James B Aimone
Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anatomically-constrained neural networks has provided significant insights regarding the response of networks to neurological disorders or injury. A logical extension of these models is to incorporate treatment regimens to investigate network responses to intervention. The addition of nascent neurons from stem cell precursors into damaged or diseased tissue has been used as a successful therapeutic tool in recent decades. Interestingly, models have been developed to examine the incorporation of new neurons into intact adult structures, particularly the dentate granule neurons of the hippocampus. These studies suggest that the unique properties of maturing neurons can impact circuit behavior in unanticipated ways. In this perspective, we review the current status of models used to examine damaged CNS structures with particular focus on cortical damage due to stroke. Secondly, we suggest that computational modeling of cell replacement therapies can be made feasible by implementing approaches taken by current models of adult neurogenesis. The development of these models is critical for generating hypotheses regarding transplant therapies and improving outcomes by tailoring transplants to desired effects.
Egunjobi Feyijimi E; Anie Kofi A; Akinyanju Olu O
Abstract Sickle Cell Disorder is a global health problem with psychosocial implications. Nigeria has the largest population of people with sickle cell disorder, with about 150,000 births annually. This study explored the psychosocial impact of sickle cell disorder in 408 adolescents and adults attending three hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. A questionnaire was designed for the study, with some of commonly described areas of psychosocial impact including general public perceptions and attitudes, ...
Tong, Leslie M; Fong, Helen; Huang, Yadong
Underlying cognitive declines in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the result of neuron and neuronal process losses due to a wide range of factors. To date, all efforts to develop therapies that target specific AD-related pathways have failed in late-stage human trials. As a result, an emerging consensus in the field is that treatment of AD patients with currently available drug candidates might come too late, likely as a result of significant neuronal loss in the brain. In this regard, cell-replacement therapies, such as human embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells, hold potential for treating AD patients. With the advent of stem cell technologies and the ability to transform these cells into different types of central nervous system neurons and glial cells, some success in stem cell therapy has been reported in animal models of AD. However, many more steps remain before stem cell therapies will be clinically feasible for AD and related disorders in humans. In this review, we will discuss current research advances in AD pathogenesis and stem cell technologies; additionally, the potential challenges and strategies for using cell-based therapies for AD and related disorders will be discussed. PMID:25766620
Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Raymond W. Lam
OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed ...
Tong, Leslie M.; Fong, Helen; Huang, Yadong
Underlying cognitive declines in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the result of neuron and neuronal process losses due to a wide range of factors. To date, all efforts to develop therapies that target specific AD-related pathways have failed in late-stage human trials. As a result, an emerging consensus in the field is that treatment of AD patients with currently available drug candidates might come too late, likely as a result of significant neuronal loss in the brain. In this regard, cell-repla...
Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.
This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the transplanted BMSC significantly promote functional recovery after CNS damage in the animal models of various kinds of CNS disorders, including cerebral infarct, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. However, there are several shortages of information when considering clinical application of BMSC transplantation for patients with CNS disorders. In this review, therefore, we discuss what we should clarify to establish cell transplantation therapy as the scientifically proven entity in clinical situation and describe our recent works for this purpose. The BMSC have the ability to alter their gene expression profile and phenotype in response to the surrounding circumstances and to protect the neurons by producing some neurotrophic factors. They also promote neurite extension and rebuild the neural circuits in the injured CNS. The BMSC can be expanded in vitro using the animal serum-free medium. Pharmacological modulation may accelerate the in vitro proliferation of the BMSC. Using in vivo optical imaging technique, the transplanted BMSC can non-invasively be tracked in the living animals for at least 8 weeks after transplantation. It is urgent issues to develop clinical imaging technique to track the transplanted cells in the CNS and evaluate the therapeutic significance of BMSC transplantation in order to establish it as a definite therapeutic strategy in clinical situation in the future.
Corti, S; Locatelli, F; Strazzer, S; Guglieri, M; Comi, G P
Stem cell transplantation through cell replacement or as vector for gene delivery is a potential strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies have reported the transdifferentiation of different somatic stem cells into neurons in vitro or after transplantation into animal models. This observation has pointed out the perspective of using an ethical and accessible cell source to "replace" damaged neurons or provide support to brain tissue. However, recent findings such as the cell fusion phenomenon have raised some doubts about the real existence of somatic stem cell plasticity. In this review, we will discuss current evidence and controversial issues about the neuroneogenesis from various sources of somatic cells focusing on the techniques of isolation, expansion in vitro as well as the inductive factors that lead to transdifferentiation in order to identify the factors peculiar to this process. The morphological, immunochemical, and physiological criteria to correctly judge whether the neuronal transdifferentation occurred are critically presented. We will also discuss the transplantation experiments that were done in view of a possible clinical therapeutic application. Animal models of stroke, spinal cord and brain trauma have improved with Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Bone Marrow transplantation. This improvement does not seem to depend on the replacement of the lost neurons but may be due to increased expression levels of neurotrophic factors, thus suggesting a beneficial effect of somatic cells regardless of transdifferentiation. Critical understanding of available data on the mechanisms governing the cell fate reprogramming is a necessary achievement toward an effective cell therapy. PMID:12762483
Juanita Gempeler Rueda
Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective.
S.M. de la Rie (Simone)
textabstractEating disorders (EDs) are rare, but very serious psychiatric disorders, with a low recovery rate (1,2). This warrants studies on treatment quality to improve the course and consequences of EDs and enhance recovery rates. Despite the increasing recognition of the value of patient input,
Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike;
Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry acreoss the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... incerasing evidence that some teratments, manilyl psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...
Stefania Roma; Daniela Alliani
The role of alexithymia in eating disorders has been exstensively studied in Western cultures. On the contrary, studies on alexithymia in the Far East are rare, and its possible role in eating disorders is yet unstudied. After discussing the history and the meaning of the concept of alexithymia in Western cultures, the present paper poses the anthropological question whether alexithymia has a different meaning in Western and Eastern cultures. The sinologist literature on the topic of emotions...
Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…
de Carvalho, Maria Joao Leote
Based on the analysis of 312 children's neighbourhood drawings and narratives, this article discusses children's socialization in six public housing neighbourhoods in Portugal, through children's personal accounts of their lives. It then examines their perspectives on disorder and violence. Most complained about living in their neighbourhoods,…
Full Text Available The role of alexithymia in eating disorders has been exstensively studied in Western cultures. On the contrary, studies on alexithymia in the Far East are rare, and its possible role in eating disorders is yet unstudied. After discussing the history and the meaning of the concept of alexithymia in Western cultures, the present paper poses the anthropological question whether alexithymia has a different meaning in Western and Eastern cultures. The sinologist literature on the topic of emotions in China is fi rstly addressed, followed by a review of empirical studies on eating disorders in China. Finally, the results of a preliminary study that compared the role of alexithymia in Italian and Chinese eating disorders are discussed, stressing that the signifi cantly lower alexithymia scores in Chinese eating disorders might be interpreted as strictly connected with the native culture, that is the tendency of Chinese girls to give socially desirable answers. Accordingly, a relevant pathoplastic role of the native culture not only on symptoms, but even on basic traits like alexithymia is suggested.
Chaudhuri, S.; Chatterjee, N
The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and ea...
Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and early intervention in management of the problem. But, unfortunately, autism is not yet considered to be under the purview of pediatricians. As pediatricians, we are often perplexed when faced with such a different child in our office and either overlook the problem or hurry to hand him over to a psychiatrist, not trying to really identify and understand the problem as a medical entity ourselves. Hence better awareness among pediatricians is the need of the day. As specialists have worked with autism over the decades, it has become clear that: autism is a disorder that involves early development, presently there is no medical answer to autism, and the only management strategy hinges largely on effective training. The earlier the training begins the better it is for the child. It is of paramount importance to start training and bring about changes by the time the child is 18 months old. This throws up interesting new challenges to the profession of pediatrics. To identify the early warning signs of autism, it is important that Pediatricians are able to recognize the signs and symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, have a strategy for assessing them systematically, be familiar with available tools for screening as well as developmental and educational resources.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12775 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 37-47
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in Global Workspace theory suggest that human consciousness can suffer interpenetrating dysfunctions of mutual and reciprocal interaction with embedding environments which will have early onset and often insidious staged developmental progression, possibly according to a cancer model, in which a set of long-evolved control strategies progressively fails. Methods and results A rate distortion argument implies that, if an external information source carries a damaging 'message', then sufficient exposure to it, particularly during critical developmental periods, is sure to write a sufficiently accurate image of it on mind and body in a punctuated manner so as to initiate or promote similarly progressively punctuated developmental disorder, in essence either a staged failure affecting large-scale brain connectivity, which is the sine qua non of human consciousness, or else damaging the ability of embedding goal contexts to contain conscious dynamics. Conclusion The key intervention, at the population level, is clearly to limit exposure to factors triggering developmental disorders, a question of proper environmental sanitation, in a large sense, primarily a matter of social justice which has long been known to be determined almost entirely by the interactions of cultural trajectory, group power relations, and economic structure, with public policy. Intervention at the individual level appears limited to triggering or extending periods of remission, representing reestablishment of an extensive, but largely unexplored, spectrum of evolved control strategies, in contrast with the far better-understood case of cancer.
Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a prevalent and highly disabling psychiatric condition. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of psychosocial interventions that involve a complex cognitive, behavioral, and biological process to help patients cope better with their illness, few studies have systematically evaluated coping in BD. Therefore, our objective was to examine recent developments in current research on coping in BD. Several studies have documented a strong association between BD and numerous neuroanatomical and neuropsychological abnormalities, particularly multiple episodes and longer durations of the disorder. The most marked effects of BD encompass brain areas involved in executive function, which may affect the mechanisms underlying an adequate selection of coping strategies. Thus, the ability of individuals to reduce their own stress burden is impaired, increasing vulnerability to stressful life events and negatively affecting the course of BD. Psychosocial interventions that focus on BD should be evaluated for their ability to improve coping abilities, and research on BD should consider neuropsychological impairment and cognitive-behavioral strategies for coping with stress.
Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna
In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966–2013), Sciencedirect (1970–2013), Psychindex (1980–2013), and Pubmed (1980–2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will repo...
Manuela eGander; Kathrin eSevecke; Anna eBuchheim
In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attac...
Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by relative or absolute insulin deficient or reduced sensitivity of target cells to insulin. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells with multiple differentiation potential, self-renewable and immunoregulatory properties. Accumulating evidences from clinic or animal experiments recent years showed that MSCs infusion could ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetes. The research progress of MSCs in diabetes treatment is summarized and a corresponding perspective is herewith proposed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.16
Full Text Available Impairments in social cognition are a key symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder. People with autism have great difficulty with understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities which demand the use of spatial and social skills, such as visual perspective taking (VPT. Flavell (1977 defined two levels of perspective taking: VPT level 1 is the ability to understand that other people have a different line of sight to ourselves, whereas VPT level 2 is the understanding that two people viewing the same item from different points in space may see different things. So far, literature on whether either level of VPT is impaired or intact in autism is inconsistent. Here we review studies which have examined VPT levels 1 and 2 in people with autism with a focus on the methods that have been used to measure perspective taking. We conclude the review with an evaluation of the findings into VPT in autism and give recommendations for future research which may give a clearer insight into whether perspective taking is truly impaired in autism.
From a therapeutic standpoint, vitiligo is still regarded by many physicians as a simple problem of regenerative medicine, with the main aim to repopulate the depigmented skin with functional melanocytes from the margins of the lesions or from intact progenitors in hair follicles. However, recent research in vitiligo suggests that various local triggers alert the skin immune innate system and may precede adaptive immune responses targeting melanocytes. This scenario is close to that of other common skin inflammatory disorders like psoriasis and atopic, and suggests to target as a priority this clinically silent inflammatory component of he disease. This perspective highlights possible targets for intervention. PMID:22099450
de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M
In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone), polypropylene, sodium polystyrene sulfate, and polyacrylate poly(acrylonitrile-sodium methallylsulfonate). The biocompatibility of these polymers is discussed in terms of tissue responses in both the host and matrix to accommodate the functional survival of the cells. Cells should grow and function in the polymer network as adequately as in their natural environment. This is critical when therapeutic cells from scarce cadaveric donors are considered, such as pancreatic islets. Additionally, the cell mass in capsules is discussed from the perspective of emerging new insights into the release of so-called danger-associated molecular pattern molecules by clumps of necrotic therapeutic cells. We conclude that despite two decades of intensive research, drawing conclusions about which polymer is most adequate for clinical application is still difficult. This is because of the lack of documentation on critical information, such as the composition of the polymer, the presence or absence of confounding factors that induce immune responses, toxicity to enveloped cells, and the permeability of the polymer network. Only alginate has been studied extensively and currently qualifies for application. This review also discusses critical issues that are not directly related to polymers and are not discussed in the other reviews in this issue, such as the functional performance of encapsulated cells in vivo. Physiological endocrine responses may indeed not be expected because of the many barriers that the metabolites encounter when traveling from the blood stream to the enveloped cells and back to circulation. However, despite these diffusion barriers, many studies have shown optimal
Stone, Jon; Pal, Suvankar; Blackburn, Daniel; Reuber, Markus; Thekkumpurath, Parvez; Carson, Alan
Cognitive symptoms such as poor memory and concentration represent a common cause of morbidity among patients presenting to general practitioners and may result in referral for a neurological opinion. In many cases, these symptoms do not relate to an underlying neurological disease or dementia. In this article we present a personal perspective on the differential diagnosis of cognitive symptoms in the neurology clinic, especially as this applies to patients who seek advice about memory problems but have no neurological disease process. These overlapping categories include the following 'functional' categories: 1) cognitive symptoms as part of anxiety or depression; 2) "normal" cognitive symptoms that become the focus of attention; 3) isolated functional cognitive disorder in which symptoms are outwith 'normal' but not explained by anxiety; 4) health anxiety about dementia; 5) cognitive symptoms as part of another functional disorder; and 6) retrograde dissociative (psychogenic) amnesia. Other 'non-dementia' diagnoses to consider in addition are 1) cognitive symptoms secondary to prescribed medication or substance misuse; 2) diseases other than dementia causing cognitive disorders; 3) patients who appear to have functional cognitive symptoms but then go on to develop dementia/another neurological disease; and finally 4) exaggeration/malingering. We discuss previous attempts to classify the problem of functional cognitive symptoms, the importance of making a positive diagnosis for the patient, and the need for large cohort studies to better define and manage this large group of patients. PMID:26445274
Full Text Available Lack of insight, very frequent in schizophrenia, can be considered a deficit in Theory of Mind (ToM performances, and is also found in other psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used the first- to third-person shift to examine subjects with psychotic and psychotic mood disorders. 92 patients were evaluated with SANS and SAPS scales and asked to talk about their delusions. They were asked to state whether they thought what they said was believable for them and for the interviewer. Two weeks later, 79 patients listened to a tape where their delusion was reenacted by two actors and were asked the same two questions. Some patients gained insight when using third-person perspective. These patients had lower SAPS scores, a lower score on SAPS item on delusions, and significant improvement in their SAPS delusion score at the second interview. Better insight was not related to a specific diagnostic group.
Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.
Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna
In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966–2013), Sciencedirect (1970–2013), Psychindex (1980–2013), and Pubmed (1980–2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition. PMID:26321974
Farnaz Torabian; Arvin Aghayi Nejad; Arash Akhavan Rezayat; Mehran Beiraghi Toosi; Ali Reza Attaei Nakhaie; Hamid Reza Rahimi
Pediatric neurological disorders including muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury are defined as a heterogenous group of diseases, of which some are known to be genetic. The two significant features represented for stem cells, leading to distinguish them from other cell types are addressed as below: they can renew themselves besides the ability to differentiate into cells with special function as their potency. Researches about the role of stem cells in repair of damaged t...
Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo
Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual's quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area. PMID:26999199
A.O.J. Cramer; D. Borsboom
What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this
DePape, Anne-Marie; Lindsay, Sally
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes deficits in social communication and repetitive behavior. Secondhand accounts from parents suggest that ASD affects many aspects of life. However, little is known about this disorder from first-person perspective. This meta-synthesis examines children, adolescents, and adults with ASD to understand their…
Wilhelm, Clare J.; Guizzetti, Marina
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the abnormal brain
Clare J. Wilhelm
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS, as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the
Research on the consequences of perceiving disorder is largely sociological and concerns broken windows theory, which states that signs of social disorder cause further social disorder. The predominant psychological explanations for this phenomenon are primarily social. In contrast, I propose a parsimonious cognitive model (“world-is-random” model; WIR) that may partly account for these effects. Basically, WIR proposes that perceiving disorder primes randomness-related concepts, which results...
Moretti, M. M.; Emmrys, C.; Grizenko, N.; Holland, R.; Moore, K; Shamsie, J.; Hamilton, H
Provides a synopsis of treatment programs for conduct-disordered children in Canada. Five groups of authors from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick describe their approaches to the treatment of children with conduct disorder. All programs emphasize the need to use multimodal treatment schemes, including day and short-term residential care, as well as the need to base programs on identified factors associated with the development of conduct disorder.
Kurek, Nicholas S.; Sathees B. Chandra
Nanotechology involves the application, analysis and manipulation of nanomaterials. These materials have unique and medically useful properties due to their nanoscale parameters. Nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics might eventually bring great relief to people suffering from neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disorders. A large variety of nonmaterials such as viruses, carbon nanotubes, gold and silica nanoparti...
Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.
Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease ...
Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina;
BACKGROUND: This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who......-psychotic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in perspective-taking among children who later developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggest that a facet of theory of mind is impaired prior to development of schizophrenia. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia are...
Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.
Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…
Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.
The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…
In this article, I address the issue of comorbidity and its prevalence in the prior "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") classification systems. The focus on the topography or form of presenting problems as the venue for determining mental disorders is scrutinized as the possible cause. Addressing the…
The objective of this article is to describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and examine the factors associated with higher rates of disorder by combining the data from two large population-based samples of British children and young people aged 5-15. Just over 18,000 children were assessed in 1999 and 2004 using the Development and…
Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.
The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…
Gene-gene (GxG) and gene-environment (GxE) interactions likely play an important role in the aetiology of complex diseases like psychiatric disorders. Thus, we aim at investigating methodological aspects of and apply methods from statistical genetics taking interactions into account. In addition we...... consider issues concerning detection limits of continuous traits, single-marker tests, analysis of sex chromosomes, and accumulation of signals. Disorders investigated include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and suicidal behaviour. In addition to this, we use computer simulations. Papers 1...... and 2 were motivated by the hypothesis that defects of the immune system may increase risk of psychiatric disorders. We consider two components from the lectin pathway of activation: mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) via continuous traits (protein level...
Khazaal, Y; Pomini, V
A significant proportion of patients with bipolar disorder experience relapse, psychosocial impairment and persistent symptoms despite available pharmacotherapy. Prognosis is frequently worsened by poor adhesion to mood stabilizing agents. Cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) tends to diminish depressive symptoms, improve treatment adherence and reduce the risk of depressive and manic relapses. CBT effect appears to diminish in patients with a history of over twelve episodes. Most studies exclude patients with comorbid psychiatric disorder, rapid cycling, schizoaffective disorder or patients lacking adherence to mood stabilizing agents. Patients would benefit from development of CBT techniques focusing on the mentioned problems. PMID:17073177
Bonadonna, P; Pagani, M; Aberer, W;
Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in different tissues, with a preferential localization in skin and bone marrow (BM). The excess of MC in mastocytosis as well as the increased releasability of MC may lead to a higher frequency...... serum tryptase determination, physical examination for cutaneous mastocytosis lesions, and clinical characteristics of anaphylactic reaction might be useful for differential diagnosis. In this position paper, the ENDA group performed a literature search on immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions in...
Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels are important mediators of physiological functions in the central nervous system. The cyclic activation of these channels influences neurotransmitter release, neuron excitability, gene transcription and plasticity, providing distinct brain areas with unique physiological and pharmacological response. A growing body of data has implicated ion channels in the susceptibility or pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. Indeed, population studies support the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. Moreover, point mutations in calcium, sodium and potassium channel genes have been identified in some childhood developmental disorders. Finally, antibodies against potassium channel complexes occur in a series of autoimmune psychiatric diseases. Here we report recent studies assessing the role of calcium, sodium and potassium channels in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, and briefly summarize promising pharmacological strategies targeted on ion channels for the therapy of mental illness and related genetic tests.
Yoshie eYamaguchi; Young-A eLee; Yukiori eGoto
Dopamine (DA) transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system f...
Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori
Dopamine (DA) transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system fun...
Wallach, Geraldine P.
Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…
Scheeren, Anke M.; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander
We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a baseline condition (without incentive) and a…
Bernardon, Stephanie; Pernice-Duca, Francesca
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) presents a number of symptoms and adjustment issues for individuals, but it is also associated with a myriad of risks for the larger family system. A systemic perspective is crucial to comprehending the development of BPD. Promoting healthy relationships with one or more supportive adult enables the child to…
Jaime Mendiola Olivares
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of the relation between environmental exposures [mainly to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC] and human health impairment. These compounds include a wide assortment of chemicals used in agriculture (organophosphate and organochlorine compounds, fungicides, etc. and industrial and commercial applications (bisphenol A, phthalates, perfluorinated compounds, etc.. Currently, the main research areas into this relation are related to neurodevelopmental disorders or cancer, and hormonal, metabolic or reproductive disorders or diseases. The incidence rates of metabolic disorders or conditions–obesity, metabolic syndrome or diabetes–and reproductive or infertility problems are on the rise in human populations. However, the already known risk factors do not fully explain the documented trends for these disorders and diseases. In general, it would be highly advisable to increase the number of epidemiological studies in humans and of mechanistic studies in preclinical and/or cellular models to better understand the links between environmental exposure to EDCs and metabolic disorders or conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes or infertility, including epigenetic aspects as well.
the severity of the disease. In summary, limbal stem cell transplantation improves both vision and quality-of-life in patients with ocular surface disorders associated with LSCD, and overall, the use of autologous tissue offers the best results. Future studies aim at improving cellular expansion and finding different sources of stem cells. Keywords: limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD, simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET, cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET, keratolimbal allograft (KLAL
Søren Ventegodt; Niels Jørgen Andersen; Shimshon Neikrug; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick
From a holistic perspective, psychiatric diseases are caused by the patients unwillingness to assume responsibility for his life, existence, and personal relations. The loss of responsibility arises from the repression of the fundamental existential dimensions of the patients. Repression of love and purpose causes depersonalization (i.e., a lack of responsibility for being yourself and for the contact with others, loss of direction and purpose in life). Repression of strength in mind and emo...
Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years there is a great interest for the theory of the “psychotic continuum”, which accepts that there is a transition between schizophrenia and affective pathology, including bipolar disorder with psychotic interferences and the recently introduced diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. There are few studies that analyze bipolar disorder with mood-incongruent psychosis. The purpose of this study was to observe the way in which the interference of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms can influence the long term evolution of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and the similarities that exists between this type of pathology and schizoaffective disorder. Material and methods: Sixty subjects were selected, who are now diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder, with and without psychotic features. All cases have at least 15 years of evolution since the first episode of psychosis and were analyzed in term of their age of onset and longitudinal evolution. Results: The results showed that bipolar patients who had mood incongruent psychotic symptoms had an earlier age of onset and a higher rate of hospitalizations in their long term evolution compared to bipolar patients without psychotic features, which brings them closer to patients with schizoaffective disorder in term of their pattern of evolution. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the interference of mood-incongruent psychosis with bipolar disorder determines a worse prognosis of this disease, very similar with the evolution of patients with schizoaffective disorder
A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)
Nicholas S. Kurek
Full Text Available Nanotechology involves the application, analysis and manipulation of nanomaterials. These materials have unique and medically useful properties due to their nanoscale parameters. Nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics might eventually bring great relief to people suffering from neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disorders. A large variety of nonmaterials such as viruses, carbon nanotubes, gold and silica nanoparticles, nanoshells, quantum dots, genetic material and proteins as well as hordes of other forms of nanotechnology have been researched in order to determine their potential in enhancing disease treatments and diagnostics. Nanotechnology has shown countless applications and might eventually be used in every biotech/health industry. Nevertheless, many nanomaterials may pose some safety risks and whether their benefits overweigh the risk is still being debated. Once the proper ethical and safety protocols are established and enough research is completed, nanotechnology is expected to benefit the mankind enormously. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many ways in which, nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics will be used to help people with neurological disorders through the methods that we currently have at our disposal. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 12-32
Full Text Available Dopamine (DA transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system functions in such social groups of animals, and its dysfunction causes compromises in the groups has remained less understood. Here we propose that alterations of DA signaling and associated genetic variants and behavioral phenotypes, which have been normally considered as deficits in investigation at an individual level, may not necessarily yield disadvantages, and even work advantageously, depending on social contexts in subjects with such DA alterations living in social groups. This hypothesis could provide a novel insight into our understanding of the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, and a potential explanation that disadvantageous phenotypes associated with DA deficits in psychiatric disorders have remained in humans through evolution.
Several reports show that stress and psychiatric ill health are increasing in adolescents. Eating disorders (ED) and related conditions such as depression, self-injurious behaviour and suicide attempts are becoming more common, especially among young women. Eating disorders include two main categories: anorexia nervosa (self-starvation) and bulimia nervosa (binge eating and compensatory actions). These disorders do not only involve deviations in eating behaviour, but also in...
Martel, Michelle M.; Klump, Kelly; Nigg, Joel T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L.
Hormonal influences on the organization of behavior are apparent to neuroendocrinologists but under-examined in relation to childhood and adolescent mental disorders. A central mystery in the field of developmental psychopathology is the preferential male vulnerability to behavior disorders in childhood and female vulnerability to emotional disorders in adolescence. Relative neglect of a hormonal explanation may be due to lack of simple or unifying conceptual paradigms to guide studies. This ...
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
Full Text Available Management of critically ill neurosurgical patients is often complicated by the presence or development of endocrinological ailments which complicate the clinical scenario and adversely affect the prognosis of these patients. The anatomical proximity to the vital centers regulating the endocrinological physiology and alteration in the neurotransmitter release causes disturbances in the hormonal homeostasis. This paves the way for development of diverse disorders where single or multiple hormones may be involved which can have deleterious effect on the different organ system. Understanding and awareness of these disorders is important for the treating intensivist to recognize these changes early in their course, so that appropriate and timely therapeutic measures can be initiated along with the treatment of the primary malady.
Thyroid disorders; hyper/hypothyroidism/thyroiditis/neoplasms are widely prevalent endocrine disorders. Oral manifestations of hyperthyroidism are increased susceptibility to caries, periodontal disease, maxillary/mandibular osteoporosis, premature shedding of deciduous teeth and early eruption of permanent teeth, sjogren and burning mouth syndromes. Undiagnosed/untreated hyperthyroidism often precipitates as 'Thyroid storm' during a stressful episode of surgical intervention/trauma. Hypothyroidism shows macroglossia, micrognathia, dysgeusia, thick lips, delayed eruption of teeth, poor periodontal health, enamel hypoplasia, anterior open bite, delayed wound healing and subnormal growth of jaws. Its congenital variant has underdeveloped mandible/overdeveloped maxilla, shortening of skull base and flaring of nostrils. Stomatodynia predominates in subacute thyroiditis. Radioactive iodine (131I) is a common mode of therapy for thyrotoxicosis and carcinomas; where its beta radiations cause destruction of thyroid follicles. Since all forms of iodine are actively taken up by the salivary glands, salivary dysfunction is a consequent of 131I therapy. It usually presents as xerostomia, mucositis, stomatitis, glossitis and dysguesia. Though reversible and dose-dependent to some extent, damage to bone marrow and gonads are also reported. It follows that thyroid disorders and its therapy with radio iodine show wide ranging side effects: both dental and general. In this context, this paper explains a novel method to evaluate these changes through salivary biochemistry, dental indices and periodontal markers. (author)
Lucy J Miller
Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.
Gardiner, Samantha; Lowe, Laura
Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS)/pervasive arousal withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) and conversion disorder (CD) are two rare mental health disorders that commonly affect children and young people. In the most extreme cases of PRS/PAWS, young people may be unable to perform activities of daily living and rely on adults for physical and emotional support. CD can present as loss of sensation in vision and touch, pain in certain areas and an inability to walk. It is important that children's nurses are aware of these disorders and have some insight into the most helpful approaches. Young people need to feel that their experiences are validated, which can elicit feelings in staff from an urge to help to intense frustration. It is essential for staff to be able to talk and reflect to allow such feelings to be understood. Although these are rare conditions, this article outlines what to do if young people present with features of PRS/PAWS or CD in a general healthcare setting. PMID:27063052
Schwarz, Emanuel; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
Improved classification of mental disorders through neurobiological measures will require a set of traits that map to transdiagnostic subgroups of patients and align with heritable, core psychopathological processes at the center of the disorders of interest. A promising candidate is working memory (WM) function, for which deficits have been reported across multiple diagnostic entities including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism, and major depressive disorder. Here we review genetic working memory associations and their brain functional correlates from the perspective of identifying patient subgroups across conventional diagnostic boundaries, explore the utility of multimodal investigations integrating functional information at the neural systems level and explore potential limitations as well as future directions for research. PMID:26365198
Abdul Latif Abdul Razak
Full Text Available Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a type of anxiety in which a person suffers from obsessions i.e. unwanted intrusive ideas which recur to the person persistently; and compulsions i.e. behaviours that a person feels compelled to perform epeatedly in a ritualistic manner with the aim of relieving the anxiety from the unpleasant obsessive thoughts. Although compulsion and obsession are common, once the individual experiences xcessive discomfort, then he or she would be diagnosed as a patient of this disorder. Most of the research outputs on this disorder are based on secular and irreligious perspectives. Thus, this research aims at religiously diagnosing its root causes and exploring its remedies based the Qur’an and Sunnah and the works of early Muslim scholars. The finding shows that this disorder, its etiology and treatment, has been extensively discussed in many works of early Muslim scholars that can be benefited by modern psychotherapists.
Widiger, T A; Frances, A
Although psychiatry and psychology have shared an interest in the classification of personality throughout the history of both professions, the efforts of each have largely been independent, with little collaboration or communication. We attempt to bridge this gap by describing a number of research programs in psychology that have implications for the psychiatric diagnosis of personality disorders. We discuss in particular the prototypal model of categorization, the use of behavioral indicators, the identification of prototypic acts, the aggregation of behavior across time and situations, the dimensional model of classification, and the interpersonal circumplex. PMID:3890799
Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.
Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of
Full Text Available Affective neuroscience disposes of complementary imaging tools, some identifying which neural regions are involved in a specific cognitive function, others defining the temporal sequences of these activations with an optimal temporal resolution. The aim of the present manuscript is to show how event-related potentials (ERPs may help us to enhance our understanding of psychopathological conditions. To do so, three experiments from our laboratory will be presented. An emotional oddball design was used, in which participants are confronted with frequent stimuli (neutral faces and deviant stimuli (emotional faces which they have to detect as quickly as possible. These studies address anxiety, the long-term consequences of ecstasy consumption and schizophrenia. Our main purpose is to show that, if previous studies have shown for generalised anxiety disorder, as well as for drug abuse or schizophrenia, P300 alterations, the impaired processes leading to such an identical disturbance are different from one population to the other.
Nabha, Linda; Duong, Lan; Timpone, Joseph
Potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in dramatic improvements in AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality. Although combination ART has resulted in a significant reduction in HIV-associated dementia, the most severe of the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the overall prevalence of HAND among this population is estimated at 40%. It has been recognized that the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir for HIV, and neuronal damage begins at the time of acute infection and persists due to chronic infection of microglial and perivascular macrophages. Although combination ART has resulted in virologic control in the plasma compartment, virologic breakthrough can potentially ensue within the CNS compartment due to limited ART drug exposure. The purpose of this review is to discuss the definition, clinical spectrum, and risk factors associated with HAND, review the pathogenesis of HAND, and address the pharmacologic challenges associated with ART drug exposure in the CNS compartment. PMID:23733447
Entzel, Pamela; Albers, Jim; Welch, Laura
Brick masons and mason tenders report a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), many of which can be prevented with changes in materials, work equipment or work practices. To explore the use of "best practices" in the masonry industry, NIOSH organized a 2-day meeting of masonry stakeholders. Attendees included 30 industry representatives, 5 health and safety researchers, 4 health/safety specialists, 2 ergonomic consultants, and 2 representatives of state workers' compensation programs. Small groups discussed ergonomic interventions currently utilized in the masonry industry, including factors affecting intervention implementation and ways to promote diffusion of interventions. Meeting participants also identified various barriers to intervention implementation, including business considerations, quality concerns, design issues, supply problems, jobsite conditions and management practices that can slow or limit intervention diffusion. To be successful, future diffusion efforts must not only raise awareness of available solutions but also address these practical concerns. PMID:17097597
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.
Stephanie M. Schindler
Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.
Full Text Available Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature.Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1 determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2 identify targeted areas for further research.Methods: A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1 the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2 the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology.Results: A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD
Full Text Available From a holistic perspective, psychiatric diseases are caused by the patients unwillingness to assume responsibility for his life, existence, and personal relations. The loss of responsibility arises from the repression of the fundamental existential dimensions of the patients. Repression of love and purpose causes depersonalization (i.e., a lack of responsibility for being yourself and for the contact with others, loss of direction and purpose in life. Repression of strength in mind and emotions leads to derealization (the breakdown of the reality testing, often with mental delusions and hallucinations. The repression of joy and gender leads to devitalization (emotional emptiness, loss of joy, personal energy, sexuality, and pleasure in life.The losses of existential dimensions are invariably connected to traumas with life-denying decisions. Healing the wounds of the soul by holding and processing will lead to the recovery of the person's character, purpose of life, and existential responsibility. It can be very difficult to help a psychotic patient. The physician must first love his patient unconditionally and then fully understand the patient in order to meet and support the patient to initiate the holistic process of healing. It takes motivation and willingness to suffer on behalf of the patients in order to heal, as the existential and emotional pain of the traumas resulting in insanity is often overwhelming. We believe that most psychiatric diseases can be alleviated or cured by the loving and caring physician who masters the holistic toolbox. Further research is needed to document the effect of holistic medicine in psychiatry.
Troussard, Xavier; Cornet, Édouard
The standardized blood smear examination is the first step in the diagnosis of a B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and can guide further investigations. In the laboratory, the identification of hairy cells on blood smear is a matter of daily practice. Hairy cell proliferations represent heterogeneous entities and their respective diagnoses can be difficult. If hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) represent separate entities, the variant form of HCL (HCLv) and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) remain provisional entities in the 2008 WHO classification. We discuss the main clinical and biological characteristics of these four entities and appropriate means to characterize, identify and distinguish from each other; standardized blood smear examination, multiparameter flow cytometry analysis, analysis of the repertoire of immunoglobulins heavy chains genes and their mutational status (mutated or unmutated profile), molecular analyses: BRAF gene V600E mutation in HCL and MAP2K1 gene mutations in HCLv. We also discuss the main therapeutic aspects with emphasis on the new targeted drugs that enter into force in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:25858127
Full Text Available Elizabeth G Neal 1Matthew's Friends Clinics, Lingfield, UK, 2UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK Abstract: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, restricted-carbohydrate regime, originally designed to mimic metabolic responses to fasting and has been used since the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy. Modified variants of the KD include the addition of medium-chain triglyceride and less-restrictive modified Atkins and low glycemic index protocols. Scientifically proven as treatment for intractable seizures in children, these ketone-generating diets are increasingly also being used in adults. They are the treatment of choice in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Evidence for the potential of KD therapy to be included within the treatment options for cancer and neurodegenerative disorders is more limited, albeit an exciting area of research with future clinical potential. This review discusses the key aspects of KD therapy, including the efficacy of treatments and clinical implementation. The importance of appropriate initiation, adequate clinical supervision, regular monitoring, and assessment of nutritional needs is highlighted. Keywords: diet, seizures, ketosis
During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion. PMID:7960286
Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina;
forty-two of these children were evaluated in 1992 during follow-up examinations. Sixteen developed schizophrenia, 10 developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 70 had outcomes of other psychopathology, and 146 did not develop a mental illness. RESULTS: Children who later developed schizophrenia or a......BACKGROUND: This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who...... developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders as adults in comparison to children who did not develop schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHOD: A total of 265 high risk and control subjects were studied in 1972. At the time of initial assessment, the Role-Taking Task (RTT) was administered. Two hundred and...
Full Text Available Movement disorders are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with movement disorders and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using task intrinsic or augmented feedback. This perspective article reviews the available evidences on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with movement disorders and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception.
The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion – the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions from a limited set of elements. Researchers working within the biological perspective argue that this ability is possible only because of an innately specified genetic makeup that is specific to human beings. Such a view of language knowledge may be fully justified in discussions on biolinguistics, and in evolutionary biology. However, it is grossly inadequate in understanding language-learning problems, particularly those experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia, Williams syndrome, specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, syntax-centered definitions of language knowledge completely ignore certain crucial aspects of language learning and use, namely, that language is embedded in a social context; that the role of envrironmental triggering as a learning mechanism is grossly underestimated; that a considerable extent of visuo-spatial information accompanies speech in day-to-day communication; that the developmental process itself lies at the heart of knowledge acquisition; and that there is a tremendous variation in the orthographic systems associated with different languages. All these (socio-cultural) factors can influence the rate and quality of spoken and written language acquisition resulting in much variation in phenotypes associated with disorders known to have a genetic component. Delineation of such phenotypic variability requires inputs from varied disciplines such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, linguistics and communication disorders. In this paper, I discuss published research that questions cognitive modularity and emphasises the role of the environment for understanding linguistic capabilities of children with neuro-developmental disorders. The discussion
Effective medium super-cell approximation method which is introduced for disordered systems is extended to a general case of interacting disordered systems. We found that the dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) and also the non local coherent potential approximation (NLCPA) are two simple case of this technique. Whole equations of this formalism derived by using the effective medium theory in real space.
Bulley, Adam; Miloyan, Beyon; Brilot, Ben; Gullo, Matthew J; Suddendorf, Thomas
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) commonly co-occurs with, and often precedes, Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In this paper, we address the relationship between SAD and AUD by considering how natural selection left socially anxious individuals vulnerable to alcohol use, and by addressing the underlying mechanisms. We review research suggesting that social anxiety has evolved for the regulation of behaviors involved in reducing the likelihood or consequences of threats to social status. The management of potential threats to social standing is important considering that these threats can result in reduced cooperation or ostracism - and therefore to reduced access to coalitional partners, resources or mates. Alcohol exerts effects upon evolutionarily conserved emotion circuits, and can down-regulate or block anxiety (or may be expected to do so). As such, the ingestion of alcohol can artificially signal the absence or successful management of social threats. In turn, alcohol use may be reinforced in socially anxious people because of this reduction in subjective malaise, and because it facilitates social behaviors - particularly in individuals for whom the persistent avoidance of social situations poses its own threat (i.e., difficulty finding mates). Although the frequent co-occurrence of SAD and AUD is associated with poorer treatment outcomes than either condition alone, a richer understanding of the biological and psychosocial drives underlying susceptibility to alcohol use among socially anxious individuals may improve the efficacy of therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing or treating this comorbidity. PMID:26914963
Skelly, Niamh; Schnittger, Rebecca I; Butterly, Lisa; Frorath, Charlotte; Morgan, Craig; McLoughlin, Declan M; Fearon, Paul
According to the recovery model of mental health care, service development should incorporate the expert knowledge of service users. To date, there has been limited research into conceptualizations of mental health care quality among services users diagnosed with bipolar disorder or psychosis. To investigate service user perspectives on quality of care, we conducted six focus groups (N = 29) with inpatients and outpatients of an independent Irish mental health service. We undertook an inductive thematic analysis of the data. Participants identified proactive staff, meaningful and warm staff-patient interactions, and safety and sociability in the inpatient environment as components of good quality mental health care. Participants also discussed how the implementation of best practice guidelines does not necessarily improve quality of care from the service user perspective. This and similar qualitative research should be used to inform service development and the creation of evaluation instruments compatible with the recovery model. PMID:24163347
Schuster Jessica A
Full Text Available Abstract Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are rare cells that have the unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into cells of all hematopoietic lineages. The expansion of HSCs has remained an important goal to develop advanced cell therapies for bone marrow transplantation and many blood disorders. Over the last several decades, there have been numerous attempts to expand HSCs in vitro using purified growth factors that are known to regulate HSCs. However, these attempts have been met with limited success for clinical applications. New developments in the HSC expansion field coupled with gene therapy and stem cell transplant should encourage progression in attractive treatment options for many disorders including hematologic conditions, immunodeficiencies, and genetic disorders.
Morais, Sandra A.; Vilas-Boas, Andreia
Autoimmune rheumatic disorders have complex etiopathogenetic mechanisms in which B cells play a central role. The importance of factors stimulating B cells, notably the B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) axis is now recognized. BAFF and APRIL are cytokines essential for B-cell proliferation and survival from the immature stages to the development of plasma cells. Their levels are increased in some subsets of patients with autoimmune disorders. Several recent biologic drugs have been developed to block this axis, namely belimumab [already licensed for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment], tabalumab, atacicept and blisibimod. Many clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these drugs in several autoimmune disorders are ongoing, or have been completed recently. This review updates the information on the use of biologic agents blocking BAFF/APRIL for patients with SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome and myositis. PMID:26288664
Breanna Lathrop,1,2 Teresa B Cheney3 1Good Samaritan Health Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2South University, Savannah, GA, USA; 3AppleCare Immediate Care, LLC, Statesboro, GA, USA Abstract: The management of a child with disorders of sex development is complex from both a medical and sociocultural perspective. Decisions impacting the future sexual function and sex identity of the child are made on behalf of the child by their parents and health care providers. Such decisions are rarely straightf...
A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom
Full Text Available Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to also as ‘neurotypical’ development and timing of NDD impairments are not fully investigated.This perspective highlights temporal patterns of synaptic and neuronal impairment, with a restricted focus on autism and intellectual disability types of NDDs. Given the varying known genetic and environmental causes for NDDs, this perspective proposes two strategies for investigation: (1 a focus on neurobiological mechanisms underlying known critical periods in the (typically normal-developing brain (2 investigation of spatio-temporal expression profiles of genes implicated in monogenic syndromes throughout affected brain regions.This approach may help explain why many NDDs with differing genetic causes can result in overlapping phenotypes at similar developmental stages and better predict vulnerable periods within these disorders, with implications for both therapeutic rescue and ultimately, prevention.
Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.
Hadley Arrindell, Adrienne; Perloe, Alexandra; Fay, Kristen; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Becker, Anne Edith
Objective: The study aim was to identify and describe health consumer perspectives on social barriers to care for eating disorders in an ethnically diverse sample. Method: We conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of qualitative data comprising transcripts from semi-structured interviews with past and prospective consumers of eating disorder treatment (n = 32). Transcripts were inputted into NVivo 8 for coding, sorting, and quantifying thematic content of interest within strata defined b...
Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy
Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.
Mentally disordered offenders are a group of service users who experience substantial amounts of control and supervision. This article uses theories of social control to analyse the way in which mechanisms of control are understood by this group. Semi-structured interviews with mentally disordered offenders in England who were subject to a restriction order under the Mental Health Act 1983 (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007) provided the empirical basis for this study. The offenders had a number of perspectives on the restriction order. Firstly, it was seen as a mechanism for identifying those suffering from a mental disorder and for providing appropriate treatment. Secondly, the restriction order was viewed as a form of disciplinary control through which societal norms might be internalised. Thirdly, it was seen as labelling offenders in a manner that was experienced as limiting and oppressive. A number of research participants were aware that the order acted to limit staff actions. These participants saw the order as a means by which they might shape the support that they received in order to further their own aims.A video abstract of this article can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwIwDI2sOTY&feature=youtu.be. PMID:26235431
Full Text Available The initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis of research participants in a small, qualitative study consisted of astonishment, dread of being “mad,” and extremely negative associations. All had prior mental health diagnoses, including episodes of severe depression (all but one and alcoholism (one. All participants reported mental health histories prediagnosis and most had spent years contending with mental health labels, medications, symptoms, and hospitalizations. In addition, most participants were highly educated health professionals, quite familiar with the behaviors that the medical system considered to comprise bipolar disorder. Their negative associations to the initial bipolar disorder diagnosis, therefore, appeared inconsistent with their mental health histories and professional knowledge. This article contextualizes these initial reactions of shock and distress and proposes interpretations of these findings from societal and psychodynamic group relations perspectives. The participants’ initial negative reactions are conceptualized as involving the terror of being transported from the group of “normal” people into the group of “mad” or “crazy” people, i.e., people with mental illnesses, who may constitute a societal “denigrated other.”
Dendritic cells are the crime scene investigators of the human immune system. Their function is to correlate potentially anomalous invading entities with observed damage to the body. The detection of such invaders by dendritic cells results in the activation of the adaptive immune system, eventually leading to the removal of the invader from the host body. This mechanism has provided inspiration for the development of a novel bio-inspired algorithm, the Dendritic Cell Algorithm. This algorithm processes information at multiple levels of resolution, resulting in the creation of information granules of variable structure. In this chapter we examine the multi-faceted nature of immunology and how research in this field has shaped the function of the resulting Dendritic Cell Algorithm. A brief overview of the algorithm is given in combination with the details of the processes used for its development. The chapter is concluded with a discussion of the parallels between our understanding of the human immune system a...
Macaulay, Iain C.; Thierry Voet
Advances in whole-genome and whole-transcriptome amplification have permitted the sequencing of the minute amounts of DNA and RNA present in a single cell, offering a window into the extent and nature of genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity which occurs in both normal development and disease. Single-cell approaches stand poised to revolutionise our capacity to understand the scale of genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic diversity that occurs during the lifetime of an individual organis...
The complexity of the brain, in which different neuronal cell types are interspersed and complexly interconnected, has posed a major obstacle in identifying pathophysiological mechanisms underlying prevalent neurological disorders. This is largely based in the inability of classical experimental approaches to target defined neural populations at sufficient temporal and spatial resolution. As a consequence, effective clinical therapies for prevalent neurological disorders are largely lacking. Recently developed optogenetic probes are genetically expressed photosensitive ion channels and pumps that in principal overcome these limitations. Optogenetic probes allow millisecond resolution functional control over selected optogenetically transduced neuronal populations targeted based on promoter activity. This optical cell control scheme has already been applied to answer fundamental questions pertaining to neurological disorders by allowing researchers to experimentally intercept, or induce, pathophysiological neuronal signaling activity in a highly controlled manner. Offering high temporal resolution control over neural activity at high cellular specificity, optogenetic tools constitute a game changer in research aiming at understanding pathophysiological signaling mechanisms in neurological disorders and in developing therapeutic strategies to correct these. In this regard, recent experimental work has provided new insights in underlying mechanisms, as well as preliminary proof-of-principle for optogenetic therapies, of several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and progressive blindness. This review synthesizes experimental work where optogenetic tools have been applied to explore pathologic neural network activity in models of neurological disorders. PMID:23871610
Stuart, J; Johnson, C S
The sickling process causes secondary changes in cell shape, size, cation and water content, and membrane structure that contribute to the impairment of intrinsic cell deformability (Figure 2). This rheological defect is partially compensated by a low haematocrit, which moderates the rise in whole-blood viscosity, and by a rise in cardiac output which increases capillary flow velocity (Berger and King, 1982). A delicate balance exists between these mechanisms and any local disturbance of this balance by pathological changes in factors extrinsic to the sickle cell (Figure 2) can precipitate vaso-occlusion. There is still considerable controversy over the site (arteriolar, capillary, or venular) of vaso-occlusion, the type of sickle cell (reversibly sickled or irreversibly sickled) that is primarily involved, and the relative importance of extra-erythrocytic precipitating factors such as stasis, hypoxia, hyperosmolality, acidosis, alteration in temperature, acute-phase rise in plasma proteins and leukocytes, prothrombotic changes in coagulation factors and platelets, and adhesion of blood cells to vascular endothelium (Figure 2). A low-grade hypercoagulable state has been described in patients with SS (Leichtman and Brewer, 1978; Richardson et al, 1979) which may be related to the procoagulant effect of the shift of phosphatidyl serine to the outer lipid bilayer of the sickle cell (Chiu et al, 1981; Franck et al, 1985). Platelets appear to accumulate at sites of vaso-occlusion (Siegel et al, 1985) and their migration to the vessel wall may be enhanced by the presence of poorly deformable erythrocytes (Aarts et al, 1984). Endothelial cell damage in the arterial or venous circulation may also contribute (Klug et al, 1982). Thus vaso-occlusion appears to result from a complex interaction between blood cells, plasma proteins and endothelium and any one of several precipitating factors may disturb the fragile steady state and cause a painful crisis. The study of sickle
Susanna M. Müller Wilhelm Friedrich
Full Text Available Primary Immunodeficiencies constitute a group of highly complex congenital disorders most of which are characterized by a very poor prognosis. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT has become an established curative treatment approach in many of these disorders, which may be permanently corrected. In this presentation basic and practical aspects of HSCT are presented, with an emphasis on its application in lymphocyte disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. Optimal results and outcome of HSCT are highly dependant on early and correct diagnosis of these rare disorders, and HSCT should usually be applied early in the course of the disease in order to prevent irreversible complications from infections. Clinical results will be summarized based on recent analysis performed in large patient cohorts, which have shown steady improvements and have led to a marked change in the prognosis of patients with primary immunodeficiencies.
Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N;
Why is there a small peak of germ cell tumours in the postnatal period and a major peak in young age, starting at puberty? And, paradoxically, small risk in old age, although spermatogenesis is a lifelong process? Why is this type of cancer more common in individuals with maldeveloped gonads......, including undescended testis, gonadal dysgenesis and androgen insensitivity syndrome? Why has there, during the past 50 years, been a quite dramatic increase in testicular cancer in many developed countries? These are just a few of many questions concerning testicular cancer. However, the recent progress...... in research in the early stages of testicular cancer (carcinoma in situ testis (CIS)) allows us to begin to answer some of these questions. There is more and more evidence that the CIS cell is a gonocyte with stem cell potential, which explains why an adult man can develop a non-seminoma, which...
Hees, Hiske L.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Bultmann, Ute; Schene, Aart H.
Objectives: To examine the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process regarding the definition of successful RTW outcome after sickness absence related to common mental disorders (CMD's). Methods: A mixed-method design was used: First, we used qualitative methods (
Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.
Garabedian, Lara; Struyf, Sofie; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Sozzani, Silvano; Van Damme, Jo; Laureys, Geneviève
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation and/or proliferation of cells with a Langerhans cell phenotype. Although no clear cause of LCH has been identified, it has been postulated that LCH might be the consequence of an immune dysregulation, causing Langerhans cells to migrate to and accumulate at various sites. Production of cytokines and chemokines is a central feature of immune regulation. Cytokines are abundantly present within LCH lesions. We review here the potential role of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of LCH. The type, distribution, and number of different cytokines released within lesions can provide clues to the possible aetiology of LCH and, ultimately, might offer therapeutic possibilities using recombinant cytokines or antagonists for this disorder. PMID:22001902
McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Feinberg, Mark E
A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains—behaviors,emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally a theoretical literature, were view and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737
Ragoussi, Maria Eleni; Torres, Tomás
Organic, dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cell technologies have triggered widespread interest in recent years due to their very promising potential towards a high solar electricity future. A number of important milestones have marked the roadmap of each sector on the way to today's outstanding performances, but there still remains plenty of scope for further improvement. The most influential landmarks, together with basic concepts and future perspectives, are unraveled in this review
G. Wagemaker (Gerard)
textabstractAfter more than 20 years of development, lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy has entered the stage of initial clinical implementation for immune deficiencies and storage disorders. This brief review summarizes the development and applications, focusing on the lysosomal enzyme
Jing ZHAO; Wen-jie JIANG; Chen SUN; Cong-zhe HOU; Xiao-mei YANG; Jian-gang GAO
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used for different purposes, including gene targeting, celltherapy, tissue repair, organ regeneration, and so on. However, studies and applications of ES cells are hindered by ethical issues regarding cellsources. To circumvent ethical disputes, great efforts have been taken to generate ES cel-like cells, which are not derived from the inner cellmass of blastocyst-stage embryos. In 2006, Yamanaka et al. first re-programmed mouse embryonic fibroblasts into ES cell-like cells cal ed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. About one year later, Yamanaka et al. and Thomson et al. independently reprogrammed human somatic cells into iPS cells. Since the first generation of iPS cells, they have now been derived from quite a few different kinds of celltypes. In particular, the use of peripheral blood facilitates research on iPS cells because of safety, easy availability, and plenty of cellsources. Now iPS cells have been used for celltherapy, disease modeling, and drug discovery. In this review, we describe the generations, applications, potential issues, and future perspectives of iPS cells.
Major advances are currently being made in regenerativemedicine for cornea. Stem cell-based therapiesrepresent a novel strategy that may substituteconventional corneal transplantation, albeit there aremany challenges ahead given the singularities of eachcellular layer of the cornea. This review recapitulatesthe current data on corneal epithelial stem cells,corneal stromal stem cells and corneal endothelialcell progenitors. Corneal limbal autografts containingepithelial stem cells have been transplanted in humansfor more than 20 years with great successful rates,and researchers now focus on ex vivo cultures andother cell lineages to transplant to the ocular surface.A small population of cells in the corneal endotheliumwas recently reported to have self-renewal capacity,although they do not proliferate in vivo . Two mainobstacles have hindered endothelial cell transplantationto date culture protocols and cell delivery methods tothe posterior cornea in vivo . Human corneal stromalstem cells have been identified shortly after therecognition of precursors of endothelial cells. Stromalstem cells may have the potential to provide a directcell-based therapeutic approach when injected tocorneal scars. Furthermore, they exhibit the ability todeposit organized connective tissue in vitro and maybe useful in corneal stroma engineering in the future.Recent advances and future perspectives in the field arediscussed.
Mascarenhas, Sheryl; Avalos, Belinda; Ardoin, Stacy P
Stem cell transplant (SCT) has long been the standard of care for several hematologic, immunodeficient, and oncologic disorders. Recently, SCT has become an increasingly utilized therapy for refractory autoimmune rheumatologic disorders (ARDs). The efficacy of SCT in ARDs has been attributed to resetting an aberrant immune system either through direct immune replacement with hematopoietic stem cells or through immunomodulation with mesenchymal stem cells. Among ARDs, refractory systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are the most common indications for SCT. SCT has also been used in refractory rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory myopathies, antiphospholipid syndrome, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and pediatric ARDs. Complete responses have been reported in approximately 30 % of patients in all disease categories. Transplant-related mortality, however, remains a concern. Future large multi-center prospective randomized clinical trials will help to better define the specific role of SCT in the treatment of patients with ARDs. PMID:22956390
Silvestris, Erica; D'Oronzo, Stella; Cafforio, Paola; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Loverro, Giuseppe
Infertility is a medical and social condition that affects millions of women worldwide and is today considered so far as a new disease. A considerable progress has been recently pursued in the field of the reproductive medicine and the infertility treatment may account for novel and modern procedures such as in vitro oocyte fertilization, egg donation, pregnancy surrogacy and preimplantation diagnosis. However, great interest has lately been reserved to the ovarian stem cells (OSCs) whose existence in woman ovaries has been proven. OSCs are thus suitable for developmental studies in infertility and in other clinical applications as endocrine derangements due to premature ovarian failure, or for infertility treatment after cancer chemotherapies, as well as in restoring the hormonal balance in postmenopausal age. PMID:26250560
Pelling, Andrew E; Horton, Michael A
The physical properties of the protoplasm have long been of interest, and today, several intricate methods, including atomic force microscopy, have been employed in studies of cellular mechanics. However, many current concepts and experimental approaches actually have their beginnings over 300 years ago. Unfortunately, these pioneering studies have been all but forgotten. In this paper, we have reviewed some of the early literature on cellular mechanics to place modern work within an historical framework. It is clear that with current nanoscience approaches, modern experiments employing cell indentation, manipulation, particle rheology and micro- or nano-needle poking are now quantifying mechanical properties which were only qualitatively described 100 years ago. Aside from the variety of approaches our predecessors have employed to understand cellular mechanics, we feel an understanding of the past will help to propel nanoscience into the future. As nanophysiology and nanomedicine are developing, we as a community should take time to consider the early roots of these fields. PMID:18064487
Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox
Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.
Frumkin, Tsvia; Malcov, Mira; Telias, Michael; Gold, Veronica; Schwartz, Tamar; Azem, Foad; Amit, Ami; Yaron, Yuval; Ben-Yosef, Dalit
Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) carrying specific mutations potentially provide a valuable tool for studying genetic disorders in humans. One preferable approach for obtaining these cell lines is by deriving them from affected preimplantation genetically diagnosed embryos. These unique cells are especially important for modeling human genetic disorders for which there are no adequate research models. They can be further used to gain new insights into developmentally regulated events that occur during human embryo development and that are responsible for the manifestation of genetically inherited disorders. They also have great value for the exploration of new therapeutic protocols, including gene-therapy-based treatments and disease-oriented drug screening and discovery. Here, we report the establishment of 15 different mutant human embryonic stem cell lines derived from genetically affected embryos, all donated by couples undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis in our in vitro fertilization unit. For further information regarding access to HESC lines from our repository, for research purposes, please email firstname.lastname@example.org. PMID:20186514
Sandes, Alex Freire; Medeiros, Raphael Salles Scortegagna; Rizzatti, Edgar Gil
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The term mastocytosis covers a group of rare disorders characterized by neoplastic proliferation and accumulation of clonal mast cells in one or more organs. The aim of this study was to assess the principal elements for diagnosing and treating these disorders. DESIGN AND SETTING Narrative review of the literature conducted at Grupo Fleury, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS This study reviewed the scientific papers published in the PubMed, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases that were identified using the search term "mastocytosis." RESULTS The clinical presentation of mastocytosis is remarkably heterogeneous and ranges from skin lesions that may regress spontaneously to aggressive forms associated with organ failure and short survival. Currently, seven subtypes of mastocytosis are recognized through the World Health Organization classification system for hematopoietic tumors. These disorders are diagnosed based on clinical manifestations and on identification of neoplastic mast cells using morphological, immunophenotypic, genetic and molecular methods. Abnormal mast cells display atypical and frequently spindle-shaped morphology, and aberrant expression of the CD25 and CD2 antigens. Elevation of serum tryptase is a common finding in some subtypes, and more than 90% of the patients present the D816V KIT mutation in mast cells. CONCLUSION Here, we described the most common signs and symptoms among patients with mastocytosis and suggested a practical approach for the diagnosis, classification and initial clinical treatment of mastocytosis. PMID:24141298
Risbrough, Victoria B.; Stein, Murray B.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders that include generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, phobic disorders (e.g., specific phobias, agoraphobia, social phobia) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Anxiety disorders are among the most common of all mental disorders and, when coupled with an awareness of the disability and reduced quality of life they convey, they must be recognized as a serious public health problem. Over 20 years of preclinical studies point to a...
Full Text Available During mammalian ontogenesis, the neurotransmitter GABA is a fundamental regulator of neuronal networks. In neuronal development, GABAergic signaling regulates neural proliferation, migration, differentiation, and neuronal-network wiring. In the adult, GABA orchestrates the activity of different neuronal cell-types largely interconnected, by powerfully modulating synaptic activity. GABA exerts these functions by binding to chloride-permeable ionotropic GABAA receptors and metabotropic GABAB receptors. According to its functional importance during development, GABA is implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Fragile X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and neurofibromatosis.The strength and polarity of GABAergic transmission is continuously modulated during physiological, but also pathological conditions. For GABAergic transmission through GABAA receptors, strength regulation is achieved by different mechanisms such as modulation of GABAA receptors themselves, variation of intracellular chloride concentration, and alteration in GABA metabolism. In the never-ending effort to find possible treatments for GABA-related neurological diseases, of great importance would be modulating GABAergic transmission in a safe and possibly physiological way, without the dangers of either silencing network activity or causing epileptic seizures. In this review, we will discuss the different ways to modulate GABAergic transmission normally at work both during physiological and pathological conditions. Our aim is to highlight new research perspectives for therapeutic treatments that reinstate natural and physiological brain functions in neuro-pathological conditions.
The origin of altered radiotracer uptake and distribution in functional brain imaging studies, often considered to reflect regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), in psychiatric disorders is unknown. Interpreting the magnitude of changes as changes in the magnitude of neuronal activity may be reasonable during normal circumstances, but less reliable in pathologic states. Results of published 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT studies in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and major depression are discussed in the light of 99mTc-HMPAO properties, and reported findings of altered cell morphology and biochemistry, with emphasis on energy metabolism. We conclude that the SPECT technique using radiotracers with known biochemical properties will become useful in the understanding of cellular dysfunctions at different phases of neuropsychiatric disorders, and that use of automatic interpretation of three-dimensional volumes will allow for easier identification of regional neural correlates of the different psychiatric symptoms (Au)
Alexandros Alexandratos; Panagiotis Moulos; Ioannis Nellas; Konstantinos Mavridis; Dedos, Skarlatos G.
Ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic gland (PG) cells of insects control the developmental timing of their immature life stages. These cells have been historically considered as carrying out a single function in insects, namely the biochemical conversion of cholesterol to ecdysteroids and their secretion. A growing body of evidence shows that PG cells receive multiple cues during insect development so we tested the hypothesis that they carry out more than just one function in insects. We ...
Full Text Available Abstract Adult stem cells are activated to proliferate and differentiate during normal tissue homeostasis as well as in disease states and injury. This activation is a vital component in the restoration of function to damaged tissue via either complete or partial regeneration. When regeneration does not fully occur, reparative processes involving an overproduction of stromal components ensure the continuity of tissue at the expense of its normal structure and function, resulting in a “reparative disorder”. Adult stem cells from multiple organs have been identified as being involved in this process and their role in tissue repair is being investigated. Evidence for the participation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs in the tissue repair process across multiple tissues is overwhelming and their role in reparative disorders is clearly demonstrated, as is the involvement of a number of specific signaling pathways. Transforming growth factor beta, bone morphogenic protein and Wnt pathways interact to form a complex signaling network that is critical in regulating the fate choices of both stromal and tissue-specific resident stem cells (TSCs, determining whether functional regeneration or the formation of scar tissue follows an injury. A growing understanding of both TSCs, MSCs and the complex cascade of signals regulating both cell populations have, therefore, emerged as potential therapeutic targets to treat reparative disorders. This review focuses on recent advances on the role of these cells in skeletal muscle, heart and lung tissues.
Francisco Barriga; Pablo Ramírez; Angélica Wietstruck; Nicolás Rojas
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the accepted therapy of choice for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases in children and adults. Initially developed as rescue therapy for a patient with cancer after high doses of chemotherapy and radiation as well as the correction of severe deficiencies in the hematopoietic system, it has evolved into an adoptive immune therapy for malignancies and autoimmune disorders. The procedure has helped to obtain key information about the bone ...
Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for
Alexandratos, Alexandros; Moulos, Panagiotis; Nellas, Ioannis; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Dedos, Skarlatos G
Ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic gland (PG) cells of insects control the developmental timing of their immature life stages. These cells have been historically considered as carrying out a single function in insects, namely the biochemical conversion of cholesterol to ecdysteroids and their secretion. A growing body of evidence shows that PG cells receive multiple cues during insect development so we tested the hypothesis that they carry out more than just one function in insects. We characterised the molecular nature and developmental profiles of cell membrane receptors in PG cells of Bombyx mori during the final larval stage and determined what receptors decode nutritional, developmental and physiological signals. Through iterative approaches we identified a complex repertoire of cell membrane receptors that are expressed in intricate patterns and activate previously unidentified signal transduction cascades in PG cells. The expression patterns of some of these receptors explain precisely the mechanisms that are known to control ecdysteroidogenesis. However, the presence of receptors for the notch, hedgehog and wingless signalling pathways and the expression of innate immunity-related receptors such as phagocytosis receptors, receptors for microbial ligands and Toll-like receptors call for a re-evaluation of the role these cells play in insects. PMID:26847502
Alexandratos, Alexandros; Moulos, Panagiotis; Nellas, Ioannis; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Dedos, Skarlatos G.
Ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic gland (PG) cells of insects control the developmental timing of their immature life stages. These cells have been historically considered as carrying out a single function in insects, namely the biochemical conversion of cholesterol to ecdysteroids and their secretion. A growing body of evidence shows that PG cells receive multiple cues during insect development so we tested the hypothesis that they carry out more than just one function in insects. We characterised the molecular nature and developmental profiles of cell membrane receptors in PG cells of Bombyx mori during the final larval stage and determined what receptors decode nutritional, developmental and physiological signals. Through iterative approaches we identified a complex repertoire of cell membrane receptors that are expressed in intricate patterns and activate previously unidentified signal transduction cascades in PG cells. The expression patterns of some of these receptors explain precisely the mechanisms that are known to control ecdysteroidogenesis. However, the presence of receptors for the notch, hedgehog and wingless signalling pathways and the expression of innate immunity-related receptors such as phagocytosis receptors, receptors for microbial ligands and Toll-like receptors call for a re-evaluation of the role these cells play in insects. PMID:26847502
Reid, David B
Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis. PMID:26675158
Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Lagresle, Chantal; Fischer, Alain
In the last 30 years, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has become the treatment of choice for many hematologic malignancies or inherited disorders and a number of changes have been registered in terms of long-term survival rate of transplanted patients as well as of available sources of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). In parallel to the publication of better results in HSC transplantation, several recent discoveries have opened a scientific and ethical debate on the therapeutical potential of stem cells isolated from adult or embryonic tissues. One of the major discoveries in this field is the capacity of bone marrow-derived stem cells to treat a genetic liver disease in a mouse model, thus justifying the concept of transdifferentiation of adult stem cell and raising hopes on its possible therapeutical applications. We have tried here to summarise the advances in this field and to discuss the limits of these biological data. PMID:12494504
Rock, Jason R; Randell, Scott H; Hogan, Brigid L M
The small airways of the human lung undergo pathological changes in pulmonary disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans and cystic fibrosis. These clinical problems impose huge personal and societal healthcare burdens. The changes, termed 'pathological airway remodeling', affect the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and the reciprocal trophic interactions that occur between these tissues. Most of the normal human airway is lined by a pseudostratified epithelium of ciliated cells, secretory cells and 6-30% basal cells, the proportion of which varies along the proximal-distal axis. Epithelial abnormalities range from hypoplasia (failure to differentiate) to basal- and goblet-cell hyperplasia, squamous- and goblet-cell metaplasia, dysplasia and malignant transformation. Mesenchymal alterations include thickening of the basal lamina, smooth muscle hyperplasia, fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation. Paradoxically, given the prevalence and importance of airway remodeling in lung disease, its etiology is poorly understood. This is due, in part, to a lack of basic knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation, maintenance and repair of the airway epithelium. Specifically, little is known about the proliferation and differentiation of basal cells, a multipotent stem cell population of the pseudostratified airway epithelium. This Perspective summarizes what we know, and what we need to know, about airway basal cells to evaluate their contributions to normal and abnormal airway remodeling. We contend that exploiting well-described model systems using both human airway epithelial cells and the pseudostratified epithelium of the genetically tractable mouse trachea will enable crucial discoveries regarding the pathogenesis of airway disease. PMID:20699479
Goodkin, Karl; Fernandez, Francisco; Forstein, Marshall; Miller, Eric N.; Becker, James T; Douaihy, Antoine; Cubano, Luis; Santos, Flavia H; Filho, Nelson Silva; Zirulnik, Jorge; Singh, Dinesh
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders remain common in the current era of effective antiretroviral therapy. However, the severity at presentation of these disorders has been reduced, and the typical manifestations have changed. A revision of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria has been made on this basis, and a revision of the analogous criteria by the American Psychiatric Association will be forthcoming in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5. This...
Hees, Hiske L.; Karen Nieuwenhuijsen; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; Ute Bültmann; Schene, Aart H
Objectives: To examine the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process regarding the definition of successful RTW outcome after sickness absence related to common mental disorders (CMD's). Methods: A mixed-method design was used: First, we used qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to identify a broad range of criteria important for the definition of successful RTW (N = 57). Criteria were grouped into content-related clusters. Second, we used a quant...
Full Text Available The incidence of non-albicans species of Candida has recently increased, especially in patients with malignant haematological disorders receiving fluconazole prophylaxis. A retrospective study of patients who developed candidaemia at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital between January 1992 and December 2002 was carried out. Thirty one episodes of candidaemia occurred in 27 patients with a variety of haematological disorders. Twenty-four episodes were caused by non-albicans species of Candida and only 7 episodes were caused by C.albicans. The most frequent underlying haematological disorders were acute myeloid leukaemia (AML followed by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. The main predisposing factors for the development of candidaemia were: broad spectrum antibiotics, central venous catheters, neutropenia, cytotoxic chemotherapy, coexisting bacterial infections, steroid therapy, relapsing or untreated primary disease and fluconazole prophylaxis.Eight episodes were complicated by chronic disseminated candidiasis. Amphotericin-B and amBisome were used in the treatment of Candida infections. The treatment was successful in 86% of the episodes of C. albicans and 50% of the episodes due to non-albicans species of Candida. The highest mortality rate was encountered with C.tropicalis infections.Candidaemia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with malignant haematological disorders and stem cell transplant. The predominance of non-albicans species of Candida especially C.krusei and C.tropicalis is alarming. The early administration of appropriate antifungal therapy and the removal of infected intravascular catheters improve the outcome considerably.
Bao, Yan; Cao, Xuetao
B lymphocytes are generally recognized as the essential component of humoral immunity and also a regulator of innate immunity. The development of B cells is precisely regulated by a variety of factors via different mechanisms, including cytokine/cytokine receptors, signal transduction molecules, and transcription factors. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA, play critical roles in establishing B cell lineage-specific gene expression profiles to define and sustain B cell identity and function. Epigenetic modifications are also sensitive to external stimuli and might bridge genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis or control of B-cell-related immune disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, lymphoma, and leukemia. Better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms for regulating B cell development and involving B cell abnormal differentiation and function will shed light on the design of new therapeutic approaches to B-cell-related diseases, and potential candidates of epigenetic modulators may be identified to target epigenetic pathways to prevent or treat B cell disorders. We summarize the relevance of epigenetic marks and landscapes in the stages of B cell development, discuss the interaction of the transcriptional networks and epigenetic changes, and review the involvement of epigenetic risk in the pathogenesis of B-cell-related diseases. Understanding how specific epigenetic alterations contribute to the development of B-cell-related autoimmunity and malignancies is instrumental to control B cell disorders. PMID:26066671
Zaritsky, Arieh; Woldringh, Conrad L
The origins of Molecular Biology and Bacterial Physiology are reviewed, from our personal standpoints, emphasizing the coupling between bacterial growth, chromosome replication and cell division, dimensions and shape. Current knowledge is discussed with historical perspective, summarizing past and present achievements and enlightening ideas for future studies. An interactive simulation program of the bacterial cell division cycle (BCD), described as "The Central Dogma in Bacteriology," is briefly represented. The coupled process of transcription/translation of genes encoding membrane proteins and insertion into the membrane (so-called transertion) is invoked as the functional relationship between the only two unique macromolecules in the cell, DNA and peptidoglycan embodying the nucleoid and the sacculus respectively. We envision that the total amount of DNA associated with the replication terminus, so called "nucleoid complexity," is directly related to cell size and shape through the transertion process. Accordingly, the primary signal for cell division transmitted by DNA dynamics (replication, transcription and segregation) to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery is of a physico-chemical nature, e.g., stress in the plasma membrane, relieving nucleoid occlusion in the cell's center hence enabling the divisome to assemble and function between segregated daughter nucleoids. PMID:26284044
Full Text Available A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results.The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results.This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses.
Vogl, Julia; Heine, Astrid M; Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Weiss, Konrad; Tucek, Gerhard
A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results. The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results. This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses. PMID:26300720
Full Text Available Although there are a number of weaknesses for clinical use, pluripotent stem cells are valuable sources for patient-specific cell therapies against various diseases. Backed-up by a huge number of basic researches, neuronal differentiation mechanism is well established and pluripotent stem cell therapies against neurological disorders are getting closer to clinical application. However, there are increasing needs for standardization of the sourcing pluripotent stem cells by establishing stem cell registries and banking. Global harmonization will accelerate practical use of personalized therapies using pluripotent stem cells.
Skene, Nathan G.; Grant, Seth G.N.
The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment ...
Skene, Nathan G.; Grant, Seth G.N.
The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment ...
Wouters, Mira M; Vicario, Maria; Santos, Javier
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by chronic complaints arising from disorganized brain-gut interactions leading to dysmotility and hypersensitivity. The two most prevalent FGIDs, affecting up to 16-26% of worldwide population, are functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Their etiopathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, however, recent observations reveal low-grade mucosal inflammation and immune activation, in association with impaired epithelial barrier function and aberrant neuronal sensitivity. These findings come to challenge the traditional view of FGIDs as pure functional disorders, and relate the origin to a tangible organic substrate. The mucosal inflammatory infiltrate is dominated by mast cells, eosinophils and intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestine of FGIDs. It is well established that mast cell activation can generate epithelial and neuro-muscular dysfunction and promote visceral hypersensitivity and altered motility patterns in FGIDs, postoperative ileus, food allergy and inflammatory bowel disease. This review will discuss the role of mucosal mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract with a specific focus on recent advances in disease mechanisms and clinical management in irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. PMID:26194403
Smith, N; Bartholomew, C; Jackson, S
An increasing number of individuals with haemophilia and other severe bleeding disorders who are ≥40 years of age are entering uncharted territory with respect to the identification and management of medical, physical and social issues relevant to ageing with a bleeding disorder. This is because the population experienced considerable mortality during the HIV/AIDs and hepatitis C epidemic due to exposure to tainted blood products for treatment of bleeding. As a result, few older individuals with this disorder survive today. To provide insight for how the comprehensive care team can adapt to the changing needs of the adult haemophiliac we evaluated the patient perspective. The objective of this study was to identify key themes of importance in the ageing population with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders. For this study all subjects with a diagnosis of haemophilia A or B, von Willebrand disease or rare bleeding disorders 40 years or older from a single clinic were invited to participate. Audio-recordings of groups of six to eight participants were conducted by an independent investigator without content expertise. Transcripts were analysed using N*vivo (v. 8) software using thematic content analysis. Overall, 32 subjects, 18 men/14 women, with a mean age of 57.5 years (median 56.0 years) and range of 40-77 years, participated. Three major themes emerged: (i) reflection on living an active life, (ii) 'normal' ageing vs. disease-specific impacts and (iii) the health system, and its ability to respond to their needs as ageing individuals with bleeding disorders. We found some anticipated themes and some unexpected ones, confirming that true perspective can only be provided by the patients themselves. Knowledge of these important themes has informed the development of new programmes aimed at this growing segment of the patient population. PMID:24118548
Skene, Nathan G; Grant, Seth G N
The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment (EWCE) method that uses single cell transcriptomes to generate the probability distribution associated with a gene list having an average level of expression within a cell type. Following validation, we applied EWCE to human genetic data from cases of epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Autism, Intellectual Disability, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and anxiety disorders. Genetic susceptibility primarily affected microglia in Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis; was shared between interneurons and pyramidal neurons in Autism and Schizophrenia; while intellectual disabilities and epilepsy were attributable to a range of cell-types, with the strongest enrichment in interneurons. We hypothesized that the primary cell type pathology could trigger secondary changes in other cell types and these could be detected by applying EWCE to transcriptome data from diseased tissue. In Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease we find evidence of pathological changes in all of the major brain cell types. These findings give novel insight into the cellular origins and progression in common brain disorders. The methods can be applied to any tissue and disorder and have applications in validating mouse models. PMID:26858593
Norris, Mark L; Spettigue, Wendy J; Katzman, Debra K
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new eating disorder diagnosis that was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) fifth edition. The fourth edition of the DSM had failed to adequately capture a cohort of children, adolescents, and adults who are unable to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs, for reasons other than drive for thinness, leading to significant medical and/or psychological sequelae. With the introduction of ARFID, researchers are now starting to better understand the presentation, clinical characteristics, and complexities of this disorder. This article outlines the diagnostic criteria for ARFID with specific focus on children and youth. A case example of a patient with ARFID, factors that differentiate ARFID from picky eating, and the estimated prevalence in pediatric populations are discussed, as well as clinical and treatment challenges that impact health care providers providing treatment for patients. PMID:26855577
Neutrophil disorders are classified into abnormal neutrophil function and granulopoiesis. The identification of genetic defects causing neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction has revealed the mechanisms controlling myeloid differentiation and their functions. The International Union of Immunological Societies of Primary Immunodeficiencies represents the most current catalog of approximately 30 neutrophil disorders. In this report, we show the progress made in studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of these disorders, focusing on chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only available curative therapy for CGD and SCN. However, the use of HSCT as treatment for both diseases is limited by transplant-related mortality (TRM) because of active infections and intractable inflammatory complications. Recently, reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been introduced to minimize the TRM and the late adverse effects of HSCT for both diseases. The results of HSCT using the RIC regimen for 40 patients with CGD and SCN in Hiroshima University Hospital are summarized herein. Determining the optimal line of treatment will require further accumulation to cases to refine HSCT for both diseases. PMID:26458464
Hanna E Stevens; Smith, Karen M.; Brian Rash; Vaccarino, Flora M.
There is increasing appreciation for the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of many psychiatric disorders. Disorders that begin in childhood such as autism, language disorders or mental retardation as well as adult-onset mental disorders may have origins early in neurodevelopment. Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be defined as self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. Several recent research findings demonstrate that psychiatric illness may begin with ...
Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori
Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generati...
Young-A Lee; Yoshie Yamaguchi; Yukiori Goto
Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over gener...
Seney, Marianne L.; Sibille, Etienne
Mood disorders are devastating, often chronic illnesses characterized by low mood, poor affect, and anhedonia. Notably, mood disorders are approximately twice as prevalent in women compared to men. If sex differences in mood are due to underlying biological sex differences, a better understanding of the biology is warranted to develop better treatment or even prevention of these debilitating disorders. In this review, our goals are to: 1) summarize the literature related to mood disorders wit...
Full Text Available Studies of human brain development are critical as research on neurological disorders have been progressively advanced. However, understanding the process of neurogenesis through analysis of the early embryo is complicated and limited by a number of factors, including the complexity of the embryos, availability, and ethical constrains. The emerging of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has shed light of a new approach to study both early development and disease pathology. The cells behave as precursors of all embryonic lineages; thus, they allow tracing the history from the root to individual branches of the cell lineage tree. Systems for neural differentiation of hESCs and iPSCs have provided an experimental model that can be used to augment in vitro studies of in vivo brain development. Interestingly, iPSCs derived from patients, containing donor genetic background, have offered a breakthrough approach to study human genetics of neurodegenerative diseases. This paper summarizes the recent reports of the development of iPSCs from patients who suffer from neurological diseases and evaluates the feasibility of iPSCs as a disease model. The benefits and obstacles of iPSC technology are highlighted in order to raising the cautions of misinterpretation prior to further clinical translations.
Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Campbell, Philippa H.
The purpose was to examine how caregivers of infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder view their daily activities/routines and in what way, if any, assistive technology (AT) acts as a support. A total of 134 families who reported their child's disability as autism spectrum disorder/pervasive developmental disorder completed a survey…
Mónica Peña Ochoa
Full Text Available This work examines from the perspective of critical discourse analysis, the Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis as stated by the DSM–IV and ICD-10. It considers as basis the difficulties posed by medical taxonomy of childhood as a distinct social category from adulthood, the using the sign of hyperkinesia as an evidence of the disorder, and the utilization of auxiliary instruments, external to the clinical “setting”, as the “Test of Conners”. The context of analysis refers to conditions present in Chile. Specifically, taking into consideration the diagnostic applications in the institutional space of the school. Finally, the diagnosis is analyzed from the uses and effects in regulating and self-government of individuals and bodies.
Products of DNA damage, such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4 PPs), are continually formed in genomes after exposure to UV radiation. When these DNA damages remain unrepaired in essential DNA sites for prolonged periods, DNA replication and transcription are hampered or mutation is induced, which may cause cell death, cellular senescence, and carcinogenesis of the skin. To protect against such UV-induced DNA damage, living organisms nicely retain "DNA repair systems", which can efficiently repair "harmful" DNA damage through precise mechanisms by the integrated functions of many proteins. In humans, the failure of DNA repair systems causes a variety of disorders. Dermatological conditions such as hereditary photodermatoses, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are caused by congenital functional defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system or the translesion synthesis (TLS) system. In this review, we describe the historical progress, recent findings, and future prospects of studies of human diseases associated with DNA-repair defects. PMID:26493104
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major area of effort in current genomics is to distinguish mutations that are functionally neutral from those that contribute to disease. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs are amino acid substitutions that currently account for approximately half of the known gene lesions responsible for human inherited diseases. As a result, the prediction of non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs that affect protein functions and relate to disease is an important task. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of deleterious SNPs at both functional and structural level in the respective genes associated with red blood cell metabolism disorders using bioinformatics tools. We analyzed the variants in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and isoforms of Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR & PKM2 genes responsible for major red blood cell disorders. Deleterious nsSNPs were categorized based on empirical rule and support vector machine based methods to predict the impact on protein functions. Furthermore, we modeled mutant proteins and compared them with the native protein for evaluation of protein structure stability. SIGNIFICANCE: We argue here that bioinformatics tools can play an important role in addressing the complexity of the underlying genetic basis of Red Blood Cell disorders. Based on our investigation, we report here the potential candidate SNPs, for future studies in human Red Blood Cell disorders. Current study also demonstrates the presence of other deleterious mutations and also endorses with in vivo experimental studies. Our approach will present the application of computational tools in understanding functional variation from the perspective of structure, expression, evolution and phenotype.
Hiske L Hees
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the perspectives of key stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW process regarding the definition of successful RTW outcome after sickness absence related to common mental disorders (CMD's. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used: First, we used qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews to identify a broad range of criteria important for the definition of successful RTW (N = 57. Criteria were grouped into content-related clusters. Second, we used a quantitative approach (online questionnaire to identify, among a larger stakeholder sample (N = 178, the clusters and criteria most important for successful RTW. RESULTS: A total of 11 clusters, consisting of 52 unique criteria, were identified. In defining successful RTW, supervisors and occupational physicians regarded "Sustainability" and "At-work functioning" most important, while employees regarded "Sustainability," "Job satisfaction," "Work-home balance," and "Mental Functioning" most important. Despite agreement on the importance of certain criteria, considerable differences among stakeholders were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Key stakeholders vary in the aspects and criteria they regard as important when defining successful RTW after CMD-related sickness absence. Current definitions of RTW outcomes used in scientific research may not accurately reflect these key stakeholder perspectives. Future studies should be more aware of the perspective from which they aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a RTW intervention, and define their RTW outcomes accordingly.
Roden, Anja C; Yi, Eunhee S
Context .- Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder that almost exclusively affects the lungs of smokers. PLCH is characterized by bronchiolocentric nodules and/or cysts in an upper and mid lung distribution with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The diagnosis can be challenging and often requires transbronchial biopsy or surgical lung biopsy. Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common and sometimes severe complication of PLCH. The pathogenesis of PLCH is still debated. Recently, BRAF V600E mutation and BRAF expression have been identified in some patients with PLCH, suggesting that at least a subset of PLCH has a clonal proliferation. While smoking cessation is the first-line treatment of PLCH, some patients might require additional treatment and eventually transplant. Given that the lesional cells of PLCH express BRAF in some patients, MAPKinase pathway-targeted treatment might be useful for therapy-resistant patients. Objective . -To present the more recently recognized clinical and pathologic aspects of PLCH, including pulmonary hypertension in PLCH, pathogenesis, and treatment, as well as the basic diagnostic approach to PLCH. Data Sources .- Authors' own research, and search of literature database (PubMed) and UpToDate. Conclusions . -Despite the recent progress, more studies are needed to elucidate the biology of PLCH for identification of prognostic factors and appropriate treatment options, especially for therapy-refractory PLCH cases. PMID:26927717
Vaccarino, Flora M.; Urban, Alexander Eckehart; Stevens, Hanna; Szekely, Anna; Abyzov, Alexej; Grigorenko, Elena; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman
The study of the developing brain has begun to shed light on the underpinnings of both early and adult onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging of the human brain across developmental time points and the use of model animal systems have combined to reveal brain systems and gene products that may play a role in autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and many other neurodevelopmental conditions. However, precisely how genes may f...
Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.
The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…
Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.
The book contains five papers presented at a 1979 topical conference on the definition of emotional disturbance and behavioral disorders in educational settings. The first paper, by F. Wood, is titled "Defining Disturbing, Disordered, and Disturbed Behavior." Topics covered include ambivalence about defining deviant behavior by special educators,…
Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; McEvoy, Peter M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Brandt, Charles P; Boelen, Paul A; Mahoney, Alison E J; Deacon, Brett J; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a construct of growing prominence in literature on anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Existing measures of IU do not define the uncertainty that respondents perceive as distressing. To address this limitation, we developed eight scales measuring disor
Karbasi, Salman; Mafi, Arash
We frame the transverse Anderson localization of light in a one-dimensional disordered optical lattice in the language of localized propagating eigenmodes. The modal analysis allows us to explore localization behavior of a disordered lattice independent of the properties of the external excitation. Various localization-related phenomena, such as the periodic revival of a propagating Anderson-localized beam are easily explained in modal language. We characterize the localization strength by the average width of the guided modes and carry out a detailed analysis of localization behavior as a function of the optical and geometrical parameters of the disordered lattice. We also show that in order to obtain a minimum average mode width, the average width of the individual random sites in the disordered lattice must be larger than the wavelength of the light by approximately a factor of two or more, and the optimum site width for the maximum localization depends on the design parameters of the disordered lattice.
Sabine Wislet-Gendebien; Emerence Laudet; Virginie Neirinckx; Bernard Rogister
The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In th...
Boeckle, Markus; Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Pieh, Christoph
Somatoform disorders (SD) are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on n...
Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori
Studies utilizing animal models for understanding biological mechanisms of such psychiatric disorders as schizophrenia have been now flourishing. Animal models are a essential part of translational research, and without them, it is not possible to develop therapeutic strategies to treat psychiatric disorders. Accordingly, importance of animal models has been increasingly emphasized. However, on the other side, limitations of such an animal model approach have been growingly deceptive. The aim...
Smith, Jennifer Anne
Eating disorders are increasing in our society and prior research has considered the role of families, carers, partners and children in the development of these difficulties. Siblings, however, have been largely overlooked. The role of sibling relationships is not well understood, despite siblings being a long term, significant feature of many individuals with eating disorders’ lives. This study aims to investigate the experiences of women with eating disorders and their sib...
Guelfi, Julien D.
David Kupfer chaired the DSM-5 Task Force, and Andrew Skodol the working group, on personality disorders. Various initial propositions were posted on the Internet in 2010 for comment and discussion: new general definition, new criteria, new diagnostic procedures, reduction in the number of categories, and dimensional representation. Following numerous criticisms, the Task Force's final decisions were made public on December 1, 2012. Personality disorders now figure alongside other mental diso...
Bartak, Anna; Soeteman, Djora; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan
textabstractObjective: Despite scientific evidence of effectiveness, psychotherapy for personality disorders is not yet fully deployed, nor is its reimbursement self-evident. Both clinicians and health care policy-makers increasingly rely on evidence-based medicine and health economics when determining a treatment of choice and reimbursement. This article aims to contribute to that understanding by applying these criteria on psychotherapy as a treatment for patients with personality disorder....
Lopes, R; Fernandes, L
Introduction. Cognitive dysfunction as a core feature in the course of bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is a current subject of debate and represents an important source of psychosocial and functional burden. Objectives. To stand out the connection and clinical implications between cognitive dysfunction, dementia, and BPD. Methods. A nonsystematic review of all English language PubMed articles published between 1995 and 2011 using the terms “bipolar disorder,” “cognitive dysfunction,” and “de...
Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L; Gelernter, Joel; Hudziak, James; Kaufman, Joan
Individuals with a history of child abuse are at high risk for depression, anxiety disorders, aggressive behavior, and substance use problems. The goal of this paper is to review studies of the genetics of these stress-related psychiatric disorders. An informative subset of studies that examined candidate gene by environment (GxE) predictors of these psychiatric problems in individuals maltreated as children is reviewed, together with extant genome wide association studies (GWAS). Emerging fi...
Tokmakov, Alexander A.; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; SAKURAI, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki
Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yield...
Iles, Irina A.; Seate, Anita Atwell; Waks, Leah
Purpose: Previous studies have documented that exposure to stereotypical information about certain social groups leads to unfavorable perceptions and feelings toward that group. Integrating insights from the mental illness stigma and the social identity perspective literatures, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of eating disorder…
T. V. Saprina
Full Text Available The absence of an ideal medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, that would be able to provide not only high quality and constant monitoring of glycemia without increasing body weight, with no risk of hypoglycemia, with no negative impact on the heart, kidneys, liver, but could also ensure the preservation of the secretory function of β-cells, makes scientists continue to search for new opportunities to influence the occurrence and progression of T2D.Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of glucose or nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Within the pancreas, GIP and GLP-1 together promote β-cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thereby expanding pancreatic β-cell mass, while GIP enhances postprandial glucagon response and GLP-1 suppresses it. In adipose tissues, GIP but not GLP-1 facilitates fat deposition. In bone, GIP promotes bone formation while GLP-1 inhibits bone absorption. In the brain, both GIP and GLP-1 are thought to be involved in memory formation as well as the control of appetite. In addition to these differences, secretion of GIP and GLP-1 and their insulinotropic effects on β-cells have been shown to differ in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects.Enteroinsulin hormones' role in the development of gestational disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is poorly understood.In a review article we analyze the publications that summarize what is known about the pancreatic and extra-pancreatic GIP and GLP-1-effects compared with healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. The aspects of gestational diabetes pathophysiology and the perspectives for studying enteroinsulin hormonal system during pregnancy are also discussed in the article.
Nicholas, David B; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Muskat, Barbara; Craig, William R; Newton, Amanda S; Kilmer, Christopher; Greenblatt, Andrea; Roberts, Wendy; Cohen-Silver, Justine
Care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the emergency department (ED) is increasingly recognized as difficult. Communication, sensory and behavioral challenges in a high intensity environment pose risks for negative experiences and outcomes. Through semi-structured interviews, parents (n = 31) and their children (n = 4) with ASD shared their perspectives on ED care. Participants identified issues that negatively affected care experiences, including care processes, communication issues, insufficient staff knowledge about ASD, and inadequate partnership with parents. Elements contributing to an improved ED experience were also cited, including staff knowledge about ASD, child- and family-centered care, and clarity of communication. Findings inform an emerging model of ED care. Recommendations for capacity building and practice development are offered. PMID:27315287
Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David B; Muskat, Barbara; Kilmer, Christopher; Newton, Amanda S; Craig, William R; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Cohen-Silver, Justine; Greenblatt, Andrea; Roberts, Wendy; Sharon, Raphael
This study aimed to characterize the perspectives of health professionals who care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the emergency department (ED) and to determine what strategies could optimize care. Ten physicians and twelve nurses were interviewed individually. Questions related to experiences, processes, clinical decision-making and outcomes of children with ASD recently seen in the ED. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative framework. Participants identified factors that facilitated effective care, including communication strategies, parental involvement and teamwork. Barriers identified included child characteristics, the ED environment, and competing demands. Recommendations included additional staff training and stakeholder engagement. However, making accommodations was often described as being at odds with how the ED functioned, with implications for future service planning. PMID:26780909
Dezutti, Joyce E
Patients with eating disorders may have the most complex interdisciplinary treatment plans of any mental illness. Nurses need innovative evidence-based treatment interventions to assist their patients with eating disorders on their road to recovery. Although much has been written about equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) and equine-facilitated psychotherapy, the literature has not described a detailed session that can help nurses understand how this experiential treatment works and the impact it can have on the patient. A review of the literature on eating disorders and on the use of equine therapy in its treatment is presented in this article. In addition, the role of the nurse during equine therapy will be highlighted, and an individual example will provide a detailed review of an EAP session. PMID:23786240
Full Text Available Mariana G Figueiro Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USAAbstract: Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD is common among adolescents and further increases their susceptibility to chronic sleep restriction and associated detrimental outcomes, including increased risk of depression, drug and alcohol use, behavioral problems, and poor scholastic performance. DSPD is characterized by sleep onset that occurs significantly later than desired bedtimes and societal norms. Individuals with DSPD exhibit long sleep latencies when attempting to sleep at conventional bedtimes. Circadian sleep disorders such as DSPD can occur when there is misalignment between sleep timing and societal norms. This review discusses studies using light therapy to advance the timing of sleep in adolescents and college students, in particular on those suffering from DSPD. A discussion on how to increase effectiveness of light therapy in the field will also be provided.Keywords: circadian, melatonin, light, sleep, sleep phase disorder, adolescents
Full Text Available Society’s obsession with thinness and body image is part of every school’s hidden curriculum. The ideal to be skinny and thin resulted in an escalation in eating disorders among adolescents in South Africa. Some of the learners are only in the senior phase (Grades 7 to 9 of the general education and training band. It is therefore timely to review the problem of eating disorders, especially among adolescents in South African public schools. The purpose of this article is firstly to provide policy-makers, curriculum developers, educational ad-ministrators and educators with knowledge of the biblical view of health and to illustrate the pedagogical potential of such a view. Secondly the purpose is to assist Christian educators in teaching learners in public schools the necessary knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to counteract eating disorders by using, among other things, biblical truths.
Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L; Gelernter, Joel; Hudziak, James; Kaufman, Joan
Individuals with a history of child abuse are at high risk for depression, anxiety disorders, aggressive behavior, and substance use problems. The goal of this paper is to review studies of the genetics of these stress-related psychiatric disorders. An informative subset of studies that examined candidate gene by environment (GxE) predictors of these psychiatric problems in individuals maltreated as children is reviewed, together with extant genome wide association studies (GWAS). Emerging findings on epigenetic changes associated with adverse early experiences are also reviewed. Meta-analytic support and replicated findings are evident for several genetic risk factors; however, extant research suggests the effects are pleiotropic. Genetic factors are not associated with distinct psychiatric disorders, but rather diverse clinical phenotypes. Research also suggests adverse early life experiences are associated with changes in gene expression of multiple known candidate genes, genes involved in DNA transcription and translation, and genes necessary for brain circuitry development, with changes in gene expression reported in key brain structures implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and substance use disorders. The finding of pleiotropy highlights the value of using the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework in future studies of the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders, and not trying simply to link genes to multifaceted clinical syndromes, but to more limited phenotypes that map onto distinct neural circuits. Emerging work in the field of epigenetics also suggests that translational studies that integrate numerous unbiased genome-wide approaches will help to further unravel the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26592203
Tanaka, Teruaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Suzuki, Katsuji; Kitaichi, Yuji; Masui, Takuya; Denda, Kenzo; Koyama, Tsukasa
Recent concerns have been raised regarding whether antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might increase suicidal tendencies and intense debate-rages over the pros and cons of their use. Although systematic reviews and population-based studies have been conducted, a consensus on this association remains to be established. Subsequently, the concept of so-called 'activation syndrome' associated with antidepressants has been accepted without its adequate verification. In the present report, we present our experience of seven cases considered of having 'activation syndrome' brought on by antidepressants, and examine its clinical relevance to bipolar spectrum disorder (Ghaemi, et al., 2001) both symptomatologically and diagnostically. Five patients, diagnosed as having major depressive disorder according to the diagnostic manual (DSM-IV), met the criteria of bipolar spectrum disorder and suffered from activation syndrome following the administration of SSRIs, mainly paroxetine. Similarly, hypomania developed in all five cases with depression; the diagnostic criteria of a hypomanic episode were not met. In the remaining two patients, who were both diagnosed with bipolar disorder, one showed irritability and insomnia through imipramine use, and the another developed a hypomanic and/or a mixed state after the co-administration of fluvoxamine and trazodone. From the results of our examination, 'bipolarity', which is the pivotal factor of bipolar spectrum, might exist behind the phenomenon recognized as activation syndrome, and be revealed by antidepressant treatment, just like manic switching. Moreover, the various problems encountered in the current practice of treating mood disorders, including unipolar-bipolar dichotomy, manic switching by antidepressants, and narrow criteria for a mixed episode, were pointed out a new through this concept of activation syndrome. Actually, the understanding of activation syndrome clinically leads to
Ahlström, Britt H; Wentz, Elisabet
This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons' perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15-26) diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC). Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text) produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: "fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability" with the following subthemes: "difficult things," "stress and rest," and "when feelings and thoughts are a concern"; and the theme "struggling to find a life of one's own" with the following subthemes: "decide and carry out," "making life choices," and "taking care of oneself." Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons' everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge these young persons' problems. PMID:24875238
Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Novellis, Vito; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola
Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous complex neuro-developmental disorders characterized by dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills. Their pathogenesis has been linked to interactions between genes and environmental factors. Consistent with the evidence of certain similarities between immune cells and…
Carlon, Sarah; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark
Extant research on sources of information about interventions used by parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has provided a general overview of sources used. However, it has provided little insight into why parents view certain sources as reliable or trustworthy, or how useful parents found the information provided to them by the…
Tim eKroon; Martijn eSierksma; Rhiannon Mair Meredith
Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to...
Kas, M.J.H.; Glennon, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Ey, E.; Biemans, B.; Crawley, J.N.; Ring, R.H.; Lajonchere, C.; Esclassan, F.; Talpos, J.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Steckler, T.
The establishment of robust and replicable behavioural testing paradigms with translational value for psychiatric diseases is a major step forward in developing and testing etiology-directed treatment for these complex disorders. Based on the existing literature, we have generated an inventory of ap
Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen
People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or sister. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…
Taylor, Julia V.; Gibson, Donna M.
Objective: The purpose of this article is to review a crisis intervention using the developmental-ecological protocol (Collins and Collins, 2005) with a college student presenting with symptomatology of an active eating disorder. Participants: Participants included University Wellness Center employees responding to the crisis. Methods: Methods…
Cardon, Teresa A.; Guimond, Amy; Smith-Treadwell, Amanda M.
Video modeling (VM) has shown promise as an effective intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about what may promote or prevent caregivers' use of this intervention. While VM is an effective tool to support skill development among a wide range of children in research and clinical settings, VM is…
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
Oppositional defiant disorder is an individual diagnosis given commonly to children and adolescents who exhibit a pattern of noncompliant and defiant behaviors. Some children's temperament, behaviors, and interpersonal style merit this diagnosis. Other children, however, exhibit behaviors consistent with this diagnosis within the context of their…
O'Donnell, Lolita; Begg, Lisa; Lipson, Linda; Elvander, Erika
This article summarizes the findings from the Second Annual Trauma Spectrum Disorders Conference, which was held in December 2009 and was sponsored by the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury in conjunction with the Department of Veterans Affairs and the National Institutes of Health. The conference…
McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.
A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…
Ballan, Michelle S.
To explore the content of communication about sexuality between parents and children with autism spectrum disorders, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 parents of children ages 6-13. Content analysis and ethnographic summary were used to interpret the data. Findings suggest that parent's perceptions of a child's behaviors and…
Introduction: ADHD has a high comorbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). Both diseases have profound social, psychological, and economic consequences and are therefore highly relevant for health systems. The high comorbidity indicates some shared underlying neurobiological substrates. Knowing these substrates may increase the understanding of…
Warfield, Marji Erickson; Crossman, Morgan K.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Der Weerd, Emma; Kuhlthau, Karen A.
We conducted in-depth case studies of 10 health care professionals who actively provide primary medical care to adults with autism spectrum disorders. The study sought to understand their experiences in providing this care, the training they had received, the training they lack and their suggestions for encouraging more physicians to provide this…
Carbone, Paul S.; Behl, Diane D.; Azor, Virgina; Murphy, Nancy A.
This qualitative study examines differences between perceptions of parents and pediatricians regarding the needs of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their families within the medical home. Two separate focus groups of parents of children with ASDs and pediatricians were conducted. Parents and pediatricians identify unmet needs…
Davison, Judy C.
Questions the rising incidence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) diagnosis in the United States. Suggests that AD/HD is a socially constructed phenomenon rather than biologically based. Urges educators, medical personnel, and parents to take a holistic view of each child, with a serious examination of the wide range of causation…
Zhao, Jing; Jiang, Wen-jie; Sun, Chen; Hou, Cong-zhe; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Gao, Jian-gang
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used for different purposes, including gene targeting, cell therapy, tissue repair, organ regeneration, and so on. However, studies and applications of ES cells are hindered by ethical issues regarding cell sources. To circumvent ethical disputes, great efforts have been taken to generate ES cell-like cells, which are not derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos. In 2006, Yamanaka et al. first reprogrammed mouse embryonic fibroblasts in...
Xi Zhang; Cheng Zhang; Zhongjun Li; Jiangjian Zhong; Leslie P. Weiner; Jiang F. Zhong
We developed phase-switch microfluidic devices for molecular profiling of a large number of single cells. Whole genome microarrays and RNA-sequencing are commonly used to determine the expression levels of genes in cell lysates (a physical mix of millions of cells) for inferring gene functions. However, cellular heterogeneity becomes an inherent noise in the measurement of gene expression. The unique molecular characteristics of individual cells, as well as the temporal and quantitative information of gene expression in cells, are lost when averaged among all cells in cell lysates. Our single-cell technology overcomes this limitation and enables us to obtain a large number of single-cell transcriptomes from a population of cells. A collection of single-cell molecular profiles allows us to study carcinogenesis from an evolutionary perspective by treating cancer as a diverse population of cells with abnormal molecular characteristics. Because a cancer cellpopulation contains cells at various stages of development toward drug resistance, clustering similar single-cell molecular profiles could reveal how drug-resistant sub-clones evolve during cancer treatment. Here, we discuss how single-celltranscriptome analysis technology could enable the study of carcinogenesis from an evolutionary perspective and the development of drug-resistance in leukemia. The single-cell transcriptome analysis reported here could have a direct and significant impact on current cancer treatments and future personalized cancer therapies.
Nathan Gerald Skene
Full Text Available The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment (EWCE method that uses single cell transcriptomes to generate the probability distribution associated with a gene list having an average level of expression within a cell type. Following validation, we applied EWCE to human genetic data from cases of epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Autism, Intellectual Disability, Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and anxiety disorders. Genetic susceptibility primarily affected microglia in Alzheimer’s and Multiple Sclerosis; was shared between interneurons and pyramidal neurons in Autism and Schizophrenia; while intellectual disabilities and epilepsy were attributable to a range of cell-types, with the strongest enrichment in interneurons. We hypothesised that the primary cell type pathology could trigger secondary changes in other cell types and these could be detected by applying EWCE to transcriptome data from diseased tissue. In Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease we find evidence of pathological changes in all of the major brain cell types. These findings give novel insight into the cellular origins and progression in common brain disorders. The methods can be applied to any tissue and disorder and have applications in validating mouse models.
Varricchi, G; Harker, J; Borriello, F; Marone, G; Durham, S R; Shamji, M H
Follicular helper T cells (Tfh ) are located within germinal centers of lymph nodes. Cognate interaction between Tfh , B cells, and IL-21 drives B cells to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells thereby leading to antibody production. Tfh cells and IL-21 are involved in infectious and autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, vaccination, and cancer. Human peripheral blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells comprise different subsets of Tfh -like cells. Despite the importance of the IgE response in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, little is known about the role of follicular and blood Tfh cells and IL-21 in human and experimental allergic disease. Here, we review recent advances regarding the phenotypic and functional characteristics of both follicular and blood Tfh cells and of the IL-21/IL-21R system in the context of allergic disorders. PMID:26970097
Figueiro, Mariana G
Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is common among adolescents and further increases their susceptibility to chronic sleep restriction and associated detrimental outcomes, including increased risk of depression, drug and alcohol use, behavioral problems, and poor scholastic performance. DSPD is characterized by sleep onset that occurs significantly later than desired bedtimes and societal norms. Individuals with DSPD exhibit long sleep latencies when attempting to sleep at conventional bedtimes. Circadian sleep disorders such as DSPD can occur when there is misalignment between sleep timing and societal norms. This review discusses studies using light therapy to advance the timing of sleep in adolescents and college students, in particular on those suffering from DSPD. A discussion on how to increase effectiveness of light therapy in the field will also be provided. PMID:27110143
Ul Hassan, Ashfaq; Hassan, Ghulam; Rasool, Zahida
Stem cells or mother or queen of all cells are pleuropotent and have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood c...
Clinical features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as an unstable and dysregulated control over behavior, emotion, and cognition as well as clinical descriptions of temporary disturbances of perception and cognition led to the question of neuropsychological deficits. Although neuropsychological investigations of BPD did not provide a consistent constellation of findings, some evidence is available for a non-domain-specific impairment in multiple domains of memory, attention, visuo-spa...
Al Jurayyan, Nasir AM
Ambiguous genitalia, currently defined as disorders of sex development (DSD), are not uncommon in the Muslim community. DSD constitute a complex, major social and medical emergency, as several forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia can lead to significant salt loss, which may lead to shock if unrecognised and not appropriately treated. To ensure that the affected individual has a high quality of life (a successful outcome), medical practitioners must quickly and correctly assign the individu...
@@ Introduction Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first two years of man's life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, and the development in social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults along the autistic spectrum typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.
Abdul Latif Abdul Razak
Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety in which a person suffers from obsessions i.e. unwanted intrusive ideas which recur to the person persistently; and compulsions i.e. behaviours that a person feels compelled to perform epeatedly in a ritualistic manner with the aim of relieving the anxiety from the unpleasant obsessive thoughts. Although compulsion and obsession are common, once the individual experiences xcessive discomfort, then he or she would be diagnosed as a pa...
Giuseppe Lopalco; Luca Cantarini; Antonio Vitale; Florenzo Iannone; Maria Grazia Anelli; Laura Andreozzi; Giovanni Lapadula; Mauro Galeazzi; Donato Rigante
A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammatio...
Nawka Alexander; Rukavina Tea; Nawková Lucie; Jovanović Nikolina; Brborović Ognjen; Raboch Jiří
Abstract Background A content analysis was used to describe the association between psychiatric disorders and aggression in the printed media in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods Articles were chosen from the most widely read daily newspapers and magazines in both countries during five one-week periods in 2007. A coding manual was developed and a content analysis was performed. Aggressive behavior was assessed by two separate categories - the role of the mentally ill person in the viol...
Julia eVogl; Astrid Maria Heine; Nikolaus eSteinhoff; Konrad eWeiss; Gerhard eTucek
A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results.The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with...
Vogl, Julia; Heine, Astrid M.; Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Weiss, Konrad; Tucek, Gerhard
A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results. The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a resear...
Storm Mienna, Christina
Introduction The aim of the research project was to examine prevalence, co-morbidity, and impact on daily life of pain and dysfunction in the jaw-face, head, and neck-shoulder regions among adult Sami women in northern Sweden. The aim of the qualitative part of the study was to explore, thoughts, experiences, and beliefs regarding temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among Sami women with and without TMD, to gain insights into their health care experiences. Methods The research project used a mi...
Huguelet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Vidal, Sonia; Mohr, Sylvia; Courtet, Philippe; Villain, Lucile; Girod, Chloé; Hasler, Roland; Prada, Paco; Olié, Emilie; Perroud, Nader
Recovery is a personal process of growth that involves hope, self-identity, meaning in life and responsibility. Determinants of meaning have not been explored among populations of patients with persistent psychiatric conditions. However, an evidence-based approach aiming at assessing such determinants should provide some insight into the psychotherapeutic aspects of recovery. We tested a model hypothesizing that some symptoms and social parameters of patients are related to values, and secondarily to meaning in life, and in turn that meaning is associated with various parameters, such as depressiveness and self-esteem. We assessed 176 patients with schizophrenia, anorexia, borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. Overall, our hypotheses proved correct: firstly, characteristics such as depression, hopelessness, self-esteem and the number of relationships influenced values; secondly, the presence and an enactment of values were associated with meaning, and thirdly, meaning was associated with some symptoms and social characteristics. This model was confirmed in the four psychiatric populations under study. These results support the relevance of addressing values and meaning in the recovery-oriented care of patients with persistent psychiatric disorders, in addition to other psychosocial interventions which are more systematically considered in this area. PMID:27272094
Full Text Available There are still many unanswered questions about psychological and social factors that may affect the development and treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Religion/spirituality (R/S is a factor that could influence the lives of people with BPD.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between religiosity, religious attendance and borderline personality traits.Four hundred twenty- nine medical students of Tehran University of medical sciences participated in this study, and their information on demographics, responses to the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (the self-administered section on BPD was obtained.The total score of SCID-II questionnaire and the number of positive borderline personality characteristics on the SCID-II were inversely related with the DUREL total score and individual DUREL items. Those with higher levels of borderline personality traits had lower total DUREL score and lower DUREL subscale scores.Religiosity and religious attendance are negatively correlated with borderline personality traits, especially with anger, instability of mood, feeling of emptiness and self-harming behaviors. These findings are important for understanding the causes of BPD and in developing treatments for this disorder.
de Melo, N.; Matutes, E.; Cordone, I.; Morilla, R.; Catovksy, D.
AIMS: To determine whether the proliferation rates of tumour cells may relate to prognosis and reflect disease activity. METHODS: Blood mononuclear cells from 155 patients with B cell (n = 120) or T cell (n = 35) chronic lymphoproliferative disorders were tested with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 by indirect immunoperoxidase or immunoalkaline phosphatase techniques. B cell diseases included chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), CLL in prolymphocytic transformation (CLL/PL), prolymphocytic leukaemia (B-PLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) in leukaemic phase. The T cell diseases comprised large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia, T-PLL, and T-NHL. RESULTS: These showed significantly higher proportions of Ki-67 positive cells in T cell (11.2%) than in B cell (2.9%) disorders (p < 0.001). The highest values were found in NHL of both B and T cell types, particularly when low grade disease transformed to high grade. The lowest percentages of Ki-67 positive cells were found in CLL (1.4%) and LGL leukaemia (1.7%); intermediate values were seen in B PLL (3.3%) and T PLL (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive correlation between prognosis and proliferation rates in chronic B and T cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Estimation of Ki-67 in circulating leukaemic cells could be used to determine prognosis in low grade malignancies. Images PMID:1401173
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a psychiatric disorder that often tends to run a chronic course. The lifetime prevalence of OCD is around 1-3%, which is twice as prevalent as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Aim: To asses the family burden, quality of life (QoL and disability in patients suffering from at least moderately ill OCD and then to compare them with schizophrenia patients of comparable severity. Settings and Design: We recruited 70 consecutive subjects (OCD=35, schizophrenia=35 who met study criteria between March 2005 and March 2006 from the psychiatric services of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The severity of illness was rated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S. Instruments used in the current study were the Family Burden Schedule, the World Health Organization (WHO QoL (Bref and the WHO - Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS. Statistical Analysis: The Fisher′s exact test/chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables and the independent sample t test was used to analyze continuous variables. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare the groups after controlling for potential confounding variables. Pearson′s correlation was used for correlation analysis. Results: Overall family burden, financial burden and disruption of family routines were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to OCD although the groups did not differ with respect to other domains of family burden. On the WHO QoL, OCD patients were comparable to schizophrenia patients with respect to the psychological and social domains. On the WHO - DAS, both the groups were similar in all the domains except getting around. Conclusion: Severe OCD is associated with significant disability, poor QoL and high family burden, often comparable to schizophrenia. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the sensitivity among healthcare
Lara Catherine Foland-Ross
Full Text Available Researchers using experimental paradigms to examine cognitive processes have demonstrated that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is associated not with a general deficit in cognitive functioning, but instead with more specific anomalies in the processing of negatively valenced material. Indeed, cognitive theories of depression posit that negative biases in the processing of information play a critical role in influencing the onset, maintenance, and recurrence of depressive episodes. In this paper we review findings from behavioral studies documenting that MDD is associated with specific difficulties in attentional disengagement from negatively valenced material, with tendencies to interpret information in a negative manner, with deficits in cognitive control in the processing of negative material, and with enhanced memory for negative material. To gain a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of these abnormalities, we also examine findings from functional neuroimaging studies of depression and show that dysfunction in neural systems that subserve emotion processing, inhibition, and attention may underlie and contribute to the deficits in cognition that have been documented in depressed individuals. Finally, we briefly review evidence from studies of children who are at high familial risk for depression that indicates that abnormalities in cognition and neural function are observable before the onset of MDD and, consequently, may represent a risk factor for the development of this disorder. By integrating research from cognitive and neural investigations of depression, we can gain a more comprehensive understanding not only of how cognitive and biological factors interact to affect the onset, maintenance, and course of MDD, but also of how such research can aid in the development of targeted strategies for the prevention and treatment of this debilitating disorder.
Fava, Giovanni A; Tossani, Eliana; Bech, Per;
Comorbidity is a well-established and documented phenomenon in mental disorders and medicine with heuristic value. The concept of comorbidity remains however poorly defined and lacks a comprehensive and coherent theoretical framework. There is a need to develop coherent methodological strategies in...... order to promote a fuller understanding of the implications of comorbidity and to exploit its potential value with regard to etiopathogenic and therapeutic issues. This position paper makes recommendations of improved methodological standards and procedures and discusses a range of options that can...
Witton, N S; Leichner, P; Sandhu-Sahota, P; Filippelli, D
Seventy-two patients and parents completed the "Research Directions Survey" (RDS), consisting of an open-ended question and four rank-ordered lists. The RDS was designed to examine aspects of eating disorders (ED) that these individuals perceive as priorities for future research. The top three themes emerging from the open-ended question were treatment, family dynamics, and motivation for recovery. In the four ranking questions, respondents indicated low self-esteem, weight-related comments, body image distortions, and individual psychotherapy as most important for future research. This paper discusses the implications of our findings and directions for future research in ED. PMID:17520453
Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action o...
Baskin, Jonathan; Delja, Jolie R; Mogil, Catherine; Gorospe, Clarissa M; Paley, Blair
BackgroundThere is a notable absence of evidence based early interventions for young children with FASD. ObjectiveThis study examines clinicians' perspectives regarding the needs of caregivers of children with FASD and how such perspectives informed the development of a family-centered early intervention for young children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Method19 professionals who work with children with prenatal alcohol exposure and / or in out-of-home care were recruited to participate in focus groups. The facilitator used a semi-structured topic guide to elicit feedback from participants. These data were transcribed, coded, and categorized to reflect themes in a manner informed by a grounded theory approach. A second investigator repeated the process. Codes were chosen and assigned to data by consensus. ResultsThe coded data yielded five distinct perceived challenges faced by caregivers: (1) seeking and possibly receiving a diagnosis; (2) processing emotions and coming to terms with the child's difficulties; (3) seeking support and belonging within a knowledgeable community; (4) developing a new understanding of the child's behavior; and (5) becoming an educator, advocate, and expert on the child and FASD. ConclusionProfessionals believe specific capacities are essential insofar as the human service systems that caregivers engage are perceived to be under-equipped to respond to the distinct set of challenges faced by children with FASD and their families. Findings are discussed in terms of how the proposed intervention was designed to address such challenges and to cultivate those key capacities in order for families to meet their children's needs. PMID:27462878
Britt H. Ahlström
Full Text Available This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons’ perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15–26 diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC. Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: “fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability” with the following subthemes: “difficult things,” “stress and rest,” and “when feelings and thoughts are a concern”; and the theme “struggling to find a life of one's own” with the following subthemes: “decide and carry out,” “making life choices,” and “taking care of oneself.” Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons’ everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge
The focus of this thesis is usability of an everyday used product; the cell phone seen from a Human – Computer Interaction perspective. The purpose with the thesis is to create an understanding of how cell phones are used by persons in natural /public settings and in everyday activities. Further the purpose is to describe users’ experiences of using cell phones. In this study, ethnography was used as method. The theoretical framework is the contextual usability perspective. The cell phone is ...
Strubbe, Glenn; Vanheule, Stijn
From Jacques Lacan's theory of anxiety, principles are deduced for a Lacanian-oriented treatment of panic disorder. This Lacanian approach is related to Freud's theory of the actual neuroses, and is comparable in some ways with the approach taken in Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP). The Lacanian conceptualization of panic retains the idea that both repressed material and unsymbolized mental states lie at its basis. People suffering from panic attacks are overwhelmed by signifiers, aspects of corporeal excitation, and/or existential questions that remain too Real. Psychoanalytic therapy aims to create a name for such Real elements. The three registers that Lacan situates at the basis of his psychoanalytic approach (the Symbolic, the Imaginary, and the Real) are discussed, as well as the treatment principles for conducting this clinical work. The case study of a young woman with panic disorder is presented to illustrate how a brief, Lacanian-oriented treatment (forty-eight sessions) progressed, and where the patient managed to both name and find a symbolic place for psychic experiences that were too Real. During this treatment, the patient overcame her avoidant-defensive mode of functioning and her persistent difficulties related to separation. PMID:24651266
Full Text Available A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.
Beatriz de Arruda Pereira Galvão
Full Text Available In general, the difficulties presented by children diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD are first noticed by parents in the daily routine. Although the discussion about the functional impact of DCD is expanding in some countries, it is still poorly explored in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to review the literature that describes the perception of parents concerning the impact of DCD on the daily life of these children and their families. An electronic search for the evidence available in the literature was conducted in major databases using, as keywords, the terms commonly adopted by researchers and practitioners working with children with DCD. The inclusion criteria were articles that used qualitative methodology, studies published from January 1995 to February 2012, and data collected through interviews with parents and/or caregivers, which described children with specific signs of DCD. Of the 594 articles found, only eight used qualitative methodology - all in English. The data presented in these articles show the concern of parents regarding the socialization process of their children with DCD and the lack of preparation of the educational system to deal with the motor difficulties that characterize this disorder. In conclusion, it is essential, especially for rehabilitation professionals who deal with children with DCD, to value how parents perceive the motor coordination difficulties of their children in order to develop actions and services that are adequate to the reality of Brazilian families.
Lopalco, Giuseppe; Cantarini, Luca; Vitale, Antonio; Iannone, Florenzo; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Andreozzi, Laura; Lapadula, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Mauro; Rigante, Donato
A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet's disease, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still's disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:25784780
Hanna E Stevens
Full Text Available There is increasing appreciation for the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of many psychiatric disorders. Disorders that begin in childhood such as autism, language disorders or mental retardation as well as adult-onset mental disorders may have origins early in neurodevelopment. Neural stem cells (NSCs can be defined as self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. Several recent research findings demonstrate that psychiatric illness may begin with abnormal specification, growth, expansion and differentiation of embryonic NSCs. For example, candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, autism and major depression include the signaling molecule Disrupted In Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1, the homeodomain gene engrailed-2 (EN-2, and several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including MET, brain-derived growth factor (BDNF and fibroblast growth factors (FGF, all of which have been shown to play important roles in NSCs or neuronal precursors. We will discuss here stem cell biology, signaling factors that affect these cells, and the potential contribution of these processes to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Hypotheses about how some of these factors relate to psychiatric disorders will be reviewed.
Helen E Scharfman
Full Text Available The circuitry of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique compared to other hippocampal subfields because there are two glutamatergic principal cells instead of one: granule cells, which are the vast majority of the cells in the dentate gyrus, and the so-called ‘mossy cells.’ The distinctive appearance of mossy cells, the extensive divergence of their axons, and their vulnerability to excitotoxicity relative to granule cells has led to a great deal of interest in mossy cells. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the normal functions of mossy cells and the implications of their vulnerability. There even seems to be some ambiguity about exactly what mossy cells are. Here we review initial studies of mossy cells, characteristics that define them, and suggest a practical definition to allow investigators to distinguish mossy cells from other hilar neurons even if all morphological and physiological information is unavailable due to technical limitations of their experiments. In addition, hypotheses are discussed about the role of mossy cells in the dentate gyrus network, reasons for their vulnerability and their implications for disease.
Padma Priya Sivan
Full Text Available Sustenance of visual function is the ultimate focus of ophthalmologists. Failure of complete recovery of visual function and complications that follow conventional treatments have shifted search to a new form of therapy using stem cells. Stem cell progenitors play a major role in replenishing degenerated cells despite being present in low quantity and quiescence in our body. Unlike other tissues and cells, regeneration of new optic cells responsible for visual function is rarely observed. Understanding the transcription factors and genes responsible for optic cells development will assist scientists in formulating a strategy to activate and direct stem cells renewal and differentiation. We review the processes of human eye development and address the strategies that have been exploited in an effort to regain visual function in the preclinical and clinical state. The update of clinical findings of patients receiving stem cell treatment is also presented.
Sivan, Padma Priya; Syed, Sakinah; Mok, Pooi-Ling; Higuchi, Akon; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Awang Hamat, Rukman; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kumar, Suresh
Sustenance of visual function is the ultimate focus of ophthalmologists. Failure of complete recovery of visual function and complications that follow conventional treatments have shifted search to a new form of therapy using stem cells. Stem cell progenitors play a major role in replenishing degenerated cells despite being present in low quantity and quiescence in our body. Unlike other tissues and cells, regeneration of new optic cells responsible for visual function is rarely observed. Understanding the transcription factors and genes responsible for optic cells development will assist scientists in formulating a strategy to activate and direct stem cells renewal and differentiation. We review the processes of human eye development and address the strategies that have been exploited in an effort to regain visual function in the preclinical and clinical state. The update of clinical findings of patients receiving stem cell treatment is also presented. PMID:27293447
Full Text Available Background: Autologous Bone Marrow stem Cell transplantation is a viable therapeutic option for patients with end stage heart failure due to cardiomyopathy of varied etiology as there are only limited treatment options other than cardiac transplantation. The rationale behind the application of stem cells in these patients include • Stem cells directly replace the affected cells by differentiation into the damaged cell type • Stem cells also exert Paracrine effects by secre tion of growth factors (VGEF,FGF-1to stimu late local cell growth•In addition to the above, stem cells release signaling factors which recruit stem cells from elsewhere by modulating the immune system.Materials and Methods: In this presentation we describe our study on a series of 13 patients who received isolated and expanded CD 34 cells from the bone marrow. Seven had ischemic dysfunction, three had dilated cardiomyopathy and three had primary pulmonary hypertension. Five patients received the stem cells via intracoronary injection, three directly into the myocardium and three intrapulmonary. Results: All patients showed functional improvement of the myocardium recorded by non-invasive investigations and improvement in the quality of life. Follow up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years. Conclusion: Our experience with bone marrow derived stem cells in patients with cardiomyopathy has been encouraging. More studies are planned in the future.
Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta uma visão atualizada e ampla do tratamento farmacológico do transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (TAG. São revistos os medicamentos com eficácia comprovada em estudos controlados e atualmente disponíveis na clínica (benzodiazepínicos, buspirona, antidepressivos, betabloqueadores, antipsicóticos e extrato de kava-kava. A seguir, baseados nesses dados, propõe-se um algoritmo de tratamento do TAG. São apresentadas as principais linhas de pesquisa de novos fármacos ansiolíticos, descrevendo os principais achados clínicos e pré-clínicos.This article presents an updated and broad perspective of the pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. Medications proven to be efficacious in controlled studies and available in the clinic setting were reviewed (benzodiazepines, buspirone, antidepressives, beta-blocking agents, antipsychotics and kava-kava extract. From this data, an algorithm for GAD treatment is proposed. In addition, the main research lines on new anxiolytic drugs and their stage of clinical or pre-clinical development are presented.
Wouters, Mira; Vicario, Maria; Santos, Javier
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by chronic complaints arising from disorganized brain-gut interactions leading to dysmotility and hypersensitivity. The two most prevalent FGIDs, affecting up to 16-26% of worldwide population, are functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Their etiopathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, however, recent observations reveal low-grade mucosal inflammation and immune activation, in association with impaired epithelial barrie...
Chiu, Arlene Y.; Rao, Mahendra S.
Neurological syndromes, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and lysosomal storage disorders, such as Battens disease, are devastating because they result in increasing loss of cognitive and physical function. Sadly, no drugs are currently available to halt their progression. The relative paucity of curative approaches for these and other conditions of the nervous system have led to a widespread evaluation o...
Cocks, Graham; Curran, Sarah; Gami, Priya; Uwanogho, Dafe; Jeffries, Aaron R.; Kathuria, Annie; Lucchesi, Walter; Wood, Victoria; Dixon, Rosemary; Ogilvie, Caroline; Steckler, Thomas; Price, Jack
Until now, models of psychiatric diseases have typically been animal models. Whether they were to be used to further understand the pathophysiology of the disorder, or as drug discovery tools, animal models have been the choice of preference in mimicking psychiatric disorders in an experimental setting. While there have been cellular models, they have generally been lacking in validity. This situation is changing with the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In t...
Lisboa, Sabrina F.; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimaraes, Francisco S.; Campos, Alline C
Psychiatric disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Although several therapeutic options are available, the exact mechanisms responsible for the genesis of these disorders remain to be fully elucidated. In the last decade, a body of evidence has supported the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of these conditions. Microglial cells play a significant role in maintaining brain homeostasis and surveillance. Dysregulation of microglial functions has b...
Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA, which is an inherited blood disorder characterized primarily by chronic anemia and oxidative stress plays a major role in pathophysiology. Objective: This study aims to evaluate vitamin A (serum retinol status and hematological parameters in children with homozygous and heterozygous sickle cell disorders and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods:A sample of 80 referred cases (37 sickle cell disorders and 43 normal cases aged 2-40 years were included in the study. Hematological parameters were measured in cell counter and serum retinol by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean hemoglobin (Hb and serum retinol were significantly lower among cases with sickle cell disease than in sickle cell trait and normal. Vitamin A deficiency (retinol < 20 μg/dl reported to be higher in homozygous cases (46.2% as compared to either heterozygous (29.2% or control (23.2% groups. Serum retinol was correlated directly with Hb, RBC count, and hematocrit levels, and inversely with percentage of sickling among sickle cell disorder cases. Conclusion: The results indicate that deprived vitamin A status with inductive oxidative stress is mainly due to sickling and hemolysis in SCA cases.
Watmuff, Bradley; Berkovitch, Shaunna S; Huang, Joanne H; Iaconelli, Jonathan; Toffel, Steven; Karmacharya, Rakesh
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric disorders that present unique challenges in the study of disease biology. There are no objective biological phenotypes for these disorders, which are characterized by complex genetics and prominent roles for gene-environment interactions. The study of the neurobiology underlying these severe psychiatric disorders has been hindered by the lack of access to the tissue of interest - neurons from patients. The advent of reprogramming methods that enable generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells has opened possibilities for new approaches to study relevant disease biology using iPSC-derived neurons. While early studies with patient iPSCs have led to promising and intriguing leads, significant hurdles remain in our attempts to capture the complexity of these disorders in vitro. We present here an overview of studies to date of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using iPSC-derived neuronal cells and discuss potential future directions that can result in the identification of robust and valid cellular phenotypes that in turn can lay the groundwork for meaningful clinical advances. PMID:26777134
Smetana, Karel; Dvořánková, B.; Labský, Jiří; Holíková, Z.
Daejon : Pai Chai University, 2002 - (Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Park, J.), s. 77-80 [International Symposium on Advanced Materials /4./. Daejon (KR), 03.06.2002-07.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065; GA ČR GA203/00/1310; GA AV ČR IBS4050005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : epidermal stem cell * cell therapy * wound healing Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology
Ghurye, Supriya; McMillan, Roddy
Pain-related temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is one of the top three most common chronic pain conditions, along with headaches and back pain. TMD has complex pathophysiology and significant associations with a variety of other chronic pain conditions, eg fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and migraine. Chronic TMD is associated with a negative impact upon quality of life and high levels of healthcare utility. It is important that clinicians are able to diagnose TMD correctly, provide appropriate management in keeping with current evidence-based practice, and identify when to refer patients to specialist care. The presence of risk factors, eg anxiety, depression, pain-related disability and chronic pain conditions elsewhere in the body, may help to identify which TMD patients require referral for multidisciplinary management. TMD should be managed using a holistic approach, incorporating patient education and encouragement towards self-management. TMD care pathways should consider using the three'pillars'of pain management: physical therapies, pharmacotherapy and clinical psychology. PMID:26506809
Chan, Jason S; Langer, Anne; Kaiser, Jochen
Recently, a growing number of studies have examined the role of multisensory temporal integration in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some studies have used temporal order judgments or simultaneity judgments to examine the temporal binding window, while others have employed multisensory illusions, such as the sound-induced flash illusion (SiFi). The SiFi is an illusion created by presenting two beeps along with one flash. Participants perceive two flashes if the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two flashes is brief. The temporal binding window can be measured by modulating the SOA between the beeps. Each of these tasks has been used to compare the temporal binding window in people with ASD and typically developing individuals; however, the results have been mixed. While temporal order and simultaneity judgment tasks have shown little temporal binding window differences between groups, studies using the SiFi have found a wider temporal binding window in ASD compared to controls. In this paper, we discuss these seemingly contradictory findings and suggest that predictive coding may be able to explain the differences between these tasks. PMID:27324803
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Symptom improvement in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD is more common than previously hypothesised. However, it remains unclear whether it reflects service users' personal goals of recovery. The present study aimed to explore what service users with BPD view as recovery. METHODS: 48 service users were recruited from secondary mental health services and their views on their personal goals and the meaning of recovery were explored in in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study drew on grounded theory and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Service users believed that recovery involved developing self-acceptance and self-confidence, gaining control over emotions, improving relationships, employment, and making progress in symptoms like suicidality and self-harming. They felt that psychotherapies for BPD often had an extreme focus on specific areas, like self-harming or relationships, and that some of their goals were neglected. Although full recovery was seen as a distant goal, interviewees felt that they could learn how to deal with their problems in more effective ways and make meaningful progress in their lives. CONCLUSIONS: Specialist therapies for BPD explicitly address some of the recovery goals that are important to service users, whereas other goals are only indirectly or poorly addressed. Professionals might need to work with service users towards devising comprehensive individualised case formulations, including all treatment targets that are important to service users, their priorities, and long-term plans on how their targets might be met and which services might be involved.
Full Text Available Background: With an annual prevalence of 0.9–2.6%, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is very common in clinical practice across Europe. Despite the fact that evidence-based interventions have been developed, there is no evidence on their implementation in clinical practice and in national psychiatric training programmes. Objective and method: The Early Career Psychiatrists Committee of the European Psychiatric Association conducted a survey in 23 European countries to explore implementation of evidence-based interventions for PTSD and training options. Results: The findings indicate that pharmacotherapy was available in the majority of the participating countries (n=19, 82.8%. However, psychological interventions were much less widespread. For example, psychoeducation was widely available in 52% of the countries (n=12, cognitive-behavioural therapy in 26.2% (n=6, and specific trauma-focused techniques were rarely available. Training on PTSD was part of the official training in 13 countries (56.5%, predominantly in the form of theoretical seminars. Conclusions: Overall, this survey indicates that the treatment for PTSD is largely focused on pharmacotherapy, with psychological evidence-based interventions poorly available, especially outside specialized centres. Poor implementation is linked to the lack of official training in evidence-based interventions for psychiatric trainees across Europe.
Hundt, Natalie E; Mott, Juliette M; Miles, Shannon R; Arney, Jennifer; Cully, Jeffrey A; Stanley, Melinda A
Evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are effective at reducing symptoms and improving quality of life. Despite their effectiveness, few veterans receive EBP. To examine veterans' experiences initiating EBP for PTSD, we conducted qualitative interviews with those who completed at least 8 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) or cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Veterans reported learning about EBP from therapists, psychiatrists, and other veterans. Ambivalence and delaying EBP initiation were common. Barriers included fears that EBP would increase symptoms, beliefs that avoidance was helpful, disbelief of the therapy rationale, particularly for PE, and less commonly, lack of knowledge about EBP. Facilitators included feeling a "need to talk about it," prior treatment that increased confidence in the ability to handle EBP, prior knowledge of the EBP therapist, provider behaviors that facilitated buy-in, encouragement from other veterans, and desperation for symptom relief. There were few differences in barriers and facilitators between PE and CPT, although veterans in PE were more likely to express skepticism of the therapy rationale. These results highlight the importance of "word of mouth" about EBP among the veteran community and identifying provider behaviors that may promote EBP initiation. PMID:25915648
Erin R. Barnett
Full Text Available Evidence-based psychotherapies (EBP for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder are not utilized to their full extent within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA. VA provides care to many persons with PTSD and has been in the forefront of clinical practice guidelines and EBP training and dissemination. Yet VA continues to find EBP implementation difficult. Veterans with PTSD often initially present to prescribing clinicians, who then help make care decisions. It is therefore critical that these clinicians correctly screen and triage appropriate mental health care. The purpose of this study was to assess VA prescribing clinicians’ knowledge, perceptions, and referral behaviors related to EBPs for PTSD and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementing EBPs within VA. We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 VA prescribing clinicians. Limited access to EBPs was the most commonly noted barrier. The clinicians we interviewed also held specific beliefs and behaviors that may delay or deter EBPs. Strategies to improve utilization also emerged. Findings suggest the need for increased access to EBPs, training to optimize the role of prescribing clinicians in helping Veterans with PTSD make appropriate care decisions, and specific organizational changes to facilitate access and effective referral systems for EBPs.
Full Text Available Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy (IRC is a rare form of heart muscle disease. Genetic studies have revealed that in about half the cases, IRC forms part of the hereditary sarcomeric contractile protein disease spectrum. Mutations in several sarcomere protein encoding genes are detected in 33-66% of cases. Among these, the mutations most commonly involve TNNI3 and MYH7. There is a disproportionately high incidence of TNNI3 mutations in patients with restrictive physiology. De novo mutations are also frequently seen in this group of patients. IRC and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM with restrictive phenotype reflect the same or very similar disorders with different names due to arbitrary cut offs in the left ventricular wall thickness rather than two separate distinct diseases. HCM with restrictive physiology should be considered part of a continuous spectrum with IRC. This is because patients with HCM with restrictive phenotype bear far greater clinical and genetic resemblance to IRC than to rest of the HCM cohort.
Meiring, Meagan; Seabi, Joseph; Amod, Zaytoon; Vorster, Adri; Kern, Anwynne
Adolescents with autism and their families experience a significant increase in the number of challenges encountered when leaving the structure of the formal education system. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the factors parents and professionals regard as important in preparing for transition of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to adulthood, vocational, and residential arrangements. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 participants (i.e., 7 parents and 7 professionals) who were involved with adolescents with ASD in Johannesburg, South Africa. The findings revealed that there was a need for advocacy on behalf of learners with ASD transitioning into adult working and living environments. The responses of the participants highlighted needs for curriculum transformation from basic literacy skills to development and teaching of functional self-help and daily living skills. The results also indicated lack of planning and the absence of service facilities for adolescents with autism post-school. There was a general feeling of fear and uncertainty when the participants thought about transition of adolescents with autism and their future. However, there was also a sense of hope and optimism. Transition of adolescents with autism into adulthood is a challenging and stressful time for parents and professionals involved in trying to prepare them. With appropriate attention and support structures, individuals with autism can attain a reasonable quality of life, including residential, employment, and social opportunities. PMID:27375502
Full Text Available The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy.
Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard
The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy. PMID:22319243
Sanchez-Carbonell, Xavier; Beranuy, Marta; Castellana, Montserrat; Chamarro, Ander; Oberst, Ursula
The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) generate new styles of meeting people or connecting with friends or strangers. In this context, the internet and the mobile phone deserve special attention. This article deals with the maladaptive use of these technologies. By reviewing the literature published between 1991 and 2005 and indexed in the databases of PsycINFO, Medline, Psicodoc, IME, and ISOC, we aim to determine whether maladaptive use of these technologies can be considered a mental disorder, and if so, of which type. We describe the psychological phenomena of maladaptive use of the internet and mobile phones, we review research on prevalence and possible risk groups, and finally we discuss some of the criticisms made with regard to the existence and classification of this disorder. It is concluded that excessive use of the internet can lead to a mental disorder of the addictive type, which can particularly affect individuals with special emotional needs, as well as adolescents and young adults. Among specific applications of the internet, a major risk is found for the use of communicative and synchronic applications, such as chats and online role games, since they permit hyperpersonal communication, playing with different identities, and projections and dissociation without consequences in real life. Furthermore, the internet can play an important role in the development and maintenance of other addictions, such as pathological gambling and sex addiction. In contrast to the case of the internet, maladaptive use of mobile phones may be considered abuse, but not addiction, since their use does not lead to the rapid emotional changes or the playing with identities that can take place in chats and online role games. PMID:18551228
Böttcher, Chotima; Priller, Josef
The pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial and incompletely understood. The development of therapies for these disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) is thus far very challenging. Neuroinflammation is one of the processes that contribute to the pathogenesis of CNS diseases, and therefore represents an important therapeutic target. Myeloid cells derived from the bone marrow are ideal candidates for cell therapy in the CNS as they are capable of targeting the brain and providing neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. In this review, experimental and clinical evidence for the therapeutic potential of myeloid cells in neurological disorders will be discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuro Inflammation edited by Helga E. de Vries and Markus Schwaninger. PMID:26455341