Sample records for ccr connections news

  1. CMIS arithmetic and multiwire news for QCD on the connection machine

    Our collaboration has been running Wilson fermion QCD simulations on various Connection Machines for over a year and a half. During this time, we have continually optimized our code for operations found in the fermion matrix inversion. Our current version of the matrix inversion is written almost entirely in CMIS (Connection Machine Instruction Set), and utilizes both high-speed arithmetic and multiwire 'news' (nearest-neighbor communications). We present details of how these and other features of our code are implemented on the CM-2. (orig.)

  2. Clinical Case Registries (CCR)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Clinical Case Registries (CCR) replaced the former Immunology Case Registry and the Hepatitis C Case Registry with local and national databases. The CCR:HIV and...

  3. The CCR4-NOT complex physically and functionally interacts with TRAMP and the nuclear exosome.

    Nowel Azzouz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ccr4-Not is a highly conserved multi-protein complex consisting in yeast of 9 subunits, including Not5 and the major yeast deadenylase Ccr4. It has been connected functionally in the nucleus to transcription by RNA polymerase II and in the cytoplasm to mRNA degradation. However, there has been no evidence so far that this complex is important for RNA degradation in the nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we point to a new role for the Ccr4-Not complex in nuclear RNA metabolism. We determine the importance of the Ccr4-Not complex for the levels of non-coding nuclear RNAs, such as mis-processed and polyadenylated snoRNAs, whose turnover depends upon the nuclear exosome and TRAMP. Consistently, mutation of both the Ccr4-Not complex and the nuclear exosome results in synthetic slow growth phenotypes. We demonstrate physical interactions between the Ccr4-Not complex and the exosome. First, Not5 co-purifies with the exosome. Second, several exosome subunits co-purify with the Ccr4-Not complex. Third, the Ccr4-Not complex is important for the integrity of large exosome-containing complexes. Finally, we reveal a connection between the Ccr4-Not complex and TRAMP through the association of the Mtr4 helicase with the Ccr4-Not complex and the importance of specific subunits of Ccr4-Not for the association of Mtr4 with the nuclear exosome subunit Rrp6. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a model in which the Ccr4-Not complex may provide a platform contributing to dynamic interactions between the nuclear exosome and its co-factor TRAMP. Our findings connect for the first time the different players involved in nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA degradation.

  4. Modeling Inter-Country Connection from Geotagged News Reports: A Time-Series Analysis

    Yuan, Yihong


    The development of theories and techniques for big data analytics offers tremendous flexibility for investigating large-scale events and patterns that emerge over space and time. In this research, we utilize a unique open-access dataset "The Global Data on Events, Location and Tone" (GDELT) to model the image of China in mass media, specifically, how China has related to the rest of the world and how this connection has evolved upon time based on an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. The results of this research contribute both in methodological and empirical perspectives: We examined the effectiveness of time series models in predicting trends in long-term mass media data. In addition, we identified various types of connection strength patterns between China and its top 15 related countries. This study generates valuable input to interpret China's diplomatic and regional relations based on mass media data, as well as providing methodological references for investigating international rel...

  5. Research News

    Research News - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis ... Email Home Research Research News & Progress Research News Research News Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Read ...

  6. CCR2+ and CCR5+ CD8+ T cells increase during viral infection and migrate to sites of infection

    Nansen, A; Marker, O; Bartholdy, C; Thomsen, Allan Randrup


    expression was dominated by CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5. However, despite a stronger initial chemokine signal in VSV-infected mice, only LCMV-induced T cell-dependent inflammation was found to be associated with substantially increased expression of CCR genes. Virus-activated CD8+ T cells were found to express CCR2...... and CCR5, whereas activated monocytes/macrophages expressed CCR1 in addition to CCR2 and CCR5. Together, these CCR profiles readily account for the CCR profile prominent during CD8+-dependent CNS inflammation....

  7. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical...

  8. The frequency of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 32 mutation in Iranian populations

    Mohammad Zare-Bidaki


    Full Text Available Evidence showed that chemokines serve as pro-migratory factors for immune cells. CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, as the main CC  chemokines subfamily members, activate immune cells through binding to CC chemokine receptor 5 or CCR5. Macrophages, NK cells and T lymphocytes express CCR5 and thus, affected CCR5 expression or functions could be associated with altered immune responses. Deletion of 32 base pairs (D 32 in the exon 1 of the CCR5 gene, which is known as CCR5 D 32 mutation causes down regulation and malfunction of the molecule. Furthermore, it has been evidenced that three polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 modulate its expression. Altered CCR5 expression in microbial infection and immune related diseases have been reported by several researchers but the role of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 D 32 mutation in Iranian patients suffering from these diseases are controversial. Due to the fact that Iranian people have different genetic backgrounds compared to other ethnics, hence, CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 D 32 mutation association with the diseases may be different in Iranian patients. Therefore, this review addresses the most recent information regarding the prevalence as well as association of the mutation and polymorphisms in Iranian patients with microbial infection and immune related diseases as along with normal population.

  9. Extracellular Disulfide Bridges Serve Different Purposes in Two Homologous Chemokine Receptors, CCR1 and CCR5

    Rummel, Pia Cwarzko; Thiele, Stefanie; Hansen, Laerke Smidt;


    interact with residues in the main binding crevice, we show that the 7TM-conserved bridge is essential for all types of ligand-mediated activation, whereas the chemokine-conserved bridge is dispensable for small-molecule activation in CCR1. However, in striking contrast to previous studies in other......In addition to the 7TM receptor-conserved disulfide bridge between transmembrane helix (TM) 3 and extracellular loop (ECL) 2, chemokine receptors contain a disulfide bridge between the N-terminus and what previously was believed to be ECL-3. Recent crystal- and NMR-structures of CXCR4 and CXCR1......, combined with structural analysis of all endogenous chemokine receptors indicate that this chemokine receptor-conserved bridge in fact connects the N-terminus to the top of TM-7. By employing chemokine ligands that mainly target extracellular receptor regions and small molecule ligands that predominantly...

  10. Networks in the news media

    Bro, Peter

    When news reporters connect people in a single news story or in a series of coherent news stories they essentially construct networks in the news media. Networks through which social actors are aligned symbolically in written, visible or audible form. These socio-symbolic networks not only copy...... more formal types of social networks, but also complement or even substitute social networking elsewhere, and as such this particular type of social network offers people both inside and outside the news room new potentials - and problems. This article describe the basic vision of networks in the news...... media and discuss the importance of this analytical framework when it comes to understanding prevailing forms and norms in contemporary journalism....

  11. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk; Wittenhagen, P;


    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta). METHODS: The CCR5 Delta32 allele and a CCR5 promoter polymorphism associated with cell surface expression of CCR5 were...

  12. News of CanalUGR tracked on Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News

    Herrero-Solana, V??ctor; Arboledas M??rquez, Luis; Leger??n-??lvarez, Elisa


    Dataset contains 613 news of CanalUGR (University of Granada Communication Office) tracked on the main online news aggregators (Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News). We include: number in CanalUGR, media, country, type.

  13. PUSHED NEWS: When the news comes to the cellphone

    Antonio Fidalgo


    Full Text Available Combining two findings of recent surveys on the Internet whichstate that 1 “the Internet will soon surpass all other media as a main source for national and international news” and 2 “the mobile device will be the primary connection tool to the Internet in 2020” leads us to the conclusion that smartphones will soon be the primary source for news access. But if so, how will news come to the Internetconnected cellphones? In accordance with the distinction, already drawn in 1997, between push and pull technologies as two different forms of how content is delivered to the end users, cellphones are characterized as push devices (passive reception, in opposition to computers, classified as pull devices (active reception. The news items that fit cellphones are pushed news. And they will be pushed as SMS, e-mails, tweets and through news aggregators.

  14. The effect of the CCR5-delta32 deletion on global gene expression considering immune response and inflammation

    Hütter Gero


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural function of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5 is poorly understood. A 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32 located on chromosome 3 results in a non-functional protein. It is supposed that this deletion causes an alteration in T-cell response to inflammation. For example, the presence of the CCR5-delta32 allele in recipients of allografts constitutes as an independent and protective factor associated with a decreased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD and graft rejection. However, the mechanism of this beneficial effect of the deletion regarding GVHD is unknown. In this survey we searched for a CCR5-delta32 associated regulation of critical genes involved in the immune response and the development of GVHD. Methods We examined CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from bone marrow samples from 19 healthy volunteers for the CCR5-delta32 deletion with a genomic PCR using primers flanking the site of the deletion. Results 12 individuals were found to be homozygous for CCR5 WT and 7 carried the CCR5-delta32 deletion heterozygously. Global gene expression analysis led to the identification of 11 differentially regulated genes. Six of them are connected with mechanisms of immune response and control: LRG1, CXCR2, CCRL2, CD6, CD7, WD repeat domain, and CD30L. Conclusions Our data indicate that the CCR5-delta32 mutation may be associated with differential gene expression. Some of these genes are critical for immune response, in the case of CD30L probably protective in terms of GVHD.

  15. CCR and GCR Groupoid C*-algebras

    Clark, Lisa Orloff


    Suppose $G$ is a second countable, locally compact, Hausdorff groupoid with a fixed left Haar system. Let $\\go/G$ denote the orbit space of $G$ and $C^*(G)$ denote the groupoid $C^*$-algebra. Suppose that the isotropy groups of $G$ are amenable. We show that $C^*(G)$ is CCR if and only if $\\go/G$ is a $T_1$ topological space and all of the isotropy groups are CCR. We also show that $C^*(G)$ is GCR if and only if $\\go/G$ is a $T_0$ topological space and all of the isotropy groups are GCR.

  16. No news is good news?

    Peter Schmid

    I'm retired and living back home in Austria. But I am still excited about ATLAS and I try to follow the progress of the project as closely as I can. The ATLAS e-news are an excellent source of information. Appearing now every month they provide a broad, solid view of what is going on. But I'm greedy; I'd love to be "on-line". When the first End-Cap Toroid moved from hall 180 to the pit I was frustrated. I knew that it was happening but I could only get first pictures and reports a few days later. In the meantime the ECT was lowered into the cavern; no information on this available nowhere up to the this issue of the e-news. Here is my dream: an "ATLAS news ticker", i.e. a web page with the news appearing on the day they happen; just one line of information, possibly with a reference to a picture, a person or a report. My idea isn't new. On the ATLAS web-site for the public we have a window "latest news". But I was disappointed when, until a week ago, the latest news dated from December 2006 !!! Can't we do...

  17. News & Announcements


    , College Park, October 14-17, 2001. NEW: Update, is a partnership involving industry, government, and education. It will have a program of Experiments and Demonstrations, Mini Workshops, and Plenary Sessions. For registration information, contact Jim Jacobs, NEW: Update 2001, School of Science and Technology, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504-8060; phone: 757/823-8109/9072; fax: 757/823-8215; The latest information about the workshop will be at Chemistry Is in the News Conference Chemistry Is in the News-Teaching Organic Chemistry in the Context of Real World Issues, will be held at the University of Missouri-Columbia September 21-23, 2001. Funding from the Dreyfus Foundation will support 18 participants and will offer some partial travel grants. The conference will instruct faculty about the philosophy, pedagogy, implementation, and assessment of the project, doing so in small collaborative groups. It will focus on facilitating news-media-based authentic learning activities aimed at connecting real-world social, economic, and political issues to the teaching of organic chemistry and the development of student-assisted collaborative learning groups. The conference organizers are Rainer Glaser and James Groccia. Those interested should contact Rainer Glaser, University of Missouri, Department of Chemistry, Columbia, MO 65211; phone: 573/882-0331; fax: 573/882-2754; ChemNet-Chemistry Lecture on the Internet A multimedia chemistry lecture, developed by R. Demuth, S. Nick, K. Rabe, L. Lensment, S. Schanze, J. Andresen, and W. Bensch of the University of Kiel, Germany, is being provided without charge over the Internet. The lecture is directed at students of chemistry, agricultural science, medicine, biology, and engineering and other interested persons. The lecture is in German but an English version is planned. With the aid of ChemNet the group plans to attain some information on the use and

  18. Oxazolidinones as novel human CCR8 antagonists.

    Jin, Jian; Wang, Yonghui; Wang, Feng; Kerns, Jeffery K; Vinader, Victoria M; Hancock, Ashley P; Lindon, Matthew J; Stevenson, Graeme I; Morrow, Dwight M; Rao, Parvathi; Nguyen, Cuc; Barrett, Victoria J; Browning, Chris; Hartmann, Guido; Andrew, David P; Sarau, Henry M; Foley, James J; Jurewicz, Anthony J; Fornwald, James A; Harker, Andy J; Moore, Michael L; Rivero, Ralph A; Belmonte, Kristen E; Connor, Helen E


    High-throughput screening of the corporate compound collection led to the discovery of a novel series of N-substituted-5-aryl-oxazolidinones as potent human CCR8 antagonists. The synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and optimization of the series that led to the identification of SB-649701 (1a), are described. PMID:17267215

  19. NEWS: Institute news


    Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leeds. Physics at Work Exhibition: 12-14 September, University of Cambridge The year 2000 Exhibition will be the 16th organized by Brenda Jennison. The exhibition will be held at the Cavendish Laboratory and further details can be obtained from Brenda at the University (tel: 01223 332888, fax: 01223 332894 or e-mail: News on GNVQ science The Institute of Physics and the Royal Society of Chemistry are currently financing the compilation of a directory of resources to assist teachers in identifying and selecting suitable materials for teaching the new GNVQ science specifications. Work on the first part of the directory will soon be completed and it is hoped to publish the material in both print and electronic forms before the end of the summer term. This first part covers resources - all evaluated by practising GNVQ teachers - supporting the teaching of the compulsory units for Advanced GNVQ Science. A small team comprising a physics teacher, a chemistry teacher and a biology teacher, all involved with GNVQ programmes and led by Dr Ken Gadd, has carried out the work. They have established a network of teachers around the country to help with the evaluation of curriculum materials. The next part of the project will be to examine the feasibility of providing a similar listing for the optional units at this level. Future development, depending on the availability of funds, will extend the project to Intermediate level programmes in science, including the Part One, once its structure has been agreed at QCA. Further information about the Directory and the next phase of development will be available in the autumn. Activities Physics on Stage The future of science, technology and the ensuing wealth creation potential for Britain will depend on the quality of science education in schools today. Yet the numbers studying physics, which underpins science and engineering, are falling. This problem is currently

  20. AAAI News

    Clancey, William J.; Fehling, Michael; Russell, Stuart; Fikes, Richard E.; Stickel, Mark; Bledsoe, Woody; Korm, Richard E.; Thompson, William B.; Barstow, David R.


    Fall news from the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, including reports on the Knowledge System Development Tools and Languages workshop, the workshop on AI and Limited Rationality, the Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering workshop, the workshop on Robot Navigation, the Planning and Search Summary workshop, and the workshop on Representation and Compilation in High-Performance Theorem Proving.

  1. Online news

    Hjarvard, Stig; Kammer, Aske Søndergaard


    decades, these features have come under pressure due to – among other things – the spread of digital media. In this article, we explore two current structural economic challenges to legacy newspaper organizations in Denmark. The first challenge regards the implementation of subscription on news websites...

  2. CCR6/CCR10-mediated plasmacytoid dendritic cell recruitment to inflamed epithelia after instruction in lymphoid tissues.

    Sisirak, Vanja; Vey, Nelly; Vanbervliet, Béatrice; Duhen, Thomas; Puisieux, Isabelle; Homey, Bernhard; Bowman, Edward P; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Dubois, Bertrand; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Lira, Sergio A; Puisieux, Alain; Blay, Jean-Yves; Caux, Christophe; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie


    Absent in peripheral tissues during homeostasis, human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are described in inflamed skin or mucosa. Here, we report that, unlike blood pDCs, a subset of tonsil pDCs express functional CCR6 and CCR10, and their respective ligands CCL20 and CCL27are detected in inflamed epithelia contacting blood dendritic cell antigen 2(+) pDCs. Moreover, pDCs are recruited to imiquimod-treated skin tumors in WT but not CCR6-deficient mice, and competitive adoptive transfers reveal that CCR6-deficient pDCs are impaired in homing to inflamed skin tumors after intravenous transfer. On IL-3 culture, CCR6 and CCR10 expression is induced on human blood pDCs that become responsive to CCL20 and CCL27/CCL28, respectively. Interestingly, unlike myeloid DC, blood pDCs initially up-regulate CCR7 expression and CCL19 responsiveness on IL-3 ± CpG-B and then acquire functional CCR6 and CCR10. Finally, IL-3-differentiated CCR6(+) CCR10(+) pDCs secrete high levels of IFN-α in response to virus. Overall, we propose an unexpected pDCs migratory model that may best apply for mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. After CCR7-mediated extravasation into lymphoid tissues draining inflamed epithelia, blood pDCs may be instructed to up-regulate CCR6 and/or CCR10 allowing their homing into inflamed epithelia (in mucosae or skin). At this site, pDCs can then produce IFN-α contributing to pathogen clearance and/or local inflammation. PMID:21937703

  3. Good News is No News

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)


    textabstractNews plays a crucial role in determining prices in financial markets. In an efficient market, current prices fully and correctly reflect all available information, such that only truly new information leads to price adjustment. This lecture shows that using high-frequency data makes it p

  4. CCR1+/CCR5+ mononuclear phagocytes accumulate in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis

    Trebst, C; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Kivisäkk, P;


    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) are considered central to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Molecular cues that mediate mononuclear phagocyte accumulation and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients may include chemokines RANTES/CCL5 and...... CNS pathology, compared to less than 20% of circulating monocytes. In active MS lesions CCR1+/CCR5+ monocytes were found in perivascular cell cuffs and at the demyelinating edges of evolving lesions. Mononuclear phagocytes in early demyelinating stages comprised CCR1+/CCR5+ hematogenous monocytes and...

  5. Allosteric and orthosteric sites in CC chemokine receptor (CCR5), a chimeric receptor approach

    Thiele, Stefanie; Steen, Anne; Jensen, Pia C;


    -allosteric molecules. A chimera was successfully constructed between CCR5 and the closely related CCR2 by transferring all extracellular regions of CCR2 to CCR5, i.e. a Trojan horse that resembles CCR2 extracellularly but signals through a CCR5 transmembrane unit. The chimera bound CCR2 (CCL2 and CCL7), but not CCR5...... preserved, the allosteric enhancement of chemokine binding was disrupted. In summary, the Trojan horse chimera revealed that orthosteric and allosteric sites could be structurally separated and still act together with transmission of agonism and antagonism across the different receptor units....

  6. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, T B; Wittenhagen, P;


    To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta).......To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta)....

  7. Downregulation of CCR1 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. The migration and metastasis of tumor cells shares many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is mainly regulated by chemokine receptor-ligand interactions. CCR1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and tissues with unknown functions. In this study, we silenced CCR1 expression in the human HCC cell line HCCLM3 using artificial microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) and examined the invasiveness and proliferation of CCR1-silenced HCCLM3 cells and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The miRNA-mediated knockdown expression of CCR1 significantly inhibited the invasive ability of HCCLM3 cells, but had only a minor effect on the cellular proliferation rate. Moreover, CCR1 knockdown significantly reduced the secretion of MMP-2. Together, these findings indicate that CCR1 has an important role in HCCLM3 invasion and that CCR1 might be a new target of HCC treatment

  8. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR


    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia wh

  9. News; Actualites



    The main news of the LPG industry from February to May 2005 are gathered in the first part. 8 articles are then gathered in this data-sheet, they deal with: 1) the French 'Charte de l'environnement': environment is now taken into account in the French fundamental Law 2) the French Prime Minister sets the targets for the National Council for Sustainable Development 3) the French government's policy for State environment-friendly items purchasing 4) Primagaz and Butagaz receive awards at the ENEO exhibition in Lyon 5) a French decree on pressure equipment, concerning among others, the role of controlling bodies on LPG tanks requalification 6) BP launches its chemical branch Innovene, in view of selling it this year 7) the French gas congress and exhibition 8) Favex, distributor in France of the US Mosquito Magnet System, launches a campaign. (O.M.)

  10. Language, News and Volatility

    Byström, Hans


    I use Google News TM to study the relation between news volumes and stock market volatilities. More than nine million stock market-related news stories in English and (Mandarin) Chinese are collected and the dynamics of the news volume and the stock market volatility is compared in both the Anglophone world and the Sinophone world. I find that the stock market volatility and the number of publicly available global news stories are strongly linked to each other in both languages. Contemporaneo...

  11. Physics News

    Gianotti, F.

    In spite of the fact that real data will only come in the year 2006, this is a very busy and interesting time for Physics-related activities. A very short overview of these activities is given in this issue of the ATLAS News Letter, while the various topics will be described in more detail in the next issues. The Physics and Combined Performance groups are working in four main areas: 1) Assess the ATLAS potential for physics, with emphasis on new channels and ideas. Recent examples are Extra-dimensions, invisible Higgs decays, heavy ion physics, the expected potential of a "Super-LHC" running at a luminosity of 10^35, etc.. 2) Improve the understanding of the detector performance and optimise the reconstruction algorithms. Examples of issues in the pipeline are: can we tag charm-jet ? What can we gain in the jet energy resolution by combining the calorimeter and tracker information to reconstruct the jet energy ? 3) Follow detector changes and detector-related issues and monitor the impact on the perform...

  12. Novae news


    As announced in the previous Bulletin, Novae has opened a new snack bar on the Flagstaff car park, just a few metres from CERN's reception area (Building 33).   Just a few metres from the CERN Reception, the new Novae snack point welcomes visitors and CERNois. Opening hours Currently: Monday to Friday, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. From September: Monday to Friday, 7:45 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Saturdays from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. The snack bar selection includes breakfast, starting at 2.70 CHF, cold dishes from 5 CHF, and hot dishes from 6 CHF.   Novae has also installed a 24-hour-a-day food vending machine in the CERN hostel (Building 39) and in Building 13. You can buy pasta and cooked dishes for 6.50 CHF to 8 CHF. In addition, a groceries vending machine has been installed in the main building, just across from the news kiosk. Nearly 60 different items are available around the clock. Finally, Novae has introduced a new payment system in several buildings on the Meyrin site. It accepts credit ca...

  13. Clinical use of CCR5 inhibitors in HIV and beyond

    Gilliam Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Since the discovery of CCR5 as a coreceptor for HIV entry, there has been interest in blockade of the receptor for treatment and prevention of HIV infection. Although several CCR5 antagonists have been evaluated in clinical trials, only maraviroc has been approved for clinical use in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. The efficacy, safety and resistance profile of CCR5 antagonists with a focus on maraviroc are reviewed here along with their usage in special and emerging clinical situations. Despite being approved for use since 2007, the optimal use of maraviroc has yet to be well-defined in HIV and potentially in other diseases. Maraviroc and other CCR5 antagonists have the potential for use in a variety of other clinical situations such as the prevention of HIV transmission, intensification of HIV treatment and prevention of rejection in organ transplantation. The use of CCR5 antagonists may be potentiated by other agents such as rapamycin which downregulate CCR5 receptors thus decreasing CCR5 density. There may even be a role for their use in combination with other entry inhibitors. However, clinical use of CCR5 antagonists may have negative consequences in diseases such as West Nile and Tick-borne encephalitis virus infections. In summary, CCR5 antagonists have great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of HIV as well as future use in novel situations such as organ transplantation. Their optimal use either alone or in combination with other agents will be defined by further investigation.

  14. Discovery of indole inhibitors of chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9).

    Pandya, Bhaumik A; Baber, Christian; Chan, Audrey; Chamberlain, Brian; Chandonnet, Haoqun; Goss, Jennifer; Hopper, Timothy; Lippa, Blaise; Poutsiaka, Katherine; Romero, Jan; Stucka, Sabrina; Varoglu, Mustafa; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xin


    Irritable bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are serious chronic diseases affecting millions of patients worldwide. Studies of human chemokine biology has suggested C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) may be a key mediator of pro-inflammatory signaling. Discovery of agents that inhibit CCR9 may lead to new therapies for CD and UC patients. Herein we describe the evolution of a high content screening hit (1) into potent inhibitors of CCR9, such as azaindole 12. PMID:27256913

  15. CCR5 inhibitors: Emerging promising HIV therapeutic strategy

    Surya Rao Padmasri


    Full Text Available Though potent anti-HIV therapy has spectacularly reduced the morbidity and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection in the advanced countries, it continues to be associated with substantial toxicity, drug-drug interactions, difficulties in adherence, and abnormal cost. As a result, better effective, safe antiretroviral drugs and treatment strategies keep on to be pursued. In this process, CCR5 (chemokine receptor 5 inhibitors are a new class of antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of HIV. They are designed to prevent HIV infection of CD4 T-cells by blocking the CCR5. When the CCR5 receptor is unavailable, ′R5-tropic′ HIV (the variant of the virus that is common in earlier HIV infection cannot engage with a CD4 T-cell to infect the cell. In August 2007, the FDA approved the first chemokine (C-C motif CCR5 inhibitor, maraviroc, for treatment-experienced patients infected with R5-using virus. Studies from different cohort in regions, affected by clad B HIV-1, demonstrate that 81-88% of HIV-1 variants in treatment naïve patients are CCR5 tropic and that virtually all the remaining variants are dual/mixed tropic i.e., are able to utilize both CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors. In treatment experienced patients, 49−78% of the variants are purely CCR5 tropic, 22−48% are dual/mixed tropic, and 2-5% exclusively utilize CXCR4. A 32 bp deletion in the CCR5 gene, which results in a frame shift and truncation of the normal CCR5 protein, was identified in a few persons who had remained uninfected after exposure to CCR5 tropic HIV-1 virus. This allele is common in white of European origin, with prevalence near to 10%, but is absent among East Asian, American Indian, Tamil Indian, and African ethnic groups. HIV-infected individuals, who are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32, have slower rates of disease progression. The currently available data supports the continuation of the development of CCR5 antagonists in different settings related

  16. The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) Instrument: Assessing Student Readiness for Calculus

    Carlson, Marilyn; West, Richard


    The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) instrument is based on the broad body of mathematics education research that has revealed major understandings, representational abilities, and reasoning abilities students need to construct in precalculus level courses to be successful in calculus. The CCR is a 25-item multiple-choice instrument, and the CCR taxonomy articulates what the CCR assesses. The methodology used to develop and validate the CCR is described and illustrated. Results from administering the CCR as a readiness examination in calculus are provided along with data to guide others in using the CCR as a readiness examination for beginning calculus.

  17. The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) Instrument: Assessing Student Readiness for Calculus

    Carlson, Marilyn; Madison, Bernard; West, Richard


    The Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) instrument is based on the broad body of mathematics education research that has revealed major understandings, representational abilities, and reasoning abilities students need to construct in precalculus level courses to be successful in calculus. The CCR is a 25-item multiple-choice instrument, and the CCR taxonomy articulates what the CCR assesses. The methodology used to develop and validate the CCR is described and illustrated. Results from administe...

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) genes in sorghum.

    Li, Jieqin; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Lihua; Zhan, Qiuwen; Wu, Peijin; Du, Junli; Yang, Xiaocui; Liu, Yanlong


    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is the first enzyme in the monolignol-specific branch of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this research, three sorghum CCR genes including SbCCR1, SbCCR2-1 and SbCCR2-2 were cloned and characterized. Analyses of the structure and phylogeny of the three CCR genes showed evolutionary conservation of the functional domains and divergence of function. Transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated that the three CCR proteins were localized in the cytoplasm. The expression analysis showed that the three CCR genes were induced by drought. But in 48 h, the expression levels of SbCCR1 and SbCCR2-2 did not differ between CK and the drought treatment; while the expression level of SbCCR2-1 in the drought treatment was higher than in CK. The expression of the SbCCR1 and SbCCR2-1 genes was not induced by sorghum aphid [Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)] attack, but SbCCR2-2 was significantly induced by sorghum aphid attack. It is suggested that SbCCR2-2 is involved in the process of pest defense. Absolute quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the three CCR genes were mainly expressed in lignin deposition organs. The gene copy number of SbCCR1 was significantly higher than those of SbCCR2-1 and SbCCR2-2 in the tested tissues, especially in stem. The results provide new insight into the functions of the three CCR genes in sorghum. PMID:27231650

  19. Understanding Health News

    ... out potential risks. Slide 11 Is It Real Online News? Or Just Advertising? In April 2011, the Federal Trade Commission warned the public about fake online news sites promoting an acai berry “weight-loss” ...

  20. Disease Outbreak News

    ... and response operations Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Latest DONs 26 August 2016 Middle East ... Disease outbreaks by country RSS feeds Disease outbreak news Announcement: WHO to change the way it reports ...

  1. Chess endgame news

    Haworth, Guy McCrossan


    News that Bourzutschky confirms there is no sub-7-man pawnless zugzwang, and that Bourzutschky and Konoval are generating DTC EGTs with a new program. News also of Kristensen's work on EGTs using OBDDs, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams.

  2. News/Press Releases

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  3. National PKU News

    ... Support Us Contact Us Donors Search for: National PKU News is dedicated to providing up-to-date, ... and information to families and professionals dealing with phenylketonuria (PKU). A non-profit organization, PKU News was ...

  4. Market News Price Dataset

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  5. Exploring the Interactions of Storylines from Informative News Events

    胡珀; 黄民烈; 朱小燕


    Today’s news readers can be easily overwhelmed by the numerous news articles online. To cope with information overload, online news media publishes timelines for continuously developing news topics. However, the timeline summary does not show the relationship of storylines, and is not intuitive for readers to comprehend the development of a complex news topic. In this paper, we study a novel problem of exploring the interactions of storylines in a news topic. An interaction of two storylines is signified by informative news events that play a key role in both storylines. Storyline interactions can indicate key phases of a news topic, and reveal the latent connections among various aspects of the story. We address the coherence between news articles which is not considered in traditional similarity-based methods, and discover salient storyline interactions to form a clear, global picture of the news topic. User preference can be naturally integrated into our method to generate query-specific results. Comprehensive experiments on ten news topics show the effectiveness of our method over alternative approaches.

  6. CCR2 inhibition sequesters multiple subsets of leukocytes in the bone marrow.

    Fujimura, Naoki; Xu, Baohui; Dalman, Jackson; Deng, Hongping; Aoyama, Kohji; Dalman, Ronald L


    Chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequent migration into target tissues. The degree to which CCR2 is differentially expressed in leukocyte subsets, and the contribution of CCR2 to these leukocyte mobilization from the BM are poorly understood. Using red fluorescence protein CCR2 reporter mice, we found heterogeneity in CCR2 expression among leukocyte subsets in varying tissues. CCR2 was highly expressed by inflammatory monocytes, dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and NK cells in all tissues. Unexpectedly, more than 60% of neutrophils expressed CCR2, albeit at low levels. CCR2 expression in T cells, B cells and NK T cells was greatest in the BM compared to other tissues. Genetic CCR2 deficiency markedly sequestered all leukocyte subsets in the BM, with reciprocal reduction noted in the peripheral blood and spleen. CCR2 inhibition via treatment with CCR2 signaling inhibitor propagermanium produced similar effects. Propagermanium also mitigated lipopolysaccharide-induced BM leukocyte egress. Consistent with its functional significance, CCR2 antibody staining revealed surface CCR2 expression within a subset of BM neutrophils. These results demonstrate the central role CCR2 plays in mediating leukocyte mobilization from the BM, and suggest a role for CCR2 inhibition in managing monocytes/macrophages-mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26206182

  7. CCR3: Shedding New Light on a Dark Problem?

    A. Brett Mason; Josephine Hoh


    A recent work by Ambati et al. represents a bold step towards a more effective diagnosis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration, with the new evidence showing that CCR3, a chemokine receptor, is an early marker of and potential therapeutic target for choroidal neovascularization development. In the wake of such a novel and significant finding, additional illumination to confirm and consolidate the promise shown by CCR3 will soon follow.

  8. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Pardis C Sabeti


    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen at CCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  9. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.


    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  10. CCR2 and coronary artery disease: a woscops substudy

    Gray Ian C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of evidence support a role for CCL2 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and its receptor CCR2 in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of the CCR2 Val64Ile polymorphism with the development of coronary artery disease in the WOSCOPS study sample set. Findings A total of 443 cases and 1003 controls from the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS were genotyped for the Val64Ile polymorphism in the CCR2 gene. Genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls. The CCR2 Val64Ile polymorphism was found not to be associated with coronary events in this study population (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.82-1.61, p = 0.41. Conclusions This case-control study does not support an association of the CCR2 Val64Ile polymorphism with coronary artery disease in the WOSCOPS sample set and does not confirm a possible protective role for CCR2 Val64Ile in the development of coronary artery disease.

  11. Structural insights from binding poses of CCR2 and CCR5 with clinically important antagonists: a combined in silico study.

    Gugan Kothandan

    Full Text Available Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that contain seven transmembrane domains. In particular, CCR2 and CCR5 and their ligands have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Based on their roles in disease, they have been attractive targets for the pharmaceutical industry, and furthermore, targeting both CCR2 and CCR5 can be a useful strategy. Owing to the importance of these receptors, information regarding the binding site is of prime importance. Structural studies have been hampered due to the lack of X-ray crystal structures, and templates with close homologs for comparative modeling. Most of the previous models were based on the bovine rhodopsin and β2-adrenergic receptor. In this study, based on a closer homolog with higher resolution (CXCR4, PDB code: 3ODU 2.5 Å, we constructed three-dimensional models. The main aim of this study was to provide relevant information on binding sites of these receptors. Molecular dynamics simulation was done to refine the homology models and PROCHECK results indicated that the models were reasonable. Here, binding poses were checked with some established inhibitors of high pharmaceutical importance against the modeled receptors. Analysis of interaction modes gave an integrated interpretation with detailed structural information. The binding poses confirmed that the acidic residues Glu291 (CCR2 and Glu283 (CCR5 are important, and we also found some additional residues. Comparisons of binding sites of CCR2/CCR5 were done sequentially and also by docking a potent dual antagonist. Our results can be a starting point for further structure-based drug design.

  12. CCR5 promoter polymorphism determines macrophage CCR5 density and magnitude of HIV-1 propagation in vitro

    Salkowitz, Janelle R.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Meyerson, Howard; Valdez, Hernan; Mosier, Donald E.; Harding, Clifford V.; Peter A Zimmerman; Lederman, Michael M.


    The common CCR5 promoter polymorphism at position –2459 (A/G) has been associated with differences in the rate of progression to AIDS, where HIV-1-infected individuals with the CCR5 –2459 G/G genotype exhibit slower disease progression than those with the A/A genotype. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between these polymorphisms and disease progression are not known. Here through in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy Caucasian blood donors with m...

  13. Characterization of the CCR3 and CCR9 genes in miiuy croaker and different selection pressures imposed on different domains between mammals and teleosts.

    Zhu, Zhihuang; Wang, Rixin; Ren, Liping; Xu, Tianjun


    The innate immune system can recognize non-self through pattern recognition receptors and provides a first line of antimicrobial host defense. Thus innate immunity plays a very important role in resistance against major bacterial disease in vertebrates. In the innate immune responses, the chemokine receptors act as the main receptors of chemokines which are released at the sites of infection, inflammation and injury. In this study, the Miichthys miiuy CCR3 and CCR9 genes were cloned and characterized, showing that MIMI-CCR3 possesses a highly conserved DRYLA motif similar to that of other fishes. MIMI-CCR3 and CCR9 were ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and the expressions were significantly up-regulated after infection with Vibrio anguillarum except that of CCR9 in spleen. Evolutionary analysis showed that all the ancestral lineages of CCR3 and CCR9 in mammals and teleosts underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestor of terrestrial animals further evolved to adapt to terrestrial environments and the continuous intrusion of microbes stimulated the evolution of CCR genes in the ancestor of teleost. Multiple ML methods were used to detect the robust candidates for sites under positive selection. In total, 11 and 8 positively selected sites were found in the subsets of current mammal and teleost CCR3 genes, and 3 and 2 sites were detected in the subsets of current mammals and teleosts in CCR9. Interestingly, for mammal CCR3 and CCR9 genes, the robust candidates of positively selected sites were mainly located in the extracellular domains which were the ligand binding and pathogen interaction regions. For teleost CCR3 and CCR9 genes, the positively selected sites were not only located in the extracellular domains but also in the C-terminal and intracellular domains, indicating mammals and teleosts experienced different selection pressures upon their N-terminus, C-terminus and intracellular loops of CCRs. PMID:23817141

  14. News & Announcements


    News from Journal House Guidelines for Submission The Journal's current Guide to Submissions can be found on pages 29-30 of this issue. They have been streamlined a bit and also include a handy check list. This information is also available on JCE Online at Wanted: Demo Checkers The Tested Demonstrations column needs people who like to try out demos. Column editor Ed Vitz is looking for additional volunteers to serve as "checkers" for manuscripts that have been submitted to the Journal for possible publication as Tested Demonstrations. A checker is expected to perform two functions: to review the manuscript for accuracy and novelty, and to attempt to perform the demonstration according to the procedure supplied by the author. Checkers may suggest important improvements in demonstration procedures, and for their efforts they are cited in the byline when the manuscript is published. For instance, the demo showing the yellow cascading precipitates (lead iodide) made from potassium iodide and lead nitrate was submitted by Wobbe de Vos and checked by Kim Kostka. The (yellow) cascading precipitates are from "Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions" that appeared in the April 1999 issue of JCE. We prefer that checkers begin the review process (which may in some cases involve procuring supplies) very soon after being contacted so that their review can be completed in the timely manner that authors deserve. Checkers are usually teachers who routinely present lecture demonstrations in their classes in either high school or colleges. We try not to call on checkers more often than once a year, which is one of the reasons for this request. Another is that we lose many highly valued, experienced checkers to retirement or other endeavors. Prospective checkers may want to look at a copy of the JCE Tested Demonstration Evaluation Form. It can be found on the Web at vitz

  15. Essential roles of the interaction between cancer cell-derived chemokine, CCL4, and intra-bone CCR5-expressing fibroblasts in breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Sasaki, Soichiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Nishimura, Tatsunori; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Gotoh, Noriko; Mukaida, Naofumi


    From a murine breast cancer cell line, 4T1, we established a subclone, 4T1.3, which consistently metastasizes to bone upon its injection into the mammary fat pad. 4T1.3 clone exhibited similar proliferation rate and migration capacity as the parental clone. However, the intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused larger tumors than that of the parental cells, accompanied with increases in fibroblast, but not osteoclast or osteoblast numbers. 4T1.3 clone displayed an enhanced expression of a chemokine, CCL4, but not its specific receptor, CCR5. CCL4 shRNA-transfection of 4T1.3 clone had few effects on its in vitro properties, but reduced the tumorigenicity arising from the intra-bone injection. Moreover, intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused smaller tumors in mice deficient in CCR5 or those receiving CCR5 antagonist than in wild-type mice. The reduced tumor formation was associated with attenuated accumulation of CCR5-positive fibroblasts expressing connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)/CCN2. Tumor cell-derived CCL4 could induce fibroblasts to express CTGF/CCN2, which could support 4T1.3 clone proliferation under hypoxic culture conditions. Thus, the CCL4-CCR5 axis can contribute to breast cancer metastasis to bone by mediating the interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts in bone cavity. PMID:27177471

  16. Magnet News

    Foussat, A; Ruber, R

    Central Solenoid Test The Central Solenoid (CS) and its associated Proximity Cryogenic System have been designed by KEK in collaboration with CERN. Following construction and extensive tests at the Toshiba manufacturing site in Yokohama, Japan, the equipment has been shipped to CERN. The CS is now being prepared for the integration in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter, after which a full on-surface test has to be completed before final installation 100m underground in the ATLAS cavern. For this purpose a provisional set-up for the re- commissioning of the final Proximity Cryogenics, the connecting Chimney and the Central Solenoid has been established. During the month of May the Proximity Cryogenics and Chimney with superconducting bus lines have been tested (figure1). The equipment was cooled down to 4.5K and a current of 9000 amperes was applied to the chimney. This is almost 20% above the nominal operational current of 7400 amperes. A number of tests and simulations have been successfully perf...

  17. Computing News

    McCubbin, N


    We are still five years from the first LHC data, so we have plenty of time to get the computing into shape, don't we? Well, yes and no: there is time, but there's an awful lot to do! The recently-completed CERN Review of LHC Computing gives the flavour of the LHC computing challenge. The hardware scale for each of the LHC experiments is millions of 'SpecInt95' (SI95) units of cpu power and tens of PetaBytes of data storage. PCs today are about 20-30SI95, and expected to be about 100 SI95 by 2005, so it's a lot of PCs. This hardware will be distributed across several 'Regional Centres' of various sizes, connected by high-speed networks. How to realise this in an orderly and timely fashion is now being discussed in earnest by CERN, Funding Agencies, and the LHC experiments. Mixed in with this is, of course, the GRID concept...but that's a topic for another day! Of course hardware, networks and the GRID constitute just one part of the computing. Most of the ATLAS effort is spent on software development. What we ...

  18. News & Announcements


    News from Journal House Perspective on JCE Online Recently a reader asked us for a perspective on JCE Onlinehow the chemical education community is receiving it and how the Journal staff itself views it. We share our responses below. Subscriber Numbers How many people subscribe to JCE Online+? As of June 1, 1999, our records show that 13% of individual JCE subscriptions in the USA include JCE Online+. This percentage has increased significantly during the past year- in June 1998 it was approximately 4% and December 1998 about 7%. Almost all subscribers to JCE Online subscribe to print as well. Since JCE Online has only very recently been made available to institutional subscribers, there are no numbers to report. There has been considerable interest in online from libraries. Given that JCE Online+ is a fairly recent subscriber option and that many subscribers have a wait-and-see approach to any new option, we feel that the numbers above are quite high. The steady growth is encouraging. Online Usage How many people visit our Web site? Statistics for the period January 1, 1999, through May 31, 1999, that may be of interest include: Total Pages Served 361,115 Total Visits 138,377 Total Unique Visitors 51,744 Total Repeat Visitors 11,536 Average Visit Length 03:05 Average Requests/Visit 10.8 Average Pages/Visit 2.6 Average Daily Visits 916 Online Rationale and Expectations JCE Online is a very important part of the whole Journal, but we do not expect it to supplant print: online and print are very different media. Usage of JCE Online is growing steadily; our subscribers are realizing what we have learned: it is not possible to deliver the Journal in the print medium alone- print is no longer adequate to accomplish our mission. Examples of things not possible in print include: ·JCE Index to all 76 years of Journal issues, available all the time with responses within seconds. ·Supplementary materials that are important to only a limited number of our subscribers

  19. Who Makes The News?

    Jørndrup, Hanne; Bentsen, Martine

    As newsroom staff around the world went about their day on 25 March 2015, hundreds of volunteers located in over 100 countries gathered to monitor their news media as part of the Fifth Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP). The Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP) is the world’s longest......-running and most extensive research on gender in the news media. It began in 1995 when volunteers in 71 countries around the world monitored women’s presence in their national radio, television and print news. The research revealed that only 17% of news subjects – the people who are interviewed or whom the...... Danish media. In 2010 women made up 31 % of the news subjects compared to the global average of 24 % women. This year the share of women in news has declined to 25% so Denmark is almost on level with the global average....

  20. News & Announcements


    News from Journal House Journal Ambassadors, 1999 What do the people listed below have in common? A search of our records indicates that each has been a participant in our Journal Ambassador program during 1999. Guy Anderson Jim Becvar Jerry Bell Jim Birk Diane Bunce Ann Cartwright Thomas Clark Jane Crosby Maria Dean Art Ellis Donald Elswick Tommy Franklin Babu George Paul Heath Angela Hoffman Lynn Hogue J. J. Lagowski Frank Lambert Dorothy Lehmkuhl George Lelevre Scott Luaders Jane McMullen Marci Merritt Carl Minnier Richard Narske Ron Perkins Gabriel Pinto Dick Potts Herb Retcofsky Jerry Sarquis Elke Schoffers Sara Selfe Uni Susskind J. Mark Tolman John Varine Dawn Wakeley Marla White Those who are a part of this program take materials about the Journal to workshops, outreach programs, seminars, regional meetings, award nights, short courses, and other events at home and abroad, places where people who are interested in chemical education gather. Given about three weeks notice, we can outfit you with a variety of materials that will help others get tuned in to the good things that are happening in chemical education. We can send you an assortment of Journal issues, subscription forms, our Publications/Software Catalog, reprints from the Viewpoints series, copies of Classroom Activities, or JCE Gift Award Certificates, assuming that supplies are available. Of course we can arrange for the group to have temporary access to JCE Online. We can send you a brochure about the Ambassador program or answer any questions - just ask: email to; phone 1-800-991-5534 (U.S.) or 608-262-5153 (non-U.S.); fax 608-265-8094. If by chance you were a Journal Ambassador in 1999 but your name was not included, just let us know so that you can be recognized in a future column. Gift Subscription Awards As spring, the season of awards, approaches, we remind you of our handy Gift Certificates (a replica is shown on page 142). A gift of the Journal is not only affordable

  1. The news Engine

    Andersson, Ralf

    The News Engine How a new experiment in newsrooms can change process, product and people.   By Ralf Andersson   In fall 2012, the news department of the Danish Broadcasting Corporation,decided to implement a new workflow called ”The News Engine” - in order to workfaster, more freely, flexible and......: ever-increasingimportant part of the news broadcasting. -      Mediaconvergence/multimedia skills: live reporters now produce for all platforms. -      Cooperation: the ability todeliver accurate information to colleagues and work together, share andcommunicate is becoming increasingly important, since...

  2. Adverse effect of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele on HIV-1 disease progression

    Knudsen, T B; Kristiansen, T B; Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J


    /G transition that has been discovered recently, have also been shown to influence HIV progression. Since genetic linkages make these polymorphisms interdependent variables, the aim of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the effect on HIV disease progression for each of these mutations independently......HIV positive individuals heterozygous for a 32 basepair deletion in the CCR5 encoding gene (CCR5 Delta32) have a reduced number of CCR5 receptors on the cell surface and a slower progression towards AIDS and death. Other human polymorphisms, such as the CCR2 64I and the CCR5 promoter -2459 A....... Genotypes were determined in 119 individuals enrolled in the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. When including the concurrent effects of the CCR5 Delta32 and CCR2 64I mutations, homozygous carriers of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele had a significantly faster progression towards death than heterozygous A/G individuals...

  3. Regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration by CCR2-activating chemokines is directly related to macrophage recruitment

    Martinez, Carlo O.; McHale, Matthew J.; Wells, Jason T.; OCHOA, OSCAR; Joel E. Michalek; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K.


    Muscle regeneration requires CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression on bone marrow-derived cells; macrophages are a prominent CCR2-expressing cell in this process. CCR2−/− mice have severe impairments in angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and skeletal muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced injury. However, multiple chemokines activate CCR2, including monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP)-1, -3, and -5. We hypothesized that MCP-1 is the chemokine ligand that mediates the i...

  4. CCR5 delta32, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Madsen, Hans O; Jensen, Claus V;


    Chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) appear to be crucial in leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis (MS). CCR5 delta32, a truncated allele of the CC chemokine receptor CCR5 gene encoding a non-functional receptor, did not confer protection from MS. CCR5...

  5. Institute news


    celebrate the Group's 50th anniversary by examining what has been done, focusing on why and how it was done, with lessons and ambitions for the future. The meeting will be held at Institute Headquarters and the programme is as follows: 10.45 - 11.00 Welcome and introduction (Philip Britton: Chair of the Education Group) 11.00 - 11.45 Examinations and assessment through the ages (Tim Akrill, Chief Examiner for A-level Physics with Edexcel) 11.45 - 12.30 Curriculum reform in physics, past, present and future (Professor Jon Ogborn, Director of the Post-16 Physics Initiative) 14.00 - 14.15 Physics education and the Institute of Physics, some personal reflections (speaker to be announced) 14.15 - 15.00 Connecting with Advancing Physics: the first year in HE physics (Professor Mick Brown, University of Cambridge) 15.15 - 15.35 Physics education, the next 50 years! (Ken Dobson, Honorary Editor of Physics Education) The day should hold something for everyone, so reserve your place if you can. Schools and Colleges lecture Dr Zbig Sobiesierski of the University of the West of England is the 1999 - 2000 Institute of Physics Schools and Colleges lecturer, touring the country with his talk `Seeing is believing?'. He will demonstrate the different physical ways in which we can both make and mix colour and will then proceed to discuss why our eyes respond to light in the way they do. The lecture will be aimed primarily at students aged 14 and above, but it will also be suitable for older audiences. The intention, as with previous series, will be to show the relevance of the physics concepts to the members of the audience and the world in which they live. To find out more about the lecture in your area and to make a booking, contact should be made with the local organizer (full details of the list can be obtained from Catherine Wilson at Institute Headquarters). The dates and venues planned so far are as follows: 1 Nov: Northern College, Aberdeen 2 Nov: University of St Andrews 3 Nov

  6. Good And Bad News


    <正>A distinguished scientist was participating in a panel discussion on the results of the nation’s future water supply.“Gentlemen,” he said.“I have some good news and bad news for you,Our study shows that by the year 2010 everyone will be drinking recycled sewage from

  7. With News Search Engines

    Gunn, Holly


    Although there are many news search engines on the Web, finding the news items one wants can be challenging. Choosing appropriate search terms is one of the biggest challenges. Unless one has seen the article that one is seeking, it is often difficult to select words that were used in the headline or text of the article. The limited archives of…

  8. Routinizing Breaking News

    Hartley, Jannie Møller


    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re-theorizat...


    Heloiza G. Herckovitz


    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  10. Good Friends, Bad News

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Arvidsson, Adam; Nielsen, Finn Årup;

    is different from email in that retweeting does not depend on pre-existing social relations, but often occur among strangers, thus in this respect Twitter may be more similar to traditional news media. We therefore hypothesize that negative news content is more likely to be retweeted, while for non-news tweets...... the NY Times finds a strong link between positive affect and virality, and, based on psychological theories it is concluded that this relation is universally valid. The conclusion appears to be in contrast with classic theory of diffusion in news media emphasizing negative affect as promoting propagation....... In this paper we explore the apparent paradox in a quantitative analysis of information diffusion on Twitter. Twitter is interesting in this context as it has been shown to present both the characteristics social and news media. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the probability of retweet. Twitter...

  11. Repression of Ccr9 transcription in mouse T lymphocyte progenitors by the Notch signaling pathway.

    Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Carr, Tiffany; de Pooter, Renee F; Emanuelle, Akinola Olumide; Akinola, Emanuelle Olumide; Gounari, Fotini; Kee, Barbara L


    The chemokine receptor CCR9 controls the immigration of multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells into the thymus to sustain T cell development. Postimmigration, thymocytes downregulate CCR9 and migrate toward the subcapsular zone where they recombine their TCR β-chain and γ-chain gene loci. CCR9 is subsequently upregulated and participates in the localization of thymocytes during their selection for self-tolerant receptor specificities. Although the dynamic regulation of CCR9 is essential for early T cell development, the mechanisms controlling CCR9 expression have not been determined. In this article, we show that key regulators of T cell development, Notch1 and the E protein transcription factors E2A and HEB, coordinately control the expression of Ccr9. E2A and HEB bind at two putative enhancers upstream of Ccr9 and positively regulate CCR9 expression at multiple stages of T cell development. In contrast, the canonical Notch signaling pathway prevents the recruitment of p300 to the putative Ccr9 enhancers, resulting in decreased acetylation of histone H3 and a failure to recruit RNA polymerase II to the Ccr9 promoter. Although Notch signaling modestly modulates the binding of E proteins to one of the two Ccr9 enhancers, we found that Notch signaling represses Ccr9 in T cell lymphoma lines in which Ccr9 transcription is independent of E protein function. Our data support the hypothesis that activation of Notch1 has a dominant-negative effect on Ccr9 transcription and that Notch1 and E proteins control the dynamic expression of Ccr9 during T cell development. PMID:25710912

  12. CCR5 and CXCR3 are dispensable for liver infiltration, but CCR5 protects against virus-induced T-cell-mediated hepatic steatosis

    Holst, P J; Orskov, C; Qvortrup, K;


    CCR5 and CXCR3 are important molecules in regulating the migration of activated lymphocytes. Thus, the majority of tissue-infiltrating T cells found in the context of autoimmune conditions and viral infections express CCR5 and CXCR3, and the principal chemokine ligands are expressed within inflam...... CCR5 is associated with the induction of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunopathology consisting of marked hepatic microvesicular steatosis....

  13. Role for CCR5 in Dissemination of Vaccinia Virus In Vivo▿

    Rahbar, Ramtin; Murooka, Thomas T.; Fish, Eleanor N.


    In an earlier report, we provided evidence that expression of CCR5 by primary human T cells renders them permissive for vaccinia virus (VACV) replication. This may represent a mechanism for dissemination throughout the lymphatic system. To test this hypothesis, wild-type CCR5+/+ and CCR5 null mice were challenged with VACV by intranasal inoculation. In time course studies using different infective doses of VACV, we identified viral replication in the lungs of both CCR5+/+ and CCR5−/− mice, ye...

  14. CCR5 Deletion Protects Against Inflammation-Associated Mortality in Dialysis Patients

    Muntinghe, Friso L. H.; Verduijn, Marion; Zuurman, Mike W.; Grootendorst, Diana C; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Luttropp, Karin; Nordfors, Louise; Lindholm, Bengt; Brandenburg, Vincent; Schalling, Martin; Stenvinkel, Peter; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W; Krediet, Raymond T; Navis, Gerjan


    The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for various proinflammatory chemokines, and a deletion variant of the CCR5 gene (CCR5Δ32) leads to deficiency of the receptor. We hypothesized that CCR5Δ32 modulates inflammation-driven mortality in patients with ESRD. We studied the interaction between CCR5 genotype and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in 603 incident dialysis patients from the multicenter, prospective NEtherlands COoperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialy...

  15. News from the Pizza-Connection

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); J. Langowski (Jörg)


    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown, although it is important for gene regulation and replication. For a long time the interphase nucleus has been viewed as a 'spaghetti soup' of DNA without much internal struc

  16. An anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody and small molecule CCR5 antagonists synergize by inhibiting different stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry

    HIV-1 coreceptors are attractive targets for novel antivirals. Here, inhibition of entry by two classes of CCR5 antagonists was investigated. We confirmed previous findings that HIV-1 isolates vary greatly in their sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors of CCR5-mediated entry, SCH-C and TAK-779. In contrast, an anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody (PA14) similarly inhibited entry of diverse viral isolates. Sensitivity to small molecules was V3 loop-dependent and inversely proportional to the level of gp120 binding to CCR5. Moreover, combinations of the MAb and small molecules were highly synergistic in blocking HIV-1 entry, suggesting different mechanisms of action. This was confirmed by time course of inhibition experiments wherein the PA14 MAb and small molecules were shown to inhibit temporally distinct stages of CCR5 usage. We propose that small molecules inhibit V3 binding to the second extracellular loop of CCR5, whereas PA14 preferentially inhibits subsequent events such as CCR5 recruitment into the fusion complex or conformational changes in the gp120-CCR5 complex that trigger fusion. Importantly, our findings suggest that combinations of CCR5 inhibitors with different mechanisms of action will be central to controlling HIV-1 infection and slowing the emergence of resistant strains

  17. The chemokine receptor CCR5 Δ32 allele in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis

    Møller, M; Søndergaard, H B; Koch-Henriksen, N; Sorensen, P S; Sellebjerg, F; Oturai, A B


    activity in MS patients treated with natalizumab. We found lower MSSS scores in patients carrying CCR5 Δ32 compared with the remaining patients, which is consistent with previous studies reporting an association with a more favourable disease course. Further studies are, however, needed before the...... therefore analysed whether natalizumab-treated MS patients carrying the CCR5 Δ32 deletion allele, which results in reduced expression of CCR5 on the cell surface, had lower disease activity. METHODS: CCR5 Δ32 was analysed in 212 natalizumab-treated MS patients. RESULTS: CCR5 Δ32 status had no significant...... impact on the frequency of relapses 1 year prior to natalizumab treatment or during the first 48 weeks of treatment. The multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) was significantly lower at baseline in patients carrying CCR5 Δ32 (P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: CCR5 Δ32 is not associated with lower disease...

  18. Ranking a Stream of News

    Del Corso, Gianna; Gulli, Antonio; Romani, Francesco


    searching on news is one of the most important activity on line. Indeed, Google, Yahoo, MSN and many others have proposed commercial search engines for indexing news feeds. Despite this commercial interest, no academic research has focused on ranking a stream of news and a set of news sources. In this paper, we introduce this problem by proposing a ranking framework which models: (1) the process of news stream generation, (2) the news clustering by topics, and (3) the evolution of news over t...

  19. Retinal Inhibition of CCR3 Induces Retinal Cell Death in a Murine Model of Choroidal Neovascularization.

    Wang, Haibo; Han, Xiaokun; Gambhir, Deeksha; Becker, Silke; Kunz, Eric; Liu, Angelina Jingtong; Hartnett, M Elizabeth


    Inhibition of chemokine C-C motif receptor 3 (CCR3) signaling has been considered as treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, CCR3 is expressed in neural retina from aged human donor eyes. Therefore, broad CCR3 inhibition may be harmful to the retina. We assessed the effects of CCR3 inhibition on retina and choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) that develop into choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In adult murine eyes, CCR3 colocalized with glutamine-synthetase labeled Műller cells. In a murine laser-induced CNV model, CCR3 immunolocalized not only to lectin-stained cells in CNV lesions but also to the retina. Compared to non-lasered controls, CCR3 mRNA was significantly increased in laser-treated retina. An intravitreal injection of a CCR3 inhibitor (CCR3i) significantly reduced CNV compared to DMSO or PBS controls. Both CCR3i and a neutralizing antibody to CCR3 increased TUNEL+ retinal cells overlying CNV, compared to controls. There was no difference in cleaved caspase-3 in laser-induced CNV lesions or in overlying retina between CCR3i- or control-treated eyes. Following CCR3i, apoptotic inducible factor (AIF) was significantly increased and anti-apoptotic factor BCL2 decreased in the retina; there were no differences in retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In cultured human Műller cells exposed to eotaxin (CCL11) and VEGF, CCR3i significantly increased TUNEL+ cells and AIF but decreased BCL2 and brain derived neurotrophic factor, without affecting caspase-3 activity or VEGF. CCR3i significantly decreased AIF in RPE/choroids and immunostaining of phosphorylated VEGF receptor 2 (p-VEGFR2) in CNV with a trend toward reduced VEGF. In cultured CECs treated with CCL11 and/or VEGF, CCR3i decreased p-VEGFR2 and increased BCL2 without increasing TUNEL+ cells and AIF. These findings suggest that inhibition of retinal CCR3 causes retinal cell death and that targeted inhibition of CCR3 in CECs may be a safer if CCR3 inhibition

  20. Epigenetic mechanisms, T-cell activation, and CCR5 genetics interact to regulate T-cell expression of CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor.

    Gornalusse, German G; Mummidi, Srinivas; Gaitan, Alvaro A; Jimenez, Fabio; Ramsuran, Veron; Picton, Anabela; Rogers, Kristen; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Avadhanam, Nymisha; Murthy, Krishna K; Martinez, Hernan; Molano Murillo, Angela; Chykarenko, Zoya A; Hutt, Richard; Daskalakis, Demetre; Shostakovich-Koretskaya, Ludmila; Abdool Karim, Salim; Martin, Jeffrey N; Deeks, Steven G; Hecht, Frederick; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Clark, Robert A; Okulicz, Jason; Valentine, Fred T; Martinson, Neil; Tiemessen, Caroline Tanya; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Hunt, Peter W; He, Weijing; Ahuja, Sunil K


    T-cell expression levels of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) are a critical determinant of HIV/AIDS susceptibility, and manifest wide variations (i) between T-cell subsets and among individuals and (ii) in T-cell activation-induced increases in expression levels. We demonstrate that a unifying mechanism for this variation is differences in constitutive and T-cell activation-induced DNA methylation status of CCR5 cis-regulatory regions (cis-regions). Commencing at an evolutionarily conserved CpG (CpG -41), CCR5 cis-regions manifest lower vs. higher methylation in T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels (memory vs. naïve T cells) and in memory T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels. HIV-related and in vitro induced T-cell activation is associated with demethylation of these cis-regions. CCR5 haplotypes associated with increased vs. decreased gene/surface expression levels and HIV/AIDS susceptibility magnify vs. dampen T-cell activation-associated demethylation. Methylation status of CCR5 intron 2 explains a larger proportion of the variation in CCR5 levels than genotype or T-cell activation. The ancestral, protective CCR5-HHA haplotype bears a polymorphism at CpG -41 that is (i) specific to southern Africa, (ii) abrogates binding of the transcription factor CREB1 to this cis-region, and (iii) exhibits a trend for overrepresentation in persons with reduced susceptibility to HIV and disease progression. Genotypes lacking the CCR5-Δ32 mutation but with hypermethylated cis-regions have CCR5 levels similar to genotypes heterozygous for CCR5-Δ32. In HIV-infected individuals, CCR5 cis-regions remain demethylated, despite restoration of CD4+ counts (≥800 cells per mm(3)) with antiretroviral therapy. Thus, methylation content of CCR5 cis-regions is a central epigenetic determinant of T-cell CCR5 levels, and possibly HIV-related outcomes. PMID:26307764

  1. A role for CCR5(+)CD4 T cells in cutaneous psoriasis and for CD103(+) CCR4(+) CD8 Teff cells in the associated systemic inflammation.

    Sgambelluri, Francesco; Diani, Marco; Altomare, Andrea; Frigerio, Elena; Drago, Lorenzo; Granucci, Francesca; Banfi, Giuseppe; Altomare, Gianfranco; Reali, Eva


    Recent results have identified critical components of the T cell response involved in the initiation and amplification phases of psoriasis. However the link between T cell responses arising in the skin and the systemic inflammation associated with severe psoriasis is largely unknown. We hypothesized that specific subsets of memory T cells recirculating from the skin could play a role. We therefore dissected the circulating memory T cell compartment in patients by analyzing the TCM, TEM and Teff phenotype, the pattern of CCR4 and CCR5 chemokine receptor expression and the expression of the tissue homing molecule CD103. For each subset we calculated the correlation with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and with the extent of systemic inflammation measured as serum level of the prototypic short pentraxin, C reactive protein (CRP). Validation was performed by comparison with gene expression data in psoriatic plaques. We found that circulating CD103(+)CCR4(+)CCR5(+) and CCR4(+)CCR6(-) CD8(+) Teff cells, were highly correlated with CRP levels as well as with the validated index PASI, reflecting a link between skin involvement and systemic inflammation in patients with severe psoriasis. In addition we observed a contraction of circulating CCR5(+) T cells in psoriasis patients, with a highly significant inverse correlation between CCR5(+)CD4 T cells and the PASI score. Increased expression of CCR5 and CCL5 genes in psoriatic skin lesions was consistent with an accumulation of CCR5(+) cells in psoriatic plaques indicating a role for CCR5/CCL5 axis in disease pathogenesis. PMID:27068801

  2. CCR2 and CCR5 genes polymorphisms in women with cervical lesions from Pernambuco, Northeast Region of Brazil: a case-control study

    dos Santos, Erinaldo Ubirajara Damasceno; de Lima, Géssica Dayane Cordeiro; Oliveira, Micheline de Lucena; Heráclio, Sandra de Andrade; da Silva, Hildson Dornelas Angelo; Crovella, Sergio; Maia, Maria de Mascena Diniz; de Souza/, Paulo Roberto Eleutério


    Polymorphisms in chemokine receptors play an important role in the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to cervical cancer (CC). Our study examined the association of CCR2-64I (rs1799864) andCCR5-Δ32 (rs333) polymorphisms with susceptibility to develop cervical lesion (CIN and CC) in a Brazilian population. The genotyping of 139 women with cervical lesions and 151 women without cervical lesions for the CCR2-64I and CCR5-Δ32 polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The individuals carrying heterozygous or homozygous genotypes (GA+AA) for CCR2-64I polymorphisms seem to be at lower risk for cervical lesion [odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, p = 0.0008)]. The same was observed for the A allele (OR = 0.39, p = 0.0002), while no association was detected (p > 0.05) with CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism. Regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) type, patients carrying the CCR2-64Ipolymorphism were protected against infection by HPV type 16 (OR = 0.35, p = 0.0184). In summary, our study showed a protective effect ofCCR2-64I rs1799864 polymorphism against the development of cervical lesions (CIN and CC) and in the susceptibility of HPV 16 infection. PMID:26982176

  3. Molecular Gymnastics: Mechanisms of HIV-1 Resistance to CCR5 Antagonists and Impact on Virus Phenotypes.

    Roche, Michael; Borm, Katharina; Flynn, Jacqueline K; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa J; Gorry, Paul R


    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters host cells through the binding of its envelope glycoproteins (Env) to the host cell receptor CD4 and then subsequent binding to a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 antagonists are a relatively recent class addition to the armamentarium of anti-HIV-1 drugs. These compounds act by binding to a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices of CCR5 and altering the conformation of the extracellular domains, such that they are no longer recognized by Env. Maraviroc is the first drug within this class to be licenced for use in HIV-1 therapy regimens. HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs either through outgrowth of pre-existing CXCR4-using viruses, or through acquisition of the ability of CCR5-using HIV-1 to use the antagonist bound form of CCR5. In the latter scenario, the mechanism underlying resistance is through complex alterations in the way that resistant Envs engage CCR5. These significant changes are unlikely to occur without consequence to the viral entry phenotype and may also open up new avenues to target CCR5 antagonist resistant viruses. This review discusses the mechanism of action of CCR5 antagonists, how HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs, and the subsequent effects on Env function. PMID:26324043

  4. Low Frequencies of CCR5-△32 and CCR5-m303, but High Frequencies of CCR2-641 and SDF1-3'A Alleles in Indigenous Ethnic Groups in Mainland China

    WANG Fusheng (王福生); WANG zhe(王哲); Feng Tiejian (冯铁建); HOU Jing(侯静); LI Guanghani(李光汉); CAO Yunzhen(曹韵贞); JIN Lei(金磊); HONG Weiguo(洪卫国); LIU Mingxu (刘明旭); ZHOU YueSu (周越塑); ZHANG Bing (张冰); SHI Ming (施明); WANG JiMing(王吉明); LEI Zhouyun (雷周云)


    Objective:The aim in this study was to identify the allelicfrequencies of the chemokine (SDF1-3'A) and chemokinereceptor (CCR5A32, CCR5m303 and CCR2-64I) genesresistant to HIV-1 infection and/or disease progression inindigenous Chinese populations.Methods: By using QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit, thegenomic DNA samples were purified from whole peripheralblood of healthy individuals (n=2067) from Han, Uygur,Mongolian and Tibetan ethnic groups, as well as Han patientsincluding HIV-1 carriers (n=330), patients with other sexuallytransmitted diseases (STDs, n=259) and intravenous drugusers (IVDUs, n=125). The allelic polymorphisms wereidentified by means of PCR or PCR-RFLP analyses. Thesequences of randomly selected amplified PCR products werefurther confirmed by direct DNA sequencing.Results: The mutant frequencies were identified to be0%~3.48% for CCR5A32, 0% for CCR5m303,19.15%~28.79% for CCR2-64 and 19.10%~28.73% for SDF1-3'A alleles, respectively, in Chinese healthy individuals fromfour ethnic groups. Our findings indicated the allelicfrequencies vary among the different ethnic groups.Furthermore, the HIV-1 carriers, STD cases and IVDUs (all ofHan ethnicity) were found to have the allelic frequencies of0%~0.19% (CCR5A32), 0% (CCR5m303), 19.31%~20.45%(CCR2-64) and 25.61%~26.83% (SDF1-3'A) with minorvariations in their frequencies between the patients andhealthy Han groups. There was no CCR5-m303 mutationfound in any subject in this study.Conclusion: The examined subjects of four Chinese ethnicorigins showed lower frequencies of CCR5A32 andCCR5m303 alleles, but higher frequencies of mutant CCR2-64I and SDF1-3'A alleles compared to those identified innorthern-European and American Caucasians. Thesignificance of the different frequencies and polymorphisms of the above alleles in Chinese populations needs to be furtherexamined in HIV-1/AIDS diseases.

  5. Approach for Developing Scientific News Aggregators Using ATOM Feeds

    Farha Shaikh


    Full Text Available Scientists want to stay connected with everything that is new and innovative in the world, so they constantly read and analyze several online scientific resources such as magazines and journals. A user needs to do a lot of searching through on the web to locate the articles which are important to their interest. The idea of a news aggregator is not new to scientific world. A news aggregator is a software application, which periodically reads several sources and displays them on a separate page such as Google news. The information is stored in XML format. A scientific news aggregator helps in structuring online resources into useful contents. These contents are automatically fetched from several online resources available on the Internet and categorized on a separate page. Mostly, RSS feeds are used to done this job. Atom feeds are more detailed and having advance feature than RSS feeds, helps to improve the performance of scientific news aggregator by giving more updated information. A modern view of an aggregator offers a friendly user interface for users by merging the news content. We are working on an interesting approach for the design and implementation of news aggregators which will collect and aggregate data from the web to acquire unstructured information and transform it into data that could be understood and dynamically processed. The proposed approach will combine various mechanisms in order to connect to the data sources specified, identify the categories of articles, extract the corresponding pieces of news and automatically place them into the knowledge database and automatically extract the new pieces of information in the knowledge base and display them on the Science News section

  6. Brisa and the CCR Group : a strategic alliance

    Ribeiro, Francisco Maria Quintela de Saldanha Cardoso


    In 2012, Brisa, a Portuguese road concession company, reviewed their presence in Brazil under a strategic alliance with local partners which had lasted for more than 9 years. The case is based on information gathered in interviews to agents from Brisa present in Brazil and from events that occurred during the course of this alliance. The information includes comments and considerations about the relationship and expectations from the alliance between Brisa and the CCR Group. The interna...

  7. Tregs细胞CCR4、CCR6表达异常在类风湿关节炎患者发病时的意义%The pathogenic significance of increased CCR4,CCR6 expression on Tregs cells in rheumatoid arthritis

    魏巍; 刘葵葵; 韩捷


    Objective To explore the role of CCR4 andCCR6 abnormal expression on Tregs in RA and the mechanism that may be involved. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cel s (PBMC) were isolated from blood in RA patients. Im-munofluorescence staining and flow cytometry assay were used to detect the expression of CCR4, CCR6 on Tregs surface. The correlation analysis between expression level of CCR4 and CCR6 on Tregs and the clinical activity parameters was performed. Results The expression of Tregs in peripheral blood of RA patients was lower than healthy control(P<0.05). The expression levels of chemokine receptor of CCR4, CCR6 on Tregs cell in peripheral blood of RA patients in active phase were higher than healthy control(P<0.05).The expression levels of chemokine receptor CCR4, CCR6 on Tregs cel in RA patients who were in active phase was positively correlated with the level of the DAS28 score (P<0.05).Conclusion The increased expression of CCR4, CCR6 on Tregs surface in rheumatoid arthritis patients not only means Tregs cell obtain the capability to directional migrate to joint, but also represents feedback regulation in the body's inflammatory response.%  目的探讨Tregs细胞CCR4、CCR6受体在类风湿关节炎(RA)患者发病时的意义。方法选择45例活动期RA患者(RA组)及30例健康体检者(对照组),从外周血分离单个核细胞(PBMC),采用流式细胞分析法检测RA患者外周血中CD4+Foxp3+细胞(Tregs)占比及其该类细胞上CCR4、CCR6的表达水平,并对Tregs上CCR4、CCR6水平与RA临床活动指标进行相关性分析。结果与对照组比较,RA活动期患者外周血Tregs细胞数量明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);RA活动期患者外周血Tregs细胞表面趋化因子受体CCR4、CCR6表达水平与对照组的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);RA活动期患者外周血Tregs细胞CCR4、CCR6表达水平与DAS28评分呈正相关(P<0.05)。结论 RA患

  8. NewsFinder: Automating an AI News Service

    Eckroth, Joshua; The Ohio State University; Dong, Liang; Clemson University; Smith, Reid G.; Marathon Oil Corporation; Buchanan, Bruce G.; University of Pittsburgh


    NewsFinder automates the steps involved in finding, selecting, categorizing, and publishing news stories that meet relevance criteria for the Artificial Intelligence community. The software combines a broad search of online news sources with topic-specific trained models and heuristics. Since August 2010, the program has been used to operate the AI in the News service that is part of the AAAI AITopics website.

  9. Limited protective effect of the CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 genotype on human immunodeficiency virus infection incidence in a cohort of patients with hemophilia and selection for genotypic X4 virus

    Iversen, Astrid K. N.; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Attermann, Jørn;


    The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 genotype (which occurs in ∼2% of the Scandinavian population) a...... within donor virus may be related to the limited protection of the CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 genotype. Sequence comparisons indicate that X4 virus can be selected in vivo due to either absence of CCR5 receptors or relative increase of CXCR4 receptors...

  10. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in CCR2−/− Mice: Susceptibility in Multiple Strains

    Gaupp, Stefanie; Pitt, David; Kuziel, William A.; Cannella, Barbara; Raine, Cedric S.


    Chemokines are low molecular weight cytokines which act as chemoattractants for infiltrating cells bearing appropriate receptors (CCR) to sites of inflammation. It has been proposed that CCR2 on monocytes is responsible for their recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis, and two previous reports have described resistance of CCR2−/− mice to EAE. The present study examined three different mouse strains w...

  11. CCR5 Expression and β-Chemokine Production During Placental Neonatal Monocyte Differentiation

    Zylla, Dylan; Li, Yuan; BERGENSTAL, EMILY; Merrill, Jeffrey D.; Douglas, Steven D.; MOONEY, KATHY; GUO, CHANG-JIANG; Song, Li; Ho, Wen-Zhe


    The stage of maturation of monocytes affects their susceptibility to HIV infection. The β-chemokines and their receptor CCR5 play a crucial role in inflammatory reactions and HIV infection. We therefore examined the correlation between the expression of CCR5 and β-chemokine production and the susceptibility to HIV infection during cord monocyte (CM) differentiation into macrophages. CM and CM-derived macrophages (CMDM) were examined for β-chemokine and CCR5 expression. The susceptibility of t...

  12. Expression and histopathological correlation of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer

    Singh, Rajesh; Cecil R. Stockard; Grizzle, William E.; Lillard, James W.; Singh, Shailesh


    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among women and its poor prognosis is mainly due to metastasis. Chemokine receptor CCR9 is primarily expressed by a small subset of immune cells. The interactions between CCL25 and CCR9 have been implicated in leukocyte trafficking to the small bowel, a frequent metastatic site for ovarian cancer cells. We have previously shown that ovarian cancer cells express CCR9 and play an important role in cell migration, invasion and surviva...

  13. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  14. CCR6 and CCL20: partners in intestinal immunity and lymphorganogenesis.

    Williams, Ifor R


    The CCR6 chemokine receptor is expressed by most B cells and subsets of T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) found in the gut mucosal immune system. CCL20, the single chemokine ligand for CCR6, is selectively made by the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying Peyer's patches (PPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). CCL20 contributes to the recruitment of CCR6-expressing B cells to these structures. CCL20 expression by the intestinal epithelium is also highly inducible in response to inflammatory stimuli. Thus, CCL20 functions as both an inflammatory and homeostatic chemokine. Interactions between CCR6 and CCL20 play a role at several stages in the development of intestinal lymphoid structures. A subset of the c-kit(+) lymphoid precursors found in cryptopatches (CPs) expresses CCR6. Recruitment of B cells to CPs and the subsequent expansion and organization of these B cells allows differentiation of some of these structures into ILFs. In CCR6 knockout mice, PPs are smaller with fewer follicles and the development of ILFs is compromised. These defects in the development of mucosal inductive sites in CCR6-deficient mice are responsible for decreased IgA production to oral antigens. CCR6 can be included with CXCR5 and CCR7 in a list of chemokine receptors that participate in shaping the organized lymphoid structures that are part of the intestinal immune system. PMID:17057190

  15. Chemokine receptor Ccr1 drives neutrophil-mediated kidney immunopathology and mortality in invasive candidiasis.

    Michail S Lionakis

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is the 4(th leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1(lo to Ccr1(high at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1(+/+ and Ccr1(-/- donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1(+/+ recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1(+/+ cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ.

  16. Creative Cycling of News Professionals

    Astrid Gynnild, PhD.


    The theory of creative cycling emerged from my PhD study of news professionals in Norway. The study was carried out according to classic grounded theory principles (Glaser and Strauss 1967, Glaser 1978, 1998, 2001, 2005), and the area of interest was the performance of news journalism in the multimedia age. The theory runs counter to widespread tendencies of industrial age thinking in news media. It emphasizes news professionals’ search for meaning in their daily work, and suggests that their...

  17. Frequency of polymorphisms of genes coding for HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2 in a Brazilian population

    Munerato Patrícia


    Full Text Available Entry of human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1 into target cells requires both CD4and one of the chemokine receptors. Viruses predominantly use one, or occasionally both, of the major co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, although other receptors, including CCR2B and CCR3, function as minor co-receptors. A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta32 within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5 has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposition to HIV-1. The heterozygous genotype delays disease progression. This allele is common among Caucasians, but has not been found in people of African or Asian ancestry. A more common transition involving a valine to isoleucine switch in transmembrane domain I of CCR2B (64I, with unknown functional consequences, was found to delay disease progression but not to reduce infection risk. As the Brazilian population consists of a mixture of several ethnic groups, we decided to examine the genotype frequency of these polymorphisms in this country. There were 11.5% CCR5 heterozygotes among the HIV-1 infected population and 12.5% among uninfected individuals, similar to data from North America and Western Europe. The prevalence of CCR2-64I homozygotes and heterozygotes was 0.06 and 15.2%, respectively, also similar to what is known for North America and Western Europe.

  18. High Tempo Knowledge Collaboration in Wikipedia's Coverage of Breaking News Events

    Keegan, Brian C.


    When major news breaks in our hyper-connected society, we increasingly turn to an encyclopedia for the latest information. Wikipedia's coverage of breaking news events attracts unique levels of attention; the articles with the most page views, edits, and contributors in any given month since 2003 are related to current events. Extant…

  19. Googling the news

    Ørmen, Jacob


    Search engines provide a window into the changing association between websites and keywords across cultures and countries and over time. As such, they offer journalism and news researchers an opportunity to study how search engines, in this case Google, mediate news events and stories online....... However, search results are not straightforward to study. Since search results are made in the act of searching and will have to be retrieved from Google Search in real-time, there is a range of different ontological and methodological issues related to this data source. This paper addresses these issues...

  20. Automatic Association of News Items.

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn


    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  1. News from Academy Bay


    The 25th anniversary of the Galapagos National Park. Fire at the Darwin Research Station. The control of introduced mammals. Good news about the Hood tortoises. The endangered land iguanas. Penguins, cormorants and flamingos in 1984. A workshop on national parks. International conservation award to Secretary Ripley. Visits and events at the Charles Darwin Research Station.

  2. News of the Year.

    St. Lifer, Evan; Olson, Renee; Milliot, Jim; Bing, Jonathan


    Reviews library news for 1997. Highlights public library budgets, examined by number of patrons served; Internet filters and censorship; librarians and the media; private and government funding sources; outsourcing; expectations for growth in the publishing industry, emphasizing the Asian economic crisis; and new ideas from the next generation of…

  3. BBC Breakfast News

    Swann, David


    Dr David Swann Interviewed on BBC Breakfast News by business correspondent Steph McGovern about his 'Design of the Year' nomination- the ABC Syringe. BBC Breakfast is the UK’s most watched morning programme with an average daily audience of 6.8m.

  4. Spreading the News


    For all the progress in establishing a government news release system in China, the State Council Information Office acknowledges there is still much room for improvement Being a government spokesperson anywhere in the world is no easy job. It is particularly the case in China, where there is legislation in place on government information release. Cai Wu, Minister of the State Council Information Office,

  5. Irish Chemical News

    Roche, James J.; Franklin, Margaret; Hobbs, Patrick; Hodnett, Kieran; Cantwell, Helen; Bradley, Derek; Burke, Mary


    Contents: A Message from the President p.3 -- Editorial p.5 -- Polymorphic Transformations in Pharmaceutical Compounds p.7 -- Navigating the Challenges of Method Validation –with a little help from Eurachem p.24 -- Obituary: Professor Richard Butler NUI Galway, February 10th, 2016 p.30 -- Congress 2016: Chemistry and Society, GMIT p.34 -- Characterisation of Biopharmaceuticals p.40 -- Industry & Business news p.78.

  6. CERN television news


    CERN events brought right to your desktop by the new video bulletin.   CERN now has its very own news broadcast , or rather 'webcast', with a host of special reports and even a star presenter. From today onwards, just go to the Bulletin's web page, click on the 'video news' link and sit back and enjoy the latest news about CERN, presented in images by Wendy Korda. The ten-minute newscast in both French and English, the Organization's two official languages, presents interviews, pictures of experiments and computer-generated graphics, bringing you right up to date with some of the Laboratory's latest stories. The show concludes with a selection of the best snapshots taken by the CERN Photo Lab. So every one or two months CERN's Audio-Video Service (ETT/DH) will be putting together a video news report that you can watch on your own desktop computer. Daniel Boileau, Patrick Gilbert de Vautibault and Jacques Fichet, the Service's three technicians, came up with the idea of producing this regular feat...

  7. Provincial distribution of three HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,and SDF1-3′A) in China


    CCR5-Δ32,CCR2-64I,mutants in two chemokine receptors and SDF1-3′A,mutant in a ligand gene,can delay AIDS pathogenesis.The distribution of the three polymorphic loci was studied in 1 046 DNA samples from 26 provinces (cities) in China.No CCR5-Δ32 was observed.CCR2-64I and SDF1-3′A had reverse distribution cline from south to north in China,with average frequency of 20.8% and 24.8% respectively.Relative hazard was evaluated.Important information to the epidemiology of AIDS and the origin and spread of these polymorphic loci in Chinese was provided.

  8. Provincial distribution of three HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms (CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF1-3’ A) in China

    肖君华; 胡芳; 徐红岩; 苏兵; 蒋跃明; 罗竞春; 张蔚翎; 谈家桢; 金力; 卢大儒


    CCR5-Δ2, CCR2-641, mutants in two chemokine receptors and SDF1-3’ A, mutant in a ligand gene, can delay AIDS pathogenesis. The distribution of the three polymorphic loci was studied in 1 046 DNA samples from 26 provinces (cities) in China. No CCR5-Δ32 was observed. CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’ A had reverse distribution cline from south to north in China, with average frequency of 20.8% and 24.8% respectively. Relative hazard was evaluated. Important information to the epidemiology of AIDS and the origin and spread of these polymorphic loci in Chinese was provided.

  9. Chemokine CCL2 and chemokine receptor CCR2 in early active multiple sclerosis

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Ransohoff, R M; Strieter, R M; Sellebjerg, F


    The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 have been strongly implicated in disease pathogenesis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas data on the CCL2-CCR2 axis are scarce in MS. We studied the...

  10. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  11. 77 FR 5471 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR... Internet on February 23, 2012, to obtain stakeholder input on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule as.... Background: Consumer Confidence Reports are a key part of the public's right-to-know as established in...

  12. Discovery and mapping of an intracellular antagonist binding site at the chemokine receptor CCR2

    Zweemer, Annelien J M; Bunnik, Julia; Veenhuizen, Margo; Miraglia, Fabiana; Lenselink, Eelke B; Vilums, Maris; de Vries, Henk; Gibert, Arthur; Thiele, Stefanie; Rosenkilde, Mette M; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H


    The chemokine receptor CCR2 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is involved in many diseases characterized by chronic inflammation, and therefore a large variety of CCR2 small molecule antagonists has been developed. On the basis of their chemical structures these antagonists can roughly be divi...

  13. CCR4 is critically involved in effective antitumor immunity in mice bearing intradermal B16 melanoma.

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Koyama, Atsushi; Imamura, Reira; Kawai, Shiori; Nishiwaki, Keiji; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira; Yoshie, Osamu; Nakayama, Takashi


    CCR4 is a major chemokine receptor expressed by Treg cells and Th17 cells. While Treg cells are known to suppress antitumor immunity, Th17 cells have recently been shown to enhance the induction of antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here, CCR4-deficient mice displayed enhanced tumor growth upon intradermal inoculation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In CCR4-deficient mice, while IFN-γ+CD8+ effector T cells were decreased in tumor sites, IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells and Th17 cells were decreased in regional lymph nodes. In wild-type mice, CD4+IL-17A+ cells, which were identified as CCR4+CD44+ memory Th17, were found to be clustered around dendritic cells expressing MDC/CCL22, a ligand for CCR4, in regional lymph nodes. Compound 22, a CCR4 antagonist, also enhanced tumor growth and decreased Th17 cells in regional lymph nodes in tumor-bearing mice treated with Dacarbazine. In contrast, CCR6 deficiency did not affect the tumor growth and the numbers of Th17 cells in regional lymph nodes. These findings indicate that CCR4 is critically involved in regional lymph node DC-Th17 cell interactions that are necessary for Th17 cell-mediated induction of antitumor CD8+ effector T cells in mice bearing B16 melanoma. PMID:27132989

  14. Unexpected Regulatory Role of CCR9 in Regulatory T Cell Development.

    Heather L Evans-Marin

    Full Text Available T cells reactive to microbiota regulate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. As T cell trafficking to intestines is regulated through interactions between highly specific chemokine-chemokine receptors, efforts have been made to develop intestine-specific immunosuppression based on blocking these key processes. CCR9, a gut-trophic chemokine receptor expressed by lymphocytes and dendritic cells, has been implicated in the regulation of IBD through mediating recruitment of T cells to inflamed sites. However, the role of CCR9 in inducing and sustaining inflammation in the context of IBD is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that CCR9 deficiency in effector T cells and Tregs does not affect the development of colitis in a microbiota antigen-specific, T cell-mediated model. However, Treg cells express higher levels of CCR9 compared to those in effector T cells. Interestingly, CCR9 inhibits Treg cell development, in that CCR9-/- mice demonstrate a high level of Foxp3+ Tregs, and ligation of CCR9 by its ligand CCL25 inhibits Treg cell differentiation in vitro. Collectively, our data indicate that in addition to acting as a gut-homing molecule, CCR9 signaling shapes immune responses by inhibiting Treg cell development.

  15. Milligram production and biological activity characterization of the human chemokine receptor CCR3.

    Mingqing Wang

    Full Text Available Human chemokine receptor CCR3 (hCCR3 belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs superfamily of membrane proteins and plays major roles in allergic diseases and angiogenesis. In order to study the structural and functional mechanism of hCCR3, it is essential to produce pure protein with biological functions on a milligram scale. Here we report the expression of hCCR3 gene in a tetracycline-inducible stable mammalian cell line. A cell clone with high hCCR3 expression was selected from 46 stably transfected cell clones and from this cell line pure hCCR3 on a milligram scale was obtained after two-step purification. Circular dichroism spectrum with a characteristic shape and magnitude for α-helix indicated proper folding of hCCR3 after purification. The biological activity of purified hCCR3 was verified by its high binding affinity with its endogenous ligands CCL11 and CCL24, with K D in the range of 10(-8 M to 10(-6 M.

  16. Elucidation of the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes of MIP-1α by application of an NMR spectra reconstruction method to the transferred cross-saturation experiments

    Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi; Kofuku, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Okude, Junya; Kondo, Keita; Shiraishi, Yutaro; Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)


    C–C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) and CCR5 are involved in various inflammation and immune responses, and regulate the progression of the autoimmune diseases differently. However, the number of residues identified at the binding interface was not sufficient to clarify the differences in the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes to MIP-1α, because the NMR measurement time for CCR1 and CCR5 samples was limited to 24 h, due to their low stability. Here we applied a recently developed NMR spectra reconstruction method, Conservation of experimental data in ANAlysis of FOuRier, to the amide-directed transferred cross-saturation experiments of chemokine receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, embedded in lipid bilayers of the reconstituted high density lipoprotein, and MIP-1α. Our experiments revealed that the residues on the N-loop and β-sheets of MIP-1α are close to both CCR1 and CCR5, and those in the C-terminal helix region are close to CCR5. These results suggest that the genetic influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms of MIP-1α that accompany substitution of residues in the C-terminal helix region, E57 and V63, would provide clues toward elucidating how the CCR5–MIP-1α interaction affects the progress of autoimmune diseases.

  17. Perceptions of journalists on women access, employment and participation in news production: A case study of Uganda's print media-The New Vision


    Abstract The thesis, “Perceptions of journalists on women access, employment and participation in news production” constitutes an assessment of the situation of female journalists in one of Uganda’s print media, The New Vision. The study connects the problematic relationship that women have with news media, both as subjects and sources of news stories as well as their experiences and status as practitioners within the news industries. The study was concerned over what in this profession...

  18. Circulating human CD4 and CD8 T cells do not have large intracellular pools of CCR5

    Pilch-Cooper, Heather A.; Sieg, Scott F.; Hope, Thomas J.; Koons, Ann; Escola, Jean-Michel; Offord, Robin; Veazey, Ronald S.; Mosier, Donald E.; Clagett, Brian; Medvik, Kathy; Jadlowsky, Julie K; Chance, Mark R.; Kiselar, Janna G.; Hoxie, James A.; Collman, Ronald G.


    CC Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) is an important mediator of chemotaxis and the primary coreceptor for HIV-1. A recent report by other researchers suggested that primary T cells harbor pools of intracellular CCR5. With the use of a series of complementary techniques to measure CCR5 expression (antibody labeling, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), we established that intracellular pools of CCR5 do not exist and that the results obtained by the other rese...

  19. Frequency of CCR5delta32 in Brazilian populations

    A.E. Vargas


    Full Text Available A sample of 103 randomly chosen healthy individuals from Alegrete, RS, Brazil, was tested for the CCR5delta32 allele, which is known to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The CCR5delta32 allele was identified by PCR amplification using specific primers flanking the region of deletion, followed by electrophoresis on a 3% agarose gel. The data obtained were compared to those reported for other populations and interpreted in terms of Brazilian history. The individuals studied came from a highly admixed population. Most of them were identified as white (N = 59, while blacks and browns (mulattoes were N = 13 and N = 31, respectively. The observed frequencies, considering the white, black and brown samples (6.8, 3.8, and 6.4%, respectively, suggest an important European parental contribution, even in populations identified as black and brown. However, in Brazil as a whole, this allele shows gradients indicating a relatively good correlation with the classification based on skin color and other physical traits, used here to define major Brazilian population groups.

  20. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 promoter region influence disease progression in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children.

    Ometto, L; Bertorelle, R; Mainardi, M; Zanchetta, M; Tognazzo, S; Rampon, O; Ruga, E; Chieco-Bianchi, L; De Rossi, A


    The effect of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) promoter polymorphisms on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease was studied in 73 HIV-1-infected children. The CCR5(59338-59537) promoter haplotype, CCR5-59029A/G polymorphism, and CCR5Delta32 and CCR2-64I alterations were investigated. After exclusion of carriers of CCR5Delta32 or CCR2-64I, Kaplan-Meier analysis disclosed that children with the P1/P1(59353C,59356C,59402A) genotype progressed faster to disease than did children with other haplotypes (P=.016). When CCR2-64I carriers were included, this effect had borderline significance (P=.065) and was lost when CCR5Delta32 carriers were also considered (P=.387). The P1/P1 effect was strongest early after infection, when progression to disease was mainly associated with CCR5 coreceptor-using viruses. These results indicate that the P1/P1 genotype is predictive of rapid progression in HIV-1-infected children lacking CCR5Delta32 or CCR5-64I alleles. The observation of a linkage disequilibrium between P1 and 59029A might explain the previously reported association between 59029A homozygosity and rapid disease progression. PMID:11181160

  1. CCL20/CCR6 Signaling Regulates Bone Mass Accrual in Mice.

    Doucet, Michele; Jayaraman, Swaathi; Swenson, Emily; Tusing, Brittany; Weber, Kristy L; Kominsky, Scott L


    CCL20 is a member of the macrophage inflammatory protein family and is reported to signal monogamously through the receptor CCR6. Although studies have identified the genomic locations of both Ccl20 and Ccr6 as regions important for bone quality, the role of CCL20/CCR6 signaling in regulating bone mass is unknown. By micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometric analysis, we show that global loss of Ccr6 in mice significantly decreases trabecular bone mass coincident with reduced osteoblast numbers. Notably, CCL20 and CCR6 were co-expressed in osteoblast progenitors and levels increased during osteoblast differentiation, indicating the potential of CCL20/CCR6 signaling to influence osteoblasts through both autocrine and paracrine actions. With respect to autocrine effects, CCR6 was found to act as a functional G protein-coupled receptor in osteoblasts and although its loss did not appear to affect the number or proliferation rate of osteoblast progenitors, differentiation was significantly inhibited as evidenced by delays in osteoblast marker gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization. In addition, CCL20 promoted osteoblast survival concordant with activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Beyond these potential autocrine effects, osteoblast-derived CCL20 stimulated the recruitment of macrophages and T cells, known facilitators of osteoblast differentiation and survival. Finally, we generated mice harboring a global deletion of Ccl20 and found that Ccl20(-/-) mice exhibit a reduction in bone mass similar to that observed in Ccr6(-/-) mice, confirming that this phenomenon is regulated by CCL20 rather than alternate CCR6 ligands. Collectively, these data indicate that CCL20/CCR6 signaling may play an important role in regulating bone mass accrual, potentially by modulating osteoblast maturation, survival, and the recruitment of osteoblast-supporting cells. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26890063

  2. Regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration by CCR2-activating chemokines is directly related to macrophage recruitment.

    Martinez, Carlo O; McHale, Matthew J; Wells, Jason T; Ochoa, Oscar; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K


    Muscle regeneration requires CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression on bone marrow-derived cells; macrophages are a prominent CCR2-expressing cell in this process. CCR2-/- mice have severe impairments in angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and skeletal muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced injury. However, multiple chemokines activate CCR2, including monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP)-1, -3, and -5. We hypothesized that MCP-1 is the chemokine ligand that mediates the impairments present in CCR2-/- mice. We examined muscle regeneration, capillary density, and cellular recruitment in MCP-1-/- and CCR2-/- mice following injury. Muscle regeneration and adipocyte accumulation, but not capillary density, were significantly impaired in MCP-1-/- compared with wild-type (WT) mice; however, muscle regeneration and adipocyte accumulation impairments were not as severe as observed in CCR2-/- mice. Although tissue levels of MCP-5 were elevated in MCP-1-/- mice compared with WT, the administration of MCP-5 neutralizing antibody did not alter muscle regeneration in MCP-1-/- mice. While neutrophil accumulation after injury was similar in all three mouse strains, macrophage recruitment was highest in WT mice, intermediate in MCP-1-/- mice, and severely impaired in CCR2-/- mice. In conclusion, while the absence of MCP-1 resulted in impaired macrophage recruitment and muscle regeneration, MCP-1-/- mice exhibit an intermediate phenotype compared with CCR2-/- mice. Intermediate macrophage recruitment in MCP-1-/- mice was associated with similar capillary density to WT, suggesting that fewer macrophages may be needed to restore angiogenesis vs. muscle regeneration. Finally, other chemokines, in addition to MCP-1 and MCP-5, may activate CCR2-dependent regenerative processes resulting in an intermediate phenotype in MCP-1-/- mice. PMID:20631294

  3. Molecular cloning, structure and expressional profiles of two novel single-exon genes (PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B) in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yong-zhen; Xu, Wen-teng; Jia, Xiao-dong; Chen, Song-lin


    CCR6 is an important binding receptor of CCL20 and beta-defensins, and has multiple functions in the innate and acquired immune responses. In this study, we cloned the PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B genes of the Japanese flounder and studied the gene structure and expression patterns of these two genes in bacterial infection. The full-length PoCCR6A cDNA is 1415 bp and the open reading frame (ORF) is 1113 bp, encoding a 370-amino-acid peptide. The full-length PoCCR6B cDNA is 2193 bp and the ORF is 1029 bp, encoding a 363-amino-acid peptide. The structures of PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B indicate that they are single-exon genes. The predicted proteins encoded by PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B have the typical G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family signature of seven transmembrane domains and several conserved structural features. A tissue distribution analysis showed that PoCCR6A is predominately expressed in the intestine, gill, and blood, and PoCCR6B in the gill, spleen, and liver. The expression patterns of the two chemokine receptors were analyzed during bacterial infection. In spleen and kidney, the expression of PoCCR6A was significantly upregulated at 24 h after infection, whereas the expression of PoCCR6B was steady at these time points. While in intestine, both of them were upregulated at 6 h-12 h after infection, and in gill the expression levels of them were upregulated at 24 h. The patterns of expression suggested that PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B play an important role in the immune response of the Japanese flounder, especially in the mucosal tissues. PMID:26997201


    Blaeser, Susan B; Struck, Christopher J


    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: PMID:27036268

  5. Benchmarking news recommendations: the CLEF NewsREEL use case

    Hopfgartner, Frank; Brodt, Torben; Seiler, Jonas; Kille, Benjamin; Lommatzsch, Andreas; Larson, Martha; Turrin, Roberto; Serény, Andrá


    The CLEF NewsREEL challenge is a campaign-style evaluation lab allowing participants to evaluate and optimize news recommender algorithms. The goal is to create an algorithm that is able to generate news items that users would click, respecting a strict time constraint. The lab challenges participants to compete in either a "living lab" (Task 1) or perform an evaluation that replays recorded streams (Task 2). In this report, we discuss the objectives and challenges of the NewsREEL lab, summar...

  6. NetWorking News

    Fritsch, Jonas; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian;

    with adults or children. However there is a need for new methods to support communication and collaboration between designers and children. This article proposes a new method for understandings children’s appropriation of new technology in an interactive workshop setting. The method, which we call...... the Networking News workshop, offers an opportunity to make first hand studies of children’s IT supported social activities in an informal classroom setting....

  7. News of nuclear engineering

    Data on news of nuclear engineering in Bulgaria, Pakistan, Serbia, USA, South Africa, South Korea and Japan are presented. Problems of reactor safety, construction of new nuclear units at existing sites, highly enriched uranium removal are treated. Companies performing jobs on designing, manufacture of different nuclear reactor components are named. Questions of environment protection, timely information on accidents at NPP and qualified maintenance are discussed

  8. Contact: Releasing the news

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  9. News media old and new

    Schrøder, Kim Christian


    This article presents and discusses three different approaches to the exploration of the cross-media challenges facing news audiences, as they seek access to, navigate in and make sense of the multitude of news sources across print, broadcasting, online and mobile media platforms. From a modernized...... uses and gratifications perspective, based on the notion of “worthwhileness” as the determinant of people's everyday selections from the “supermarket of news”, the article first reports from a longitudinal survey study in Denmark in which the author's foundational mapping of cross-media news...... consumption in pre-mobile 2008 is compared with replicating mappings carried out in 2011 and 2012, in a collaborative project between academics and news publishers. The analytical interest here focuses on the fluctuations between traditional news media and the surging digital news outlets of the internet and...

  10. Haberin Geleceği: Gazetelerle İlgili Bilgi Hizmetlerinin Yapılanması ve Kullanımı / The Future of News: Building and Using Information Services in Connection with Newspapers

    H. İnci Önal


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to specify the current stand and future of information services in providing news. Libraries and archives that collect newspapers, and supply services to let the readers to have quick and easy access to their contents, increase their activities and in conjunction to this, their experience. As an initial step of the present research, by methods of interviewing and administering questionnaires, Ankara branch office responsible of six nationwide distributed daily newspapers were investigated. Data were compiled about the present situation, provided services, problems to be confronted, and work plans. According to the evaluations, it seems that the developments in information technologies would also impose important tasks to librariesin case of disseminating newspaper information.

  11. Query-free news search

    Henzinger, Monika; Chang, Bay-Wei; Milch, Brian; Brin, Sergey


    Many daily activities present information in the form of a stream of text, and often people can benefit from additional information on the topic discussed. TV broadcast news can be treated as one such stream of text; in this paper we discuss finding news articles on the web that are relevant to news currently being broadcast.We evaluated a variety of algorithms for this problem, looking at the impact of inverse document frequency, stemming, compounds, history, and query length on the re...

  12. HEK293T Cells Are Heterozygous for CCR5 Delta 32 Mutation

    Qi, Chunxia; Jia, Xiaopeng; Lu, Lingling; Ma, Ping; Wei, Min


    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and a co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the target CD4+ cells. CCR5 delta 32 deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resistant to HIV-1 infection. We tried to induce the CCR5 delta 32 mutation harnessing the genome editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9, Cas9) in the commonly used cell line human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells. Surprisingly, we found that HEK293T cells are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32 mutation, in contrast to the wild type CCR5 cells, human acute T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells. This finding indicates that at least one human cell line is heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 mutation. We also found that in PCR amplification, wild type CCR5 DNA and mutant delta 32 DNA can form mismatched heteroduplex and move slowly in gel electrophoresis. PMID:27042825

  13. Arctic Warming as News - Perils and Possibilities

    Revkin, A. C.


    A science journalist in his 30th year covering human-driven climate change, including on three Arctic reporting trips, reflects on successes and setbacks as news media, environmentalists and Arctic communities have tried to convey the significance of polar change to a public for which the ends of the Earth will always largely be a place of the imagination.Novel challenges are arising in the 24/7 online media environment, as when a paper by a veteran climate scientist proposing a mechanism for abrupt sea-level rise became a big news story before it was accepted by the open-review journal to which it had been submitted. New science is digging in on possible connections between changing Arctic sea ice and snow conditions and disruptive winter weather in more temperate northern latitudes, offering a potential link between this distant region and the lives of ordinary citizens. As cutting-edge research, such work gets substantial media attention. But, as with all new areas of inquiry, uncertainty dominates - creating the potential for distracting the public and policymakers from the many aspects of anthropogenic climate change that are firmly established - but, in a way, boring because of that.With the challenges, there are unprecedented opportunities for conveying Arctic science. In some cases, researchers on expeditions are partnering with media, offering both scientists and news outlets fresh ways to convey the story of Arctic change in an era of resource constraints.Innovative uses of crittercams, webcams, and satellite observations offer educators and interested citizens a way to track and appreciate Arctic change. But more can be done to engage the public directly without the news media as an intermediary, particularly if polar scientists or their institutions test some of the established practices honed by more experienced communicators at NASA.

  14. CD8 T Cells Enter the Splenic T Cell Zones Independently of CCR7, but the Subsequent Expansion and Trafficking Patterns of Effector T Cells after Infection Are Dysregulated in the Absence of CCR7 Migratory Cues.

    Sharma, Naveen; Benechet, Alexandre P; Lefrançois, Leo; Khanna, Kamal M


    CCR7 is an important chemokine receptor that regulates T cell trafficking and compartmentalization within secondary lymphoid organs. However, the T cell-intrinsic role of CCR7 during infection in the spleen is not well understood. This study was designed to understand how CCR7-dependent localization and migration of CD8(+) T cells in different compartments of the spleen affected the primary and recall responses after infection. To this end, we used adoptive transfer of naive Ag-specific CD8 T cells (OT-I) that either lacked CCR7 or constitutively expressed CCR7 (CD2-CCR7) in mice that were subsequently infected i.v. with Listeria monocytogenes. We show that naive CCR7(-/-)CD8(+) T cells failed to enter the T cell zone, whereas CD2-CCR7 OT-I cells were exclusively confined to the T cell zones of the spleen. Surprisingly, however, CCR7(-/-) OT-I cells entered the T cell zones after infection, but the entry and egress migratory pattern of these cells was dysregulated and very distinct compared with wild-type OT-I cells. Moreover, CCR7-deficient OT-I cells failed to expand robustly when compared with wild-type OT-I cells and were preferentially skewed toward a short-lived effector cell differentiation pattern. Interestingly, CCR7(-/-), CD2-CCR7, and wild-type OT-I memory cells responded equally well to rechallenge infection. These results highlight a novel role of CCR7 in regulating effector CD8 T cell migration in the spleen and demonstrate differential requirement of CCR7 for primary and secondary CD8 T cell responses to infection. PMID:26500349

  15. News-Based Group Modeling and Forecasting

    Zhang, Wenbin; Skiena, Steven


    In this paper, we study news group modeling and forecasting methods using quantitative data generated by our large-scale natural language processing (NLP) text analysis system. A news group is a set of news entities, like top U.S. cities, governors, senators, golfers, or movie actors. Our fame distribution analysis of news groups shows that log-normal and power-law distributions generally could describe news groups in many aspects. We use several real news groups including cities, politicians...

  16. Control of Both Myeloid Cell Infiltration and Angiogenesis by CCR1 Promotes Liver Cancer Metastasis Development in Mice

    Mathieu Paul Rodero


    Full Text Available Expression of the CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1 by tumor cells has been associated with protumoral activity; however, its role in nontumoral cells during tumor development remains elusive. Here, we investigated the role of CCR1 deletion on stromal and hematopoietic cells in a liver metastasis tumor model. Metastasis development was strongly impaired in CCR1-deficient mice compared to control mice and was associated with reduced liver monocyte infiltration. To decipher the role of myeloid cells, sublethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with CCR1-deficient bone marrow (BM and showed better survival rates than the control reconstituted mice. These results point toward the involvement of CCR1 myeloid cell infiltration in the promotion of tumor burden. In addition, survival rates were extended in CCR1-deficient mice receiving either control or CCR1-deficient BM, indicating that host CCR1 expression on nonhematopoietic cells also supports tumor growth. Finally, we found defective tumor-induced neoangiogenesis (in vitro and in vivo in CCR1-deficient mice. Overall, our results indicate that CCR1 expression by both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells favors tumor aggressiveness. We propose CCR1 as a potential therapeutical target for liver metastasis therapy.

  17. Approach for Developing Scientific News Aggregators Using ATOM Feeds

    Farha Shaikh; Anand Rajawa


    Scientists want to stay connected with everything that is new and innovative in the world, so they constantly read and analyze several online scientific resources such as magazines and journals. A user needs to do a lot of searching through on the web to locate the articles which are important to their interest. The idea of a news aggregator is not new to scientific world. A news aggregator is a software application, which periodically reads several sources and displays them on a separate pag...

  18. Localized CCR2 Activation in the Bone Marrow Niche Mobilizes Monocytes by Desensitizing CXCR4.

    Hosung Jung

    Full Text Available Inflammatory (classical monocytes residing in the bone marrow must enter the bloodstream in order to combat microbe infection. These monocytes express high levels of CCR2, a chemokine receptor whose activation is required for them to exit the bone marrow. How CCR2 is locally activated in the bone marrow and how their activation promotes monocyte egress is not understood. Here, we have used double transgenic lines that can visualize CCR2 activation in vivo and show that its chemokine ligand CCL2 is acutely released by stromal cells in the bone marrow, which make direct contact with CCR2-expressing monocytes. These monocytes also express CXCR4, whose activation immobilizes cells in the bone marrow, and are in contact with stromal cells expressing CXCL12, the CXCR4 ligand. During the inflammatory response, CCL2 is released and activates the CCR2 on neighboring monocytes. We demonstrate that acutely isolated bone marrow cells co-express CCR2 and CXCR4, and CCR2 activation desensitizes CXCR4. Inhibiting CXCR4 by a specific receptor antagonist in mice causes CCR2-expressing cells to exit the bone marrow in absence of inflammatory insults. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby the local activation of CCR2 on monocytes in the bone marrow attenuates an anchoring signalling provided by CXCR4 expressed by the same cell and mobilizes the bone marrow monocyte to the blood stream. Our results also provide a generalizable model that cross-desensitization of chemokine receptors fine-tunes cell mobility by integrating multiple chemokine signals.

  19. Expression and histopathological correlation of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer.

    Singh, Rajesh; Stockard, Cecil R; Grizzle, William E; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh


    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among women and its poor prognosis is mainly due to metastasis. Chemokine receptor CCR9 is primarily expressed by a small subset of immune cells. The interactions between CCL25 and CCR9 have been implicated in leukocyte trafficking to the small bowel, a frequent metastatic site for ovarian cancer cells. We have previously shown that ovarian cancer cells express CCR9 and play an important role in cell migration, invasion and survival in the presence of its natural ligand in vitro. In this study, we have evaluated the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer cells and clinical samples. Ovarian cancer tissue microarrays from University of Alabama at Birmingham and AccuMax were stained for CCR9 and CCL25. Aperio ScanScope was used to acquire 80X digital images and expression analysis of CCR9 and CCL25. Flow cytometry and the Image stream system were used to conform the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer cells. Our results show significantly higher (ptumor, dysgerminoma, transitional cell carcinoma, Brenner tumor, yolk sac tumor, adenocarcinoma and fibroma cases, compared to non-neoplastic ovarian tissue. Similar to tissue expression, CCR9 was also significantly expressed by the ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3) in comparison to normal adult ovarian epithelial cell. We provide the first evidence that CCR9 and its natural ligand CCL25 are highly expressed by ovarian cancer tissue and their expression correlates with histological subtypes. Expression of this chemokine receptor and its ligand CCL25 within primary tumor tissue further suggests a potential role of this chemokine-receptor axis in ovarian cancer progression. PMID:21637913


    Arvind B Chavhan


    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  1. The Black Death and AIDS: CCR5-Delta32 in genetics and history.

    Cohn, S K; Weaver, L T


    Black Death and AIDS are global pandemics that have captured the popular imagination, both attracting extravagant hypotheses to account for their origins and geographical distributions. Medical scientists have recently attempted to connect these two great pandemics. Some argue that the Black Death of 1346-52 was responsible for a genetic shift that conferred a degree of resistance to HIV 1 infection, that this shift was almost unique to European descendents, and that it mirrors the intensity of Black Death mortality within Europe. Such a hypothesis is not supported by the historical evidence: the Black Death did not strike Europe alone but spread from the east, devastating regions such as China, North Africa, and the Middle East as much or even more than Europe. Further, in Europe its levels of mortality do not correspond with the geographic distribution of the proportion of descendents with this CCR5 gene. If anything, the gradient of Black Death mortality sloped in the opposite direction from that of present-day genotypes: the heaviest casualties were in the Mediterranean, the very regions whose descendents account for the lowest incidences of the HIV-1 resistant allele. We argue that closer collaboration between historians and scientists is needed to understand the selective pressures on genetic mutation, and the possible triggers for changes in genetic spatial frequencies over the past millennia. This requires care and respect for each other's methods of evaluating data. PMID:16880184

  2. CCR6 marks regulatory T cells as a colon-tropic, interleukin-10-producing phenotype1

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Farber, Joshua M; Kelsall, Brian L.


    Expression of CCR6 and its ligand, CCL20, are increased in the colon of humans with inflammatory bowel diseases and mice with experimental colits, however their role in disease pathogenesis remains obscure. Here we demonstrate a role for CCR6 on regulatory T (Treg)3 cells in the T cell-transfer model of colitis. Rag2−/− mice given Ccr6−/− CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells had more severe colitis with increased IFN-γ-producing T cells, compared to the mice given WT cells. While equivalent frequency of in...

  3. NewsNet

    Maffei, Lucia


    NewsNet wants to highlight the opening of a “unified law portal” as part of the plan for the E-government ( signed by the Ministers Council. The outlined overview shows from one side the creation of service portals that allow people and industries to obtain easily information on laws, and from the other the creation of helpdesks where asking the Administrations on the basis of the electronic identity card and the digital s...


    Allan Bell


    Full Text Available This paper traces the development of news discourse across the 20th century ihrough a case study ofthe coverage of three expeditions to the South Pole: Captain Scott in 1912, Sir Edmund Hillary in 1958, and Peter Hillary in 1999. The way the news about the three expeditions reached New Zealand media serves as a framework and an illustration to examine three related issues: how technology has changed the time and place dimensions of news delivery; the consequent and concomitant shifts in news presentation; and associated changes in how humans have understood time and place. News values remain the same at a broad level across the century, but different in detail. Nationalism is obtrusive, but its focus shifts. In news practice, the deadline and the scoop drive the news in al1 three periods, but the scooping medium shifts from press to radio to television. The lapse between an event and its reporting shrinks exponentially from months to hours to minutes. The design of newspaper front pages changes radically, and news language compresses. There are social impacts, with newsworthy figures receiving closer exposure and the audience being cast in a more voyeuristic role.

  5. Translation in Global News Agencies

    Ben Othman, Zeineb


    The work is divided into two parts. The 1st part is the translation of Chapter One "Power language and translation" and the Chapter Four "Translation in Global News Agencies". The 2nd part is about the characteristics and theories of translation particularly in News Agencies and Institutions as well as the difficulties I found in the translation of a specialized book.

  6. School Violence and the News

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy School Violence and the News KidsHealth > For Parents > School Violence and the News Print A A A Text ... la escuela y las noticias Incidents of school violence are terrible and frightening, but fortunately they are ...

  7. What Turns Events into News?

    Tukachinsky, Riva


    "The New York Times" is known for its slogan ''All the News That's Fit to Print.'' But how do gatekeepers decide which events meet this criterion? Although some individuals might believe that the news constitutes an undistorted reflection of the social reality, students in communication courses have the…

  8. Getting Out the Good News.

    Paciancia, David


    A majority of American schools are meeting the challenge of educating children. A New York State district gets out the good news by producing school newsletters and videos, by constant and close contact with the local news media, and by forming ties with local real estate agents. (MLF)

  9. CERN Video News on line


    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: or Bulletin web page

  10. What's APPening to news? A mixed-method audience-centred study on mobile news consumption

    Van Damme, Kristin; Courtois, Cédric; Verbrugge, Karel; De Marez, Lieven


    News is increasingly being consumed on a multitude of media devices, including mobile devices. In recent years, mobile news consumption has permeated individuals’ news consumption repertoires. The main purpose of this study is twofold: (1) gain insight in how mobile news outlets infiltrated the broader news media repertoires of mobile device owners and (2) understand in what circumstances mobile news is consumed within these news media repertoires. The key is to understand how and why this wi...

  11. The herpesvirus 8-encoded chemokine vMIP-II, but not the poxvirus-encoded chemokine MC148, inhibits the CCR10 receptor

    Lüttichau, H R; Lewis, I C; Gerstoft, J;


    chemokines are expressed in the skin we suspected MC148 to block CCR10. However, in calcium mobilization assays we found MC148 unable to block CCR10 in micromolar concentrations in contrast to vMIP-II. (125)I-MC148 was only able to bind to CCR8, but not to CCR10, CCR11, CXCR6 / BONZO, APJ, DARC or the orphan...

  12. Climate News Across Media Platforms

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl


    change news on five different media platforms: newspapers, television, radio, web-news and mobile news. It investigates the themes and actors represented in public climate change communication as well as the diverse possibilities of participating in public debates and information sharing. By combining......In a changing media landscape marked by technological, institutional and cultural convergence, comparative and cross-media content analysis represents a valuable analytical tool in mapping the diverse channels of climate change communication. This paper presents a comparative study of climate...... quantitative and qualitative content analysis the paper documents and explores the extent and character of climate change news across different media platforms. The study aims at contributing to the on-going assessment of how news media are addressing climate change at a time when old and new media are...

  13. Nf1+/- monocytes/macrophages induce neointima formation via CCR2 activation.

    Bessler, Waylan K; Kim, Grace; Hudson, Farlyn Z; Mund, Julie A; Mali, Raghuveer; Menon, Keshav; Kapur, Reuben; Clapp, D Wade; Ingram, David A; Stansfield, Brian K


    Persons with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a predisposition for premature and severe arterial stenosis. Mutations in the NF1 gene result in decreased expression of neurofibromin, a negative regulator of p21(Ras), and increases Ras signaling. Heterozygous Nf1 (Nf1(+/-)) mice develop a marked arterial stenosis characterized by proliferating smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and a predominance of infiltrating macrophages, which closely resembles arterial lesions from NF1 patients. Interestingly, lineage-restricted inactivation of a single Nf1 allele in monocytes/macrophages is sufficient to recapitulate the phenotype observed in Nf1(+/-) mice and to mobilize proinflammatory CCR2+ monocytes into the peripheral blood. Therefore, we hypothesized that CCR2 receptor activation by its primary ligand monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is critical for monocyte infiltration into the arterial wall and neointima formation in Nf1(+/-) mice. MCP-1 induces a dose-responsive increase in Nf1(+/-) macrophage migration and proliferation that corresponds with activation of multiple Ras kinases. In addition, Nf1(+/-) SMCs, which express CCR2, demonstrate an enhanced proliferative response to MCP-1 when compared with WT SMCs. To interrogate the role of CCR2 activation on Nf1(+/-) neointima formation, we induced neointima formation by carotid artery ligation in Nf1(+/-) and WT mice with genetic deletion of either MCP1 or CCR2. Loss of MCP-1 or CCR2 expression effectively inhibited Nf1(+/-) neointima formation and reduced macrophage content in the arterial wall. Finally, administration of a CCR2 antagonist significantly reduced Nf1(+/-) neointima formation. These studies identify MCP-1 as a potent chemokine for Nf1(+/-) monocytes/macrophages and CCR2 as a viable therapeutic target for NF1 arterial stenosis. PMID:26740548

  14. CCR5Δ32 variant and cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis; González Juanatey, Carlos; García Bermúdez, Mercedes; Vázquez Rodríguez, Tomás R.; Miranda Filloy, José Alberto; Fernández Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Llorca Díaz, Javier; Martín Ibáñez, Javier; González-Gay Mantecón, Miguel Ángel


    Introduction The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism in the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A total of 645 patients fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised classification criteria for RA were studied. Patients were genotyped for the CCR5 rs333 polymorphism using predesigned TaqMan assays. Also, HLA DRB1 genotyping was performed using mo...

  15. Manifestation of Spontaneous and Early Autoimmune Gastritis in CCR7-Deficient Mice

    Winter, Susann; Rehm, Armin; Wichner, Katharina; Scheel, Tobias; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta; Berek, Claudia; Lipp, Martin; Höpken, Uta E.


    Autoimmune gastritis is a common autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates, atrophy of the corpus and fundus, and the occurrence of autoantibodies to parietal cell antigen. In CCR7-deficient mice, autoimmune gastritis developed spontaneously and was accompanied by metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and by the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs at gastric mucosal sites. T cells of CCR7-deficient mice showed an activated phenotype in the gastric mucosa, mesente...

  16. Measures for Optimization of Aromatic-type and Gasoline-type CCR Technology

    Bao Wei


    This article based on the target products manufactured by the gasoline-type and aromatic-type continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) units makes an assessment on the technical indicators of these catalytic reforming units. This article also explores the technical measures for maximizing the target products delivered by the gasoline-type and aromatic-type CCR units with respect to the selection of catalysts, the optimization of feedstock and the optimized operating regime.

  17. Delayed angiogenesis and VEGF production in CCR2-/- mice during impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Ochoa, Oscar; Sun, Dongxu; Reyes-Reyna, Sara M; Waite, Lindsay L; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K


    The regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and angiogenic events during skeletal muscle regeneration remains largely unknown. This study examined angiogenesis, VEGF levels, and muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin (CT)-induced injury in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Muscle regeneration was significantly decreased in CCR2-/- mice as was the early accumulation of macrophages after injury. In both mouse strains, tissue VEGF was similar at baseline (no injections) and significantly decreased at day 3 post-CT. Tissue VEGF in wild-type (WT) mice was restored within 7 days postinjury but remained significantly reduced in CCR2-/- mice until day 21. Capillary density (capillaries/mm(2)) within regenerating muscle was maximal in WT mice at day 7 and double that of baseline muscle. In comparison, maximal capillary density in CCR2-/- mice occurred at 21 days postinjury. Maximal capillary density developed concurrent with the restoration of tissue VEGF in both strains. A highly significant, inverse relationship existed between the size of regenerated muscle fibers and capillaries per square millimeter. Although this relationship was comparable in WT and CCR2-/- animals, there was a significant decrease in the magnitude of this response in the absence of CCR2, reflecting the observation that regenerated muscle fiber size in CCR2-/- mice was only 50% of baseline at 42 days postinjury, whereas WT mice had attained baseline fiber size by day 21. Thus CCR2-dependent events in injured skeletal muscle, including impaired macrophage recruitment, contribute to restoration of tissue VEGF levels and the dynamic processes of capillary formation and muscle regeneration. PMID:17522124

  18. Incremental visual text analytics of news story development

    Krstajic, Milos; Najm-Araghi, Mohammad; Mansmann, Florian; Keim, Daniel A.


    Online news sources produce thousands of news articles every day, reporting on local and global real-world events. New information quickly replaces the old, making it difficult for readers to put current events in the context of the past. Additionally, the stories have very complex relationships and characteristics that are difficult to model: they can be weakly or strongly connected, or they can merge or split over time. In this paper, we present a visual analytics system for exploration of news topics in dynamic information streams, which combines interactive visualization and text mining techniques to facilitate the analysis of similar topics that split and merge over time. We employ text clustering techniques to automatically extract stories from online news streams and present a visualization that: 1) shows temporal characteristics of stories in different time frames with different level of detail; 2) allows incremental updates of the display without recalculating the visual features of the past data; 3) sorts the stories by minimizing clutter and overlap from edge crossings. By using interaction, stories can be filtered based on their duration and characteristics in order to be explored in full detail with details on demand. To demonstrate the usefulness of our system, case studies with real news data are presented and show the capabilities for detailed dynamic text stream exploration.

  19. Important role of CCR2 in a murine model of coronary vasculitis

    Martinez Hernan G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines and their receptors play a role in the innate immune response as well as in the disruption of the balance between pro-inflammatory Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg, underlying the pathogenesis of coronary vasculitis in Kawasaki disease (KD. Results Here we show that genetic inactivation of chemokine receptor (CCR-2 is protective against the induction of aortic and coronary vasculitis following injection of Candida albicans water-soluble cell wall extracts (CAWS. Mechanistically, both T and B cells were required for the induction of vasculitis, a role that was directly modulated by CCR2. CAWS administration promoted mobilization of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocytes (iMo from the bone marrow (BM to the periphery as well as production of IL-6. IL-6 was likely to contribute to the depletion of Treg and expansion of Th17 cells in CAWS-injected Ccr2+/+ mice, processes that were ameliorated following the genetic inactivation of CCR2. Conclusion Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the role of CCR2 in the pathogenesis of vasculitis as seen in KD and highlight novel therapeutic targets, specifically for individuals resistant to first-line treatments.

  20. CCR5 Targeted Cell Therapy for HIV and Prevention of Viral Escape

    Gero Hütter


    Full Text Available Allogeneic transplantation with CCR5-delta 32 (CCR5-d32 homozygous stem cells in an HIV infected individual in 2008, led to a sustained virus control and probably eradication of HIV. Since then there has been a high degree of interest to translate this approach to a wider population. There are two cellular ways to do this. The first one is to use a CCR5 negative cell source e.g., hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to copy the initial finding. However, a recent case of a second allogeneic transplantation with CCR5-d32 homozygous stem cells suffered from viral escape of CXCR4 quasi-species. The second way is to knock down CCR5 expression by gene therapy. Currently, there are five promising techniques, three of which are presently being tested clinically. These techniques include zinc finger nucleases (ZFN, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9, transcription activator-like effectors nuclease (TALEN, short hairpin RNA (shRNA, and a ribozyme. While there are multiple gene therapy strategies being tested, in this review we reflect on our current knowledge of inhibition of CCR5 specifically and whether this approach allows for consequent viral escape.

  1. Development and Commercial Application of High-Platinum CCR Catalyst with Low Coke Deposition Rate

    Ma Aizeng; Pan Jincheng; Yang Sennian


    By means of selecting proper additives and optimizing catalyst composition and preparation procedures,a high-platinum and low coke deposition catalyst PS-Ⅶ for continuous catalytic reforming (CCR)without reducing its specific surface area has been successfully developed.This catalyst PS-Ⅶ was evaluated in a 100-mL pilot test unit.Study results showed that under the same reaction conditions the newly developed catalyst PS-Ⅶ achieved a 26%reduction in coke deposition as compared to the existing high-platinum CCR catalyst.This catalyst upon its first commercial application in a 1.39Mt/a CCR unit had exhibited good anti-attrition performance and good stability in terms of its specific surface area.Compared to the original CCR catalyst this PS-Ⅶ type catalyst could reduce the coke deposition by 27.32%when operating on feedstock with low potential aromatic content,along with apparent increase in C6+liquid yield,hydrogen yield and aromatics yield,which could grapple with the problem associated with the catalyst regeneration constraints after CCR capacity expansion to ensure the longcycle high-load operation of the CCR unit.

  2. 7 CFR 28.904 - Market news.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market news. 28.904 Section 28.904 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification and Market News Services § 28.904 Market news. The Director shall cause to be distributed to producers...

  3. "I Have Good News and Bad News:" The Effects of Power Imbalances and Physical Distance on News-givers' Use of Blended News Delivery

    Legg, Angela M.


    People dislike giving bad news, and one strategy they use to ease the process is to pair bad news with some good news, a phenomenon called blended news delivery. Often, blended news arrives from people in power positions such as physicians, managers, or teachers. But followers also find themselves needing to give bad news to those in higher power positions. Similarly, people can choose how they deliver bad news, such as in person or over email. The current study brings much needed empirical a...

  4. Targeted News in an Intranet

    Chen, Lisan; Schiller Shi, Tingting


    In SharePoint 2013, Microsoft added a social networking function in the personal sites (My Site) of a user. In this version, a personal news feed has been added which shows events regarding subjects the user follows, such as document changes, user updates, tagged posts, and site activities. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate whether or not it is possible to extend the news feed function by adding an independent component as part of My Site, to allow users to follow corporate news by ...

  5. News of the world

    This article reviews some news on nuclear topics from around the world, among which we have noticed: - 1093 tons of spent fuel were processed by Cogema-La-Hague in 2003, - Finland has decided to build an underground facility for the definitive disposal of radioactive wastes, - NRC (American nuclear regulatory commission) has issued a project for new regulations concerning the packaging and transport of radioactive materials, - according to a study edited by the European agency for the environment (AEE) the measures taken or planned to be taken in the European Union will not be sufficient to comply with the Kyoto agreement (concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions), - in France the consumption of electricity got a sharp increase in 2003: +3,9% and reached 467,3 TWh, - Brazil, which owns large reserves of uranium, has decided to produce enriched uranium (by means of the ultracentrifugation technique). (A.C.)

  6. Social Media News: Motivation, Purpose and Usage

    Samaneh Beheshti-Kashi; Baharak Makki


    This paper presents the results of an online survey which was conducted to analyse the use of social web inthe context of daily news. Users’ motivation and habit in the news consumption were focused. Moreover,users’ news behaviour was distinguished in three purposes such news consumption, news production andnews dissemination to find out if the usage has a passive or active character. In a second step it wasquestioned which social software is used for which purpose. In conclusion users apprec...

  7. Time scarcity and the market for news

    Alaoui, Larbi; Germano, Fabrizio


    We develop a theory of news coverage in environments of information abundance that include both new and traditional news media, from online and print newspapers to radio and television. News consumers are time-constrained and browse through news items that are available across competing outlets, choosing which outlets to access and which stories to read or skip. Media firms are aware of consumers? preferences and constraints, and decide on rankings of news items that maximize thei...

  8. Increasing Learning from TV News.

    Perloff, Richard M.; And Others


    Describes an experiment that manipulated two variables, repetition and pausing for viewer "digestion" of information in a news telecast. Concludes that the use of repetition increased viewers' retention of information, but that pauses did not. (FL)


    Lluís Mas Manchón


    Full Text Available Rhythm is central to news reading in radio and television programs. This paper proposes a three level structure for rhythm in news discourse. It gives a comprehensive definition of rhythm and types of rhythm. Firstly, the Base Rhythm Structure consists of semantic and pragmatic rhythmic accents, coincident with very specific words. Secondly, these accents are grouped together according to type, frequency and order, thereby configuring three types of “rhythmic units” (the Internal Rhythm Structure: starting, main and end units. A last structure level presents four discursive factors that are very important in integrating the overall time structure of news announcing (the Melodic Rhythm Structure. This integral structure for news announcing rhythm should be further tested in acoustic-experimental studies under the criterion of information transmission efficacy.

  10. Distribution of the CCR5delta32 allele (gene variant CCR5) in Rondônia, Western Amazonian region, Brazil.

    de Farias, Josileide Duarte; Santos, Marlene Guimarães; de França, Andonai Krauze; Delani, Daniel; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Casseb, Almeida Andrade; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; Engracia, Vera


    Since around 1723, on the occasion of its initial colonization by Europeans, Rondonia has received successive waves of immigrants. This has been further swelled by individuals from northeastern Brazil, who began entering at the beginning of the twentieth century. The ethnic composition varies across the state according to the various sites of settlement of each wave of immigrants. We analyzed the frequency of the CCR5Δ32 allele of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, which is considered a Caucasian marker, in five sample sets from the population. Four were collected in Porto Velho, the state capital and the site of several waves of migration. Of these, two, from the Hospital de Base were comprised of HB Mothers and HB Newborns presenting allele frequencies of 3.5% and 3.1%, respectively, a third from the peri-urban neighborhoods of Candelária/Bate-Estaca (1.8%), whereas a fourth, from the Research Center on Tropical Medicine/CEPEM (0.6%), was composed of malaria patients under treament. The fifth sample (3.4%) came from the inland Quilombola village of Pedras Negras. Two homozygous individuals (CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32) were detected among the HB Mother samples. The frequency of this allele was heterogeneous and higher where the European inflow was more pronounced. The presence of the allele in Pedras Negras revealed European miscegenation in a community largely comprising Quilombolas. PMID:22481870

  11. Distribution of the CCR5delta32 allele (gene variant CCR5 in Rondônia, Western Amazonian region, Brazil

    Josileide Duarte de Farias


    Full Text Available Since around 1723, on the occasion of its initial colonization by Europeans, Rondonia has received successive waves of immigrants. This has been further swelled by individuals from northeastern Brazil, who began entering at the beginning of the twentieth century. The ethnic composition varies across the state according to the various sites of settlement of each wave of immigrants. We analyzed the frequency of the CCR5L32 allele of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, which is considered a Caucasian marker, in five sample sets from the population. Four were collected in Porto Velho, the state capital and the site of several waves of migration. Of these, two, from the Hospital de Base were comprised of HB Mothers and HB Newborns presenting allele frequencies of 3.5% and 3.1%, respectively, a third from the peri-urban neighborhoods of Candelária/Bate-Estaca (1.8%, whereas a fourth, from the Research Center on Tropical Medicine/CEPEM (0.6%, was composed of malaria patients under treament. The fifth sample (3.4% came from the inland Quilombola village of Pedras Negras. Two homozygous individuals (CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 were detected among the HB Mother samples. The frequency of this allele was heterogeneous and higher where the European inflow was more pronounced. The presence of the allele in Pedras Negras revealed European miscegenation in a community largely comprising Quilombolas.

  12. Heroin use in Indonesia is associated with higher expression of CCR5 on CD4+ cells and lower ex-vivo production of CCR5 ligands

    Meijerink, H.; Indrati, A.R.; Soedarmo, S.; Utami, F.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Alisjahbana, B.; Crevel, R. van; Wisaksana, R.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der


    Opioid use may affect HIV infection through altered expression of HIV co-receptors. This was examined in Indonesia among antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV patients, many of whom use drugs. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) expression on CD4+ cells was higher in heroin (P = 0.007), methadone (P = 0

  13. Overview of CLEF NewsREEL 2015: News Recommendation Evaluation Lab

    Kille, Benjamin; Lommatzsch, Andreas; Turrin, Roberto; Sereny, Andras; Larson, Martha; Brodt, Torben; Seiler, Jonas; Hopfgartner, Frank


    News reader struggle as they face ever increasing numbers of articles. Digital news portals are becoming more and more popular. They route news items to visitors as soon as they are published. The rapid rate at which new news is published gives rise to a selection problem, since the capacity of new portal videos to absorb news is limited. To address this problem, new portals deploy news recommender systems in order to support their visitors in selecting items to read. This p...

  14. No News in Business Cycles

    Forni, Mario; Gambetti, Luca; Sala, Luca


    This paper uses a structural, large dimensional factor model to evaluate the role of 'news' shocks (shocks with a delayed effect on productivity) in generating the business cycle. We find that (i) existing small-scale VECM models are affected by 'non-fundamentalness' and therefore fail to recover the correct shock and impulse response functions; (ii) news shocks have a limited role in explaining the business cycle; (iii) their effects are in line with what predicted by standard neoclassical t...

  15. Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice

    Derek A Wainwright


    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3−/− mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2−/− (recombination activating gene-2-deficient mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3−/− mice, but not in CCR3−/− mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

  16. CCR5 controls immune and metabolic functions during Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Giuliano Bonfá

    Full Text Available CCR5, an important receptor related to cell recruitment and inflammation, is expressed during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection. However, its role in the immunopathology of toxoplasmosis is not clearly defined yet. Thus, we inoculated WT and CCR5(-/- mice with a sub lethal dose of the parasite by oral route. CCR5(-/- mice were extremely susceptible to infection, presenting higher parasite load and lower tissue expression of IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, iNOS, Foxp3, T-bet, GATA-3 and PPARα. Although both groups presented inflammation in the liver with prominent neutrophil infiltration, CCR5(-/- mice had extensive tissue damage with hepatocyte vacuolization, steatosis, elevated serum triglycerides and transaminases. PPARα agonist Gemfibrozil improved the vacuolization but did not rescue CCR5(-/- infected mice from high serum triglycerides levels and enhanced mortality. We also found intense inflammation in the ileum of CCR5(-/- infected mice, with epithelial ulceration, augmented CD4 and decreased frequency of NK cells in the gut lamina propria. Most interestingly, these findings were accompanied by an outstanding accumulation of neutrophils in the ileum, which seemed to be involved in the gut immunopathology, once the depletion of these cells was accompanied by reduced local damage. Altogether, these data demonstrated that CCR5 is essential to the control of T. gondii infection and to maintain the metabolic, hepatic and intestinal integrity. These findings add novel information on the disease pathogenesis and may be relevant for directing future approaches to the treatment of multi-deregulated diseases.

  17. Biophysical and structural investigation of bacterially expressed and engineered CCR5, a G protein-coupled receptor

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 belongs to the class of G protein-coupled receptors. Besides its role in leukocyte trafficking, it is also the major HIV-1 coreceptor and hence a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Here, we report Escherichia coli expression and a broad range of biophysical studies on E. coli-produced CCR5. After systematic screening and optimization, we obtained 10 mg of purified, detergent-solubilized, folded CCR5 from 1L culture in a triply isotope-labeled (2H/15N/13C) minimal medium. Thus the material is suitable for NMR spectroscopic studies. The expected α-helical secondary structure content is confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The solubilized CCR5 is monodisperse and homogeneous as judged by transmission electron microscopy. Interactions of CCR5 with its ligands, RANTES and MIP-1β were assessed by surface plasmon resonance yielding KD values in the nanomolar range. Using size exclusion chromatography, stable monomeric CCR5 could be isolated. We show that cysteine residues affect both the yield and oligomer distribution of CCR5. HSQC spectra suggest that the transmembrane domains of CCR5 are in equilibrium between several conformations. In addition we present a model of CCR5 based on the crystal structure of CXCR4 as a starting point for protein engineering.

  18. Biophysical and structural investigation of bacterially expressed and engineered CCR5, a G protein-coupled receptor

    Wiktor, Maciej; Morin, Sebastien; Sass, Hans-Juergen [University of Basel, Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum (Switzerland); Kebbel, Fabian [University of Basel, Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics (C-CINA), Biozentrum (Switzerland); Grzesiek, Stephan, E-mail: [University of Basel, Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum (Switzerland)


    The chemokine receptor CCR5 belongs to the class of G protein-coupled receptors. Besides its role in leukocyte trafficking, it is also the major HIV-1 coreceptor and hence a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Here, we report Escherichia coli expression and a broad range of biophysical studies on E. coli-produced CCR5. After systematic screening and optimization, we obtained 10 mg of purified, detergent-solubilized, folded CCR5 from 1L culture in a triply isotope-labeled ({sup 2}H/{sup 15}N/{sup 13}C) minimal medium. Thus the material is suitable for NMR spectroscopic studies. The expected {alpha}-helical secondary structure content is confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The solubilized CCR5 is monodisperse and homogeneous as judged by transmission electron microscopy. Interactions of CCR5 with its ligands, RANTES and MIP-1{beta} were assessed by surface plasmon resonance yielding K{sub D} values in the nanomolar range. Using size exclusion chromatography, stable monomeric CCR5 could be isolated. We show that cysteine residues affect both the yield and oligomer distribution of CCR5. HSQC spectra suggest that the transmembrane domains of CCR5 are in equilibrium between several conformations. In addition we present a model of CCR5 based on the crystal structure of CXCR4 as a starting point for protein engineering.

  19. IL-23 induces atopic dermatitis-like inflammation instead of psoriasis-like inflammation in CCR2-deficient mice.

    Shannon K Bromley

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of leukocytes into the dermis and epidermis. IL-23 is expressed in psoriatic skin, and IL-23 injected into the skin of mice produces IL-22-dependent dermal inflammation and acanthosis. The chemokine receptor CCR2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. CCR2-positive cells and the CCR2 ligand, CCL2 are abundant in psoriatic lesions. To examine the requirement of CCR2 in the development of IL-23-induced cutaneous inflammation, we injected the ears of wild-type (WT and CCR2-deficient (CCR2(-/- mice with IL-23. CCR2(-/- mice had increased ear swelling and epidermal thickening, which was correlated with increased cutaneous IL-4 levels and increased numbers of eosinophils within the skin. In addition, TSLP, a cytokine known to promote and amplify T helper cell type 2 (Th2 immune responses, was also increased within the inflamed skin of CCR2(-/- mice. Our data suggest that increased levels of TSLP in CCR2(-/- mice may contribute to the propensity of these mice to develop increased Th2-type immune responses.

  20. News and Announcements


    News from Journal House Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems Many readers are trying to modify the way they teach and in so doing are trying to write new types of questions and problems. The Journal has a new online resource, the JCE Internet Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems Web site, . The site is a source of questions and problems that can be used in teaching and assessing conceptual understanding and problem solving in chemistry. Here you can find a library of free-response and multiple-choice conceptual questions and challenge problems, tips for writing these questions and problems, and a discussion of types of concept questions. This site is intended to be a means of sharing conceptual questions and challenge problems among chemical educators. It will be as inclusive as possible, and to achieve this readers need to share their questions and alert the authors to references or Web sites. The screen captures shown below should provide a feeling for what you will find when you visit the site. The authors, William R. Robinson and Susan C. Nurrenbern, welcome additions to the library of conceptual questions or other comments or suggestions. Contact them by email, fax, or regular mail. William R. Robinson and Susan C. Nurrenbern, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1393. Bill: phone: 765/494-5453; fax: 765/494-0239; email: Sue: phone: 765/494-0823; fax: 765/494-0239; email: fax: 765/494-0239. 1998 Ford Foundation Fellowships The National Research Council has announced the recipients of the 1998 fellowships for minority scholars. Three categories of fellowships were awarded: 50 to beginning graduate students, 33 to students writing their dissertations, and 28 to recent Ph.D. recipients. There were about 1,000 applicants. For information about the next competition contact the Fellowship Office of the National

  1. News and Announcements


    1998 ACS Meeting in Boston he suffered a serious fall following a stroke, from which he never recovered. One of his last photographs, taken the previous day at a Journal luncheon, appears on page 1360 of the November 1998 issue. His commentary on his long career in chemistry and education appears on page 1520 of the December 1998 issue. Seaborg was a Nobel laureate, discoverer of elements, scientific advisor to presidents, former chancellor of the University of California, former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, chairman of the steering committee of the CHEM Study project, founder of Lawrence Hall of Science, , the list goes on and on. He was at the same time a passionate supporter of education. Seaborg published fourteen articles in the Journal between 1951 and 1998. He was interviewed in 1975 by David Ridgway as part of the Impact series (JCE 1975, 52, 70), and that interview is highly recommended reading (see supplement to this article). He received the 1994 ACS George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education; his award address was published in the ACS Division of Chemical Education's CHED Newsletter, Fall 1995. Memorial articles with details of his life and his scientific contributions have appeared in The New York Times (Saturday, February 27, 1999, page 1) and Chemical & Engineering News (March 8, 1999, page 29). But there is also the spirit of the man, what he believed in, what he tried to do, what he hoped he had accomplished. A sense of that can be gained from the excerpts that are reprinted below, taken first from the Impact interview and then from the award address. Ridgway: On reflection, now, out of your many contributions to chemistry, is there one that you feel has had more of an impact than others? Seaborg: The discovery of plutonium would answer that question. The impact there is probably nearly as great as any single chemical discovery. Ridgway: What was the state of the "art" in your field when you first decided to bend your energies in this

  2. Study Finds a Connection between Glaucoma and Sleep Apnea

    ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Study Finds a Connection Between Glaucoma and Sleep Apnea Sep. 06, 2013 Over the years, several studies have demonstrated an increased rate of glaucoma among ...

  3. Fully human antagonistic antibodies against CCR4 potently inhibit cell signaling and chemotaxis.

    Urs B Hagemann

    Full Text Available CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4 represents a potentially important target for cancer immunotherapy due to its expression on tumor infiltrating immune cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs and on tumor cells in several cancer types and its role in metastasis.Using phage display, human antibody library, affinity maturation and a cell-based antibody selection strategy, the antibody variants against human CCR4 were generated. These antibodies effectively competed with ligand binding, were able to block ligand-induced signaling and cell migration, and demonstrated efficient killing of CCR4-positive tumor cells via ADCC and phagocytosis. In a mouse model of human T-cell lymphoma, significant survival benefit was demonstrated for animals treated with the newly selected anti-CCR4 antibodies.For the first time, successful generation of anti- G-protein coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR antibodies using human non-immune library and phage display on GPCR-expressing cells was demonstrated. The generated anti-CCR4 antibodies possess a dual mode of action (inhibition of ligand-induced signaling and antibody-directed tumor cell killing. The data demonstrate that the anti-tumor activity in vivo is mediated, at least in part, through Fc-receptor dependent effector mechanisms, such as ADCC and phagocytosis. Anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibodies inhibiting receptor signaling have potential as immunomodulatory antibodies for cancer.

  4. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar.

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Rahelinirina, S; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C


    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a functionally important region of the gene. We then compared (i) CCR5 genotypes of dying and surviving plague-challenged rats and (ii) CCR5 allelic frequencies in plague focus and plague-free populations. Our results suggested a higher prevalence of the substitution in resistant animals compared to susceptible individuals, and a tendency for higher frequencies in plague focus areas compared to plague-free areas. Therefore, the CCR5 polymorphism may be involved in Malagasy black rat plague resistance. CCR5 and other undetermined plague resistance markers may provide useful biological information about host evolution and disease dynamics. PMID:18703167

  5. CCR4 promotes medullary entry and thymocyte-dendritic cell interactions required for central tolerance.

    Hu, Zicheng; Lancaster, Jessica N; Sasiponganan, Chayanit; Ehrlich, Lauren I R


    Autoimmunity results from a breakdown in central or peripheral tolerance. To establish central tolerance, developing T cells must enter the thymic medulla, where they scan antigen-presenting cells (APCs) displaying a diverse array of autoantigens. If a thymocyte is activated by a self-antigen, the cell undergoes either deletion or diversion into the regulatory T cell (T reg) lineage, thus maintaining self-tolerance. Mechanisms promoting thymocyte medullary entry and interactions with APCs are incompletely understood. CCR4 is poised to contribute to central tolerance due to its expression by post-positive selection thymocytes, and expression of its ligands by medullary thymic dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we use two-photon time-lapse microscopy to demonstrate that CCR4 promotes medullary entry of the earliest post-positive selection thymocytes, as well as efficient interactions between medullary thymocytes and DCs. In keeping with the contribution of thymic DCs to central tolerance, CCR4 is involved in regulating negative selection of polyclonal and T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic thymocytes. In the absence of CCR4, autoreactive T cells accumulate in secondary lymphoid organs and autoimmunity ensues. These studies reveal a previously unappreciated role for CCR4 in the establishment of central tolerance. PMID:26417005

  6. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1IIIB infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent

  7. Design of a Base Station for MEMS CCR Localization in an Optical Sensor Network

    Chan Gook Park


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC. The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  8. Design of a base station for MEMS CCR localization in an optical sensor network.

    Park, Chan Gook; Jeon, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyoun Jin; Kim, Jae Yoon


    This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC). The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF) data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS) methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR. PMID:24815681

  9. Breast cancer lung metastasis requires expression of chemokine receptor CCR4 and regulatory T cells.

    Olkhanud, Purevdorj B; Baatar, Dolgor; Bodogai, Monica; Hakim, Fran; Gress, Ronald; Anderson, Robin L; Deng, Jie; Xu, Mai; Briest, Susanne; Biragyn, Arya


    Cancer metastasis is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. More needs to be learned about mechanisms that control this process. In particular, the role of chemokine receptors in metastasis remains controversial. Here, using a highly metastatic breast cancer (4T1) model, we show that lung metastasis is a feature of only a proportion of the tumor cells that express CCR4. Moreover, the primary tumor growing in mammary pads activates remotely the expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 in the lungs. These chemokines acting through CCR4 attract both tumor and immune cells. However, CCR4-mediated chemotaxis was not sufficient to produce metastasis, as tumor cells in the lung were efficiently eliminated by natural killer (NK) cells. Lung metastasis required CCR4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which directly killed NK cells using beta-galactoside-binding protein. Thus, strategies that abrogate any part of this process should improve the outcome through activation of effector cells and prevention of tumor cell migration. We confirm this prediction by killing CCR4(+) cells through delivery of TARC-fused toxins or depleting Tregs and preventing lung metastasis. PMID:19567680

  10. News of the world

    This document gathers short pieces of news from nuclear industry throughout the world. The most relevant are the following. A micro-crack has been detected in the bottom head instrumentation penetration during the ten-yearly inspection of the unit 1 of the Gravelines nuclear power station. Poland is expected before the end of 2012 to launch a bid of tender for the construction of 2 nuclear power plants of 3000 MW each. The cost of this program is estimated to near 23 billions euros. The Spanish government has allowed the 2 reactors of the Asco plant to operate 10 years more. The Russian company 'Atomstroyexport' will supply the 2 nuclear islands of the 2 new reactors at the Tianwan nuclear power plant (China). Russia is going to build the first nuclear power plant in Bangladesh. Areva has recently discovered 12300 tonnes of uranium in central Jordan. The IAEA experts recommend the Japanese Authorities to decontaminate first the inhabited areas contaminated by the Fukushima accident. It is more important to focus on the real radiation dose received by the population than on the contamination levels of the environment. (A.C.)

  11. News of the world

    This article reviews the latest news concerning nuclear power in the world. The most significant facts are reported below. The Chinese government has decided to build 4 new nuclear units: 2 on the Sanmen site and 2 on the Lingdong site, works will begin before 2005 in order to have the 2 plants operating by 2010. Switzerland has agreed to join the Kyoto protocol and commits itself to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 8% (in relation with the 1990 level) between 2008 and 2012. The European parliament has decided the setting up of CO2 release licenses by january 2005 for the European producers of electric power, heating, steel, cement, glass, bricks, paper and cardboard. This decision will anticipate by 3 years the international system which is planned through the Kyoto protocol. The fifth and last experiment of the Phebus international program concerning core melting will focus on boron carbide which is used in the design of PWR control rods, this experiment will be achieved in 2004. (A.C.)

  12. New Bulletin: Latest News


    The paper version of the CERN Bulletin will be published twice a month with effect from 18 April 2005. The electronic version will be updated weekly. This year will see many changes in the Bulletin, designed to make it more economical, more compact and more attractive. From 18 April the paper version of the Bulletin will be published twice monthly, so we shall have to stop calling it the "Weekly". The purpose of this change in publication frequency is to redistribute the resources of the Publications Section of the Communications Group so that it can produce new brochures for the general public. However, so as not to compromise on topicality and communication of information, the Official News and General Information sections, the Pension Fund and training announcements and the seminar schedule will continue to be updated weekly. If you have signed up to be informed of the updates, you will continue to receive a weekly e-mail reminding you that the electronic version of the Bulletin has been updated. Offici...

  13. News from Council


    With this message I would like to share with you some highlights of this week’s Council meetings.   A major topic was the approval of CERN’s Medium Term Plan (MTP) 2017-2021, along with the budget for 2017. In approving the document, Council expressed its very strong support for the research programme the MTP outlines for the coming years.  Another important topic this week was the formal approval of the High Luminosity LHC project, HL-LHC. This comes as extremely good news not only for CERN, but also for particle physics globally. HL-LHC is the top priority of the European Strategy for Particle Physics in its 2013 update, and is part of the 2016 roadmap of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, ESFRI. It was also identified as a priority in the US P5 strategy process, and in Japan’s strategic vision for the field. It secures CERN’s future until 2035, and ensures that we will achieve the maximum scientific return on the investment...

  14. Translation Strategies on English Sports News

    张金柱; 冷冰冰


    With the improvement of people's life, sports has become an indispensable part of our life, which promotes sports news. Besides, sports news is one of the most significant way to promote cultural communication and enhance mutual understanding. Thus, sports news has an increasing role in the communication between China and outside world due to its unique advantages. Therefore, sports news translation has great practical and theoretical significance in today's society. with the analysis on the function and characteristics of the sports news, This thesis studies the sports news translation and proposes some practical translation skills.

  15. The Translation of English News Headlines

    Ma Xiaona


    News headline translation is one of the most important types of news translation. As news headline is strongly purposeful, the translation of it must be achieved by some special methods. The history of news headline translation is almost as long as that of newspapers, but it has not been attached enough attention to. In the last twenty years, Chinese scholars of this field have paid much greater attention to news headline translation. Concerned studies of principles of news headline translation have also been made remarkable progress.

  16. Memory and the erasure in the imaginary of TV news
    Memória e apagamento no imaginário dos telejornais

    Renata Marcelle Lara Pimentel


    Symbolic relations between memory and erasure compose the imaginary in television news broadcasts. By adopting the materialist perspective of discourse analysis, this study focuses on the verbal-visual connection as specific materiality of TV news, to find out how memory (interdiscourse communication) and deletion of senses work within the news-effect in journalistic text production involving the Lula government, Aldo Rebelo and the Communist Party of Brazil. The theoretical method used is th...

  17. HIV-1 adaptation to low levels of CCR5 results in V3 and V2 loop changes that increase envelope pathogenicity, CCR5 affinity and decrease susceptibility to Maraviroc.

    Garg, Himanshu; Lee, Raphael T C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Joshi, Anjali


    Variability in CCR5 levels in the human population is suggested to affect virus evolution, fitness and the course of HIV disease. We previously demonstrated that cell surface CCR5 levels directly affect HIV Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis. In this study, we attempted to understand HIV evolution in the presence of low levels of CCR5, mimicking the limiting CCR5 levels inherent to the host. HIV-1 adaptation in a T cell line expressing low levels of CCR5 resulted in two specific mutations; N302Y and E172K. The N302Y mutation led to accelerated virus replication, increase in Maraviroc IC50 and an increase in Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis in low CCR5 expressing cells. Analysis of subtype B sequences showed that N302Y is over-represented in CXCR4 tropic viruses in comparison to CCR5 tropic isolates. Considering the variability in CCR5 levels between individuals, our findings have implications for virus evolution, MVC susceptibility as well as HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27017055

  18. CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101 preferentially inhibit drug-bound CCR5 infection and restore drug sensitivity of Maraviroc-resistant HIV-1 in primary cells

    R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity against MVC-bound compared to MVC-free CCR5 infection. However, in PBMCs, only ECL2 CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, inhibited infection by MVC resistant HIV-1 more potently with MVC-bound than with free CCR5. In addition, HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, restored the antiviral activity of MVC against resistant virus in PBMCs. In flow cytometric studies, CCR5 binding by the HGS mAbs, but not by 2D7, was increased when PBMCs were treated with MVC, suggesting MVC increases exposure of the relevant epitope. Thus, HGS004 and HGS101 have antiviral mechanisms distinct from 2D7 and could help overcome MVC resistance.

  19. Growing Trees in Internet News Groups and Forums

    Kujawski, B; Rodgers, G J; Kujawski, Bernard; Holyst, Janusz A.; Rodgers, Geoff J.


    We present an empirical study of the networks created by users within internet news groups and forums and show that they organise themselves into scale-free trees. The structure of these trees depends on the topic under discussion; specialist topics have trees with a short shallow structure whereas more universal topics are discussed widely and have a deeper tree structure. For news groups we find that the distribution of the time intervals between when a message is posted and when it receives a response exhibits a composite power-law behaviour. From our statistics we can see if the news group or forum is free or is overseen by a moderator. The correlation function of activity, the number of messages posted in a given time, shows long range correlations connected with the users' daily routines. The distribution of distances between each message and its root is exponential for most news groups and power-law for the forums. For both formats we find that the relation between the supremacy (the total number of no...

  20. News from the world

    This article gathers pieces of news concerning nuclear industry worldwide from which the following ones. Areva invests in its plant of Creuzot in order to be able to produce in France all the parts of the EPR's (European Pressurized Reactor) reactor vessel. Edf and the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Company (CGNPC) have signed an agreement concerning the construction and the operation of 2 EPRs at Taishan. The United-Kingdom government has launched the procedure for determining the sites that will home new nuclear power plants. The nuclear plant of Belene (Bulgaria) will have 2 VVER reactors and will begin producing electricity in 2013. Brazil plans to commission 60 reactor units in 50 years and South-Korea 10 units by 2030. In 2007 Canada was the first uranium extractor in the world with 9462 tonnes while Australia ranked second (8577 tonnes) and Kazakhstan ranked third (6654 tonnes). The construction of the second (in the world) AP1000 reactor has begun in China. The Kaliningrad nuclear power plant is planned to home 2 new reactor units (2*VVER-1200). The American NRC has received 2 demands, one for the construction of an EPR (at Callaway plant) and the other for the construction of 2 AP1000 in Florida. The work concerning the reinforcing of the sarcophagus around the unit 4 of the Chernobyl plant are completed, a system for the draining of rain water has been installed. The installation deep in the mediterranean sea of the Antares neutrino telescope, equipped with about 900 optical modules, was completed in June 2008. (A.C.)

  1. News of the world

    This document gathers pieces of news from the nuclear industry around the world. The most relevant are the following. EDF has inaugurated a logistic hub for the supply of spare parts for its 58 operating reactors. Russia has opened a new site to store spent fuels from RBMK reactors. This site is located at Zheleznogorsk near Krasnoiarsk in Siberia. The capacity of the La Hague fuel reprocessing plant is 1700 tonnes a year but the plant processes only between 800 and 1000 tones because most of its foreign contracts have come to an end and have not been renewed. In 2012 the plant is expected to process 1003 tonnes for EDF and 12 tonnes for The Netherlands. AREVA has delivered to the CNNC Chinese company 700 fuel assemblies and 800 control rod clusters. The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) said that there was neither health nor environmental hazards on French soil due to the Fukushima accident. The French Academy of Sciences has highlighted the least sanitary impact of nuclear power compared to other energies. The American Nuclear Safety Association has stated that the American nuclear power plants are safe and that the probability of a severe accident is very low. A new study shows an excess of cases of leukemia near nuclear power stations in France. This study rests on very few statistical cases. An opinion survey in the United Kingdom shows that the construction of nuclear power stations is considered as the best investment in infrastructures. EDF has planned to recruit in 2012 about 6000 people essentially in the nuclear sector. The Netherlands government has given its consent for the construction of the high flux reactor Pallas on the Petten site, this reactor will replace the HFR whose lifetime is over 50 years. (A.C.)

  2. Functional characterization of ferret CCL20 and CCR6 and identification of chemotactic inhibitors.

    Qin, Shulin; Klamar, Cynthia R; Fallert Junecko, Beth A; Craigo, Jodi; Fuller, Deborah H; Reinhart, Todd A


    CCL20 is currently the only known chemokine ligand for the receptor CCR6, and is a mucosal chemokine involved in normal and pathological immune responses. Although nucleotide sequence data are available for ccl20 and ccr6 sequences from multiple species, the ferret ccl20 and ccr6 sequences have not been determined. To increase our understanding of immune function in ferret models of infection and vaccination, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the ferret ccl20 and ccr6 cDNA sequences and functionally characterize the encoded proteins. The open reading frames of both genes were highly conserved across species and mostly closely related to canine sequences. For functional analyses, single cell clones expressing ferret CCR6 were generated, a ferret CCL20/mouse IgG(2a) fusion protein (fCCL20-mIgG(2a)) was produced, and fCCL20 was chemically synthesized. Cell clones expressing ferret CCR6 responded chemotactically to fCCL20-mIgG2a fusion protein and synthetic ferret CCL20. Chemotaxis inhibition studies identified the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate and the murine γ-herpesvirus 68 M3 protein as inhibitors of fCCL20. Surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that EGCG bound directly to fCCL20. These results provide molecular characterization of previously unreported ferret immune gene sequences and for the first time identify a broad-spectrum small molecule inhibitor of CCL20 and reveal CCL20 as a target for the herpesviral M3 protein. PMID:23360828

  3. A Role for the Chemokine Receptor CCR6 in Mammalian Sperm Motility and Chemotaxis

    Caballero-Campo, Pedro; Buffone, Mariano G.; Benencia, Fabian; Conejo-García, José R.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.; Gerton, George L.


    Although recent evidence indicates that several chemokines and defensins, well-known as inflammatory mediators, are expressed in the male and female reproductive tracts, the location and functional significance of chemokine networks in sperm physiology and sperm reproductive tract interactions are poorly understood. To address this deficiency in our knowledge, we examined the expression and function in sperm of CCR6, a receptor common to several chemoattractant peptides, and screened several reproductive tract fluids for the presence of specific ligands. CCR6 protein is present in mouse and human sperm and mainly localized in the sperm tail with other minor patterns in sperm from mice (neck and acrosomal region) and men (neck and midpiece regions). As expected from the protein immunoblotting and immunofluorescence results, mouse Ccr6 mRNA is expressed in the testis. Furthermore, the Defb29 mRNA encoding the CCR6 ligand, β-defensin DEFB29, is expressed at high levels in the epididymis. As determined by protein chip analysis, several chemokines (including some that act through CCR6, such as CCL20/MIP-3α (formerly Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3α) and protein hormones were present in human follicular fluid, endometrial secretions, and seminal plasma. In functional chemotaxis assays, capacitated human sperm exhibited a directional movement towards CCL20, and displayed modifications in motility parameters. Our data indicate that chemokine ligand/receptor interactions in the male and female genital tracts promote sperm motility and chemotaxis under non-inflammatory conditions. Therefore, some of the physiological reactions mediated by CCR6 ligands in male reproduction extend beyond a pro-inflammatory response and might find application in clinical reproduction and/or contraception. PMID:23765988

  4. The impact of CCR5-Δ32 deletion on C-reactive protein levels and cardiovascular disease

    Dinh, Khoa M; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S; Sørensen, Erik; Sørensen, Cecilie J; Kaspersen, Kathrine A; Larsen, Margit H; Møller, Bjarne; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The C-C chemokine receptor 5-Δ32 deletion (CCR5-Δ32) has been associated with lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), but the effect on cardiovascular diseases is uncertain. This study addresses the impact of CCR5-Δ32 on the risk of low-grade inflammation and...

  5. Blood expression levels of chemokine receptor CCR3 and chemokine CCL11 in age-related macular degeneration

    Falk, Mads Krüger; Singh, Amardeep; Faber, Carsten; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Hviid, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke


    Dysregulation of the CCR3/CCL11 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularisation, a common feature of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CCR3 and its ligand CCL11 in peripheral blood in patients with...

  6. DMPD: Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 12960231 Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpa...ted gp120-elicited signalingpathways. PubmedID 12960231 Title Macrophage activati...on through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. Authors Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi

  7. Society for the History of Psychology News.

    Lee, Shayna Fox


    Presents the Society for the History of Psychology News column. This column records miscellaneous publication news, announcements, research notes, reviews of books, and conference information, as well as references that support their writings. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100928

  8. The shifting cross-media news landscape

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Steeg Larsen, Bent


    market, as a consequence of accelerating divisions between 'overview' and 'depth' news media (across print, broadcasting and the internet). The project is carried out in a partnership of university-based researchers and analysts from one of the major newspaper publishers in Denmark, and presents......The article offers new insights for democracy and for news producers by mapping the use and users of today’s cross-media news landscape, as the everyday consumption of news across the range of available news media and formats is shifting as a result of transformations of technology, culture......” of news media, a user-anchored concept which incorporates the different functionalities of the situational cross-media use of news by citizen/consumers in everyday life. Empirically the article presents the findings of a large-scale survey that traces the imminent challenges facing players in the news...

  9. Application of Economy Principle in News English



    The economy principle of language obtained full manifestation in news English. This paper presents major ways in which people make news English economic, i.e. using short words, abbreviations, affixes, compounds and words with extended meanings and conversions.

  10. Navigating cross-media news use

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel


    distinctive cross-media repertoires, and what makes these compositions meaningful. This article analyzes the value of different platforms, genres and practices in everyday life by mapping patterns of cross-media news use. Combining Q methodology with think-aloud protocols and day-in-the-life-interviews, five...... distinct news media repertoires are identified: 1) regionally-oriented 2) background-oriented 3) digital 4) laid-back and 5) nationally-oriented news use. Our findings indicate that users do not always use what they prefer, nor do they prefer what they use. Moreover, the boundaries they draw between news...... and other information are clearly shifting. Finally, our results show that in a world with a wide range of possibilities to consume news for free, paying for news can be considered an act of civic engagement. We argue that perceived news use and users’ appreciation of news should be studied in...

  11. The shifting cross-media news landscape

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Steeg Larsen, Bent


    market, as a consequence of accelerating divisions between 'overview' and 'depth' news media (across print, broadcasting and the internet). The project is carried out in a partnership of university-based researchers and analysts from one of the major newspaper publishers in Denmark, and presents the......The article offers new insights for democracy and for news producers by mapping the use and users of today’s cross-media news landscape, as the everyday consumption of news across the range of available news media and formats is shifting as a result of transformations of technology, culture and...... news media, a user-anchored concept which incorporates the different functionalities of the situational cross-media use of news by citizen/consumers in everyday life. Empirically the article presents the findings of a large-scale survey that traces the imminent challenges facing players in the news...

  12. Extracellular HIV Tat and Tat cysteine rich peptide increase CCR5 expression in monocytes

    ZHENG Lin; YANG Yi-da; LU Guo-cai; SALVATO Maria S


    In our previous work we reported that HIV Tat and 6 cysteine rich peptides of Tat induce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) in human monocytes (Yang et al., 2003). Here our results showed that HIV Tat and Tat cysteine rich peptide increase CCR5 expression in human monocytes, and this activity is inhibited by rabbit anti-Tat. Boiled Tat does not increase CCR5 expression in monocytes. These results provide insight into a new mechanism by which HIV Tat plays a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection.

  13. Users' reading habits in online news portals

    Esiyok, Cagdas; Kille, Benjamin; Jain, Brijnesh Johannes; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin


    The aim of this study is to survey reading habits of users of an online news portal. The assumption motivating this study is that insight into the reading habits of users can be helpful to design better news recommendation systems. We estimated the transition probabilities that users who read an article of one news category will move to read an article of another (not necessarily distinct) news category. For this, we analyzed the users' click behavior within plista data set. Key findings are ...

  14. An Economic Theory of News Selection.

    McManus, John

    Over the years, journalists, social scientists, and government commissions have defined news in a variety of ways, but their definitions consistently lack the notion that, above all, news is a commodity and must sell. Within the journalism profession, and particularly in television news, the potential for conflict between a media corporation's…

  15. Visualizing news: obstacles, challenges, and solutions

    Smit, Gerard; Haan, Yael de; Buijs, Laura; Bakker, Piet


    Depicting news graphically is considered an apt way to deal with challenges of modern journalism: to disclose big data, and present news attractively, visually, and fast to grasp. This study delves into reported obstacles and challenges for the production of news visualizations. It focuses on the qu

  16. Daily Market News Sentiment and Stock Prices

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A.K. Singh (Abhay)


    textabstractIn recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the influx of news related to traded assets in international financial markets. This financial news is now available via print media but also through real-time online sources such as internet news and social media sources. The increas

  17. Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and polymorphisms in CCR5 regulatory regions have been ...

  18. Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors

    The small molecule CCR5 inhibitors are a new class of drugs for treating infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). They act by binding to the CCR5 co-receptor and preventing its use during HIV-1-cell fusion. Escape mutants can be raised against CCR5 inhibitors in vitro and will arise when these drugs are used clinically. Here, we have assessed the responses of CCR5 inhibitor-resistant viruses to other anti-retroviral drugs that act by different mechanisms, and their sensitivities to neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The rationale for the latter study is that the resistance pathway for CCR5 inhibitors involves changes in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), which are also targets for NAbs. The escape mutants CC101.19 and D1/85.16 were selected for resistance to AD101 and vicriviroc (VVC), respectively, from the primary R5 HIV-1 isolate CC1/85. Each escape mutant was cross-resistant to other small molecule CCR5 inhibitors (aplaviroc, maraviroc, VVC, AD101 and CMPD 167), but sensitive to protein ligands of CCR5: the modified chemokine PSC-RANTES and the humanized MAb PRO-140. The resistant viruses also retained wild-type sensitivity to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) zidovudine, the non-nucleoside RTI nevirapine, the protease inhibitor atazanavir and other attachment and fusion inhibitors that act independently of CCR5 (BMS-806, PRO-542 and enfuvirtide). Of note is that the escape mutants were more sensitive than the parental CC1/85 isolate to a subset of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and to some sera from HIV-1-infected people, implying that sequence changes in Env that confer resistance to CCR5 inhibitors can increase the accessibility of some NAb epitopes. The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo

  19. News on pediatric urology

    Giuseppe Masnata


    Full Text Available Pediatric urology is a pediatric speciality dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of congenital and acquired genitourinary tract diseases. It is a speciality that is rapidly changing, thanks to the technological development that has been emerging in recent years. There have been important diagnostic and therapeutic news.Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT include various entities of structural malformations that result from defects in their morphogenesis. Clinical research and genetic studies on the origins of CAKUT are quickly evolving, with significant growth of high-quality research.Management goals of CAKUT include prevention of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs in newborns and toddles and renal injury, while minimizing the morbidity of treatment and follow-up. Treatment options include observation with or without continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP and surgical correction. Now, randomized controlled studies show that children with normal urinary tracts or low-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR do not benefit from prophylaxis.All children with known mechanical or functional obstructions of the urinary tract are considered to have UTI. Functional obstruction often results from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD of either neurogenic or non-neurogenic origin and dilating VUR.The role of bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD in children with UTI and the long-term risk of renal scarring have shed new light on treatment strategies. Often it is BBD, rather than reflux, that causes UTI in children older than 2 years.Pediatric urology has evolved in recent years, with a greater focus on bladder and renal function, minimally invasive treatment, evidence-based interventions, and guideline adherence. Other topics in pediatric urology include urinary incontinence in children with special needs and the use of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS in children, with advantages over conventional laparoscopic surgery

  20. The role of the N-terminal segment of CCR5 in HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and the mechanism of virus adaptation to CCR5 lacking this segment

    Kabat David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env induces membrane fusion as a result of sequential binding to CD4 and chemokine receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4. The critical determinants of CCR5 coreceptor function are the N-terminal domain (Nt and the second extracellular loop. However, mutations in gp120 adapt HIV-1 to grow on cells expressing the N-terminally truncated CCR5(Δ18 (Platt et al., J. Virol. 2005, 79: 4357–68. Results We have functionally characterized the adapted Env (designated Env(NYP using a quantitative cell-cell fusion assay. The rate of fusion with target cells expressing wild-type CCR5 and the resistance to fusion inhibitors was virtually identical for wild-type Env and Env(NYP, implying that the coreceptor affinity had not increased as a result of adaptation. In contrast, Env(NYP-induced fusion with cells expressing CCR5(Δ18 occurred at a slower rate and was extremely sensitive to the CCR5 binding inhibitor, Sch-C. Resistance to Sch-C drastically increased after pre-incubation of Env(NYP- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells at a temperature that was not permissive to fusion. This indicates that ternary Env(NYP-CD4-CCR5(Δ18 complexes accumulate at sub-threshold temperature and that low-affinity interactions with the truncated coreceptor are sufficient for triggering conformational changes in the gp41 of Env(NYP but not in wild-type Env. We also demonstrated that the ability of CCR5(Δ18 to support fusion and infection mediated by wild-type Env can be partially reconstituted in the presence of a synthetic sulfated peptide corresponding to the CCR5 Nt. Pre-incubation of wild-type Env- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells with the sulfated peptide at sub-threshold temperature markedly increased the efficiency of fusion. Conclusion We propose that, upon binding the Nt region of CCR5, wild-type Env acquires the ability to productively engage the extracellular loop(s of CCR5 – an event that triggers gp41 refolding and membrane merger

  1. Manufacturing Panic: Affect and Contagion through Weather News

    Alptug Okten


    Full Text Available Given the intense emphasis on weather forecast news in the US media, this study will approach the news as “affective mediated phenomenon” in a search for the problems which motivates practices or depletions. Through the ontological readings of ‘affect’ in the recent literature on “affective turn”, it aims to open up a new platform to analyze the fundamentals of relationality within televised and online weather forecasting and their extension in the society. I will focus on the Facebook group “Stop the Weather Channel from naming Winter Storms” which was created as a resistance to the everyday production of affective threat-values of The Weather Channel (TWC’s naming of storms. I will analyze both the shared images from TV (via YouTube videos and user comments on them utilizing Brian Massumi’s notion of “affective facts” and Anna Gibbs’ notion of “affect-contagion”. I will argue that, weather news produces affective registers which trigger continuous processes of re-making of the bodies as if it is a real situation. Thus, through the affective reality of anticipated alternatives created by weather news, performative threat-value of the thought-signs increases. I will show instances of mimetic relations between the bodies as anxiety formation through the portrayals of practices of emptying supermarkets, showing “signs” through visualized narration of cloud movements, and live-connections to the “scene”. Media’s emphasis on faces, values and rhythms of resonance with the portrayed bodies in anxiety from the previous storms works as an activation contour of affect-contagion. Weather news produces a form of subjectivity through affective mediations of technical means which amplifies audiences.

  2. Semantic Analysis of FBI News Reports

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah


    In this paper we present our work on semantic analysis of FBI News reports. In the paper we have considered the News which are of the immense significance for the analyst who want to analyze the News of specific area. With this definite analysis we are able to extract critical events or concepts...... described in News along with entities involved in the event. These entities include important actors of the event or concept, with location and temporal information. This information will help News analyzers to retrieve the information of interest efficiently....

  3. Engaging and Disengaging with Political News

    Ørmen, Jacob; Linaa Jensen, Jakob

    cluster analysis of a survey of the adult Danish population (n = 1205). The typology encompasses archetypical ways user can consume (e.g. watching news on TV, reading news in print as well as digital versions, encountering news on social networks and in face-to-face situations) and discuss political news...... level, we further investigate the differences between users that only consume political news and users that also talk about politics with others. And on the tertiary level, we identify the most widespread communicative practices (e.g. sharing content on social network sites, writing comments on blogs...

  4. Guess Who's in the News.

    Wassom, Julie


    Examines the power of positive publicity as cost-effective child-care marketing. Suggests that getting positive press can make marketing easier, less expensive, and fun. Notes that by creating news stories and developing a working relationship with targeted media, child-care-center directors can inform, educate, and create new prospects and…

  5. Broadcast News: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    Nielsen, Carol; Sassi, Brenda

    Fourth graders in the Meroby School, Mexico, Maine, produce a weekly news program that is transmitted to all classrooms via closed circuit television. The classroom teacher is in charge of day-to-day preparation, working on the writing and the necessary skills with students. Teachers and students use their creativity to come up with new…

  6. Genetic variation at chemokine receptor CCR5 in leporids: alteration at the 2nd extracellular domain by gene conversion with CCR2 in Oryctolagus, but not in Sylvilagus and Lepus species.

    Carmo, C R; Esteves, P J; Ferrand, N; van der Loo, W


    Whereas in its natural host (Sylvilagus sps.) the effects of myxoma virus infections are benign, in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), it causes a highly infectious disease with very high mortality rate, known as myxomatosis. There is evidence that, as with HIV-1 virus in human, myxoma virus may use chemokine receptors such as CCR5 of the host target cell for entry and activation of pathways of immune avoidance. We have characterized and compared CCR5 genes of leporid species with different susceptibility levels to myxomatosis. The CCR5 protein of O. cuniculus differs markedly from all those known from other species. The most striking was the replacement of a specific peptide motif of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) by a motif, which in other species characterizes the CCR2 molecules. While absent in Sylvilagus and Lepus species, this CCR2 imposed CCR5-ECL2 alteration was observed in all genomes of 25 European rabbits, representing the subspecies O. cuniculus algirus and O. cuniculus cuniculus. Allelic variation at the rabbit CCR5 locus confirmed that the gene conversion predates the subspecies split (1-2 Ma). PMID:16596402

  7. Targeting of Gr-1+,CCR2+ monocytes in collagen-induced arthritis

    Brühl, H.; Cihak, J.; Plachý, Jiří; Kunz-Schughart, L.; Niedermeier, M.; Denzel, A.; Gomez, M.R.; Talke, Y.; Luckow, B.; Stangassinger, M.; Mack, M.


    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2007), s. 2975-2985. ISSN 0004-3591 Grant ostatní: Deutsche Forschungsgemenschaft(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : arthritis * CCR2 * monocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.677, year: 2007

  8. Association analysis of a CCR5 variant with ewe lifetime production in 3 breeds of sheep.

    A deletion in the promoter region of CCR5 associates with a 50% reduction in proviral concentration (log10 env copies/microgram DNA) of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in blood. Nearly half of all flocks in the U.S. have at least one sheep infected with OPPV. Because OPP provirus concentr...

  9. Effect of preoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy on CCL20/CCR6 expression in colorectal liver metastases

    Claudia Rubie; Vilma Oliveira Frick; Pirus Ghadjar; Mathias Wagner; Christoph Justinger; Stefan Graeber; Jens Sperling; Otto Kollmar; Martin K Schilling


    AIM: To evaluate the influence of preoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy on CCL20/CCR6 expression in liver metastases of stage Ⅳ colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: Using Real Time-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western Blots and immunohistochemistry, we have analyzed the expression of CCL20, CCR6 and proliferation marker Ki-67 in colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) specimens from stage Ⅳ CRC patients who received preoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy (n = 53) and in patients who did not receive FOLFOX chemotherapy prior to liver surgery (n = 29). RESULTS: Of the 53 patients who received FOLFOX, time to liver surgery was ≤ 1 mo in 14 patients, ≤ 1 year in 22 patients and > 1 year in 17 patients, respectively. In addition, we investigated the proliferation rate of CRC cells in liver metastases in the different patient groups. Both CCL20 and CCR6 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased in patients who received preoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy ≤ 12 mo before liver surgery (P < 0.001) in comparison to patients who did not undergo FOLFOX treatment. Further, proliferation of CRLM cells as measured by Ki-67 was increased in patients who underwent FOLFOX treatment. CCL20 and CCR6 expression levels were significantly increased in CRLM patients who had undergone preoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: This chemokine/receptor up-regulation could lead to increased proliferation/migration through an autocrine mechanism which might be used by surviving metastatic cells to escape cell death caused by FOLFOX.

  10. Deficient Fas expression by CD4+ CCR5+ T cells in multiple sclerosis

    Julià, Eva; Montalban, Xavier; Al-Zayat, Hammad; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Goertsches, Robert; Martin, Roland; Comabella, Manuel

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether T cells expressing CCR5 and CXCR3 from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are more resistant to apoptosis. METHODS: Expression of CD69, TNF-R1, Fas, FasL, bcl-2, and bax was investigated in 41 MS patients and 12 healthy controls by flow cytometry in CD4+ and CD8+ T ce...

  11. Science Letters: Assignment of CCR 7 gene to chicken chromosome 27 by radiation hybrid panel mapping

    TIAN Yong; LU Li-zhi; FU Yan; TAO Zheng-rong; SHEN Jun-da; WANG De-qian; YUAN Ai-ping; YIN Zhao-zheng


    The protein encoded by CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This receptor was identified as a gene induced by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and is thought to be a mediator of EBV effects on B lymphocytes. This receptor is expressed in various lymphoid tissues and activates B and T lymphocytes. It has been shown to control the migration of memory T cells to inflamed tissues, as well as stimulate dendritic cell maturation. To map the CCR7 gene in chicken chromosome, a 6000 rads chicken-hamster radiation hybrid panel (ChickRH6) was used. PCR of samples from ChickRH6 revealed that the location of CCR7 gene is linked to the maker SEQ0347 (6 cR away) with LOD score of 16.6 and that the marker SEQ0347 is located on chromosome 27 at 27 cR of RH (radiation hydrid) map. We compared the corresponding human mRNA sequence with the predicted coding sequence of chicken CCR7 gene, and found that the assembled contig shared a high percentage of similarity with that of the human gene.

  12. The CCR4-NOT deadenylase activity contributes to generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Zukeran, Ari; Takahashi, Akinori; Takaoka, Shohei; Mohamed, Haytham Mohamed Aly; Suzuki, Toru; Ikematsu, Shinya; Yamamoto, Tadashi


    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by introduction of the transcription factors, OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-MYC. The CCR4-NOT complex is the major deadenylase in eukaryotes. Its subunits Cnot1, Cnot2, and Cnot3 maintain pluripotency and self-renewal of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells and contribute to the transition from partial to full iPSCs. However, little is known about how the CCR4-NOT complex post-transcriptionally regulates the reprogramming process. Here, we show that the CCR4-NOT deadenylase subunits Cnot6, Cnot6l, Cnot7, and Cnot8, participate in regulating iPSC generation. Cnot1 knockdown suppresses expression levels of Cnot6, Cnot6l, Cnot7, and Cnot8 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and decreases the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive colonies after iPSC induction. Intriguingly, Cnot1 depletion allows Eomes and p21 mRNAs to persist, increasing their expression levels. Both mRNAs have longer poly(A) tails in Cnot1-depleted cells. Conversely, forced expression of a combination of Cnot6, Cnot6l, Cnot7, and Cnot8 increases the number of ALP-positive colonies after iPSC induction and decreases expression levels of Eomes and p21 mRNAs. Based on these observations, we propose that the CCR4-NOT deadenylase activity contributes to iPSC induction. PMID:27037025

  13. 77 FR 55833 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...


    ... AGENCY Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review..., 2012, to listen to stakeholder comments on potential approaches for providing Consumer Confidence... meeting to give EPA time to process your request. Background Consumer Confidence Reports are a key part...

  14. 77 FR 57566 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...) 250-8793. Correction In the Federal Register of September 11, 2012, in FR Doc. FRL-9726- 8; on...

  15. Molecular interaction of a potent nonpeptide agonist with the chemokine receptor CCR8

    Jensen, Pia C; Nygaard, Rie; Thiele, Stefanie;


    ), and N-(1-(3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-oxoquinoline-4-carboxamide (LMD-174)] included several key-residues for nonpeptide antagonists targeting CCR1, -2, and -5. It is noteworthy that a decrease in potency of nearly 1000-fold was observed for all five compounds for...

  16. A highly selective CCR2 chemokine agonist encoded by human herpesvirus 6

    Lüttichau, Hans R; Clark-Lewis, Ian; Jensen, Peter Ø; Moser, Claus; Gerstoft, Jan; Schwartz, Thue W

    monocytes, conceivably for the virus to infect and to establish latency in. It is suggested that vCCL4 during reactivation of the virus in for example monocyte-derived microglia could perhaps be involved in the pathogenesis of the CCR2-dependent disease, multiple sclerosis....

  17. Autocrine MCP-1/CCR2 signaling stimulates proliferation and migration of renal carcinoma cells

    Küper, Christoph; Beck, Franz-Xaver; Neuhofer, Wolfgang


    The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1; also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] is an important mediator of monocyte recruitment during inflammatory processes. Pathologically high expression levels of MCP-1 by tumor cells have been observed in a variety of cancer types. In the majority of cases, high MCP-1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis, as infiltration of the tumor with inflammatory monocytes promotes tumor progression and metastasis. MCP-1 is also expressed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the present study, the function and the regulation of MCP-1 was investigated in two RCC cell lines, CaKi-1 and 786-O. In both cell lines, expression of MCP-1 was significantly enhanced compared with non-cancerous control cells. As expected, secretion of MCP-1 into the medium facilitated the recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes via the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 2 (CCR2). As expression of CCR2 was also detected in 786-O and CaKi-1 cells, the effect of autocrine MCP-1/CCR2 signaling was evaluated in these cells. In proliferation assays, administration of an MCP-1 neutralizing antibody or of a CCR2 antagonist to CaKi-1 and 786-O cells significantly decreased cell growth; supplementation of the growth medium with recombinant human MCP-1 had no additional effect on proliferation. The migration ability of RCC cells was impaired by MCP-1 neutralization or pharmacological CCR2 inhibition, while it was stimulated by the addition of recombinant human MCP-1, compared with untreated control cells. Finally, substantial differences in the regulation of MCP-1 expression were observed between RCC cell lines. In CaKi-1 cells, expression of MCP-1 appears to be largely mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, while in 786-O cells, deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Von-Hippel-Lindau appeared to be responsible for MCP-1 upregulation, as suggested by previous studies. Taken together, the results of the

  18. Exploring Digital News Publishing Business Models

    Lindskow, Kasper

    News publishers in the industrialized world are experiencing a fundamental challenge to their business models because of the changing modes of consumption, competition, and production of their offerings that are associated with the emergence of the networked information society. The erosion of the...... traditional business models poses an existential threat to news publishing and has given rise to a continuing struggle among news publishers to design digital business models that will be sustainable in the future. This dissertation argues that a central and underresearched aspect of digital news publishing...... business models concerns the production networks that support the co-production of digital news offerings. To fill this knowledge gap, this dissertation explores the strategic design of the digital news publishing production networks that are associated with HTML-based news offerings on the open Web. In...

  19. Peace Journalism and the news production process

    Burkhard Bläsi


    Full Text Available In recent years various models of „peace journalism“ or „constructive conflict coverage“ have been proposed. These models suggest alternative ways of conflict reporting in order to contribute to processes of de-escalation, peacebuilding and reconciliation instead of escalating, exaggerating or neglecting conflicts. However, these models will remain irrelevant for the practical work of journalists unless they are connected to the reality of today’s media. Therefore it is of great importance to also direct our attention to the news production process. At the same time, studying the factors that influence the production of journalistic reporting in times of conflict and war means learning about the actual preconditions for any effort of constructive conflict coverage. Based on qualitative expert interviews with German journalists, this paper presents a model of the production process of conflict coverage. According to this model, the production process can be described as a complex interaction of six factors: (1 structural aspects of the media, (2 conflict situation on-site, (3 personal features of the individual journalist, (4 the political climate, (5 lobbies, (6 the audience. After presenting the general model and the discussion of its limitations and possible benefits, the influence of the „political climate“ factor is explored in more detail and illustrated with the experience of German journalists in the aftermath of 9/11. The author argues that peace journalism can only attract the critical number of journalists needed for a noticeable change in conflict coverage, if there are realizable suggestions for how to meet the obstacles journalists face in their daily work. The model of influencing factors affecting conflict coverage could be a good starting point for this undertaking, as it enables us, on the one hand, to systematize and specify attempts to implement peace journalism and, on the other hand, to develop a more

  20. Possible Association Between the Chemokine Receptor Gene CCR5-Delta32 Mutation and Hepatitis C Virus Pathogenesis

    Kouka Saad Eldin Abdel-Wahab, **Mohamed Foda, *Magda Abdel


    Full Text Available Background: CCR5-Delta32, a 32-base pair deletion of the CC chemokine receptor (CCR5 gene, is associated with slowed human immunodeficiency virus disease progression in heterozygotes and protection against infection in homozygotes between carriers and non-carriers of each genetic variant. The present study investigated the frequency and clinical consequence of the CCR%-Delta32 mutation in Egyptian HCV infected patients. Genomic DNA samples from 150 patients with chronic HCV infection were screened by PCR for the presence of the CCR5-Delta32 polymorphism. One hundred blood donors were used as control population. Results: The frequency of CCR5-Delta32 heterozygosity was 0.67% in chronic hepatitis C virus and 0% in controls. The CCR5-Delta32 allele was not associated with any of the clinical parameters of hepatitis C virus infection. Conclusion: In this study, the frequency of CCR5-Delta32 homozygosity in patients with hepatitis C was similar to controls.

  1. Analysis of the CCR3 promoter reveals a regulatory region in exon 1 that binds GATA-1

    Koch Laura E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CC Chemokine Receptor 3 (CCR3, the major chemokine receptor expressed on eosinophils, binds promiscuously to several ligands including eotaxins 1, 2, and 3. Even though the only cells that consistently accumulate following eotaxin administration in vivo are myeloid cells (primarily eosinophils, other cell types have recently been shown to express CCR3. It is therefore important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating receptor expression. Results In order to define regions responsible for CCR3 transcription, a DNAse hypersensitive site was identified in the vicinity of exon 1. Coupled with our previous data implicating exon 1 in CCR3 transcription, we hypothesized that transcription factors bind to exon-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis revealed that nuclear proteins in eosinophilic cells bound to exon 1. Furthermore, antibody interference and mutation studies demonstrated GATA-1 binding to exon 1. In order to test the 1.6-kb CCR3 promoter element (that includes exon 1 for in vivo function, this region was used to generate transgenic mice that expressed a reporter protein. Strong transgene expression was achieved, with the pattern of expression suggesting a broad acting promoter. Conclusion The transcription factor GATA-1 binds to CCR3 exon 1. The 1.6-kb CCR3 promoter element, that includes exon 1, is a strong promoter in vivo.

  2. Lack of Correlation Between the CCR5-Δ32 Mutation and Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Iranian Patients

    Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Mortazavi, Yousef; Momeni, Mohammad; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Khandany, Behjat Kalantary; Moogooei, Mozhgan; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein


    Chemokines and their receptors are crucially important in the pathogenesis of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific chemokine receptor for CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), CCL4 and CCL5 which all play key roles in identifying cancer properties and localization of leukemia cells. It has been demonstrated that the known mutation in CCR5 gene (CCR5-Δ32) leads to mal-expression of the receptor and affect its function. The aim of this study was to determi...

  3. NEWS: Post-16 update


    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  4. News of the world

    This document gathers information from nuclear industry throughout the world. The most relevant follows. The reactor 1 of the Kudankulam site has diverged and is expected to be connected to the grid soon. This reactor is a VVER-1000 reactor whose power output will reach 1000 MW, it is the most powerful of the 21 reactors operating in India. China and Pakistan have signed an agreement for the construction of 2 reactors ACP-1000 near Karachi for a cost of 9.6 billion dollars. Ukraine and Japan have launched a common project whose purpose is the satellite-based monitoring of damaged nuclear plants Chernobyl and Fukushima. 4 countries of central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) have created a common center for the research and development of reactors of 4. generation. The European Commission has decided to grant a loan for the construction of the Pallas high flux multi-purpose reactor on the Petten site (The Netherlands). It will replace the High Flux reactor as soon as 2023 particularly for the production of radio-isotopes. Jordan plans to build its first reactor, this reactor will be a 5 MW research reactor situated at Irbid in the promises of the Sciences and Technologies University. (A.C.)

  5. News from the Library: Stay connected and informed, try Mendeley!

    CERN Library


    Mendeley is a free bibliographic reference manager and academic social network. This online platform enables researchers to discover scientific publications and to collaborate with others online.   Mendeley helps you to organize the papers you read, share them with colleagues, and create bibliographies and reference lists. These papers can be accessed anywhere and on any electronic device. Mendeley currently has over 1.7 million active users in the world. It contains, therefore, a large crowd-sourced information library, with over 242 million documents. Recently, the software has opened up new pathways for collaboration and interaction between individual students and researchers and their institutions' libraries. The fee-based institutional edition of Mendeley not only allows access to the Library's online resources, but also facilitates communication and collaboration within your group on the platform. The CERN Library has now opened a free trial to the Me...

  6. Misunderstanding International News in Brazil

    Jacques Wainberg


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the nature of the Brazilian public comprehension of international news by revealing the quality of such reception with regard to a sample of 170 subjects randomly selected in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A questionnaire was created taking as a basis the directives of Bloom et al(1972. Evaluated in it are the cognitive and aff ective dimensions of thought. In the fi rst case, questions were formulated that allowed the establishment of the level of knowledge of individuals, as well as their comprehension abilities, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of a wide range of international news topics. For the aff ective dimension the following abilities were evaluated: attention, response, valorization, organization and the structuring of a value scale.

  7. Cenicriviroc, a Novel CCR5 (R5 and CCR2 Antagonist, Shows In Vitro Activity against R5 Tropic HIV-2 Clinical Isolates.

    Benoit Visseaux

    Full Text Available Maraviroc activity against HIV-2, a virus naturally resistant to different HIV-1 antiretroviral drugs, has been recently demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess HIV-2 susceptibility to cenicriviroc, a novel, once-daily, dual CCR5 and CCR2 antagonist that has completed Phase 2b development in HIV-1 infection.Cenicriviroc phenotypic activity has been tested using a PBMC phenotypic susceptibility assay against four R5-, one X4- and one dual-tropic HIV-2 clinical primary isolates. All isolates were obtained by co-cultivation of PHA-activated PBMC from distinct HIV-2-infected CCR5-antagonist-naïve patients included in the French HIV-2 cohort and were previously tested for maraviroc susceptibility using the same protocol. HIV-2 tropism was determined by phenotypic assay using Ghost(3 cell lines.Regarding the 4 R5 HIV-2 clinical isolates tested, effective concentration 50% EC50 for cenicriviroc were 0.03, 0.33, 0.45 and 0.98 nM, similar to those observed with maraviroc: 1.13, 0.58, 0.48 and 0.68 nM, respectively. Maximum percentages of inhibition (MPI of cenicriviroc were 94, 94, 93 and 98%, similar to those observed with maraviroc (93, 90, 82, 100%, respectively. The dual- and X4-tropic HIV-2 strains were resistant to cenicriviroc with EC50 >1000 nM and MPI at 33% and 4%, respectively.In this first study assessing HIV-2 susceptibility to cenicriviroc, we observed an in vitro activity against HIV-2 R5-tropic strains similar to that observed with maraviroc. Thus, cenicriviroc may offer a once-daily treatment opportunity in the limited therapeutic arsenal for HIV-2. Clinical studies are warranted.

  8. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B;


    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...

  9. News of the world

    This article reviews a series of events worldwide concerning nuclear energy. The second unit of the Cernavoda power plant (Rumania), a Candu-6 type reactor was commissioned in May 2007. The German minister of environment has rejected the demand from the RWE group to extend the operating life of the Biblis-A plant till the second semester of 2011. The Chinese unit of Tiawan-1 was connected to the grid in May 2007. The Turk government considers the construction of 3 nuclear power plants (totaling 5000 MW) as a means to reduce its energy dependency with Russia and Iran. The Japanese government wishes to increase the availability rate of nuclear plants (this rate is below 70%) by reducing the frequency of inspections. Brazilians authorities have invested 210 millions dollars to extend the Angra-1's operating life from 40 to 60 years. The first unit of the Browns-Ferry has restarted 22 years after its shutdown. The DOE has allowed the construction of a plant for the fabrication of Mox fuels on the Savannah River site. Russia and Kazakhstan have agreed to build an international center for the enrichment of uranium. The construction of a new enrichment plant has started on the Piketon site (Ohio, US), about 11500 centrifuges will be settled there. A study shows that the world consumption of energy will grow by 57% between 2004 and 2030. To meet the demand, the parts of coal, natural gas and renewable energies will grow while the part of oil will decrease from 38% in 2004 to 34% in 2030. (A.C.)

  10. CCR9 antagonism: potential in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Wendt E


    Full Text Available Emily Wendt, Satish Keshav Translational Gastroenterology Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK Abstract: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD, mainly comprising Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, is a chronic condition that primarily affects the intestine and is characterized by leukocytic infiltration. Blocking the migration of leukocytes from the circulation is therefore a reasonable therapeutic goal. Recent clinical trials using this approach have shown promise, with the monoclonal antibody to α4β7 integrin, vedolizumab, and previously with the monoclonal antibody to the α4 subunit, natalizumab. Directly targeting the subset of α4β7 expressing cells that co-express CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9, using the orally administered antagonist, CCX282-B, also known as vercirnon, has also been evaluated in Phase II and III trials that have produced mixed results. Although CCX282-B showed efficacy in inducing response in active CD in early studies, this was not confirmed in a Phase III study. CCX282-B was also more effective than placebo in maintaining remission, and this result has yet to be confirmed in Phase III. The efficacy of blocking CCR9 in UC, where vedolizumab was effective, has not been tested. The prospect of targeting CCR9 in IBD remains attractive. Much of the local accumulation of inflammatory cells in the intestine arises from migration rather than local proliferation and genetic and pharmacological targeting of CCR9 or its ligand in preclinical models that mimic UC and CD ameliorate inflammation in some cases. Furthermore, binding of chemokine ligands to receptor is a critical step in activating integrin binding, so there is a potential for synergistic action between integrin and chemokine antagonists. CCR9 is expressed on a smaller proportion of circulating cells than α4β7 integrin, which may offer greater specificity of effect, particularly in long term use. Furthermore, while α4