Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to widen the application of an in-house developed fast, flexible and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method to the assessment of cefotaxime sodium from aqueous samples. The method was applied to establish the release profile of cefotaxime sodium immobilised in MCM-41 nanoparticles using pH controlled release in aqueous medium. The analytical method proved to be sensible, repeatable (RSD < 1.5 % and reproducible (RSD < 1 % in the concentration range studied (0.01-10 μg•mL-1, limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.036 and 0.12 μg•mL-1 respectively, suitable for the analysis of release of a single active ingredient, having a short analysis time (10 minutes.
Sandyk, R.; Brennan, M J
A man who presented with lumbar backache subsequently developed signs of meningitis. The causative organism was proved to be Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite treatment with chloramphenicol and amikacin, the condition progressed until cefotaxime was added to the treatment regimen. The patient made a good recovery. This is the first report of the use of cefotaxime in klebsiella meningitis.
Hu, Yong-Hua; Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Yu, Feng; Cui, Yi; Yu, Wen-Wen; Yan, Chong-Ling; Chen, Qing-Xi
Tyrosinase (EC 22.214.171.124) catalyzes both the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones that form brown or black pigments. In the present paper, cefotaxime, a cephalosporin antibacterial drug, was tested as an inhibitor of tyrosinase. The results show that cefotaxime inhibits both the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase. For the monophenolase activity, cefotaxime increased the lag time and decreased the steady-state activity with an IC50 of 3.2 mM. For the diphenolase activity, the inhibition by cefotaxime is reversible and mix-I type with an IC50 of 0.14 mM. The inhibition constants (KI and KIS) were determined to be 0.14 and 0.36 mM, respectively. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of tyrosinase by cefotaxime was determined by fluorescence quenching and molecular docking. The results demonstrated that cefotaxime was a static quencher of tyrosinase and that cefotaxime could dock favorably in the active site of tyrosinase. This research may offer a lead for designing and synthesizing novel and effective tyrosinase inhibitors in the future. PMID:26342770
Chuang, Y. C.; Liu, J W; Ko, W C; Lin, K. Y.; Wu, J.J.; Huang, K Y
We conducted time-kill studies to evaluate the inhibitory activities of either cefotaxime or minocycline alone and the two drugs in combination against a clinical strain of Vibrio vulnificus. The MICs of cefotaxime and minocycline were 0.03 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively. When approximately 5 x 10(5) CFU of V. vulnificus per ml was incubated with cefotaxime at 0.03 or 0.05 microg/ml, the bacterial growth was inhibited during the initial 2 and 8 h, respectively. Thereafter, V. vulnificus reg...
A. A. Made Sucipta; Ida Bagus Subanada; Samik Wahab
Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-Dec...
Masuyoshi, S; Arai, S; Miyamoto, M; Mitsuhashi, S
Cefotaxime, a new semisynthetic cephalosporin derivative, showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against clinically isolated strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This cephalosporin was slightly less active than cefazolin against Staphylococcus aureus but 4 to 300 times as active as carbenicillin against gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens. Cefotaxime was the most active compoun...
Titanova, Elena O.; Burygin, Gennady L.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have attracted significant interest as a novel platform for various applications to nanobiotechnology and biomedicine. The conjugates of GNPs with antibiotics and antibodies were also used for selective photothermal killing of protozoa and bacteria. Also the conjugates of some antibiotics with GNPs decreased the number of bacterial growing cells. In this work was made the procedure optimization for conjugation of cefotaxime (a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic) with GNPs (15 nm) and we examined the antimicrobial properties of this conjugate to bacteria culture of E. coli K-12. Addition of cefotaxime solution to colloidal gold does not change their color and extinction spectrum. For physiologically active concentration of cefotaxime (3 μg/mL), it was shown that the optimum pH for the conjugation was more than 9.5. A partial aggregation of the GNPs in saline medium was observed at pH 6.5-7.5. The optimum concentration of K2CO3 for conjugation cefotaxime with GNPs-15 was 5 mM. The optimum concentration of cefotaxime was at 0.36 μg/mL. We found the inhibition of the growth of E. coli K12 upon application cefotaxime-GNP conjugates.
A. A. Made Sucipta
Full Text Available Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-December 2010. The case group included children with blood culture-positive pneumonia and resistance to cefoxime by sensitivity test. The control group was selected from the same population as the case group, but the bacteria isolated from these subjects were sensitive to cefotaxime: age <3 years, microorganism species, history of antimicrobial use, and history of hospitalization within the prior 3 months. Chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine any associations between the four potential risk factors and resistance to cefoxime. A P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors for resistence to efoxime were history of antimicrobial use in the prior 3 months (OR 2.79; 95%CI 1.40 to 5.55; P=0.001 and history of hospitalization within the prior 3 months (OR 5.57; 95%CI 1.95 to 15.87; P=<0.0001. By multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime were history of antimicrobial use in the prior 3 months((OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.18 to 4.86; P=0.015, history of hospitalization within the prior 3 motnhs (OR 4.7; 95%CI 1.62 to 13.85; P0.004, and history of breastfeeding for less than 2 months (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.0 to 5.4; P=0.042. Conclusion History of antimicrobial use and history of hospitalization within the prior 3 months were significant risk factors for resistance to cefoxime in children with pneumonia.
Rasmussen, D; Bremmelgaard, A; Rasmussen, F;
cefotaxime against the isolates from blood were low for all bacterial strains except one (Streptococcus faecalis). Time to normalisation of temperature was significantly shorter in the cefotaxime group. The results suggest that cefotaxime is an effective and well-tolerated agent in the treatment of serious......Fifty-nine patients with severe urinary tract infections were treated with either cefotaxime or ampicillin plus netilmicin in a controlled, open randomised study of the clinical and bacteriological effects. The patients responded favourably in both groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of...
Balcabao, I P; Aguilar, L.; Martín, M; García, Y.; Dal-Ré, R; Prieto, J.
An in vitro model simulating amoxicillin and cefotaxime concentrations in human serum (after standard doses) was used to explore the activities of these drugs over time against penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. An initial inoculum reduction percentage of > or = 90% was obtained with amoxicillin and maintained for 2 to 8 h, regardless of the strain tested. In contrast, experiments showed that cefotaxime had significantly (P < 0.001) less capabili...
Jorgensen, J H; Crawford, S. A.; Alexander, G A
The in vitro activities of two new beta-lactam antibiotics, moxalactam disodium (LY 127935) and cefotaxime (HR-756), were compared with cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cephalothin, and, in some instances, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and amikacin against aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Test isolates included normally cephalosporin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. and a variety of nonfermentative or oxidase-positive bacteria. Both moxalactam and cefotaxime demo...
Ortega, M; Marco, F; Soriano, A; Almela, M; Martínez, J A; López, J; Pitart, C; Mensa, J
We attempt to describe the epidemiology and outcome associated with cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection episodes prospectively collected through a blood culture surveillance programme from January 1991 to December 2008 in a single institution were analysed. A total of 910 monomicrobial episodes of Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were identified during the study period. The most important sources were from urinary tract infection, unknown sources, billiary focus and catheter related infection. There were 112 (12%) CTX-R isolates. Out of 112 isolates, 98 were CTX-R by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production. Shock on presentation and mortality were significantly more frequent in CTX-R than in CTX susceptible isolates. Inappropriate empirical therapy was received in 50 (45%) cases in the CTX-R Klebsiella spp group (13 cases of death, 26%). Predictive factors associated with CTX-R Klebsiella spp isolate were: previous β-lactam therapy (OR = 4.16), nosocomial acquired bacteraemia (OR = 1.93), solid organ trasplantation (OR = 2.09) and shock (OR = 1.90). Independent risk factors associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were: age (OR = 1.03), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.63), ultimately or rapidly fatal prognosis of underlying disease (OR = 2.44), shock (OR = 8.60), pneumonia (OR = 4.96) or intraabdominal (OR = 3.85) source of bacteraemia and CTX-R isolate (OR = 4.63). Klebsiella spp is an important cause of bloodstream infection. CTX-R isolates have been increasing since 2000. CTX-R is an independent factor associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. PMID:21509474
Shakil, Shazi; Khan, Asad Ullah
Extendedspectrum βlactamases (ESBLs) are the bacterial enzymes that make them resistant to advanced-generation cephalosporins. CTXM enzymes (the most prevalent ESBLtype) target cefotaxime. Aims of the study were: Modelling of CTXM enzyme from bla CTXM sequences of clinical Escherichia coli isolates Docking of cefotaxime with modelled CTXM enzymes to identify amino acid residues crucial to their interaction To hypothesize a possible relationship between ’interaction energy of the docked ...
Hering, Johanna; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Rösler, Uwe; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Hille, Katja
In this investigation the farm prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in German broiler farms was evaluated. In total, 59 flocks on 34 broiler farms were sampled in four agricultural regions of Germany. Per broiler flock, three faecal samples, a pair of boot swabs and one dust sample were taken and examined for the presence of CREC. After pre-enrichment of sample material in Luria-Bertani-broth, the broth was streaked onto MacConkey agar containing 1mg/l cefotaxime (CTX). CREC isolates were detected in at least one sample from each flock resulting in a farm prevalence of 100%. The proportion of positive samples was high in all three sample types. Of 177 collective faecal samples 81.9% were positive, of 59 boot swabs and 59 dust samples 79.7% and 62.7% were positive. In conclusion, the prevalence of broiler farms with cefotaxime-resistant E. coli in Germany is very high. We suggest that the analysis of collective faecal samples is sufficient to determine the CREC farm status. In addition to other studies our study supports the finding that cefotaxime resistance is a good proxy for the presence of ESBL- or plasmidic AmpC-beta-lactamases. PMID:26783199
Humza Ahmad Ullah
Full Text Available The prime intention of this study was the evaluation & accumulation of epidemiological data on the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and to compare the activity of different third generation cephalosporins against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For this purpose Modified Kirby-Bauer Method was used for the determination of sensitivity of antibacterial agents using strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 as control. Total 250 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from different public and private hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. In-vitro qualities (i.e. sensitive, resistant and intermediate of six members of third generation cephalosporins (Cefoperazone, Ceftazidime, Ceftizoxime, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone and Cefixime were reviewed. Results showed that Cefoperazone was the most effective antibacterial agent (80% sensitive, while the second most effective antibacterial agent was Ceftazidime (70% sensitive. Cefotaxime and Ceftizoxime also showed intermediate activity. Cefixime and Ceftriaxone didn’t show any supportive activity i.e. 0% sensitive at all.
Anil K Saxena
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers undergoing hemodialysis (HD through tunneled cuffed catheters (TCCs form a high-risk group for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI and ensuing morbidity. The efficacy of antibiotic-locks on the outcomes of TCCs among S. aureus nasal carriers has not been studied earlier. Persistent nasal carriage was defined by two or more positive cultures for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA or methicillin-resistant (MRSA S. aureus of five standardized nasal swabs taken from all the participants dialyzed at a large out-patient HD center affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Of 218 participants, 82 S. aureus nasal carriers dialyzed through TCCs (n = 88 were identified through April 2005 to March 2006 and randomized to two groups. Group I comprised of 39 nasal carriers who had TCCs (n = 41 "locked" with cefotaxime/heparin while group II included 43 patients with TCCs (n = 47 filled with standard heparin. The CRBSI incidence and TCC survival at 365 days were statistically compared between the two groups. A significantly lower CRBSI incidence (1.47 vs. 3.44/1000 catheter-days, P <0.001 and higher infection-free TCC survival rates at 365 days (80.5 vs. 40.4%, P <0.0001 were observed in the cefotaxime group compared with the stan-dard heparin group. However, no significant difference in MRSA-associated CRBSI incidence was observed between the two groups. Cefotaxime-heparin "locks" effectively reduced CRBSI-incidence associated with gram-positive cocci, including MSSA, among S. aureus nasal carriers. There remains a compelling requirement for antibiotic-locks effective against MRSA.
The absorption, distribution and elimination of radioactivity following intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 14C-cefotaxime (14C-HR 756) to the rat has been examined by qualitative and quantitative techniques. After i.v. and i.m. doses to male albino animals radioactivity was extensively distributed throughout the body and rapidly eliminated with a predominant half-life of approximately 30 to 40 min. Maximum plasma levels for the i.m. dose were reached within 20 min and approximately 85% of the dose was recovered from the urine (74%) and faeces (11%) within 8 h after dosing. In all quantitative studies 100±5% of the dose was recovered within 24 h. Whole body autoradiography studies showed good distribution of radioactivity from the blood into the tissues including lung, liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow and the gastrointestinal tract. Lowest levels were seen in the eye and brain. There was limited placental transfer of radioactivity in 14-days pregnant animals although by day 18 of the gestation period radioactivity was detected in the foetus but distribution into individual organs and tissues could not be seen. There was no evidence to show that retention of radioactivity in pigmented tissues had occurred nor was there any suggestion of accumulation of radioactivity in any organ or tissues as a consequence of multiple dosing 14C-cefotaxime. (orig.)
Cefotaxime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from a Hospital in Warsaw, Poland: Identification of a New CTX-M-3 Cefotaxime-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase That Is Closely Related to the CTX-M-1/MEN-1 Enzyme
Gniadkowski, Marek; Schneider, Ines; Pałucha, Andrzej; Jungwirth, Renate; Mikiewicz, Barbara; Bauernfeind, Adolf
A group of cefotaxime-resistant Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli isolates were collected by a clinical laboratory in a hospital in Warsaw, Poland, in July 1996. Detailed analysis has shown that all of these produced a β-lactamase (pI, 8.4) belonging to the CTX-M family, one of the minor extended-spectrum β-lactamase families with a strong cefotaxime-hydrolyzing activity. Sequencing has revealed that C. freundii isolates produced a new CTX-M-3 enzyme which is very closely related to t...
Rouholamini Najafabadi A.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mechanical milling time on physicochemical properties and stability of Cefotaxime sodium (CS. CS was micronized by ball milling in five period of time: 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min. The powder properties of the samples were examined by HPLC assay, laser diffraction, helium densitometery, IR spectrophotometery, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scaning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetery (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Karl-Fisher titrimetery. The results showed that ball milling was not an appropriate method for particle size reduction to make solid dosage form such as dry powder inhaler formulation (DPI of CS and by increase in milling time, degradation of CS increased.
Simberkoff, M S; Rahal, J J
The MICs and MBCs of ciprofloxacin were determined for clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant aerobic bacteria. Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin of cefotaxime- and amikacin-resistant Serratia marcescens and amikacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were noted. The data suggest that ciprofloxacin susceptibility should be carefully monitored in treating patients with hospital-acquired bacterial infections.
Zakaria, Azza S.; Afifi, Samar A.; Elkhodairy, Kadria A.
In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates. PMID:27314033
Maravić, Ana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Konta, Marina; Ladouce, Romain; Martín, Fernando A
Bacteria of the Enterobacter cloacae complex are among the ten most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections in the USA. Consequently, increased resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, particularly expanded-spectrum cephalosporins like cefotaxime (CTX), poses a serious threat. Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE), followed by LC-MS/MS analysis and bioinformatics tools, was employed to investigate the survival mechanisms of a multidrug-resistant E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii 51 carrying several β-lactamase-encoding genes, including the 'pandemic' blaCTX-M-15 After exposing the strain with sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CTX, a total of 1072 spots from the whole-cell proteome were detected, out of which 35 were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05, fold change ≥1.5). Almost 50% of these proteins were involved in cell metabolism and energy production, and then cell wall organization/virulence, stress response and transport. This is the first study investigating the whole-cell proteomic response related to the survival of β-lactamases-producing strain, belonging to the E. cloacae complex when exposed to β-lactam antibiotic. Our data support the theory of a multifactorial synergistic effect of diverse proteomic changes occurring in bacterial cells during antibiotic exposure, depicting the complexity of β-lactam resistance and giving us an insight in the key pathways mediating the antibiotic resistance in this emerging opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27162211
Zakaria, Azza S; Afifi, Samar A; Elkhodairy, Kadria A
In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates. PMID:27314033
J. R. Anacona
Full Text Available Metal complexes of a Schiff base ligand derived from cefotaxime and salicylaldehyde were prepared. The salicilydene-cefotaxime ligand (H2L and mononuclear [M(L] (M(II = Co, Ni and Cu, dinuclear [Ag2(L(OAc2], and tetranuclear metal complexes [M4(L(OH6] (M(II = Ni, Cu were characterized on the basis of analytical, thermal, magnetic, and spectral studies (IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and EPR. The electronic spectra of the complexes and their magnetic moments suggesttetrahedral geometry for the isolated complexes. The complexes are nonelectrolytes and insoluble in water and common organic solvents but soluble in DMSO.
Chen, Feng; ZHANG, YUAN-XIA; ZHANG, CAI-QING
This study aimed to investigate the effect of ambroxol on the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A total of 54 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the normal control group, model group and ambroxol group. On experimental day 0, the rats were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (5 mg/kg body weight) or sterile saline. The rats in the ambroxol group were then treated with ambroxol ...
Variability in plasma concentration of cefotaxime in critically ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit of India and its pharmacodynamic outcome: A nonrandomized, prospective, open-label, analytical study
B Abhilash; Tripathi, Chakra Dhar; Gogia, Anoop Raj; Meshram, Girish Gulab; Kumar, Manu; Suraj, B.
Background: Cefotaxime is a widely utilized cephalosporin in most intensive care units of India. However, no data are available about its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic variability in critically ill patients of the Indian population. Aim: To investigate the variability in the plasma concentration and pharmacodynamic profile of intermittent dosing of cefotaxime in critically ill patients, according to their locus of infection and causative organism. Materials and Methods: Cefotaxime levels we...
Rossi, B; Soubirou, J F; Chau, F; Massias, L; Dion, S; Lepeule, R; Fantin, B; Lefort, A
We investigated the efficacies of cefotaxime (CTX) and amoxicillin (AMX)-clavulanate (CLA) (AMC) against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in vitro and in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI). MICs, the checkerboard dilution method, and time-kill curves were used to explore the in vitro synergism between cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate against two isogenic E. coli strains-CFT073-RR and its transconjugant, CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15)-harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) plasmid and a bla(OXA-1) plasmid. For in vivo experiments, mice were separately infected with each strain and treated with cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and clavulanate, alone or in combination, or imipenem, using therapeutic regimens reproducing time of free-drug concentrations above the MIC (fT≥MIC) values close to that obtained in humans. MICs of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem were 4/>1,024, 0.125/1,024, and 0.5/0.5 mg/liter, for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15), respectively. The addition of 2 mg/liter of clavulanate (CLA) restored the susceptibility of CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15) to CTX (MICs of the CTX-CLA combination, 0.125 mg/liter). The checkerboard dilution method and time-kill curves confirmed an in vitro synergy between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15). In vivo, this antibiotic combination was similarly active against both strains and as effective as imipenem. In conclusion, the cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination appear to be an effective, easy, and already available alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTI due to CTX-M-producing E. coli strains. PMID:26525800
Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Andreasen, Margit;
finishers). Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms in feces were counted on MacConkey agar containing 2 µg/ml CTX and characterized for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes by PCR and sequencing. CTX-M-positive pigs were detected in all age groups at farms A (bla(CTX-M-9) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-14......% just before weaning, 29% during weaning, and 12% during finishing. The observed reduction in numbers of CTX-M-positive pigs was accompanied by a significant reduction in mean fecal counts of CTX-resistant coliforms from ~10(7) CFU/g in piglets to ~10(3) CFU/g in finishers (P <0.001). These findings...
Cefotaxime, a cephalosporin antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infections was investigated to label with 99mTc. Labeling was performed using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent at 100 deg C for 10 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of labeled antibiotic was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 deg C up to 24 h. The maximum radiolabeling yield was 92 ± 2%. Bacterial binding assay was performed with S. aureus and the in vivo distribution was studied in mice. Images showed minimal accumulation in non-target tissues, with an average target/non-target ratio of 2.89 ± 0.58. (author)
Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jelsbak, Lotte; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Guardabassi, Luca; Olsen, John E.
blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between...
Goldstein, K; Colding, H; Andersen, G E
The stability of ampicillin, piperacillin and cefotaxime, alone or in combination with either netilmicin or amikacin, was tested by microbiological methods at 29 degrees C (ampicillin, also at 22 degrees C) in an L-amino acid solution specially prepared for newborn infants. In the case of...
Variability in plasma concentration of cefotaxime in critically ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit of India and its pharmacodynamic outcome: A nonrandomized, prospective, open-label, analytical study
Full Text Available Background: Cefotaxime is a widely utilized cephalosporin in most intensive care units of India. However, no data are available about its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic variability in critically ill patients of the Indian population. Aim: To investigate the variability in the plasma concentration and pharmacodynamic profile of intermittent dosing of cefotaxime in critically ill patients, according to their locus of infection and causative organism. Materials and Methods: Cefotaxime levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography by grouping patients according to their locus of infection as hepatobiliary, renal, pulmonary, and others. Patients with cefotaxime concentration below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and 5 times below the MIC for the isolated organism were determined. Results: The difference in the plasma cefotaxime concentration between the hepatobiliary and the nonhepatobiliary groups was significant at 1 h (P = 0.02 following drug dosing, while the difference was significant between the renal and nonrenal group at 1 h (P = 0.001, 4 h (P = 0.009, and 8 h (P = 0.02 after drug dosing. The pulmonary group showed significantly (P < 0.05 lower plasma cefotaxime levels than the nonpulmonary group at all-time points. The cefotaxime levels were below the MIC and below 5 times the MIC for the isolated organism in 16.67% and 43.33% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of cefotaxime differs according to the locus of an infection in critically ill patients. Use of another class of antibiotic or shifting to continuous dosing of cefotaxime, for organisms having MIC values above 1 mg/L, is advisable due to the fear of resistance.
Variability in plasma concentration of cefotaxime in critically ill patients in an Intensive Care Unit of India and its pharmacodynamic outcome: A nonrandomized, prospective, open-label, analytical study
Abhilash, B.; Tripathi, Chakra Dhar; Gogia, Anoop Raj; Meshram, Girish Gulab; Kumar, Manu; Suraj, B.
Background: Cefotaxime is a widely utilized cephalosporin in most intensive care units of India. However, no data are available about its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic variability in critically ill patients of the Indian population. Aim: To investigate the variability in the plasma concentration and pharmacodynamic profile of intermittent dosing of cefotaxime in critically ill patients, according to their locus of infection and causative organism. Materials and Methods: Cefotaxime levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography by grouping patients according to their locus of infection as hepatobiliary, renal, pulmonary, and others. Patients with cefotaxime concentration below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 5 times below the MIC for the isolated organism were determined. Results: The difference in the plasma cefotaxime concentration between the hepatobiliary and the nonhepatobiliary groups was significant at 1 h (P = 0.02) following drug dosing, while the difference was significant between the renal and nonrenal group at 1 h (P = 0.001), 4 h (P = 0.009), and 8 h (P = 0.02) after drug dosing. The pulmonary group showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma cefotaxime levels than the nonpulmonary group at all-time points. The cefotaxime levels were below the MIC and below 5 times the MIC for the isolated organism in 16.67% and 43.33% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of cefotaxime differs according to the locus of an infection in critically ill patients. Use of another class of antibiotic or shifting to continuous dosing of cefotaxime, for organisms having MIC values above 1 mg/L, is advisable due to the fear of resistance. PMID:27127389
ABDOLHOSEIN ROUHOLAMINI NAJAFABADI
Full Text Available Dry powder inhaler (DPI formulations usually contain micronized drug particles and lactose as a carrier. Fine lactose could be used as a ternary component to improve drug delivery from DPIs. The aim of this study was to investigate the deposition profile of a model drug, cefotaxime sodium (CS, using coarse and fine carriers after aerosolization at 60 l/min via a spinhaler® into a twin stage liquid impinger (TSI. Two micronization methods. jet milling and spray drying were used to micronize the active drug and carrier. The particle size of CS and lactose were characterized by laser diffraction, and the morphology of formulations was examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction of jet milled lactose showed crystalline nature, but spray dried lactose exhibited an amorphous state. The results showed the existence of fine lactose in formulations significantly (p0.05 difference was observed between the effect of jet milled and spray dried lactose. On the other hand selection of micronization technique to reduce particle size of CS, was very effective on deposition profile. The highest influence of fine lactose was obtained by formulation containing jet milled CS in ratio of drug/carrier 1/1 and 10% of fine lactose as third component.
Oteo, Jesús; Navarro, Carmen; Cercenado, Emilia; Delgado-Iribarren, Alberto; Wilhelmi, Isabel; Orden, Beatriz; García, Carmen; Miguelañez, Silvia; Pérez-Vázquez, María; García-Cobos, Silvia; Aracil, Belén; Bautista, Verónica; Campos, José
A total of 151 Escherichia coli strains resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime were isolated during a prospective surveillance study. These strains were characterized by clinical, microbiological, and molecular analyses and were distributed into four clusters of 103, 11, 6, and 5 isolates, along with 25 unrelated strains. The principal cluster was isolated from urine, wound, blood, and other samples in three hospitals, eight nursing homes, and a community healthcare center. This cluster was ...
Bai, Li; Zhao, Jiayong; Gan, Xin; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xiuli; Cui, Shenghui; Xia, Shengli; Hu, Yujie; Yan, Shaofei; Wang, Jiahui; Li, Fengqin; Fanning, Séamus; Xu, Jin
Salmonellosis is a major global foodborne infection, and strains that are resistant to a great variety of antibiotics have become a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum β-lactams in nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) from patients and food-producing animals in China. In total, 133 and 21 NTS isolates from animals and humans, respectively, exhibiting concurrent resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were cultured independently from 2009 to ∼2013. All of the isolates were identified, serotyped, and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Importantly, the isolates with concurrent resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime all were confirmed as S. enterica serovar Indiana. The presence of fluoroquinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was established by PCR and DNA sequencing. The occurrence and diversity of different genes conferring fluoroquinolone resistance [qepA, oqxAB, and aac(6')-Ib-cr] with mutations in topoisomerase-encoding genes (gyrA and parC) and several ESBLs (including CTX-M-65, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-14/CTX-M-15) were noteworthy. Genes located on mobile genetic elements were identified by conjugation and transformation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, used to determine the genetic relationships between these isolates, generated 91 pulsotypes from 133 chicken isolates and 17 pulsotypes from the 21 clinical isolates that showed considerable diversity. Analysis of the pulsotypes obtained with the isolates showed some clones appeared to have existed for several years and had been disseminating between humans and food-producing animals. This study highlights the emergence of ciprofloxacin- and cefotaxime-resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana, posing a threat to public health. PMID:27001808
Søndergaard, Annette; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels
AIMS: To investigate the relative contributions of naturally occurring penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) substitutions, and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 beta-lactamases on resistance to a third-generation cephalosporin in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. RESULTS: The minimum...... inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime (CTX) was assessed after transformation with PCR-amplified ftsI genes expressing altered PBP3 and/or small plasmids encoding beta-lactamases into an isogenic environment of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Group III PBP3, comprising substitutions N526K, S385T......, and L389F, conferred CTX resistance to H. influenzae according to EUCAST interpretative criteria. Group III-like PBP3, comprising substitutions N526H and S385T, increased the CTX MIC of H. parainfluenzae ninefold, but the level did not transgress the resistance breakpoint. Production of TEM-15 beta-lactamase...
John Benedict Readman
Full Text Available Synthetic antisense oligomers are DNA mimics that can specifically inhibit gene expression at the translational level by ribosomal steric hindrance. They bind to their mRNA targets by Watson Crick base pairing and are resistant to degradation by both nucleases and proteases. A 25 mer phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO and a 13 mer polyamide (peptide nucleic acid (PNA were designed to target mRNA (positions -4 to +21, and –17 to –5 respectively close to the translational initiation site of the extended spectrum β lactamase resistance genes of CTX M group 1. These antisense oligonucleotides were found to inhibit β lactamase activity by up to 96% in a cell free translation transcription coupled system using an expression vector carrying a blaCTX-M-15 gene cloned from a clinical isolate. Despite evidence for up regulation of CTX-M gene expression, they were both found to significantly restore sensitivity to cefotaxime in E. coli AS19, an atypical cell wall permeable mutant, in a dose dependant manner (0 - 40 nM. The PMO and PNA were covalently bound to the cell penetrating peptide (KFF3K and both significantly (P<0.05 increased sensitivity to cefotaxime in a dose dependent manner (0 - 40 nM in field isolates harbouring CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the translational initiation site and Shine Dalgarno region of blaCTX-M-15 inhibited gene expression, and when conjugated to a cell penetrating delivery vehicle, partially restored antibiotic sensitivity to both field and clinical isolates.
Cronberg, S; Banke, S; Bruno, A M; Carlsson, M; Elmrud, H; Elowsson, S; Josefsson, K; Lindholm, A C; Montelius, H; Neringer, R
In this double-blind multicentre study, using the intention-to-treat approach, a total of 293 patients with fever (> or = 38.5 degrees C), symptoms of sepsis and signs of pneumonia or pyelonephritis were randomly assigned to treatment with ampicillin and mecillinam (A+M) or cefotaxime followed by cefadroxil. In the febrile phase, treatment was given intravenously twice daily, either with 1,200 mg ampicillin together with 600 mg mecillinam or with 2 g cefotaxime alone. When the patients stayed afebrile, the intravenous administration was replaced by oral treatment twice daily for 14 days, either with 500 mg pivampicillin and 400 mg pivmecillinam or 1 g cefadroxil. In the A+M group, 33% (48/144) of the patients did not complete the full course of treatment as compared with 32% (47/149) in the cephalosporin group, the reasons being treatment failure in 27 and 29, respectively, or adverse effects (n = 16 in both groups). The median duration of fever was 47 h in the A + M group and 50 h in the cephalosporin group. Of 135 patients with pneumonia, 68% were completely cured in the A + M group, and 65% in the cephalosporin group, the main reasons for treatment failure being Mycoplasma pneumonia or ornithosis. Of 136 patients with pyelonephritis, 63% were cured in each group. The main reason for failure was bacteriological relapse. Side-effects were reported by 32 patients (22%) of the A+M group, as compared with 41 (28%) of the cephalosporin group. Epigastric complaints were equally frequent in both groups, but there was a tendency for a higher frequency of exanthema in the A+M group, and for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and fungal superinfections in the cephalosporin group. PMID:8588136
Readman, John B; Dickson, George; Coldham, Nick G
Synthetic antisense oligomers are DNA mimics that can specifically inhibit gene expression at the translational level by ribosomal steric hindrance. They bind to their mRNA targets by Watson-Crick base pairing and are resistant to degradation by both nucleases and proteases. A 25-mer phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) and a 13-mer polyamide (peptide) nucleic acid (PNA) were designed to target mRNA (positions -4 to +21, and -17 to -5, respectively) close to the translational initiation site of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase resistance genes of CTX-M group 1. These antisense oligonucleotides were found to inhibit β-lactamase activity by up to 96% in a cell-free translation-transcription coupled system using an expression vector carrying a bla CTX-M-15 gene cloned from a clinical isolate. Despite evidence for up-regulation of CTX-M gene expression, they were both found to significantly restore sensitivity to cefotaxime (CTX) in E. coli AS19, an atypical cell wall permeable mutant, in a dose dependant manner (0-40 nM). The PMO and PNA were covalently bound to the cell penetrating peptide (CPP; (KFF)3K) and both significantly (P < 0.05) increased sensitivity to CTX in a dose dependent manner (0-40 nM) in field and clinical isolates harboring CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the translational initiation site and Shine-Dalgarno region of bla CTX-M-15 inhibited gene expression, and when conjugated to a cell penetrating delivery vehicle, partially restored antibiotic sensitivity to both field and clinical isolates. PMID:27047482
目的：研究头孢噻肟对老年肺炎患者治疗效果。方法：选取于笔者所在医院治疗的老年肺炎患者98例，随机分为观察组、对照组，分别采取头孢噻肟静脉滴注以及青霉素静脉滴注两种不同方法治疗，比较疗效。结果：治疗后采用头孢噻肟治疗的观察组患者疗效较好，总有效率为91.84%；采用青霉素治疗的对照组患者总有效率为71.43%，差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组均无严重不良反应。结论：对于老年肺炎患者而言，头孢噻肟疗效更好，且相对安全，没有严重副作用，值得推广使用。%Objective:To study the effect of Cefotaxime in the treatment elderly patients with pneumonia.Method:98 cases of elderly patients with pneumonia in our hospital were selected,they were randomly divided into observation group and control group,the observation group was treated with adopt Cefotaxime intravenous drip,the control group was treated with Penicillin intravenous drip,the curative effect was compared in two groups.Result:After treatment the observation group patients using Cefotaxime treatment curative effect was better,the total effective rate was 91.84%.Control group of patients treated with Penicillin the total effective rate was 71.43%,there was statistically significant(P<0.05).There was no serious adverse reaction in two groups.Conclusion:For patients with senile pneumonia,Cefotaxime curative effect is better,and the relative safety,no serious side effects,worthy of promotion of use.
Simultaneous Determination of Eight β-Lactam Antibiotics, Amoxicillin, Cefazolin, Cefepime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Cloxacillin, Oxacillin, and Piperacillin, in Human Plasma by Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.
Legrand, Tiphaine; Vodovar, Dominique; Tournier, Nicolas; Khoudour, Nihel; Hulin, Anne
A simple and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method using UV detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma, including four penicillins, amoxicillin (AMX), cloxacillin (CLX), oxacillin (OXA), and piperacillin (PIP), and four cephalosporins, cefazolin (CFZ), cefepime (FEP), cefotaxime (CTX), and ceftazidime (CAZ). One hundred-microliter samples were spiked with thiopental as an internal standard, and proteins were precipitated by acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Separation was achieved on a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column with a mobile phase composed of phosphoric acid (10 mM) and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 500 μl/min. Detection was performed at 230 nm for AMX, CLX, OXA, and PIP and 260 nm for CFZ, FEP, CTX, and CAZ. The total analysis time did not exceed 13 min. The method was found to be linear at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100 mg/liter for each compound, and all validation parameters fulfilled international requirements. Between- and within-run accuracy errors ranged from -5.2% to 11.4%, and precision was lower than 14.2%. This simple method requires small-volume samples and can easily be implemented in most clinical laboratories to promote the therapeutic drug monitoring of β-lactam antibiotics. The simultaneous determination of several antibiotics considerably reduces the time to results for clinicians, which may improve treatment efficiency, especially in critically ill patients. PMID:27216076
刘文; 查王健; 黄茂
Objective: To evaluate the safety and tolerance of cefotaxime sodium/tazobactam sodium(6:1) injection in healthy volunteers. Methods: A total of 60 healthy volunteers were randomly divided into six single-dose groups (0.468 g, 1.17 g, 1.755 g, 2.34 g, 2.925 g and 3.51 g) and three multiple-dose groups (7.02 g, 9.36 g and 14.04g for 7 days). The safety profile and tolerance were evaluated by observing symptoms, vital signs, and laboratory testa Results: No serious adverse events were observed in any volunteers. In singledose groups, there were no adverse events associated with the drug. In multiple-dose groups, transient increase of ALT and AST were observed in two volunteers. Allergic skin rash was observed in one volunteer. Two volunteers were suffered from viral exanthem. Conclusion: Based on our findings, the maximum tolerated single dose of cefotaxime sodium/tazobaetam sodium(6: 1) in Chinese healthy volunteers is 3.51g, and the multiple-dose up to 14.04 g per day for 7 days is safe.%目的:评价注射用头孢噻肟钠/他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)在健康人体中的耐受性和安全性.方法:60例健康受试者随机分入6个单次给药组和3个多次给药组.单次给药组分别给予注射用头孢噻肟钠/他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)0.468 g、1.17 g、1.755 g、2.34 g、2.925 g、3.51 g.多次给药组分别给予注射用头孢噻肟钠/他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)7.02 g、9.36 g、14.04 g,连续给药7 d.观察受试者临床症状、生命体征、实验室检查指标等变化情况.结果:单次给药组未出现与药物相关的不良事件.多次给药组1名受试者出现过敏性皮疹,2名受试者出现-过性ALT、AST增高.2名受试者试验过程中因感冒出现病毒疹.结论:健康受试者对注射用头孢噻肟钠/他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)的单次最大耐受剂量为3.51 g,耐受性较好.连续7 d给予头孢噻肟钠/他唑巴坦钠(6∶1)14.04 g·d-1,受试者耐受性好.
Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt
Objectives: Group B Streptococcus is a primary source of pneumonia, which is a leading cause of death worldwide. During the last few decades, there has been news of growing antibiotic resistance in group B streptococci to penicillin and different antibiotic agents. This clinical study retrospectively analyzes antimicrobial resistance in inpatients who were diagnosed with group B streptococcal pneumonia. Methods: All of the required information from inpatients who were identified to have group...
Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Olsen, John E.
Background: beta-lactams target the peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall and most beta-lactam antibiotics cause filamentation in susceptible Gram-negative bacteria at low concentrations. The objective was to determine the initial morphological response of cephalosporin resistant CTX-M-1...
Bonnet, R.; Sampaio, J. L. M.; Labia, R; De Champs, C; Sirot, D; Chanal, C; Sirot, J
To estimate the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Brazil, 18 strains from different species of the family Enterobacteriaceae exhibiting a positive double-disk synergy test were collected by a clinical laboratory from several hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1996 and 1997. Four strains (Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Citrobacter amalonaticus) hybridized with a 550-bp CTX-M probe. The P. mirabilis strain produced a CTX-M-2 enzyme. The E....
Ease-of-use protocol for the rapid detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Foschi, C; Compri, M; Smirnova, V; Denicolò, A; Nardini, P; Tamburini, M V; Lombardo, D; Landini, M P; Ambretti, S
An ease-of-use protocol for the identification of resistance against third-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood culture bottles was evaluated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A cefotaxime hydrolysis assay from chocolate agar subcultures using antibiotic discs and without inoculum standardization was developed for routine work flow, with minimal hands-on time. This assay showed good performance in distinguishing between cefotaxime-susceptible and cefotaxime-resistant strains, with excellent results for Escherichia coli (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 100%). However, cefotaxime resistance was not detected reliably in Enterobacteriaceae expressing AmpC genes or carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:27105753
Hordijk, J.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Kant, A; van Essen-Zandbergen, A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Veldman, K.; De Wit, B.; Mevius, D.J.
Objectives - The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in cattle has been reported previously, however information on veal calves is limited. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility to cefotaxime in veal calves at slaughter. Methods - Faecal samples from 100 herds, 10 individual animals per herd, were screened for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Molecular characterization of ESBL/AmpC genes and ...
Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kim, Junyoung
The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the bla(CTX-M-15) extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea. PMID:26674083
Fu, K P; Neu, H C
The in vitro activity of ceftizoxime was compared with that of other beta-lactam antibiotics against 538 isolates. Ceftizoxime was the most active agent tested against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella, inhibiting 80% at 0.025 microgram/ml. It was more active than cefotaxime against Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes. Ceftizoxime was more active than cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, and carbenicillin against Proteus mirabilis and indole-positive Proteus. It inhibited 97% of multiresistan...
Stamm, John M.; Girolami, Roland L.; Shipkowitz, Nathan L.; Bower, Robert R.
The in vitro activity of cefmenoxime (SCE-1365 or A-50912), a new semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic, was compared with those of cefazolin, cefoxitin, and cefamandole against a broad spectrum of 486 organisms and with that of cefotaxime against 114 organisms. Cefmenoxime and cefotaxime exhibited nearly equivalent activities against those organisms tested and were the most active of these cephalosporins against all aerobic and facultative organisms except Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum...
Gavaldà, J.; Capdevila, J A; Almirante, B; Otero, J.; Ruiz, I; Laguarda, M; Allende, H.; Crespo, E; Pigrau, C; Pahissa, A
A model of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin was developed in immunocompetent Wistar rats and was used to evaluate the efficacies of different doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin. Adult Wistar rats were challenged by intratracheal inoculation with 3 x 10(9) CFU of one strain of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin (MICs of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) suspended in brain he...
Olga, Pappa; Apostolos, Vantarakis; Alexis, Galanis; George, Vantarakis; Athena, Mavridou
A large number of antibiotic-resistantP. aeruginosaisolates are continuously discharged into natural water basins mainly through sewage. However, the environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance factors are poorly understood. In this study, the antibiotic resistance patterns of 245 isolates from various aquatic sites in Greece were analysed. Twenty-three isolates with resistance patterns cefotaxime-aztreonam-ceftazidime, cefotaxime-aztreonam-meropenem, cefotaxime-ceftazidime-meropenem, cefotaxime-ceftazidime-aztreonam-meropenem and cefotaxime-ceftazidime-cefepime-aztreonam-meropenem were screened phenotypically for the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), while 77 isolates with various resistant phenotypes were screened for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrase genes. The aztreonam-resistant isolates and ESBL producers were the main resistant phenotypes in all habitats tested. In 13/77 isolates class 1 integron was detected, while all tested isolates were negative for the presence of the class 2 integrase gene. CTX-M group 9 β-lactamase was present in a small number of isolates (three isolates) highlighting the emergence of ESBL genes in aquatic environments. As a conclusion, it seems that Greek water bodies could serve as a potential reservoir of resistantP. aeruginosaisolates posing threats to human and animal health. PMID:26917780
目的：对比四种成盐剂对头孢噻肟钠成品质量的影响。方法：通过头孢噻肟酸与成盐剂反应制得头孢噻肟钠溶液,再滴加丙酮析出头孢噻肟钠固体。结果：由碳酸氢钠制得的头孢噻肟钠质量优于其他方法。结论：使用碳酸氢钠作成盐剂,滴加丙酮结晶,简化了工艺路线,并能有效地降低生产成本,减少环境污染,适合工业化生产。%Objective： To compare four kinds of salifying reagent＇s effect on quality of Cefotaxime Sodium product. Methods： Make solution of Cefotaxime Sodium by salifying reaction of Cefotaxime acid, and then dropping acetone to make Cefotaxime Sodium precipi- tated. Results： The quality of Cefotaxime Sodium obtained from the sodium bicarbonate is better than other methods. Conclusion： The use of sodium bicarbonate and dropping acetone to crystallize simplifies the process. This method can effectively reduce production costs, reduce environmental pollution, and it＇s more suitable for industrial production than others.
Rano K. Sinuraya
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze cost of illness (COI and cost containment analysis using empirical antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients with respiratory infection in a hospital in Bandung. A cross sectional method was conducted retrospectively. Data were collected from medical record of inpatients sepsis patients with respiratory infections with empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin or cefotaxime-erythromycin. Direct and indirect cost were calculated and analyzed in this study. The result showed that the average COI for patients with combination ceftazidime-levofloxaxin was 13,369,055 IDR whereas combination of cefotaxime-erythromycin was 22,250,495 IDR. In summary, the COI empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin was lower than cefotaxime-erythromycin. Cost containment using empirical antibiotic therapy ceftazidime-levofloxacin which without reducing the service quality was 8,881,440 IDR.
Full Text Available Resistant to antimicrobial agents in microbes is a growing phenomenon worldwide. 1 β lactamase production is the most common mechanism of bacterial resistance to β lactam antibiotics. 2 Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL that mediate resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime and aztreonam are now observed in all species of Enterobacteriaceae. ESBL are capable of efficiently hydrolyzing penicillins, narro w spectrum cephalosporins, many extended spectrum cephalosporins, the oxyimino group containing cephalosporins ( C efotaxime, ceftazidime and monobactams ( A ztreonam, but not carbapenems and cephamycins. 3 ESBL producing Ecoli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are important pathogen in nosocomial infections and multidrug resistant out breaks. This study was conducted to correlate results of Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST and E test for ESBL detection in E coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate by doing the double d isc synergy test (DDST by using cefotaxime and augmemtin discs. E test was used to determine the MIC for cefotaxime and ceftazidime of these isolates. Out of 98 ESBL isolates detected by DDST, 96 isolates were positive by E test. 02 isolates were indeterminable by E test. About 95% ESBL producing E coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae had MIC >1ug/ml for cefotaxime. The MIC of about 85% ESBL producing E coli and Klebsiella pneumonia was >4ug/ml for ceftazidime.
LaClaire, L.; Facklam, R
Antimicrobial susceptibilities of 27 clinical isolates of Dolosigranulum pigrum were determined. All were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, levofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Fifteen of the isolates were intermediate to chloramphenicol. One isolate was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Two isolates were susceptible, 10 were intermediate, and 15 were resistant to erythromycin.
Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica
Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. PMID:27155949
Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne
%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...
Krarup, H B
A case of meningitis in a 16 month old boy caused by Hemophilus influenzae resistant to ampicillin is presented. The question is raised whether a third generation cephalosporin such as cefotaxime should be the drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis with unknown etiology...
Gabriel Hancu; Adina Sasebeşi; Aura Rusu; Hajnal Kelemen; Adriana Ciurba
Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ce...
Omar, Mahmoud A.; Osama H. Abdelmageed; Tamer Z. Attia
A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of abs...
Evandro Vagner Tambarussi
Full Text Available Agrobacterium is the largest method employed to transform woody plants. The bacterium is required to introduce the transgene into the plant nuclear genome. After transferring T-DNA to the plant cell, the bacteria affect plant growth negatively and have to be eliminated from plant tissue culture medium through the use of antibiotics. The effect of different antibiotics (timentin, cefotaxime and carbenicillin on in vitro shoot regeneration of teak (Tectona grandis L. f. was compared in hypocotyl, mature cotyledon and cotyledonary segments explants. Timentin and cefotaxime (100-300 mg l-1 did not affect shoot regeneration and the number of shoots per explant. Moreover, at these concentrations, the two antibiotics seem to stimulate shoot regeneration. Carbenicillin at a dosage of 300 mg l-1 as well as cefotaxime and timentin at a dosage of 500 mg l-1 induced abundant calli formation and inhibited regeneration. Our data show that cefotaxime and timentin (300 mg l-1 can be harmless to teak regeneration and can be used as bactericide agents during Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Tectona grandis. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of antibiotic degradation on plant morphogenesis and its effect on regeneration from different explants.
Ansari, A.R.M.I.H.; Rahman, M.M.; Islam, Md Zohorul;
a high sensitivity was found towards Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacillin, Azithromycin and Cefotaxime. Serotyping was done by using specific antisera to identify variants of the somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens. Cultural and biochemical features also reveal the presence of pathogens in the...
Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel
A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food. PMID:19382665
Qvist, N; Christiansen, H.M.; Ehlers, D
The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greate...... of infection and the few side effects of the infections that did occur, prophylactic treatment with an antibiotic is not indicated for transurethral prostatectomy in patients with sterile urine.......The study included 88 patients with sterile urine prior to transurethral prostatectomy. Forty-five received a preoperative dose of 2 g of cefotaxime (Claforan) and the remaining 43 were given 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl. The two groups did not differ in frequency of postoperative urinary infection (greater...
Ivashchenko, Olena; Jurga-Stopa, Justyna; Coy, Emerson; Peplinska, Barbara; Pietralik, Zuzanna; Jurga, Stefan
This article presents a study on the detection of antibiotics in magnetite/Ag/antibiotic nanocomposites using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Antibiotics with different spectra of antimicrobial activities, including rifampicin, doxycycline, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, were studied. Mechanical mixtures of antibiotics and magnetite/Ag nanocomposites, as well as antibiotics and magnetite nanopowder, were investigated in order to identify the origin of FTIR bands. FTIR spectroscopy was found to be an appropriate technique for this task. The spectra of the magnetite/Ag/antibiotic nanocomposites exhibited very weak (for doxycycline, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone) or even no (for rifampicin) antibiotic bands. This FTIR "invisibility" of antibiotics is ascribed to their adsorbed state. FTIR and Raman measurements show altered Csbnd O, Cdbnd O, and Csbnd S bonds, indicating adsorption of the antibiotic molecules on the magnetite/Ag nanocomposite structure. In addition, a potential mechanism through which antibiotic molecules interact with magnetite/Ag nanoparticle surfaces is proposed.
Pantip, Sirichote; Aroon, B.; Kanokwan, Tienmanee; Akawat, Unahaleka; Amornrat, Uhright; Patchree, Chittaphithakchai; Wachirapa, Keawrod; Hendriksen, Rene S.
This study was carried out to elucidate the epidemiological trends and antimicrobial susceptibilities against Salmonella serovars among Thai patients and asymptomatic carriers during 2001-2006 in central Thailand. A total of 1,401 human and 260 non-human isolates from various sources were included....... Choleraesuis, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Typhi. Children under five years old suffered the most frequently from gastroenteritis. The patients most commonly infected with an invasive serovar were children and people from 26 to 55 years of age. Antimicrobial susceptibility data revealed that S....... Schwarzengrund, S. Choleraesuis, S. Anatum, S. Stanley, S. Rissen, and S. Typhimurium were the most resistant serovars observed. The invasive serovar, S. Choleraesuis was resistant to cefotaxime and norfloxacin. Antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime, was observed in S. Agona, S. Rissen, S. Typhimurium, S...
Harada, Kazuki; Arima, Sayuri; Niina, Ayaka; Kataoka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Toshio
Seventy-three Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from dogs and cats in Japan to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms to anti-pseudomonal agents. Resistance rates against orbifloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, aztreonam and gentamicin were 34.2, 31.5, 20.5, 17.8, 12.3 and 4.1%, respectively. The degree of resistance to cefotaxime, orbifloxacin, and enrofloxacin was greatly affected by efflux pump inhibitors, indicating overexpression of efflux pump contributes to these resistances. Notably, orbifloxacin and enrofloxacin resistance was observed even in isolates without mutations in the target sites. This is the first report on cephalosporin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa from Japanese companion animals. PMID:22188523
Miro, E; Barthelemy, M; Peduzzi, J; Reynaud, A; Morand, A; Prats, G; Labia, R
P. penneri produces an inducible cephalosporinase, as many Enterobacteriaceae. Nevertheless this betalactamase is susceptible to clavulanic acid which is an exception also encountered for P. vulgaris. The authors studied the enzyme produced by P. penneri 14HBC resistant to cefotaxime (MIC 16 mg/l) isolated in Spain in 1992. This betalactamase of isoelectric point 6.65 hydrolyzes first generation cephalosporins, amoxycillin and poorly ticarcillin as it occurs for all cephalosporinases. However, this enzyme hydrolyzes strongly oxyimino-cephalosporins: cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefpirome as it occurs with extended-spectrum betalactamases. Cephamycins and imipenem are not substrates. Clavulanic acid has a very good affinity for this betalactamase which is inactivated progressively. These properties are similar to those of the enzyme of P. vulgaris Ro104 of isoelectric point 8.3 which, contrarily to other cephalosporinases, belongs to the structural Ambler's class A. PMID:7824319
Machado, Elisabete; Coque, Teresa M.; Cantón, Rafael; Sousa, João C.; Peixe, Luísa
Bacteria colonizing the human intestine have a relevant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans from Portugal and analyzed the distribution of sul genes and class 1 and 2 integrons. Faecal samples (n = 113) were recovered from healthy persons (North/Centre of Portugal, 2001–2004) and plated on MacConkey agar with and without ceftazidime (1 mg/L) or cefotaxime (...
鶴見, 映子; 立川, 恵美子; 藤田, 典子; 日野, なおみ; 武藤, 玲子; 小峯, 聡; 道津, 裕季; 砂原, 眞理子; 平野, 幸子; 大澤, 真木子; 高山, 幹子; TSURUMI, Eiko; TACHIKAWA, Emiko; FUJITA, Noriko; HINO, Naomi
We surveyed 35 patients who had been diagnosed with acute purulent otitis media (AOM) who were admitted to our department between 1995 and 1998. Penicillin-resistant Streptcoccus peumoniae (PRSP) was isolated from 15 patients (42%). The efficacy of cefotaxim (CTX) was satisfactory in all cases in which it was used. However, 4 patients in whom cefotium (CTM) was used showed no improvement, and 2 had recurrence of AOM. Ten of 15 patients who suffered from PRSP underwent immunologic examinations...
Full Text Available ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0% and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and P. mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly blaCTX-M-1, but also blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-52-StPaul, blaSHV-12 and blaCMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care.
Abstract To study the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) containing Escherichia coli isolates, and the mechanisms of resistance implicated, 220 faecal samples from wild birds were collected between 2006 and 2010 in the Azores Archipelago. Samples were spread in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/L of vancomycin and in Levine agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/L of cefotaxime for VRE and ESBL-containing ...
Shaheen, Bashar W.; Nayak, Rajesh; Foley, Steven L.; Kweon, Ohgew; Deck, Joanna; Park, Miseon; Rafii, Fatemeh; Boothe, Dawn M.
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae occurs worldwide; however, little is known about ESC resistance in Escherichia coli strains from companion animals. Clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from veterinary diagnostic laboratories throughout the United States from 2008 to 2009. E. coli isolates (n = 54) with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime or cefotaxime (MIC ≥ 16 μg/ml) and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotyp...
Wu, P J; Shannon, K; Phillips, I
The susceptibility of 173 TEM-1-producing isolates of Escherichia coli was assessed by determination of MICs by the agar dilution method. MICs of amoxicillin, mezlocillin, cephaloridine, and, to a smaller extent, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (but not cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or imipenem) were higher for isolates that produced large amounts of beta-lactamase than for isolates that produced smaller amounts. The effect of fixed concentrations of clavulanic acid on resistan...
Drugeon, H.B.; Juvin, M E; Caillon, J.; Courtieu, A L
The critical concentration of antibiotic was calculated by using the agar diffusion method with disks containing different charges of antibiotic. It is currently possible to use different calculation formulas (based on Fick's law) devised by Cooper and Woodman (the best known) and by Vesterdal. The results obtained with the formulas were compared with the MIC results (obtained by the agar dilution method). A total of 91 strains and two cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftriaxone) were studied....
Matsumoto, Y; Ikeda, F; Kamimura, T.; Yokota, Y.; Mine, Y
A highly cephem-resistant Escherichia coli strain, FP1546, isolated from the fecal flora of laboratory dogs previously administered beta-lactam antibiotics was found to produce a beta-lactamase, FEC-1, of 48-kilodalton size and pI 8.2. FEC-1 hydrolyzed cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, and ceftriaxone, as well as the enzymatically less-stable antibiotics cephaloridine, cefotiam, and cefpiramide. Of the oxyimino-cephalosporins, ceftizoxime was fairly stable to FEC-1. FEC-1 differed notably ...
Spanu, T; Luzzaro, F.; Perilli, M; Amicosante, G; Toniolo, A.; Fadda, G.
An Italian nationwide survey was carried out to assess the prevalences and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Over a 6-month period, 8,015 isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients and screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams. On the basis of a synergistic effect between clavulanate and selected β-lactams (ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefotaxime, cefepime, and ce...
Nagano, Noriyuki; Shibata, Naohiro; Saitou, Yuko; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika
Nineteen multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strains were isolated from 19 patients suffering from infections probably caused by P. mirabilis. These strains were recovered from urine or other urogenital specimens of 16 inpatients and three outpatients with a hospitalization history in a urology ward of Funabashi Medical Center, from July 2001 to August 2002. These strains demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, and aztreonam, while they were highly susceptible to ce...
Huber, T W; Thomas, J. S
Thirty-six of 36 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes with inducible beta-lactamase developed resistance when cefoxitin (inducer) was added to cefuroxime disks. Constitutive beta-lactamase producers (n = 23) were all resistant to cefuroxime. Cefuroxime resistance correlated with the amount of induced or constitutive beta-lactamase. Cefuroxime was a better indicator of induced resistance than cefamandole, cefazolin, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ticarcillin with or without ...
Aldridge, K E; MORICE,N; Schiro, D D
We tested 441 clinical strains of anaerobes by using a broth microdilution method to determine the in vitro activity of biapenem for comparison with those of other agents. Biapenem had activity comparable to those of imipenem and meropenem against all groups of anaerobes with MICs for 90% of the strains tested of 0.06 to 2 micrograms/ml. Against the Bacteroides fragilis group, biapenem was more active than ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and...
Sifaoui, F; Kitzis, M D; Gutmann, L
Many oral penicillins and cephalosporins are used to treat clinical infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, using different beta-lactams as selectors, we estimated the frequencies of one-step mutations leading to resistance. Resistant mutants were obtained from penicillin-susceptible, intermediately resistant, and penicillin resistant strains. For cefixime, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, the frequencies of mutation ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-8) when res...
Paul, G C; Gerbaud, G; Bure, A; Philippon, A M; B. Pangon; Courvalin, P.
A clinical isolate of Escherichia coli, strain CB-134, recovered in 1986 from an abdominal abscess, exhibited resistance to penams, oxyimino-beta-lactams including broad-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime), and aztreonam but remained susceptible to cephamycins (cefoxitin, cefotetan) and to moxalactam and imipenem. Clavulanate (2 micrograms/ml) restored the susceptibility of the strain to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. A beta-lactamase with an isoelectr...
Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare strains from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and animal sources.
Byrne, S K; Geddes, G L; Isaac-Renton, J. L.; Black, W A
Difloxacin, A-56620, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cephapirin, SK&F 88070, and spectinomycin were used to compare the in vitro susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellular isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and diseased animals. Against the isolates from humans without AIDS, the quinolone compounds difloxacin and A-56620 were found to be the most effective, each inhibiting 50% of strains at a concentration of 2 micro...
Ebru Yılmaz; Güven Uraz
Extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) are responsible for resistance to cephalosporins (ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime) and aztreonam in gram-negative bacilli. ESBL producing Klebsiella bacteria are a major problem for clinicians, ESBLs increase are cause of failure in treatment particularly paediatric patients and also in medical and surgical units. In this research ESBL was investigated by combined disc method. In this research, 128 clinical isolates of Klebsiella ssp. were co...
Full Text Available Abstract Background β-lactamase conjugated with environment-sensitive fluorescein molecule to residue 166 on the Ω-loop near its catalytic site is a highly effective biosensor for β-lactam antibiotics. Yet the molecular mechanism of such fluorescence-based biosensing is not well understood. Results Here we report the crystal structure of a Class A β-lactamase PenP from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C with fluorescein conjugated at residue 166 after E166C mutation, both in apo form (PenP-E166Cf and in covalent complex form with cefotaxime (PenP-E166Cf-cefotaxime, to illustrate its biosensing mechanism. In the apo structure the fluorescein molecule partially occupies the antibiotic binding site and is highly dynamic. In the PenP-E166Cf-cefatoxime complex structure the binding and subsequent acylation of cefotaxime to PenP displaces fluorescein from its original location to avoid steric clash. Such displacement causes the well-folded Ω-loop to become fully flexible and the conjugated fluorescein molecule to relocate to a more solvent exposed environment, hence enhancing its fluorescence emission. Furthermore, the fully flexible Ω-loop enables the narrow-spectrum PenP enzyme to bind cefotaxime in a mode that resembles the extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusions Our structural studies indicate the biosensing mechanism of a fluorescein-labelled β-lactamase. Such findings confirm our previous proposal based on molecular modelling and provide useful information for the rational design of β-lactamase-based biosensor to detect the wide spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics. The observation of increased Ω-loop flexibility upon conjugation of fluorophore may have the potential to serve as a screening tool for novel β-lactamase inhibitors that target the Ω-loop and not the active site.
Yılmaz, Ebru; Uraz, Güven
Extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) are responsible for resistance to cephalosporins (ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime) and aztreonam in gram-negative bacilli. ESBL producing Klebsiella bacteria are a major problem for clinicians, ESBLs increase are cause of failure in treatment particularly paediatric patients and also in medical and surgical units. In this research ESBL was investigated by combined disc method. In this research, 128 clinical isolates of Klebsiella ssp. were co...
Antonella Restelli; Manuela Colosimo; Anna Maraschini; Anna Grancini; Rosaria Colombo; Romualdo Grande; Maria Rosa Araldi; Erminio Torresani
In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatm...
Maldeghem, Jeannette ¬von¬
Einhundertvierundvierzig STEC-Stämme von Patienten mit hämolytisch-urämischem Syndrom (68 Stämme), von Durchfallpatienten (42 Stämme) und von asymptomatischen Ausscheidern (44 Stämme) wurden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit auf ihre Antibiotika-empfindlichkeit hin untersucht. Zu den insgesamt 13 getesteten Antibiotika zählten die ß-Laktam Antibiotika Ampicillin, Piperacillin, Cefotaxim, Ceftazidim, Cefotiam und Imipenem, die Aminoglykoside Gentamicin und Streptomycin, die Gyrasehemmer Ofloxacin und Ci...
Abdalhamid, Baha; Pitout, Johann D. D.; Moland, Ellen S.; Hanson, Nancy D.
Strains of Citrobacter freundii intermediate to cefotaxime but sensitive to ceftazidime were isolated from four different patients in Canada. Sequencing of PCR products by use of CTX-M-specific primers revealed a new combination of four amino acid substitutions. This new gene was designated blaCTX-M-30 and was encoded on a 3-kb plasmid. The pI of CTX-M-30 was 8.0.
Tacão, Marta; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel
We compared the resistomes within polluted and unpolluted rivers, focusing on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, in particular blaCTX-M. Twelve rivers from a Portuguese hydrographic basin were sampled. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters of water quality were determined, and the results showed that 9 rivers were classified as unpolluted (UP) and that 3 were classified as polluted (P). Of the 225 cefotaxime-resistant strains isolated, 39 were identified as ESBL-producing...
Cartelle, Monica; del Mar Tomas, Maria; Molina, Francisca; Moure, Rita; Villanueva, Rosa; Bou, German
A clinical strain of Escherichia coli isolated from pleural liquid with high levels of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam harbors a novel CTX-M gene (blaCTX-M-32) whose amino acid sequence differs from that of CTX-M-1 by a single Asp240-Gly substitution. Moreover, by site-directed mutagenesis we demonstrated that this replacement is a key event in ceftazidime hydrolysis
N Shoeib; S Fereshteh; F M Mehdi; N V Sadat; N Leila
Purpose: Plasmid-encoded CTX-M-group of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) represent a significant and rapidly emerging problem in most part of the world. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of CTX-M producing Klebsiella pneumoniae at Tehran hospitals. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae (n=250) were collected from 10 hospitals of Tehran. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, MIC of cefotaxime and ESBLs production of collected isolates were ...
Pitout, Johann D. D.; Hossain, Ashfaque; Hanson, Nancy D.
Organisms producing CTX-M-β-lactamases are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to oxyiminocephalosporins such as cefotaxime (CTX). However, the laboratory detection of these strains is not well defined. In this study, a molecular detection assay for the identification of CTX-M-β-lactamase genes was developed and used to investigate the prevalence of these enzymes among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in the Calgary Health Region during 2000 to 2002...
Eckert, C.; Gautier, V.; Saladin-Allard, M.; Hidri, N.; Verdet, C.; Ould-Hocine, Z.; Barnaud, G.; Delisle, F.; Rossier, A.; Lambert, T; Philippon, A; Arlet, G
We analyzed 19 clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae (16 Escherichia coli isolates and 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates) collected from four different hospitals in Paris, France, from 2000 to 2002. These strains had a particular extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance profile characterized by a higher level of resistance to cefotaxime and aztreonam than to ceftazidime. The blaCTX-M genes encoding these β-lactamases were involved in this resistance, with a predominance of blaCT...
Reuland, E. Ascelijn; Hays, John; Jongh, Denise; Abdelrehim, Eman; Willemsen, Ina; Kluytmans, Jan; Savelkoul, Paul; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina; Naiemi, Nashwan Al
textabstractObjectives: The aim of this study was to compare the current screening methods and to evaluate confirmation tests for phenotypic plasmidal AmpC (pAmpC) detection. Methods: For this evaluation we used 503 Enterobacteriaceae from 18 Dutch hospitals and 21 isolates previously confirmed to be pAmpC positive. All isolates were divided into three groups: isolates with 1) reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and/or cefotaxime; 2) reduced susceptibility to cefoxitin; 3) reduced susceptib...
Nelson, E C; Elisha, B. Gay
DNA sequencing data showed that five clinical isolates of Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime contain an ampC gene that is preceded by a strong promoter. Transcription from the strong promoter was 8- to 18-fold higher than that from the promoter from a susceptible isolate. RNA studies showed that mRNA stability does not play a role in the control of AmpC synthesis.
Jacoby, George A.
Summary: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many of the Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor-β-lactam combinations. In many bacteria, AmpC enzymes are inducible and can be expressed at high levels by mutation. Overexpression confers resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins including cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ceft...
Sepsis neonatal precoz causada por transmisión vertical de Morganella morganii, en un embarazo de término Fatal neonatal sepsis caused by vertical transmission of Morganella morganii. Report of one case
Alfredo Ovalle; M Angélica Martínez; Elena Kakarieka; Mirna García; Abril Salinas
We report a term neonate who developed early-onset sepsis due to Morganella morganii. The child was vaginally delivered after a short labor, and presented signs of perinatal asphyxia. Blood cultures taken soon after birth and from mother's lochia were positive for this microorganism. The infection was unresponsive to treatment with cefotaxime, to which the microorganism was susceptible, and the infant died at 17 days of age. M morganii is an opportunistic and uncommon pathogen, causing diseas...
Neu, H C; Meropol, N J; Fu, K P
The in vitro activity of ceftriaxone (Ro 13-9904), a parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with that of other beta-lactam antibiotics. the compound was less active against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis than was cephalothin or cefamandole, but it was comparable to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and moxalactam in inhibiting most isolates of S. aureus at 3.1 microgram/ml. Ro 13-9904 inhibited Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae at concentrations below 0.25 microgr...
Pagani, Laura; Dell'Amico, Emanuela; Migliavacca, Roberta; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Giacobone, Ernesto; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Romero, Egidio; Rossolini, Gian Maria
Twelve isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (1 of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 8 of Escherichia coli, 1 of Proteus mirabilis, and 2 of Proteus vulgaris) classified as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers according to the ESBL screen flow application of the BD-Phoenix automatic system and for which the cefotaxime MICs were higher than those of ceftazidime were collected between January 2001 and July 2002 at the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology of the San Matteo University Hospital of Pavia (n...
Verbist, L.; Verhaegen, J
The in vitro activity of GR-20263, a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, was compared with the activities of other beta-lactam antibiotics by using 800 clinical bacterial isolates. GR-20263 was highly active (inhibition of 90% of the isolates between 0.03 and 1 microgram/ml) against the common Enterobacteriaceae and 5 to 20 times more active than cefuroxime, cefoxitin, and cephalothin. GR-20263 was three to six times less active than cefotaxime against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, S...
Cai Sheng Wu; Jin Lan Zhang; Yan Ling Qiao; Yi Lin Wang; Zhi Rong Chen
In this study, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated to determine the 14 β-lactam antibiotics in cosmetic products, including 1 (ceftazidime), 2 (cefaclor), 3 (cefdinir), 4 (ampicillin), 5 (cefalexin), 6 (ceftezole), 7 (cefotaxim), 8 (cefradine), 9 (cefuroxime), 10 (cephazoline), 11 (cefathiamidine), 12 (cefoperazone), 13 (cafalotin), 14 (piperacillin).
Then, R L; Angehrn, P
Resistance to cefotaxime (CTA) and ceftriaxone (CTR) in Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in several strains which are susceptible or resistant to these agents. All strains produced a chromosomally mediated cephalosporinase of the Richmond type 1. beta-Lactamases in susceptible strains were inducible, whereas resistant strains produced the enzymes constitutively. CTA and CTR were very poor substrates but potent inhibitors of all enzymes. Binding to, rather than ...
Boetius Hertz, Frederik; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels
The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice ...
Meir Djaldetti; Nimrod Nachmias; Hanna Bessler
Context: Antibiotics belong to the powerful weapons applied against microbial infections. It is notable that in addition to their antimicrobial effect they express immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities. Aims: To explore the effect of four antibiotics on the immune cross-talk between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and colon carcinoma cells from two human lines. Methods: Cefotaxime, meropenem, ampicillin and vancomycin were separately added to PBMC co-incubated with cel...
MBEHANG NGUEMA, Pierre Philippe; Okubo, Torahiko; TSUCHIDA, Sayaka; FUJITA, Shiho; YAMAGIWA, Juichi; TAMURA, Yutaka; Ushida, Kazunari
Prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in wildlife can reveal the actual level of anthropological burden on the wildlife. In this study, we isolated two multiple drug-resistant strains, GG6-2 and GG6-1-1, from 27 fresh feces of wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Isolates were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Providencia sp., respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following 12 drugs—ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), cefotaxime (...
Gutmann, L; Goldstein, F W; Kitzis, M D; Hautefort, B; Darmon, C; Acar, J F
Twelve Nocardia asteroides isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 46 antibiotics by the agar dilution method. N-Formimidoyl thienamycin was the most active of 22 beta-lactam antibiotics, inhibiting 11 of the 12 strains at 1 microgram/ml. Penicillins, including ureidopenicillins, showed poor activity. Cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and especially cefuroxime had the best activities of the cephalosporins tested. Among the other antibiotics, amikacin and minocycline, respectively, inhibited a...
Kitzis, M D; Billot-Klein, D; Goldstein, F W; Williamson, R.; Tran Van Nhieu, G; Carlet, J; Acar, J F; Gutmann, L
The novel beta-lactamase CTX-1 (pI 6.3) encoded on a transferable 84-kilobase plasmid was found in six different bacterial species. It was responsible for a significant decrease in susceptibility towards most penicillins and cephalosporins, except imipenem, temocillin, and cephalosporins which have a 7-alpha-methoxy substituent. Synergy between either ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or aztreonam and three beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and YTR 830) w...
Involvement of penicillin-binding protein 2 with other penicillin-binding proteins in lysis of Escherichia coli by some beta-lactam antibiotics alone and in synergistic lytic effect of amdinocillin (mecillinam).
Gutmann, L; Vincent, S; Billot-Klein, D; Acar, J F; Mrèna, E; Williamson, R.
Compared with cefotaxime, ceftazidime, moxalactam, and aztreonam, ceftriaxone produced the best lytic and bactericidal effects when each was added at about 10 times the MIC to Escherichia coli W7. When each of these antibiotics was added at its MIC, only bacteriostasis occurred, but the simultaneous addition of amdinocillin (mecillinam) was synergistic in causing rapid lysis and bactericidal effects. Induction of lysis of two E. coli mutants containing either a thermosensitive penicillin-bind...
A young woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome and placement of a permanent pacemaker 6 months before admission had fever and Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia. A gallium scan localized the infection to the site of the pacemaker wire. Echocardiograms were negative for any vegetations. The patient responded to cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. We believe that this is the first case of H. parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire and localized by gallium scan
Chin, N X; Neu, H C
The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in cattle has been reported previously, however information on veal calves is limited. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility to cefotaxime in veal calves at slaughter. METHODS: Faecal samples from 100 herds, 10 individual animals per herd, were screened for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Molecular characterization of ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmids was performed on one isolate per herd by microarray, PCR and sequence analysis. RESULTS: 66% of the herds were positive for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Within-herd prevalence varied from zero to 90%. 83% of E. coli producing ESBL/AmpC carried bla(CTX-M genes, of which bla(CTX-M-1, bla(CTX-M-14 and bla(CTX-M-15 were most prevalent. The dominant plasmids were IncI1 and IncF-type plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high prevalence of various bla(CTX-M producing E. coli was found in veal calves at slaughter. The genes were mainly located on IncI1 and IncF plasmids.
Full Text Available An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100% of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24 produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86% in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.
Taherpour, Arezou; Hashemi, Ali; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Taki, Elahe
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major bacteria causing acute infections. β-Lactamase production is the principal defense mechanism in gram-negative bacteria. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Methanolic Extracts of Green and Black Teas on P. aeruginosa Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamases (ESBLs) production. This research was carried out on burn wounds of 245 hospitalized patients in Kerman, Iran. P. aeruginosa ESBLs and MBL producing strains were detected by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT) and Epsilometer test (E-test) strips, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured for Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Imipenem, Aztreonam, Cefotaxime and methanollic extracts of Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea). From 245 patients in the burn ward, 120 cases were infected with P. aeruginosa. 41 isolates contained ESBL while MBL was not detected. P. aeruginosa were resistant to Cefotaxime, Aztreonam, Ceftazidime, Meropenem and Imipenem, 72 (60%), 50 (41.66%), 79 (65.83%), 33 (27.5%) and 24 (20%), respectively. Green tea extract had the highest anti-bacterial effect on standard and P. aeruginosa strains in 1.25mg/ml concentration. This study determined that the methanolic extract of green tea has a higher effect against ESBL producing P. aeruginosa than Cefotaxime, Aztreonam and Ceftazidime. PMID:27393439
Alarcón, T; de la Obra, P; López-Hernandez, S; de las Cuevas, C; López-Brea, M
The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of piperacillin-tazobactam against 81 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The clinical specimens were processed according to standard microbiological procedures and 81 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified using MicroScan Panels following the manufacturer's recommendations. A double disk diffusion method was applied to detect extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) (43 isolates were positive and 38 were negative). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by an agar dilution technique using Mueller-Hinton. The following antibiotics were studied: piperacillin with 4 mg/l of tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in a 2:1 proportion, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, imipenem and meropenem. The MIC(90) were 16/4 mg/l for piperacillin-tazobactam, 16/8 for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 16 for ceftriaxone, 16 for cefotaxime, 4 for cefepime, 0.25 for imipenem and 0.032 for meropenem in ESBL-positive strains. In ESBL-negative strains the MIC90 were as follows: 4/4 mg/l for piperacillin-tazobactam, 8/4 for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 0.064 for ceftriaxone, 0.125 for cefotaxime, 0.125 for cefepime, 0.125 for imipenem and 0.016 for meropenem. All betalactams showed excellent in vitro activity against ESBL non-producer K. pneumoniae. Moreover, piperacillin-tazobactam and both carbapenems showed good in vitro activity against EBSL-producer K. pneumoniae. PMID:10878513
Keite da Silva Nogueira
Full Text Available Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL by enterobacteria is an important resistance mechanism against antimicrobial beta-lactamics. We tested 498 bacterial strains isolated from two tertiary-care teaching hospitals for ESBL production, using screening breakpoints for aztreonam and third generation cephalosporins, according to CLSI recommendations. Among these isolates, 155 were positive for the ESBL screening test, and 121 (78% were confirmed by the clavulanic acid combination disk method. We found a high frequency of ESBL (24% among Enterobacteriaceae, with a frequency of 57.4% for Klebsiella pneumoniae, 21.4% for Klebsiella oxytoca, and 7.2% for E. coli. In other members of Enterobacteriaceae, non-Klebsiella and non-E. coli, the prevalence was 21.6%. Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime showed a higher sensitivity in the screening test (99.2% when compared to ceftazidime, aztreonam and cefpodoxime. However, cefotaxime/cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid showed a higher sensitivity in the confirmatory test (96.7%.
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from chicken in Enugu State, Nigeria Produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido por cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frango em Enugu State, Nigéria
Full Text Available One hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin® as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. Beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production using the Oxoid combination discs method. One hundred and seventy (98.8% of the 172 ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains produced beta-lactamase enzyme. Sixteen (9.4% beta-lactamase producers were phenotypically confirmed to produce ESBLs. Six of the ESBL producing strains were only detected with ceftazidime versus ceftazidime/clavulanate combination while ten of the ESBL producers were detected with cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanate combination. Chicken may serve as a reservoir of ESBL-producing E. coli strains which could be transferred to man and other animals.Cento e setenta e duas cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina isoladas de frangos em Enugu State, Nigéria, foram avaliadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase através do uso de método em caldo com nitrocefin® como indicador cromogênico da produção da enzima. Em seguida, as cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase foram examinadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase de espectro expandido (ESBL através do método de discos combinados Oxoid. Entre as cepas de Escherichia coli resistentes a ampicilina, cento e setenta (98,8% produziram beta-lactamase. Testes fenotípicos indicaram que dezesseis (9,4% das cepas produtoras de beta-lactamase produziram ESBL. Seis cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas apenas com a combinação ceftazidima versus cefotaxime/clavulanato, enquanto dez cepas produtoras de ESBL foram detectadas com a combinação cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanato. Frangos podem ser reservatório de cepas de E.coli produtoras de ESBL, que podem ser transferidos para o homem
Full Text Available Context: Antibiotics belong to the powerful weapons applied against microbial infections. It is notable that in addition to their antimicrobial effect they express immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities. Aims: To explore the effect of four antibiotics on the immune cross-talk between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and colon carcinoma cells from two human lines. Methods: Cefotaxime, meropenem, ampicillin and vancomycin were separately added to PBMC co-incubated with cells from two human colon carcinoma cell lines, i.e. HT-29 and RKO. After 24 hours, the level of the following cytokines produced by PBMC was evaluated: IL-6, IL-1ra, IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ and IL-10. Results: All four antibiotics did not affect the generation of IL-6 and IL-1ra in both co-cultures. On the other hand all of them restrained the production of IL-1β by PBMC incubated with HT-29 cells. In the same incubation mixture cefotaxime, vancomycin and meropenem decreased IFNγ and IL-10 production, while ampicillin and vancomycin inhibited TNFα. As for PBMC incubated with RKO carcinoma cells, cefotaxime inhibited the production of IL-1β, IFNγ and mildly of IL-10, whereas vancomycin repressed that of IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ. Notably, vancomycin increased the production of IL-1β and decreased that of TNFα and IFNγ. The results indicate that the four antibiotics examined exert a modulatory effect on the immune cross-talk between PBMC and human colon cancer cells from two lines expressed by a different impact on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines generation. Conclusions: These findings support the conception that antibiotics may express not only an anti-microbial effect, but also possess an anti-cancer activity that may be considered for integration to the therapeutic arsenal against cancer.
Full Text Available Purpose: Recent reports indicate decreased susceptibility of S. typhi to fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin. Chloramphenicol has been suggested as first line therapy of enteric fever in many studies. This is a prospective study that describes the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of S. typhi and S. paratyphi A causing bacteraemia in children and reports therapeutic failure to ciprofloxacin and evaluates the possible use of chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporins as first line therapy in the treatment of enteric fever in children. Methods: The present study was conducted from April 2004 to March 2005 in a superspeciality children hospital at New Delhi. A total of 56 S. typhi and five S. paratyphi A isolates were obtained among the 673 blood cultures performed. Antimicrobial testing was done using disk diffusion technique (NCCLS method for 13 antimicrobials and MICs were calculated for ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime. Analysis of data was done using WHONET software. Results: All 56 isolates of S. typhi were sensitive to amoxycillin+clavulanate, gentamicin, cefixime, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Multidrug resistance (MDR, resistance to three drugs was seen in 22 cases (39% and resistance to five drugs was seen in 12 cases (21%. Only two isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol (3%. MIC 90 for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were 1.0 mg/ml, 4.0 mg/ml, 64 mg/ml and 0.125 mg/ml respectively. All S. paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol and resistant to nalidixic acid.MIC distribution data for chloramphenicol revealed elevated MIC but still in susceptible range. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for further clinical studies to evaluate response to chloramphenicol in such cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility data and MIC distribution favour use of ampicillin as a drug of choice for the treatment of enteric fever
Alizade, H. (MSc
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Klebsiella pneumonia (K.pneumonia is one of the common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of beta-lactamase genes and phenotypic confirmation of extended–spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL producing K.pneumonia isolates from clinical samples. Material and Methods: In this study, 122 K.pneumonia were isolated from clinical specimens of Khoramabad city and were confirmed by standard bacteriological tests. The presence of ESBL enzymes was detected by combined disk diffusion method. PCR assay with specific primers was used to determine blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-15 and blaCTX-M genes in the confirmed isolates. Results: of 122 K.pneumonia isolates, 78 (64.18% were positive for ESBL, using disk diffusion method. According to antibiogram results, 10.65% of isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, 3.27% to ceftazidime and 68.03% to both antibiotics. Ninety isolates (64.18% considered as ESBLs isolates, at the same time, with being resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime were also sensitive to cefotaxime-clavulanic acid and ceftazidime-clavulanic acid. In PCR assays, blaCTX-15, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes were detected in 78.68%, 40.16%, 26.22% and 22.13% of isolates, respectively. Ten resistant patterns of genes were detected. Conclusion: The significance percentage of antibiotic resistant genes of K.pneumonia isolates from clinical samples in Khoramabad city had ESBLs genes; CTX-M category was the most prevalent encoding genes of these enzymes. Keywords: Klebsiella Pneumonia, Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase, Antibiotic Resistance
Boetius Hertz, Frederik; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels
The ability of different antibiotics to select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli remains a topic of discussion. In a mouse intestinal colonization model, we evaluated the selective abilities of nine common antimicrobials (cefotaxime, cefuroxime, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and amdinocillin) against a CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate with a fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype. Mice (8 per group) were orogastrically administered 0.25 ml saline with 10(8) CFU/ml E. coli ST131. On that same day, antibiotic treatment was initiated and given subcutaneously once a day for three consecutive days. CFU of E. coli ST131, Bacteroides, and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in fecal samples were studied, with intervals, until day 8. Bacteroides was used as an indicator organism for impact on the Gram-negative anaerobic population. For three antibiotics, prolonged colonization was investigated with additional fecal CFU counts determined on days 10 and 14 (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin). Three antibiotics (cefotaxime, dicloxacillin, and clindamycin) promoted overgrowth of E. coli ST131 (P 0.95), nor did they suppress Bacteroides or Gram-positive organisms. The results showed that antimicrobials both with and without an impact on Gram-negative anaerobes can select for ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that not only Gram-negative anaerobes have a role in upholding colonization resistance. Other, so-far-unknown bacterial populations must be of importance for preventing colonization by incoming E. coli. PMID:25092712
Patients in the ICU have encountered an increasing emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. We examined patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in gram-negative isolates to commonly used drugs in an adult ICU at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.A retrospective study was carried out of gram-negative isolates from the adult ICU of King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KFNGH) between 2004 and 2009. Organisms were identified and tested by an automated identification and susceptibility system, and the antibiotic susceptibility testing was confirmed by the disk diffusion. The most frequently isolated organism was Acinetobacter baumannii, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterobacter. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns significantly declined in many organisms, especially A baumannii, E coli, S marcescens, and Enterobacter. A baumannii susceptibility was significantly decreased to imipenem (55% to 10%), meropenem (33% to 10%), ciprofloxacin (22% to 10%), and amikacin (12% to 6%). E coli susceptibility was markedly decreased (from 75% to 50% or less) to cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefepime. S marcescens susceptibility was markedly decreased to cefotaxime (100% to 32%), ceftazidime (100% to 35%), and cefepime (100% to 66%). Enterobacter susceptibility was markedly decreased to ceftazidime (34% to 5%), cefotaxime (34% to 6%), and pipracillin-tazobactam (51% to 35%). Respiratory samples were the most frequently indicative of multidrug-resistant pathogens (63%), followed by urinary samples (57%).Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem in the KFNGH ICU, justifying new more stringent antibiotic prescription guidelines. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility and strict adherence to infection prevention guidelines are essential to eliminate major outbreaks in the future (Author).
Hadano, Yoshiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi
A 40-year-old man with severe alcoholic liver cirrhosis with a 2-day history of fatigue and abdominal pain was admitted. He reported eating sushi and sliced raw chicken a few days previously. His abdomen was distended, with shifting dullness. Based on the patient's history, physical examination and the results of abdominocentesis, he was diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; blood and ascitic fluid cultures were positive for Campylobacter fetus. The patient was started on treatment with cefotaxime, which was switched after 1 week to ampicillin for an additional 3 weeks. The patient was successfully treated with the 4-week course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. PMID:23417384
Khan Asad U
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed at (i characterizing the mode of transmission of blaCTX-M and blaTEM-1 among extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from infected diabetic foot ulcers, and (ii identifying the risk factors for "sex-associated multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial (MDRGNB-infection status" of the ulcers. Methods Seventy-seven diabetic patients having clinically infected foot ulcers were studied in a consecutive series. The E. coli strains isolated from the ulcers were screened for blaCTX-M, blaTEM-1, armA, rmtA and rmtB during the 2-year study-period. PCR amplified blaCTX-M genes were cloned and sequenced. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR was used for the analysis of genetic relatedness of the ESBL-producers. Risk factors for "sex-associated MDRGNB-infection status" of ulcers were assessed. Modeling was performed using Swiss-Model-Server and verified by Procheck and verify3D programmes. Discovery Studio2.0 (Accelrys was used to prepare Ramachandran plots. Z-scores were calculated using 'WHAT IF'-package. Docking of cefotaxime with modeled CTX-M-15 enzyme was performed using Hex5.1. Results Among 51 E. coli isolates, 14 (27.5% ESBL-producers were identified. Only 7 Class1 integrons, 2 blaCTX-M-15, and 1 blaTEM-1 were detected. Ceftazidime and cefotaxime resistance markers were present on the plasmidic DNA of both the blaCTX-M-15 positive strains and were transmissible through conjugation. The residues Asn132, Glu166, Pro167, Val172, Lys234 and Thr235 of CTX-M-15 were found to make important contacts with cefotaxime in the docked-complex. Multivariate analysis proved 'Glycemic control at discharge' as the single independent risk factor. Conclusions Male diabetic patients with MDRGNB-infected foot ulcers have poor glycemic control and hence they might have higher mortality rates compared to their female counterparts. Plasmid-mediated conjugal transfer, albeit
Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Pedro; Rodrigues, Tiago; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Felgar, Ana; Pacheco, Rui; Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Regina; Poeta, Patrícia
To study the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) containing Escherichia coli isolates, and the mechanisms of resistance implicated, 220 faecal samples from wild birds were collected between 2006 and 2010 in the Azores Archipelago. Samples were spread in Slanetz-Bartley agar plates supplemented with 4 mg/L of vancomycin and in Levine agar plates supplemented with 2 mg/L of cefotaxime for VRE and ESBL-containing E. coli isolation, r...
Objective We appraise the application condition of 3 certain shell hospital antibiotics. Methods According to medicine, we use research method. As the 280 certain courtyard regular inpatients of May 2001 use the condition of antibiotic,investigate. With the survey that DDD studies as medicine use, we worth. Is judgement doctor with DUI reasonable use the standard of medicine? Results 185 examples are used antibiotic, take 66.07％. With penicillins, Quinolones and Aminoglycosides use count frequently highest. Before locating in, 5 antibiotics are in proper order. Penicillin G, Clindamycin,Amikacin, Sodium Cefotaxime, and Ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The most antibiotic DUI ≤ 1, whole, the application ofantibiotic is reasonable.
Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang
In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...
Bosman, A B; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A; Vernooij, J C M; Mevius, D J
The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for their phenotypical resistance against amoxicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Logistic regression analysis revealed the following risk factors (P 40 ADD/pc, tetracyclines (tetracycline, OR 13·1; amoxicillin, OR 6·5). In this study antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli was mainly associated with antimicrobial drug use. PMID:24152540
Galimand, M.; Sabtcheva, S.; Courvalin, P; Lambert, T.
The armA (aminoglycoside resistance methylase) gene, which confers resistance to 4,6-disubstituted deoxystreptamines and fortimicin, was initially found in Klebsiella pneumoniae BM4536 on IncL/M plasmid pIP1204 of ca. 90 kb which also encodes the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-3. Thirty-four enterobacteria from various countries that were likely to produce a CTX-M enzyme since they were more resistant to cefotaxime than to ceftazidime were studied. The armA gene was detected in 12 clinic...
S Praveen Kumar
Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous infection which usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of EG of the eyelid treated with escharotomy and skin grafting, highlighting the importance of surgical management. A 2-year-old Asian Indian female presented to us with right upper lid edema with a large necrotic area. The child received intravenous cefotaxime for a week and the necrotic area turned to a well-defined eschar. Escharotomy with wound debridement and skin grafting was done. The present case highlights the importance of surgical intervention to prevent the sequelae of scarring of upper lid.
Kumar, S Praveen; Kumar, K V Praveen; Kaliaperumal, Subashini; Ashokan, Arjun
Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous infection which usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of EG of the eyelid treated with escharotomy and skin grafting, highlighting the importance of surgical management. A 2-year-old Asian Indian female presented to us with right upper lid edema with a large necrotic area. The child received intravenous cefotaxime for a week and the necrotic area turned to a well-defined eschar. Escharotomy with wound debridement and skin grafting was done. The present case highlights the importance of surgical intervention to prevent the sequelae of scarring of upper lid. PMID:26655009
Martín, M A; Castillo, A M; Liébana, J; Marín, A; Alados, J C; Piédrola, G
We compared the "in vitro" activity of imipenem with 14 beta-lactams, both alone and in combination with clavulanic acid, and sulbactam against 110 beta-lactamase-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The following antibiotics were tested: amoxycillin, penicillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cephazolin, cefamandole, cefmetazole, cefonicid, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, and ceftriaxone. In all cases, except those of cefoxitin and cefmetazole, these combinations showed a statistically significant increase in beta-lactam activity, which was, however, never higher than that of imipenem, the antibiotic which performed best against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:1940333
Griaznova, N S; Subbotina, N A; Beliavskaia, I V; Taisova, A S; Afonin, V I; Tiurin, M V; Shenderov, B A; Sazykina, Iu O; Navashin, S M
Sensitivity of different species of Lactobacillus i.e. L. casei, L. plantarum, L. acidophillus, L. buchneri, L. jugurti and others to penicillins and cephalosporins of various generations was studied. Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of the Lactobacillus species were specified. It was shown that the number of PBPs depended on the Lactobacillus species. L. casei had the least number of PBPs (4) and L. brevis had the highest number of PBPs (11). Competition of 14C-benzylpenicillin with ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime and cefoperazone for binding to separate PBPs in three strains of different Lactobacillus species was investigated. PMID:2110806
Júlia HUNKOVÁ; Gabriela LIBIAKOVÁ; Alena GAJDOŠOVÁ
The aim of this work was to develop protocols for micropropagation of selected Rubus cultivars – ‘Tulameen’ and ‘Black Jewel’ (Rubus idaeus L.), ‘Black Satin’ (Rubus fruticosus L.) and ‘Tayberry’ (Rubus fruticosus x Rubus idaeus). Nodal segments carrying dormant buds were used for in vitro culture establishment. For shoot initiation, MS medium containing 8 g*L-1 phytoagar, 30 g*L-1 sucrose, 1 mg*L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0.2 mg*L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 150 mg*L-1 cefotaxime wa...
Matsumoto, Yoshimi; Inoue, Matsuhisa
Enterobacter cloacae 8009 produced an inducible class A β-lactamase which hydrolyzed cefotaxime efficiently. It also hydrolyzed other β-lactams except cephamycins and carbapenems. The activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid and imipenem. The bla gene was transferable to Escherichia coli by electroporation of plasmid DNA. The molecular mass of the β-lactamase was 29 kDa and its pI was 7.3. All of these phenotypic characteristics of the enzyme except for inducible production resemble those of...
Evandro Vagner Tambarussi; Marcelo Rogalski; Fábio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira; Gilvano Ebling Brondani; Valentina de Fátima De Martin; Helaine Carrer
Agrobacterium is the largest method employed to transform woody plants. The bacterium is required to introduce the transgene into the plant nuclear genome. After transferring T-DNA to the plant cell, the bacteria affect plant growth negatively and have to be eliminated from plant tissue culture medium through the use of antibiotics. The effect of different antibiotics (timentin, cefotaxime and carbenicillin) on in vitro shoot regeneration of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) was compared in hypoco...
Stamm, J M; Hanson, C W; Chu, D T; Bailer, R; Vojtko, C; Fernandes, P B
The in vitro antibacterial potencies of A-56619 and A-56620, two new aryl-fluoroquinolones, were compared with the potency of norfloxacin against a broad spectrum of organisms. Cefotaxime, aztreonam, piperacillin, imipenem, penicillin, and gentamicin were also tested for reference purposes. The MICs required to inhibit at least 90% of the strains tested ranged from 0.25 to 4 micrograms/ml for A-56619 and from 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml for A-56620 for members of the Enterobacteriaceae. A-56619 ...
Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae) Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae)
Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues
The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP) and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cult...
Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Bortolaia, Valeria; Langebæk, Rikke; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard; Guardabassi, Luca
Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces of....../g). Cefotaxime resistance was associated with the presence of blaCTX-M-1 (n=4), blaCMY-2 (n=4) or multiple mutations in the promoter and coding region of chromosomal ampC (n=1). Altogether the results indicate that the risks of zoonotic transmission of β-lactam-resistant bacteria via human exposure to canine...
Full Text Available Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations expected in the patient’s body. Strains with reduced susceptibility outcompeted the wild-type whenever antibiotics were present, even in low concentrations that did not affect the growth rates of both strains. Exposure of E. coli to amoxicillin caused moderate resistance to cefotaxime. The combined evidence suggests that initial treatment by amoxicillin has a negative effect on subsequent therapy with beta-lactam antibiotics.
Nagano, Yukiko; Nagano, Noriyuki; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika
The plasmid-mediated novel β-lactamase CTX-M-64 was first identified in Shigella sonnei strain UIH-1, which exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 1,024 μg/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC, 32 μg/ml). The amino acid sequence of CTX-M-64 showed a chimeric structure of a CTX-M-15-like β-lactamase (N- and C-terminal moieties) and a CTX-M-14-like β-lactamase (central portion, amino acids 63 to 226), suggesting that it originated by homologous recombination between the corresponding genes. The introduct...
Poirel, Laurent; Naas, Thierry; Le Thomas, Isabelle; Karim, Amal; Bingen, Edouard; Nordmann, Patrice
Escherichia coli ILT-1, Klebsiella pneumoniae ILT-2, and K. pneumoniae ILT-3 were isolated in May 1999 in Paris, France, from a rectal swab of a hospitalized 5-month-old girl. These isolates had a clavulanic acid-inhibited substrate profile that included expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. The MICs of cefotaxime were higher for E. coli ILT-1 and K. pneumoniae ILT-2 than for K. pneumoniae ILT-3, while the opposite was found for the MICs of ceftazidime. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed t...
Munday, Craig J.; Boyd, David A.; Brenwald, Nigel; Miller, Mark; Andrews, Jennifer M.; Wise, Richard; Mulvey, Michael R; Hawkey, Peter M.
CTX-M-25 is a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase isolated from a single Canadian Escherichia coli isolate. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that this enzyme confers resistance to both cefotaxime and ceftazidime, but the level of resistance was reduced with the addition of β-lactamase inhibitors. The blaCTX-M-25 gene was detected on a 111-kb plasmid. It is a member of the CTX-M-8 group and has the closest amino acid identity (99%; three amino acid substitutions) with CTX-M-26. The blaCTX-M...
Batchelor, M.; Hopkins, K.; Threlfall, E. J.; Clifton-Hadley, F. A.; Stallwood, A. D.; Davies, R. H.; Liebana, E.
Cefotaximases (CTX-M) are a rapidly growing class A β-lactamase family that has been found among a wide range of clinical bacteria. One hundred and six isolates were selected from 278,308 Salmonella isolates based on resistance to ampicillin and cephalosporins and subjected to further characterization. Fourteen isolates were blaCTX-M PCR positive, and cefotaxime MICs for these isolates were ≥16 mg/liter. Furthermore, sequence analysis revealed the presence of type CTX-M9, -15, or -17 to -18. ...
Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Poirel, Laurent; Aubert, Daniel; Nordmann, Patrice
ISEcp1B has been reported to be associated with and to mobilize the emerging expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Thus, the ability of this insertion sequence to mobilize the blaCTX-M-2 gene was tested from its progenitor, Kluyvera ascorbata. Insertions of ISEcp1B upstream of the blaCTX-M-2 gene in K. ascorbata reference strain CIP7953 were first selected with cefotaxime (0.5 and 2 μg/ml). In those cases, ISEcp1B brought promoter sequences enhancing blaCTX-M-2 e...
Singhal S; Mathur T; Khan S; Upadhyay D; Chugh S; Gaind R; Rattan A
The purpose of this study was to simultaneously screen for Extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC b-lactamases in gram negative clinical isolates from four tertiary care hospitals and further to compare two detection methods three-dimensional extraction method and AmpC disk test for AmpC b-lactamases. A total of 272 isolates were screened for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase by modified double disk approximation method (MDDM). Synergy observed between disks of ceftazidime/cefotaxime a...
Satyanarayana Reddy Jaggavarapu; Anand Solomon Kamalakaran; Ventkata Prasad Jalli; Sravan Kumar Gangisetty; Munusswamy Ramanujam Ganesh; Gopikrishna Gaddamanugu
Rapid and facileaccess to novel chromeno[4,3-b]pyridine-2,5-dione derivatives was achieved by a mild base catalysed reaction of 4-chloro-3-formylcoumarin and acetoacetamides in PEG-300 as recyclable solvent. The compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against 3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia) with Cefotaxime control. They were further subjected to antioxidant studies using DPPH test with ascorbic acid control. While compounds 5d and 5k showed promising broad spectrum antibacterial properties against all the evaluated bacteria, compound 5g exhibited good antioxidant properties.
Full Text Available Shewanella algae was isolated from the purulent discharge in the navel area of a young male with a history of swimming in the Persian Gulf. A routine laboratory diagnosis procedure, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, was used to avoid misidentification with other species of Shewanella. The bacterium was suscetible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, nitrophorantion, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole but was resistant to amoxicillin, vancomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ceftizoxime. The patient successfully recovered after treatment with antibiotics.
Zapater Latorre, E; Castillo Ruiz, A; Alba García, J R; Armengot Carceller, M; Sancho Rieger, J; Basterra Alegría, J
Simultaneous bilateral facial paralisis (SBFP) occurs in 0.3-2% of all facial paralisis. We report a case of SBFP in association with Lyme disease. A review of literature about SBFP is made, studing specially the one caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. We present a diagnostic guideline of SBFP. Suspect diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical and epidemiological criteria. Culture isolation of this bacteria is difficult, therefore serologic testing is required. Neuroborreliosis treatment is intravenous Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime. Oral Doxycycline is useful in the treatment of neuritis without central nervous system involvement. PMID:15566265
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study in experiment the morphological changes in rat esophageal and gastric tissues after chemical burn using a regeneration enhancing agent (Ximedon against the background of medical treatment. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric chemical burns were modeled on Wistar white rats (n=70 by 30% acetic acid. The survivors were divided into three groups: a control group (without therapy, a standard treatment group (the rats were administered cefotaxime and prednisolone intraperitoneally and an experimental group (cefotaxime, prednisolone, Ximedon intraperitoneally. The results were assessed morphologically and morphometrically on day 13, 19 and 40. Conclusion. Esophageal and gastric mucosa thickness after chemical burn does not recover under any treatment. Antibiotics and corticosteroids taken after burn inhibit inflammation in tissues, but do not prevent scar tissue development in muscularis mucosae. A long term (6 weeks of Ximedon therapy along with standard therapy results in complete recovery of esophageal and gastric mucous structure and significantly suppresses a scarring process in muscular elements.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meningitis, termed as foreign material collection in the subarachnoid space, leads to various meningeal, cerebral and spinal cord pathologies. Meningitis still remains a problematic disease with severe complications in spite of advanced medical technology. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of cisternal irrigation in the prevention of meningitis complications. SETTING AND STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study was done in the Social Security Hospital of Erzurum. Histopathological specimens were evaluated in the Pathology Department in the Ataturk University Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on twelve lambs. Experimental meningitis was achieved with streptococcus pneumonia. Two animals were not treated. Ten animals were given CefotaximeR (4x1 g/day for 20 days, and additionally half of these animals underwent cisternal irrigation. Then, all animals were sacrificed and brains were observed histopathologically. RESULTS: Massive purulent CSF formation, hemorrhagic cortical lesions, vascular congestion, leptomeningeal and cortical adhesions and brain edema were observed in the non-irrigated group, but these findings were observed slightly or absent in the irrigated group. CONCLUSION: Meningitis can affect all central neural tissues, consequently serious central nervous system lesions may develop. The irrigation procedure may decrease the percentage and severity of meningitis complications by way of the excretion of inflammed purulent collection from the subarachnoid spaces.
Maksum Radji; Siti Fauziah; Nurgani Aribinuko
Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods, and their antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Results: Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment, of which 249 (64.68%) were cultured positive and 136 (35.32%) were negative. The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.9%). P. aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin (95.3%), cefotaxime (64.1%), and ceftriaxone (60.9%). Amikacin was the most effective (84.4%) antibiotic against P. aeruginosa followed by imipenem (81.2%), and meropenem (75.0%). K. pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin (86.5%), ceftriaxone (75.7%), ceftazidime (73.0%), cefpirome (73.0%) and cefotaxime (67.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins, and quinolone antibiotics. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.
Long breeding cycles make cultivar development a lengthy process in deciduous fruit species. Gene transfer is, accordingly, a goal with significant commercial value. In many plant species, especially in woody plants, a prerequisite for genetic engineering is the ability to regenerate plants from transformed cells. Development of single cell regeneration is the first step towards exploration of gene transfer techniques. In this investigation media for plum and apple leaf disk regeneration were developed. Transformation experiments were performed. The vector EHA105 containing the gus-intron gene was found to be effective for gene transfer. Induction of the virG genes with aceto-syringone did not enhance transformation. Cefotaxime that was supplemented in the plum selection medium to suppress the Agrobacterium vector seriously inhibited leaf disk regeneration. However, in applies it was not detrimental. With further apple transformation experiments, factors such as preculturing, age of leaves, sucrose and cefotaxime concentrations did not increase the transformation efficiency of the marker gene. The harpin protein, essential for the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae which incites bacterial canker of stone fruit, ws amplified and cloned into an expression vector. The fusion protein was purified. This will be used in future studies to elucidate the host-pathogen interaction, and to identify antibacterial genes. (author)
Dubreuil, L; Sedallian, A
The minimal inhibitory concentrations of piperacillin (PIP) or cefotaxime (CTX) alone or in combination with tazobactam (TAZ) were determined against 168 anaerobes. All the strains were inhibited by PIP + TAZ, but certain strains resistant to CTX + TAZ were found among B. fragilis, Eubacterium and Peptostreptococcus. The second investigations included 30 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. Concentrations of 2, 4 and 8 mg/l of TAZ and sulbactam (SUL) were combined with piperacillin or cefotaxime. The two beta-lactamase-inhibitors had similar activities when used at 2 or 4 mg/l, but at 8 mg/l TAZ was more active than SUL. All B. fragilis strains were inhibited by PIP + TAZ or PIP + SUL, whereas resistance was observed with CTX + SUL or CTX + TAZ. On the same strains the activities of 6 beta-lactams (PIP, mezlocillin, ticarcillin (TIC), CTX, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) were determined in combination with either SUL 4 mg/l or TAZ 8 mg/l. Only PIP or TIC + SUL or TAZ were able to inhibit at least 90% of tested strains. No resistance could be detected with PIP + TAZ combination. As conclusion, the two inhibitors when combined with PIP or TIC offered greater activity against both Gram positive or negative anaerobes and PIP + TAZ remained the more potent combination. PMID:1652729
Chen, C H; Yang, M H; Lin, J S; Lee, Y C; Perng, R P
Although there are reports that the addition of a beta-lactamase inhibitor to ampicillin or amoxicillin greatly improves their in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis, there are no written reports about the antituberculosis effects of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with cephalosporins against M. tuberculosis. In this report, we have determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 5 cephalosporins with or without combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor against M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients before antituberculosis treatment and checked the production of beta-lactamase by bacteria before this procedure. Four strains of M. tuberculosis were contaminated during the experiment, and all the other 16 strains hydrolyzed the nitrocefin disc, thus indicating a beta-lactamase producer. The MICs of cephalosporins alone against M. tuberculosis were 200-400 micrograms/ml for ceforanide, 100-400 micrograms/ml for cephapirin, 400-1600 micrograms/ml for cefamandole, 200-1600 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, and 800-1600 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone. After adding the equimolar concentrations of sulbactam, the MICs were reduced to 100-200 micrograms/ml for ceforanide, 12.5-100 micrograms/ml for cephapirin, 100-400 micrograms/ml for cefamandole, 25-200 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, and 100-800 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone. We concluded that sulbactam enhanced the antituberculosis effect of cephalosporins. PMID:7624446
Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H
Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. PMID:24325463
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to assess the recent sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli in Urinary tract infection (UTI.Widespread use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of resistant microorganisms. As the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the microorganisms are frequently changing, this retrospective analysis was designed to assess the recent antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli (E.coli in urinary tract infection among the human population. Details of 412 urine culture positive reports for E.coli and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern pertaining to the study period of 12months from June 2012 to May 2013 were collected from Central Microbiology Laboratory of Tirunelveli Medical College and the results were statistically analysed. The antibiotics tested for sensitivity were Amikacin, Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Cotrimoxazole, Nitrofurantoin, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. The sensitivity pattern of E.coli to antibiotics in UTI were Nitrofurantoin (85.19%, Amikacin (66.50%, Co-trimoxazole(31.31%, Gentamycin (26.90%, Ceftazidime (26.69% ,Ciprofloxacin (22.57%, Cefotaxime (22.30%, Ceftriaxone (17.47%. The study highlighted the re-emergence of E. coli sensitive to Nitrofurantoin and marked resistance of E.coli to Aminoglycoside and third generation Cephalosporins.
Rizwan, Muhammad; Bakht, Jehan; Bacha, Nafees; Ahmad, Bashir
The present study investigates the antibiotic resistance of S. pyogenes of 600 isolates collected from different body parts including throat and sputum were analyzed for their antimicrobial susceptibility to 5 antibiotics using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Based on different identification tests including, gram staining, beta hemolysis, catalase test and bacitracin sensitivity test, a total of 138 isolates were confirmed as S. pyogenes. The prevalence of S. pyogenes was 80% in sore throat and 29% in sputum samples. These isolates were further tested for antibiotics resistance using disk diffusion method. Out of 138 isolates, 49.27% isolates showed resistance towards cefixime, 28.98% towards cefotaxime and 17.39% towards ciprofloxacin, 17.39% towards ampicillin, 17.39% towards erythromycin, 15.94% towards streptomycin, 0.724% isolates towards chloromphenicol and 0% towards penicillin. Among the resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, 60.71% showed resistance towards cefixime, 57.14% towards ciprofloxacin, 57.14% towards streptomycin, 50% towards erythromycin and 25% towards cefotaxime. PMID:26826819
Ivan S. Pradipta
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in hospitalized patients at one of Bandung’s private hospital that can give benefit in control of antibiotic resistance and procurement planning of antibiotic. Data of antibiotic consumption were obtained from hospital pharmacy department on February–September 2011. Data were processed using the ATC/DDD and DU90% method. There were 390,98 DDD/100 bed days and 381,34 DDD/100 bed days total of an-tbiotic use in 2009 and 2010. Thirty nine antibiotic were consumed in 2009 within 11 kind of antibiotics in DU90% segment (ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, cefixime, doxycycline, thiamphenicol, cefodoxime, cefalexin and 44 antibiotic were consumed in 2010 within 18 kind of antibiotics in DU90% segment (ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, cefixime, levofloxacin, cefadroxil, cefotaxime, metronidazole, thiamphenicol, doxycycline, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, sulbactam, gentamycin, streptomycin, cefoperazone, canamycin. There were decline of antibiotic use that followed decline number of bed days/year in 2009–2010, but in both antibiotic kind and quantity of DU90% antibiotic group were increased.
Full Text Available Kounis syndrome is a clinical condition due to hypersensitivity that culminates into acute coronary syndrome (ACS which can be fatal. A 36-year-old male with no conventional coronary risk factors presented elsewhere with a history of fever for 4 days, cough with expectoration, diarrhea and was treated with cephalosporin (Inj. Cefotaxime as an infusion along with analgesics. He experienced generalized itching 5 minutes after cefotaxime infusion followed by sweating, headache, chest pain with facial and periorbital swelling for which he was rushed to our hospital. On examination he was afebrile with a low blood pressure. Electrocardiogram taken at an outside hospital revealed incomplete right bundle branch block and ST depression V3–V5. Investigations showed increase in troponin T. He was managed with anti-histamines and standard protocol for treatment of ACS. Coronary angiogram revealed normal coronaries. The patient improved symptomatically with treatment and was discharged on an anti-platelet, nitrate and a statin.
YANG Xin-yun; ZHUO Chao; XIAO Xiang-lin; YUAN Jin-Ping; YANG Ling
Objective To investigate the relationship between the consumption of antibacterial agents and resistance rate of Klebsiela pneumoniae(KP)in the hospital respiratory unit for 3 consecutive years in 2005-2007. Methods The total antibacterial consumption expressed as defined DDDs/100BD, as well as resistance rate of total KP and producing ESBLs KP were collected, and their correlation was analyzed. Results The rate of resistance of KP to cefoperazone/sulbactam, Cefepime, Imipenem, Moxifloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Moxifloxacin, Amikacin respectively;A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Ceftriaxone and the consumption of Imipenem; The rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin, Cefotaxime, Ciprofloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Levofloxacin. ESBLs producing bacilli of KP were detected in 44 of 75 isolates (58.7%), The rate of resistance of producing ES-BLs KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactarn, Ceftriaxone was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Imipenem, Ceftazidime; A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of producing ESBLs KP to Piperacillin, Imipenem and the consumption of Moxifloxacin. There was no significant correlation in other drugs. Conclusions A relationship existed between antimicrobial consumption and rates of resistance of KP in the hospital respiratory unit. We must use antibiotics carefully and with reason to control and lessen the drug resistance of bacterial.
Smíšková, Dita; Džupová, Olga
Pasteurella multocida is a common commensal of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of animals, especially cats and dogs. It is transmitted to humans through contact with animals. Bite wound infection is the most common clinical manifestation. Systemic infections are unusual and mainly affect immunocompromised individuals. The article presents two cases of Pasteurella infection. Wound infection in a 75-year-old female following a bite from her pet cat was associated with bacteremia. The disease course was favorable with the initial clindamycin treatment despite in vitro resistance. The other patient was a 62-year-old female diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis with multiple brain abscesses and transient expressive aphasia. She reported frequent contacts with pets and domestic animals without a recent bite. Hematogenous dissemination of the infection was suspected. Because of poor therapeutic response, cefotaxime was switched to chloramphenicol which was later switched to a combination of cefotaxime with ciprofloxacin due to anemia. Following 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and another 10 weeks of oral ciprofloxacin therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed normal results and the neurological defect resolved. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Pasteurella infection are discussed and literature is reviewed. PMID:26312375
Stobberingh, E E; Arends, J; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A; Goessens, W H; Visser, M R; Buiting, A G; Debets-Ossenkopp, Y J; van Ketel, R J; van Ogtrop, M L; Sabbe, L J; Voorn, G P; Winter, H L; van Zeijl, J H
The prevalence of ESBL was determined among isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 571) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 196) collected during a 1-week study period in 8 university and 3 large regional laboratories all over the Netherlands. 18 isolates were positive for at least one of the screening tests used, i.e., VITEK-ESBL, E-test ESBL and MIC ratio of ceftazidime/ceftazidime-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime/cefotaxime-clavulanic acid. In 5 of these 18 putative ESBLs no betalactamase production was detectable. A TEM type was found in three E. coli and two Klebsiella spp. An SHV type was present in five Klebsiella spp. In one E. coli and one Klebsiella pneumoniae both enzymes were present. In one Klebsiella oxytoca neither of the two enzymes was present. Using PCR for both ESBL TEM and ESBL SHV, an SHV ESBL was found in one E. coli and four Klebsiella isolates. The mutations at position 238 and 240 were already described. In one E. coli isolate a TEM ESBL was found with three mutations, at position 21, 164 and 265. These mutations were already described in other ESBLs but not in this combination suggesting a new TEM ESBL. The overall prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. was less than 1% (6 out of 767). PMID:10624595
Shahraki, SH. (PhD
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing a variety of infections including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemia, wound infections and infections in the intensive care units. Since the ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are increasingly causing urinary tract infections, we aim to assess antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluate the prevalence of ESBL in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urinary tract infections. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted on 122 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected from Zahedan hospitals. After final identification of isolates, antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out by using disk diffusion in agar method for 16 antibiotics and ESBL production was determined by the combined disk method. Results: The Klebsiella pneumoniae strains showed susceptibility to imipenem and amikacin ( 94.3% ,chloramphenicol (88.5% , gentamicin (81.1% , ciprofloxacin (80.3% , cefepime (73% ,streptomycin (72.1%, nalidixic acid (68% , tetracycline (65.6%, and cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime (62.3% . The resistance of strains was seen to nitrofurantoin (53.3%, cotrimoxazole (39.3%, Cefpodoxime (37.7%, cefotaxime (36.9%, ceftriaxone (36.1%, aztreonam (34.4%, ceftazidime (32.8%. Thirty-eight isolates (31.1% were shown to produce ESBLs. Conclusion: A high rate of resistance was observed to most of the antibiotics among ESBL producing strains; therefore, it is important to be careful about the use of antibiotics and identification of ESBL using phenotypic methods.
李魁众; 张雷; 冯战超
目的：观察对比青霉素 G 与头孢噻肟钠两种抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效及不良反应。方法选取我院70例新生儿肺炎患者为研究对象，随机均分为两组，一组采用青霉素 G 治疗，另一组接受头孢噻肟钠治疗，比较两组的治疗效果，分析其对肠道菌群微生态的影响，并观察记录不良反应发生情况。结果青霉素 G 组与头孢噻肟钠组的治疗效果无显著性差异；两组抗生素的治疗均影响了肠道菌群平衡，其中青霉素 G 对乳酸杆菌无显著性影响，头孢噻肟钠对肠杆菌的抗菌活性较高；青霉素 G 主要引发皮疹，头孢噻肟钠主要不良反应为消化道症状，总不良反应无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结论使用头孢菌素抗生素治疗新生儿肺炎的疗效与应用青霉素类抗生素的疗效差异无统计学意义，虽然头孢噻肟钠对肠杆菌作用强，但二者总不良反应发生率无显著性区别，根据抗生素使用原则及考虑经济原因，青霉素仍值得推广应用。%objective to observe and compare the therapeutic effect and adverse reaction of cefotaxime sodium penicillin G and two kinds of antibiotics in the treatment of neonatal pneumonia. Methods in our hospital 70 cases of neonatal pneumonia as the research object, randomly divided into two groups, one group treated with penicillin G, another group received cefotaximesodium in the treatment, the efficacy was compared between two groups, analyzes its influence on the gut microflora, and observe the occurrence of adverse reactions. Results there were no significant differences of penicillin G group and cefotaxime sodium group treatment; treatment group two antibiotics affect the balance of intestinal flora, including penicillin G had no significant effect on lactobacillus, higher antibacterial activity of cefotaxime sodium for enterobacteriaceae; penicillin G rashes, majoradverse reactions of cefotaxime sodium for
A. O. Okesola
Full Text Available Problem statement: The emergence and spread of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins are threatening to create species resistant to all currently available agents. The most common cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamases and many of the 2nd and 3rd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins were specifically designed to resist the hydrolytic action of major ß-lactamases. However new ß-lactamases emerged against each of the new classes of ß-lactams that were introduced and caused resistance. This study was designed to determine the rate of resistance to 3rd-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics by the Enterobacteriaceae in this environment. Approach: One hundred bacteria isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae identified from different clinical specimens between October and December 2007 using standard bacteriological methods. These were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing to third-generation cephalosporins and other classes of antibiotics which included quinolones and an aminoglycoside using the Kirby-Bauer method of disc diffusion test. Results: Out of the total number of Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the study period, only 54.8% of the klebsiella species isolated were sensitive to ceftazidime, 48.4% to ceftriaxone and 30.7% to cefotaxime. With Escherichia coli however, the susceptibility pattern to the 3rd-generation cephalosporins was better (65.6% were sensitive to ceftazidime, 62.5% to ceftriaxone and 71.9% to cefotaxime. In proteus species, the susceptibility pattern was generally poor to the three classes of antibiotics(50% were sensitive to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, 0% to cefotaxime, 33.3% to ciprofloxacin, 50% to gentamycin and 0% to amoxycillin/clavulanate. Conclusion/Recommendations: The poor susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate demonstrated by all the isolates in this
Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source.The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 113 surface water samples obtained from 30 different water bodies, and in 33 wastewater samples obtained at five health care institutions (HCIs, seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs, and an airport WWTP. Overall, 846 surface water and 313 wastewater E. coli isolates were analysed with respect to susceptibility to eight antimicrobials (representing seven different classes: ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol.Among surface water isolates, 26% were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 11% were multidrug-resistant (MDR. In wastewater, the proportions of AMR/MDR E. coli were 76%/62% at HCIs, 69%/19% at the airport WWTP, and 37%/27% and 31%/20% in mWWTP influents and effluents, respectively. Median concentrations of MDR E. coli were 2.2×10(2, 4.0×10(4, 1.8×10(7, and 4.1×10(7 cfu/l in surface water, WWTP effluents, WWTP influents and HCI wastewater, respectively. The different resistance types occurred with similar frequencies among E. coli from surface water and E. coli from municipal wastewater. By contrast, among E. coli from HCI wastewater, resistance to cefotaxime and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significantly overrepresented compared to E. coli from municipal wastewater and surface water. Most cefotaxime-resistant E. coliisolates produced ESBL. In two of the mWWTP, ESBL-producing variants were detected that were identical with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type, AMR-profile, and ESBL-genotype to variants from HCI wastewater discharged onto the same sewer and sampled on the same day (A1/ST23/CTX-M-1, B23/ST131/CTX-M-15, D2/ST405/CTX-M-15.In
Maamar, Elaa; Hammami, Samia; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Dakhli, Nouha; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Ferjani, Sana; Hamzaoui, Zaineb; Saidani, Mabrouka; Torres, Carmen; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem
This study was conducted to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase (pAmpC-BL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates in industrial poultry samples were collected from healthy chickens of the three farms. Samples were inoculated onto desoxycholate-lactose-agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2mg/L). E. coli was identified by biochemical and molecular methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method. Genes encoding ESBLs and pAmpC-BL were detected by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic groups were determined by triplex PCR. The molecular typing of strains was done by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) in those isolates showing different PFGE patterns. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were recovered in 48 of 137 fecal samples (35%), and one isolate/sample was further studied. The following beta-lactamase genes were detected: blaCTX-M-1 (29 isolates, isolated in all three farms), blaCTX-M-15 (5 isolates, confined in farm II), blaCTX-M-14 and blaCMY-2 (one isolate and 13 isolates, respectively, in farm III). The 48 cefotaxime-resistant isolates were distributed into phylogroups: B1 (n=21), A (n=15) and D (n=12). PFGE analysis revealed 19 unrelated patterns: 15 different profiles among ESBL-positive strains and 4 among the CMY-2-positive isolates. The following sequence types-associated phylogroups were detected: a) CTX-M-1-positive strains: lineages ST542-B1, ST212-B1, ST58-B1, ST155-B1 and ST349-D; b) CTX-M-15-positive strain: lineage ST405-D; c) CTX-M-14-positive strain: lineage ST1056-B1; d) CMY-2-positive strains: lineages ST117-D, ST2197-A, and ST155-B1. Healthy chickens constitute an important reservoir of ESBL- and pAmpC-BL-producing E. coli isolates that potentially could be transmitted to humans via the food chain or by direct contact. PMID:27220012
Voitenko O. Yu.
Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of complex materials containing ultradispersed silver particles directly formed in the Candida albіcans, Escherichia сolі, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus cereus cell walls were investigated. Complex material based on pseudomonas was more active against gram-positive bacteria, the yeast like fungi based material was mainly active against colibacillus. After a cell-matrix treatment in a hypertonic solution or by acid hydrolysis, the antimicrobial properties of complex materials increased by 20—40%. In a liquid-phase medium, the complex materials with incorporated silver particles in composition with antibiotics strengthened anti-microbial properties of chloramphenicol, tetracycline and amoxiclav antibiotics with respect to E. faecalis, as well as penicillin antibiotics (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, amoxiclav against E. coli. The obtained data can serve as a basis for development of the new antibacterial and fungicide cells based materials impregnated with ultradispersed substances.
Ben Ameur, S; Smaoui, S; Kamoun, F; Chabchoub, I; Kamoun, T; Messaadi, F; Aloulou, H; Hachicha, M
Pleural tuberculosis is the first or second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as well as the main cause of pleural effusion in many countries. It is rare in young infants and is more common in children over 10 years of age. We report the case of a 19-month-old girl admitted for prolonged fever with unilateral pleural effusion. The mother reported a history of lymph node tuberculosis 6 years previously. Intravenous antibiotics with cefotaxime and vancomycin were started. Thoracocentesis yielded a serosanguinous exudate fluid with a lymphocyte predominance. The tuberculin skin test and PCR GeneXpert(©) on pleural fluid were negative. The initial outcome was favorable, but the chest X-rays 10 days after discharge showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural biopsy was proposed but the culture of pleural fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The child was put under standard treatment for tuberculosis. The outcome was favorable. PMID:26922570
Nishida, N; Suzuki, S; Hamamura, Y; Igarashi, K; Hayashi, Z; Sawa, R; Yoneyama, Y; Asakura, H; Kawabata, K; Shima, Y; Shin, S; Araki, T
We present here a case of massive subchorionic hematoma complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios diagnosed at 22 weeks' gestation. The patient was managed with the following medications: (1) tocolysis with ritodrine infusion, (2) 10%maltose infusion therapy (1500mL/day), (3) antibiotic infusion (cefotaxim sodium, 2 g/dayx7) and (4) kampo therapy with Sairei-to until delivery. At 33 weeks and 0 days' gestation, a female baby weighing 1,342 g was delivered without complication by caesarean section. During surgery, an escape of about 500~600 g of dark brown blood with no clots was noted from the subchorionic space of the placenta. Examination of the placenta showed a large fibrosis with well-defined margins on the fetal surface. PMID:11180702
Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux. In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline.
Smith, D J; Kaplan, R L; Landau, W; Trenholme, G M
During a six month period, 191 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and heart valves were identified to species level and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Seventy-one percent of isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 8% Staphylococcus warneri, 7% Staphylococcus hominis, 7% Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 4% Staphylococcus capitis, 2% Staphylococcus saprophyticus and 1% Staphylococcus cohnii. Approximately 4% of isolates were felt to be associated with infection. Overall, 18% of isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, 61% oxacillin, 98% cephalothin, 98% cefamandole, 72% cefotaxime, 95% cefsulodin, 76% gentamicin, 64% clindamycin and 98% rifampicin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Vancomycin, rifampicin, cephalothin and cefamandole showed excellent activity against oxacillin-resistant isolates. With one exception, speciation was not helpful in determining whether or not an isolate was associated with infection. PMID:7173185
Literak, I.; Dolejska, Monika; Radimersky, T.;
Aims: To determine the presence of antibiotic-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in populations of wild mammals in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods and Results: Rectal swabs or faeces collected during 2006-2008 from wild mammals were spread on MacConkey agar and MacConkey agar containing 2...... mg l-1 of cefotaxime. From plates with positive growth, one isolate was recovered and identified as E. coli. Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method. Resistance genes, class 1 and 2 integrons and gene cassettes were detected in resistant isolates by polymerase...... prevalence of resistant isolates was 2% in small terrestrial mammals (rodents and insectivores, n(E. coli) = 242), 12% in wild ruminants and foxes (n(E. coli) = 42), while no resistant isolates were detected in brown bears (n(E. coli) = 16). In wild boars (Sus scrofa) (n(E. coli) = 290), the prevalence of...
Full Text Available Fifty one strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group were isolated from 45 fecal samples. Classical phenotypic identification showed that 16 isolates were B. thetaiotaomicron, 12 B. uniformis, 9 B. eggerthii,7 B. vulgatus,3 B. caccae,2 Parabacteroides distasonis with 1 identified B. ovatus and 1 B. fragilis. The 51 strains were tested for susceptibility against 16 antimicrobial agents and the MICs for metronidazole were determined. The tests showed that imipenem, meropenem and chloram-phenicol were the most effective antibiotics (98%, 98% and 92.16% of susceptibility, respectively followed by ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, rifampin (88.24% susceptibility, moxifloxacin 86.27% and tigecycline 84.31%. Ofloxacin and cefotaxime were the least effective antibiotics with 27.45% and 0% of activity respectively. Only six of the 51 isolated strains were resistant to metronidazole with MICs = 64 mg/L (1 strain and > 256 mg/L (5 strains.
A new drug delivery system was developed using the interaction of nutrient broth treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes(NBT-MWCNTs) and cefotaxime sodium(CTX) as a model.Investigated factors of the drug delivery system include dispersion effect,biocompatibility of NBT-MWCNTs,pharmacodynamic effect and delivery efficiency in vitro.It was found that MWCNTs can be well dispersed in the nutrient broth and stable at least for one week at 4 °C.The formed NBT-MWCNTs suspension scarcely exhibits toxicity to E.coli at concentrations lower than 10.24 μg/mL,but displays enhanced pharmacodynamic effect of CTX via its bridge effect and targeted transport.Compared with general acid treated MWCNTs(AT-MWCNTs),our present NBT-MWCNTs show good biocompatibility,enhanced pharmacodynamic effect,and high delivery efficiency.
Velićanski Aleksandra S.
Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of Beta vulgaris L. (beetroot pomace extract (concentration 100 mg/ml was tested against five Gram positive and seven Gram negative bacterial strains (reference cultures and natural isolates. Disc diffusion method with 15 µl of extract and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 µl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control sample. The tested extract showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, where clear zones (without growth appeared. There was no any activity against other tested Gram-positive bacteria, except for Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a small zone of reduced growth. Growth of all tested Gram-negative bacteria was inhibited usually with 100 µl of extract. The most susceptible were Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella typhymurium. The tested antibiotic gave clear, usually large zones for all tested strains except for Staphylococcus cohni spp. cohni, where only a zone of reduced growth appeared.
Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;
amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome according to the instructions on the product label was initiated immediately after bacterial inoculation. Feces were collected from the rectum before inoculation and on days 4, 8, 15, 22, and 25 after the start of treatment. The total and resistant coliforms were counted...... on MacConkey agar with and without cefotaxime (CTX). Furthermore, MacConkey agar with CTX and NAL was used to count the number of CFU of the inoculated strain. Significantly higher counts of CTX-resistant coliforms were observed in the three treatment groups than in the control group for up to 22...... number of CTX-resistant coliforms was mainly due to the proliferation of indigenous CTX-M-producing strains and the possible emergence of strains that acquired CTX-M genes by horizontal transfer. The study provides evidence that the cephalosporins used in pig production select for CTX-M-producing E. coli...
Nicolas, P; Cavallo, J D; Fabre, R; Martet, G
Studying the susceptibility of 189 Neisseria meningitidis strains to penicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and rifampicin by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by agar dilution (reference method), E-test and disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 enabled us to standardize the antibiograms. While MIC determination by agar dilution is still the reference method, it is possible to obtain exact or approximate MIC values using the E-test. For laboratories that cannot determine penicillin MICs, it is impossible to detect strains that are relatively resistant to penicillin (RRP strains: 0.1 oxacillin disc allows MIC to be determined in most cases when the oxacillin inhibition zone is pharmacokinetics, we propose critical concentrations for these various antibiotics as well as critical diameters for chloramphenicol and rifampicin discs. PMID:9803590
Full Text Available The biological properties (growth characteristics, adhesive activity and sensitivity to antimicrobial of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were studied under different gas composition of incubation atmosphere. It was found that the number of viable lactobacilli cells in the one dose of investigated probiotic preparations was lower than it was claimed by the manufacturer. Gas composition of incubation atmosphere affects cell viability of probiotic strains. The number of colony forming units of lactobacilli under microaerophilic conditions increased in 1,19-1,33 times as compared with aerobic conditions. It was proved that adhesive activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains and sensitivity to 2th, 3th, 4th generations of cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime and tetracyclines (doxycycline also increased under microaerophilic conditions. The changes of the biological properties of lactobacilli under different cultivation conditions require further study for optimization of correction of dysbiotic disorders.
Batarseh, A; Al-Sarhan, A; Maayteh, M; Al-Khatirei, S; Alarmouti, M
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the local antibiogram of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Al-Hussein Hospital at King Hussein Medical Centre in Amman, Jordan. In a retrospective study from January to December 2013, data on 116 non-repetitive positive clinical samples were retrieved from patients' laboratory records. The resistance rates of A. baumannii isolates were high for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ticarcillin (100%), ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin (98.3%), imipenem (97.4%), piperacillin/tazobactam (96.6%), quinolones (94.8%), ampicillin/sulbactam (89.7%), gentamicin, (87.9%), tobramycin and tetracycline (76.7%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (75.9%), but lower for minocycline (26.7%) and colistin (1.7%). A. baumannii in our hospital were highly resistant to all antibiotics, including tigecycline, except for minocycline and colistin which are considered the last resort treatment for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:26857720
Neu, H C; Saha, G; Chin, N X
We examined the susceptibility of 50 isolates of Xanthomonas maltophilia and the effect of beta-lactamase inhibitors upon the susceptibility. The majority of isolates were resistant to azlocillin, piperacillin, mezlocillin, ticarcillin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime. All isolates were resistant to imipenem, CGP 31608, aztreonam, and carumonam. Although disk susceptibility tests showed that the combination of clavulanate with ticarcillin inhibited many isolates, at a ratio of 1:20 few isolates were susceptible to the combination. Addition of clavulanate to aztreonam and to imipenem failed to make organisms susceptible. Sulbactam combined with cefoperazone made some organisms susceptible, but ampicillin-sulbactam was ineffective, whereas tazobactam combined with piperacillin at a ratio of 1:4 made half the isolates have MICs of 32 micrograms/ml or less. The beta-lactamases from the isolates hydrolyzed all of the beta-lactams. PMID:2791491
Shi, Z Y; Liu, P Y; Lau, Y; Lin, Y; Hu, B S; Shir J-M
The in-vitro activity of 18 antimicrobial agents alone or in combination against 248 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Taiwan were tested by agar dilution. The MIC90S of ampicillin, amoxicillin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and amikacin were at least 128 mu g/ml. Ceftazidime, cefepime, sulbactam, clavulanic acid, and tazobactam presented moderate activity with MIC90S of 32, 16, 16, 32, and 32 mu g/ml, respectively. The increased activity of ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and piperacillin/tazobactam was due to the intrinsic effect of sulbactam, clavulanic acid, and tazobactam, respectively. Imipenem, meropenem, and ciprofloxacin were the most active antimicrobial agents with MIC90S of 1, 1, and 0.5 mu g/ml, respectively. Nineteen isolates (7.7%) were resistant to all aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics, except carbapenems and ciprofloxacin. We are concerned about the multidrug resistance of A. baumannii in this study. PMID:9147913
To optimize the genetic transformation efficiency using Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrot sections inoculated with the Agrobacterium strain A4TC were co-cultivated with acetosyringone, phloroglucinol, and a mix of both. Acetosyringone is one of the phenolic compounds produced by plant tissues in response to wounding, which induces the transfer of T-DNA from the agrobacteria to the plant. Phloroglucinol is also a phenolic compound; however, it has a synergistic action with auxins by partially inhibiting cytokinin activity. The highest transformation efficiency (75%) was obtained with acetosyringone (100 mM) in combination with phloroglucinol (25 mg l-1). In general, a 6-day co-cultivation, independently of treatments, induced the best transformation rate. Inclusion of 100 mg l-1 kanamycin efficiently discriminated transformed roots from non-transgenic ones. This paper also presents a novel bacterial elimination method, by which Agrobacterium can be completely eliminated in 48 h with Cefotaxime at a dosage of 500 mg l-1. Author
Objective:To study the clinical effects of Pediatric Lung Cough Particles on acute bronchitis in children.Method:280 patients with acute bronchitis from July 2012 to July 2014 in our hospital were studied.The patients were randomly divided into two groups,the observation group,200 cases (Pediatric Lung Cough Particles),and the control group,80 cases (cefotaxime by intravenous dripping).The clinical symptoms,clinical signs and symptoms score to quantify adverse reactions were observed. A course of treatment to determine efficacy.Result:The clinical signs and symptoms score of the two groups were all significantly reducing(P0.05)。结论：小儿肺咳颗粒治疗急性小儿支气管炎有显著效果，值得在临床上推广。
Full Text Available Extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs are responsible for resistance to cephalosporins (ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime and aztreonam in gram-negative bacilli. ESBL producing Klebsiella bacteria are a major problem for clinicians, ESBLs increase are cause of failure in treatment particularly paediatric patients and also in medical and surgical units. In this research ESBL was investigated by combined disc method. In this research, 128 clinical isolates of Klebsiella ssp. were collected from different microbiology laboratories in Ankara. All isolates were identified with classical methods and API 20E. According to the results of identification, 103 K. pneumoniae, 25 K. oxytoca were obtained. ESBL has been detected 59,37% in Klebsiella bacteria by the combined disk method.
Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei;
A total of 78 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a pork processing plant and the respective meat markets in southern China were examined. This number includes 60 isolates from pork at markets, 5 from cooked pork products at markets, 10 from pork at a processing plant, and 3 from food......-contact surfaces at the processing plant. All isolates were subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. Four serogroups were identified among the 78 tested isolates, with serogroup I (serotypes: 1/2a and 3a......) being predominant (42.3%, 33/78). Antimicrobial resistance was most frequently observed for tetracycline (20.5%, 16/78), streptomycin (9.0%, 7/78), cefotaxime (7.7%, 6/78), and gentamicin (6.4%, 5/78). Multiple resistances occurred among 10.2% (8/78) isolates. All strains were sensitive to ampicillin...
Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Full Text Available Our goal was to fabricate a novel water dispersible nanobiocomposite useful for the improvement of classical antimicrobial therapies. Water-soluble magnetite nanoparticles were protected by chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol to increase system’s bioaccommodation. The presence of magnetite was conﬁrmed by XRD. SEM results also indicate that the fabricated nanobiocomposite is composed of nanosized magnetite particles. FT-IR spectrum of the nanobiocomposite, revealed the presence of adsorption peaks specific for PVA, CS and Fe3O4. Our results demonstrate that the nanobiocomposite has the ability to modify and improve antimicrobial activity of gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime against S.aureus and P.aeruginosa. Fabricated nanobiocomposite exhibited a low cytotoxic effect on eukaryotic cells being thus a good candidate for developing new antimicrobial strategies aiming to potentate the antimicrobial effect of drugs and controlling their delivery.
Full Text Available Study of the adsorption and electroreduction behavior of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cefetamet, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefuroxime axetile at the mercury electrode surface has been performed using Cyclic (CV, Differential Pulse (DPV, and Adsorptive Stripping Differential Pulse Voltammetry (AdSDPV. The Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR study of the seven cephalosporins adsorption at the mercury electrode has been based on the density functional theory DFT-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p calculations of molecular orbitals, partial charges and electron densities of analytes. The DFT-parameters and QSPR model explain well the process of adsorption of the examined cephalosporins. QSPR study defined that cefalosporins with lower charge of sulphur in the thiazine moiety, lower electron density on the nitrogen atom of the N-O bond, higher number of hydrogen bond accepting groups, and higher principal moment of inertia should express high adsorption on the mercury electrode. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172033
Saka, H A; Egea, M; Culasso, C; Rollán, R; Avaro, A; Carvajal, L
The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated at the "Hospital de Niños de Córdoba". The strains were collected from inpatients between January 1996 and July 2000. A total of 150 ESBL producer isolates were detected. During 1996 the prevalence of ESBL producer K. pneumoniae was 20%, but since 1998 the values have increased to approximately 60%. Phenotypic analysis such as isoelectric point (pl) and antibiotyping performed in 32 randomly selected isolates showed two different enzyme profiles: 81% had ESBL with pl = 7.9 and preferential activity against cefotaxime, while 19% showed ESBL with pl = 5.4 and preferential activity against ceftazidime. No isolates resistant to imipenem or ciprofloxacin were detected. Susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents varied, but resistance to gentamicin was strongly associated with ESBL producer isolates. Resistance determinants could be transferred to Escherichia coli by conjugation assays. PMID:12833674
Hira L Nag; Ramprasad Kancherla; Aftab Malpura
Thorn prick injuries are generally conceded frivolous and rarely demand medical attention.Howbeit deep seated injuries are well described in the literature.We presented a case of thorn prick injury to the knee that manifested as Brodie's abscess of the medial distal femoral condyle and synovitis.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)and ultrasonography could only construe the affliction but not spot the thorn.Arthrotomy was undertaken for exploration and debridement.Empirical therapy with initial systemic Cefotaxime and subsequent Ofloxacin worked well after the surgery.Deep seated injuries by a thorn prick may take a protracted and torpid course.Thorough curettage of the bony lesion and debridement are vital for proper management.
Carrea, G; Corcelli, A; Palmisano, G; Riva, S
Lipase from Aspergillus niger was used for the selective hydrolysis of the 3-O-acetate of cephalosporin C to give an intermediate useful for further chemical elaborations. This lipase was purified to homogeneity and its properties compared with previously published data that present some discrepancies. The lipase proved to be very effective in catalyzing 3-O-acetate hydrolysis and versatile toward substitution on the beta-lactamic ring. In fact, as an example, two other cephalosporinic derivatives, cephalotin and cefotaxime, were efficiently deacetylated. The lipase was immobilized on Eupergit C and employed continuously in either a column or a batch reactor for 2 months without appreciable loss of activity. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18629943
Full Text Available Describimos el caso de una paciente portadora de una derivación lumbo- peritoneal, que desarrolló una meningitis bacteriana en la cual Kluyvera sp. se aisló del líquido cefalorraquídeo. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso reportado de infección del SNC por este microorganismo. Esta bacteria era sensible a cefalosporinas de tercera generación y se logró la resolución con Cefotaxime. El Género Kluyvera comprende tres especies infrecuentemente aisladas de muestras clínicas. Se puede asociar a infecciones desde leves a severas y posiblemente se favorece en un huésped inmunocomprometido.
Mei L. Castor
Full Text Available Antibiotics are used for both group B streptococcal (GBS prevention and treatment. Active population-based surveillance for invasive GBS disease was conducted in four states during 1996—2003. Of 3813 case-isolates, 91.0% (3471 were serotyped, 77.1% (2937 had susceptibility testing, and 46.6% (3471 had both. All were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin. Clindamycin and erythromycin resistance was 12.7% and 25.6%, respectively, and associated with serotype V (P<.001. Clindamycin resistance increased from 10.5% to 15.0% (X2 for trend 12.70; P<.001; inducible clindamycin resistance was associated with the erm genotype. Erythromycin resistance increased from 15.8% to 32.8% (X2 for trend 55.46; P<.001. While GBS remains susceptible to beta-lactams, resistance to alternative agents such as erythromycin and clindamycin is an increasing concern.
Full Text Available SUMMARY In this brief communication we describe the occurrence of a KPC-producing Serratia marcescensisolate in a home-care patient from Recife, Brazil. The blaKPC, blaSPM, blaIMP, blaVIMblaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaGES genes were investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. The isolate was positive for blaKPC-2 and blaTEM-1 and was resistant to aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefazidime, and susceptible only to amikacin, tigecycline and gatifloxacin. This is the first report in Brazil of KPC-producing S. marcescens clinical isolate outside of a hospital environment. Caregivers should be alert for the presence of this isolate in the community setting.
Resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos en 103 aislamientos clínicos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001 Resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials in 103 clinical isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001
Full Text Available Fundamentos. Conocer en nuestro hospital la sensibilidad a penicilina de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como analizar la asociación de resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos y la actividad de cefotaxima y cefepima en cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a penicilina. Métodos. Se determinó la sensibilidad de 103 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, procedentes de muestras clínicas durante los años 2000-2001, a penicilina, eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxima, cefepima y levofloxacino. Resultados. El 68% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a penicilina, mientras que un 32% de las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae aisladas fueron resistentes a penicilina, presentando el 7,7% resistencia de alto grado a la misma. La resistencia a eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol y levofloxacino fue del 38,8; 9,7; 20,4; 25,2 y 2,9% respectivamente, incrementándose a valores del 66,6; 30,3; 48,5; 72,7 y 9,1% en las 33 cepas con resistencia a penicilina. La resistencia a cefotaxima y cefepima fue del 9,7 y 10,6% respectivamente. Conclusiones. Un alto porcentaje de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae presentaron algún grado de resistencia a penicilina, pero con cifras menores que las presentadas en otros estudios de ámbito nacional. Asimismo, se demostró que la resistencia a penicilina se asociaba significativamente (p Background. To determine in our hospital the sensitivity of isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin, as well as to analyse the association of resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials and the activity of cefotaxime and cefepime in pencillin resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods. The sensitivity was determined on 103 isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae, from clinical samples from the years 2000-2001, to penicillin, eritromycine, cloramfenicol, tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxime, cefepime and levofloxacine
Gornatti Churria, Carlos D; Vigo, Germán B; Origlia, Javier; Campos, Josefina; Caffer, María; Píscopo, Miguel; Herrero Loyola, Miguel; Petruccelli, Miguel; Pichel, Mariana
Adult chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) that had suddenly died in a commercial farm located in La Plata City, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in July 2012 were macroscopically, histopathologically, and microbiologically examined. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and intestines from each of the five animals evaluated. The five strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalotin, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and resistant to tetracycline. Each of the five S. Typhimurium isolates was analyzed by XbaI- pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), showing an identical electrophoretic profile with 15 defined bands, which was found to be identical to pattern ARJPXX01.0220 of the PulseNet Argentine National database of Salmonella PFGE patterns. This is the first work describing the postmortem diagnosis of an outbreak of salmonellosis in chinchillas by using molecular methods such as PFGE. PMID:25444129
Full Text Available The most common group of ESBLs not belonging to the bla TEM or bla SHV families were termed bla CTX-M , to highlight their ESBLs′ greater activity against cefotaxime than against ceftazidime. The presence of nosocomial bla CTX-M-28 -producing Enterobacteriaceae strains has not been reported earlier in Indian hospitals. The sequences of bla CTX-M-28 gene from cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were analyzed. The structural gene encodes a 290 amino-acid protein, which is most related to the bla CTX-M β-lactamases. The conserved K-T-G was identified in the bla CTX-M-28 protein sequence, but significantly, two point mutations (N→T and (F→S were identified in the Y-G-N- and S-T-F-K-conserved motifs respectively. These point mutations were seen in all the three sequenced isolates
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Veldman, K; Mevius, D
This study evaluates the efficacy of eight different cephalosporins for detection of cephalosporin resistance mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamases in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A total of 138 E. coli and 86 Salmonella isolates with known beta...... cephalosporin-susceptible, 56 ESBL isolates and 19 isolates with plasmidic AmpC, as well as 10 ampC hyper-producing E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions and zone inhibitions varied with the tested compound. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to the cephalosporins...... compared to ampicillin-susceptible isolates. Cefoperazone, cefquinome, and cefuroxime were not useful in detecting isolates with ESBL or plasmidic AmpC. The best substances for detection were cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, and ceftriaxone, whereas ceftazidime and ceftiofur were not as efficient. Ceftriaxone may...
Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin
In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.
Dougnac, C; Pardo, C; Meza, K; Arredondo, C; Blank, O; Abalos, P; Vidal, R; Fernandez, A; Fredes, F; Retamal, P
Patagonia in southern South America is among the few world regions where direct human impact is still limited but progressively increasing, mainly represented by tourism, farming, fishing and mining activities. The sanitary condition of Patagonian wildlife is unknown, in spite of being critical for the assessment of anthropogenic effects there. The aim of this study was the characterization of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from wild colonies of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) located in Magdalena Island and Otway Sound, in Chilean Patagonia. Eight isolates of Salmonella were found, belonging to Agona and Enteritidis serotypes, with an infection rate of 0·38%. Resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur and tetracycline antimicrobials were detected, and some of these strains showed genotypic similarity with Salmonella strains isolated from humans and gulls, suggesting inter-species transmission cycles and strengthening the role of penguins as sanitary sentinels in the Patagonian ecosystem. PMID:25148565
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This study aims to determine the sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from pigs with colibacillosis to antibiotics. The total of 21 fecal samples was collected from pigs with white scour at the District of Kerambitan and Tabanan, the Regency of Tabanan, Bali. The isolation and identification of pathogenic E coli used Sheep Blood Agar medium, and serotype grouping of those bacteria was designated through agglutination test using serum’s antibody Polyvalent 1-5 and 6-11. The pathogenic E. coli found was then examined it`s own resistance to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol according to Kirby Bouer method. The result showed that the isolates of E. coli polyvalent 1-5 were resistant to streptomycin and chloramphenicol, whereas that of polyvalent 6-11 was resistant to sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol.
Velićanski Aleksandra S.
Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, KIMS, Amalapuram, East Godavari from January 2012 to July 2012. Out of 100 different clinical samples, 50 were culture positive. Of the 100 samples collected, more were from post operative wound sepsis - 44 (44%, followed by cellulites - 20 (20%, Ulcers - 17 (17%, Injuries 15 (15%. Least number of cases are from burns - 4 (4% . Among 50 culture positive cases, 38 (76% isolates belonged to Enterobacteriaceae famil y, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa - 8 (16%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus - 4 (8%. Among 38 of Enterobacteriaceae family isolates, 15 were ESBL producers. Among ESBL positiv e strains, more drug resistance was seen to Ceftazidime and Ampicillin (93.33%, followed by Ceftriaxone (86.66%, Aztreonam & Cefotaxime (80%.
Vanhoof, R; Hubrechts, J M; Roebben, E; Nyssen, H J; Nulens, E; Leger, J; De Schepper, N
In this study, we compared the activity of pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin against 269 enteropathogenic strains (Campylobacter jejuni, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia enterocolitica) with that of rosoxacin, flumequin, nifuroxazide, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, amikacin, netilmicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole. Pefloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin were always among the most active compounds. Furthermore, resistant strains or strains with elevated MIC values were not found. The MIC90 value for these three compounds was less than or equal to 0.25 mg/l, except for C. jejuni where it was 0.3 mg/l and 1.4 mg/l for pefloxacin and enoxacin, respectively. PMID:3546145
Abhrajit Ganguly; Saibal Das; Jayanta Kumar Dey; Somnath Mondal
With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V.) cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.
Mbehang Nguema, Pierre Philippe; Okubo, Torahiko; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Fujita, Shiho; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tamura, Yutaka; Ushida, Kazunari
Prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in wildlife can reveal the actual level of anthropological burden on the wildlife. In this study, we isolated two multiple drug-resistant strains, GG6-2 and GG6-1-1, from 27 fresh feces of wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Isolates were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Providencia sp., respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following 12 drugs-ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin (SM), gentamicin (GM), kanamycin (KM), tetracycline (TC), nalidixic acid (NA), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), colistin (CL), chloramphenicol (CP) and trimethoprim (TMP)-were determined. Isolate GG6-2 was resistant to all antimicrobials tested and highly resistant to CTX, SM, TC, NA and TMP. Isolate GG6-1-1 was resistant to ABPC, CEZ, TC, CL, CP and TMP. PMID:25649412
Full Text Available In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatment with ciprofloxacin brought to a rapid resolution of all symptoms. At the follows up at 3 and 6 months the patient did not report symptoms of infection or articular cartilage abnormality; microbiological evaluations were also negative. Even if it is a single case report and other clinical trial may be performed in order to validate this hypothesis,we speculate that in patient with vulvo-vaginal infection living in environment with low hygiene care, a carefully microbiological evaluation of uncommon agents may be performed.
Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Yabata, Junko; Nomura, Yasuharu; Tominaga, Kiyoshi
In 2013, an outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 occurred in a nursery school in Japan. The outbreak affected 12 school children and five members of their families. All 17 isolates obtained from these individuals were found to be clonal, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates to 20 drugs were examined, with three isolates showing resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) and cephamycin, including cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefminox. The resistant isolates carried the blaCMY-2 AmpC β-lactamase gene. It is proposed that the ESC-resistant EHEC O157:H7 isolates might have acquired the resistance plasmid encoding the blaCMY-2 gene during human to human infection in the nursery school. PMID:25835518
Vigo, Germán B; Origlia, Javier; Gornatti, Daniel; Piscopo, Miguel; Salve, Angela; Caffer, María I; Pichel, Mariana; Binsztein, Norma; Leotta, Gerardo A
Two blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) chicks died of fatal salmonellosis in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The birds were histopathologically and microbiologically examined. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and intestine of both birds. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The XbaI-PFGE profile of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from the two animals, which shared the same cage, was identical and showed a unique pattern compared with 301 isolates included in the PulseNet national database of Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. This is the first report that describes fatal cases of salmonellosis from blue and gold macaws. PMID:19432017
Ding, Yi; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Longsheng; Wang, Xiangru; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen
The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology, serotype, antibiotic sensitivity, and clonal structure of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains in China. Forty-eight strains were collected from seven provinces during the period from 2012 to 2013. Pulse-field electrophoresis identified 32 different patterns which were classified into clonal groups A–D. Most pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed in clonal complex A and B, suggesting high diversity of genetic characterization in these two predominant clonal complexes. Antibiotic sensitivity test shows that all the stains were susceptible to ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefotaxime, and resistant to kanamycin, cefazolin, sulfadiazine, and amikacin. Erythromycin and ampicillin are recommended as first-line antibiotics for treatment of E. rhusiopathiae in China. The high variation in PFGE pattern among the main clonal groups shows that the E. rhusiopathiae in China may originate from different lineages and sources instead of from expansion of a single clonal lineage across different regions. PMID:26975059
Full Text Available Increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins has become a cause for concern especially among Enterobacteriaceae that cause nosocomial infections. The prevalence of extended spectrum β -lactamases (ESBLs among members of Enterobacteriaceae constitutes a serious threat to current β -lactam therapy leading to treatment failure and consequent escalation of costs. A detailed study was initiated to identify the occurrence of ESBLs among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates at a tertiary care hospital using the double disk potentiation technique. Antibiogram profiles were determined to commonly used antibiotics and confirmation of ESBLs production was carried out by the disk diffusion assay using ceftazidime and cefotaxime in the presence and absence of clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the majority of ESBLs were expressed in Escherichia coli.
Akinbowale, Olasumbo L; Peng, Haihong; Grant, Peter; Barton, Mary D
A total of 129 Pseudomonas spp. and 90 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from nine rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Australia. All the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 15 antibiotics and the multiresistant strains were tested for sensitivity to seven heavy metals. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method. In Pseudomonas spp., resistance to amoxicillin, cefalothin, ceftiofur, ticarcillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim was widespread, whereas resistance to cefotaxime and oxolinic acid was less common and only single isolates were resistant to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole; all isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. In Aeromonas spp., resistance to amoxicillin and cefalothin was widespread, resistance to ticarcillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was common, whilst resistance to ceftiofur, florfenicol and sulfamethoxazole was less common. Single isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim, and all isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Multiple resistance was also observed. Most isolates were tolerant to different concentrations of various heavy metals, as evidenced by their MICs ranging from 6.25 microg/mL to >3200 microg/mL. These results confirm our previous findings that bacteria resistant to antibiotics are present in fish and sediments from aquaculture in Australia. In addition, we have found resistance to heavy metals in fish and sediment isolates. Much of the antibiotic resistance detected is likely to be intrinsic, although resistance to oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulfonamides suggests either contamination from run-off from farms or perhaps off-label use of antibiotics in a situation where no antibiotics are licensed for use in aquaculture. PMID:17524624
Ifeoma Chinyere UGWU
Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate generic extended-spectrum β-lactam (ESBL-resistant enterobacteria from pigs reared in Enugu State Southeast, Nigeria and determine the antibacterial resistance profile of the isolates. Rectal swabs were collected from 190, randomly selected, apparently healthy pigs. Isolation of ESBL-resistant enterobacteria was done using Mac Conkey agar supplemented with 2 µg/ml of cefotaxime. Phenotypic characterization of the isolates to generic level was done following standard biochemical methods. Phenotypic resistance of the isolates to antibacterial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. Out of 46 ESBL-resistant enterobacterial isolates, 4 (8.7% were Escherichia coli, 11 (23.9% were Salmonella species, while 31 (67.4% were Klebsiella species. Resistance of the Salmonella isolates was 45.5% to ciprofloxacin, 36.4% to ofloxacin and levofloxacin, 9.1% to norfloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin, 27.3% to streptomycin, 72.7% to chloramphenicol and 90.9% to tetracycline. Resistance of the Klebsiella isolates was 93.5% to ampicillin, 12.9% to ciprofloxacin, 19.4% to ofloxacin and levofloxacin, 9.7% to norfloxacin and streptomycin, 64.5% to chloramphenicol and 38.7% to tetracycline. Resistance of the E. coli isolates was 100% to gentamicin, 75% to ampicillin and streptomycin, 50% to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, and 25% to ofloxacin, levofloxacin and amikacin. All the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefpodoxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and aztreonam. Resistance of the isolates to more than 3 classes of antibacterial agents tested was 54.8% for Klebsiella, 90.9% for Salmonella and 100% for E. coli, respectively. This study has shown that pigs reared in Enugu State Southeast, Nigeria, are colonized by ESBL-resistant Enterobactericeae and are potential reservoirs and disseminators of these organisms.
Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari
Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India. PMID:23114918
Maksum; Radji; Siti; Fauziah; Nurgani; Aribinuko
Objective:To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit(ICU) of a tertiary care of Falmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia.Methods:A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods,and(heir antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method.Results:Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment,of which 249(64.68%) were cultured positive and 136(35.32%) were negative.The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa)(26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae(K.pneumoniae)(15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis(14.9%).P.aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin(95.3%),cefotaxime(64.1%),and ceftriaxone(60.9%).Amikacin was the most effective(84.4%) antibiotic against P.aeruginosa followed by imipenem(81.2%),and meropenem(75.0%).K.pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin(86.5%),ceftriaxone(75.7%),ceftazidime(73.0%),cefpirome(73.0%) and cefotaxime(67.9%),respectively.Conclusions:Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins,and quinolone antibiotics.Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pallerns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.
Full Text Available In the present study, a protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation has been optimized for Woodfordia fruticosa (L. Kurz. Precultured axenic leaf segments were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with β-glucuronidase (uidA containing intron as the reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt as a selectable marker gene. After 3 days of co-cultivation, leaf segments were cultured on MS medium containing Thidiazuron (TDZ 4.54 μM and Indole-3-acetic acid IAA (1.14 μM + 20 mg/l hygromycin + 200 mg/l cefotaxime (PTSM1 for 4 weeks (includes a single subculture onto the same medium at a 2 week interval. They were subsequently cultured for 3 weeks on MS medium containing Thidiazuron (TDZ 4.54 μM and Indole-3-acetic acid IAA (1.14 μM + 25 mg/l hygromycin + 100 mg/l cefotaxime (PTSM2 medium for further development and shoot elongation. The hygromycin resistant shoots were rooted on a rooting medium (PTRM containing half strength MS medium + 4.90 μM IBA + 25 mg/l hygromycin. A highest transformation efficiency of 44.5% with a mean number of 2.6 transgenic shoots per explant was achieved. Successful transformation was confirmed by the histochemical GUS activity of the regenerated shoots, PCR and RT-PCR analysis using respective primers. Southern blot analysis revealed that the hpt gene integrated into the genome of transgenic W. fruticosa. Establishment of genetic transformation protocol may facilitate the improvement of this medicinal plant in terms of enhancement of secondary metabolites.
Qi, Lihua; Li, Hao; Zhang, Chuanfu; Liang, Beibei; Li, Jie; Wang, Ligui; Du, Xinying; Liu, Xuelin; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin
In this study, we aimed to examine the relationships between antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and biofilm-specific resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. The tested 272 isolates were collected from several hospitals in China during 2010-2013. Biofilm-forming capacities were evaluated using the crystal violet staining method. Antibiotic resistance/susceptibility profiles to 21 antibiotics were assessed using VITEK 2 system, broth microdilution method or the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) to cefotaxime, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin were evaluated using micro dilution assays. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profile. Among all the 272 isolates, 31 were multidrug-resistant (MDR), and 166 were extensively drug-resistant (XDR). PFGE typing revealed 167 pattern types and 103 clusters with a similarity of 80%. MDR and XDR isolates built up the main prevalent genotypes. Most of the non-MDR isolates were distributed in a scattered pattern. Additionally, 249 isolates exhibited biofilm formation, among which 63 were stronger biofilm formers than type strain ATCC19606. Population that exhibited more robust biofilm formation likely contained larger proportion of non-MDR isolates. Isolates with higher level of resistance tended to form weaker biofilms. The MBECs for cefotaxime, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin showed a positive correlation with corresponding MICs, while the enhancement in resistance occurred independent of the quantity of biofilm biomass produced. Results from this study imply that biofilm acts as a mechanism for bacteria to get a better survival, especially in isolates with resistance level not high enough. Moreover, even though biofilms formed by isolates with high level of resistance are always weak, they could still provide similar level of protection for the
Moryl, Magdalena; Kaleta, Aleksandra; Strzelecki, Kacper; Różalska, Sylwia; Różalski, Antoni
The extracellular matrix in biofilm consists of water, proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and phospholipids. Synthesis of these components is influenced by many factors, e.g. environment conditions or carbon source. The aim of the study was to analyse polysaccharides levels in Proteus mirabilis biofilms after exposure to stress and nutritional conditions. Biofilms of 22 P. mirabilis strains were cultivated for 24, 48, 72 hours, 1 and 2 weeks in tryptone soya broth or in modified media containing an additional amount of nutrients (glucose, albumin) or stress factors (cefotaxime, pH 4, nutrient depletion). Proteins and total polysaccharides levels were studied by Lowry and the phenol-sulphuric acid methods, respectively. Glycoproteins levels were calculated by ELLA with the use of selected lectins (WGA and HPA). For CLSM analysis dual fluorescent staining was applied with SYTO 13 and WGA-TRITC. In optimal conditions the levels of polysaccharides were from 0 to 442 μg/mg of protein and differed depending on the strains and cultivation time. The agents used in this study had a significant impact on the polysaccharides synthesis in the P. mirabilis biofilm. Among all studied components (depending on tested methods), glucose and cefotaxime stimulated the greatest production of polysaccharides by P. mirabilis strains (more than a twofold increase). For most tested strains the highest amounts of sugars were detected after one week of incubation. CLSM analysis confirmed the overproduction of N-acetyloglucosamine in biofilms after cultivation in nutrient and stress conditions, with the level 111-1134%, which varied depending on the P. mirabilis strain and the test factor. PMID:24644556
Hosseini Nave, Hossein; Mansouri, Shahla; Sadeghi, Amin; Moradi, Mohammad
Aim: This study aims to determine the serogroup distribution and molecular diagnosis, as well as antimicrobial resistance profiles among Shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, southeast of Iran. Background: Shigella species are frequent cause of bacterial dysentery worldwide. Previous studies have been reported that S. sonnei and S. flexneri are the most prevalent serogroups in various parts of Iran. Patients and methods: A total of 624 stool samples were randomly collected from patients with diarrhea from June 2013 to August 2014. Biochemical and serological characterizations were performed for identifying Shigella spp. In addition, the multiplex PCR assay was carried out for the detection and differentiation of three pathogenic Shigella spp. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Fifty six (9%) Shigella strains were isolated from stool samples. The most common species were S. flexneri 31(55.4%), followed by S .sonnei 18(32.1%) and S. boydii 7(12.5%). S. dysentery was not detected in the present study. All the isolates that identified by serological test as Shigella spp. were confirmed by the multiplex PCR method. The highest rate of resistance was observed for ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole antibiotics with 52(92.9%) resistant, followed by tetracycline 44(78.6%) and cefotaxime 33(58.9%). All Shigella isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. A significant relationship was found between the Shigella species and cefotaxime resistance (p<0.05). Conclusion: S. flexneri was found as the most prevalent serogroup causing shigellosis. The high rate of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins limits the treatment options available for the management of shigellosis in Kerman, Iran.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.
Full Text Available We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR, ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49 of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistant (R isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014 from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014. They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L. All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb, similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A, sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin, resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies.
Rubin, J; Walker, R D; Blickenstaff, K; Bodeis-Jones, S; Zhao, S
Infections with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are a great challenge in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of 106 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs with otitis and pyoderma from 2003 to 2006 in the United States. Three antimicrobial panels, including 6 classes and 32 antimicrobial agents, were used. A wide range of susceptibility patterns were noted with some isolates being resistant to between 8 and 28 (mean 16) of the antimicrobials tested. Among the beta-lactams, all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin and cefazolin followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (99%), ceftiofur (97%), ceftriaxone (39%), cefotaxime (26%), and cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (20%), whereas less than 7% of isolates were resistant to ceftazidime/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam or cefepime. Two isolates were resistant to the carbapenems. Among the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the most isolates were resistant to naladixic acid (96%), followed by orbifloxacin (52%), difloxacin (43%), enrofloxacin (31%), marbofloxacin (27%), gatifloxacin (23%), levofloxacin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (16%). Among the aminoglycosides, the most resistance was seen to kanamycin (90%), followed by streptomycin (69%), gentamicin (7%), and amikacin (3%). Of the remaining antimicrobials 100% of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol followed by tetracycline (98%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57%), and sulfisoxazole (51%). Point mutations were present in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and/or parE genes among 34 of the 102 naladixic acid-resistant isolates. Two isolates contained class 1 integrons carrying aadA gene conferring streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance. The findings suggest that many antimicrobial agents commonly used in companion animals may not constitute appropriate therapy for canine pseudomonas infections. PMID:18395369
Full Text Available An epidemiological study addressed to identify the pathogens collected from urine samples and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns was conducted. From January 2008 to May 2009 56,435 urine samples were processed in the Clinical Microbiological Laboratory of the ASL3 in Genoa. Materials and methods. Urine samples were firstly screened by automated equipment Uroquik (ALIFAX.All urine cultures with microbial ≥105 CFU / ml were seeded on Chromagar Orientation (BD and incubated at 37 ° C °.The identification of the isolates and the evaluation of their susceptibility to antibiotics were determined by the automated system Vitek 2 (bioMérieux. Results. About 33% (18,543 of the urine samples gave positive results.The number and frequency of the microorganisms collected was: 13,379 (72% Gram-negative including 9179 (69% E.coli, 1382 (10% Klebsiella spp, 1209 (9% Proteus spp, 445 (3% Pseudomonas spp, and other species 1164 (9%, 4942 (27% Gram positive which included 3615 (73% Enterococcus spp, 821 (17% Staphylococcus spp, 506 (10% Streptococcus spp and 222 (1% fungi. In E. coli the incidence of susceptible strains ranged between 90-96% for gentamicin, fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin-tazobactam, between 87-89% for the cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, about 70% for quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 62% for piperacillin, about 50% to ampicillin. For Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp the percentage of susceptible strains ranged from 95-99% to piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, and respectively 93% and between 68-52% for third-generation cephalosporins cefotaxime and ceftazidime and fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Conclusions. Present findings indicate that among the Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, cause most of UTI and in vitro resulted susceptible various antibiotics.There was an increased resistance to fluoroquinolones among community-acquired E. coli and Proteus spp.A periodical
Full Text Available Prolonged post-surgical antibiotic administration may be of less advantage in prevention of post-surgical infections. This study therefore, aimed at investigating the prolonged effect of empiric administration of three most-prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefotaxime and oxytetracycline by veterinary practices in Southwest Nigeria on intestinal bacterial population of dogs undergoing partial, non-laparoscopic gastrectomy. Using conventional quantitative and qualitative microbial culture procedures, the total bacterial populations were mostly too numerous to count (TNTC before gastrectomy but log103-105 cfu/mL after, while control were log 105-107 cfu/mL after gastrectomy. On general-purpose, special, differential and selective culture media, total bacterial counts with increasing post-operative days were- amoxicillin (11 mg/kg day 4: log 105-10-9/TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 103-105 cfu/mL; cefotaxime (25 mg/kg day 4: log 103-108/TNTC/cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 102-105 cfu/mL; oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg day 4: log 104-109 TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 102-106 cfu/mL. Total bacterial counts of control animals were- day 4: log 105-108/TNTC cfu/mL vs. day 8: log 105-109. Total qualitative populations of predominant, easily-recoverable aerobic and anaerobic rectal canine bacteria, Bacillus, Citrobacter aerogenes, Clostridium, E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Shigella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and lactobacilli were significantly less after gastrectomy but reductions in post-operative bacterial populations were mostly more pronounced among the anaerobes (lactobacilli and Clostridium perfringens. No post-operative infection was recorded among all the experimental animals, including the control animals. In conclusion, this study confirmed significant reduction effect of prolonged empiric antibiotic administration on rectal (intestinal bacterial populations of experimental local dogs that had partial, non
Nahed Ben Achour
Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae ML2011, a multiresistant isolate, was isolated from the Military Hospital of Tunis (Tunisia. The determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations exhibited by K. pneumoniae ML2011 was performed by Etest. The crude extract of the isolates contains four different β-lactamases with pI 5.5, 7.3, 7.6, and 8.6. Only the β-lactamases with pI 7.3 and pI 8.6 were transferred by transformation and conjugation experiment. Molecular characterization of these genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. The chromosomal β-lactamases are TEM (pI 5.5 and SHV-1 (7.6. CTX-M-28 (pI 8.6 and the novel variant of SHV named SHV-104 (pI 7.3 were encoded by bla gene located on a 50 kb highly conjugative plasmid. The SHV-104 β-lactamase was produced in E. coli and purified. Its profile of activity was determined. Compared to SHV-1, SHV-104 contains one mutation, R202S. Their kinetic parameters were similar except for cefotaxime. The analysis of the predicted structure of SHV-104 indicated that the R202S mutation suppresses a salt bridge present in SHV-1. Therefore, the overall flexibility of the protein increased and might improve the hydrolysis of cefotaxime. We can conclude that the multiresistant phenotype of K. pneumoniae ML2011 strain is mainly linked to the production of CTX-M-28 since SHV-104 possesses a narrow spectrum of activity.
Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI
Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.
F Asadi Manesh F
Full Text Available Background & aim: Urinary tract infection is the most common childhood infections after upper respiratory tract infection. Early diagnosis, proper treatment and appropriate patient follow-up can lead to a significant reduction in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection in children under 14 years admitted to the pediatric clinic of Imam Sajjad (AS Yasooj. Methods: Methods: In this cross-sectional study antibiotic sensitivity of 145 positive urine cultures were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Urine specimens were collected by suprapubic aspiration and catheterization urethral in children without urinary incontinence and Mid Stream Clean-Catch method. Data were analyzed by chi square test. Results: Among the patients were studied, 60.68% female and 39.31% were male. The most common cause of urinary tract infections in children, Escherichia coli (72.41%, followed by Klebsiella (34/10.34%. Antibiotic resistance patterns including ampicillin (85.51%, amoxicillin (/83.44%, cephalexin (69.65%, cephalothin (62.06%, cotrimoxazole (37.61%, nalidixic acid (44.82%, cefixime (24.37%, nitrofurantoin (36.55%, gentamicin (35.17%, ceftriaxone (28.27%, ciprofloxacin (26.89%, amikacin (25.51%, and cefotaxime (24.82% were respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections of children in Yasuj in 2012 was higher than previous years except for amikacin, But it was a remarkable increase in ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. The use of nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides is recommended for empirical treatment.
Aguilar-Montes de Oca, Saúl; Talavera-Rojas, Martín; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Barba-León, Jeannette; Vazquez-Navarrete, Jesús
Food-borne bacterial infections have worldwide importance, and a great variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, mainly of the chromosome type, have rapidly developed. Antimicrobial resistance was determined in this study in terms of the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) from 155 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from bovine carcasses from two states in Mexico (states of Mexico and Jalisco). Isolates were challenged with β-lactam antimicrobials (ampicillin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime) and quinolones (nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin). The presence of the bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M, bla OXA , bla CMY, bla MOX, bla LAT, bla BIL, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes was examined by PCR. Clonal relationship was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The highest resistance was found to be to nalidixic acid (64 %), followed by ampicillin (32 %), ciprofloxacin (10 %), and ceftazidime and cefotaxime (both 1.3 %). bla CMY (n = 1), bla TEM (n = 24), qnrB (n = 9), and qnrS (n = 7) genes were detected. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates had a different genotypic profile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of the qnrB, qnrS, and bla CMY genes in E. coli isolated from bovine meat in Mexico. PMID:25894820
Calhau, Vera; Domingues, Sara; Ribeiro, Graça; Mendonça, Nuno; Da Silva, Gabriela Jorge
This study aimed to characterize the relationship between pathogenicity islands (PAIs), single virulence genes and resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli, evaluating the resistance plasmid carriage fitness cost related to PAIs. For 65 urinary E. coli, antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum β-lactamase production were determined with the Vitek 2 Advanced Expert system. Phylogroup determination, detection of PAIs and virulence genes papAH, papC, sfa/foc, afa/dra, iutA, kpsMII, cnf1, eaeA, hlyA, stx1 and stx2, plasmid replicon typing and screening for plasmidic resistance determinants qnr, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA and bla(CTX-M) were carried out by PCR. Conjugation was performed between a donor carrying IncF, IncK and bla(CTX-M-15), and receptors carrying one to six PAIs. The relative fitness of transconjugants was estimated by pairwise competition experiments. PAI IV(536) (68 %), gene iutA (57 %) and resistance to ampicillin were the most prevalent traits. PAI I(536), PAI II(536), PAI III(536) and PAI II(J96) were exclusively associated with susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and were more prevalent in strains susceptible to ampicillin and cefalotin. PAI IV(536), PAI II(CFT073) and PAI I(CFT073) were more prevalent among isolates showing resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefalotin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and gentamicin. An inverse relationship was observed between the number of plasmids and the number of PAIs carried. Transconjugants were obtained for receptors carrying three or fewer PAIs. The mean relative fitness rates of these transconjugants were 0.87 (two PAIs), 1.00 (one PAI) and 1.09 (three PAI). The interplay between resistance, PAI carriage and fitness cost of plasmid acquisition could be considered PAI specific, and not necessarily associated with the number of PAIs. PMID:26293926
Full Text Available The prevalence of quinolone- and -lactam-resistant E. coli was investigated among healthy broiler flocks in Denmark and Italy. In Denmark, sock samples were collected from 10 parent flocks and 10 offspring flocks, according to the procedure currently used for the surveillance of Salmonella in the EU. Samples were enriched in McConkey broth and streaked on McConkey agar plates added with nalidixic acid (32 g/ml, ciprofloxacin (2 g/ml, ampicillin (32 g/ml, cefotaxime (2 g/ml or ceftiofur (8 g/ml. The -glucuronidase test was performed for verification of presumptive E. coli. The same methods were used to analyse sock samples collected from 6 Italian broiler flocks. PCR with primers for the CTX-M-type extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs was performed on cephalosporin-resistant isolates. While resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid was widespread in both countries, resistance to ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins was more common among Italian flocks. In Denmark, ciprofloxacin resistance was only detected in 1 parent flock without any history of quinolone usage and none of the flocks was positive for cephalosporin-resistant E. coli. In Italy, resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in all flocks and resistance to ceftiofur and cefotaxime were detected in 5 flocks. Primers specific for the CTX-M-type ESBLs generated PCR amplicons from isolates from 3 of these flocks. In industrialized countries, the poultry production system is highly standardized, and therefore comparable. However, the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials is particularly limited in Danish poultry production. Accordingly, the results of this study could reflect the different policies in antimicrobial usage between the two countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Updated data on drug-resistance from different populations may be important to recognize changes in disease patterns. This study assessed current levels of penicilin resistance among Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in Spanish middle age and older adults. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested for 104 consecutive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients 50 years or older with radiographically confirmed pneumonia in the region of Tarragona (Spain between 2002 and 2007. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration of tested antimicrobials (penicillin, erythromycin, cefotaxime and levofloxacin strains were classified as susceptible or resistant. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for early cases (2002–2004 and contemporary cases (2005–2007. Results Twenty-seven (25.9% were penicillin-resistant strains (19 strains with intermediate resistance and 8 strains with high resistance. Penicillin-resistance was higher in 2002–2004 than in 2005–2007 (39.5% vs 18.2%, p = 0.017. Of 27 penicillin-resistant strains, 10 (37% were resistant to erythromycin, 8 (29.6% to cefotaxime, 2 (7.4% to levofloxacin, and 4 (14.8% were identified as multidrug resistant. Case-fatality rate was higher among those patients who had an infection caused by any penicillin susceptible strain (16.9% than in those with infections due to penicillin-resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high, but such resistance does not result in increased mortality in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.
Shah, Said Nasir; Ullah, Bait; Basit, Abdul; Begum, Asia; Tabassum, Anum; Zafar, Shaista; Saleha, Shamim
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common infectious diseases in humans and are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. These infections are the leading causes of consultations in primary care in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining bacterial pathogens of respiratory tract infections and the susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates to antibiotics. The study was conducted between February, 2013 and March, 2014 in North Waziristan region of Pakistan. Sputum specimens were collected aseptically from 227 patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by biochemical tests and their antibiotics susceptibility patterns were determined by standard methods. Out of 227, various species of bacteria were isolated from 152 (75%) specimens. The prevalence of bacteria species isolated were as follows Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (26.7%), Corynebacterium diphtheria (10.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%), Proteus vulgaris (4.6%), Micrococcus species (3.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.6%) and Bacillus species (2.6%). The susceptibility patterns varied among bacterial species depending on the antibiotics. For the susceptibility test 11 commercially available antibiotics against bacterial isolates were used. The results revealed that generally the bacterial isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (80.9%), meropenem (75 %), ceftazidime (62.5%), cefotaxime (57.9%) and ceftriazone (57.9%) and resistant to penicillin (84.9%) and doxycycline (78.9%). The antibiotics gentamicin (100%) meropenem (100%), ceftriaxone (58.5%), ciprofloxacin (60%) trimethoprim (60%), ceftazidime (66.2%) and cefotaxime (64.6%) were observed effective against the P. aeruginosa isolates. The findings of our study provide significant information for empiric therapy of patients with RTIs in North Waziristan region of Pakistan. PMID:27113300
刘明章; 沈翠芬; 吴原; 张晓祥; 王翔
目的 了解淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的敏感性,为淋病的防治提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析纸片扩散法检测86株淋菌对6种β-内酞胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果,产色头孢硝噻吩法检测β-内酰胺酶.结果 质粒介导的产青霉素酶淋菌阳性菌株30株,占34.88%;淋菌对青霉素、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率分别为8.14%,75.58%,90.70%,93.02%,86.05%,94.19%;青霉素的药物敏感性显著低于头孢呋辛,差异有统计学意义(X2=80.36,P<0.01);头孢呋辛的药物敏感性比头孢曲松的药物敏感性低,差异无统计学意义,但是头孢呋辛有5株耐药菌株;头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率,差异无统计学意义.结论 第三、四代头孢菌素可作为治疗淋菌感染的一线药物.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the β-lactams susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and provide scientific basis for the treatment and prevention of gonorrhea. METHODS A retrospective survey was conducted. β-lactams susceptibility tests were tested by Disk diffusion, and βlactamase was determined by nitrocefin. RESULTS Plasmid mediated penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG) were 30 straines(34. 88 ％). Susceptive rates of penicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime were 8. 14％, 75. 58％, 90.70％, 93. 02％, 86. 05％ and 94. 19％, respectively. The sensitivity of penicillin was lower than that of cefuroxime with significant difference(x2 =80.36, P＜0. 001). The sensitivity of cefuroxime was lower than that of ceftriaxone without significant difference (x2 =3.04, P = 0. 08), while there were 5 resistant strains for cefuroxine. There was no significant difference (x2=4.08,P= 2. 53) among the sensitivities of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime. CONCLUSION The third generation of cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and the
Görgeç, Sündüz; Kuzucu, Çiğdem; Otlu, Barış; Yetkin, Funda; Ersoy, Yasemin
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing microorganisms currently cause a major problem. Among theseCTX-M beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli has also disseminated worldwide as an important cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the beta-lactamase genes, antibiotic susceptibilities and clonal relationships of ESBL-producing nosocomial E.coli isolates. A total of 76 ESBL-producing E.coli strains isolated from urine (n= 26), blood (n= 25) and wound (n= 25) specimens of hospitalized patients identified as nosocomial infection agents according to the CDC criteria between June 2010-June 2011 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were detected by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. ESBL production was tested by double disc diffusion method, and cefotaxime/cefotaxime-clavulanic acid E-test strips (AB Biodisk, Sweden) were used for indeterminate results. Presence of TEM, SHV, CTX-M, OXA-2 group, 0XA-10 group, PER, VEB and GES beta-lactamase genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method was used for the detection of clonal relationships among the strains. Most of the ESBL-producing E.coli strains were isolated from samples of inpatients in intensive care (35%), internal medicine (16%) and general surgery (13%) units. All of the 76 strains were found susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and amikacin; however all were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. The susceptibility rates of the isolates to cefoxitin, ertapenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, aztreonam and ceftazidime were 96%, 83%, 63%, 61%, 50%, 41%, 25%, 21%, 20% and 18%, respectively. Among E.coli isolates, the frequency of CTX-M, TEM, OXA-2 group, PER, SHV and OXA-10 group beta
Paulo Hercilio Viegas Rodrigues
Full Text Available The great interest for heliconias by the external market has placed this crop in a prominent position in the flower production chain. The small offer of healthy seedlings, however, the expansion of this activity. The presence of endophytic microorganisms such as Pseudomonas sp. represents an obstacle even for the evolution of heliconia tissue culture studies. Stem apices of Heliconia rauliniana were inoculated and analyzed in vitro to investigate the presence of endophytic microorganisms. An antibiotic analysis was also run for posterior microbiological control. The presence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. in stem apices confirmed infection. Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and the association of both (chloramphenicol + cefotaxime at rates of 50, 150, 250 and 500 mg L-1, were applied to the MS medium and supplemented with 3.5 mg L-1of 6-BA. After a 50 day-period, 500 mg L-1 of cefotaxime was the most efficient form to control endophytic microorganisms in this species of heliconia. The chloramphenicol, although effective for endophytic microorganism control, was inadequate for in vitro growth due to its cytotoxicity to explants.A acentuada procura por helicônias, principalmente por parte do mercado externo tem colocado o cultivo desse gênero de plantas em posição de destaque, dentre as atividades desenvolvidas no ramo da floricultura. A pouca oferta de mudas e a inexistência de mudas sadias prejudicam consideravelmente a expansão dessa cultura. A presença de microrganismos endofíticos, como a Pseudomonas sp., representa um empecilho no desenvolvimento de trabalhos de cultura de tecidos em helicônias. Ápices caulinares de Heliconia rauliniana foram inoculados in vitro e avaliados quanto aos tipos de microrganismos endofíticos e análise de antibiograma para posterior controle microbiológico. A presença de Pseudomonas sp. e Klebsiella sp. nos ápices caulinares estudados, comprova a presença dos endofíticos. Os
Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis
Maria C.E. Vianni
the State of Rio de Janeiro. The test used was diffusion of disks in agar Müller Hinton, according to recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS. There were tested disks with ampicillin (10mg, cefalotin (30mg, cefotaxime (30mg, cefoxitin (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromycin (15mg, gentamycin (10mg, nitrofurantoin (300mg, norfloxacin (10mg, penicillin (10 IU, tetracyclin (30mg and vancomycin (30mg. The results showed that with Lactococcus garvieae, the most efficient antimicrobial was nitrofurantoin, revealing 85.71% sensibility, followed by cefotaxime (61.90%, vancomycin (52.38%, norfloxacin (47.62& and cefalotin (47.62%. The highest resistance was developed against penicillin and ampicillin, with 95.24% resistance for the two antimicrobials. The susceptibility profile developed by the strains of Enterococcus gallinarum showed low sensibility against the tested antimicrobials; the highest resistance observed was against eritromycin and gentamycin, with 33.34% sensibility for both. The antimicrobial evaluation showed 100% resistance against vancomycin and tetracyclin, followed by cloranfenicol, penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxim, norfloxacin and nitrofurantoin; all of them showed a resistance of 83.33% with the samples tested.
Elshafie, Sittana; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J
Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution, vaccine serotype coverage, and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae serotypes isolated from patients with invasive diseases, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-7). Methods A total of 134 isolates were collected from blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Hamad Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2009. Isolate serotyping was done using the Quellung reaction. The prevaccination period was considered before 2005. Results The most common serotypes for all age groups were 3 (12.70%), 14 (11.90%), 1 (11.90%), 19A (9.00%), 9V (5.20%), 23F (5.20%), and 19F (4.50%). Coverage rates for infant conjugated vaccine (PCV-10), and the 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-13) were 34.78%, 52.17%, and 78.26%, respectively. Coverage rates of these vaccines were 50%, 67.86%, and 75% for the 2–5 years age group; 27.12%, 40.68%, and 64.41% for the age group 6–64 years; and 25%, 33.33%, and 66.67% for the ≥65 years age group, respectively. The percentage of nonsusceptible isolates to penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin were 43.86%, 16.66%, and 22.81%, respectively. Thirty-seven isolates (32.46%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, 23F, 1, 9V, 12F, 4, 6B, 3, and 15A. Compared to previous results before the introduction of PCV-7, there was a significant reduction in penicillin-nonsusceptable S. pneumoniae from 66.67% to 43.86%, and a slight insignificant reduction in erythromycin nonsusceptible strains from 27.60% to 22.8%, while there was a significant increase in cefotaxime nonsusceptible strains from 3.55% to 16.66%. Conclusion Invasive pneumococcal strains and the emergence of MDR serotypes is a global burden that must be addressed through multiple strategies, including vaccination, antibiotic stewardship, and continuous surveillance. PMID:27418844
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR pathogens due to various β-lactamases are major contributors in increasing morbidity and mortality rates in Burn Intensive Care Units, ICU. This study is aimed to apply the various infection control measures and to compare the results of two halves of study and to establish a relation between environment, Health Care Workers (HCWs and patients regarding manifestation of nosocomial infection. DESIGN AND SETTING Over a period of three years (June 2010 to June 2013, Clinical, Environment and Health care providers samples from Burn ICU were processed in the Department of Microbiology, Sri Guru Ramdas Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar. Organisms were identified by standard microbiological techniques and their antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The MDR were further tested for various β-lactamases by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI disc diffusion method using Ceftazidime and Ceftazidime + clavulanate and Cefotaxime and Cefotaxime clavulanate for Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL, Meropenem and meropenem + EDTA for Metallo Beta Lactamases (MBLs and 3-Dimensional test for AmpC beta lactamases. MATERIAL AND METHODS 307 clinical, 210 environmental and 117 HCWs samples in 1st and 192 clinical, 62 environmental and 92 HCWs samples in 2nd half of study were processed by standard microbiological techniques. After identification all MDR isolates were first screened for ESBL, AmpC and MBL then confirmed by the respective confirmatory tests. Results of two halves were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Infection rate was reduced from 50.16% to 40.10% in Burn patients. Culture positivity was reduced from 38.0% to 27.41% in environmental and 27.35% to 7.60% in HCWs samples. β-lactamases prevalence in Gram positive was 54.23% and Gram negative was 60.86% before and 37.03% and 54.05% after interventions. CONCLUSION In addition to the
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Beta lactams are the most extensively used group of antimicrobials, however growing resistance to these invaluable drugs mediated by extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL enzymes is a major co ncern. The frequency of ESBL producing strains among clinical isolates has been steadily i ncreasing over the past few years that has generated a major problem in clinical therapeutics. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing Escherichia coli, study their antibiogram and to evaluate the association between ESBL production and antibiotic r esistance in Escherichia coli. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim Un iversity, Aligarh. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test was used to analyze the data stati stically. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered significant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and eighty six consecutive, non-repeated isolates of Escherichia c oli obtained from pus, urine, blood, stool, throat swab, cervical swab, sputum, CSF and conjunct ival swab samples received in our bacteriology laboratory were analyzed in this study . These bacterial isolates were identified and tested for antibiotic sensitivity by standard micro biological procedures. Subsequently, they were screened and then phenotypically confirmed for E SBL production by phenotypic confirmatory disk diffusion test (PCDDT. RESULTS : Out of 286 isolates of Escherichia coli screened for ESBL production, 65.03% (n=186 were de tected to be positive using either ceftazidime or cefotaxime. In the screen positives, 91.94% (n=171 were phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers by PCDDT method. The overal l prevalence of ESBL producing Escherichia coli was 59.79% (n=171/286 with 87.72% obtained from in-patients and 12.28% from out-patients. Majority of ESBL producing Escheri chia coli were recovered from stool (73
Full Text Available This study was conducted in Department of Pediatrics, Kamla Raja Hospital Gwalior, (MP, during a period of a year September 2011 to August 2012. It was prospective and investigational study. Two hundred cases were enrolled for the study confirmed by either CSF r/m and or CSF c/s. Their history, complete physical examination and investigation like CSF, RBS, Blood c/s and Urine c/s were sent. Out of 200, male were 66% and female were 34% making a ratio of 1.9:1. Maximum cases were below the age group of 6year (80%. About 60% cases were from the rural area and 40% from urban area. More cases found in the months of May, Jun and July (45%. Commonest manifestations were fever (96%, irritability/ lethargy (88%, vomiting (80%, convulsion (75%, unconsciousness (53% and headache (31%. Signs of meningeal irritation were neck rigidity (57%; kerning’s sign (51%, brudzinki’s sign (45% and photophobia (28%. Anterior fontanel Bulging were found in (30% cases. Sensitivity of gram stain of the CSF was 88%. Culture was found positive in 35%. Out of 70 cases of culture positive 52 cases were gram negative and 18 cases were gram positive. Bacteria isolated from CSF were common below 3 years age group and there was very less difference in sex distribution. The bacteria isolated from the CSF culture were pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Streptococci pneumonia, Staph. Aureus, E.coli, Gm –ve bacilli, Citrobacter, Proteus, Enterobacter. Overall sensitivity pattern were for meropenem (90%, vancomycin (87.5%, ceftriaxone (85.7%, Amikacin (85.7%, Ceftazidime (82.2%, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (81.4%, Amoxyclav (77.1%, Cefotaxime (70%, Gentamicin (70%, and Netilmicin (70%. Blood and urine culture were positive 5% and 2% respectively. Case fatality rate was 11.5%. Acute bacterial meningitis in children has a considerable mortality, morbidity and serious long term sequelae therefore neurodevelopmental follow up and therapy should begin early. The study concluded that
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are mutant enzymes which derive from TEM or SHV (class A) enzymes. They confer variable levels of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and other broad-spectrum cephalosporins and to monobactams such as aztreonam but have no detectable activity against cephamycins and carbapenems. Recently, new plasmid-mediated ESBLs, not derived from TEM or SHV enzymes but related to cephalosporinases of Enterobacteriaceae (class C enzymes), that confer resistance to all cephalosporins including cephamycins, have been reported. However, to date there have been no reported outbreaks due to strains producing transferable cephalosporinases. Klebsiella pneumoniae is the species in which the ESBL enzymes have been most commonly reported around the world. Most of the clinical isolates that produce TEM- or SHV-derived ESBL, come from hospitalised patients and have frequently caused nosocomial outbreaks. Care should be taken in the selection of a beta-lactam for the treatment of infections because the presence of an ESBL does not prevent other mechanisms of resistance, such as decreased permeability, from emerging. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins including cefepime and cefpirome are hydrolysed by ESBL. However, low level resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and aztreonam does occur in some strains producing certain TEM-derived ESBL. It remains to be seen, therefore, whether such isolates are clinically susceptible to these drugs. The combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a beta-lactamase inhibitor such as sulbactam could be of interest against some strains producing certain ESBLs. Among the 7-alpha-methoxy cephalosporins, cefotetan and latamoxef are the most active. However, cephamycins should be used with caution to treat infections caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae because of the relative ease with which clinical strains decrease the expression of outer membrane proteins. The most active beta-lactams are the
Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Bukola W Aboderin,1,2 Olayinka O Idris,3 Victor O Mabayoje,4 Oluyinka O Opaleye,1 O Catherine Adekunle,1 Rita Ayanbolade Olowe,1 Paul Akinniyi Akinduti,5 Olusola Ojurongbe1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Medical Microbiology Unit, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria Purpose: To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6% and were female (61.9%. Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05. A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%, cefotaxime (77.7%, and cefuroxime (75.7% was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 µg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of
-transferred with cefotaxime and augmentin resistance to Escherichia coli j53-2 transconjugants.Conclusion: This study revealed the emergence of blaCTX-M-I S. typhi as an agent of persistent pyrexia with potential to spread to other Enterobacteriaceae in Lagos, Nigeria. Cautionary prescription and judicious use of third-generation cephalosporins, particularly cefotaxime, for the treatment of typhoid fever and routine screening for P. falciparum co-infection with ESBL-producing Salmonella in the laboratories during diagnosis of persistent pyrexia conditions in patients are recommended.Keywords: ESBL, emergence, plasmid, Salmonella, cephalosporin
Iroha Ifeanyichukwu Romanus
Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of illness such as pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and otitis media in children and the elderly. The emergence of drug-resistant strains threatens to complicate the management of these diseases. We conducted a hospital-based surveillance for drug-resistant Strep. Pneumoniae in outpatients with pneumococcal infection in Abakaliki Ebonyi State Nigeria. Between 2003-2005 from January through December, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH Abakaliki to assess the prevalence of drug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sputum samples of patients with pneumococcal infections attending the outpatient clinics. A total of 305 sputum samples of patients with clinically diagnosed pneumonia were collected and inoculated on 5% sheep-blood agar, incubated at 35°C for 24 h in 5-10% CO2. Colonies were Gram-stained; alpha-hemolysis colonies were tested with a 6mm optochin disk followed by bile solubility test. Susceptibility testing panels of the following antibiotics: penicillin, ciprofloxacin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, septrin, erythromycin, gentamycin, clarithromycin, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were tested against isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae using disc diffusion method. Of the 305 sputum samples collected 30 (9.8% of S. pneumoniae was isolated from patients within the age range of 20-40 years, 140 (45.9% from patients within 41-60, 135(44.2% from patients within 60 years and above. Susceptibility studies showed that the highest resistance was 182 (59.6%, for penicillin followed by septrin 156 (51.2%, erythromycin 120(39.3%, clavulanic/amoxicillin 118(38.7% cefotaxime 114(37.4% clarithromycin 100(32.7%, ciprofloxacin 94(30.8%, gentamycin 75(24.6%, cefuroxime 70(22.9% and ceftriaxone 69(22.6%. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae resistance was relatively high and we suggest that proper antibiotics use should be adopted to avert
SHI Wei-feng; ZHOU Jun; QIN Jian-ping
Backgroud AmpC β-lactamases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are becoming predominant causes of resistance to third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. Pneumoniae). It is very difficult to treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant K. Pneumoniae. The purpose of the present study was to investigate transconjugation and characteristics of β-lactamase genes in K. Pneumoniae producing AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs.Methods AmpC β-lactamases were detected by three-dimension test and ESBLs by disc confirmatory test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Transfer of resistance to EC600 (Rif') was attempted by conjugation in broth and screened on agar containing cefotaxime (2 μg/ml) plus rifampin (1024 μg/ml). The genes encoding AmpC or ESBLs and their transconjugants were detected by PCR and verified by DNA sequencing. Results The resistant rates to ampicillin and piperacillin were 100% in 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae. However, imipenem was still of great bactericidal activity on K. Pneumoniae, and its MIC50 was 0.5 μg/mL. Eleven β-lactamase genes, including TEM-1, TEM-11, SHV-13, SHV-28, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-22, CTX-M-55, OXA-1, LEN, OKP-6 and DHA-1, were found from 18 isolates. And at least one β-lactamase gene occurred in each isolate. To our surprise, there were six β-lactamase genes in the CZ04 strain. Among 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae, the partial resistant genes in 8 isolates were conjugated successfully, which had 100% homological sequence with donors by sequence analysis. Compared with donors, 8 transconjugants had attained resistance to most β-lactams, including ampicillin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and aztreonam, or even amikacin and gentamicin.Conclusions R plasmids can be easily transferred between the resistant and sensitive negative bacilli. It is very difficult to block and prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance. So more attention should be paid
Yokoyama, Tomohisa; Abe, Tetsuya; Kurakawa, Eri; Kasuga, Ikuma; Park, Jinho; Akata, Souichi; Aoshima, Masahiro; Ohyashiki, Kazuma
A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of high fever and abnormal chest radiograph shadows. Chest X-ray on admission showed a nodular shadow in the right upper lung field and a mass shadow with a cavity in the left middle lung field. Laboratory data indicated leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Pulmonary suppuration was suspected, panipenem/betamipron was prescribed, but a mass and consolidation developed, and the medication was changed to ciprofloxacin. Convulsive seizures with loss of consciousness appeared after the change to ciprofloxacin. Lumbar puncture revealed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells (198/3) and elevated protein(83 mg/dl). Brain CT showed no abnormal image, and acute aseptic meningitis was diagnosed and was treated with cefotaxime, clindamycin, fluconazole, acicrovir and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. However, the treatment did not result in symptomatic improvement, and brain MRI showed intracranial disorders. Serum PR3-ANCA was elevated to 15 U/ml. Taken together with chest X-ray, sinusitis and clinical course, a generalized form of Wegener's granulomatosis was diagnosed. She was given 60 mg/day of prednisolone, 100 mg/day of cyclophosphamide and 9 g/day of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and progressively improved. In this process, enhanced MR images showed thickened dural enhancement of the falx and bilateral anterior regions, which showed improvement on brain MRI at 8 months after starting treatment. We report a rare case of Wegener's granulomatosis accompanied with pachymeningitis and white matter lesions. PMID:15912757
Brassica juncea (Czern and Coss., L.) is an important oilseed crop. Since it is attacked by several bacterial and fungal diseases, therefore, we developed an easy and simple protocol for the regeneration and transformation of B. juncea variety RAYA ANMOL to give rise to transgenic plants conferring resistance against various fungal diseases. The transformation was carried out using Agrobacterium with Chitinase gene. This gene was isolated from Streptomyces griseus HUT6037. We used two types of explants for transformation i.e. hypocotyls and cotyledons. Only hypocotyls explants showed good results regarding callus initiation. Different hormonal concentrations were applied i.e. BAP 2, 4 and 6 mgL-1 and NAA 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mgL-1. However, high transformation efficiency was observed by supplementing the medium with combination of 2 mgL-1 BAP and 0.2 mgL-1 for initiation of callus. Similarly 10 mgL-1 kanamycin and 200 mgL-1 cefotaxime also proved successful for the selection of transformed callus. In order to confirm the presence of transgenic callus Polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for Chitinase gene. (author)