thierry; Sheppard, Donald C

2014-01-17

84

Antitumor and chemosensitizing action of dichloroacetate implicates modulation of tumor microenvironment: a role of reorganized glucose metabolism, cell survival regulation and macrophage differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Targeting of tumor metabolism is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer. Dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), has been shown to exert a potent tumoricidal action against a variety of tumor cells. The main mode of its antineoplastic action implicates a shift of glycolysis to oxidative metabolism of glucose, leading to generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the effect of DCA on tumor microenvironment, which in turn regulates tumor cell survival; remains speculative to a large extent. It is also unclear if DCA can exert any modulatory effect on the process of hematopoiesis, which is in a compromised state in tumor-bearing hosts undergoing chemotherapy. In view of these lacunas, the present study was undertaken to investigate the so far unexplored aspects with respect to the molecular mechanisms of DCA-dependent tumor growth retardation and chemosensitization. BALB/c mice were transplanted with Dalton's lymphoma (DL) cells, a T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin, followed by administration of DCA with or without cisplatin. DCA-dependent tumor regression and chemosensitization to cisplatin was found to be associated with altered repertoire of key cell survival regulatory molecules, modulated glucose metabolism, accompanying reconstituted tumor microenvironment with respect to pH homeostasis, cytokine balance and alternatively activated TAM. Moreover, DCA administration also led to an alteration in the MDR phenotype of tumor cells and myelopoietic differentiation of macrophages. The findings of this study shed a new light with respect to some of the novel mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of DCA and thus may have immense clinical applications. PMID:24051182

Kumar, Ajay; Kant, Shiva; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

2013-11-15

85

Glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, and neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing evidence that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome may result in peripheral nerve injury, although the exact relationship between the conditions is still being characterized. There is animal model, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence to suggest a pathophysiologic relationship between neuropathy and metabolic syndrome, along with its components including obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. IGT and metabolic syndrome are associated with subclinical nerve damage or are typically painful and sensory predominant, although autonomic involvement may also occur. Because there is often preferential small fiber injury and nerve conduction studies may be relatively insensitive, skin biopsy with assessment of intraepidermal nerve fiber density is often used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of metabolic syndrome and IGT-associated neuropathies should include diet and exercise counseling, maintenance of normoglycemia, and targeted pharmacologic therapy for modifiable risk factors. Further research is required to fully elucidate the complex pathophysiology, as well as identify optimal diagnostic and treatment approaches. PMID:25410218

Cortez, Melissa; Singleton, J Robinson; Smith, A Gordon

2014-01-01

86

Adult glucose metabolism in extremely birthweight-discordant monozygotic twins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low birthweight (BW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared glucose metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins, thereby controlling for genetic factors and rearing environment. METHODS: Among 77,885 twins in the Danish Twin Registry, 155 of the most BW-discordant MZ twin pairs (median BW difference 0.5 kg) were assessed using a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test with sampling of plasma (p-)glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1. HOMA for beta cell function (HOMA-?) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and also insulin sensitivity index (BIGTT-SI) and acute insulin response (BIGTT-AIR), were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed in those with: (1) double verification of BW difference; (2) difference in BW >0.5 kg; and (3) no overt metabolic disease (type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia or thyroid disease). RESULTS: No intra-pair differences in p-glucose, insulin, C-peptide, incretin hormones, HOMA-?, HOMA-IR or BIGTT-SI were identified. p-Glucose at 120 min was higher in the twins with the highest BW without metabolic disease, and BIGTT-AIR was higher in those with the highest BW although not in pairs with a BW difference of >0.5 kg. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BW-discordant MZ twins provide no evidence for a detrimental effect of low BW on glucose metabolism in adulthood once genetic factors and rearing environment are controlled for.

Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, I

2012-01-01

87

Effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) on glucose transport and lipid metabolism of newly-differentiated human fat cells in cell culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been found to cause a delipidation of fat cells and a decrease of the adipose tissue mass. In the present study, we tried to elucidate some of the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon by investigating the action of TNF alpha on specific pathways which are involved in lipid storage. Cultured stromal cells from human adipose tissue were induced to differentiate into adipose cells by exposure to adipogenic factors and subsequently used for studying the effects of TNF alpha on fat cell metabolism. Presence of 5 nmol/l TNF alpha for 24 h resulted in a complete loss of the stimulatory effect of insulin on 2-deoxy-glucose transport. This inhibitory action was paralleled by a decrease of GLUT4 protein and mRNA levels. The amount of cellular GLUT4 protein was reduced by 49 +/- 3% after a 24-h exposure and by 82 +/- 18% after a 72-h exposure to 5 nmol/l TNF alpha. GLUT4 mRNA was almost undetectable after a 24-h incubation with 5 nmol/l TNF alpha. In a similar time-dependent manner, TNF alpha dramatically reduced the lipoprotein lipase mRNA content of the cells. Furthermore, incubation of cultured human fat cells with TNF alpha resulted in a marked dose-dependent stimulation of lipolysis, assessed by glycerol release, by up to 400% above controls, which became apparent after a 6-h exposure at the earliest.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7556976

Hauner, H; Petruschke, T; Russ, M; Röhrig, K; Eckel, J

1995-07-01

88

FM19G11 favors spinal cord injury regeneration and stem cell self-renewal by mitochondrial uncoupling and glucose metabolism induction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal cord injury is a major cause of paralysis with no currently effective therapies. Induction of self-renewal and proliferation of endogenous regenerative machinery with noninvasive and nontoxic therapies could constitute a real hope and an alternative to cell transplantation for spinal cord injury patients. We previously showed that FM19G11 promotes differentiation of adult spinal cord-derived ependymal stem cells under hypoxia. Interestingly, FM19G11 induces self-renewal of these ependymal stem cells grown under normoxia. The analysis of the mechanism of action revealed an early increment of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 and 2 with an early drop of ATP, followed by a subsequent compensatory recovery with activated mitochondrial metabolism and the induction of glucose uptake by upregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4. Here we show that phosphorylation of AKT and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is involved in FM19G11-dependent activation of GLUT-4, glucose influx, and consequently in stem cell self-renewal. Small interfering RNA of uncoupling protein 1/2, GLUT-4 and pharmacological inhibitors of AKT, mTOR and AMPK signaling blocked the FM19G11-dependent induction of the self-renewal-related markers Sox2, Oct4, and Notch1. Importantly, FM19G11-treated animals showed accelerated locomotor recovery. In vivo intrathecal sustained administration of FM19G11 in rats after spinal cord injury showed more neurofilament TUJ1-positive fibers crossing the injured area surrounded by an increase of neural precursor Vimentin-positive cells. Overall, FM19G11 exerts an important influence on the self-renewal of ependymal stem progenitor cells with a plausible neuroprotective role, providing functional benefits for spinal cord injury treatment. PMID:22865656

Rodríguez-Jimnez, Francisco Javier; Alastrue-Agudo, Ana; Erceg, Slaven; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

2012-10-01

89

Diversion of the Metabolic Flux from Pyruvate Dehydrogenase to Pyruvate Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress during Glucose Metabolism in Nongrowing Escherichia coli Cells Incubated under Aerobic, Phosphate Starvation Conditions†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ongoing aerobic metabolism in nongrowing cells may generate oxidative stress. It is shown here that the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), which measure fragmentation products of oxidized molecules, increased strongly at the onset of starvation for phosphate (Pi). This increase in TBARS levels required the activity of the histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein. TBARS levels weakly increased further in ?ahpCF mutants deficient in alkyl hydroperoxide reductas...

Moreau, Patrice L.

2004-01-01

90

Depressed cerebellar glucose metabolism in supratentorial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty-four patients with supratentorial tumor and one with brainstem tumor were examined with positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG). Twenty-one of these cases had satisfactory studies of the cerebellum. Of these, 12 showed significant metabolic asymmetry between the two cerebellar hemispheres, with the rate of glucose utilization in the hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral tumor being 8-34% lower than on the ipsilateral side, as compared with a right-left asymmetry of only -1.6% +- 2.1% standard deviation for a group of 5 normal subjects. In these 12 cases the tumor involved the sensorimotor cortex and/or the thalamus with varying degrees of hemiparesis being present. For the remaining 9 patients with no significant cerebellar metabolic asymmetry, the tumor involved regions other than the sensorimotor cortex, and unilateral motor dysfunction was not a prominent clinical feature. The correlation between cerebellar metabolic suppression and unilateral motor dysfunction observed in these cases appears to be due to impairment or interruption of the cortico-thalamo-ponto-olivo-cerebellar circuitry by either the tumour itself or by edema. Thus FDG-PET scans are able to detect metabolic changes in areas of the brain remote from the primary lesion. (Auth.)

91

Simvastatin inhibits glucose metabolism and legumain activity in human myotubes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is prescribed worldwide to patients with hypercholesterolemia. Although simvastatin is well tolerated, side effects like myotoxicity are reported. The mechanism for statin-induced myotoxicity is still poorly understood. Reports have suggested impaired mitochondrial dysfunction as a contributor to the observed myotoxicity. In this regard, we wanted to study the effects of simvastatin on glucose metabolism and the activity of legumain, a cysteine protease. Legumain, being the only known asparaginyl endopeptidase, has caspase-like properties and is described to be involved in apoptosis. Recent evidences indicate a regulatory role of both glucose and statins on cysteine proteases in monocytes. Satellite cells were isolated from the Musculus obliquus internus abdominis of healthy human donors, proliferated and differentiated into polynuclear myotubes. Simvastatin with or without mevalonolactone, farnesyl pyrophosphate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate were introduced on day 5 of differentiation. After 48 h, cells were either harvested for immunoblotting, ELISA, cell viability assay, confocal imaging or enzyme activity analysis, or placed in a fuel handling system with [¹?C]glucose or [³H]deoxyglucose for uptake and oxidation studies. A dose-dependent decrease in both glucose uptake and oxidation were observed in mature myotubes after exposure to simvastatin in concentrations not influencing cell viability. In addition, simvastatin caused a decrease in maturation and activity of legumain. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism and decreased legumain activity by simvastatin points out new knowledge about the effects of statins on skeletal muscle, and may contribute to the understanding of the myotoxicity observed by statins. PMID:24416446

Smith, Robert; Solberg, Rigmor; Jacobsen, Linn Løkken; Voreland, Anette Larsen; Rustan, Arild Christian; Thoresen, G Hege; Johansen, Harald Thidemann

2014-01-01

92

Metabolically engineered glucose-utilizing Shewanella strains under anaerobic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative genome analysis of Shewanella strains predicted that the strains metabolize preferably two- and three-carbon carbohydrates as carbon/electron source because many Shewanella genomes are deficient of the key enzymes in glycolysis (e.g., glucokinase). In addition, all Shewanella genomes are known to have only one set of genes associated with the phosphotransferase system required to uptake sugars. To engineer Shewanella strains that can utilize five- and six-carbon carbohydrates, we constructed glucose-utilizing Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by introducing the glucose facilitator (glf; ZMO0366) and glucokinase (glk; ZMO0369) genes of Zymomonas mobilis. The engineered MR-1 strain was able to grow on glucose as a sole carbon/electron source under anaerobic conditions. The glucose affinity (Ks) and glucokinase activity in the engineered MR-1 strain were 299.46 mM and 0.259 ± 0.034 U/g proteins. The engineered strain was successfully applied to a microbial fuel cell system and exhibited current generation using glucose as the electron source. PMID:24384311

Choi, Donggeon; Lee, Sae Bom; Kim, Sohyun; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Chang, In Seop

2014-02-01

93

Neuronal glucose metabolism and schizophrenia: therapeutic prospects?  

Science.gov (United States)

This review will focus on the treatment and prevention of schizophrenia in children and adolescents. Neurodevelopmental theories suggest that loss of gray matter and defective synaptic function are major etiological factors in this disease. The efficacy of current antipsychotic medications has been discussed, however, these drugs produce serious side effects and may adversely affect the developing brain. We propose a novel therapeutic approach, termed neuroenhancement, that aims to promote neuronal survival and optimize neuronal function through the use of drugs. The goal is to enhance glucose metabolism in the brain, which would support higher functional activity in neurons and provide neuroprotection. Future drug development for the treatment of childhood schizophrenia should focus more on optimization of neuronal function rather than tranquilization and symptomatic relief. PMID:19810845

Dwyer, Donard S; Lu, Xiao-Hong; Iii, Arthur M Freeman

2003-01-01

94

Glycogen metabolism protects against metabolic insult to preserve carotid body function during glucose deprivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The view that the carotid body (CB) type I cells are direct physiological sensors of hypoglycaemia is challenged by the finding that the basal sensory neuronal outflow from the whole organ is unchanged in response to low glucose. The reason for this difference in viewpoint and how the whole CB maintains its metabolic integrity when exposed to low glucose is unknown. Here we show that, in the intact superfused rat CB, basal sensory neuronal activity was sustained during glucose deprivation for 29.1 ± 1.2 min, before irreversible failure following a brief period of excitation. Graded increases in the basal discharge induced by reducing the superfusate PO2 led to proportional decreases in the time to the pre-failure excitation during glucose deprivation which was dependent on a complete run-down in glycolysis and a fall in cellular energy status. A similar ability to withstand prolonged glucose deprivation was observed in isolated type I cells. Electron micrographs and immunofluorescence staining of rat CB sections revealed the presence of glycogen granules and the glycogen conversion enzymes glycogen synthase I and glycogen phosphorylase BB, dispersed throughout the type I cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, pharmacological attenuation of glycogenolysis and functional depletion of glycogen both significantly reduced the time to glycolytic run-down by ?33 and 65%, respectively. These findings suggest that type I cell glycogen metabolism allows for the continuation of glycolysis and the maintenance of CB sensory neuronal output in periods of restricted glucose delivery and this may act as a key protective mechanism for the organ during hypoglycaemia. The ability, or otherwise, to preserve energetic status may thus account for variation in the reported capacity of the CB to sense physiological glucose concentrations and may even underlie its function during pathological states associated with augmented CB discharge. PMID:25063821

Holmes, Andrew P; Turner, Philip J; Carter, Paul; Leadbeater, Wendy; Ray, Clare J; Hauton, David; Buckler, Keith J; Kumar, Prem

2014-10-15

95

Glucose metabolic gene expression in growth hormone transgenic coho salmon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonids are generally known to be glucose intolerant. However, previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon display modified nutritional regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis compared to non-transgenic fish, suggesting the potential for better use of glucose in GH transgenic fish. To examine this in detail, GH transgenic and non-transgenic coho salmon were subjected to glucose tolerance test and subsequent metabolic assessments. After intra-peritoneal injection of 250mg/kg glucose, we analysed post-injection kinetics of glycaemia and expression of several key target genes highly involved in glucose homeostasis in muscle and liver tissues. Our data show no significant differences in plasma glucose levels during peak hyperglycaemia (3-6h after injection), demonstrating a similar glucose tolerance between transgenic and non transgenic. However, and unrelated to the hyperglycaemic episode, GH transgenic fish return to a slightly lower basal glycaemia values 24h after injection. Correspondingly, GH transgenic fish exhibited higher mRNA levels of glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in liver, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) in muscle. These data suggest that these metabolic actors may be involved in different glucose use in GH transgenic fish, which would be expected to influence the glucose challenge response. Overall, our data demonstrate that GH transgenic coho salmon may be a pertinent animal model for further study of glucose metabolism in carnivorous fish. PMID:24486143

Panserat, Stéphane; Kamalam, Biju Sam; Fournier, Jeanne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

2014-04-01

96

Effects of vanadium on glucose metabolism in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although vanadium is found abundantly in the animal and plant kingdoms it has no known biological function. Vanadate compounds have been shown to inhibit cholesterol synthesis, enhance phospholipid oxidation and impair ATP production. In the present study, vanadium is observed to affect glucose metabolism directly in a number of in vitro assay systems, including the stimulation of glucose oxidation and transport in adipocytes, stimulation of glycogen synthesis in liver and diaphragm, and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and intestinal glucose transport. This survey of findings suggest that vanadium can directly influence glucose metabolism and may play a role in its regulation in vivo.

Tolman, E.L.; Barris, E.; Burns, M.; Pansini, A.; Partridge, R.

1979-09-24

97

The effect of ascorbate, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and dichloroacetate on the growth and the glucose metabolism of neuroblastoma cells with or without N-myc-amplification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For decades there has been a controversy on the benefit of using ascorbate (AA) in cancer therapy. Lately, three articles in PNAS by Marc Levine et al. (NIH) generated new interest in the use of high dose ascorbate: First, high doses of ascorbate were shown to be cytotoxic to human lymphoma and mamma carcinoma cell lines in vitro. Cytotoxicity was mediated by H2O2 (Chen et al. 2005). Secondly, ascorbyl radical and H2O2 could be detected in the extracellular fluid of rats after intravenous app...

Deubzer, Beate Johanna Eleonore

2010-01-01

98

Effects of sex steroid hormones on sertoli cells metabolic pathways  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing germ cells use lactate, derived from glucose metabolism of Sertoli cells (SCs), as their main energy source. Androgens and estrogens have been implicated in the modulation of testicular cells energy metabolism, particularly in SCs. The goal of the present study was to shed light on the effects of sex steroid hormones on glucose metabolic pathways in rat SCs. The mRNA levels of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) and lactate dehydrogenase cha...

Martins, Ana Catarina Dias

2012-01-01

99

FGF19 Regulates Cell Proliferation, Glucose and Bile Acid Metabolism via FGFR4-Dependent and Independent Pathways  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a hormone-like protein that regulates carbohydrate, lipid and bile acid metabolism. At supra-physiological doses, FGF19 also increases hepatocyte proliferation and induces hepatocellular carcinogenesis in mice. Much of FGF19 activity is attributed to the activation of the liver enriched FGF Receptor 4 (FGFR4), although FGF19 can activate other FGFRs in vitro in the presence of the coreceptor ?Klotho (KLB). In this report, we investigate the role of FGFR...

Wu, Ai-luen; Coulter, Sally; Liddle, Christopher; Wong, Anne; Eastham-anderson, Jeffrey; French, Dorothy M.; Peterson, Andrew S.; Sonoda, Junichiro

2011-01-01

100

Lactate spares glucose as a metabolic fuel in neurons and astrocytes from primary culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of lactate on glucose metabolism in neurons and astrocytes from primary culture has been studied. The rates of glucose metabolism through the pentose-phosphate shunt, the pyruvate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the total lipogenesis and the synthesis of glycerol-borne lipids in astrocytes were 2-3 fold higher than in neurons. However, the rate of glucose incorporation into sterols and esterified fatty acids was similar in both types of cells. Total glucose utilization was inhibited by lactate to the same extend in both neurons and astrocytes. Lactate strongly inhibited glucose oxidation through the pyruvate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, in both neurons (60 and 44%, respectively) and astrocytes (64 and 62%, respectively). Glucose incorporation into sterols and fatty acids was also inhibited by lactate in both neurons and astrocytes (57 and 76%, respectively) while the oxidation of glucose in the pentose-phosphate shunt and the synthesis of glycerol-borne lipids was not significantly affected. These results suggest that in the presence of lactate both neurons and astrocytes can utilize lactate as the major metabolic substrate, sparing glucose for the synthesis of NADPH(H+), ribose-5-phosphate and/or glycerol-borne lipids. An interaction between glucose and lactate metabolism at the level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction is suggested. PMID:9004275

Tabernero, A; Vicario, C; Medina, J M

1996-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed

102

Cerebral glucose metabolism in Wernicke's, Broca's, and conduction aphasia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated in patients with either Wernicke's (N = 7), Broca's (N = 11), or conduction (N = 10) aphasia using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose with positron emission tomography. The three aphasic syndromes differed in the degree of left-to-right frontal metabolic asymmetry, with Broca's aphasia showing severe asymmetry and Wernicke's aphasia mild-to-moderate metabolic asymmetry, while patients with conduction aphasia were metabolically symmetric. On the other hand, the three syndromes showed the same degree of metabolic decline in the left temporal region. The parietal region appeared to separate conduction aphasia from both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias. Common aphasic features in the three syndromes appear to be due to common changes in the temporal region, while unique features were associated with frontal and parietal metabolic differences

103

Non-invasive in-cell determination of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios using hyperpolarized glucose show large variations in metabolic phenotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accumulating evidence suggest that the pyridine nucleotide NAD has far wider biological functions than its classical role in energy metabolism. NAD is used by hundreds of enzymes that catalyse substrate oxidation and as such it plays a key role in various biological processes such as aging, cell death and oxidative stress. It has been suggested that changes in the ratio of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] reflects metabolic alterations leading to, or correlating with, pathological states. We have designed an isotopically labelled metabolic bioprobe of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] by combining a magnetic enhancement technique (hyperpolarization) with cellular glycolytic activity. The bioprobe reports free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios based on dynamically measured in-cell [pyruvate]/ [lactate] ratios. We demonstrate its utility in breast and prostate cancer cells. The free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio determined in prostate cancer cells was 4 times higher than in breast cancer cells. This higher ratio reflects adistinct metabolic phenotype of prostate cancer cells consistent with previously reported alterations in the energy metabolism of these cells. As a reporter on free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, the bioprobe will enable better understanding of the origin of diverse pathological states of the cell as well as monitor cellular consequences of diseases and/or treatments.

Christensen, Caspar Elo; Karlsson, Magnus

2014-01-01

104

A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current l [...] iterature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH) secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

H.G., Padilha; C.A., Crispim; I.Z., Zimberg; D.A., De-Souza; J., Waterhouse; S., Tufik; M.T, de-Mello.

2011-10-01

105

Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were am

106

A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

H.G. Padilha

2011-10-01

107

Metabolism of tritiated D-glucose in rat erythrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of D-[U-14C]glucose, D-[1-14C]glucose, D-[6-14C]glucose, D-[1-3H]glucose, D-[2-3H]glucose, D-[3-3H]glucose, D-[3,4-3H]glucose, D-[5-3H]glucose, and D-[6-3H]glucose was examined in rat erythrocytes. There was a fair agreement between the rate of 3HOH production from either D-[3-3H]glucose and D-[5-3H]glucose, the decrease in the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate pool, its fractional turnover rate, the production of 14C-labeled lactate from D-[U-14C]glucose, and the total lactate output. The generation of both 3HOH and tritiated acidic metabolites from D-[3,4-3H]glucose indicated incomplete detritiation of the C4 during interconversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose phosphates. Erythrocytes unexpectedly generated 3HOH from D-[6-3H]glucose, a phenomenon possibly attributable to the detritiation of [3-3H]pyruvate in the reaction catalyzed by glutamate pyruvate transaminase. The production of 3HOH from D-[2-3H]glucose was lower than that from D-[5-3H]glucose, suggesting enzyme-to-enzyme tunneling of glycolytic intermediates in the hexokinase/phosphoglucoisomerase/phosphofructokinase sequence. The production of 3HOH from D-[1-3H]glucose largely exceeded that of 14CO2 from D-[1-14C]glucose, a situation tentatively ascribed to the generation of 3HOH in the phosphomannoisomerase reaction. It is further speculated that the adjustment in specific radioactivity of D-[1-3H]glucose-6-phosphate cannot simultaneously match the vastly different degrees of isotopic discrimination in velocity at the levels of the reactions catalyzed by either glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or phosphoglucoisomerase. The interpretation of the present findings thus raises a number of questions, which are proposed as a scope for further investigations

108

Tumor suppressor WWOX regulates glucose metabolism via HIF1? modulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) encodes a tumor suppressor that is frequently lost in many cancer types. Wwox-deficient mice develop normally but succumb to a lethal hypoglycemia early in life. Here, we identify WWOX as a tumor suppressor with emerging role in regulation of aerobic glycolysis. WWOX controls glycolytic genes' expression through hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1? (HIF1?) regulation. Specifically, WWOX, via its first WW domain, physically interacts with HIF1? and modulates its levels and transactivation function. Consistent with this notion, Wwox-deficient cells exhibited increased HIF1? levels and activity and displayed increased glucose uptake. Remarkably, WWOX deficiency is associated with enhanced glycolysis and diminished mitochondrial respiration, conditions resembling the 'Warburg effect'. Furthermore, Wwox-deficient cells are more tumorigenic and display increased levels of GLUT1 in vivo. Finally, WWOX expression is inversely correlated with GLUT1 levels in breast cancer samples highlighting WWOX as a modulator of cancer metabolism. Our studies uncover an unforeseen role for the tumor-suppressor WWOX in cancer metabolism. PMID:25012504

Abu-Remaileh, M; Aqeilan, R I

2014-11-01

109

Acute and chronic exposure of mouse cerebral microvessel endothelial cells to increased concentrations of glucose and galactose: effect on myo-inositol metabolism, PGE2 synthesis, and Na+/K(+)-ATPase transport activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultured mouse cerebral microvessel endothelial cells have a large intracellular myo-inositol content and rapidly take up extracellular myo-inositol. Myo-inositol uptake occurs by a high- and low-affinity transport system. Both transport systems appear to be Na(+)-dependent. The high- and low-affinity transport systems have a Km of 11 and 198 mumol/L and a Vmax of 47 and 381 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Acute exposure of cultured cells to 30 mmol/L D-glucose or D-galactose causes a decrease in myo-inositol uptake. The acute effect of glucose and galactose on myo-inositol uptake is sensitive to the extracellular myo-inositol concentration. The acute effect of glucose is apparently due to a competitive inhibition of high-affinity myo-inositol transport and has a Ki of 21 mmol/L. L-Glucose is more effective than D-glucose in decreasing myo-inositol uptake. In contrast, 2-deoxyglucose or 3-0-methylglucose does not acutely inhibit myo-inositol uptake. This suggests that the hydroxyl groups on carbons 2 and 3 of glucose are necessary for inhibitory activity. Chronic exposure of cells to media containing 136.4 mumol/L myo-inositol and 30 mmol/L glucose has no effect on myo-inositol accumulation from the extracellular fluid, myo-inositol incorporation into inositol phospholipids, or total myo-inositol content. Chronic exposure of the cells to media containing 30 mmol/L glucose causes only a small increase in the intracellular sorbitol content. In contrast, chronic exposure of the cells to media containing 30 mmol/L galactose causes a large increase in galactitol content and a decrease in myo-inositol accumulation, myo-inositol incorporation into inositol phospholipids, and intracellular myo-inositol content. Sorbinil treatment of the galactose-supplemented media protects the cells form changes in myo-inositol metabolism and content. Chronic exposure of the cells to media containing 30 mmol/L glucose or 30 mmol/L galactose causes a decrease in ouabain-sensitive Na+/K(+)-ATPase transport activity, which is corrected by the addition of sorbinil to the media. Chronic exposure of the cells to media containing 45 mmol/L glucose, but not galactose, causes an increase in PGE2 production. These studies suggest that acute or chronic exposure of cultured microvessel endothelial cells to increased concentrations of glucose or galactose causes a decrease in myo-inositol uptake by different mechanisms. Chronic exposure of the cells to increased concentrations of glucose or galactose causes alterations in endothelial cell properties, including Na+/K(+)-ATPase transport activity and eicosanoid synthesis. The data are not clearly supportive of polyol accumulation and myo-inositol depletion as being responsible for the decrease in Na+/K+ pump activity. PMID:1849218

Yorek, M A; Stefani, M R; Moore, S A

1991-04-01

110

Patterns of human local cerebral glucose metabolism during epileptic seizures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ictal patterns of local cerebral metabolic rate have been studied in epileptic patients by positron computed tomography with 18F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Partial seizures were associated with activation of anatomic structures unique to each patient studied. Ictal increases and decreases in local cerebral metabolism were observed. Scans performed during generalized convulsions induced by electroshock demonstrated a diffuse ictal increase and postictal decrease in cerebral metabolism. Petit mal absences were associated with a diffuse increase in cerebral metabolic rate. The ictal fluorodeoxyglucose patterns obtained from patients do not resemble autoradiographic patterns obtained from common experimental animal models of epilepsy

111

Miniaturised glucose-oxygen biofuel cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Miniaturized glucose-oxygen biofuel cells are useful to power implantable medical devices such as biosensors. They are small, more biocompatible and run continuously on glucose and oxygen, providing cleaner energy at neutral environment. A typical glucose-oxygen biofuel cell consists of an anode with glucose oxidase (GOx) and a cathode with various oxygen reducing catalysts. This thesis describes experimental investigations of the major issues of such systems, viz.: complex ele...

Kikuchi, Yoko

2010-01-01

112

Effect of Oxygen on Glucose Metabolism: Utilization of Lactate in Staphylococcus Aureus as Revealed by In Vivo NMR Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to successfully adapt to changing host conditions is crucial for full virulence of bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus has to cope with fluctuating oxygen concentrations during the course of infection. Hence, we studied the effect of oxygen on glucose metabolism in non-growing S. aureus COL-S cells by in vivo 13C-NMR. Glucose catabolism was probed at different oxygen concentrations in suspensions of cells grown aerobically (direct effects on metabolism) or anaerobically ...

Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Manso, Ana S.; Gaspar, Paula; Pinho, Mariana G.; Neves, Ana Rute

2013-01-01

113

Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ? MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O2 consumption and ATP content. ? TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition

114

Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ? MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ? TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition.

Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

2013-03-22

115

Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ({sup 14}C)-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the {sup 14}C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the {sup 14}C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum.

Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L. (UCLA School of Medicine (USA))

1989-12-01

116

Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum. PMID:2584274

Ackermann, R F; Lear, J L

1989-12-01

117

Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum

118

Glucose and glutamine metabolism of a murine B-lymphocyte hybridoma grown in batch culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The energy metabolism of a mammalian cell line grown in vitro was analyzed by substrate consumption rates and metabolic flux measurements. The data allowed the determination of the relative importance of the pathways of glucose and glutamine metabolism to the energy requirements of the cell. Changes in the substrate concentrations during culture contributed to the changing catalytic activities of key enzymes, which were determined. 1. A murine B-lymphocyte hybridoma (PQXB1/2) was grown in batch culture to a maximum cell density of 1-2 x 10(6) cells/mL in 3-4 d. The intracellular protein content showed a maximum value during the exponential growth phase of 0.55 mg/10(6) cells. Glutamine was completely depleted, but glucose only partially depleted to 50% of its original concentration when the cells reached a stationary phase following exponential growth. 2. The specific rates of glutamine and glucose utilization varied during culture and showed maximal values at the midexponential phase of 2.4 nmol/min/10(6) cells and 4.3 nmol/min/10(6) cells, respectively. 3. A high proportion of glucose (96%) was metabolized by glycolysis, but only limited amounts by the pentose phosphate pathway (3.3%) and TCA cycle (0.21%). 4. The maximum catalytic activity of hexokinase approximates to the measured flux of glycolysis and is suggested as a rate-limiting step. In the stationary phase, the hexokinase activity reduced to 11% of its original value and may explain the reduced glucose utilization at this stage. 5. The maximal activities of two TCA cycle enzymes were well above the measured metabolic flux and are unlikely to pose regulatory barriers. However, the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase was undetectable by spectrophotometric assay and explains the low level of flux of glycolytic metabolites into the TCA cycle. 6. A significant proportion of the glutamine (36%) utilized by the cells was completely oxidized to CO2. 7. The measured rate of glutamine transport into the cells approximated to the metabolic flux and is suggested as a rate-limiting step. 8. Glutamine metabolism is likely to occur via glutaminase and amino transaminase, which have significantly higher activities than glutamate dehydrogenase. 9. The calculated potential ATP production suggests that, overall, glutamine is the major contributor of cellular energy. However, at the midexponential phase, the energy contribution from the catabolism of the two substrates was finely balanced--glutamine (55%) and glucose (45%). PMID:8267405

Fitzpatrick, L; Jenkins, H A; Butler, M

1993-11-01

119

Oxygen- and glucose-dependent regulation of central carbon metabolism in Pichia anomala.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the regulation of the central aerobic and hypoxic metabolism of the biocontrol and non-Saccharomyces wine yeast Pichia anomala. In aerobic batch culture, P. anomala grows in the respiratory mode with a high biomass yield (0.59 g [dry weight] of cells g of glucose(-1)) and marginal ethanol, glycerol, acetate, and ethyl acetate production. Oxygen limitation, but not glucose pulse, induced fermentation with substantial ethanol production and 10-fold-increased ethyl acetate production. Despite low or absent ethanol formation, the activities of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase were high during aerobic growth on glucose or succinate. No activation of these enzyme activities was observed after a glucose pulse. However, after the shift to oxygen limitation, both enzymes were activated threefold. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that the tricarboxylic acid pathway operates as a cycle during aerobic batch culture and as a two-branched pathway under oxygen limitation. Glucose catabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway was lower during oxygen limitation than under aerobic growth. Overall, our results demonstrate that P. anomala exhibits a Pasteur effect and not a Crabtree effect, i.e., oxygen availability, but not glucose concentration, is the main stimulus for the regulation of the central carbon metabolism. PMID:15466531

Fredlund, Elisabeth; Blank, Lars M; Schnürer, Johan; Sauer, Uwe; Passoth, Volkmar

2004-10-01

120

UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic ?-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/? islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2?/? and GK+/? islets compared with GK+/? islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/? mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/? mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

Dalgaard, Louise Torp

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Endothelial dysfunction in normal and abnormal glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endothelium is the common target of all cardiovascular risk factors, and functional impairment of the vascular endothelium in response to injury occurs long before the development of visible atherosclerosis. The endothelial cell behaves as a receptor-effector structure which senses different physical or chemical stimuli that occur inside the vessel and, therefore, modifies the vessel shape or releases the necessary products to counteract the effect of the stimulus and maintain homeostasis. The endothelium is capable of producing a large variety of different molecules which act as agonists and antagonists, therefore balancing their effects in opposite directions. When endothelial cells lose their ability to maintain this delicate balance, the conditions are given for the endothelium to be invaded by lipids and leukocytes (monocytes and T lymphocytes). The inflammatory response is incited and fatty streaks appear, the first step in the formation of the atheromatous plaque. If the situation persists, fatty streaks progress and the resultant plaques are exposed to rupture and set the conditions for thrombogenesis and vascular occlusion. Oxidant products are produced as a consequence of normal aerobic metabolism. These molecules are highly reactive with other biological molecules and are referred as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under normal physiological conditions, ROS production is balanced by an efficient system of antioxidants, molecules that are capable of neutralizing them and thereby preventing oxidant damage. In pathological states, ROS may be present in relative excess. This shift of balance in favor of oxidation, termed 'oxidative stress', may have detrimental effects on cellular and tissue function, and cardiovascular risk factors generate oxidative stress. Both type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients have mostly been described under enhanced oxidative stress, and both conditions are known to be powerful and independent risk factors for coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Hyperglycemia causes glycosylation of proteins and phospholipids, thus increasing intracellular oxidative stress. Nonenzymatic reactive products, glucose-derived Schiff base, and Amadori products form chemically reversible early glycosylation products which subsequently rearrange to form more stable products, some of them long-lived proteins (collagen) which continue undergoing complex series of chemical rearrangements to form advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs). Once formed, AGEs are stable and virtually irreversible. AGEs generate ROS with consequent increased vessel oxidative damage and atherogenesis. The impressive correlation between coronary artery disease and alterations in glucose metabolism has raised the hypothesis that atherosclerosis and diabetes may share common antecedents. Large-vessel atherosclerosis can precede the development of diabetes, suggesting that rather than atherosclerosis being a complication of diabetes, both conditions may share genetic and environmental antecedents, a 'common soil'. PMID:18230954

Esper, Ricardo J; Vilariño, Jorge O; Machado, Rogelio A; Paragano, Antonio

2008-01-01

122

Hepatic ABCA1 Expression Improves ?-Cell Function and Glucose Tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low HDL is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Hepatic ABCA1 is the rate-limiting protein in HDL biogenesis, and mice lacking hepatic ABCA1 (ABCA1(-l/-l)) have very low plasma HDL concentrations. To investigate the role of hepatic ABCA1 in glucose tolerance and ?-cell function, we used ABCA1(-l/-l) mice, which showed impaired glucose tolerance without changes in insulin sensitivity. Insulin secretion was reduced following glucose gavage. Ex vivo, glucose stimulated insulin secretion from ?-cells from wild-type (WT) and ABCA1(-l/-l) mice was similar. Insulin secretion was, however, reduced upon addition of ABCA1(-l/-l) serum to the medium compared with WT serum, whereas islets lacking ?-cell ABCA1 were not affected differently by ABCA1(-l/-l) or WT serum. After high-fat feeding, WT and ABCA1(-l/-l) mice showed no difference in glucose tolerance or insulin secretion, and serum from ABCA1(-l/-l) and WT mice fed a high-fat diet did not affect insulin secretion differently. We conclude that hepatic ABCA1 improves glucose tolerance by improving ?-cell function through both HDL production and interaction with ?-cell ABCA1. The beneficial effect of hepatic ABCA1 is decreased under metabolic stress. Increasing hepatic ABCA1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for improving glucose homeostasis in diabetes. PMID:25028523

de Haan, Willeke; Karasinska, Joanna M; Ruddle, Piers; Hayden, Michael R

2014-12-01

123

The metabolic and biochemical impact of glucose 6-sulfonate (sulfoquinovose), a dietary sugar, on carbohydrate metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased activity of the main carbohydrate pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate, and hexosamine biosynthetic pathways) is one of the hallmarks of metabolic diseases such as cancer. Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol is a sulfoglycolipid found in the human diet that possesses anticancer activity that is absent when its carbohydrate moiety (glucose 6-sulfonate or sulfoquinovose) is removed. This work used bacterial systems to further understand the metabolism of this sugar through three main carbohydrate processing pathways and how this could influence its biological activity. Using (13)C NMR spectroscopy and enzyme assays, we showed that glucose 6-sulfonate cannot enter the pentose phosphate pathway, hence decreasing pentose and nucleotide biosyntheses. In glycolysis, glucose 6-sulfonate only provides one pyruvate per monosaccharide molecule, decreasing the flux of this pathway by half when compared to glucose 6-phosphate. Glucose 6-sulfonate can enter the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway by producing glucosamine 6-sulfonate, which is a reported antibacterial agent that competitively inhibits hexosamine production. All these interactions with carbohydrate routes might help explain the observed anticancer activity that glucose 6-sulfonate has in vitro. This adds to our knowledge of how vegetables rich in glucose 6-sulfonate can also act as metabolic inhibitors of pathways that are increased in metabolic diseases. PMID:23069484

Sacoman, Juliana L; Badish, Lauren N; Sharkey, Thomas D; Hollingsworth, Rawle I

2012-11-15

124

[Cerebral 11C-glucose metabolism during human sleep].  

Science.gov (United States)

Some reports have suggested that there is no difference in cerebral metabolic rates between wakefulness and sleep. However recently Kennedy et al. and Heiss et al. reported a decrease in cerebral glucose utilization during NREM sleep measured by the using deoxyglucose method. We used a 11C-glucose method for positron emission tomography (PET) while estimating cerebral glucose metabolism during human sleep with polysomnography (PSG). This PET and PSG study was carried out on 11 healthy male volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 26 years. In order to facilitate the onset of sleep, the subjects were deprived of sleep, under observation in the lab, for a period of approximately 20 hours prior to the PSG and PET examination. All experiments were performed in the early morning, most often between 4 and 10 AM. The subjects' sleep was monitored by PSG, i.e. electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and a submental electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and a submental electromyogram. The 11C-glucose used in the experiment was prepared by the biosynthetic method developed by Lifton and Welch, using 11C produced by a baby cyclotron. The 11C-glucose solution, containing about 20 mCi of 11C activity was administered orally to the subjects. The time course of the 11C activity in the blood following the administration was determined by drawing 1 ml of blood from the antecubital vein once every 10 minutes. These samples were assayed for 11C activity in a NaI well counter. The PET images of a horizontal cross-section of the brain at 45 mm above the orbito-meatal line, were used for the analysis of the glucose metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3502249

Uchida, K

1987-12-01

125

Metabolic Engineering of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 for Improved Growth on Gluconate and Glucose.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high growth rate in bacterial cultures is usually achieved by optimizing growth conditions, but metabolism of the bacterium limits the maximal growth rate attainable on the carbon source used. This limitation can be circumvented by engineering the metabolism of the bacterium. Acinetobacter baylyi has become a model organism for studies of bacterial metabolism and metabolic engineering due to its wide substrate spectrum and easy-to-engineer genome. It produces naturally storage lipids, such as wax esters, and has a unique gluconate catabolism as it lacks a gene for pyruvate kinase. We engineered the central metabolism of A. baylyi ADP1 more favorable for gluconate catabolism by expressing the pyruvate kinase gene (pykF) of Escherichia coli. This modification increased growth rate when cultivated on gluconate or glucose as a sole carbon source in a batch cultivation. The engineered cells reached stationary phase on these carbon sources approximately twice as fast as control cells carrying an empty plasmid and produced similar amount of biomass. Furthermore, when grown on either gluconate or glucose, pykF expression did not lead to significant accumulation of overflow metabolites and consumption of the substrate remained unaltered. Increased growth rate on glucose was not accompanied with decreased wax ester production, and the pykF-expressing cells accumulated significantly more of these storage lipids with respect to cultivation time. PMID:25192990

Kannisto, Matti; Aho, Tommi; Karp, Matti; Santala, Ville

2014-11-15

126

Glucose-mediated control of ghrelin release from primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peptide hormone ghrelin is released from a distinct group of gastrointestinal cells in response to caloric restriction, whereas its levels fall after eating. The mechanisms by which ghrelin secretion is regulated remain largely unknown. Here, we have used primary cultures of mouse gastric mucosal cells to investigate ghrelin secretion, with an emphasis on the role of glucose. Ghrelin secretion from these cells upon exposure to different d-glucose concentrations, the glucose antimetabolite 2-deoxy-d-glucose, and other potential secretagogues was assessed. The expression profile of proteins involved in glucose transport, metabolism, and utilization within highly enriched pools of mouse ghrelin cells and within cultured ghrelinoma cells was also determined. Ghrelin release negatively correlated with d-glucose concentration. Insulin blocked ghrelin release, but only in a low d-glucose environment. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of high d-glucose exposure on ghrelin release. mRNAs encoding several facilitative glucose transporters, hexokinases, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit Kir6.2, and sulfonylurea type 1 receptor were expressed highly within ghrelin cells, although neither tolbutamide nor diazoxide exerted direct effects on ghrelin secretion. These findings suggest that direct exposure of ghrelin cells to low ambient d-glucose stimulates ghrelin release, whereas high d-glucose and glucose metabolism within ghrelin cells block ghrelin release. Also, low d-glucose sensitizes ghrelin cells to insulin. Various glucose transporters, channels, and enzymes that mediate glucose responsiveness in other cell types may contribute to the ghrelin cell machinery involved in regulating ghrelin secretion under these different glucose environments, although their exact roles in ghrelin release remain uncertain. PMID:22414807

Sakata, Ichiro; Park, Won-Mee; Walker, Angela K; Piper, Paul K; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Zigman, Jeffrey M

2012-05-01

127

The effect of vagal nerve blockade using electrical impulses on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Matheni Sathananthan,1 Sayeed Ikramuddin,2 James M Swain,3,6 Meera Shah,1 Francesca Piccinini,4 Chiara Dalla Man,4 Claudio Cobelli,4 Robert A Rizza,1 Michael Camilleri,5 Adrian Vella1 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of General Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Division of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 6Scottsdale Healthcare Bariatric Center, Scottsdale, AZ, USA Purpose: Vagal interruption causes weight loss in humans and decreases endogenous glucose production in animals. However, it is unknown if this is due to a direct effect on glucose metabolism. We sought to determine if vagal blockade using electrical impulses alters glucose metabolism in humans. Patients and methods: We utilized a randomized, cross-over study design where participants were studied after 2 weeks of activation or inactivation of vagal nerve blockade (VNB. Seven obese subjects with impaired fasting glucose previously enrolled in a long-term study to examine the effect of VNB on weight took part. We used a standardized triple-tracer mixed meal to enable measurement of the rate of meal appearance, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disappearance. The 550 kcal meal was also labeled with 111In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA to measure gastrointestinal transit. Insulin action and ß-cell responsivity indices were estimated using the minimal model. Results: Integrated glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations did not differ between study days. This was also reflected in a lack of effect on ?-cell responsivity and insulin action. Furthermore, fasting and postprandial endogenous glucose production, integrated meal appearance, and glucose disposal did not differ in the presence or absence of VNB. Similarly, gastric emptying and colonic transit were unchanged by VNB. Conclusion: In this pilot study in nondiabetic humans, electrical vagal blockade had no acute effects on glucose metabolism, insulin secretion and action, or gastric emptying. It remains to be determined if more pronounced effects would be observed in diabetic subjects. Keywords: vagotomy, insulin secretion, insulin action, endogenous glucose production

Sathananthan M

2014-07-01

128

MAPK14/p38?-dependent modulation of glucose metabolism affects ROS levels and autophagy during starvation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased glycolytic flux is a common feature of many cancer cells, which have adapted their metabolism to maximize glucose incorporation and catabolism to generate ATP and substrates for biosynthetic reactions. Indeed, glycolysis allows a rapid production of ATP and provides metabolic intermediates required for cancer cells growth. Moreover, it makes cancer cells less sensitive to fluctuations of oxygen tension, a condition usually occurring in a newly established tumor environment. Here, we provide evidence for a dual role of MAPK14 in driving a rearrangement of glucose metabolism that contributes to limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy activation in condition of nutrient deprivation. We demonstrate that MAPK14 is phosphoactivated during nutrient deprivation and affects glucose metabolism at 2 different levels: on the one hand, it increases SLC2A3 mRNA and protein levels, resulting in a higher incorporation of glucose within the cell. This event involves the MAPK14-mediated enhancement of HIF1A protein stability. On the other hand, MAPK14 mediates a metabolic shift from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) through the modulation of PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase 3) degradation by the proteasome. This event requires the presence of 2 distinct degradation sequences, KEN box and DSG motif Ser273, which are recognized by 2 different E3 ligase complexes. The mutation of either motif increases PFKFB3 resistance to starvation-induced degradation. The MAPK14-driven metabolic reprogramming sustains the production of NADPH, an important cofactor for many reduction reactions and for the maintenance of the proper intracellular redox environment, resulting in reduced levels of ROS. The final effect is a reduced activation of autophagy and an increased resistance to nutrient deprivation. PMID:25046111

Desideri, Enrico; Vegliante, Rolando; Cardaci, Simone; Nepravishta, Ridvan; Paci, Maurizio; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

2014-09-01

129

Regulation of glycolytic rate in Streptococcus sanguis grown under glucose-limited and glucose-excess conditions in a chemostat.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biochemical mechanisms of the acidogenic potential of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556 grown in glucose-excess and glucose-limited continuous culture were studied. The rate of acid production during the glucose metabolism by the cells grown under glucose limitation (glucose-limited cells) was 2.1 to 2.6 times that by the cells grown in an excess of glucose (glucose-excess cells). When the glucose-limited cells were metabolizing glucose, intracellular concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate,...

Iwami, Y.; Yamada, T.

1985-01-01

130

Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using 18F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC

131

Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC.

Suchowersky, O.; Hayden, M.R.; Martin, W.R.; Stoessl, A.J.; Hildebrand, A.M.; Pate, B.D.

1986-01-01

132

The endocannabinoid system: role in glucose and energy metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as one of the most relevant regulators of energy balance. The ECS acts through two cannabinoid receptors: types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). CB1 receptors are widely expressed in the brain, but are also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, the liver, the gut, and the pancreas. Blockade of CB1 receptors causes a reduction in food intake and a sustained weight loss. This system contributes also to the control of lipid and glucose metabolism, and it is well established that blockade of CB1 receptors enhances insulin sensitivity in both humans and rodents. In obese states, endocannabinoid levels are increased and might exert unfavorable effects on insulin-sensitive tissues. This review summarizes the effects of the endocannabinoid system on glucose metabolism in humans and rodents. PMID:19559361

Nogueiras, Ruben; Diaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Lockie, Sarah H; Velásquez, Douglas A; Tschop, Johannes; López, Miguel; Cadwell, Charles C; Diéguez, Carlos; Tschöp, Matthias H

2009-08-01

133

Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism.

Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost

2013-01-01

134

GSM mobile phone radiation suppresses brain glucose metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on cerebral glucose metabolism using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with the 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. A long half-life (109?minutes) of the 18F isotope allowed a long, natural exposure condition outside the PET scanner. Thirteen young right-handed male subjects were exposed to a pulse-modulated 902.4?MHz Global System for Mobile Communications signal for 33?minutes, while performing a simple visual vigilance...

Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Ka?nna?la?, Sami; Laine, Matti; Rinne, Juha O.; Toivonen, Tommi; Johansson, Jarkko; Tera?s, Mika; Lindholm, Harri; Alanko, Tommi; Ha?ma?la?inen, Heikki

2011-01-01

135

The Lin28/let-7 axis regulates glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by inhibiting let-7 biogenesis. We have uncovered unexpected roles for the Lin28/let-7 pathway in regulating metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both Lin28a and LIN28B promote an insulin-sensitized state that resists high-fat-diet induced diabetes. Conversely, muscle-specific loss of Lin28a or overexpression of let-7 results in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. These phenomena occur, in part, through the let-7-mediated repression of multiple components of the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway, including IGF1R, INSR, and IRS2. In addition, the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, abrogates Lin28a-mediated insulin sensitivity and enhanced glucose uptake. Moreover, let-7 targets are enriched for genes containing SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and control of fasting glucose in human genome-wide association studies. These data establish the Lin28/let-7 pathway as a central regulator of mammalian glucose metabolism. PMID:21962509

Zhu, Hao; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Segrè, Ayellet V; Shinoda, Gen; Shah, Samar P; Einhorn, William S; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Engreitz, Jesse M; Hagan, John P; Kharas, Michael G; Urbach, Achia; Thornton, James E; Triboulet, Robinson; Gregory, Richard I; Altshuler, David; Daley, George Q

2011-09-30

136

Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) were established using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digests. The effect of genotypes on lipid levels and on glucose, insulin, and HOMA (i.e., calculated parameters of beta-cell function and insulin resistance) was assessed by multivariate analyses of variance correcting for the effect of gender, age, glucose tolerance status, and body mass index. The effect of genotype on the risk of having impaired glucose metabolism was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Finally, linkage between allele sharing and physiological parameters was calculated by the new Haseman-Elston method. The allele frequencies of all five polymorphisms were similar to those previously reported for Caucasian populations. The L2711P (MvaI RFLP) polymorphism influenced LDL-cholesterol and LDL-to-HDL measures (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively), while the R3611Q (MspI RFLP) polymorphism had an effect on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03 < p < 0.004), and between genotype in L2712P (MvaI RFLP) and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and gender on lipid and glucose-related parameters (0.02 < p < 0.003). No genotypes were significantly associated with impaired glucose tolerance measured by logistic regression. Likewise, no effect of allele sharing in the five polymorphisms was seen in the dizygotic twins. The effect of the polymorphisms on lipid and glucose parameters could be mediated through linkage to genes with known effect on glucose metabolism or through free fatty acids exerting their effect on glucose metabolism. PMID:14763605

Bentzen, Joan; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan; Fenger, Mogens

2003-10-01

137

[A new flavanol glycoside from Phymatopteris hastata with effect on glucose metabolism].  

Science.gov (United States)

By repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, macroporous resin, and preparative HPLC, a new compound (1) was isolated and purified. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the structure of 1 was elucidated as ( - ) -epiafzelechin-3, 5-di-O-beta-D-apiofuranoside (1). In the bioassay screening experiments, glucose consumption assays in IR HepG2 cells and colorimetric assay of surface GLUT4myc translocation were used to assess the effects on glucose metabolism of compound 1. Both compound 1 and its derivatives--naringin could improve glucose consumption in IR HepG2 cells and enhance GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cell L6myc in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that these two compouds showed potential anti-diabetic activities in vitro. PMID:23717961

Ma, Sheng-Nan; Duan, Shi-Lian; Jin, Mei-Na; Duan, Hong-Quan

2013-03-01

138

The G-Protein-Coupled Long-Chain Fatty Acid Receptor GPR40 and Glucose Metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Free fatty acids (FFAs) play a pivotal role in metabolic control and cell signaling processes in various tissues. In particular, FFAs are known to augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells, where fatty acid-derived metabolites, such as long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, are believed to act as crucial effectors. Recently, G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a receptor for long-chain fatty acids, was reported to be highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells and involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. Hence, GPR40 is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. In this review, we summarize the identification and gene expression patterns of GPR40 and its role in glucose metabolism. We also discuss the potential application of GPR40 as a therapeutic target.

Tomita, Tsutomu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Fujikura, Junji; Inagaki, Nobuya; Nakao, Kazuwa

2014-01-01

139

The G-Protein-Coupled Long-Chain Fatty Acid Receptor GPR40 and Glucose Metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free fatty acids (FFAs) play a pivotal role in metabolic control and cell signaling processes in various tissues. In particular, FFAs are known to augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells, where fatty acid-derived metabolites, such as long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, are believed to act as crucial effectors. Recently, G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a receptor for long-chain fatty acids, was reported to be highly expressed in pancreatic beta cells and involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. Hence, GPR40 is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. In this review, we summarize the identification and gene expression patterns of GPR40 and its role in glucose metabolism. We also discuss the potential application of GPR40 as a therapeutic target. PMID:25309513

Tomita, Tsutomu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Fujikura, Junji; Inagaki, Nobuya; Nakao, Kazuwa

2014-01-01

140

Molecular mechanism of hepatitis C virus-induced glucose metabolic disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection causes not only intrahepatic diseases but also extrahepatic manifestations, including metabolic disorders. Chronic HCV infection is often associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the precise mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. Glucose is transported into hepatocytes via glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2. Hepatocytes play a crucial role in maintaining plasma glucose homeostasis via the gluconeogenic and glycolytic pathways. We have been investigating the molecular mechanism of HCV-related type 2 diabetes using HCV RNA replicon cells and HCV J6/JFH1 system. We found that HCV replication down-regulates cell surface expression of GLUT2 at the transcriptional level. We also found that HCV infection promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis in HCV J6/JFH1-infected Huh-7.5 cells. HCV infection transcriptionally up-regulated the genes for PEPCK and G6Pase, the rate-limiting enzymes for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Gene expression of PEPCK and G6Pase was regulated by the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1 in HCV-infected cells. Phosphorylation of FoxO1 at Ser319 was markedly diminished in HCV-infected cells, resulting in increased nuclear accumulation of FoxO1. HCV NS5A protein was directly linked with the FoxO1-dependent increased gluconeogenesis. This paper will discuss the current model of HCV-induced glucose metabolic disorders.

IkuoShoji

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Altered Glucose Metabolism in Mouse and Humans Conceived by IVF.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) may influence the metabolic health of children. However, in humans, it is difficult to separate out the relative contributions of genetics, environment, or the process of IVF, which includes ovarian stimulation (OS) and embryo culture. Therefore, we examined glucose metabolism in young adult humans and in adult male C57BL/6J mice conceived by IVF versus natural birth under energy-balanced and high-fat-overfeeding conditions. In humans, peripheral insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (80 mU/m(2)/min), was lower in IVF patients (n = 14) versus control subjects (n = 20) after 3 days of an energy-balanced diet (30% fat). In response to 3 days of overfeeding (+1,250 kcal/day, 45% fat), there was a greater increase in systolic blood pressure in IVF versus controls (P = 0.02). Mice conceived after either OS alone or IVF weighed significantly less at birth versus controls (P culture resulted in changes in glucose metabolism that may increase the risk of the development of metabolic diseases later in life, in both mice and humans. PMID:24760136

Chen, Miaoxin; Wu, Linda; Zhao, Junli; Wu, Fang; Davies, Michael J; Wittert, Gary A; Norman, Robert J; Robker, Rebecca L; Heilbronn, Leonie K

2014-10-01

142

Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the intestine, changes of sugar concentration generated in the lumen during digestion induce adaptive responses of glucose transporters in the epithelium. A close matching between the intestinal expression of glucose transporters and the composition and amount of the diet has been provided by several experiments. Functional evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of glucose transporters into enterocytes is induced by the sensing of sugar of the enteroendocrine cells through activation of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) and their associated elements of G-protein-linked signaling pathways (e.g. ?-gustducin, phospholipase C ? type 2 and transient receptor potential channel M5), which are signaling molecules also involved in the perception of sweet substances in the taste receptor cells (TRCs) of the tongue. Considering this phenotypical similarity between the intestinal cells and TRCs, we evaluated whether the TRCs themselves possess proteins of the glucose transport mechanism. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the typical intestinal glucose transporters (i.e. GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1) in rat circumvallate papillae, using immunohistochemistry, double-labeling immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 are expressed in TRCs; their immunoreactivity was also observed in cells that displayed staining for ?-gustducin and T1R3 receptor. The immunoelectron microscopic results confirmed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 were predominantly expressed in cells with ultrastructural characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. The presence of glucose transporters in TRCs adds a further link between chemosensory information and cellular responses to sweet stimuli that may have important roles in glucose homeostasis, contributing to a better understanding of the pathways implicated in glucose metabolism. PMID:21592100

Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

2011-08-01

143

Glucose Uptake Is Limiting in T Cell Activation and Requires CD28-Mediated Akt-Dependent and Independent Pathways1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

T cell activation potently stimulates cellular metabolism to support the elevated energetic and biosynthetic demands of growth, proliferation, and effector function. We show that glucose uptake is limiting in T cell activation and that CD28 costimulation is required to allow maximal glucose uptake following TCR stimulation by up-regulating expression and promoting the cell surface trafficking of the glucose transporter Glut1. Regulation of T cell glucose uptake and Glut1 was critical, as low ...

Jacobs, Sarah R.; Herman, Catherine E.; Maciver, Nancie J.; Wofford, Jessica A.; Wieman, Heather L.; Hammen, Jeremy J.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

2008-01-01

144

Characteristic of GLP-1 effects on glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle from obese patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct effects of GLP-1, kinase-mediated, on glucose and lipid metabolism in rat and human extrapancreatic tissues, are amply documented and also changes in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. Here, we explored the characteristics of the GLP-1 action and those of its analogs Ex-4 and Ex-9, on muscle glucose transport (GT) and metabolism in human morbid obesity (OB), as compared with normal and T2D subjects. In primary cultured myocytes from OB, GT and glycogen synthase a (GSa) activity values were lower than normal, and comparable to those reported in T2D patients; GT was increased by either GLP-1 or Ex-9 in a more efficient manner than in normal or T2D, up to normal levels; the Ex-4 increasing effect on GSa activity was two times that in normal cells, while Ex-9 failed to modify the enzyme activity. In OB, the control value of all kinases analyzed - PI3K, PKB, MAPKs, and p70s6K - although lower than that in normal or T2D subjects, the cells maintained their response capability to GLP-1, Ex-4, Ex-9 and insulin, with some exceptions. GLP-1 and exendins showed a direct normalizing action in the altered glucose uptake and metabolism in the muscle of obese subjects, which in the case of GLP-1 could account, at least in part, for the reported restoration of the metabolic conditions of these patients after restrictive surgery. PMID:21419173

Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, María L; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Irene; Moreno, Paola; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Acitores, Alicia; Sancho, Verónica; Valverde, Isabel; González, Nieves

2011-06-01

145

Human myotubes from myoblast cultures undergoing senescence exhibit defects in glucose and lipid metabolism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. As the proliferative potential of myoblasts decreased dramatically with passage number, a number of cellular functions were altered: the capacity of myoblasts to fuse and differentiate into myotubes was reduced, and metabolic processes in myotubes such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glucose oxidation and fatty acid ?-oxidation became gradually impaired. Upon insulin stimulation, glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis increased but as the cellular proliferative capacity became gradually exhausted, the response dropped concomitantly. Palmitic acid incorporation into lipids in myotubes decreased with passage number and could be explained by reduced incorporation into diacyl- and triacylglycerols. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoA esters decreased with increased passage number. Late-passage, non-proliferating, myoblast cultures showed strong senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity indicating that the observed metabolic defects accompany the induction of a senescent state. The main function of SCs is regeneration and skeletal muscle-build up. Thus, the metabolic defects observed during aging of SC-derived myotubes could have a role in sarcopenia, the gradual age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.

Nehlin, Jan O; Just, Marlene

2011-01-01

146

UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

Dalgaard, Louise T., E-mail: ltd@ruc.dk [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University (Denmark)

2012-01-06

147

Estradiol stimulates glucose metabolism via 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3).  

Science.gov (United States)

Estradiol (E2) administered to estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer patients stimulates glucose uptake by tumors. Importantly, this E2-induced metabolic flare is predictive of the clinical effectiveness of anti-estrogens and, as a result, downstream metabolic regulators of E2 are expected to have utility as targets for the development of anti-breast cancer agents. The family of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases (PFKFB1-4) control glycolytic flux via their product, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP), which activates 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1). We postulated that E2 might promote PFKFB3 expression, resulting in increased F26BP and glucose uptake. We demonstrate that PFKFB3 expression is highest in stage III lymph node metastases relative to normal breast tissues and that exposure of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to E2 causes a rapid increase in [(14)C]glucose uptake and glycolysis that is coincident with an induction of PFKFB3 mRNA (via ER binding to its promoter), protein expression and the intracellular concentration of its product, F26BP. Importantly, selective inhibition of PFKFB3 expression and activity using siRNA or a PFKFB3 inhibitor markedly reduces the E2-mediated increase in F26BP, [(14)C]glucose uptake, and glycolysis. Furthermore, co-treatment of MCF-7 cells with the PFKFB3 inhibitor and the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 synergistically induces apoptotic cell death. These findings demonstrate for the first time that the estrogen receptor directly promotes PFKFB3 mRNA transcription which, in turn, is required for the glucose metabolism and survival of breast cancer cells. Importantly, these results provide essential preclinical information that may allow for the ultimate design of combinatorial trials of PFKFB3 antagonists with anti-estrogen therapies in ER(+) stage IV breast cancer patients. PMID:24515104

Imbert-Fernandez, Yoannis; Clem, Brian F; O'Neal, Julie; Kerr, Daniel A; Spaulding, Robert; Lanceta, Lilibeth; Clem, Amy L; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason

2014-03-28

148

The utility of fasting plasma glucose to identify impaired glucose metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the utility of impaired fasting plasma glucose as defined by ADA to identify women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affected by impaired glucose metabolism (i.e. impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus). In 330 women with PCOS, according to ESHRE criteria, an oral glucose tolerance test was done. Impaired fasting glucose was present in 36 women (12%), impaired glucose tolerance in 29 women (8.8%) and diabetes mellitus in 10 women (3%), 4 of them have fasting glucose higher than 7?mmol/l. The combination of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance was seen in 5 women (1.5%). The sensitivity of impaired fasting glucose for the detection of impaired glucose tolerance was 24% and specificity 91.8%. When fasting glucose above 5.6?mmol/l was used as the screening criterion, 28/35 subjects (80%) would have been missed. We conclude that fasting plasma glucose is not sufficiently sensitive for the detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus type 2 in women with PCOS. PMID:24734869

Vrbikova, Jana; Hill, Martin; Fanta, Michael

2014-09-01

149

Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

150

Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

Nam, H. Y.; Seo, G. T.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jeon, S. M. [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

151

Effect of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Depletion on Glucose Transport Regulation in Leukemia Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To ...

Caliceti, Cristiana; Zambonin, Laura; Prata, Cecilia; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Hakim, Gabriele; Hrelia, Silvana; Fiorentini, Diana

2012-01-01

152

Glucose metabolism in brain tumor as studied by positron-emission tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although high rates of glycolysis have been correlated with malignancy in glioma on the basis of PET findings using 18-F-deoxyglucose, these results indicate only the activity of hexokinase in the tumor cells; they do not demonstrate what kinds of systems of glycolysis increase. In this report, the differences in the activities of systems of glycolysis on both benign and malignant tumors were studied by means of PET using 11C-glucose and 11C-pyruvate administration, along with PET studies of r-CBF, r-OEF and r-CMRO2. At a benign glioma, the uptake of 11C-glucose was lower than in normal brain tissue, with lower r-CBF, r-OEF, and r-CMRO2 values. Many malignant tumors and cases of meningioma showed increases in glucose uptake with lower oxygen metabolism. On the other hand, the activities of 11C-pyruvate in both benign and malignant tumors were increased 34 - 131 % relative to normal brain tissue, and there was no difference between benign and malignant tumors. According to these findings, it might be concluded that benign and malignant tumors have mainly an anerobic glycolytic pathway. However, the findings of the alternation of 11C-glucose uptake suggest that, in addition to the anerobic glycolytic pathway, an alternative metabolic pathway of glucose, such as a pentose-phosphate pathway or an amino-acid-utilizing pathway, may also be present. (author)

153

Effects of four aromatic organic pollutants on microbial glucose metabolism and thymidine incorporation in marine sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of D-(U-14C)glucose and the incorporation of (methyl-3H)thymidine by aerobic and anaerobic marine sediment microbes exposed to 1 to 1000 ppm anthracene, naphthalene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and pentachlorophenol were examined. Cell-specific rates of (14C)glucose metabolism averaged 1.7 x 10-21 and 0.5 x 10-21 mol/min per cell for aerobic and anaerobic sediment slurries, respectively; (3H)thymidine incorporation rates averaged 43 x 10-24 and 9 x 10-24 mol/min per cell for aerobic and anaerobic slurries, respectively. Aerobic sediments exposed to three of the organic pollutants for 2 to 7 days showed recovery of both activities. Anaerobic sediments showed little recovery after 2 days of pre-exposure to the pollutants. The authors conclude that (i) anaerobic sediments are more sensitive than aerobic sediments to pollutant additions; (ii) (3H)thymidine incorporation is more sensitive to pollutant additions than is (14C)glucose metabolism; and (iii) the toxicity of the pollutants increased in the following order: anthracene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, naphthalene, and pentachlorophenol

154

Isotope-based quantitation of uptake, release, and metabolism of glutamate and glucose in cultured astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protocols are described for measurement in primary cultures of astrocytes of unidirectional fluxes of glutamate (influx and efflux), glutamate metabolism to glutamine or CO(2), glucose influx, glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenation, oxidative metabolism of glucose, pyruvate carboxylation, glycogen synthesis, and glycogenolysis. References are made to the in vivo situation, and the importance of using metabolically competent cultures is emphasized. PMID:22144315

Hertz, Leif

2012-01-01

155

Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also changes the glucose profile in response to a meal in glucose-tolerant individuals. We hypothesised that the driving force for the changed postprandial glucose profiles after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. METHODS: We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate of lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. RESULTS: After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels. These changes were brought about by changes in glucose kinetics: (1) a more rapid appearance of ingested glucose in thesystemic circulation, and a concomitant increase in insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion; (2) postprandial glucose disappearance was maintained at a high rate for a longer time after RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose into the systemic circulation, followed by increased insulin secretion and glucose disappearance appears to drive the changes in the glucose profile observed after RYGB, while endogenous glucose production remains unchanged

Jacobsen, Siv Hesse; Bojsen-MØller, KN

2013-01-01

156

Petasin activates AMP-activated protein kinase and modulates glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Petasin (1), a natural product found in plants of the genus Petasites, has beneficial medicinal effects, such as antimigraine and antiallergy activities. However, whether or not 1 modulates metabolic diseases is unknown. In this study, the effects of 1 on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is considered a pharmacological target for treating metabolic diseases, are described. It was found that an extract of Petasites japonicus produces an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK in vitro, and the main active compound 1 was isolated. When this compound was administered orally to mice, activation of AMPK in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue was observed. Moreover, pretreatment with 1 enhanced glucose tolerance following the administration of a glucose solution to normal mice. The mechanism by which 1 activates AMPK was subsequently investigated, and an increased intracellular AMP/ATP ratio in the cultured cells treated with 1 occurred. In addition, treatment with petasin inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Taken together, the present results indicated that 1 modulates glucose metabolism and activates AMPK through the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. The preclinical data suggested that petasin (1) could be useful for the treatment of metabolic diseases in humans. PMID:24871354

Adachi, Yusuke; Kanbayashi, Yayoi; Harata, Ikue; Ubagai, Risa; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Katsuya; Miwa, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Yasushi

2014-06-27

157

Isotopolog perturbation techniques for metabolic networks: metabolic recycling of nutritional glucose in Drosophila melanogaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drosophila melanogaster strain Oregon-R(*) was grown on standard medium supplemented with [U-(13)C(6)]glucose. One to two days after hatching, flies were extracted with water. Glucose was isolated chromatographically from the extract and was analyzed by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. All (13)C signals of the isolated glucose were multiplets arising by (13)C(13)C coupling. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the coupling constants and heavy isotope shifts in glucose, the integrals of individual (13)C signal patterns afforded the concentrations of certain groups of (13)C isotopologs. These data were deconvoluted by a genetic algorithm affording the abundances of all single-labeled and of 15 multiply labeled isotopologs. Among the latter group, seven isotopologs were found at concentrations >0.1 mol % with [1,2-(13)C(2)]glucose as the most prominent species. The multiply (13)C-labeled glucose isotopologs are caused by metabolic remodeling of the proffered glucose via a complex network of catabolic and anabolic processes involving glycolysis and/or passage through the pentose phosphate, the Cori cycle and/or the citrate cycle. The perturbation method described can be adapted to a wide variety of experimental systems and isotope-labeled precursors. PMID:15096588

Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Ettenhuber, Christian; Laupitz, Ralf; Theus, Cornelia; Bacher, Adelbert

2004-04-27

158

Metabolic regulation of lateral hypothalamic glucose-inhibited orexin neurons may influence midbrain reward neurocircuitry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) orexin neurons modulate reward-based feeding by activating ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. We hypothesize that signals of peripheral energy status influence reward-based feeding by modulating the glucose sensitivity of LHA orexin glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons. This hypothesis was tested using electrophysiological recordings of LHA orexin-GI neurons in brain slices from 4 to 6week old male mice whose orexin neurons express green fluorescent protein (GFP) or putative VTA-DA neurons from C57Bl/6 mice. Low glucose directly activated ~60% of LHA orexin-GFP neurons in both whole cell and cell attached recordings. Leptin indirectly reduced and ghrelin directly enhanced the activation of LHA orexin-GI neurons by glucose decreases from 2.5 to 0.1mM by 53±12% (n=16, PVTA-DA neurons in a novel horizontal slice preparation containing the LHA and VTA. Decreased glucose increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs; 125 ± 40%, n=9, PVTA DA neurons. sEPSCs were completely blocked by AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX 20 ?M, n=4; APV 20?M, n=4; respectively), demonstrating that these sEPSCs were mediated by glutamatergic transmission onto VTA DA neurons. Orexin-1 but not 2 receptor antagonism with SB334867 (10?M; n=9) and TCS-OX2-29 (2?M; n=5), respectively, blocks the effects of decreased glucose on VTA DA neurons. Thus, decreased glucose increases orexin-dependent excitatory glutamate neurotransmission onto VTA DA neurons. These data suggest that the glucose sensitivity of LHA orexin-GI neurons links metabolic state and reward-based feeding. PMID:25107627

Sheng, Zhenyu; Santiago, Ammy M; Thomas, Mark P; Routh, Vanessa H

2014-09-01

159

Glucose transport by radiation-induced insulinoma and clonal pancreatic beta-cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugar uptake was measured in dispersed cells prepared from radiation-induced insulinomas transplantable in NEDH rats and in three clonal beta-cell lines maintained in continuous culture (RIN m5F, RIN 1046, HIT). Uptake of D-glucose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by insulinoma cells was rapid so that the intracellular concentration of D-hexoses approximated the concentration in the incubation medium by 15-30 s. L-Glucose was taken up only slowly. 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake by RIN m5F, RIN 1046, and HIT cells was slow; with 1 mM 3-O-methylglucose in the medium, equilibrium was attained at 20 min, but with 10 mM 3-O-methylglucose, equilibrium was not attained even at 20 min. In HIT cells incubated with D-glucose for 30 min, the intracellular concentration of glucose was less than the medium glucose concentration, indicating glucose transport is a nonequilibrium reaction in this cell line. These data indicate that radiation-induced insulinoma cells retain the capacity of normal beta-cells to transport sugar at high rates. RIN m5F, RIN 1046, and HIT cells transport sugar slowly, however, and thus differ from normal beta-cells. In RIN m5F, RIN 1046, and HIT cells, unlike in normal beta-cells, glucose transport may be the site regulating glucose metabolism.

Meglasson, M.D.; Manning, C.D.; Najafi, H.; Matschinsky, F.M.

1986-12-01

160

Glucose transport by radiation-induced insulinoma and clonal pancreatic beta-cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar uptake was measured in dispersed cells prepared from radiation-induced insulinomas transplantable in NEDH rats and in three clonal beta-cell lines maintained in continuous culture (RIN m5F, RIN 1046, HIT). Uptake of D-glucose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by insulinoma cells was rapid so that the intracellular concentration of D-hexoses approximated the concentration in the incubation medium by 15-30 s. L-Glucose was taken up only slowly. 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake by RIN m5F, RIN 1046, and HIT cells was slow; with 1 mM 3-O-methylglucose in the medium, equilibrium was attained at 20 min, but with 10 mM 3-O-methylglucose, equilibrium was not attained even at 20 min. In HIT cells incubated with D-glucose for 30 min, the intracellular concentration of glucose was less than the medium glucose concentration, indicating glucose transport is a nonequilibrium reaction in this cell line. These data indicate that radiation-induced insulinoma cells retain the capacity of normal beta-cells to transport sugar at high rates. RIN m5F, RIN 1046, and HIT cells transport sugar slowly, however, and thus differ from normal beta-cells. In RIN m5F, RIN 1046, and HIT cells, unlike in normal beta-cells, glucose transport may be the site regulating glucose metabolism

 
 
 
 
161

Differential metabolism of cellobiose and glucose by Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum consumed glucose in preference to cellobiose as an energy source for growth. The rates of substrate uptake in glucose- and cellobiose-grown cell suspensions were 45 and 24 nmol/min per mg (dry weight), respectively, at 65 degrees C. The molar growth yields (i.e., grams of cells per mole of glucose equivalents) were similar on cellobiose and glucose (19 and 16, respectively). Both glucose- and cellobiose-grown cells contained a glucose permease activity and hi...

Ng, T. K.; Zeikus, J. G.

1982-01-01

162

Statins impair glucose uptake in human cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Considering the increasing number of clinical observations indicating hyperglycemic effects of statins, this study was designed to measure the influence of statins on the uptake of glucose analogs by human cells derived from liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Design Flow cytometry and scintillation counting were used to measure the uptake of fluorescently labeled or tritiated glucose analogs by differentiated visceral preadipocytes, skeletal muscle cells, skeletal muscle myoblasts, and contact-inhibited human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A bioinformatics approach was used to predict the structure of human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and to identify the presence of putative cholesterol-binding (cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC)) motifs within this transporter. Mutagenesis of CRAC motifs in SLC2A1 gene and limited proteolysis of membrane GLUT1 were used to determine the molecular effects of statins. Results Statins significantly inhibit the uptake of glucose analogs in all cell types. Similar effects are induced by methyl-?-cyclodextrin, which removes membrane cholesterol. Statin effects can be rescued by addition of mevalonic acid, or supplementation with exogenous cholesterol. Limited proteolysis of GLUT1 and mutagenesis of CRAC motifs revealed that statins induce conformational changes in GLUTs. Conclusions Statins impair glucose uptake by cells involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis by inducing cholesterol-dependent conformational changes in GLUTs. This molecular mechanism might explain hyperglycemic effects of statins observed in clinical trials.

Nowis, Dominika; Malenda, Agata; Furs, Karolina; Oleszczak, Bozenna; Sadowski, Radoslaw; Chlebowska, Justyna; Firczuk, Malgorzata; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Staruch, Adam D; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Szablewski, Leszek; Golab, Jakub

2014-01-01

163

Glucose Metabolism Following Severe Hemorrhage in the Conscious Dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetics of glucose utilization before and after major hemorrhage was investigated by the primed infusion technique in eight conscious dogs given glucose-UC(14) alone or in combination with glucose-2-H(3). Following hemorrhage, arterial glucose concen...

R. Wiener, J. J. Spitzer

1973-01-01

164

Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Surprisingly, it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS components as parameters to identify such persons. Subjects and Methods: All participants received a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance, and 6 had diabetes-on-isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models, which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (clinical history model: family history (FH, FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model: Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI; Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. Results: The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. Conclusion: We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance.

Pei Dee

2007-01-01

165

Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surprisingly it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. All participants received a standard 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance and 6 had diabetes on isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (Clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance. (author)

166

Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism associated with mental deterioration in multi-infarct dementia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerebral glucose metabolism of 18 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and 10 age-matched normal subjects were examined with positron emission tomography and the 18-F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose technique. MID patients had significantly lower glucose metabolsim in all the grey matter regions measured and were also characterized by more individuality in metabolic pattern. MID patients were also evaluated as to intelligence quotient (IQ). A positive correlation between IQ as shown by the Tanaka-Binet test and glucose metabolism for the entire grey matter was found. The clinical applicability of this test for predicting cerebral metabolism is discussed. (orig.)

167

A comprehensive metabolic profile of cultured astrocytes using isotopic transient metabolic flux analysis and 13C-labeled glucose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metabolic models have been used to elucidate important aspects of brain metabolism in recent years. This work applies for the first time the concept of isotopic transient 13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA to estimate intracellular fluxes of cultured astrocytes. This methodology comprehensively explores the information provided by 13C labeling time-courses of intracellular metabolites after administration of a 13C labeled substrate. Cells were incubated with medium containing [1-13C]glucose for 24 h and samples of cell supernatant and extracts collected at different time-points were then analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or HPLC. Metabolic fluxes were estimated by fitting a carbon labeling network model to isotopomer profiles experimentally determined. Both the fast isotopic equilibrium of glycolytic metabolite pools and the slow labeling dynamics of TCA cycle intermediates are described well by the model. The large pools of glutamate and aspartate which are linked to the TCA cycle via reversible aminotransferase reactions are likely to be responsible for the observed delay in equilibration of TCA cycle intermediates. Furthermore, it was estimated that 11% of the glucose taken up by astrocytes was diverted to the pentose phosphate pathway. In addition, considerable fluxes through pyruvate carboxylase (PC (PC/pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH ratio = 0.5, malic enzyme (5% of the total pyruvate production and catabolism of branched-chained amino acids (contributing with ~40% to total acetyl-CoA produced confirmed the significance of these pathways to astrocytic metabolism. Consistent with the need of maintaining cytosolic redox potential, the fluxes through the malate-aspartate shuttle and the PDH pathway were comparable. Finally, the estimated glutamate/?-ketoglutarate exchange rate (~0.7 µmol.mg prot-1.h-1 was similar to the TCA cycle flux. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the potential of isotopic transient MFA for a comprehensive analysis of energy metabolism.

PaulaMAlves

2011-09-01

168

Short chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism in isolated pig colonocytes: modulation by NH4+.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) from bacterial origin, as well as glucose from vascular origin, are among fuel substrates available to the colonic mucosa. The present work investigated the possible modulation by another bacterial metabolite, i.e. ammonia, of the capacities of colonic epithelial cells to metabolize these substrates. Viable colonocytes were isolated from the proximal colon of 40-50 kg pigs fed a standard diet and were incubated (30 min, 37 degrees C) in the presence of a concentration range of 14C-labeled n-butyrate or acetate, or 14C-labeled glucose (5 mM), with or without NH4Cl (10 mM) addition. 14CO2 and metabolites generated were measured. Butyrate utilization resulted in a high generation of ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-OH-butyrate), in addition to 14CO2 production. However, the net ketone body generation was significantly decreased for butyrate concentrations higher than 10 mM. In contrast to n-butyrate, acetate when given as the sole substrate got preferentially metabolized in the oxidation pathway. Acetate metabolism was not affected by NH4Cl, thus indicating that the tricarboxylic acid cycle was unchanged. Conversely, 14CO2 and ketone body production from butyrate were decreased by 30% in the presence of NH4Cl, suggesting that butyrate activation or beta-oxidation was diminished. Glucose utilization rate was increased by 20%, due to an increased glycolytic capacity in the presence of NH4Cl. A dose-dependent stimulation of phosphofructokinase activity by NH4+ could account for this effect. It is concluded that ammonia, whose physiological concentration is high in the colonic lumen, can modulate the metabolism of two major substrates, n-butyrate and glucose, in colonic epithelial cells. PMID:9095471

Darcy-Vrillon, B; Cherbuy, C; Morel, M T; Durand, M; Duée, P H

1996-03-23

169

Fructose modifies the hormonal response and modulates lipid metabolism in aerobic exercise after glucose supplementation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The metabolic response, when aerobic exercise is performed after the ingestion of glucose plus fructose, is unclear. To compare the hormonal and lipid responses provoked by the ingestion of glucose plus fructose in relation to glucose alone, during aerobic exercise and the recovery phase, we administered two beverages containing glucose plus fructose or glucose in a randomised crossover design, to twenty healthy, aerobically trained volunteers. After a 15-minute resting pe...

2008-01-01

170

A glucose biofuel cell implanted in rats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Powering future generations of implanted medical devices will require cumbersome transcutaneous energy transfer or harvesting energy from the human body. No functional solution that harvests power from the body is currently available, despite attempts to use the Seebeck thermoelectric effect, vibrations or body movements. Glucose fuel cells appear more promising, since they produce electrical energy from glucose and dioxygen, two substrates present in physiological fluids. The most powerful o...

Cinquin, Philippe; Gondran, Chantal; Giroud, Fabien; Mazabrard, Simon; Pellissier, Aymeric; Boucher, Franc?ois; Alcaraz, Jean-pierre; Gorgy, Karine; Lenouvel, Franc?ois; Mathe?, Ste?phane; Porcu, Paolo; Cosnier, Serge

2010-01-01

171

Antilipolytic drug boosts glucose metabolism in prostate cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: The antilipolytic drug Acipimox reduces free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood stream. We examined the effect of reduced FFAs on glucose metabolism in androgen-dependent (CWR22Rv1) and androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts. Methods: Subcutaneous tumors were produced in nude mice by injection of PC3 and CWR22Rv1 PCa cells. The mice were divided into two groups (Acipimox vs. controls). Acipimox (50 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1 h before injection of tracers. 1 h after i.v. co-injection of 8.2 MBq (222 ± 6.0 ?Ci) 18 F-FDG and ? 0.0037 MBq (0.1 ?Ci) 14C-acetate, 18 F-FDG imaging was performed using a small-animal PET scanner. Counting rates in reconstructed images were converted to activity concentrations. Quantification was obtained by region-of-interest analysis using dedicated software. The mice were euthanized, and blood samples and organs were harvested. 18 F radioactivity was measured in a calibrated ?-counter using a dynamic counting window and decay correction. 14C radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting using external standard quench corrections. Counts were converted into activity, and percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) tissue was calculated. Results: FDG biodistribution data in mice with PC3 xenografts demonstrated doubled average %ID/g tumor tissue after administration of Acipimox compared to controls (7.21 ± 1.93 vs. 3.59 ± 1.35, P = 0.02). Tumor-to-organ ratios were generally higher in mice treated with Acipimox. This was supported by PET imaging data, both semi-quantitatively (mean tumor FDG uptake) and visually (tumor-to-background ratios). In mice with CWR22Rv1 xenografts there was no effect of Acipimox on FDG uptake, either in biodistribution or PET imaging. 14C-acetate uptake was unaffected in PC3 and CWR22Rv1 xenografts. Conclusions: In mice with PC3 PCa xenografts, acute administration of Acipimox increases tumor uptake of 18 F-FDG with general improvements in tumor-to-background ratios. Data indicate that administration of Acipimox prior to 18 F-FDG PET scans has potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in patients with castration-resistant advanced PCa

172

Antilipolytic drug boosts glucose metabolism in prostate cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The antilipolytic drug Acipimox reduces free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood stream. We examined the effect of reduced FFAs on glucose metabolism in androgen-dependent (CWR22Rv1) and androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts. Methods Subcutaneous tumors were produced in nude mice by injection of PC3 and CWR22Rv1 PCa cells. The mice were divided into two groups (Acipimox vs. controls). Acipimox (50 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1 h before injection of tracers. 1 h after i.v. co-injection of 8.2 MBq (222±6.0 ?Ci) 18 F-FDG and~0.0037 MBq (0.1 ?Ci) 14C-acetate, 18 F-FDG imaging was performed using a small-animal PET scanner. Counting rates in reconstructed images were converted to activity concentrations. Quantification was obtained by region-of-interest analysis using dedicated software. The mice were euthanized, and blood samples and organs were harvested. 18 F radioactivity was measured in a calibrated ?-counter using a dynamic counting window and decay correction. 14C radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting using external standard quench corrections. Counts were converted into activity, and percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) tissue was calculated. Results FDG biodistribution data in mice with PC3 xenografts demonstrated doubled average %ID/g tumor tissue after administration of Acipimox compared to controls (7.21±1.93 vs. 3.59±1.35, P=0.02). Tumor-to-organ ratios were generally higher in mice treated with Acipimox. This was supported by PET imaging data, both semi-quantitatively (mean tumor FDG uptake) and visually (tumor-to-background ratios). In mice with CWR22Rv1 xenografts there was no effect of Acipimox on FDG uptake, either in biodistribution or PET imaging. 14C-acetate uptake was unaffected in PC3 and CWR22Rv1 xenografts. Conclusions In mice with PC3 PCa xenografts, acute administration of Acipimox increases tumor uptake of 18 F-FDG with general improvements in tumor-to-background ratios. Data indicate that administration of Acipimox prior to 18 F-FDG PET scans has potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in patients with castration-resistant advanced PCa. PMID:23454248

Andersen, Kim Francis; Divilov, Vadim; Koziorowski, Jacek; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Lewis, Jason S.

2013-01-01

173

Functional role of glucose metabolism, osmotic stress, and sodium-glucose cotransporter isoform-mediated transport on Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 activity in the renal proximal tubule.  

Science.gov (United States)

Na(+)-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated glucose uptake leads to activation of Na(+)-H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) in the intestine by a process that is not dependent on glucose metabolism. This coactivation may be important for postprandial nutrient uptake. However, it remains to be determined whether SGLT-mediated glucose uptake regulates NHE3-mediated NaHCO3 reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. Considering that this nephron segment also expresses SGLT2 and that the kidneys and intestine show significant variations in daily glucose availability, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of SGLT-mediated glucose uptake on NHE3 activity in the renal proximal tubule. Stationary in vivo microperfusion experiments showed that luminal perfusion with 5 mM glucose stimulates NHE3-mediated bicarbonate reabsorption. This stimulatory effect was mediated by glycolytic metabolism but not through ATP production. Conversely, luminal perfusion with 40 mM glucose inhibited NHE3 because of cell swelling. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of SGLT activity by Phlorizin produced a marked inhibition of NHE3, even in the absence of glucose. Furthermore, immunofluorescence experiments showed that NHE3 colocalizes with SGLT2 but not SGLT1 in the rat renal proximal tubule. Collectively, these findings show that glucose exerts a bimodal effect on NHE3. The physiologic metabolism of glucose stimulates NHE3 transport activity, whereas, supraphysiologic glucose concentrations inhibit this exchanger. Additionally, Phlorizin-sensitive SGLT transporters and NHE3 interact functionally in the proximal tubule. PMID:24652792

Pessoa, Thaissa Dantas; Campos, Luciene Cristina Gastalho; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene; Girardi, Adriana C C; Malnic, Gerhard

2014-09-01

174

Determination of metabolic fluxes during glucose catabolism in Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vivo 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the pathways of glucose metabolism, non-invasively, in living cell suspensions of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. This species is the main ripening flora of the Swiss-type cheeses and is widely used as propionic acid and vitamin B12 industrial producer. The flow of labelled [1-13C]glucose was monitored in living cell suspensions and enrichment was detected in main products like [1-13C]glycogen, [6-13C]lycogen, [1-13C]trehalose, [6-13C]trehalose, [1-13C]propionate, [2-13C]propionate, [3-13C]propionate, [1-13C]acetate, [2-13C]acetate, [1-13C]succinate, [2-13C]succinate and [1-13C]CO2. alpha and beta glucose consumption could be examined separately and were catabolized at the same rate. Three intermediates were also found out, namely [1-13C]glucose-6-phosphate, [6-13C]glucose-6-phosphate and [1-13C]glucose-1-phosphate. From the formation of intermediates such as [6-3C]glucose-6-phosphate and products like [6-13C]glycogen from [1-13C]glucose we concluded the bidirectionality of reactions in the first part of glycolysis and the isomerization at the triose-phosphate level. Comparison of spectra obtained after addition of [1-13C]glucose or [U-12C]glucose revealed production of [1-13C]CO2 which means that pentose phosphates pathway is active under our experimental conditions. From the isotopic pattern of trehalose, it could be postulated that trehalose biosynthesis occurred either by direct condensation of two glucose molecules or by gluconeogenesis. A chemically defined medium was elaborated for the study and trehalose was the main osmolyte found in the intracellular fraction of P. shermanii grown in this medium. PMID:15954591

Meurice, G; Bondon, A; Deborde, C; Boyaval, P

2001-01-01

175

Effect of L-fucose and D-glucose concentration on L-fucoprotein metabolism in human Hep G2 cells and changes in fucosyltransferase and alpha-L-fucosidase activity in liver of diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-Fucose is a monosaccharide that is present at low concentrations in serum and is a normal constituent of glycoproteins. In some pathological conditions, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes, there is an abnormal fucosylation of acute phase serum proteins. Because most serum proteins are produced in the liver, we have examined L-fucose accumulation, metabolism, and secretion of L-fucose-containing proteins in human Hep G2 liver cells. Accumulation of L-fucose by Hep G2 cells approached 3.5 nmol/mg protein after a 48 h incubation. This accumulation appears similar to accumulation in other cells, which we have shown occurs via a specific transport protein. Exogenous L-fucose was incorporated into protein in both O- and N-linked glycosidic linkages. After a 48 h incubation, 61% of the accumulated L-fucose was incorporated into protein and secreted into the medium, whereas 39% of the L-fucose remaining in the cells was incorporated into integral membrane proteins. Utilizing reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of L-[5,6-(3)H]fucose-containing proteins and detection by scintillation counting, we determined that two major fucoproteins and numerous minor fucoproteins were produced and secreted by normal Hep G2 cells. This elution profile was unchanged when glucose-conditioned cells were examined. By size-separating secreted proteins by nondenaturing HPLC we determined that the size of the two major fucoproteins were approximately 60 and approximately 100 kDa. In these studies we also examined the effect of diabetes on hepatic fucosyltransferase and serum alpha-L-fucosidase activity and found that the activity of these enzymes is increased by 40 and 100%, respectively in diabetic rats. PMID:9133643

Wiese, T J; Dunlap, J A; Yorek, M A

1997-04-17

176

Cellular uptake of PET tracers of glucose metabolism and hypoxia and their linkage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Tumour hypoxia and elevated glycolysis (Warburg effect) predict poor prognosis. Each parameter is assessable separately with positron emission tomography, but they are linked through anaerobic glycolysis (Pasteur effect). Here, we compare the oxygenation-dependent retention of fluoroazomycin arabinoside ([(18)F]FAZA), a promising but not well-characterised hypoxia-specific tracer, and fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in four carcinoma cell lines. METHODS: Cells seeded on coverslips were positioned in modified Petri dishes that allow physically separated cells to share the same tracer-containing medium pool. Following oxic, hypoxic or anoxic tracer incubation, coverslips were analysed for radioactivity ([(18)F]FDG + [(18)F]FAZA) or re-incubated in tracer-free oxygenated medium and then measured ([(18)F]FAZA). Next, we tested the reliability of [(18)F]FDG as a relative measure of glucose metabolic rate. Finally, from two cell lines, xenografts were established in mice, and the tracer distribution between hypoxic and well-oxygenated areas were deduced from tissue sections. RESULTS: Three hours of anoxia strongly stimulated [(18)F]FAZA retention with anoxic-to-oxic uptake ratios typically above 30. Three out of four cell lines displayed similar selectivity of [(18)F]FDG versus glucose, but oxic uptake and anoxic-to-oxic uptake ratio of [(18)F]FDG varied considerably. Although less pronounced, [(18)F]FAZA also showed superior in vivo hypoxia specificity compared with [(18)F]FDG. CONCLUSIONS: [(18)F]FAZA displays excellent in vitro characteristics for hypoxia imaging including modest cell-to-cell line variability and no binding in oxic cells. In contrast, the usability of [(18)F]FDG as a surrogate marker for hypoxia is questionable due to large variations in baseline (oxic) glucose metabolism and magnitudes of the Pasteur effects.

Busk, Morten; Horsman, Michael R

2008-01-01

177

Comments on metabolic needs for glucose and the role of gluconeogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolism of carbohydrates is largely determined by their chemical properties. Glucose may have been selected, over the other aldohexoses, because of its low propensity for glycation of proteins. That carbohydrate is stored in polymeric form (glycogen) is dictated by osmotic pressure considerations. That stored fat is about eight times more calorically dense than glycogen, when attendant water is factored in, accounts for the predominance of fat as a storage form of calories and, also, for the fact that ingested carbohydrate is oxidized promptly (that is, fuel of the fed state) rather than being extensively stored. That stored glycogen is accompanied by so much water accounts for the fact that the brain only has very small glycogen stores. Carbohydrate has two important advantages, over fat, as a metabolic fuel; it is the only fuel that can produce ATP in the absence of oxygen, and more ATP is produced per O2 consumed when glucose is oxidized, compared with when fat is oxidized. These advantages probably determine the preference of many cell types for carbohydrate. In addition to its use as a metabolic fuel, glucose plays other important roles such as provision of NADPH via the pentose phosphate pathway, and as a source material for the synthesis of other key carbohydrates, for example, ribose and deoxyribose for nucleic acid synthesis and substrates for the synthesis of glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans. It can also play a key role in anaplerosis. Although it is widely acknowledged that gluconeogenesis plays a crucial role in starvation it is now apparent that prandial gluconeogenesis occurs, both in the metabolic disposal of dietary amino acids and in the synthesis of glycogen by the indirect pathway. Although there is, strictly speaking, no dietary requirement for carbohydrate it is evident that glucose is a universal fuel for probably all cells in the body and carbohydrate is the cheapest source of calories and the major source of dietary fibre. These observations, together with the fact that glucose is the preferred metabolic fuel for the brain, permit us to recommend appreciable quantities of carbohydrate in all prudent diets. PMID:10365987

Brosnan, J T

1999-04-01

178

The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with 18F-Dopa and 18F-FDG respectively. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The 18F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of 18F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the 18F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author)

179

Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- in glutathione (GSH-depleted rats. A possible link to impaired glucose metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rats: treated with the glutathione depleting agent, allyl alcohol (AlAl (1 mmol/kg was found to induce a marked increase in serum TNF- 45 minutes post treatment. This increase is suggested to play a critical role in the development of impaired glucose metabolism and glucose intolerance in AlAl-treated rats. Impaired glucose metabolism was evidenced by the significant increase in serum creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen accounting for accelerated glycolysis and breakdown of creatinine phosphate. These are the metabolic consequences of the activation of a back up system for the generation of ATP when the primary energy forming pathway is impaired. Meanwhile, the present data show a significant decrease in the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in AlAl-treated rats that was accompanied with a concomitant increase in their liver levels indicating the development of fatty livers in these rats. Due to the strong link between TNF- and the GSH status and to the well established role of TNF- in causing insulin resistance, which is potentiated by fat accumulation in different tissues, it is concluded that the combination of TNF- overproduction, GSH depletion and lipid accumulation in the liver caused by AlAl treatment, cooperate making cells more sensitive to AlAl poisoning, therefore, imposing a potent negative impact on glucose metabolism. Added to the deleterious effects of TNF- , enhanced lipid peroxidation observed in AlAl- treated rats suggests possible alterations in the rates of glucose transport and metabolism which may further contribute to AlAl-induced impairment in glucose metabolism. Conclusion: Finally, the selective effect of TNF- in inhibiting insulin secretion give an additional support to its hypothesized role in initiating glucose intolerance in GSH-depleted rats

Sohair A. Moustafa

2008-12-01

180

Reciprocal effects of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and glucose on their metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae studied by multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of various concentrations of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) on the aerobic metabolism of glucose and the reciprocal effect of glucose on the metabolism of FDG in glucose-grown repressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were studied at 30 deg C in a standard pyrophosphate medium containing 5 x 107 cells/ml by 1H-, 19F-, 31P-NMR and biochemical techniques. The glucose consumption rate is reduced by about 57% and 71% in the presence of 5 mM FDG and 10 mM FDG respectively. Under the same conditions, the ethanol production rate also decreases about 54% and 68%, respectively. When FDG is the unique carbon source, the ?- and ?-anomers of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate (FDG6P) and a much smaller quantity of 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-gluconic acid (FDGA) were observed. The quantities of ? and ?-FDG6P reach their maximum values within 1 h of incubation and then decrease continuously. In contrast, Glc favors the consumption of FDG and the synthesis of FDG6P and uridine-5'-diphosphate fluoro-deoxy-glucose (UDP-FDG). In the presence of GLC, FDG6P reaches a plateau after 1 h or 2 h of incubation while UDP-FDG increases regularly with time. Apart from trehalose, no other disaccharide such as fluoro-dideoxy-trehalose (FDG-FDG) or fluoro-deoxy-trehalose (FDG-Glc) were observed. Thus, in contrast to UDP-Glc, UDP-DG, Glc6P and DG6P, UDP-FDG and FDG6P are not good substrates for trehalose-6-P synthetase. The effect of DG and FDG on the cell growth in standard nutrient media was also investigated at 37 deg C. The cell growth was found to be completely inhibited upon addition of 1 mM FDG and only slowed down in the presence of 1 mM DG. In the latter case, the doubling time ? is about 3 h instead of 1 h 25' in the absence of DG and FDG. The reciprocal effects of FDG and Glc on their metabolism, the toxicity of FDG and the blockage level of enzymes induced by FDG are discussed in comparison with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG) and Glc. The above results clearly show that the metabolism and the toxicity of a drug strongly depend on the physiological state of cells. (authors). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 scheme

 
 
 
 
181

Metabolome response to glucose in the ?-cell line INS-1 832/13.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells is triggered by metabolism of the sugar to increase ATP/ADP ratio that blocks the KATP channel leading to membrane depolarization and insulin exocytosis. Other metabolic pathways believed to augment insulin secretion have yet to be fully elucidated. To study metabolic changes during GSIS, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of 87 metabolites temporally following a change in glucose from 3 to 10 mM glucose and in response to increasing concentrations of glucose in the INS-1 832/13 ?-cell line. U-[(13)C]Glucose was used to probe flux in specific metabolic pathways. Results include a rapid increase in ATP/ADP, anaplerotic tricarboxylic acid cycle flux, and increases in the malonyl CoA pathway, support prevailing theories of GSIS. Novel findings include that aspartate used for anaplerosis does not derive from the glucose fuel added to stimulate insulin secretion, glucose flux into glycerol-3-phosphate, and esterification of long chain CoAs resulting in rapid consumption of long chain CoAs and de novo generation of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. Further, novel metabolites with potential roles in GSIS such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (ZMP), GDP-mannose, and farnesyl pyrophosphate were found to be rapidly altered following glucose exposure. PMID:23426361

Lorenz, Matthew A; El Azzouny, Mahmoud A; Kennedy, Robert T; Burant, Charles F

2013-04-12

182

Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme. Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important for ammonia detoxification as a supplement to formation of glutamine.

Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer

2011-01-01

183

Detoxification of Ammonia in Mouse Cortical GABAergic Cell Cultures Increases Neuronal Oxidative Metabolism and Reveals an Emerging Role for Release of Glucose-Derived Alanine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme. Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important for ammonia detoxification as a supplement to formation of glutamine.

Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K

2011-01-01

184

Novel method to differentiate 3T3 L1 cells in vitro to produce highly sensitive adipocytes for a GLUT4 mediated glucose uptake using fluorescent glucose analog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adipocytes play a vital role in glucose metabolism. 3T3 L1 pre adipocytes after differentiation to adipocytes serve as excellent in vitro models and are useful tools in understanding the glucose metabolism. The traditional approaches adopted in pre adipocyte differentiation are lengthy exercises involving the usage of IBMX and Dexamethasone. Any effort to shorten the time of differentiation and quality expression of functional differentiation in 3T3 L1 cells in terms of enhanced Insulin sensi...

Vishwanath, Divya; Srinivasan, Harini; Patil, Manjunath S.; Seetarama, Sowmya; Agrawal, Sachin Kumar; Dixit, M. N.; Dhar, Kakali

2013-01-01

185

Multiple metabolic alterations exist in mutant PI3K cancers, but only glucose is essential as a nutrient source.  

Science.gov (United States)

Targeting tumour metabolism is becoming a major new area of pharmaceutical endeavour. Consequently, a systematic search to define whether there are specific energy source dependencies in tumours, and how these might be dictated by upstream driving genetic mutations, is required. The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signalling pathway has a seminal role in regulating diverse cellular processes including cell proliferation and survival, but has also been associated with metabolic dysregulation. In this study, we sought to define how mutations within PI3KCA may affect the metabolic dependency of a cancer cell, using precisely engineered isogenic cell lines. Studies revealed gene expression signatures in PIK3CA mutant cells indicative of a consistent up-regulation of glycolysis. Interestingly, the genes up- and down-regulated varied between isogenic models suggesting that the primary node of regulation is not the same between models. Additional gene expression changes were also observed, suggesting that metabolic pathways other than glycolysis, such as glutaminolysis, were also affected. Nutrient dependency studies revealed that growth of PIK3CA mutant cells is highly dependent on glucose, whereas glutamine dependency is independent of PIK3CA status. In addition, the glucose dependency exhibited by PIK3CA mutant cells could not be overridden by supplementation with other nutrients. This specific dependence on glucose for growth was further illustrated by studies evaluating the effects of targeted disruption of the glycolytic pathway using siRNA and was also found to be present across a wider panel of cancer cell lines harbouring endogenous PIK3CA mutations. In conclusion, we have found that PIK3CA mutations lead to a shift towards a highly glycolytic phenotype, and that despite suggestions that cancer cells are adept at utilising alternative nutrient sources, PIK3CA mutant cells are not able to compensate for glucose withdrawal. Understanding the metabolic dependencies of PIK3CA mutant cancers will provide critical information for the design of effective therapies and tumour visualisation strategies. PMID:23028762

Foster, Rebecca; Griffin, Sue; Grooby, Suzanne; Feltell, Ruth; Christopherson, Cindy; Chang, Monica; Sninsky, John; Kwok, Shirley; Torrance, Chris

2012-01-01

186

Relationship between glucose metabolism and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the changes in blood glucose in patients with liver cirrhosis and investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and hepatic encephalopathy (HE. MethodsSixty patients with liver cirrhosis (cirrhosis group and 30 patients without liver cirrhosis (control group, who were hospitalized in Department of Gastroenterology, Jiading District Central Hospital from August 2008 to August 2010, were included in the study. The general data were collected; the consciousness of patients was observed; the physical examination was performed for detecting flapping tremors; blood samples were collected for measuring blood glucose. The cirrhosis group was further divided into flapping tremor subgroup and non-flapping tremor subgroup. The cirrhosis group and control group were compared in terms of the incidence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism. The patients were divided into normal glucose metabolism group and abnormal glucose metabolism group, and the two groups were compared in terms of the incidence rates of flapping tremors and HE. ResultsOf the 60 patients in cirrhosis group, 28 had no flapping tremors, and 32 had flapping tremors. The incidence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism was significantly lower in the control group than in the cirrhosis group (13.33% vs 26.67%; ?2=2?058, P?0.05. The incidence rates of flapping tremors and HE were 50.00% and 34.09% in the normal glucose metabolism group, versus 62.50% and 37.50% in the abnormal glucose metabolism group (P?0.05. ConclusionThe patients with liver cirrhosis have abnormal glucose metabolism, but which is not necessarily associated with HE. It suggests that the patients with HE may have impaired glucose utilization in the brain.

ZHANG Lihang

2013-07-01

187

Triacylglycerol metabolism in hypoxic, glucose-deprived rat cardiomyocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have recently shown that a triacylglycerol (TG)-fatty acid cycle is operating in rat myocardial cells incubated in a hypoxic, glucose-containing incubation medium (Myrmel et al., 1991a). In the present study we investigated whether this cycle occurred in hypoxic, glucose-deprived myocytes, and whether high TG levels would increase TG-fatty acid cycling and thereby energy consumption. Myocytes with elevated contents of TG were obtained from the hearts of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (diabetic myocytes) and from normal rat myocytes prepared in the presence of oleic acid (TG-loaded myocytes). The TG content of diabetic and TG-loaded myocytes prior to hypoxic incubations was more than two times higher (P cells, mean +/- S.E., n = 7). Only diabetic and TG-loaded myocytes expressed marked reductions in TG content during glucose free incubations. There were no differences in TG-fatty acid cycling between the various myocyte groups, calculated as the difference between glycerol output and the concomitant decrease in TG (range: 36.7 +/- 8.1- 48.9 +/- 9.7 nmol TG/10(6) cells.2h). Apparently, the cycle was continuous throughout the whole incubation period despite falling ATP levels, contracture (rounding up) of myocytes, as well as cessation of glycogenolysis after about 40 min incubation. The cellular content of glycerol-3-phosphate, known to control TG-fatty acid cycling, increased continuously and to the same extent throughout the 2 h incubation period. Futile energy consumption associated with TG-fatty acid cycling, amounted to approximately 30% of total cellular energy consumption for the whole incubation period. In conclusion, hypoxic glucose deprived rat myocytes show TG-fatty-acid cycling, even after cessation of glycogenolysis. The extent of cycling, and thus the energy cost associated with it, was not influenced by the initial level of TG in the myocytes. We propose that glycerol-3-phosphate needed to fuel the TG-fatty acid cycle after exhaustion of the glycolytic supply is derived from phospholipid degradation. PMID:1433315

Myrmel, T; Forsdahl, K; Larsen, T S

1992-08-01

188

Inhibitory effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on methanol metabolism in Torulopsis sp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inhibitory effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2dG) on methanol metabolism in Torulopsis A-12 were investigated. The remarkable inhibition was observed on growth in the presence of 50 ?g/ml of 2dG when methanol was used as a carbon source. At the earlier time of incubation with 2dG, the incorporation of 14C-methanol into hexose-phosphate by intact cells was inhibited by 2dG, and this led to the reduction of the intracellular concentration of hexosephosphates. In the later period of incubation the specific activity of alcohol oxidase reduced, and formate accumulated extracellularly. (auth.)

189

Functional changes of the coronary microvasculature with aging regarding glucose tolerance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at characterizing the functional progression of the endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the coronary microvasculature between youth and old age, as well as at determining the mechanisms of the observed changes on the basis of the glucose tolerance, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. Male rats were divided into four age groups (3, 6, 11, and 17 months for the young (Y), young adult (YA), middle-aged (MA), and old (O) animals). The cardiac mechanical function, endothelial-dependent dilatation (EDD) and endothelial-independent dilatation (EID) of the coronary microvasculature were determined in a Langendorff preparation. The mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 production were evaluated and completed by ex vivo measurements of oxidative stress. EDD progressively decreased from youth to old age. The relaxation properties of the SMCs, although high in the Y rats, decreased drastically between youth and young adulthood and stabilized thereafter, paralleling the reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The ECs dilatation activity, low at youth, was stimulated in YA animals and returned to their initial level at middle age. That parameter followed faithfully the progression of the amount of active cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase and whole body glucose intolerance. In conclusion, the progressive decrease in EDD occurring with aging is due to different functional behaviors of the ECs and SMCs, which appear to be associated with the systemic glucose intolerance and cardiac energy metabolism. PMID:24994535

Mourmoura, Evangelia; Couturier, Karine; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Richardson, Melanie; Demaison, Luc

2014-08-01

190

Dynamics of glucose and insulin concentration connected to the ??cell cycle: model development and analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases with increased blood glucose concentration as the main symptom. This can be caused by a relative or a total lack of insulin which is produced by the ??cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Recent experimental results indicate the relevance of the ??cell cycle for the development of diabetes mellitus. Methods This paper introduces a mathematical model that connects the dynamics of glucose and insulin concentration with the ??cell cycle. The interplay of glucose, insulin, and ??cell cycle is described with a system of ordinary differential equations. The model and its development will be presented as well as its mathematical analysis. The latter investigates the steady states of the model and their stability. Results Our model shows the connection of glucose and insulin concentrations to the ??cell cycle. In this way the important role of glucose as regulator of the cell cycle and the capability of the ??cell mass to adapt to metabolic demands can be presented. Simulations of the model correspond to the qualitative behavior of the glucose?insulin regulatory system showed in biological experiments. Conclusions This work focusses on modeling the physiological situation of the glucose?insulin regulatory system with a detailed consideration of the ??cell cycle. Furthermore, the presented model allows the simulation of pathological scenarios. Modification of different parameters results in simulation of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Gallenberger Martina

2012-11-01

191

Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute hormonal regulation of liver carbohydrate metabolism mainly involves changes in the cytosolic levels of cAMP and Ca2+. Epinephrine, acting through beta 2-adrenergic receptors, and glucagon activate adenylate cyclase in the liver plasma membrane through a mechanism involving a guanine nucleotide-binding protein that is stimulatory to the enzyme. The resulting accumulation of cAMP leads to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which, in turn, phosphorylates many intracellular enzymes involved in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis. These are (1) phosphorylase b kinase, which is activated and, in turn, phosphorylates and activates phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen breakdown; (2) glycogen synthase, which is inactivated and is rate-controlling for glycogen synthesis; (3) pyruvate kinase, which is inactivated and is an important regulatory enzyme for glycolysis; and (4) the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase bifunctional enzyme, phosphorylation of which leads to decreased formation of fructose 2,6-P2, which is an activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and an inhibitor of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, both of which are important regulatory enzymes for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition to rapid effects of glucagon and beta-adrenergic agonists to increase hepatic glucose output by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibiting glycogen synthesis and glycolysis, these agents produce longer-term stimulatory effects on gluconeogenesis through altered synthesis of certain enzymes of gluconeogenesis/glycolysis and amino acid metabolism. For example, P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase is induced through an effect at the level of transcription mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Tyrosine amino-transferase, serine dehydratase, tryptophan oxygenase, and glucokinase are also regulated by cAMP, in part at the level of specific messenger RNA synthesis. The sympathetic nervous system and its neurohumoral agonists epinephrine and norepinephrine also rapidly alter hepatic glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis acting through alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The primary response to these agonists is the phosphodiesterase-mediated breakdown of the plasma membrane polyphosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4,5-P2 to inositol 1,4,5-P3 and 1,2-diacylglycerol. This involves a guanine nucleotide-binding protein that is different from those involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase. Inositol 1,4,5-P3 acts as an intracellular messenger for Ca2+ mobilization by releasing Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3032541

Exton, J H

1987-01-01

192

Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of ({sup 3}H)-2-deoxy-D-glucose and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work.

Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark))

1990-04-01

193

Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

194

Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

195

Determination of optimal glucose concentration for microcalorimetric metabolic evaluation of equine spermatozoa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O microcalorímetro de condução pode ser usado para avaliar as taxas metabólicas do espermatozóide eqüino. Dois ejaculados de quatro garanhões foram avaliados quanto à motilidade progressiva pela microscopia, viabilidade espermática (eosina 3%), integridade funcional da membrana (teste hiposmótico) e [...] produção de calor (microcalorimetria). Concentrações ótimas de glicose e de células espermáticas foram determinadas, para mensurar o calor liberado resultante do metabolismo espermático em relação à capacidade de detecção do calor pelo microcalorímetro. Não foi observada diferença da motilidade, viabilidade e integridade funcional de membrana espermática quando adicionada glicose nas três concentrações estudadas. No entanto a avaliação por microcalorimetria ressaltou um maior fluxo de calor a uma concentração de 6 mM de glicose e uma concentração espermática de 10(8) espermatozóides/mL. Portanto, a técnica de microcalorimetria oferece informações adicionais sobre o metabolismo tornando-se uma ferramenta importante no estudo do processo de preservação do sêmen eqüino. Abstract in english The heat conduction microcalorimeter can be used to evaluate the metabolic rates of the sperm cell. Two ejaculates of four stallions were cooled to +5ºC and checked for sperm motility (bright field microscopy), viability (eosin 3%), functional membrane integrity (hyposmotic swelling test), and heat [...] production (microcalorimetry). Glucose and sperm cell concentrations were determined in order to measure the heat outputs resulting from sperm metabolism. Sperm viability, membrane integrity and sperm motility did not differ among the different glucose concentrations tested. Nevertheless, the highest heat output detected by the microcalorimeter was obtained with 6 mM glucose and 10(8) spermatozoa/mL. Since conduction microcalorimetry offered additional information on equine sperm metabolism, it could be used as a method to study equine semen preservation.

André Belico de, Vasconcelos; Patrícia Castanheira de, Souza; Fabiana Cristina, Varago; Monique de Albuquerque, Lagares; Marcelo Matos, Santoro.

1129-11-01

196

Determination of optimal glucose concentration for microcalorimetric metabolic evaluation of equine spermatozoa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heat conduction microcalorimeter can be used to evaluate the metabolic rates of the sperm cell. Two ejaculates of four stallions were cooled to +5ºC and checked for sperm motility (bright field microscopy, viability (eosin 3%, functional membrane integrity (hyposmotic swelling test, and heat production (microcalorimetry. Glucose and sperm cell concentrations were determined in order to measure the heat outputs resulting from sperm metabolism. Sperm viability, membrane integrity and sperm motility did not differ among the different glucose concentrations tested. Nevertheless, the highest heat output detected by the microcalorimeter was obtained with 6 mM glucose and 10(8 spermatozoa/mL. Since conduction microcalorimetry offered additional information on equine sperm metabolism, it could be used as a method to study equine semen preservation.O microcalorímetro de condução pode ser usado para avaliar as taxas metabólicas do espermatozóide eqüino. Dois ejaculados de quatro garanhões foram avaliados quanto à motilidade progressiva pela microscopia, viabilidade espermática (eosina 3%, integridade funcional da membrana (teste hiposmótico e produção de calor (microcalorimetria. Concentrações ótimas de glicose e de células espermáticas foram determinadas, para mensurar o calor liberado resultante do metabolismo espermático em relação à capacidade de detecção do calor pelo microcalorímetro. Não foi observada diferença da motilidade, viabilidade e integridade funcional de membrana espermática quando adicionada glicose nas três concentrações estudadas. No entanto a avaliação por microcalorimetria ressaltou um maior fluxo de calor a uma concentração de 6 mM de glicose e uma concentração espermática de 10(8 espermatozóides/mL. Portanto, a técnica de microcalorimetria oferece informações adicionais sobre o metabolismo tornando-se uma ferramenta importante no estudo do processo de preservação do sêmen eqüino.

André Belico de Vasconcelos

2009-10-01

197

Phosphofructokinase 1 glycosylation regulates cell growth and metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells must satisfy the metabolic demands of rapid cell growth within a continually changing microenvironment. We demonstrated that the dynamic posttranslational modification of proteins by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a key metabolic regulator of glucose metabolism. O-GlcNAcylation was induced at serine 529 of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) in response to hypoxia. Glycosylation inhibited PFK1 activity and redirected glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, thereby conferring a selective growth advantage on cancer cells. Blocking glycosylation of PFK1 at serine 529 reduced cancer cell proliferation in vitro and impaired tumor formation in vivo. These studies reveal a previously uncharacterized mechanism for the regulation of metabolic pathways in cancer and a possible target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22923583

Yi, Wen; Clark, Peter M; Mason, Daniel E; Keenan, Marie C; Hill, Collin; Goddard, William A; Peters, Eric C; Driggers, Edward M; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

2012-08-24

198

Effect of glucose availability on glucose transport in bovine mammary epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were cultured in media containing varying concentrations of glucose, to determine the effects of glucose availability on glucose transport and its mechanism in bovine mammary gland. The BMEC incubated with 10 and 20 mM glucose had twofold greater glucose uptake than that with 2.5 mM glucose (P 0.05). As GLUTs are coupled with hexokinases (HKs) in regulating glucose uptake, the expression of HKs and their activities were also studied. The HK activity was greater in 5, 10 and 20 mM glucose than that in 2.5 mM glucose (P 0.05). Furthermore, addition of 3-bromopyruvate (30, 50 or 70 ?M), an inhibitor of HK2, resulted in the decrease of glucose uptake and cell proliferation at both 2.5 and 10 mM glucose (P < 0.05). Therefore, the glucose concentrations may affect glucose uptake partly by altering the activity of HKs, and HK2 may play an important role in the regulation of glucose uptake in the BMEC. PMID:22436228

Zhao, K; Liu, H Y; Wang, H F; Zhou, M M; Liu, J X

2012-03-01

199

Glucose metabolism in obese and lean adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on glucose metabolism in Asian adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are limited. Glucose metabolism assessment using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in obese and lean Thai adolescents with PCOS, and a comparison between the two groups were done. Thirty-one patients (19 obese, 12 lean) were enrolled. Their median (range) age was 14.9 (11.0-21.0) years. Eighteen patients had abnormal glucose metabolism (13 hyperinsulinemia, 4 impaired glucose tolerance, and 1 diabetes). Compared between obese [median (range) BMI Z-score, 1.6 (1.2-2.6)] and lean [median (range) BMI Z-score, 0.1 (-1.4 to 0.6)] patients, the frequencies of each abnormal OGTT category, areas under the curves of glucose and insulin levels, and insulinogenic index were not different; however, insulin resistance was greater in the obese group. In conclusion, a high proportion of our adolescents with PCOS had abnormal glucose metabolism. Therefore, OGTT should be performed in adolescents with PCOS for the early detection of abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:23314524

Poomthavorn, Preamrudee; Chaya, Weerapong; Mahachoklertwattana, Pat; Sukprasert, Matchuporn; Weerakiet, Sawaek

2013-01-01

200

INPP4B-mediated tumor resistance is associated with modulation of glucose metabolism via hexokinase 2 regulation in laryngeal cancer cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •HIF-1?-regulated INPP4B enhances glycolysis. •INPP4B regulates aerobic glycolysis by inducing HK2 via Akt-mTOR pathway. •Blockage of INPP4B and HK2 sensitizes radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to radiation and anticancer drug. •INPP4B is associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. -- Abstract: Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) was recently identified as a tumor resistance factor in laryngeal cancer cells. Herein, we show that INPP4B-mediated resistance is associated with increased glycolytic phenotype. INPP4B expression was induced by hypoxia and irradiation. Intriguingly, overexpression of INPP4B enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Of the glycolysis-regulatory genes, hexokinase 2 (HK2) was mainly regulated by INPP4B and this regulation was mediated through the Akt-mTOR pathway. Notably, codepletion of INPP4B and HK2 markedly sensitized radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to irradiation or anticancer drug. Moreover, INPP4B was significantly associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. Therefore, these results suggest that INPP4B modulates aerobic glycolysis via HK2 regulation in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells

 
 
 
 
201

INPP4B-mediated tumor resistance is associated with modulation of glucose metabolism via hexokinase 2 regulation in laryngeal cancer cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •HIF-1?-regulated INPP4B enhances glycolysis. •INPP4B regulates aerobic glycolysis by inducing HK2 via Akt-mTOR pathway. •Blockage of INPP4B and HK2 sensitizes radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to radiation and anticancer drug. •INPP4B is associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. -- Abstract: Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) was recently identified as a tumor resistance factor in laryngeal cancer cells. Herein, we show that INPP4B-mediated resistance is associated with increased glycolytic phenotype. INPP4B expression was induced by hypoxia and irradiation. Intriguingly, overexpression of INPP4B enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Of the glycolysis-regulatory genes, hexokinase 2 (HK2) was mainly regulated by INPP4B and this regulation was mediated through the Akt-mTOR pathway. Notably, codepletion of INPP4B and HK2 markedly sensitized radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to irradiation or anticancer drug. Moreover, INPP4B was significantly associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. Therefore, these results suggest that INPP4B modulates aerobic glycolysis via HK2 regulation in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells.

Min, Joong Won [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Noh, Woo Chul [Department of Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hong Bae [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dong-Hyung [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong Su [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Sung, E-mail: jaesung@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-11

202

The concentration of phosphatidylethanolamine in mitochondria can modulate ATP production and glucose metabolism in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the liver. Mice lacking PEMT are protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated the role of PEMT in hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in chow-fed mice. A pyruvate tolerance test revealed that PEMT deficiency greatly attenuated gluconeogenesis. The reduction in glucose production was specific for pyruvate; glucose production from glycerol was unaffected. Mitochondrial PC levels were lower and PE levels were higher in livers from Pemt(-/-) compared with Pemt(+/+) mice, resulting in a 33% reduction of the PC-to-PE ratio. Mitochondria from Pemt(-/-) mice were also smaller and more elongated. Activities of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate reductase were increased in mitochondria of Pemt(-/-) mice. Accordingly, ATP levels in hepatocytes from Pemt(-/-) mice were double that in Pemt(+/+) hepatocytes. We observed a strong correlation between mitochondrial PC-to-PE ratio and cellular ATP levels in hepatoma cells that expressed various amounts of PEMT. Moreover, mitochondrial respiration was increased in cells lacking PEMT. In the absence of PEMT, changes in mitochondrial phospholipids caused a shift of pyruvate toward decarboxylation and energy production away from the carboxylation pathway that leads to glucose production. PMID:24677714

van der Veen, Jelske N; Lingrell, Susanne; da Silva, Robin P; Jacobs, René L; Vance, Dennis E

2014-08-01

203

Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-(14C)antipyrine and 2-(14C)deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate (15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM) to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis.

Schroeck, H.K.; Kuschinsky, W. (Univ. of Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

1989-10-01

204

Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-[14C]antipyrine and 2-[14C]deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate [15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM] to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis

205

Effect of erythropoietin on the glucose transport of rat erythrocytes and bone marrow cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Ep on radioactive glucose and methyl-alpha-D-glucoside transport by rat erythrocytes and bone marrow cells were studied. There is initial linearity followed by saturation kinetics of [14C]glucose transport by the erythrocytes of starved and starved plus Ep-treated rats at different concentrations of glucose. Starvation caused slight inhibition of glucose transport which increased markedly on Ep administration to starved rats. Normal animals failed to show any significant change in glucose transport after Ep treatment. Methyl-alpha-D-glucoside inhibited the Ep-stimulated glucose transport significantly. Ep also stimulated the transport of radioactive methyl-alpha-D-glucoside which was competitively inhibited in presence of D-glucose. Glucose transport in erythrocytes was found to be sensitive to metabolic inhibitors like azide and DNP. A sulfhydryl reagent and ouabain also inhibited the transport process. Ep stimulated glucose and methyl-alpha-D-glucoside transport in the bone marrow cells of starved rats. The sugar analog competitively inhibited the glucose transport in bone marrow cells and vice versa

206

Cell-state-specific metabolic dependency in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The balance between oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism is essential for a number of pathophysiological processes. By deleting enzymes that affect aerobic glycolysis with different potencies, we examine how modulating glucose metabolism specifically affects hematopoietic and leukemic cell populations. We find that a deficiency in the M2 pyruvate kinase isoform (PKM2) reduces the levels of metabolic intermediates important for biosynthesis and impairs progenitor function without perturbing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), whereas lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) deletion significantly inhibits the function of both HSCs and progenitors during hematopoiesis. In contrast, leukemia initiation by transforming alleles putatively affecting either HSCs or progenitors is inhibited in the absence of either PKM2 or LDHA, indicating that the cell-state-specific responses to metabolic manipulation in hematopoiesis do not apply to the setting of leukemia. This finding suggests that fine-tuning the level of glycolysis may be explored therapeutically for treating leukemia while preserving HSC function. PMID:25215489

Wang, Ying-Hua; Israelsen, William J; Lee, Dongjun; Yu, Vionnie W C; Jeanson, Nathaniel T; Clish, Clary B; Cantley, Lewis C; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Scadden, David T

2014-09-11

207

Standard operating procedures for describing and performing metabolic tests of glucose homeostasis in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center (MMPC) Consortium was established to address the need to characterize the growing number of mouse models of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes and obesity. A goal of the MMPC Consortium is to propose standard methods for assessing metabolic phenotypes in mice. In this article, we discuss issues pertaining to the design and performance of various tests of glucose metabolism. We also propose guidelines for the description of methods, presentation of...

Ayala, Julio E.; Samuel, Varman T.; Morton, Gregory J.; Obici, Silvana; Croniger, Colleen M.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Wasserman, David H.; Mcguinness, Owen P.

2010-01-01

208

Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

1981-01-01

209

Glucose and fatty acid metabolism in normal and diabetic rabbit cerebral microvessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rabbit cerebral microvessels were used to study fatty acid metabolism and its utilization relative to glucose. Microvessels were incubated with either [6-14C]glucose or [1-14C]oleic acid and the incorporation of radioactivity into 14CO2, lactate, triglyceride, cholesterol ester, and phospholipid was determined. The inclusion of 5.5 mM glucose in the incubation mixture reduced oleate oxidation by 50% and increased esterification into both phospholipid and triglyceride. Glucose oxidation to CO2 was reduced by oleate addition, whereas lactate production was unaffected. 2'-Tetradecylglycidic acid, an inhibitor of carnitine acyltransferase I, blocked oleic acid oxidation in the presence and absence of glucose. It did not effect fatty acid esterification when glucose was absent and eliminated the inhibition of oleate on glucose oxidation. Glucose oxidation to 14CO2 was markedly suppressed in microvessels from alloxan-treated diabetic rabbits but lactate formation was unchanged. Fatty acid oxidation to CO2 and incorporation into triglyceride, phospholipid, and cholesterol ester remained unchanged in the diabetic state. The experiments show that both fatty acid and glucose can be used as a fuel source by the cerebral microvessels, and the interactions found between fatty acid and glucose metabolism are similar to the fatty acid-glucose cycle, described previouslyibed previously

210

Roles of microRNA on cancer cell metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Advanced studies of microRNAs (miRNAs have revealed their manifold biological functions, including control of cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell death. However, it seems that their roles as key regulators of metabolism have drawn more and more attention in the recent years. Cancer cells display increased metabolic autonomy in comparison to non-transformed cells, taking up nutrients and metabolizing them in pathways that support growth and proliferation. MiRNAs regulate cell metabolic processes through complicated mechanisms, including directly targeting key enzymes or transporters of metabolic processes and regulating transcription factors, oncogenes / tumor suppressors as well as multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. MiRNAs like miR-375, miR-143, miR-14 and miR-29b participate in controlling cancer cell metabolism by regulating the expression of genes whose protein products either directly regulate metabolic machinery or indirectly modulate the expression of metabolic enzymes, serving as master regulators, which will hopefully lead to a new therapeutic strategy for malignant cancer. This review focuses on miRNA regulations of cancer cell metabolism,including glucose uptake, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and insulin production, lipid metabolism and amino acid biogenesis, as well as several oncogenic signaling pathways. Furthermore, the challenges of miRNA-based strategies for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics have been discussed.

Chen Bing

2012-11-01

211

Computational model of cellular metabolic dynamics : effect of insulin on glucose disposal in human skeletal muscle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Identifying the mechanisms by which insulin regulates glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle is critical to understanding the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Our knowledge of these mechanisms is limited by the difficulty of obtaining in vivo intracellular data. To quantitatively distinguish significant transport and metabolic mechanisms from limited experimental data, we developed a physiologically based, multiscale mathematical model of cellular metabolic dynamics in skeletal muscle. The model describes mass transport and metabolic processes including distinctive processes of the cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data: intracellular metabolite concentrations and patterns of glucose disposal. Model variations were simulated to investigate three alternative mechanisms to explain insulin enhancements: Model 1 (M.1), simple mass action; M.2, insulin-mediated activation of key metabolic enzymes (i.e., hexokinase, glycogen synthase, pyruvate dehydrogenase); or M.3, parallel activation by a phenomenological insulin-mediated intracellular signal that modifies reaction rate coefficients. These simulations indicated that models M.1 and M.2 were not sufficient to explain the experimentally measured metabolic responses. However, by application of mechanism M.3, the model predicts metabolite concentration changes and glucose partitioning patterns consistent with experimental data. The reaction rate fluxes quantified by this detailed model of insulin/glucose metabolism provide information that can be used to evaluate the development of type 2 diabetes.

Li, Yanjun; Solomon, Thomas

2010-01-01

212

Metabolic fate of fructose ingested with and without glucose in a mixed meal.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with glucose in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant was studied over six hours after the ingestion of liquid meals containing either 13C-labelled fructose, unlabeled glucose, lipids and protein (Fr ...

Theytaz, F.; Giorgi, S.; Hodson, L.; Stefanoni, N.; Rey, V.; Schneiter, P.; Giusti, V.; Tappy, L.

2014-01-01

213

Metabolic and Endocrine Profiles in Response to Systemic Infusion of Fructose and Glucose in Rhesus Macaques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diurnal patterns of circulating leptin concentrations are attenuated after consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, likely a result of limited postprandial glucose and insulin excursions after fructose. Differences in postprandial exposure of adipose tissue to peripheral circulating fructose and glucose or in adipocyte metabolism of the two sugars may also be involved. Thus, we compared plasma leptin concentrations after 6-h iv infusions of saline...

Adams, Sean H.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Grant, Ryan W.; Cummings, Bethany P.; Havel, Peter J.

2008-01-01

214

Comparative Metabolic Flux Analysis of Lysine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Cultured on Glucose or Fructose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comprehensive approach to 13C tracer studies, labeling measurements by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, metabolite balancing, and isotopomer modeling, was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum on glucose or fructose. Significantly reduced yields of lysine and biomass and enhanced formation of dihydroxyacetone, glycerol, and lactate in comparison to those for glucose resulted on fructose. Metabolic flux analysis revealed drasti...

Kiefer, Patrick; Heinzle, Elmar; Zelder, Oskar; Wittmann, Christoph

2004-01-01

215

Reduced O-GlcNAcylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been established for a long time that brain glucose metabolism is impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that impaired brain glucose metabolism precedes the appearance of clinical symptoms, implying its active role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. However, the molecular mechanism by which this impairment contributes to the disease is not known. In this study, we demonstrated that protein O-GlcNAcylation, a common post-translational modification of n...

Liu, Fei; Shi, Jianhua; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Gu, Jinhua; Gu, Jianlan; Grundke-iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-xin

2009-01-01

216

The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow and metabolism was originally performed using the Kety-Schmidt method and this method still represent the gold standard by which subsequent methods have been evaluated. However, in its classical setting, the method overestimates cerebral blood flow. Studies of metabolic changes during activation must take this into account, and subsequent methods for measurement of regional glucose metabolism must be corrected accordingly in order to allow reliable quantitative comparisons of metabolite changes in activation studies. For studies of regional metabolic changes during activation quantification poses further difficulties due to limitation in resolution and partial volume effects. In contrast to the tight coupling between regional glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow, there is an uncoupling between flow and oxygen consumption as the latter only increases to a limited extend. The excess glucose uptake is thus not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation, and especially temporal relationships must be taken into account. What triggers the flow increase during functional brain activation is not entirely elucidated. The demand for excess glucose uptake may be important and a possible oxygen deficit in tissue distant from the capillaries is probably of minor importance. The mechanism by which cerebral blood flow increases during activation may incorporate changes in glycolytic substrates or local changes in astrocytes or neurons that triggers the production of vasoactive substances.

Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

2012-01-01

217

High concentrations of glucose reduce the oxidative metabolism of dog neutrophils in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are commonly affected by hyperglycemic conditions. Hyperglycemia compromises the immune response and favors bacterial infections; however, reports on the effects of glucose on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and apoptosis are conflicting in humans and rare in dogs. Considering the many complex factors that affect neutrophil oxidative metabolism in vivo, we investigated in vitro the specific effect of high concentrations of glucose on superoxide production and apoptosis rate in neutrophils from healthy dogs. Results The capacity of the neutrophils to reduce tetrazolium nitroblue decreased significantly in the higher concentration of glucose (15.13 ± 9.73% (8 mmol/L versus 8.93 ± 5.71% (16 mmol/L. However, there were no changes in tetrazolium nitroblue reduction at different glucose concentrations when the neutrophils were first activated with phorbol myristate acetate. High concentrations of glucose did not affect the viability and apoptosis rate of canine neutrophils either with or without prior camptothecin stimulation. This study provides the first evidence that high concentrations of glucose inhibit the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro in a manner similar to that which occurs in humans, and that the decrease in superoxide production did not increase the apoptosis rate. Conclusions A high concentration of glucose reduces the oxidative metabolism of canine neutrophils in vitro. It is likely that glucose at high concentrations rapidly affects membrane receptors responsible for the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils; therefore, the nonspecific immune response can be compromised in dogs with acute and chronic hyperglycemic conditions.

Bosco Anelise M

2013-02-01

218

Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either (1-/sup 14/C) glucose or (6-/sup 14/C) glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO/sub 2/ production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats.

Finan, A.; Cleary, M.P.

1986-03-05

219

Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either [1-14C] glucose or [6-14C] glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO2 production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats

220

Immune system and glucose metabolism interaction in schizophrenia: a chicken-egg dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaired glucose metabolism and the development of metabolic syndrome contribute to a reduction in the average life expectancy of individuals with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether this association simply reflects an unhealthy lifestyle or whether weight gain and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia are directly attributable to the side effects of atypical antipsychotic medications or disease-inherent derangements. In addition, numerous previous studies have highlighted alterations in the immune system of patients with schizophrenia. Increased concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) appear to be state markers, whereas IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) appear to be trait markers of schizophrenia. Moreover, the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and microglial activation are involved in the early course of the disease. This review illustrates a "chicken-egg dilemma", as it is currently unclear whether impaired cerebral glucose utilization leads to secondary disturbances in peripheral glucose metabolism, an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, and accompanying pro-inflammatory changes in patients with schizophrenia or whether immune mechanisms may be involved in the initial pathogenesis of schizophrenia, which leads to disturbances in glucose metabolism such as metabolic syndrome. Alternatively, shared underlying factors may be responsible for the co-occurrence of immune system and glucose metabolism disturbances in schizophrenia. PMID:23085507

Steiner, Johann; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Schiltz, Kolja; Müller, Ulf J; Westphal, Sabine; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Bogerts, Bernhard

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system

222

PET measurement of glucose membrane transport using labeled analogs: Distinction of transport from metabolic processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carrier mediated glucose transport rates across brain capillary and myocardial cell membranes are many times higher than those expected for simple diffusion, and transport regulation can be an important determinant of tissue metabolic status. The authors have investigated the use of glucose analogs and dynamic positron tomography for the non-invasive measurement of unidirectional membrane transport rates. If analog extraction is sufficiently low, transport rates can be inferred directly from fitted kinetic rate constants. Fitting calculations were seen to be sensitive to the difficult to measure rapid components of the arterial input curves, to contributions from blood-borne label in the early data points, and to interference from other chemical forms in cases of significant phosphorylation. This last uncertainty was studied using serial scans of normal brain after venous injection of the well-transported but poorly phosphorylated analog 3-deoxy-3-fluoroglucose. Transport rate constants derived from 4-parameter fits of three hours of data were compared to those derived from 2-parameter fits of the first 12-20 minutes of data. Errors due to trapped label were absorbed primarily into the apparent distribution volume, allowing accurate estimation of transport rate constants from a brief data acquisition period. The study of the distinction of transport from phosphorylation also bears on the important question of the significance of the individual rate constants in the four-parameter fitting of brief dynamic scan sequences in studies of metabolic rate using 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose

223

Hexokinase-mitochondrial interactions regulate glucose metabolism differentially in adult and neonatal cardiac myocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammalian tumor cell lines, localization of hexokinase (HK) isoforms to the cytoplasm or mitochondria has been shown to control their anabolic (glycogen synthesis) and catabolic (glycolysis) activities. In this study, we examined whether HK isoform differences could explain the markedly different metabolic profiles between normal adult and neonatal cardiac tissue. We used a set of novel genetically encoded optical imaging tools to track, in real-time in isolated adult (ARVM) and neonatal (NRVM) rat ventricular myocytes, the subcellular distributions of HKI and HKII, and the functional consequences on glucose utilization. We show that HKII, the predominant isoform in ARVM, dynamically translocates from mitochondria and cytoplasm in response to removal of extracellular glucose or addition of iodoacetate (IAA). In contrast, HKI, the predominant isoform in NRVM, is only bound to mitochondria and is not displaced by the above interventions. In ARVM, overexpression of HKI, but not HKII, increased glycolytic activity. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NVRM), knockdown of HKI, but not HKII, decreased glycolytic activity. In conclusion, differential interactions of HKI and HKII with mitochondria underlie the different metabolic profiles of ARVM and NRVM, accounting for the markedly increased glycolytic activity of NRVM. PMID:24081983

Calmettes, Guillaume; John, Scott A.

2013-01-01

224

Epicatechin gallate impairs colon cancer cell metabolic productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green tea and grape phenolics inhibit cancer growth and modulate cellular metabolism. Targeting the tumor metabolic profile is a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, we treated human colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells with the phenolic compound epicatechin gallate (ECG), one of the main catechins in green tea and the most important catechin in grape extracts, and evaluated its antiproliferation effects. ECG reduced tumor viability and induced apoptosis, necrosis, and S phase arrest in HT29 cells. Later, biochemical determinations combined with mass isotopomer distribution analysis using [1,2-(13)C2]-D-glucose as a tracer were used to characterize the metabolic network of HT29 cells in response to different concentrations of ECG. Glucose consumption was importantly decreased after ECG treatment. Moreover, metabolization of [1,2-(13)C2]-D-glucose indicated that the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced in ECG-treated cells. Interestingly, ECG inhibited the activity of transketolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway. Our data point to ECG as a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:23594085

Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; Marín, Silvia; Torres, Josep Lluís; Cascante, Marta

2013-05-01

225

The glucose transporter Glut1 is selectively essential for CD4 T cell activation and effector function.  

Science.gov (United States)

CD4 T cell activation leads to proliferation and differentiation into effector (Teff) or regulatory (Treg) cells that mediate or control immunity. While each subset prefers distinct glycolytic or oxidative metabolic programs in vitro, requirements and mechanisms that control T cell glucose uptake and metabolism in vivo are uncertain. Despite expression of multiple glucose transporters, Glut1 deficiency selectively impaired metabolism and function of thymocytes and Teff. Resting T cells were normal until activated, when Glut1 deficiency prevented increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, growth, proliferation, and decreased Teff survival and differentiation. Importantly, Glut1 deficiency decreased Teff expansion and the ability to induce inflammatory disease in vivo. Treg cells, in contrast, were enriched in vivo and appeared functionally unaffected and able to suppress Teff, irrespective of Glut1 expression. These data show a selective in vivo requirement for Glut1 in metabolic reprogramming of CD4 T cell activation and Teff expansion and survival. PMID:24930970

Macintyre, Andrew N; Gerriets, Valerie A; Nichols, Amanda G; Michalek, Ryan D; Rudolph, Michael C; Deoliveira, Divino; Anderson, Steven M; Abel, E Dale; Chen, Benny J; Hale, Laura P; Rathmell, Jeffrey C

2014-07-01

226

Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism during seizure in spontaneously epileptic El mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism were examined in spontaneously epileptic El mice using autoradiography with 125I-IMP and 14C-DG in the interictal phase and during seizure. El (+) mice that developed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and El (-) mice that received no stimulation and had no history of epileptic seizures were examined. The seizure non-susceptible, maternal strain ddY mice were used as control. Uptake ratios for IMP and DG in mouse brain were calculated using the autoradiographic density. In the interictal phase, the pattern of local cerebral blood flow of El (+) mice was similar to that of ddY and El (-) mice, and glucose metabolism in the hippocampus was higher in El (+) mice than in El (-) and ddY mice, but flow and metabolism were nearly matched. During seizure, no significant changed blood flow and increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus, the epileptic focus, and no markedly changed blood flow and depressed glucose metabolism in other brain regions were observed and considered to be flow-metabolism uncoupling. These observations have never been reported in clinical or experimental studies of epilepsy. Seizures did not cause large regional differences in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, only glucose metabolism is useful for detection of the focus of secondary generalized seizures in El mice, and appeared possibly to be related to the pathophysiology of secondary generalized epilepsy in El mice. (author)generalized epilepsy in El mice. (author)

227

The use of /sup 11/C-glucose and positron emission tomography to measure brain glucose metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To measure regional cerebral metabolism of glucose (CMRGlu) with positron emission tomography (PET), but avoid the potential problems inherent in the use of /sup 18/F-fluoro-deoxyglucose, (e.g. regional variation in regional rate constants and instability of the ''lumped constant''), the authors have developed a method using uniformly labeled /sup 11/C-glucose. The method employs a 4-compartment model that accounts for vascular tracer, transport of tracer in and out of the extravascular space, metabolism of tracer, and the production of labeled carbon dioxide, which is free to leave the tissue with blood flow. The differential equations for this model, when solved for CMRGlu, yield CMRGlu=k/sub 1/ . k/sub 3/ . CBF . C/sub B//[k/sub 1/ . k/sub 3/+CBF/CBV . (k/sub 2/+k/sub 3/)] where CBF and CBV are cerebral blood flow and volume, C/sub B/ is unlabeled blood glucose content, k/sub 1/ and k/sub 2/ are transport rate constants and k/sub 3/ is the metabolism rate constant. The authors have begun implementing this technique in baboons and human subjects by first measuring regional CBV and CBF with extant PET methods, then after injection of 20-40mCi of U-/sup 11/C-glucose, estimating the rate constants from 40 sequential PET scans taken over 20 minutes. Resulting white-to-gray matter range in CMRGlu for one typical human subject was 2.9 to 6.3 mg/(min . 100 mg). Oxygen metabolism (CMRO/sub 2/) was also measured at the same sitting with PET and the molar ratio of CMRO/sub 2//CMRGlu ranged from 5.8 to 6.4 as would be expected. These results demonstrate that it may be feasible to avoid the difficulties of an analogue tracer in the measurement of CMRGlu by using /sup 11/C-glucose

228

Modification of RelA by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine links glucose metabolism to NF-?B acetylation and transcription  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The molecular mechanisms linking glucose metabolism with active transcription remain undercharacterized in mammalian cells. Using nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) as a glucose-responsive transcription factor, we show that cells use the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) to potentiate gene expression in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or etoposide. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that, upon induction, OGT localiz...

Allison, David F.; Wamsley, J. Jacob; Kumar, Manish; Li, Duo; Gray, Lisa G.; Hart, Gerald W.; Jones, David R.; Mayo, Marty W.

2012-01-01

229

Effect of ?-radiation on the ratio of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose to glucose utilization in human glioblastoma cells in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glucose consumption in tumours in vitro as reflected by uptake of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) using positron emission tomography (PET) is currently under investigation as a measure of tumour response to radiotherapy. The calculation of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose from 18FDG-PET data requires a proportionality factor referred to as the lumped constant. In the present in vitro study, the utilizations of 18FDG and glucose have been measured in a human glioblastoma cell line (86HG-39) as a function of ?-radiation dose with various post-irradiation times and of different fractionation modes. The ratio of utilization of 18FDG to that of glucose (RF/G), assumed to correspond to the lumped constant, was observed to increase 12 and 24 h after single fraction ?-exposure by factors ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 compared with the non-irradiated controls. It decreased after multiple fraction ?-exposure (4 x 2 Gy) by a factor of 0.7 compared with the single fraction schedule (1 x 8 Gy). The results suggest that the affinities of glucose transporters or hexokinase enzyme or both for 18FDG and glucose could be influenced by ?-irradiation in this tumour cell line in vitro. Apparent changes of the glucose consumption determined with PET in human tumours following radiotherapy may, therefore, not be solely due to changes in cellular metabolism or cell number but may also be due to changes in RF/G. (author)

230

c-Myc activates multiple metabolic networks to generate substrates for cell cycle entry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cell proliferation requires the coordinated activity of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways to provide ATP and building blocks for DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. Many metabolic pathway genes are targets of the c-myc oncogene and cell cycle regulator. However, the contribution of c-Myc to the activation of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic networks during cell cycle entry is unknown. Here, we report the metabolic fates of [U-13C] glucose in serum-stimulated myc?/? and myc+...

Morrish, Fionnuala; Isern, Nancy; Sadilek, Martin; Jeffrey, Mark; Hockenbery, David M.

2009-01-01

231

suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: We have recently shown that the level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is associated with the immune status of HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), correlates with the insulin action of such patients. Here we extend these findings by investigating the association of suPAR to glucose metabolic insufficiency during an oral glucose challenge (OGTT). METHODS: In 16 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and 15 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (ISI(composite)), prehepatic insulin secretion, proinsulin level and suppression of free fatty acids (FFA) were determined during an OGTT. Stability of suPAR was tested in 6 HIV-infected patients during a 3h OGTT. RESULTS: Lipodystrophy was associated with a 70% increase in plasma suPAR (P<0.05). During the OGTT, plasma suPAR correlated inversely with ISI(composite) and positively with 2h plasma glucose, fasting insulin secretion, fasting intact proinsulin and FFA level during the OGTT (all P<0.05). In multiple regression analyses, in which anthropometric measures (BMI, limbadiposity and fat mass), immune markers (CD4, HIV-RNA, duration of HIV infection), and dyslipidemia (plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid level during the OGTT) were included, suPAR remained a significant marker of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Plasma suPAR exhibited a small CV (11%) during the 3h OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR associated to important glucose metabolic aberrations in HIV-infected patients on HAART. Moreover, suPAR was stable after a glucose challenge. Future research is required to confirm these findings and explore the potential of suPAR as marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7

Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

2008-01-01

232

Investigation of 18F-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

18F labeled 2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) was studied as a glucose analog. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species (dog, monkey, man) dependence and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of 18FDG was 3 to 4% in dog and monkey and 1 to 4% of injected dose in man compared to brain uptake of 2% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey and 4 to 8% in man. The metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in non-fasting (glycolytic state) was 2.8 times greater than in fasting (ketogenic state). Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t1/2 of 0.2 to 0.3 min followed by a t1/2 of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had a t1/2 of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. High image contrast ratios between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1; man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1; man 20/1), heart and liver (dog 15/1; man 10/1) were found with the ECAT positron tomograph. 18FDG was found to be rapidly taken up by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4 hour period. 18FDG is transported, phosphorylated to 18FDG-6-PO4 and trapped in myocardial cells in the same manner as has been found for brain and exhibits excellent imaging properties. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with ECT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man

233

Effect and mechanisms of action of vinegar on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and body weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of vinegar on glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that vinegar can help reduce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Other studies, however, have shown no beneficial effect on metabolism. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these metabolic effects, including delayed gastric emptying and enteral absorption, suppression of hepatic glucose production, increased glucose utilization, upregulation of flow-mediated vasodilation, facilitation of insulin secretion, reduction in lipogenesis, increase in lipolysis, stimulation of fecal bile acid excretion, increased satiety, and enhanced energy expenditure. Although some evidence supports the use of vinegar as a complementary treatment in patients with glucose and lipid abnormalities, further large-scale long-term trials with impeccable methodology are warranted before definitive health claims can be made. PMID:25168916

Petsiou, Eleni I; Mitrou, Panayota I; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George D

2014-10-01

234

Effects of interferon treatment on the glucose metabolism of patients with chronic hepatitis C.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The authors report on changes in carbohydrate metabolism observed in 32 patients undergoing therapy with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Diabetes had been diagnosed in three patients and impaired glucose tolerance ascertained in one patient before interferon therapy was started. The remaining 28 patients were non-diabetic. Interferon-alpha was administered in 3-MU doses three times per week. Results: Glucose tolerance deteriorated in two of the three diabetics, and eventually these patients had to be switched from oral hypoglycemic agents to insulin. The patient with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline progressed gradually to overt diabetes. Nine of the 28 previously non-diabetic patients developed impaired glucose tolerance during interferon therapy. Conclusion: The deleterious effects of interferon-alpha on carbohydrate metabolism proved to be reversible. Regular monitoring of the glucose level of patients during and after interferon therapy is mandatory. PMID:10854821

Nemesánszky; Pusztay; Csepregi

2000-06-01

235

Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24327825

Rizzo, Benedetta; Zambonin, Laura; Leoncini, Emanuela; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana

2013-01-01

236

Steviol glycosides modulate glucose transport in different cell types.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24327825

Rizzo, Benedetta; Zambonin, Laura; Angeloni, Cristina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Dalla Sega, Francesco Vieceli; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana

2013-01-01

237

Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism during and after exercise  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Utilization of carbohydrate in the form of intramuscular glycogen stores and glucose delivered from plasma becomes an increasingly important energy substrate to the working muscle with increasing exercise intensity. This review gives an update on the molecular signals by which glucose transport is increased in the contracting muscle followed by a discussion of glycogen mobilization and synthesis by the action of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase, respectively. Finally, this review deals with the signalling relaying the well-described increased sensitivity of glucose transport to insulin in the post-exercise period which can result in an overshoot of intramuscular glycogen resynthesis post exercise (glycogen supercompensation).

Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Richter, Erik

2012-01-01

238

Towards dynamic metabolic flux analysis in CHO cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used mammalian cell line for biopharmaceutical production, with a total global market approaching $100 billion per year. In the pharmaceutical industry CHO cells are grown in fed-batch culture, where cellular metabolism is characterized by high glucose and glutamine uptake rates combined with high rates of ammonium and lactate secretion. The metabolism of CHO cells changes dramatically during a fed-batch culture as the cells adapt to a changing environment and transition from exponential growth phase to stationary phase. Thus far, it has been challenging to study metabolic flux dynamics in CHO cell cultures using conventional metabolic flux analysis techniques that were developed for systems at metabolic steady state. In this paper we review progress on flux analysis in CHO cells and techniques for dynamic metabolic flux analysis. Application of these new tools may allow identification of intracellular metabolic bottlenecks at specific stages in CHO cell cultures and eventually lead to novel strategies for improving CHO cell metabolism and optimizing biopharmaceutical process performance. PMID:22102428

Ahn, Woo Suk; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

2012-01-01

239

Age differences in intercorrelations between regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patterns of cerebral metabolic intercorrelations were compared in the resting state in 15 healthy young men (ages 20 to 32 years) and 15 healthy elderly men (ages 64 to 83 years). Controlling for whole-brain glucose metabolism, partial correlation coefficients were determined between pairs of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose determined by positron emission tomography using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and obtained in 59 brain regions. Compared with the young men, the elderly men had fewer statistically significant correlations, with the most notable reductions observed between the parietal lobe regions, and between the parietal and frontal lobe regions. These results suggest that cerebral functional interactions are reduced in healthy elderly men

240

The network of glucokinase-expressing cells in glucose homeostasis and the potential of glucokinase activators for diabetes therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The glucose-phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase has structural, kinetic, and molecular genetic features that are ideal for its primary role as glucose sensor in a network of neuro/endocrine sentinel cells that maintain glucose homeostasis in many vertebrates including humans. The glucokinase-containing, insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas take the prominent lead in this network, functioning in the aggregate as the master gland. The beta-cells are also conceptualized as the prototype for all other glucose sensor cells, which determines our current understanding of many extrapancreatic glucose sensors. About 99% of the enzyme resides, however, in the hepato-parenchymal cells and serves its second role in a high-capacity process of blood glucose clearance. Two examples strikingly illustrate how pivotal a position glucokinase has in the regulation of glucose metabolism: 1) activating and inactivating mutations of the enzyme cause hypo- and hyperglycemia syndromes in humans described collectively as "glucokinase disease" and fully explained by the glucose sensor paradigm, and 2) glucokinase activator drugs (GKAs) have been discovered that bind to an allosteric site and increase the kcat and lower the glucose S(0.5) of the enzyme. GKAs enhance glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets and glucose disposition by the liver. They are now intensively explored to develop a novel treatment for diabetes. Future biophysical, molecular, genetic, and pharmacological studies hold much promise to unravel the evolving complexity of the glucokinase glucose sensor system. PMID:16380470

Matschinsky, Franz M; Magnuson, Mark A; Zelent, Dorothy; Jetton, Tom L; Doliba, Nicolai; Han, Yi; Taub, Rebecca; Grimsby, Joseph

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Increased glucose metabolism and glycerolipid formation by fatty acids and GPR40 receptor signaling underlies the fatty acid potentiation of insulin secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute fatty acid (FA) exposure potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in ? cells through metabolic and receptor-mediated effects. We assessed the effect of fatty acids on the dynamics of the metabolome in INS-1 cells following exposure to [U-(13)C]glucose to assess flux through metabolic pathways. Metabolite profiling showed a fatty acid-induced increase in long chain acyl-CoAs that were rapidly esterified with glucose-derived glycerol-3-phosphate to form lysophosphatidic acid, mono- and diacylglycerols, and other glycerolipids, some implicated in augmenting insulin secretion. Glucose utilization and glycolytic flux increased, along with a reduction in the NADH/NAD(+) ratio, presumably by an increase in conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate. The fatty acid-induced increase in glycolysis also resulted in increases in tricarboxylic cycle flux and oxygen consumption. Inhibition of fatty acid activation of FFAR1/GPR40 by an antagonist decreased glycerolipid formation, attenuated fatty acid increases in glucose oxidation, and increased mitochondrial FA flux, as evidenced by increased acylcarnitine levels. Conversely, FFAR1/GPR40 activation in the presence of low FA increased flux into glycerolipids and enhanced glucose oxidation. These results suggest that, by remodeling glucose and lipid metabolism, fatty acid significantly increases the formation of both lipid- and TCA cycle-derived intermediates that augment insulin secretion, increasing our understanding of mechanisms underlying ? cell insulin secretion. PMID:24675078

El-Azzouny, Mahmoud; Evans, Charles R; Treutelaar, Mary K; Kennedy, Robert T; Burant, Charles F

2014-05-01

242

Osteocalcin, energy and glucose metabolism / Osteocalcina, metabolismo energético e da glicose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A osteocalcina é uma proteína da matriz óssea que tem sido implicada com várias ações hormonais relacionadas à homeostase de glicose e ao metabolismo energético. Modelos animais e experimentais têm demonstrado que a osteocalcina é liberada do osso para a circulação sanguínea e age nas células betapa [...] ncreáticas e no tecido adiposo. A osteocalcina decarboxilada é a isoforma hormonalmente ativa e estimula a secreção e sensibilidade à insulina no tecido adiposo e muscular. A insulina e a leptina, por sua vez, atuam no tecido ósseo modulando a secreção da osteocalcina, formando uma alça de retroalimentação tradicional em que o esqueleto torna-se um órgão endócrino. Novos estudos ainda são necessários para elucidar o papel da osteocalcina na regulação glicêmica e no metabolismo energético em humanos, com potenciais implicações terapêuticas no tratamento de diabetes, obesidade e síndrome metabólica. Abstract in english Osteocalcin is a bone matrix protein that has been associated with several hormonal actions on energy and glucose metabolism. Animal and experimental models have shown that osteocalcin is released into the bloodstream and exerts biological effects on pancreatic beta cells and adipose tissue. Underca [...] rboxylated osteocalcin is the hormonally active isoform and stimulates insulin secretion and enhances insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and muscle. Insulin and leptin, in turn, act on bone tissue, modulating the osteocalcin secretion, in a traditional feedback mechanism that places the skeleton as a true endocrine organ. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of osteocalcin in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism in humans and its potential therapeutic implications in diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Leila C. B., Zanatta; Cesar L., Boguszewski; Victoria Z. C., Borba; Carolina A. M., Kulak.

2014-07-01

243

Demographic and metabolic characteristics of individuals with progressive glucose tolerance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We evaluated changes in glucose tolerance of 17 progressors and 62 non-progressors for 9 years to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in anthropometric measurements and responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were analyzed. We identified 14 p [...] airs of individuals, one from each group, who were initially normal glucose tolerant and were matched for gender, age, weight, and girth. We compared initial plasma glucose and insulin curves (from OGTT), insulin secretion (first and second phases) and insulin sensitivity indices (from hyperglycemic clamp assay) for both groups. In the normal glucose tolerant phase, progressors presented: 1) a higher OGTT blood glucose response with hyperglycemia in the second hour and a similar insulin response vs non-progressors; 2) a reduced first-phase insulin secretion (2.0 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ± 0.3 pmol/L; P

A.L., Mendes; M.L., Santos; C.R., Padovani; W.P., Pimenta.

2009-03-01

244

Temporal analysis of myocardial glucose metabolism by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess kinetic changes of myocardial glucose metabolism after physiological interventions, we perfused isolated working rat hearts with glucose and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-FDG). Tissue uptake of 2-FDG and the input function were measured on-line by external detection. The fractional rate of 2-FDG phosphorylation was determined by graphical analysis of time-activity curves. The steady-state uptake of 2-FDG was linear with time, and the tracer was retained predominantly in its phosphorylated form. Tissue accumulation of 2-FDG decreased with a reduction in work load and with the addition of competing substrates. Insulin caused a significant increase in 2-FDG accumulation in hearts from fasted but not from fed animals. We conclude that in the isolated working rat heart there is rapid adjustment of exogenous substrate utilization and that most interventions known to alter glucose metabolism induce parallel changes in 2-FDG uptake. Qualitative differences in the in vitro response to insulin may be affected by the presence of either endogenous insulin or glycogen

245

In situ coexpression of glucose and monocarboxylate transporter mRNAs in metabolic-sensitive caudal dorsal vagal complex catecholaminergic neurons: transcriptional reactivity to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and caudal hindbrain glucose or lactate repletion during insulin-induced hypoglycemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurochemical phenotype(s) of metabolic sensing neurons in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) remains unclear. These studies utilized single-cell quantitative real-time RT-PCR, in conjunction with laser-catapult microdissection, to address the hypothesis that DVC A2 neurons express genes that encode the characterized metabolic transducers, e.g. glucokinase (GCK) and the energy-dependent potassium channel, K(ATP). Studies show that either glucose or lactate alters synaptic firing of DVC chemosensory neurons, and that delivery of the latter fuel into the caudal hindbrain amplifies insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) and elevates neuronal glucose and monocarboxylate transporter, GCK, and sulfonylurea-1 mRNA in the DVC. We thus examined the additional premise that IIH modifies A2 substrate transporter and metabolic transducer gene profiles, and that such transcriptional responses may be reversed by exogenous lactate and/or glucose. Individual tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (-ir) A2 neurons were microdissected from the caudal DVC 2 h after injection of insulin or saline, and continuous caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) infusion of lactate, glucose, or artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The data show that IIH decreased MCT2, but elevated GLUT3, GLUT4, GCK, and SUR-1 transcripts in A2 neurons. Blood glucose levels in insulin-injected rats were further reduced by CV4 infusion of either lactate or glucose. Lactate plus insulin reversed hypoglycemic reductions in MCT2 mRNA and further augmented GLUT3 transcripts in A2 neurons, whereas glucose infusion in insulin-injected rats further increased GLUT3 and GCK gene profiles. The present results demonstrate that caudal DVC A2 neurons express molecular markers for metabolic sensing, and genes that encode glucose and monocarboxylate transporters. Evidence that IIH reduces A2 MCT2, but elevates GLUT3 and GLUT4 gene profiles suggests that glucose may be a primary energy source to these cells during hypoglycemia, while decreased lactate uptake, alone or relative to glucose uptake, may be a critical manifestation of systemic glucose deficiency at the cellular level. Findings that singular fuel repletion does not normalize hypoglycemic patterns of glucose transporter, GCK, or SUR-1 mRNA expression in A2 neurons imply that sufficient supply of both energy substrates is required for metabolic balance, and that cellular adaptation to the prevalence of either fuel may increase cellular dependence on glucose-specific metabolites or other products. PMID:19744543

Briski, K P; Cherian, A K; Genabai, N K; Vavaiya, K V

2009-12-15

246

Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss. PMID:25237106

Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

2014-09-19

247

Cerebral glucose metabolism change in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. A PET study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to examine abnormalities of the central nervous system in patients with chronic pain who were diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Brain activity was assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The data collected from 18 patients were compared with data obtained from 13 normal age-matched controls. Our results showed that glucose metabolism was bilaterally increased in the secondary somatosensory cortex, mid-anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) or posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) (or both), parietal cortex, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and cerebellum as well as in the right posterior insula and right thalamus in our patients. In contrast, glucose metabolism was reduced contralaterally in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex. Glucose metabolism was bilaterally elevated in the mid-ACC/PCC and the PPC, which correlated with pain duration. These data suggested that glucose metabolism in the brains of patients with CRPS changes dramatically at each location. In particular, glucose metabolism was increased in the areas concerned with somatosensory perception, possibly due to continuous painful stimulation. (author)

248

Effect of glucocorticoid therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoids therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: Plasma glucose and insulin levels in COPD patients after intravenous administration of 10 mg dexamethasone daily for 5 days were determined oral with glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT). Results: 1) The levels of basal plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in severe hypoxemic group than those in moderate hypoxemic group (p 2 (r = -0.5242, p < 0.05). 2) The levels of plasma glucose in intermediate and severe hypoxemic groups were remarkable higher (p < 0.05) than those in mild group. The two peak times of glucose curve were observed at one and two hour after oral glucose load. 3) After the administration of glucocorticoids, at half an hour and one hour plasma glucose levels were significantly higher than those before, the peak time of glucose levels appeared earlier and the insulin release levels were higher than they were before therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COPD patients with acute exacerbation complicated with hypoxemia had problems of impaired glucose tolerance. The administration of glucocorticoids made the impairment worse

249

Correlation of regional glucose metabolism with gender, health status, and aging as determined by PET-FDG technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study presents the findings in a series of 85 volunteers who participated in a protocol to evaluate the effects of aging and dementia on brain glucose metabolism. Positron emission tomography permits noninvasive assessment of both whole brain and regional glucose metabolism and other biochemical functions. Absolute regional and whole brain glucose metabolism can be determined by using the fluorine deoxyglucose (FDG) method. (author). 3 refs

250

Normal human melanocytes exposed to chronic insulin and glucose supplementation undergo oncogenic changes and methyl group metabolism cellular redistribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a link between cancer and pathophysiological conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia. In this report, we address the possible role of insulin exposure in melanocyte transformation. To this aim, normal melanocytes were exposed to chronic insulin and glucose supplementation (twice the standard medium concentration) for at least 3 wk. After 3-wk treatment, melanocytes increased proliferation (doubling time: 2.7 vs. 5.6 days, P Pfkfb3 (P < 0.05), decreased activity of pyruvate kinase (P < 0.01), and decreased pyruvate cell content as assessed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, methyl group metabolism was altered with decreased global DNA methylation (-51%, P < 0.01), increased cytosolic protein methylation (+18%, P < 0.05), and consistent changes in methylated species on (1)H-NMR spectra. In conclusion, exposure to chronic insulin and glucose supplementation induces oncogenic changes and methyl group metabolism redistribution, which may be a biomarker of transformation. PMID:22472999

Morvan, Daniel; Steyaert, Jean Marc; Schwartz, Laurent; Israel, Maurice; Demidem, Aicha

2012-06-01

251

Simultaneous utilization of glucose and gluconate in Penicillium chrysogenum during overflow metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is one of the most important production organism for ?-lactam antibiotics, especially penicillin. A specific feature of P. chrysogenum is the formation of gluconate as the primary overflow metabolite under non-limiting growth on glucose. Gluconate can be formed extracellularly by the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) that shows high activities under glucose excess conditions. Currently, it is assumed that under these conditions glucose is the preferred carbon substrate for P. chrysogenum and gluconate consumption first starts after glucose becomes limiting. Here, we specifically address this hypothesis by combining batch cultivation experiments on defined glucose media, time-dependent GOD activity measurements, and (13)C-tracer studies. Our data prove that both substrates are metabolized simultaneously independent from the actual glucose concentration and therefore suggest that no distinct mechanism of carbon catabolite repression exists for gluconate in P. chrysogenum. Moreover, gluconate consumption does not interfere with penicillin V production by repression of the penicillin genes. Finally, by following a model-driven approach the specific uptake rates for glucose and gluconate were quantified and found to be significantly higher for gluconate. In summary, our results show that P. chrysogenum metabolizes gluconate directly and at high rates making it an interesting alternative carbon source for production purposes. PMID:23775209

Schmitz, Katja; Peter, Vivien; Meinert, Sabine; Kornfeld, Georg; Hardiman, Timo; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Noack, Stephan

2013-12-01

252

Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?2-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats

253

Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in three sets of identical twins with psychotic symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sets of young identical twins where at least one had a psychotic episode were assessed in terms of psychiatric and psychological status and integrity of cerebral structure and metabolism. The psychiatric diagnoses for each set were normal/schizophrenia, prodromal/schizophrenia and schizoaffective/schizoaffective. The latter two sets were re-examined two years after the initial assessment. The data are considered from a case study perspective. Reduced cerebral metabolism was found for at least one region on eight of nine scans of patients with a psychotic history. On seven of the nine scans, glucose metabolism in the orbital frontal cortex was reduced. These findings are discussed with respect to previous studies of glucose metabolism in patients with schizophrenia, metabolic similarities found in normal identical twins and the known functional specialization of the orbital frontal cortex. PMID:2786742

Clark, C; Klonoff, H; Tyhurst, J S; Li, D; Martin, W; Pate, B D

1989-05-01

254

Adverse Effect of High Glucose Concentration on Stem Cell Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stem cell therapy could have great potential for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into a widespread cell types, and to repopulate and revitalize the damaged cells with healthy tissue, and improve its performance. We provide here the evidence supporting the critical use of stem cell as a treatment in disease conditions existing with high glucose complaint such as diabetes. The reduction of glucose stimulated cell proliferation and ...

Najmaldin Saki; Mohammad Ali Jalalifar; Masoud Soleimani; Saeideh Hajizamani; Fakher Rahim

2013-01-01

255

F-19 MR imaging of glucose metabolism in the rat and rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR imaging reflecting regional pathway specific glucose metabolism was performed utilizing F-19 as the MR signal probe and two fluorinated glucose analogues, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-FDG) and 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3-FDG) as the metabolic probe. 2-FDG-6-phosphate images provides regional quantitative information regarding glycolytic activities, while 2-FDG-6-phosphoglyconate images provide information on the pentose monophosphate shunt activities. 3-FDG-sorbitol and 3-FDG-fructose indicate regional aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities of the aldose reductase sorbitol pathway, respectively. The potential toxicity of 2-FDG in high doses precludes the immediate application of the 2-FDG MR imaging method to humans. The extremely low toxicity of 3-FDG, however, indicates promise for clinical application of 3-FDG MR imaging

256

Glucose utilization via glycogen phosphorylase sustains proliferation and prevents premature senescence in cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells provides energy and multiple intermediates critical for cell growth. Hypoxia in tumors represents a hostile environment that can encourage these transformations. We report that glycogen metabolism is upregulated in tumors in vivo and in cancer cells in vitro in response to hypoxia. In vitro, hypoxia induced an early accumulation of glycogen, followed by a gradual decline. Concordantly, glycogen synthase (GYS1) showed a rapid induction, followed by a later increase of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL). PYGL depletion and the consequent glycogen accumulation led to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that contributed to a p53-dependent induction of senescence and markedly impaired tumorigenesis in vivo. Metabolic analyses indicated that glycogen degradation by PYGL is important for the optimal function of the pentose phosphate pathway. Thus, glycogen metabolism is a key pathway induced by hypoxia, necessary for optimal glucose utilization, which represents a targetable mechanism of metabolic adaptation. PMID:23177934

Favaro, Elena; Bensaad, Karim; Chong, Mei G; Tennant, Daniel A; Ferguson, David J P; Snell, Cameron; Steers, Graham; Turley, Helen; Li, Ji-Liang; Günther, Ulrich L; Buffa, Francesca M; McIntyre, Alan; Harris, Adrian L

2012-12-01

257

Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

Durand, Fabien [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Stines-Chaumeil, Claire [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, Institut de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Flexer, Victoria [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Andre, Isabelle [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Mano, Nicolas, E-mail: mano@crpp-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

2010-11-26

258

Naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, increases muscle cell glucose uptake via AMPK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Naringenin, a flavonoid found in high concentrations in grapefruit, has been reported to have antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and anticancer effects. Effects on lipid and glucose metabolism have also been reported. Naringenin is structurally similar to the polyphenol resveratrol, that has been reported to activate the SIRT1 protein deacetylase and to have antidiabetic properties. In the present study we examined the direct effects of naringenin on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and investigated the mechanism involved. Naringenin stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximum stimulation was seen with 75 microM naringenin for 2 h (192.8+/-24%, pnaringenin did not increase glucose uptake in myoblasts indicating that GLUT4 glucose transporters may be involved in the naringenin-stimulated glucose uptake. In addition, naringenin did not have a significant effect on basal or insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation while significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation/activation. Furthermore, silencing of AMPK, using siRNA approach, abolished the naringenin-stimulated glucose uptake. The SIRT1 inhibitors nicotinamide and EX527 did not have an effect on naringenin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Our data show that naringenin increases glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. PMID:20558145

Zygmunt, Katarzyna; Faubert, Brandon; MacNeil, Jordan; Tsiani, Evangelia

2010-07-23

259

Bradykinin enhances membrane electrical activity of pancreatic beta cells in the presence of low glucose concentrations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In most of cells bradykinin (BK) induces intracellular calcium mobilization. In pancreatic beta cells intracellular calcium is a major signal for insulin secretion. In these cells, glucose metabolism yields intracellular ATP which blocks membrane potassium channels. The membrane depolarizes, voltage [...] -dependent Ca2+ channels are activated and the intracellular calcium load allows insulin secretion. Repolarization occurs due to activation of the Ca2+-dependent K+ channel. The insulin secretion depends on the integrity of this oscillatory process (bursts). Therefore, we decided to determine whether BK (100 nM) induces bursts in the presence of a non-stimulatory glucose concentration (5.6 mM). During continuous membrane voltage recording, our results showed that bursts were obtained with 11 mM glucose, blocked with 5.6 mM glucose and recovered with 5.6 mM glucose plus 100 nM BK. Thus, the stimulatory process obtained in the presence of BK and of a non-stimulatory concentration of glucose in the present study suggests that BK may facilitate the action of glucose on beta cell secretion.

A.S., Moura.

1089-10-01

260

Adverse effect of high glucose concentration on stem cell therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem cell therapy could have great potential for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into a widespread cell types, and to repopulate and revitalize the damaged cells with healthy tissue, and improve its performance. We provide here the evidence supporting the critical use of stem cell as a treatment in disease conditions existing with high glucose complaint such as diabetes. The reduction of glucose stimulated cell proliferation and high glucose enhanced apoptosis in rat model, which may be a problem in therapeutic strategies based on ex vivo expansion of stem cell, and may also propagate the development of osteoporosis in high glucose complaint such as diabetes. This leads to the hypothesis that, high glucose could be more deleterious to stem cell therapy that may be due to the aggravation of oxidative stress triggered by high glucose. These findings may help to understand the possible reasons associated with high glucose induced detrimental effects on stem cells as well as provide novel therapeutic strategies for preventing the adverse effects of glucose on the development and progression of stem cells in patients with diabetes. PMID:24505533

Saki, Najmaldin; Jalalifar, Mohammad Ali; Soleimani, Masoud; Hajizamani, Saeideh; Rahim, Fakher

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Adverse Effect of High Glucose Concentration on Stem Cell Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stem cell therapy could have great potential for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into a widespread cell types, and to repopulate and revitalize the damaged cells with healthy tissue, and improve its performance. We provide here the evidence supporting the critical use of stem cell as a treatment in disease conditions existing with high glucose complaint such as diabetes. The reduction of glucose stimulated cell proliferation and high glucose enhanced apoptosis in rat model, which may be a problem in therapeutic strategies based on ex vivo expansion of stem cell, and may also propagate the development of osteoporosis in high glucose complaint such as diabetes. This leads to the hypothesis that, high glucose could be more deleterious to stem cell therapy that may be due to the aggravation of oxidative stress triggered by high glucose. These findings may help to understand the possible reasons associated with high glucose induced detrimental effects on stem cells as well as provide novel therapeutic strategies for preventing the adverse effects of glucose on the development and progression of stem cells in patients with diabetes.

Najmaldin Saki

2013-07-01

262

Kinetics and Metabolism of Bifidobacterium adolescentis MB 239 Growing on Glucose, Galactose, Lactose, and Galactooligosaccharides?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The kinetics and the metabolism of Bifidobacterium adolescentis MB 239 growing on galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactose, galactose, and glucose were investigated. An unstructured unsegregated model for growth in batch cultures was developed, and kinetic parameters were calculated with a recursive algorithm. The growth rate and cellular yield were highest on galactose, followed by lactose and GOS, and were lowest on glucose. Lactate, acetate, and ethanol yields allowed the calculation of carb...

Amaretti, Alberto; Bernardi, Tatiana; Tamburini, Elena; Zanoni, Simona; Lomma, Mariella; Matteuzzi, Diego; Rossi, Maddalena

2007-01-01

263

Brain glucose and acetoacetate metabolism: a comparison of young and older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which the age-related decline in regional brain glucose uptake also applies to other important brain fuels is presently unknown. Ketones are the brain's major alternative fuel to glucose, so we developed a dual tracer positron emission tomography protocol to quantify and compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and the ketone, acetoacetate. Twenty healthy young adults (mean age, 26 years) and 24 healthy older adults (mean age, 74 years) were studied. In comparison with younger adults, older adults had 8 ± 6% (mean ± SD) lower cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in gray matter as a whole (p = 0.035), specifically in several frontal, temporal, and subcortical regions, as well as in the cingulate and insula (p ? 0.01, false discovery rate correction). The effect of age on cerebral metabolic rates for acetoacetate in gray matter did not reach significance (p = 0.11). Rate constants (min(-1)) of glucose (Kg) and acetoacetate (Ka) were significantly lower (-11 ± 6%; [p = 0.005], and -19 ± 5%; [p = 0.006], respectively) in older adults compared with younger adults. There were differential effects of age on Kg and Ka as seen by significant interaction effects in the caudate (p = 0.030) and post-central gyrus (p = 0.023). The acetoacetate index, which expresses the scaled residuals of the voxel-wise linear regression of glucose on ketone uptake, identifies regions taking up higher or lower amounts of acetoacetate relative to glucose. The acetoacetate index was higher in the caudate of young adults when compared with older adults (p ? 0.05 false discovery rate correction). This study provides new information about glucose and ketone metabolism in the human brain and a comparison of the extent to which their regional use changes during normal aging. PMID:24388785

Nugent, Scott; Tremblay, Sebastien; Chen, Kewei W; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Roontiva, Auttawut; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Fortier, Melanie; Roy, Maggie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Bocti, Christian; Lepage, Martin; Turcotte, Eric; Fulop, Tamas; Reiman, Eric M; Cunnane, Stephen C

2014-06-01

264

Intermittent High Glucose Enhances Apoptosis in INS-1 Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) and sustained high glucose (SHG) on inducing ?-cell apoptosis and the potential involved mechanisms, INS-1 beta cells were incubated for 72?h in the medium containing different glucose concentrations: control (5.5?mmol/L), SHG (33.3?mmol/L), and IHG (5.5?mmol/L and 33.3?mmol/L glucose alternating every 12?h). Cell viability, apoptosis rate, and oxidative-stress markers were determined. The results showed that the apopto...

Xiao-li Shi; Yue-zhong Ren; Jing Wu

2011-01-01

265

Global genomic and transcriptomic analysis of human pancreatic islets reveals novel genes influencing glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variation can modulate gene expression, and thereby phenotypic variation and susceptibility to complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we harnessed the potential of DNA and RNA sequencing in human pancreatic islets from 89 deceased donors to identify genes of potential importance in the pathogenesis of T2D. We present a catalog of genetic variants regulating gene expression (eQTL) and exon use (sQTL), including many long noncoding RNAs, which are enriched in known T2D-associated loci. Of 35 eQTL genes, whose expression differed between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic individuals, siRNA of tetraspanin 33 (TSPAN33), 5'-nucleotidase, ecto (NT5E), transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 6 (TMED6), and p21 protein activated kinase 7 (PAK7) in INS1 cells resulted in reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, we provide a genome-wide catalog of allelic expression imbalance, which is also enriched in known T2D-associated loci. Notably, allelic imbalance in paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) was associated with its promoter methylation and T2D status. Finally, RNA editing events were less common in islets than previously suggested in other tissues. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the complexity of gene regulation in human pancreatic islets and better understanding of how genetic variation can influence glucose metabolism. PMID:25201977

Fadista, João; Vikman, Petter; Laakso, Emilia Ottosson; Mollet, Inês Guerra; Esguerra, Jonathan Lou; Taneera, Jalal; Storm, Petter; Osmark, Peter; Ladenvall, Claes; Prasad, Rashmi B; Hansson, Karin B; Finotello, Francesca; Uvebrant, Kristina; Ofori, Jones K; Di Camillo, Barbara; Krus, Ulrika; Cilio, Corrado M; Hansson, Ola; Eliasson, Lena; Rosengren, Anders H; Renström, Erik; Wollheim, Claes B; Groop, Leif

2014-09-23

266

Mechanisms in endocrinology: regulation of glucose metabolism by the ghrelin system: multiple players and multiple actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide secreted mainly from the X/A-like cells of the stomach. Ghrelin is found in circulation in both des-acyl (dAG) and acyl forms (AG). Acylation is catalyzed by the enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). AG acts on the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the CNS to promote feeding and adiposity and also acts on GHSR in the pancreas to inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These well-described actions of AG have made it a popular target for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus pharmacotherapies. However, despite the lack of a cognate receptor, dAG appears to have gluco-regulatory action, which adds an additional layer of complexity to ghrelin's regulation of glucose metabolism. This review discusses the current literature on the gluco-regulatory action of the ghrelin system (dAG, AG, GHSR, and GOAT) with specific emphasis aimed toward distinguishing AG vs dAG action. PMID:24714083

Heppner, Kristy M; Tong, Jenny

2014-07-01

267

FiatFlux – a software for metabolic flux analysis from 13C-glucose experiments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes is important for a comprehensive characterization of metabolic networks and their functional operation. In contrast to direct assessment of metabolite concentrations, in vivo metabolite fluxes must be inferred indirectly from measurable quantities in 13C experiments. The required experience, the complicated network models, large and heterogeneous data sets, and the time-consuming set-up of highly controlled experimental conditions largely restricted metabolic flux analysis to few expert groups. A conceptual simplification of flux analysis is the analytical determination of metabolic flux ratios exclusively from MS data, which can then be used in a second step to estimate absolute in vivo fluxes. Results Here we describe the user-friendly software package FiatFlux that supports flux analysis for non-expert users. In the first module, ratios of converging fluxes are automatically calculated from GC-MS-detected 13C-pattern in protein-bound amino acids. Predefined fragmentation patterns are automatically identified and appropriate statistical data treatment is based on the comparison of redundant information in the MS spectra. In the second module, absolute intracellular fluxes may be calculated by a 13C-constrained flux balancing procedure that combines experimentally determined fluxes in and out of the cell and the above flux ratios. The software is preconfigured to derive flux ratios and absolute in vivo fluxes from [1-13C] and [U-13C]glucose experiments and GC-MS analysis of amino acids for a variety of microorganisms. Conclusion FiatFlux is an intuitive tool for quantitative investigations of intracellular metabolism by users that are not familiar with numerical methods or isotopic tracer experiments. The aim of this open source software is to enable non-specialists to adapt the software to their specific scientific interests, including other 13C-substrates, labeling mixtures, and organisms.

Fischer Eliane

2005-08-01

268

Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells retain insulin-regulated glucose transport activity through glucose transporter 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the expression of glucose transporter (glut) isoforms and its function in RD cells, human rhabdomyosarcoma, which retain the potential to differentiate into muscle. Gluts 1, 3, and 4 were expressed in RD cells, as detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Supraphysiological concentration (1 microM) of insulin treatment increased 2-deoxy glucose transport by up to 1.68-fold together with concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta subunit and of insulin receptor substrate 1. Suppression of glut 1 mRNA by 38% by antisense oligonucleotide transfection led to a reduction of basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy glucose transport by 38 and 55%, respectively. Suppression of gluts 3 and 4 by antisense oligonucleotide transfection did not affect both basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy glucose transport. Thus, glut 1 accounts for the major part of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in RD cells. Next, we transfected expression vectors carrying human gluts 1 and 4 cDNAs into RD cells to add further support for the role of glut 1 in glucose transport. Overexpression of glut 1 stimulated basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy glucose transport by 1.66- and 1.43-fold, respectively. Glut 4 overexpression did not affect basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy glucose transport. Western blot analysis using glut 1 antibody showed that glut 1 was redistributed from intracellular membrane to plasma membrane. These observations support the notion that RD cells, with the potential to differentiate into muscle, retain insulin responsiveness. As human muscle cell lines are not available at this point, RD cells can serve as a useful alternative to human muscle for studies related to insulin signal transduction and glucose transport. PMID:10620325

Ito, S; Nemoto, T; Satoh, S; Sekihara, H; Seyama, Y; Kubota, S

2000-01-01

269

Metabolic network analysis of Bacillus clausii on minimal and semirich medium using C-13-Labeled glucose  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to the facultative alkalophilic Bacillus clausii producing the alkaline serine protease Savinase, the intracellular fluxes were quantified in continuous cultivation and in batch cultivation on a minimal medium. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway was found to increase with increasing specific growth rate but at a much lower level than previously reported for Bacillus subtilis. Two futile cycles in the pyruvate metabolism were included in the metabolic network. A substantial flux in the futile cycle involving malic enzyme was estimated, whereas only a very small or zero flux through PEP carboxykinase was estimated, indicating that the latter enzyme was not active during growth on glucose. The uptake of the amino acids in a semirich medium containing 15 of the 20 amino acids normally present in proteins was estimated using fully labeled glucose in batch cultivations. It was found that leucine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine were taken up from the medium and not synthesized de novo from glucose. In contrast, serine and threonine were completely synthesized from other metabolites and not taken up from the medium. Valine, proline, and lysine were partly taken up from the medium and partly synthesized from glucose. The metabolic network analysis was extended to include analysis of growth on the semirich medium containing amino acids, and the metabolic flux distribution on this medium was estimated and compared with growth on minimal medium.

Christiansen, Torben; Christensen, Bjarke

2002-01-01

270

Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Cirrhosis: Frequency and Risk Factors in Tunisian Population. Results of a Cross-Sectional Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and aims: Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are frequently observed in cirrhosis; to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Tunisian cirrhotic patients and identify risk factors. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study; fasting plasma glucose levels were measured in consecutive patients with cirrhosis. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed if fasting plasma glucose level was normal. Glucose metabolism disorders were then classified as: impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. Cirrhotics with glucose metabolism disorder were compared to those without. Results: Seventy-seven patients with cirrhosis were included: 68.8% were diagnosed as having glucose metabolism disorder; diabetes in 42.8% and impaired glucose tolerance in 26%. The tests were able to identify 60.4% of glucose metabolism disorders. Univariate analysis disclosed a higher proportion of female gender (p = 0.04 and more frequent familial history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.005 in the group with glucose metabolism disorder. There were no statistically differences regarding age, etiology and severity of the cirrhosis, and dry body mass index. Multivariate analysis showed that familial history of diabetes was the only independent risk factor (OR = 5.1, p = 0.005. Conclusion: In our study, the frequency of glucose metabolism disorders was 68.8%. Oral glucose tolerance test allowed disclosing nearly half of them, pointing a high incidence of latent glucose metabolism disorders. In this way, it should be routinely evaluated in all patients with cirrhosis. Familial history of diabetes was the only independent risk factor, suggesting that other factors in addition to liver disease may play a role.

Rym Ennaifer

2014-08-01

271

Gut microbiota controls adipose tissue expansion, gut barrier and glucose metabolism: novel insights into molecular targets and interventions using prebiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crosstalk between organs is crucial for controlling numerous homeostatic systems (e.g. energy balance, glucose metabolism and immunity). Several pathological conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are characterised by a loss of or excessive inter-organ communication that contributes to the development of disease. Recently, we and others have identified several mechanisms linking the gut microbiota with the development of obesity and associated disorders (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis). Among these, we described the concept of metabolic endotoxaemia (increase in plasma lipopolysaccharide levels) as one of the triggering factors leading to the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Growing evidence suggests that gut microbes contribute to the onset of low-grade inflammation characterising these metabolic disorders via mechanisms associated with gut barrier dysfunctions. We have demonstrated that enteroendocrine cells (producing glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-2) and the endocannabinoid system control gut permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Recently, we hypothesised that specific metabolic dysregulations occurring at the level of numerous organs (e.g. gut, adipose tissue, muscles, liver and brain) rely from gut microbiota modifications. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms linking gut permeability, adipose tissue metabolism, and glucose homeostasis, and recent findings that show interactions between the gut microbiota, the endocannabinoid system and the apelinergic system. These specific systems are discussed in the context of the gut-to-peripheral organ axis (intestine, adipose tissue and brain) and impacts on metabolic regulation. In the present review, we also briefly describe the impact of a variety of non-digestible nutrients (i.e. inulin-type fructans, arabinoxylans, chitin glucans and polyphenols). Their effects on the composition of the gut microbiota and activity are discussed in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23886976

Geurts, L; Neyrinck, A M; Delzenne, N M; Knauf, C; Cani, P D

2014-03-01

272

Glucose metabolism via the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and Krebs cycle in an orthotopic mouse model of human brain tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been hypothesized that increased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is required to support the metabolic demands of rapid malignant cell growth. Using orthotopic mouse models of human glioblastoma (GBM) and renal cell carcinoma metastatic to brain, we estimated the activity of the PPP relative to glycolysis by infusing [1,2-(13) C(2) ]glucose. The [3-(13) C]lactate/[2,3-(13) C(2) ]lactate ratio was similar for both the GBM and brain metastasis and their respective surrounding brains (GBM, 0.197?±?0.011 and 0.195?±?0.033, respectively (p?=?1); metastasis: 0.126 and 0.119?±?0.033, respectively). This suggests that the rate of glycolysis is significantly greater than the PPP flux in these tumors, and that the PPP flux into the lactate pool is similar in both tumors. Remarkably, (13) C-(13) C coupling was observed in molecules derived from Krebs cycle intermediates in both tumor types, denoting glucose oxidation. In the renal cell carcinoma, in contrast with GBM, (13) C multiplets of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) differed from its precursor glutamate, suggesting that GABA did not derive from a common glutamate precursor pool. In addition, the orthotopic renal tumor, the patient's primary renal mass and brain metastasis were all strongly immunopositive for the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase, as were 84% of tumors on a renal cell carcinoma tissue microarray of the same histology, suggesting that GABA synthesis is cell autonomous in at least a subset of renal cell carcinomas. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (13) C-labeled glucose can be used in orthotopic mouse models to study tumor metabolism in vivo and to ascertain new metabolic targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:22383401

Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Cho, Steve K; Rakheja, Dinesh; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Kapur, Payal; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Jindal, Ashish; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Good, Levi B; Raisanen, Jack; Sun, Xiankai; Mickey, Bruce; Choi, Changho; Takahashi, Masaya; Togao, Osamu; Pascual, Juan M; Deberardinis, Ralph J; Maher, Elizabeth A; Malloy, Craig R; Bachoo, Robert M

2012-10-01

273

Lysozyme enhances the inhibitory effects of the peroxidase system on glucose metabolism of Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined effect of the salivary peroxidase system and lysozyme on the glucose uptake of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 was investigated. The bacteria were grown to late-exponential phase, washed, re-suspended in buffer at pH6, and incubated with (1) 50 micrograms/mL lysozyme from human milk for 60 min; (2) 7-15 mumol/L hypothiocyanous acid/hypothiocyanite for 10 min; and (3) lysozyme for 60 min prior to addition of and incubation with hypothiocyanous acid/hypothiocyanite for 10 min. Glucose uptake was initiated by adding the bacterial suspensions to 10 mL of pre-warmed 50 mumol/L glucose containing 0.98 mumol/L D-(U-14C-)-glucose, and the mixture was incubated in a shaking water-bath at 37 degrees C. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals, rapidly filtered through 0.45-microns membranes, washed with ice-chilled buffer, and the incorporated radioactivity determined. Lysozyme stimulated S. mutans glucose uptake slightly, but significantly inhibited S. rattus glucose metabolism. A 20-30% inhibition of radiolabeled glucose incorporation was observed with hypothiocyanous acid/hypothiocyanite alone. Incubation of the bacteria with lysozyme prior to addition of hypothiocyanous acid/hypothiocyanite containing peroxidase resulted in a total inhibition of the glucose uptake. In contrast, lysozyme in combination with hypothiocyanous acid/hypothiocyanite without peroxidase gave only a 30-50% inhibition. The addition of 5 mmol/L dithiothreitol after incubation with lysozyme and hypothiocyanous acid/hypothiocyanite eliminated the inhibition of the bacterial glucose uptake. The viability of S. mutans was not affected by treatment with any of the components used. Our results indicate that physiological concentrations of lysozyme and the salivary peroxidase system components have a synergistic effect which results in a significant inhibition of glucose metabolism by S. mutans. PMID:1573081

Lenander-Lumikari, M; Månsson-Rahemtulla, B; Rahemtulla, F

1992-03-01

274

Monensin and growth hormone effects on glucose metabolism in the prepartum cow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used to evaluate the singular and combined effects of somatotropin and monensin treatments during the late dry period on postpartum metabolism and production. Treatments were 1) control, 2) injection of exogenous bovine somatotropin (bST); 3) total mixed rations top-dressed with 300 mg of monensin/d, and 4) monensin and somatotropin in combination, during the last 28 d before expected parturition. A 500-mg subcutaneous injection of sustained-release somatotropin was administered at d-28 and -14 relative to expected calving. Glucose kinetics was evaluated on d 15 before expected calving date using a tracer dose of 45 mg of U-13C-labeled glucose. Jugular blood was sampled 20 times during 8 h after tracer injection. Intake of DM was 1.9% of BW, and daily feed was supplied in six equal meals before the glucose kinetic assay. The CONSAM simulation program, which assumes a two-compartment model, was used to analyze the glucose 13C enrichment curves with time. Average glucose distribution space, glucose mass, and glucose residence time in compartment 1 were increased in monensin-treated cows and were decreased in bST-treated cows. On the day of the glucose kinetic assay, blood concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and urea were similar among treatments. The changes in glucose pool and distribution space suggest that monensin increases propionate supply and bST facilitates glucose flow into glucose consuming organs. It is concluded that dairy cows might benefit from a combined application of monensin and bST before parturition. PMID:11814033

Arieli, A; Vallimont, J E; Aharoni, Y; Varga, G A

2001-12-01

275

Quantitative comparison of measurements of cerebral glucose metabolic rate made with two positron cameras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid progress in PET technology has created the dilemma of how to compare data from old and new tomographs. We examined cerebral metabolic data from two scanners, with different spatial resolutions and methods of attenuation correction, to see if metabolic values from the lower-resolution tomograph (ECAT II) could be adjusted to make them comparable to data from the higher-resolution scanner (Scanditronix PC1024-7B). Nine subjects were scanned on both tomographs after a single injection of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Regional and lobar gray matter metabolic rates for glucose were obtained from comparable images from each scanner. Ratios of lobar to global gray matter metabolism also were calculated. Regression coefficients and percent differences were computed to compare ECAT II and PC1024 data. Two-thirds of the region pairs showed significant regressions, although percent differences were quite variable, with measures of glucose utilization ranging from 30 to 120% higher on the PC1024 compared to those from the ECAT II. Comparisons of lobar glucose rates between the two machines were less variable (50 to 80%), and ratios differed by only +/- 5% (except for the temporal ratios). Since there was no simple and consistent relationship between regional metabolic rates on the two tomographs, an overall adjustment of regional ECAT values for comparison to PC1024 values would be impossible. A region-by-region adjustment would be necessary. Lobar ratios are sufficiently similar that direct comparisons might be possible

276

Cancer stem cells from epithelial ovarian cancer patients privilege oxidative phosphorylation, and resist glucose deprivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the metabolic profile of cancer stem cells (CSC) isolated from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. CSC overexpressed genes associated with glucose uptake, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and fatty acid ?-oxidation, indicating higher ability to direct pyruvate towards the Krebs cycle. Consistent with a metabolic profile dominated by OXPHOS, the CSC showed higher mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and elevated membrane potential, and underwent apoptosis upon inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The CSC also had a high rate of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity, which is not typical of cells privileging OXPHOS over glycolysis, and may rather reflect the PPP role in recharging scavenging enzymes. Furthermore, CSC resisted in vitro and in vivo glucose deprivation, while maintaining their CSC phenotype and OXPHOS profile. These observations may explain the CSC resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies, and indicate this peculiar metabolic profile as a possible target of novel treatment strategies. PMID:24946808

Pastò, Anna; Bellio, Chiara; Pilotto, Giorgia; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Silic-Benussi, Micol; Guzzo, Giulia; Rasola, Andrea; Frasson, Chiara; Nardo, Giorgia; Zulato, Elisabetta; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Manicone, Mariangela; Indraccolo, Stefano; Amadori, Alberto

2014-06-30

277

The metabolic cooperation between cells in solid cancer tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells cooperate with stromal cells and use their environment to promote tumor growth. Energy production depends on nutrient availability and O? concentration. Well-oxygenated cells are highly proliferative and reorient the glucose metabolism towards biosynthesis, whereas glutamine oxidation replenishes the TCA cycle coupled with OXPHOS-ATP production. Glucose, glutamine and alanine transformations sustain nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis. In contrast, hypoxic cells slow down their proliferation, enhance glycolysis to produce ATP and reject lactate which is recycled as fuel by normoxic cells. Thus, glucose is spared for biosynthesis and/or for hypoxic cell function. Environmental cells, such as fibroblasts and adipocytes, serve as food donors for cancer cells, which reject waste products (CO? , H?, ammoniac, polyamines…) promoting EMT, invasion, angiogenesis and proliferation. This metabolic-coupling can be considered as a form of commensalism whereby non-malignant cells support the growth of cancer cells. Understanding these cellular cooperations within tumors may be a source of inspiration to develop new anti-cancer agents. PMID:24983675

Icard, Philippe; Kafara, Perrine; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Schwartz, Laurent; Lincet, Hubert

2014-08-01

278

Loss of glucose transporters is an early event in differentiation of HD3 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HD3 cell, a chicken erythroblast cell line infected with a temperature-sensitive avian erythroblastosis virus, becomes committed to differentiate to an erythrocyte upon temperature shift in presence of inducers. Before induction, the HD3 cell transports glucose and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). 3-O-methylglucose is poorly taken up. Upon induction of differentiation, glucose and 2-DG transport activity fall. Twenty-four hours postinduction, up to 75% of the glucose transport activity may disappear. By use of cDNA probes for chicken glucose transporters, two species of mRNA of 3.1 and 1.7 kb (equivalent to mammalian GLUT1 and GLUT3 mRNA, respectively) are detected. Both messages virtually disappear within 48 h after induction. Run-on assays show the cessation of synthesis of the corresponding RNAs parallel to the loss of glucose transport. In contrast to the glucose transporters, the nucleoside transporter level increases after induction of hematopoiesis. This developmental pattern is consistent with earlier studies showing that mature chicken erythrocytes have little glucose transport activity but retain appreciable levels of the nucleoside transporter and that nucleosides and glutamine provide major sources of oxidizable carbon compounds to sustain metabolism in circulating chicken erythrocytes. PMID:8203486

Mathew, A; Grdisa, M; Robbins, P J; White, M K; Johnstone, R M

1994-05-01

279

Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep.

Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA)); Gillin, J.C. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1989-01-01

280

Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep

 
 
 
 
281

Elimination of KATP channels in mouse islets results in elevated [U-13C]glucose metabolism, glutaminolysis, and pyruvate cycling but a decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pancreatic beta cells are hyper-responsive to amino acids but have decreased glucose sensitivity after deletion of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) both in man and mouse. It was hypothesized that these defects are the consequence of impaired integration of amino acid, glucose, and energy metabolism in beta cells. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology to study intermediary metabolism of SUR1 knock-out (SUR1(-/-)) and control mouse islets with d-[U-(13)C]glucose as substrate and related the results to insulin secretion. The levels and isotope labeling of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) served as indicators of intermediary metabolism. We found that the GABA shunt of SUR1(-/-) islets is blocked by about 75% and showed that this defect is due to decreased glutamate decarboxylase synthesis, probably caused by elevated free intracellular calcium. Glutaminolysis stimulated by the leucine analogue d,l-beta-2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid was, however, enhanced in SUR1(-/-) and glyburide-treated SUR1(+/+) islets. Glucose oxidation and pyruvate cycling was increased in SUR1(-/-) islets at low glucose but was the same as in controls at high glucose. Malic enzyme isoforms 1, 2, and 3, involved in pyruvate cycling, were all expressed in islets. High glucose lowered aspartate and stimulated glutamine synthesis similarly in controls and SUR1(-/-) islets. The data suggest that the interruption of the GABA shunt and the lack of glucose regulation of pyruvate cycling may cause the glucose insensitivity of the SUR1(-/-) islets but that enhanced basal pyruvate cycling, lowered GABA shunt flux, and enhanced glutaminolytic capacity may sensitize the beta cells to amino acid stimulation. PMID:18445600

Li, Changhong; Nissim, Itzhak; Chen, Pan; Buettger, Carol; Najafi, Habiba; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Collins, Heather W; Yudkoff, Marc; Stanley, Charles A; Matschinsky, Franz M

2008-06-20

282

Elimination of KATP Channels in Mouse Islets Results in Elevated [U-13C]Glucose Metabolism, Glutaminolysis, and Pyruvate Cycling but a Decreased ?-Aminobutyric Acid Shunt*  

Science.gov (United States)

Pancreatic beta cells are hyper-responsive to amino acids but have decreased glucose sensitivity after deletion of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) both in man and mouse. It was hypothesized that these defects are the consequence of impaired integration of amino acid, glucose, and energy metabolism in beta cells. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology to study intermediary metabolism of SUR1 knock-out (SUR1-/-) and control mouse islets with d-[U-13C]glucose as substrate and related the results to insulin secretion. The levels and isotope labeling of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) served as indicators of intermediary metabolism. We found that the GABA shunt of SUR1-/- islets is blocked by about 75% and showed that this defect is due to decreased glutamate decarboxylase synthesis, probably caused by elevated free intracellular calcium. Glutaminolysis stimulated by the leucine analogue d,l-?-2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid was, however, enhanced in SUR1-/- and glyburide-treated SUR1+/+ islets. Glucose oxidation and pyruvate cycling was increased in SUR1-/- islets at low glucose but was the same as in controls at high glucose. Malic enzyme isoforms 1, 2, and 3, involved in pyruvate cycling, were all expressed in islets. High glucose lowered aspartate and stimulated glutamine synthesis similarly in controls and SUR1-/- islets. The data suggest that the interruption of the GABA shunt and the lack of glucose regulation of pyruvate cycling may cause the glucose insensitivity of the SUR1-/- islets but that enhanced basal pyruvate cycling, lowered GABA shunt flux, and enhanced glutaminolytic capacity may sensitize the beta cells to amino acid stimulation. PMID:18445600

Li, Changhong; Nissim, Itzhak; Chen, Pan; Buettger, Carol; Najafi, Habiba; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Collins, Heather W.; Yudkoff, Marc; Stanley, Charles A.; Matschinsky, Franz M.

2008-01-01

283

Targeting hypoxia, HIF-1, and tumor glucose metabolism to improve radiotherapy efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotherapy, an important treatment modality in oncology, kills cells through induction of oxidative stress. However, malignant tumors vary in their response to irradiation as a consequence of resistance mechanisms taking place at the molecular level. It is important to understand these mechanisms of radioresistance, as counteracting them may improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. In this review, we describe how the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) pathway has a profound effect on the response to radiotherapy. The main focus will be on HIF-1-controlled protection of the vasculature postirradiation and on HIF-1 regulation of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. This aberrant cellular metabolism increases the antioxidant capacity of tumors, thereby countering the oxidative stress caused by irradiation. From the results of translational studies and the first clinical phase I/II trials, it can be concluded that targeting HIF-1 and tumor glucose metabolism at several levels reduces the antioxidant capacity of tumors, affects the tumor microenvironment, and sensitizes various solid tumors to irradiation. PMID:23071360

Meijer, Tineke W H; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Span, Paul N; Bussink, Johan

2012-10-15

284

Radiorespirometric analysis of glucose metabolism in the rat during feeding with 3'-methyl-4-(dimethylamino) azobenzene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimated the enzyme activities on the hexose monophosphate oxidative pathway of glucose metabolism at an early stage during feeding with 3'-methyl-4-(dimethylamino) azobenzene (3'-Me-DAB) in the first paper of this series. In the present paper, the importance of this non-glycolytic pathway of glucose metabolism in preneoplastic liver in azodye fed rat was studied by radiorespirometry using [1 - 14C] glucose and [6 - 14C] glucose. In addition to radioisotope analysis, the level of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was measured in rat liver after various periods of feeding with 3'-Me-DAB. In radiorespirometry using [1 - 14C] glucose, the peak time was delayed up to the 2nd week, but was early by the 4th week and was the same as the control at the 5th week and thereafter. On the other hand, the peak height and the yield value both changed in almost the same way. That is to say, they were lower than those of the control until the 2nd week, began to increase from the 3rd week, reached a maximum at the 4th week, and remained at the control level at the 5th week and thereafter. Moreover, the yield value ratio of respiratory 14CO2 from [1 - 14C] glucose to that from [6 - 14C] glucose increased from 1.3 to 1.52 at the 3rd to 4th week after feeding with 3'-Me-DAB. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased as early as the 2nd week after the start of feeding with 3'-Me-DAB, reaching a maximum at the 4th week. Thereafter, the activity remained high with a slight decrease from the maximum by the 6th week. (author)

285

The characteristics of cortical glucose metabolism in amblyopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cortical metabolism of amblyopia patients was investigated with F-18-FDG PET and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and quantificiation based on volume of interest (VOI) by statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM). In 9 amblyopic patients (12{+-}7 years ) and 20 normal subjects (23{+-}2 years), F-18-FDG PET scans were peformed in amblyopic patients after amblyopic eye or sound eye was patch-closed during PET studies. SPM was done with SPM96. By multiplying SPAM to FDG images, counts of 98 VOI's were calculated and compared with 3 S. D. range of those of normal subjects. On SPM, cortical metabolism decreased (p<0.05) in occipital lobe (Ba 17, 18, 19), superior partietal lobe (Ba 7), and inferior temporal lobe (BA 37, 20). FDG uptake of gyri of occuipital lobe was decreased in 2 and increased in 2, and was normal in the other 5. FDG uptake of gyri of parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes were decreased in FDG uptake on these VOIs. We conclude that cortical metabolism in occipital lobe and extraoccipital lobes was variable but was consistent regardless of visual input during PET studies in amblyopic patients. SPM and quantification of functional images using SPAM could reveal subtle differences or changes according to visual input. The significance of metabolic changes of extraoccipital lobes should be studies further.

Ahn, Ji Young [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Shin, Seung Ai; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2000-07-01

286

The characteristics of cortical glucose metabolism in amblyopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cortical metabolism of amblyopia patients was investigated with F-18-FDG PET and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and quantificiation based on volume of interest (VOI) by statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM). In 9 amblyopic patients (12±7 years ) and 20 normal subjects (23±2 years), F-18-FDG PET scans were peformed in amblyopic patients after amblyopic eye or sound eye was patch-closed during PET studies. SPM was done with SPM96. By multiplying SPAM to FDG images, counts of 98 VOI's were calculated and compared with 3 S. D. range of those of normal subjects. On SPM, cortical metabolism decreased (p<0.05) in occipital lobe (Ba 17, 18, 19), superior partietal lobe (Ba 7), and inferior temporal lobe (BA 37, 20). FDG uptake of gyri of occuipital lobe was decreased in 2 and increased in 2, and was normal in the other 5. FDG uptake of gyri of parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes were decreased in FDG uptake on these VOIs. We conclude that cortical metabolism in occipital lobe and extraoccipital lobes was variable but was consistent regardless of visual input during PET studies in amblyopic patients. SPM and quantification of functional images using SPAM could reveal subtle differences or changes according to visual input. The significance of metabolic changes of extraoccipital lobes should be studies further

287

BAX inhibitor-1 enhances cancer metastasis by altering glucose metabolism and activating the sodium-hydrogen exchanger: the alteration of mitochondrial function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-apoptotic protein, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1), has a role in cancer/tumor progression. BI-1-overexpressing HT1080 and B16F10 cells produced higher lung weights and tumor volumes after injection into the tail veins of mice. Transfection of BI-1 siRNA into cells before injection blocked lung metastasis. in vitro, the overexpression of BI-1 increased cell mobility and invasiveness, with highly increased glucose consumption and cytosolic accumulation of lactate and pyruvate, but decreased mitochondrial O(2) consumption and ATP production. Glucose metabolism-associated extracellular pH also decreased as cells excreted more H(+), and sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) activity increased, probably as a homeostatic mechanism for intracellular pH. These alterations activated MMP 2/9 and cell mobility and invasiveness, which were reversed by the NHE inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA), suggesting a role for NHE in cancer metastasis. In both in vitro and in vivo experiments, C-terminal deleted (CDeltaBI-1) cells showed similar results to control cells, suggesting that the C-terminal motif is required for BI-1-associated alterations of glucose metabolism, NHE activation and cancer metastasis. These findings strongly suggest that BI-1 reduces extracellular pH and regulates metastasis by altering glucose metabolism and activating NHE, with the C-terminal tail having a pivotal role in these processes. PMID:20118983

Lee, G-H; Yan, C; Shin, S-J; Hong, S-C; Ahn, T; Moon, A; Park, S J; Lee, Y C; Yoo, W H; Kim, H-T; Kim, D-S; Chae, S-W; Kim, H-R; Chae, H-J

2010-04-01

288

GLUT1 is adequate for glucose uptake in GLUT2-deficient insulin-releasing beta-cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

GLUT2 may play an important role in pancreatic beta-cell glucose metabolism. A decrease in glucose uptake due to underexpression of GLUT2 has been considered as the cause of beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes with different pathogenesis. However, this view has been challenged by recent studies, in which the underexpression of GLUT2 was not accompanied by a decrease in glucose uptake. Our present aim is to evaluate the presumed importance of GLUT2 in maintaining the efficiency of beta-cell glucose uptake. We studied the kinetic characteristics of 3-O-methylglucose uptake in two beta-cell lines. One of these is the beta TC3 cell line which expresses GLUT1 and the other is the beta HC9 cell line which expresses both GLUT1 and GLUT2. Under equilibrium exchange conditions, 3-O-methylglucose transport in these two cell lines showed similar values of K(m) and V(max). The apparent IC50 of cytochalasin B for inhibiting 3-O-methylglucose transport in beta HC9 cells was nine times as high as in beta TC3 cells, indicating that GLUT1 is the critically important glucose transporter in the beta TC3 cell line and GLUT2 in the beta HC9 cell line. In both cell lines, the rates of glucose uptake were at least three times as fast as that of glucose phosphorylation. Our results suggest that GLUT1 is able to compensate for GLUT2 loss as it occurs in beta TC3 and maintains a commensurately high capacity of glucose uptake to sustain glucose metabolism in pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:9230344

Liang, Y; Cushman, S M; Whitesell, R R; Matschinsky, F M

1997-06-01

289

Glucose and insulin metabolism in twins: influence of zygosity and birth weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several epidemiological and metabolic studies have demonstrated an impact of the intrauterine environment on the development of disease in adult life, including Type 2 diabetes and glucose intolerance. Our finding of lower birth weights among monozygotic diabetic twins compared to their non-diabetic genetically identical co-twins confirms this association and, furthermore, eliminates the possibility that the association could be explained solely by common genes leading to both impaired intrauterine growth and increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. Due to an often shared placenta monozygotic twins may experience a more adverse intrauterine environment compared to dizygotic twins and may therefore be more prone to develop various metabolic abnormalities. Our findings of a higher glucose and insulin profile after oral glucose ingestion, and recently lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake--indicating glucose intolerance and insulin resistance--among monozygotic compared to dizygotic twins may to some extent question the validity of classical twin studies in diabetes research where equal environmental influences in monozygotic and dizygotic twins is assumed. The potential role of an adverse intrauterine environment in causing Type 2 diabetes in humans, may to some degree alter our conception of the twin model in diabetes research including the interpretation of aetiological conclusions reached in previous classical twin studies of diabetes. However, our present knowledge is far too insufficient to discard the results from classical twin studies concerning the relative role of genes versus environment for the development of diabetes and its metabolic effects. PMID:11869488

Poulsen, P; Vaag, A

2001-10-01

290

Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was also reduced due to altered expression of circadian genes Pdk4 and Pdp1, coding for PDH kinase and phosphatase, respectively. PDH inhibition leads to reduced glucose oxidation and diversion of glycolytic intermediates to alternative metabolic pathways, as revealed by metabolome analysis. The impaired glucose metabolism induced by muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout suggests that a major physiological role of the muscle clock is to prepare for the transition from the rest/fasting phase to the active/feeding phase, when glucose becomes the predominant fuel for skeletal muscle. PMID:24567902

Dyar, Kenneth A; Ciciliot, Stefano; Wright, Lauren E; Biensø, Rasmus S; Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio M; Patel, Vishal R; Forcato, Mattia; Paz, Marcia I P; Gudiksen, Anders; Solagna, Francesca; Albiero, Mattia; Moretti, Irene; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Rizzuto, Rosario; Bicciato, Silvio; Pilegaard, Henriette; Blaauw, Bert; Schiaffino, Stefano

2014-02-01

291

Studies of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chickens: dynamics of glucose metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS) was induced in a proportion of a group of 4-week-old chickens by giving a diet of meat meal and wheat; inclusion in the diet of animal tallow for 54 h substantially reduced the occurrence of FLKS. 2. Measurements of dynamic aspects of glucose metabolism were made with single injections of [2-3H]glucose which indicated that birds given the 'FLKS-inducing' diet and showing physical symptoms of FLKS had significantly lower rates of synthesis of glucose than birds given either the same diet supplemented with tallow or a commercial diet. 3. In a second series of experiments glucose metabolism was studied in birds (1) with or without physical symptoms that were given the 'FLKS-inducing' diet and (2) birds given the same diet supplemented with tallow or biotin. Affected birds fed the 'FLKS-inducing' diet had significantly lower plasma glucose concentrations, pool sizes and synthesis rates than birds fed the same diet and not showing symptoms, or birds fed the supplemented diets. 4. It is suggested that the cause of death in birds with FLKS is a low rate of gluconeogenesis during periods without feed which results in a lack of glucose to meet essential functions. PMID:588533

Balnave, D; Wolfenden, J; Ball, F M; Cumming, R B; Leng, R A

1977-11-01

292

Chemosensitizing and cytotoxic effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on breast cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Accelerated glucose uptake for anerobic glycolysis is one of the major metabolic changes found in malignant cells. This property has been exploited for imaging malignancies and as a possible anticancer therapy. The nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2?DG interferes with glucose metabolism leading to breast cancer cell death. Aims: To determine whether 2DG can synergize with chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in breast cancer treatment and identify cellular characteristics associated with sensitivity to 2DG. Materials and Methods: SkBr3 breast cancer cells were incubated with varying concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5FU, doxorubicin, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, or herceptin with or without 2DG. Cell viability was measured using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: Combining 2DG with doxorubicin, 5?FU, cyclophosphamide, and herceptin resulted in enhanced cell death compared with each agent alone, while in combination with cisplatin, the amount of cell death was additive. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF mutated for p53 (-/- were 30% more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of 2DG than the parental cell lines. Cells mutated for Bax/Bac, genes involved in protection from apoptosis, are slightly more sensitive than the parental cell lines. Conclusions: These results indicate that 2DG acts synergistically with specific chemotherapeutic agents in causing cell death and the class of chemicals most sensitive appear to be those which cause DNA damage.

Zhang Fanjie

2009-09-01

293

Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Retardation and Down Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain size and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were determined for 10 individuals with mild mental retardation (MR), 7 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and 10 matched controls. MR and DS groups both had brain volumes of about 80% compared to controls, with variance greatest within the MR group. (SLD)

Haier, Richard J.; And Others

1995-01-01

294

Anomeric specificity of D-glucose metabolism study in rat and human erythrocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anomeric specificity of D-glucose metabolism in erythrocytes has been since 1985 the matter of extensive investigations reported in about ten publications. The present report aims at providing an integrated review of the major findings on this issue.

Willy J. Malaisse

2012-02-01

295

Intelligence and Changes in Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate Following Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of eight normal right-handed men demonstrates widespread significant decreases in brain glucose metabolic rate (GMR) following learning a complex computer task, a computer game. Correlations between magnitude of GMR change and intelligence scores are also demonstrated. (SLD)

Haier, Richard J.; And Others

1992-01-01

296

PET-imaging of cerebral glucose metabolism during sleep and dreaming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron emission tomography (PET) of (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) affording non-invasive repeatable quantification of local cerebral glucose utilization was employed to determine possible differential effects of sleep, with and without dreaming, on regional brain metabolism of normal volunteers also measured during wakefulness. (author). 7 refs.; 1 tab

297

Impaired kisspeptin signaling decreases metabolism and promotes glucose intolerance and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (Kiss1r KO mice). Compared with WT littermates, adult Kiss1r KO females displayed dramatically higher BW, leptin levels, and adiposity, along with strikingly impaired glucose tolerance. Conversely, male Kiss1r KO mice had normal BW and glucose regulation. Surprisingly, despite their obesity, Kiss1r KO females ate less than WT females; however, Kiss1r KO females displayed markedly reduced locomotor activity, respiratory rate, and energy expenditure, which were not due to impaired thyroid hormone secretion. The BW and metabolic phenotype in Kiss1r KO females was not solely reflective of absent gonadal estrogen, as chronically ovariectomized Kiss1r KO females developed obesity, hyperleptinemia, reduced metabolism, and glucose intolerance compared with ovariectomized WT females. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to reproduction, kisspeptin signaling influences BW, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis in a sexually dimorphic and partially sex steroid-independent manner; therefore, alterations in kisspeptin signaling might contribute, directly or indirectly, to some facets of human obesity, diabetes, or metabolic dysfunction. PMID:24937427

Tolson, Kristen P; Garcia, Christian; Yen, Stephanie; Simonds, Stephanie; Stefanidis, Aneta; Lawrence, Alison; Smith, Jeremy T; Kauffman, Alexander S

2014-07-01

298

14C-carbaril metabolism in soils modified by organic matter oxidation and addition of glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbaril behaviour is studied in samples of Brunizen and Dark Red Latosol soils from Parana, using radiometric techniques, with the objective of determining the role of oxidation fo its organic components, and enrichment with glucose, in the metabolism of the insecticide. Lots of autoclaved soils, oxidized and with no previous treatment, with and without glucose addition, are incubated with 14C-carbaril and analysed during eight weeks. Its was noted that, as a result of oxidation both soils showed a marked improvement in the metabolism of the agrochemical while addition of glucose exerted litlle influence on the degrading processes. Three metabolites were detected with R sub(f) 0.23, 0.40 and 0.70. (Author)

299

Effects of 5-thio-d-glucose on hexose transport and metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the everted sac technique, the mouse small intestine was found to transport 5-thio-D-glucose (5TG) against a concentration gradient, by a sodium- and energy-dependent, phloridzin- and ouabain-sensitive mechanism. At incubation periods of one hour, 5TG inhibited 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3MG) and D-galactose transport while enhancing net transport of D-glucose. Addition of 5TG and D-glucose produced a dose-related increase in mucosal tissue water D-glucose concentration with a concomitant decrease in L-lactate production. These results suggest that 5TG decreased intestinal utilization of D-glucose via anaerobic glycolysis to partially account for the increased net transport of D-glucose. However, when incubation periods were less than 45 minutes duration, 5TG inhibited net D-glucose transport without affecting L-lactate production. A time- and dose-dependent inhibition of 14CO2 production from [1-14C] or [6-14C] D-glucose by 5TG was observed in everted rings of mouse intestine. The 14CO2 produced from [6-14C]-D-glucose was not markedly inhibited until incubations were 45 minutes or longer. This study demonstrated that 5TG inhibits D-glucose utilization in the mouse small intestine, which may contribute to the diabetogenic effect observed in vivo. Addition of 5TG stimulated 14CO2 production from [1-14C] and [6-14C] D-glucose in Ehrlich-Lettre (EL) ascites cells, while failing to affect 14CO2 production from the tumor bearing mouse (TBM) intestine at any dose employed. When tumor bearing mice were treated with 5TG, stimulation of the HMS occurred in the tumor cells, while variable effects were demonstrated on the HMS of the TBM intestine

300

Fulfilling the metabolic requirements for cell proliferation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activity of key metabolic enzymes is regulated by the ubiquitin ligases that control the function of the cyclins; therefore the activity of these ubiquitin ligases explains the coordination of cell-cycle progression with the supply of substrates necessary for cell duplication. APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome)-Cdh1, the ubiquitin ligase that controls G(1)- to S-phase transition by targeting specific degradation motifs in cell-cycle proteins, also regulates the glycolysis-promoting enzyme PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isoform 3) and GLS1 (glutaminase 1), a critical enzyme in glutaminolysis. A decrease in the activity of APC/C-Cdh1 in mid-to-late G(1) releases both proteins, thus explaining the simultaneous increase in the utilization of glucose and glutamine during cell proliferation. This occurs at a time consistent with the point in G(1) that has been described as the nutrient-sensitive restriction point and is responsible for the transition from G(1) to S. PFKFB3 is also a substrate at the onset of S-phase for the ubiquitin ligase SCF (Skp1/cullin/F-box)-?-TrCP (?-transducin repeat-containing protein), so that the activity of PFKFB3 is short-lasting, coinciding with a peak in glycolysis in mid-to-late G(1), whereas the activity of GLS1 remains high throughout S-phase. The differential regulation of the activity of these proteins indicates that a finely-tuned set of mechanisms is activated to fulfil specific metabolic demands at different stages of the cell cycle. These findings have implications for the understanding of cell proliferation in general and, in particular, of cancer, its prevention and treatment. PMID:22835215

Moncada, Salvador; Higgs, E Annie; Colombo, Sergio L

2012-08-15

 
 
 
 
301

Prevalence Of Metabolic Syndrome In An Urban Population: Tehran Lipid And Glucose Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome."nMaterials and Methods: Metabolic syndrome was defined by the presence of three or more of the following components: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose."nResults: In this study, 10368 of the adults (4397 men and 5971 women aged 20 years and over, participated in Tehran Lipid and Glucose study. The unadjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 30.1% (CI 95%: 29.2-31.0, and age-standardized prevalence was 33.7% (CI 95%: 32.8-34.6. The prevalence increased with age in both sexes. Metabolic syndrome was more commonly seen in women than men (42% vs. 24%, p< 0.001. Low HDL-C was the most common metabolic abnormality in both sexes. Except for high FPG, all abnormalities were more common in women than in men (p< 0.001. Most of those with metabolic syndrome had 3 components of the syndrome (58%, 33% had four, and 9% had five"ncomponents."nConclusion: This first report on metabolic syndrome from Iran shows a high"nprevalence of this disorder, imposing serious impacts on health care system. Efforts"non promoting healthy diets, physical activity, and blood pressure control must be"nundertaken.

Azizi F

2003-10-01

302

Quantitative rates of brain glucose metabolism distinguish minimally conscious from vegetative state patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The differentiation of the vegetative or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) is an important clinical issue. The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) declines when consciousness is lost, and may reveal the residual cognitive function of these patients. However, no quantitative comparisons of cerebral glucose metabolism in VS/UWS and MCS have yet been reported. We calculated the regional and whole-brain CMRglc of 41 patients in the states of VS/UWS (n=14), MCS (n=21) or emergence from MCS (EMCS, n=6), and healthy volunteers (n=29). Global cortical CMRglc in VS/UWS and MCS averaged 42% and 55% of normal, respectively. Differences between VS/UWS and MCS were most pronounced in the frontoparietal cortex, at 42% and 60% of normal. In brainstem and thalamus, metabolism declined equally in the two conditions. In EMCS, metabolic rates were indistinguishable from those of MCS. Ordinal logistic regression predicted that patients are likely to emerge into MCS at CMRglc above 45% of normal. Receiver-operating characteristics showed that patients in MCS and VS/UWS can be differentiated with 82% accuracy, based on cortical metabolism. Together these results reveal a significant correlation between whole-brain energy metabolism and level of consciousness, suggesting that quantitative values of CMRglc reveal consciousness in severely brain-injured patients.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 8 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.169.

Stender, Johan; Kupers, Ron

2014-01-01

303

Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes

304

Effects of intraportal exenatide on hepatic glucose metabolism in the conscious dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incretins improve glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. It remains unclear whether direct hepatic effects are an important part of exenatide's (Ex-4) acute action. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of intraportal delivery of Ex-4 on hepatic glucose production and uptake. Fasted conscious dogs were studied during a hyperglycemic clamp in which glucose was infused into the hepatic portal vein. At the same time, portal saline (control; n = 8) or exenatide was infused at low (0.3 pmol·kg?¹·min?¹, Ex-4-low; n = 5) or high (0.9 pmol·kg?¹·min?¹, Ex-4-high; n = 8) rates. Arterial plasma glucose levels were maintained at 160 mg/dl during the experimental period. This required a greater rate of glucose infusion in the Ex-4-high group (1.5 ± 0.4, 2.0 ± 0.7, and 3.7 ± 0.7 mg·kg?¹·min?¹ between 30 and 240 min in the control, Ex-4-low, and Ex-4-high groups, respectively). Plasma insulin levels were elevated by Ex-4 (arterial: 4,745 ± 428, 5,710 ± 355, and 7,262 ± 1,053 ?U/ml; hepatic sinusoidal: 14,679 ± 1,700, 15,341 ± 2,208, and 20,445 ± 4,020 ?U/ml, 240 min, area under the curve), whereas the suppression of glucagon was nearly maximal in all groups. Although glucose utilization was greater during Ex-4 infusion (5.92 ± 0.53, 6.41 ± 0.57, and 8.12 ± 0.54 mg·kg?¹·min?¹), when indices of hepatic, muscle, and whole body glucose uptake were expressed relative to circulating insulin concentrations, there was no indication of insulin-independent effects of Ex-4. Thus, this study does not support the notion that Ex-4 generates acute changes in hepatic glucose metabolism through direct effects on the liver. PMID:23673158

Edgerton, Dale S; An, Zhibo; Johnson, Kathryn M S; Farmer, Tiffany; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss; Cherrington, Alan D

2013-07-01

305

Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author)

306

Deoxyglucose method for the estimation of local myocardial glucose metabolism with positron computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deoxyglucose method originally developed for measurements of the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose has been investigated in terms of its application to studies of the heart with positron computed tomography (PCT) and FDG. Studies were performed in dogs to measure the tissue kinetics of FDG with PCT and by direct arterial-venous sampling. The operational equation developed in our laboratory as an extension of the Sokoloff model was used to analyze the data. The FDG method accurately predicted the true MMRGlc even when the glucose metabolic rate was normal but myocardial blood flow (MBF) was elevated 5 times the control value or when metabolism was reduced to 10% of normal and MBF increased 5 times normal. Improvements in PCT resolution are required to improve the accuracy of the estimates of the rate constants and the MMRGlc

307

Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author).

Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

1989-11-01

308

Effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies suggest an association between breakfast skipping and body weight gain, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Time when meal is consumed affects postprandial increase in energy expenditure and blood glucose, and breakfast skipping may reduce 24 h energy expenditure and elevate blood glucose level. The present study evaluated the effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose. The skipped breakfast was compensated by following big meals at lunch and supper. In a randomized repeated-measure design with or without breakfast, eight males stayed twice in a room-size respiratory chamber. Blood glucose was recorded with a continuous glucose monitoring system. Breakfast skipping did not affect 24 h energy expenditure, fat oxidation and thermic effect of food, but increased overall 24 h average of blood glucose (83 ± 3 vs 89 ± 2 mg/dl, P breakfast skipping. These observations suggest that changes in glucose homeostasis precede that of energy balance, in the potential sequence caused by breakfast skipping, if this dietary habit has any effect on energy balance.: PMID:24847666

Kobayashi, Fumi; Ogata, Hitomi; Omi, Naomi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Hibi, Masanobu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

2014-01-01

309

High glucose concentrations attenuate hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} expression and signaling in non-tumor cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the major transcription factor mediating adaption to hypoxia e.g. by enhancing glycolysis. In tumor cells, high glucose concentrations are known to increase HIF-1{alpha} expression even under normoxia, presumably by enhancing the concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, while reactions of non-tumor cells are not well defined. Therefore, we analyzed cellular responses to different glucose concentrations in respect to HIF activation comparing tumor to non-tumor cells. Using cells derived from non-tumor origin, we show that HIF-1{alpha} accumulation was higher under low compared to high glucose concentrations. Low glucose allowed mRNA expression of HIF-1 target genes like adrenomedullin. Transfection of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells with a HIF-1{alpha} oxygen-dependent degradation domaine-GFP fusion protein revealed that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity is impaired at low glucose concentrations, thus stabilizing the fusion protein. Mechanistic considerations suggested that neither O{sub 2} redistribution nor an altered redox state explains impaired PHD activity in the absence of glucose. In order to affect PHD activity, glucose needs to be metabolized. Amino acids present in the medium also diminished HIF-1{alpha} expression, while the addition of fatty acids did not. This suggests that glucose or amino acid metabolism increases oxoglutarate concentrations, which enhances PHD activity in non-tumor cells. Tumor cells deprived of glutamine showed HIF-1{alpha} accumulation in the absence of glucose, proposing that enhanced glutaminolysis observed in many tumors enables these cells to compensate reduced oxoglutarate production in the absence of glucose.

Dehne, Nathalie, E-mail: dehne@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I/ZAFES (Germany); Hintereder, Gudrun, E-mail: Gudrun.Hintereder@kgu.de [Zentrallabor, Goethe-University, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bruene, Bernhard, E-mail: bruene@pathobiochemie1.de [Institute of Biochemistry I/ZAFES (Germany)

2010-04-15

310

Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) regulates glucose transport in the rat L6 muscle cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), a human plasma protein, is a potent stimulator of triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport in both human adipocytes and fibroblasts. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to examine the effect of ASP on glucose transport in muscle cells. ASP stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (2-DG) in differentiated rat L6 myotubes in a time (30 min to 24 h) and concentration dependent manner (97% increase). The magnitude of the ASP effect on glucose transport was comparable to the time- and concentration-dependent effects seen with insulin (125% increase), but was additive to insulin, pointing to involvement of differential signalling pathways. ASP stimulation was dependent on cell differentiation in that glucose transport increased by only 12% in myoblasts, comparable to the effect of insulin in myoblasts (15% increase) demonstrating selective responsiveness of the differentiated myotubes to ASP and insulin. The mechanism for the ASP induced increase in glucose transport was also examined. ASP increased the Vmax for 2-DG transport by 183% (4.02 vs. 1.42 nmol/mg cell protein/30 s; ASP vs. Control, respectively). This could be explained by an increased translocation of glucose transporters (GLUT 1, GLUT 4 and GLUT 3) to the plasma membrane surface as demonstrated by Western analysis (+43% P insulin (+47%, +26% and +53% for GLUT 1, GLUT 4 and GLUT 3, respectively) and in all cases were paralleled by comparable glucose transport increases under the same incubation conditions. After long-term stimulation (24 h), Western analysis indicated that ASP had a permissive effect on insulin stimulated increases in total GLUT3 and GLUT4 cellular transporter content. These results suggest that muscle is also responsive to ASP and that ASP may play a role in glucose metabolism in both muscle and adipose tissue. PMID:9059512

Tao, Y; Cianflone, K; Sniderman, A D; Colby-Germinario, S P; Germinario, R J

1997-02-18

311

Similarities of cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's and Parkinsonian dementia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the dementia of probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD), there is a decrease in the metabolic ratio of parietal cortex/caudate-thalamus which relates measures in the most and in the least severely affected locations. Since some demented patients with Parkinson's Disease (PDD) are known to share pathological and neurochemical features with AD patients, the authors evaluated if the distribution of cerebral hypometabolism in PDD and AD were the same. Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined using the FDG method and positron tomography in subjects with AD (N=23), and PDD (N=7), multiple infarct dementia (MID)(N=6), and controls (N=10). In MID, the mean par/caudthal ratio was normal (0.79 +- 0.9, N=6). In AD and PDD patients, this ratio correlated negatively with both the severity (r=-0.624, rho=0.001) and duration (r=-0.657, rho=0.001) of dementia. The ratio was markedly decreased in subjects with mild to severe dementia (0.46 +- 0.09, N=21) and with dementia duration greater than two years (0.44 +- 0.08, N=18), but the ratio was also significantly decreased in patients with less advanced disease, i.e., when dementia was only questionable (0.64 +- 0.14, N=9) (t=2.27, rho<0.037) and when duration was two years or less (0.62 +- 0.13, N=12)(t=2.88, rho<0.009). This similarity of hypometabolism in AD and PDD is additional evidence that a common mechanism may operate in both disorders. The par/caud-thal metabolic ratio may be an index useful in the differential diagnosis of early dementia

312

High-fat/low-carbohydrate diets regulate glucose metabolism via a long-term transcriptional loop.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin sensitivity is characterized by insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that carbohydrate metabolism and storage might be under transcriptional control. To test this hypothesis, we fed insulin-sensitive males (glucose disposal rate, 14.7 +/- 4.1 mg/kg fat-free mass [FFM] per minute) an isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF/LCD) for 3 days with muscle biopsies before and after intervention. Oligonucleotide microarrays revealed a total of 369 genes of 18861 genes on the arrays were differentially regulated in response to diet (Bonferonni adjusted P PFKFB3), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 4 (PDK4), and glycogen synthase 1 (muscle). In a separate experiment, we fed C57Bl/6J mice an HF/LCD for 3 weeks and found that the same glucose metabolism genes were changed by approximately 70% on average. Fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 4 increased and glycogen synthase 1 (muscle) decreased. Combined, these results suggest a mechanism whereby HF/LCD regulates the genes necessary for glucose utilization and storage vis-á-vis transcriptional control. PMID:17046547

Sparks, Lauren M; Xie, Hui; Koza, Robert A; Mynatt, Randall; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

2006-11-01

313

Is the hepatic metabolism of glucose and linoleic acid influenced by species in overfed ducks?  

Science.gov (United States)

There are genetic differences in the hepatic glucose and linoleic acid metabolisms between Muscovy and Pekin ducks ad libitum-fed. To understand the effect of overfeeding on the hepatic metabolisms in these two species of ducks, we compared the different pathways of glucose and linoleic acid reaching the liver of Muscovy (Cairina moschata) (n=6) and Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos) (n=6) ducks overfed for 1 week and sacrificed 2-4 h after their last meal by using the ex vivo method of liver slices incubated for 16 h with [U-(14)C]-glucose, [1-(14)C]-linoleic acid and [(35)S]-methionine added to the survival medium. The glucose was the main precursor of triacylglycerol synthesis in the liver of these two species and its hepatic metabolism was similar between species. The hepatic uptake of linoleic acid was 1.7-fold higher (P=0.020) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck leading to a 1.9-fold higher (P=0.017) esterification of this fatty acid in the liver of the Muscovy duck than in that of the Pekin duck. Finally, both species after 1 week of overfeeding exhibited the same capacity to secrete VLDL remaining insufficient to avoid hepatic steatosis. PMID:18687407

Saez, Gladys; Baéza, Elisabeth; Davail, Stéphane; Durand, Denis; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

2008-12-01

314

Assessment of metabolic status in young Japanese females using postprandial glucose and insulin levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Lifestyle-related diseases develop through the accumulation of undesirable lifestyle habits both prior to the onset of disease as well as during normal healthy life. Accordingly, early detection of, and intervention in, metabolic disorders is desirable, but is hampered by the lack of an established evaluation index for young individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of a biomarker of health in young female subjects. The subjects were young healthy Japanese females in whom energy expenditure was measured for a period of 210 min after a test meal. In addition, ?plasma glucose and ?serum insulin were calculated from the fasting and 30 min values. ?Plasma glucose and ?serum insulin levels varied widely compared to fasting levels. Both the area under the curve of carbohydrate oxidation rate and serum free fatty acid levels were higher in individuals in the high ?plasma glucose group. Moreover, ?plasma glucose was higher in individuals in the high ?serum insulin group than in the low ?serum insulin group. We conclude that nutritional balanced liquid loading test using ?plasma glucose and ?serum insulin as the evaluation index is useful for the detection of primary metabolic disorders in young females. PMID:24895484

Sakuma, Masae; Sasaki, Megumi; Katsuda, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Kana; Takaya, Chiaki; Umeda, Minako; Arai, Hidekazu

2014-01-01

315

Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain18F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

316

Implications of Glucose Transporter Protein Type 1 (GLUT1)-Haplodeficiency in Embryonic Stem Cells for Their Survival in Response to Hypoxic Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT1) is a major glucose transporter of the fertilized egg and preimplantation embryo. Haploinsufficiency for GLUT1 causes the GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in humans, however the embryo appears unaffected. Therefore, here we produced heterozygous GLUT1 knockout murine embryonic stem cells (GT1+/?) to study the role of GLUT1 deficiency in their growth, glucose metabolism, and survival in response to hypoxic stress. GT1(?/?) cells were determined to be no...

Heilig, Charles; Brosius, Frank; Siu, Brian; Concepcion, Luis; Mortensen, Richard; Heilig, Kathleen; Zhu, Min; Weldon, Richard; Wu, Guimei; Conner, David

2003-01-01

317

Hormone and glucose metabolic effects of compound cyproterone acetate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the clinical efficacy of compound cyproterone acetate(CPY) in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) and study hormone and glucose metabolic effects, thirty-five PCOS patients were treated by compound cyproterone acetate for 3 cycles. The serum LH, FSH and T levels, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were determined before and after 3 cycle's treatment. The results showed that 34 patients had regular menses during CPY therapy. The hirsute and acne score decreased significantly(P0.05). The results indicate that the compound cyproterone acetate had anti-androgenic effects on PCOS patients and improved their endocrine function and clinical syndrome. (authors)

318

Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic amino acid metabolism in periparturient dairy cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic AA metabolism. The experimental design was a split plot, with cow as the whole plot, treatment as the whole-plot factor and days in milk (DIM) as the subplot factor. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g/d of glucose into the abomasum from the day of calving to 29 DIM.

Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

2009-01-01

319

Effects of 5 Thio-D-Glucose on cellular adenosine triphosphate levels and deoxyribonucleic acid rejoining in hypoxic and aerobic Chinese hamster cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were measured in both hypoxic and aerobic cultures of V79 Chinese hamster cells treated with 5-thio-D-glucose (5-SH-D-Glc). This glucose analog, a known inhibitor of D-glucose transport and metabolism, reduced ATP in cell cultures allowed to become hypoxic by cell metabolism, but not in aerobic cultures treated similarly. Cells depleted of ATP were unable to rejoin x-ray induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks as measured by the alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation technique. The inference for radiation therapy is that inhibition of glucose metabolism selectively depletes energy reserves in hypoxic cells, rendering these cells more radiosensitive and leading to a more effective tumor treatment

320

Programming of glucose-insulin metabolism in adult sheep after maternal undernutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effects of late vs. early gestation undernutrition on adult glucose-insulin homeostasis in sheep and investigates whether the lower birth weight of twins alters glucose-insulin handling in adult life. Pregnant sheep were fed to requirement (100% intake) from day 0 of gestation to term [ approximately 147 days of gestation (dGA), control singles (CS) n = 5; control twins (CT) n = 5] or to 50% requirement from days 0-30 dGA [nutrient restricted during early gestation (NRE); n = 5] or day 110-term [NR during late nutrition (NRL); n = 4]. At all other times, NR sheep received 100% intake. All sheep lambed naturally; offspring were weaned at 10 wk and were reared on pasture until 1 yr of age. At this time, indwelling catheters were inserted, and 2-4 days later, basal metabolic and endocrine status and responses to an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and feeding were assessed. Adipose and skeletal muscle were then sampled after humane euthanasia and were analyzed for expression of insulin-signaling proteins and GLUT4. Between groups, birth weight of singletons was similar and increased relative to twins. At 1 yr of age, weights were similar between groups. The areas under the curve for glucose and insulin during the IVGTT were greater in NRL vs. other groups, indicating glucose intolerance. This was associated with reduced adipose, but not muscle, GLUT4, and increased adipose tissue mass. Adult glucose-insulin homeostasis in sheep was unaffected by fetal number. In conclusion, prenatal undernutrition, specifically during late gestation, affects adult offspring intermediary metabolism, and, in particular, glucose-insulin homeostasis. PMID:15961536

Gardner, D S; Tingey, K; Van Bon, B W M; Ozanne, S E; Wilson, V; Dandrea, J; Keisler, D H; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Quantitative comparison of cerebral glucose metabolic rates from two positron emission tomographs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid progress in positron emission tomography technology has created the dilemma of how to compare data from old and new tomographs. We examined cerebral metabolic data from two scanners, with different spatial resolutions and methods of attenuation correction, to see if data from the lower resolution tomograph (ECAT II) could be corrected and then compared to data from the higher resolution scanner (Scanditronix PC1024-7B). Nine subjects were scanned on both tomographs after a single injection of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Regional and lobar gray matter metabolic rates for glucose were obtained from comparable images from each scanner. Ratios of lobar to global gray matter metabolism also were calculated. Regression coefficients and percent differences were computed to compare ECAT II and PC1024 data. Twenty-four of the 36 regions showed significant regression slopes, and PC1024 measures of glucose utilization ranged from 30% to 120% higher than those from the ECAT II. Lobar differences between the two machines were less variable (50% to 80%), and ratios generally differed by only +/- 5%. Since there was no simple and consistent relation between regional metabolic rates on the two tomographs, an overall adjustment of regional ECAT values for comparison to PC1024 values would be impossible. A region-by-region adjustment would be necessary. On the other hand, ratios are sufficiently similar that direct comparisons could be made

322

Glucose metabolism and neurological outcome in congenital hyperinsulinism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in imaging and surgical techniques allow a complete cure for children with focal-type congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). In contrast, management of diffuse-type CHI remains a matter of controversy. To prevent hypoglycemic brain damage, extensive surgery has been recommended in the past, resulting in diabetes. On the basis of 2 data sets of patients with congenital hyperinsulinism, the German registry for CHI with 235 patients (ages 1 day to 19 years) and the diabetes treatment register (Diabetes Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentationssystem initiative), a follow-up study was initiated for diabetes mellitus and the intellectual and physical development as well as motor function. In our ongoing study, we investigated 20 patients with CHI (12 male, mean ages 9.9 years). Six of 20 patients had undergone subtotal pancreatectomy. In early infantile development (0-3 years) we observed a trend to motor and speech delay. In early childhood (2.5-7 years) there appeared a trend to an advantage of results of nonverbal tasks compared with verbal tasks. Before 1990 most patients (?75%) were treated by subtotal pancreatectomy; since 2000, a more conservative approach is obvious (4/68). All patients with diabetes (n = 25) developed the condition after undergoing subtotal pancreatectomy. No spontaneous manifestation of diabetes was noted before adulthood. There was a wide range of age (0-17.7 years) at manifestation indicating a long period during which glucose tolerance is compensated. Compared with >40.000 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Diabetes Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentationssystem registry, we found significant differences with a tendency for being overweight as well as small stature. Mean daily insulin dose and HbA1c was comparable in both groups. PMID:21186004

Ludwig, Anja; Ziegenhorn, Katja; Empting, Susann; Meissner, Thomas; Marquard, Jan; Holl, Reinhard; Mohnike, Klaus

2011-02-01

323

CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) stimulates glucose uptake through AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activation in skeletal muscle cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a flavonoid-like compound, is one of the major components of honeybee propolis. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic effects of CAPE in skeletal muscle cells and found that CAPE stimulated glucose uptake in differentiated L6 rat myoblast cells and also activated AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). In addition, the inhibition of AMPK blocked CAPE-induced glucose uptake, and CAPE activated the Akt pathway in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent manner. Furthermore, CAPE enhanced both insulin-mediated Akt activation and glucose uptake. In summary, our results suggest that CAPE may have beneficial roles in glucose metabolism via stimulation of the AMPK pathway. PMID:17689496

Lee, Eun Soo; Uhm, Kyung-Ok; Lee, Yun Mi; Han, MyungSuk; Lee, MyungSik; Park, Ji Man; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Park, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

2007-10-01

324

Action of irbesartan on blood pressure and glucose/lipid metabolism, in hemodialysis patients with hypertension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Akira Onishi,1 Yoshiyuki Morishita,1 Minami Watanabe,1 Akihiko Numata,1 Mikio Tezuka,2 Kosuke Okuda,3 Sadao Tsunematsu,4 Yasuhiro Sugaya,5 Shinichi Hashimoto,5 Eiji Kusano11Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Kurosu Hospital, Tochigi, Japan; 3Okuda Clinic, Tochigi, Japan; 4Yuki Clinic, Ibaraki, Japan; 5Ninomiya Central Clinic, Tochigi, JapanBackground: Irbesartan has been reported to have beneficial effects on glucose/lipid metabolism in addition to an antihypertensive effect; however, such effects have not been clarified in hemodialysis (HD patients. We investigated the effects of irbesartan on blood pressure (BP as well as glucose/lipid metabolism, in HD patients with hypertension.Methods: Seventeen HD patients with hypertension, aged 62.7 ± 12.5 years, were treated with daily oral administration of 50 to 100 mg of irbesartan for 12 weeks. Then, the changes of BP as well as glucose metabolism (random serum glucose level and serum glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] level and lipid metabolism (serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-chol] level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-chol] level, and serum triglyceride [TG] level were evaluated.Results: Irbesartan significantly reduced systolic BP (154.9 ± 12.8 to 139.4 ± 13.1 mmHg (P < 0.01 and diastolic BP (78.9 ± 9.1 to 72.2 ± 9.7 mmHg, P < 0.01. It also reduced LDL-chol (77.6 ± 19.1 to 72.0 ± 18.6 mg/dL, P < 0.05, whereas it did not significantly affect random serum glucose (129.3 ± 46.9 mg/dL to 130.6 ± 47.2 mg/dL, HbA1c (5.58% ± 1.41% to 5.49% ± 1.11%, TG (104.3 ± 65.8 mg/dL to 100.2 ± 59.9 mg/dL, or HDL-chol (44.8 ± 17.1 mg/dL to 45.7 ± 15.6 mg/dL.Conclusion: Irbesartan is effective for BP control and may have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in HD patients.Keywords: irbesartan, hemodialysis patients, blood pressure, glucose/lipid metabolism

Onishi A

2013-05-01

325

Single-cell level based approach to investigate bacterial metabolism during batch industrial fermentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Escherichia coli fermentations have been studied for decades, but most results are based on average measurements of the whole populations of cells, whilst averaged data can mask the distribution of activities at the sub-population or single-cell level. A population of genetically identical cells can exhibit different phenotypes under specific environmental conditions that show significant differences in physiological parameters from the population average. However, studies concerning segregation of populations into metabolically diversified subpopulations are scarce. Acetate is a product of Escherichia coli overflow metabolism when the bacteria are grown under aerobic conditions and glucose is present in excessive concentrations. Acetate accumulation is of the utmost importance in batch fermentation processes as it is an undesirable byproduct that negatively affects growth, physiology, and performance of Escherichia coli. An insight into glucose and acetate fate on the level of individual cell can provide the type of information which are valuable for the understanding of bacterial metabolism in fermentation process and can shed more light on the differentiation of isogenic fermenting populations into subpopulations expressing metabolically different profiles. The goal of this study was to observe and quantify in situ metabolic response of Escherichia coli at single-cell level and determine activity distribution of glucose and acetate uptake during batch fermentation processes. Pure culture of Escherichia coli MG1655 was used to investigate glucose and acetate metabolism at single-cell level during different stages of glucose batch fermentation process. Uptake of the substrates was observed and measured in situ by quantitative microautoradiography. Sub-populations of Escherichia coli cells expressing different activity levels for the uptake of glucose or acetate were observed. The distribution of these uptake activities changed along the batch fermentation process. The results based on the observation of single cells indicate that heterogeneity exists within bacterial populations and is a result of metabolic diversification of individual cells.

Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul

326

Portal versus systemic venous drainage of the pancreatic graft: the effect on glucose metabolism in pancreas and kidney transplant recipients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different methods of graft venous drainage are used in pancreas transplantation: portal (PVD) and systemic (SVD). PVD is considered to be more physiologic due to its similarity to venous outflow of the native pancreas. The aim of our study was to compare glucose metabolism in Type 1 diabetic recipients of kidney and pancreatic grafts with PVD versus SVD by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). We examined 28 insulin-independent patients after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation: 14 recipients with PVD of the pancreatic graft and 14 with SVD after a mean post-transplant period of 1 year. All recipients had stable good function of the kidney graft. Fasting glycemia, insulin levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and standard IVGTT with coefficient of glucose assimilation (KG) calculation were assessed. Insulin sensitivity and production were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], homeostasis model assessment of B-cell function [HOMA-B]). Total C-peptide and insulin secretions were calculated as areas under the curves (AUCs) from the serum levels during the IVGTT. PVD and SVD groups did not differ in age, body mass index (BMI) and duration of post-transplantation period (P ? .05). We did not find any significant difference in fasting glycemia, HbA1c, KG, HOMA-IR, parameters of C-peptide level, fasting insulin level, and response during IVGTT. HOMA-B and AUC of insulin level were higher in the SVD group (45.1 ± 35.1 versus 19.8 ± 15.5, P =.03 and 1075 ± 612 versus 1799 ± 954 mIU/L/60 minutes, P PVD group, 1 patient had an abnormal response to the glucose stimulus, 8 patients had an impaired glucose tolerance, and 5 patients had a normal glucose tolerance. In the SVD group, an abnormal response was present in none, impaired glucose tolerance in 4, and normal glucose tolerance in 10 recipients. Athough this was not a prospectively randomized trial, we conclude that the change of surgical technique from SVD to PVD did not lead to any substantial change in terms of glucose tolerance. PMID:25131068

Havrdova, T; Boucek, P; Jedinakova, T; Lipar, K; Kocik, M; Skibova, J; Saudek, F

2014-01-01

327

Generalized decrease in brain glucose metabolism during fasting in humans studied by PET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In prolonged fasting, the brain derives a large portion of its oxidative energy from the ketone bodies, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, thereby reducing whole body glucose consumption. Energy substrate utilization differs regionally in the brain of fasting rat, but comparable information has hitherto been unavailable in humans. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to study regional brain glucose and oxygen metabolism, blood flow, and blood volume in four obese subjects before and after a 3-wk total fast. Whole brain glucose utilization fell to 54% of control (postabsorptive) values (P less than 0.002). The whole brain rate constant for glucose tracer phosphorylation fell to 51% of control values (P less than 0.002). Both parameters decreased uniformly throughout the brain. The 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose lumped constant decreased from a control value of 0.57 to 0.43 (P less than 0.01). Regional blood-brain barrier transfer coefficients for glucose tracer, regional oxygen utilization, blood flow, and blood volume were unchanged.

Redies, C.; Hoffer, L.J.; Beil, C.; Marliss, E.B.; Evans, A.C.; Lariviere, F.; Marrett, S.; Meyer, E.; Diksic, M.; Gjedde, A.

1989-06-01

328

[Investigation of a compound, compatibility of Rhodiola crenulata, Cordyceps militaris, and Rheum palmatum, on metabolic syndrome treatment. V--Mechanisms on improving glucose metabolic disorders].  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the mechanisms of a compound (FF16), compatibility of Rhodiola crenulata, Cordyceps militaris, and Rheum palmatum, on glucose metabolic disorders, the IRF mice charactered with insulin resistance and glucose metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups; IRF, rosiglitazone (Rosi) and FF16. The glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). The insulin sensitivity was estimated by insulin tolerance test (ITT), fasting serum insulin levels and the index of HOMA-IR. The expressions of Akt and its phosphorylation levels, GSK3beta and its phosphorylation levels in liver were detected by Western Blot. The results showed that FF16 significantly improved the glucose metabolic disorders through reducing FBG by 15.1%, decreasing AUC values in glucose tolerance tests by 22.3%. FF16 significantly improved the insulin sensitivity through decreasing AUC values in insulin tolerance tests by 22.1%, reducing the levels of serum insulin by 42.9% and of HOMA-IR by 49.5%, comparing with model control, respectively. After the treatment with FF16, the levels of p-Akt and p-GSK3beta were increased by 116.4% and 24.9%, respectively, in the liver of IRF mice. In conclusion, compound FF16 could improve glucose metabolic disorders in IRF mice through enhancing the glyconeogenesis. PMID:24066594

Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Li, Mo-Han; Tian, Jin-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Ye, Fei

2013-06-01

329

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) has been an important subject of research in the past two decades because of its various biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities. On the other hand, the molecular bases of its actions have been scarcely understood. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of the hypoglycemic actions of saffron through investigating its signaling pathways associated with glucose metabolism in C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle cells. Saffron strongly enhanced glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), but not PI 3-kinase (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt. Interestingly, the co-treatment of saffron and insulin further improved the insulin sensitivity via both insulin-independent (AMPK/ACC and MAPKs) and insulin-dependent (PI 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR) pathways. It also suggested that there is a crosstalk between the two signaling pathways of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. These results could be confirmed from the findings of GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, AMPK plays a major role in the effects of saffron on glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Our study provides important insights for the possible mechanism of action of saffron and its potential as a therapeutic agent in diabetic patients. PMID:22980812

Kang, Changkeun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Seyedian, Ramin; Jo, MiNa; Kim, Jehein; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

2012-12-15

330

Melphalan metabolism in cultured cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Procedures are presented for the adaptation of reversed-phase-HPLC methods to accomplish separation and isolation of the cancer therapeutic drug melphalan (L-phenylalanine mustard) and its metabolic products from whole cells. Five major degradation products of melphalan were observed following its hydrolysis in phosphate buffer in vitro. The two most polar of these products (or modifications of them) were also found in the cytosol of Chinese hamster CHO cells. The amounts of these two polar products (shown not to be mono- or dihydroxymelphalan) were significantly changed by the pretreatment of cells with ZnC12, one being increased in amount while the other was reduced to an insignificant level. In ZnC12-treated cells, there was also an increased binding of melphalan (or its derivatives) to one protein fraction resolved by gel filtration-HPLC. These observations suggest that changes in polar melphalan products, and perhaps their interaction with a protein, may by involved in the reduction of melphalan cytotoxicity observed in ZnC12-treated cells. While ZnC12 is also known to increase the level of glutathione in cells, no significant amounts of glutathione-melphalan derivatives of the type formed non-enzymatically in vitro could be detected in ZnC12-treated or untreated cells. Formation of derivatives of melphalan with glutathione catabolic products in ZnC12-treated cells has not yet been eliminated, however. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

331

Evolution of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase: the plasticity of primary metabolism in photosynthetic eukaryotes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) has an essential function in both catabolic glycolysis and anabolic gluconeogenesis and is universally distributed among Eukaryotes, Bacteria, and some Archaea. In addition to the cytosolic GPI, land plant chloroplasts harbor a nuclear encoded isoenzyme of cyanobacterial origin that is indispensable for the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) and plastid starch accumulation. We established 12 new GPI sequences from rhodophytes, the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa, a ciliate, and all orders of complex algae with red plastids (haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates). Our comprehensive phylogenies do not support previous GPI-based speculations about a eukaryote-to-prokaryote horizontal gene transfer from metazoa to gamma-proteobacteria. The evolution of cytosolic GPI is largely in agreement with small subunit analyses, which indicates that it is a specific marker o